Science.gov

Sample records for recovery efficiency including

  1. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project

  2. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  3. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  4. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  5. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  6. High efficiency shale oil recovery. [Kilntrol program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency is first being demonstrated at bench scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications, now completed, provide for a great improvement in the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. Last quarter we reported on equipment modifications and refurbishments which resulted in a sophisticated analytical rotary kiln. As we began operating the equipment this quarter, we observed that the software package was inadequate for our purpose and that the appropriate software could not be purchased as a shelf item. Therefore, we were required to modify the equipment interface and to write our own software. The quartz sand kiln calibration runs have been completed and the results are included in this report. Computer Interface: The computer interface was designed on CTR-05, DAS-08 and MUX-32 Boards from ComputerBoards Inc. We purchased a software program, Control EG by Quinn-Curtis, to use with these boards. As we began operating the equipment we realized that the software control was inadequately sensitive for our system as it would not provide time-proportioning output. This problem was resolved by writing our own software and providing time-proportioning duty cycles for the output to each of five heaters. We have entitled this program Kilntrol.'' It is included in the Appendix of this report.

  7. Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Nian; Criddle, Craig S; Cui, Yi

    2013-10-01

    By harnessing the oxidative power of microorganisms, energy can be recovered from reservoirs of less-concentrated organic matter, such as marine sediment, wastewater, and waste biomass. Left unmanaged, these reservoirs can become eutrophic dead zones and sites of greenhouse gas generation. Here, we introduce a unique means of energy recovery from these reservoirs-a microbial battery (MB) consisting of an anode colonized by microorganisms and a reoxidizable solid-state cathode. The MB has a single-chamber configuration and does not contain ion-exchange membranes. Bench-scale MB prototypes were constructed from commercially available materials using glucose or domestic wastewater as electron donor and silver oxide as a coupled solid-state oxidant electrode. The MB achieved an efficiency of electrical energy conversion of 49% based on the combustion enthalpy of the organic matter consumed or 44% based on the organic matter added. Electrochemical reoxidation of the solid-state electrode decreased net efficiency to about 30%. This net efficiency of energy recovery (unoptimized) is comparable to methane fermentation with combined heat and power. PMID:24043800

  8. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Anbo Wang; Kristie L. Cooper; Gary R. Pickrell

    2003-06-01

    Efficient recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has been proven to be difficult due to the lack of robust instrumentation that can accurately and reliably monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multilateral wells. This is the final report for the four-year program ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'', funded by the National Petroleum Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2003. The main objective of this research program was to develop cost-effective, reliable optical fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. During the program, optical fiber sensors were demonstrated for the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow, and acoustic waves, including three successful field tests in the Chevron/Texaco oil fields in Coalinga, California, and at the world-class oil flow simulation facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Research efforts included the design and fabrication of sensor probes, development of signal processing algorithms, construction of test systems, development and testing of strategies for the protection of optical fibers and sensors in the downhole environment, development of remote monitoring capabilities allowing real-time monitoring of the field

  9. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    A. Wang; H. Xiao; R. May

    1999-10-29

    Efficient and complete recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has proven difficult due to a lack of robust instrumentation that can monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multi-lateral wells. The main objective of the research program is to develop cost-effective, reliable fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring and /or control of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. This report presents the detailed research work and technical progress from October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. The research performed over the first year of the program has followed the schedule as proposed, and solid research progress has been made in specification of the technical requirements, design and fabrication of the SCIIB sensor probes, development of the sensor systems, development of DSP-based signal processing techniques, and construction of the test systems. These technical achievements will significantly help to advance continued research on sensor tests and evaluation during the second year of the program.

  10. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Wilkins, D.W.; Keltch, B.; Saradji, B.; Salamy, S.P.

    1988-04-01

    This report is the second volume of the Recovery Efficiency Test Phase I Report of Activities. Volume 1 covered selection, well planning, drilling, coring, logging and completion operations. This volume reports on well testing activities, reclamation activities on the drilling site and access roads, and the results of physical and mechanical properties tests on the oriented core material obtained from a horizontal section of the well. 3 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Sulfur recovery process including removal of residual sulfur from Claus catalyst after regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Cabanaw, B.E.

    1990-03-13

    This patent describes a process for the recovery of sulfur. It comprises: passing an acid gas feedstream having as a sulfur species essentially only hydrogen sulfide therein to a Claus plant comprising a thermal conversion zone and at least one Claus catalytic reaction zone operated under adsorption conditions including temperature for forming and depositing a preponderance of sulfur formed on catalyst therein.

  12. An efficient method of noroviruses recovery from oysters and clams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Deqing; Ma, Liping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Su, Laijin; Li, Xinguang

    2013-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish. This study aimed to select a simple, rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR. Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams, respectively, were compared, of them, the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient. With this method, 9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams, respectively. This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan. 2011 to Feb. 2012. The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84). All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII. The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

  13. High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisac, Miguel; Villasevil, Francesc X.; López, Antonio M.

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic solar energy is a clean and reliable source for producing electric power. Most photovoltaic systems have been designed and built up for use in applications with low power requirements. The efficiency of solar cells is quite low, obtaining best results in monocrystalline silicon structures, with an efficiency of about 18%. When temperature rises, photovoltaic cell efficiency decreases, given that the short-circuit current is slightly increased, and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power output are reduced. To ensure that this does not affect performance, this paper describes how to interconnect photovoltaic and thermoelectric technology into a single structure. The temperature gradient in the solar panel is used to supply thermoelectric cells, which generate electricity, achieving a positive contribution to the total balance of the complete system.

  14. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. On the Efficiency of Fluidic Oscillators for Aerofoil Performance Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkorov, Dima; Seifert, Avraham

    2014-11-01

    The paper describes a recent experiment in which the Suction and Oscillatory blowing (SaOB) actuator was used to control the flow on a thick, turbulent, trailing edge separating aerofoil. The Reynolds number range is 0.5 to 1.5 million. The experiment deals with performance recovery of a thick aerofoil in laminar and turbulent flow conditions. Performance was significantly degraded due to premature boundary layer separation. An array of 12 SaOB actuators was used to effectively restore lift and reduce drag. Overall system efficiency was increased in both turbulent and laminar flow conditions. The AFC outlets, located at 20% chord location were shown to supplement or even being capable of replacing a slat. Support by the EU FP7 is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...

  17. Impact of including regional anaesthesia in enhanced recovery protocols: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    McIsaac, D I; Cole, E T; McCartney, C J L

    2015-12-01

    Regional anaesthesia (RA) is often included in enhanced recovery protocols (ERPs) as an important component of a bundle of interventions to improve outcomes after surgery. We sought to delineate whether the literature supports the use of RA in this setting with regard to commonly measured outcomes. We further sought to assess whether such improvements would translate into positive impacts on healthcare value as defined by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Triple Aim. We conducted a scoping review to address our objectives. Studies of ERPs that included RA and reported at least one outcome of interest in comparison to a control group were included. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CDSR, PROSPERO, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database were searched up to May 2015. Two reviewers assessed studies and extracted data. Of 695 identified citations, 58 studies were included for analysis. The majority (53%) were in colorectal surgery. Positive impacts of RA on all outcomes were identified; however, value-based outcomes were rarely reported. Where value-based outcomes were reported, RA appears to have a positive impact on global measures of health and function and on economic outcomes. Existing literature supports a positive impact of RA on ERP outcomes, which may be reflected in improved healthcare value. In order to justify the value of RA in ERPs, a future focus on appropriate measures is needed to align research with widely accepted frameworks, such as the Triple Aim. PMID:26658201

  18. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the fourth year of the ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'' program, funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. During the reporting period, research efforts under the program were focused on the development and evaluation of the fiber optic flow sensor system, and field testing in Tulsa, OK and the second field test of the pressure and temperature sensors in Coalinga, CA. The feasibility of a self-compensating fiber optic flow sensor based on a cantilever beam and interferometer for real-time flow rate measurements in the fluid filled pipes of oil field was clearly demonstrated. In addition, field testing of the pressure and temperature sensors deployed downhole continued. These accomplishments are summarized here: (1) Theoretical analysis and simulations were performed to ensure performance of the design. (2) The sensor fabrication and packaging techniques were investigated and improved. (3) Prototype flow sensors were fabricated based on the fabrication experience of hundreds of test sensors. (4) A lab-scale flow testing system was constructed and used for sensor evaluation. (5) Field-testing was performed in both the indoor and outdoor flow testing facility at the University of Tulsa, OK. (6) Testing of a multimode white light pressure and temperature sensor system continued at the oil site of Chevron/Texaco Company (Coalinga CA).

  19. Modelling total duration of traffic incidents including incident detection and recovery time.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil; Shobeirinejad, Ameneh

    2014-10-01

    Traffic incidents are key contributors to non-recurrent congestion, potentially generating significant delay. Factors that influence the duration of incidents are important to understand so that effective mitigation strategies can be implemented. To identify and quantify the effects of influential factors, a methodology for studying total incident duration based on historical data from an 'integrated database' is proposed. Incident duration models are developed using a selected freeway segment in the Southeast Queensland, Australia network. The models include incident detection and recovery time as components of incident duration. A hazard-based duration modelling approach is applied to model incident duration as a function of a variety of factors that influence traffic incident duration. Parametric accelerated failure time survival models are developed to capture heterogeneity as a function of explanatory variables, with both fixed and random parameters specifications. The analysis reveals that factors affecting incident duration include incident characteristics (severity, type, injury, medical requirements, etc.), infrastructure characteristics (roadway shoulder availability), time of day, and traffic characteristics. The results indicate that event type durations are uniquely different, thus requiring different responses to effectively clear them. Furthermore, the results highlight the presence of unobserved incident duration heterogeneity as captured by the random parameter models, suggesting that additional factors need to be considered in future modelling efforts. PMID:24974360

  20. Validation of a Nylon-Flocked-Swab Protocol for Efficient Recovery of Bacterial Spores from Smooth and Rough Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander; Facius, Rainer; Wirth, Reinhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet planetary-protection requirements, culturable bacterial spore loads are measured representatively for the total microbial contamination of spacecraft. However, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) cotton swab protocols for spore load determination have not changed for decades. To determine whether a more efficient alternative was available, a novel swab was evaluated for recovery of different Bacillus atrophaeus spore concentrations on stainless steel and other surfaces. Two protocols for the nylon-flocked swab (NFS) were validated and compared to the present NASA standard protocol. The results indicate that the novel swab protocols recover 3- to 4-fold more (45.4% and 49.0% recovery efficiency) B. atrophaeus spores than the NASA standard method (13.2%). Moreover, the nylon-flocked-swab protocols were superior in recovery efficiency for spores of seven different Bacillus species, including Bacillus anthracis Sterne (recovery efficiency, 20%). The recovery efficiencies for B. atrophaeus spores from different surfaces showed a variation from 5.9 to 62.0%, depending on the roughness of the surface analyzed. Direct inoculation of the swab resulted in a recovery rate of about 80%, consistent with the results of scanning electron micrographs that allowed detailed comparisons of the two swab types. The results of this investigation will significantly contribute to the cleanliness control of future life detection missions and will provide significant improvement in detection of B. anthracis contamination for law enforcement and security efforts. PMID:20543054

  1. EFFICIENT RECOVERY OF BIOETHANOL USING NOVEL PERVAPORATION-DEPHLEGMATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioethanol is the most important liquid fuel made in the U.S. from domestically produced renewable resources. Traditional production of bioethanol involves batch fermation of biomass followed by ethanol recovery from the fermentation broths using distillation. The distillation st...

  2. 20 CFR 10.712 - What amounts are included in the gross recovery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contested verdict attributable to each of several plaintiffs, OWCP or SOL will accept that division. (b) In..., OWCP or SOL will determine the appropriate amount of the FECA beneficiary's gross recovery and advise the beneficiary of its determination. FECA beneficiaries may accept OWCP's or SOL's determination...

  3. 32 CFR 37.580 - What is recovery of funds and when should I consider including it in my TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consider including it in my TIA? 37.580 Section 37.580 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... consider including it in my TIA? (a) Recovery of funds refers to the use of the authority in 10 U.S.C. 2371... and the awarding organization, but its purpose is not to augment program budgets. It may be used...

  4. 32 CFR 37.580 - What is recovery of funds and when should I consider including it in my TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consider including it in my TIA? 37.580 Section 37.580 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... consider including it in my TIA? (a) Recovery of funds refers to the use of the authority in 10 U.S.C. 2371... and the awarding organization, but its purpose is not to augment program budgets. It may be used...

  5. 32 CFR 37.580 - What is recovery of funds and when should I consider including it in my TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consider including it in my TIA? 37.580 Section 37.580 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... consider including it in my TIA? (a) Recovery of funds refers to the use of the authority in 10 U.S.C. 2371... and the awarding organization, but its purpose is not to augment program budgets. It may be used...

  6. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments: Convex curvature effects, including introduction and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Heat transfer rates were measured through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20-50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15-20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: (1) the effect of initial boundary layer thickness; (2) the effect of freestream velocity; (3) the effect of freestream acceleration; (4) the effect of unheated starting length; and (5) the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. Regardless of the initial state, curvature eventually forced the boundary layer into an asymptotic curved condition. The slope, minus one, is believed to be significant.

  7. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments: Convex curvature effects including introduction and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the heat transfer rate through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20% to 50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15% to 20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: the effect of initial boundary layer thickness, the effect of freestream velocity, the effect of freestream acceleration, the effect of unheated starting length, and the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. An existing curvature prediction model was tested against this broad heat transfer data base to determine where it could appropriately be used for heat transfer predictions.

  8. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-01

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield. PMID:21145722

  9. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-15

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield.

  10. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Trucks, Daimler

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  11. Identification of Docking Possibility Criteria including Recovery from Incomplete Grasping of Docking Mechanism for Nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ui, Kyoichi; Matunaga, Saburo

    This paper deals with a docking methodology for inspection and measurement missions with nanosatellites (less than 50kg in mass). According to the proposed docking concept where a docking procedure is divided into an approaching/grasping phase and a guiding phase, a functional test model for docking mechanism is designed and assembled to conduct verification experiments. In the paper, the docking methodology, the docking mechanism, and a docking control algorithm are introduced briefly. Three dimensional microgravity experiments using a drop shaft are conducted. In the experiments, the authors classify grasping conditions into two types called “complete grasping” and “incomplete grasping”. In the complete grasping, the docking mechanism can easily guide the nanosatellite to the docking port, but in case of the incomplete grasping, it is difficult to recover from the incomplete grasping to the complete one. The incomplete grasping condition is explained experimentally, and a guiding control algorithm for recovery from the condition is proposed. Finally, docking possibility criteria are identified, and feasibility of the methodology is clarified.

  12. Wall-plug efficiency and beam dynamics in free-electron lasers using energy recovery linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, P.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Penano, J.; Hafizi, B.

    2010-08-01

    In a high average power free-electron laser (FEL) the wall-plug efficiency is of critical importance in determining the size, complexity, and cost of the overall system. The wall-plug efficiency for the FEL oscillator and amplifier (uniform and tapered wiggler) is strongly dependent on the energy recovery process. A theoretical model for electron beam dynamics in the energy recovery linac is derived and applied to the acceleration and deceleration of nano-Coulomb electron bunches for a tapered FEL amplifier. For the tapered amplifier, the spent electron beam exiting the wiggler consists of trapped and untrapped electrons. Decelerating these two populations using different phases of the radio-frequency wave in the recovery process enhances wall-plug efficiency. For the parameters considered here, the wall-plug efficiency for the tapered amplifier can be {approx}10% using this approach.

  13. Message Efficient Checkpointing and Rollback Recovery in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggi, Parmeet Kaur; Singh, Awadhesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous networks provide an appealing way of expanding the computing capability of mobile networks by combining infrastructure-less mobile ad-hoc networks with the infrastructure-based cellular mobile networks. The nodes in such a network range from low-power nodes to macro base stations and thus, vary greatly in their capabilities such as computation power and battery power. The nodes are susceptible to different types of transient and permanent failures and therefore, the algorithms designed for such networks need to be fault-tolerant. The article presents a checkpointing algorithm for the rollback recovery of mobile hosts in a heterogeneous mobile network. Checkpointing is a well established approach to provide fault tolerance in static and cellular mobile distributed systems. However, the use of checkpointing for fault tolerance in a heterogeneous environment remains to be explored. The proposed protocol is based on the results of zigzag paths and zigzag cycles by Netzer-Xu. Considering the heterogeneity prevalent in the network, an uncoordinated checkpointing technique is employed. Yet, useless checkpoints are avoided without causing a high message overhead.

  14. Behavior and Distribution of Heavy Metals Including Rare Earth Elements, Thorium, and Uranium in Sludge from Industry Water Treatment Plant and Recovery Method of Metals by Biosurfactants Application

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90–100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution. PMID:22693485

  15. Effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency of coagulants recovery by acidification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Jui; Wang, Wen-May; Wei, Ming-Jun; Chen, Jiann-Long; He, Ju-Liang; Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Wu, Chih-Chao

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency ofcoagulant recovery by acidification with H2SO4. Two sludge characteristics were studied: types of coagulant and textures of the suspended solid in raw water. The coagulant types are aluminium sulphate and polyaluminium chloride (PACl); the textures of the suspended solid are sand-based and clay-based. Efficiency of aluminium recovery at a pH of 2 was compared for different sludges obtained from water treatment plants in Taiwan. The results showed that efficiency of aluminium recovery from sludge containing clayey particles was higher than that from sludge containing sandy particles. As for the effect of coagulant types, the aluminium recovery efficiency for sludge using PACl ranged between 77% and 100%, whereas it ranged between 65% and 72% for sludge using aluminium sulphate as the coagulant. This means using PACl as the coagulant could result in higher recovery efficiency of coagulant and be beneficial for water treatment plants where renewable materials and waste reduction as the factors for making decisions regarding plant operations. However, other metals, such as manganese, could be released with aluminium during the acidification process and limit the use of the recovered coagulants. It is suggested that the recovered coagulants be used in wastewater treatment processes. PMID:23437650

  16. An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H.

    2008-07-01

    Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

  17. Energy-Efficient Bioalcohol Recovery by Gel Stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, Rutvik; Ma, Lan; Hedden, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Design of energy-efficient processes for recovering butanol and ethanol from dilute fermentations is a key challenge facing the biofuels industry due to the high energy consumption of traditional multi-stage distillation processes. Gel stripping is an alternative purification process by which a dilute alcohol is stripped from the fermentation product by passing it through a packed bed containing particles of a selectively absorbent polymeric gel material. The gel must be selective for the alcohol, while swelling to a reasonable degree in dilute alcohol-water mixtures. To accelerate materials optimization, a combinatorial approach is taken to screen a matrix of copolymer gels having orthogonal gradients in crosslinker concentration and hydrophilicity. Using a combination of swelling in pure solvents, the selectivity and distribution coefficients of alcohols in the gels can be predicted based upon multi-component extensions of Flory-Rehner theory. Predictions can be validated by measuring swelling in water/alcohol mixtures and conducting h HPLC analysis of the external liquid. 95% + removal of butanol from dilute aqueous solutions has been demonstrated, and a mathematical model of the unsteady-state gel stripping process has been developed. NSF CMMI Award 1335082.

  18. Modulating Astrocyte Transition after Stroke to Promote Brain Rescue and Functional Recovery: Emerging Targets Include Rho Kinase.

    PubMed

    Abeysinghe, Hima Charika S; Phillips, Ellie L; Chin-Cheng, Heung; Beart, Philip M; Roulston, Carli L

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a common and serious condition, with few therapies. Whilst previous focus has been directed towards biochemical events within neurons, none have successfully prevented the progression of injury that occurs in the acute phase. New targeted treatments that promote recovery after stroke might be a better strategy and are desperately needed for the majority of stroke survivors. Cells comprising the neurovascular unit, including blood vessels and astrocytes, present an alternative target for supporting brain rescue and recovery in the late phase of stroke, since alteration in the unit also occurs in regions outside of the lesion. One of the major changes in the unit involves extensive morphological transition of astrocytes resulting in altered energy metabolism, decreased glutamate reuptake and recycling, and retraction of astrocyte end feed from both blood vessels and neurons. Whilst globally inhibiting transitional change in astrocytes after stroke is reported to result in further damage and functional loss, we discuss the available evidence to suggest that the transitional activation of astrocytes after stroke can be modulated for improved outcomes. In particular, we review the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in reactive gliosis and show that inhibiting ROCK after stroke results in reduced scar formation and improved functional recovery. PMID:26927079

  19. Modulating Astrocyte Transition after Stroke to Promote Brain Rescue and Functional Recovery: Emerging Targets Include Rho Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Abeysinghe, Hima Charika S.; Phillips, Ellie L.; Chin-Cheng, Heung; Beart, Philip M.; Roulston, Carli L.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a common and serious condition, with few therapies. Whilst previous focus has been directed towards biochemical events within neurons, none have successfully prevented the progression of injury that occurs in the acute phase. New targeted treatments that promote recovery after stroke might be a better strategy and are desperately needed for the majority of stroke survivors. Cells comprising the neurovascular unit, including blood vessels and astrocytes, present an alternative target for supporting brain rescue and recovery in the late phase of stroke, since alteration in the unit also occurs in regions outside of the lesion. One of the major changes in the unit involves extensive morphological transition of astrocytes resulting in altered energy metabolism, decreased glutamate reuptake and recycling, and retraction of astrocyte end feed from both blood vessels and neurons. Whilst globally inhibiting transitional change in astrocytes after stroke is reported to result in further damage and functional loss, we discuss the available evidence to suggest that the transitional activation of astrocytes after stroke can be modulated for improved outcomes. In particular, we review the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in reactive gliosis and show that inhibiting ROCK after stroke results in reduced scar formation and improved functional recovery. PMID:26927079

  20. Efficiency of beef extract for the recovery of poliovirus from wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Landry, E F; Vaughn, J M; Thomas, M Z; Vicale, T J

    1978-10-01

    The efficiency of poliovirus elution from fiber glass cartridge filters (K27), epoxy-fiber glass-asbestos filters (M780), and pleated cartridge filters was assessed by using 3% beef extract (pH 9.0) or 0.1 M glycine (pH 11.5). Poliovirus type I, strain LSc, was seeded into 20- to 25-gallon (ca. 75.6- to 95.6-liter) samples of treated sewage effluent and concentrated by using a filter adsorption-elution technique. Virus elution was accomplished by using either two 600-ml portions of 3% beef extract (pH 9.0), or two 1-liter portions of 0.1 M glycine (pH 11.5). In all experiments, beef extract elution followed by organic flocculation was found to be superior, yielding a mean recovery efficiency of 85%, with recoveries ranging from 68 to 100%. Elution with 0.1 M glycine (pH 11.5) followed by inorganic flocculation resulted in a mean recovery efficiency of 36%. The variable range of recoveries with beef extract could not be significantly improved by varying the type of beef extract or by extending the elution time to 30 min. Second-step reconcentration of 1-liter seeded sewage effluent and renovated wastewater samples indicated that organic flocculation was a more efficient method for virus recovery than inorganic flocculation. Beef extract concentrations of less than 3% were found to be efficient in the recovery of poliovirus from renovated wastewater. PMID:30391

  1. A new direct steel making process based upon the blast furnace (Including scrap processing with recovery of tramp elements)

    SciTech Connect

    Nabi, G.

    1996-12-31

    Steel is produced from raw materials containing iron and alloying elements with direct elimination of oxygen and impurities in the blast furnace process. The blast furnace shaft is modified to take off load from the liquid bath and carbon is prevented from going into the liquid steel. In the gas purification system sulphur and CO{sub 2} removal facilities are included and purified reducing gases so obtained are combusted in the hearth with oxygen to produce heat for smelting. Scrap can be charged as raw material with the recovery of tramp elements with continuous production of liquid steel.

  2. EFFICIENCY OF DIOXIN RECOVERY FROM FLY ASH SAMPLES DURING EXTRACTION AND CLEANUP PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The data from preliminary investigations of the efficiency of dioxin recovery from fly ash samples during sample extraction and subsequent column cleanup of sample extracts are discussed. teps of the extraction and the column cleanup procedures were evaluated by using radiolabele...

  3. Improving ASR Recovery Efficiency by Partially-penetrating Wells in Brackish Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a proven cost-effective powerful technology for environmental protection and water resources optimization. The recovery efficiency (RE) is regarded as the key criteria for evaluating the ASR performance. In this study, a particular ASR scheme with the fully-penetrating well (FPW) for injection and the partially-penetrating well (PPW) for recovery is proposed to improve the RE for ASR schemes implemented in brackish aquifers. This design appreciates the tilting shape of the interface with underlying heavier salt water. For the FPW, recovery has to be terminated as soon as the interface toe reaches the well, while the toe can be pulled up to the PPW for recovery termination, resulting in later breakthrough of salt water into the pumping well, more recoverable water extracted from the shallow layers, and a higher RE. Key hydrogeological and operational parameters affecting the RE were investigated by numerical simulations. Results demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of the new ASR scheme and provided practical guidance for designing such a scheme in various hydrogeological conditions.

  4. Efficient centrifugal recovery of Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides from fermented wastewater and wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Brar, Satinder K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2006-03-01

    Studies were conducted on harvesting of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based biopesticides from fermented broths of starch industry wastewater (SIW), wastewater sludge (raw and hydrolyzed-NH and TH, respectively) and semi-synthetic soyameal to enhance entomotoxicity (Tx) by centrifugation. Pertinent factors influencing Tx, solids concentration, pH, temperature and centrifugal force were investigated. The centrifugate solids concentration beyond 100 g/l did not enhance Tx, instead caused pellet formation. Centrifugation efficiency (Tx recovery) was higher at pH 4, and temperature 20 degrees C for starch wastewater (98%), wastewater sludge (98% and 97.8% for non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed, respectively) and soya broth (83%). For maximum Tx recovery (SIW-95%; NH-90%; TH-98% and soya-78%), the centrifugal force and time required was 48,000 g and 30 min, respectively. Losses in recovery efficiency were lower for SIW and wastewater sludge in comparison to soya on adopting commercially recommended centrifugal force of 9000 g. The settling velocity computations for different fermented broths enabled calculation of Sigma factor for continuous commercial centrifuge of a given capacity and hence simulation of power requirements. It was established that power requirements for a given Tx recovery efficiency were highest for conventional medium (soya) in comparison to other waste-based fermented broths. PMID:16515801

  5. Global Aerodynamic Modeling for Stall/Upset Recovery Training Using Efficient Piloted Flight Test Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunningham, Kevin; Hill, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Flight test and modeling techniques were developed for efficiently identifying global aerodynamic models that can be used to accurately simulate stall, upset, and recovery on large transport airplanes. The techniques were developed and validated in a high-fidelity fixed-base flight simulator using a wind-tunnel aerodynamic database, realistic sensor characteristics, and a realistic flight deck representative of a large transport aircraft. Results demonstrated that aerodynamic models for stall, upset, and recovery can be identified rapidly and accurately using relatively simple piloted flight test maneuvers. Stall maneuver predictions and comparisons of identified aerodynamic models with data from the underlying simulation aerodynamic database were used to validate the techniques.

  6. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Third quarterly report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-10-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency is first being demonstrated at bench scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications, now completed, provide for a great improvement in the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. Last quarter we reported on equipment modifications and refurbishments which resulted in a sophisticated analytical rotary kiln. As we began operating the equipment this quarter, we observed that the software package was inadequate for our purpose and that the appropriate software could not be purchased as a shelf item. Therefore, we were required to modify the equipment interface and to write our own software. The quartz sand kiln calibration runs have been completed and the results are included in this report. Computer Interface: The computer interface was designed on CTR-05, DAS-08 and MUX-32 Boards from ComputerBoards Inc. We purchased a software program, Control EG by Quinn-Curtis, to use with these boards. As we began operating the equipment we realized that the software control was inadequately sensitive for our system as it would not provide time-proportioning output. This problem was resolved by writing our own software and providing time-proportioning duty cycles for the output to each of five heaters. We have entitled this program ``Kilntrol.`` It is included in the Appendix of this report.

  7. [Recovery].

    PubMed

    Estingoy, Pierrette; Gilliot, Élodie; Parisot, Clément

    2015-01-01

    The historical fatalism of the impossibility of recovering from psychosis eased from the 1970s with the shaping of the idea of a possible recovery. Recovery is today the objective for the patient and caregivers. The key to achieving this lies in the encounter with Others. A collective approach, on the level of the institution, must be established. The aim is to create opportunities for the patient to express their doubts and feelings. PMID:26363659

  8. Optimally efficient swimming in hyper-redundant mechanisms: control, design, and energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Wiens, A J; Nahon, M

    2012-12-01

    Hyper-redundant mechanisms (HRMs), also known as snake-like robots, are highly adaptable during locomotion on land. Researchers are currently working to extend their capabilities to aquatic environments through biomimetic undulatory propulsion. In addition to increasing the versatility of the system, truly biomimetic swimming could also provide excellent locomotion efficiency. Unfortunately, the complexity of the system precludes the development of a functional solution to achieve this. To explore this problem, a rapid optimization process is used to generate efficient HRM swimming gaits. The low computational cost of the approach allows for multiple optimizations over a broad range of system conditions. By observing how these conditions affect optimal kinematics, a number of new insights are developed regarding undulatory swimming in robotic systems. Two key conditions are varied within the study, swimming speed and energy recovery. It is found that the swimmer mimics the speed control behaviour of natural fish and that energy recovery drastically increases the system's efficiency. Remarkably, this efficiency increase is accompanied by a distinct change in swimming kinematics. With energy recovery, the swimmer converges to a clearly anguilliform gait, without, it tends towards the carangiform mode. PMID:23135166

  9. Evaluation of vapor recovery systems efficiency and personal exposure in service stations in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl; Hernández-Solís, José M; Ruiz-Suárez, Luis G

    2003-06-20

    Results of a field study on the efficiency of vapor recovery systems currently used in gasoline service stations in Mexico City are presented. Nine gasoline stations were studied, representing the several technologies available in Mexico City. The test was applied to a fixed vehicular fleet of approximately 10 private and public service vehicles. Each one of the gasoline service stations tested reported efficiencies above 80% in the recovery of vapor losses from gasoline which is the minimum permissible value by Mexican regulations. Implications to the emissions inventory are discussed. A second goal of this study was to measure the potential exposure of service attendants to three important components of gasoline: benzene; toluene; and xylenes. The influence of spatial location of personnel within the service station was also evaluated by measuring levels of the three compounds both at the refueling area and in the service station office. Results are discussed and compared to a previous study. PMID:12798092

  10. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  11. High efficiency shale oil recovery. First quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  12. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA-funded energy

  13. Analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage: a Rayleigh-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schout, Gilian; Drijver, Benno; Gutierrez-Neri, Mariene; Schotting, Ruud

    2013-10-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) is an important technique for energy conservation. A controlling factor for the economic feasibility of HT-ATES is the recovery efficiency. Due to the effects of density-driven flow (free convection), HT-ATES systems applied in permeable aquifers typically have lower recovery efficiencies than conventional (low-temperature) ATES systems. For a reliable estimation of the recovery efficiency it is, therefore, important to take the effect of density-driven flow into account. A numerical evaluation of the prime factors influencing the recovery efficiency of HT-ATES systems is presented. Sensitivity runs evaluating the effects of aquifer properties, as well as operational variables, were performed to deduce the most important factors that control the recovery efficiency. A correlation was found between the dimensionless Rayleigh number (a measure of the relative strength of free convection) and the calculated recovery efficiencies. Based on a modified Rayleigh number, two simple analytical solutions are proposed to calculate the recovery efficiency, each one covering a different range of aquifer thicknesses. The analytical solutions accurately reproduce all numerically modeled scenarios with an average error of less than 3 %. The proposed method can be of practical use when considering or designing an HT-ATES system.

  14. The Wheelabrator Falls story -- Integrated recycling, highly efficient energy recovery: An update two years later

    SciTech Connect

    Felago, R.T.; Anderson, R.L.; Scanlon, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wheelabrator Environmental Systems Inc., based in Hampton, New Hampshire, has developed America`s first privately initiated, totally integrated Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) with a commercial trash-to-energy facility in Falls Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. The MRF is successfully recovering and marketing a variety of recycled products, while demonstrating that waste-to-energy and recycling are compatible and can be successfully integrated at a single site. The energy recovery plant and the MRF have completed one year of operation, giving adequate time to evaluate the impact of project innovations. These innovations will have a significant impact on how future projects, including waste-to-energy, wastewater and biosolids processing, will be developed. The energy recovery facility is capable of processing 1,600 tons per day of municipal solid waste from the Bucks County area.

  15. Performance investigation of a cogeneration plant with the efficient and compact heat recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Young-Deuk; Choon, Ng Kim

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a cogeneration plant equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The proposed cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely: (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling and (iv) dehumidification. The proposed plant comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine which generates 24 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heat activated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption chiller and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The numerical analysis for the host of waste heat recovery system and thermally activated devices using FORTRAN power station linked to powerful IMSL library is performed to investigate the performance of the overall system. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor (EUF) could achieve as high as 70% while Fuel Energy Saving Ratio (FESR) is found to be 28%.

  16. Design and implementation of a new low-cost subsurface mooring system for efficient data recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun; Tian, Jiwei; Zhao, Wei; Song, Dalei; Xu, Ming; Xu, Xiaoyang; Lu, Jun

    2013-09-23

    Mooring systems are the most effective method for making sustained time series observations in the oceans. Generally there are two types of ocean mooring systems: surface and subsurface. Subsurface mooring system is less likely to be damaged after deployment than surface system. However, subsurface system usually needs to be retrieved from the ocean for data recovery. This paper describes the design and implementation of a new low-cost subsurface mooring system for efficient data recovery: Timed Communication Buoy System (TCBS). TCBS is usually integrated in the main float and the designated data is downloaded from the control system. After data retrieval, TCBS will separate from main float, rise up to the sea surface, and transmit data by satellite communication.

  17. Quantitation of Binding, Recovery and Desalting Efficiency in Solid Phase Extraction Micropipette Tips

    SciTech Connect

    Palmblad, M N; Vogel, J S

    2004-08-02

    Micropipette-tip solid phase extraction systems are common in proteomic analyses for desalting and concentrating samples for mass spectrometry, removing interferences, and increasing sensitivity. These systems are inexpensive, disposable, and highly efficient. Here we show micropipette-tip solid phase extraction is a direct sample preparation method for {sup 14}C-accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), removing salts or reagent from labeled macromolecules. We compared loading, recovery and desalting efficiency in commercially available SPE micro-tips using {sup 14}C-labeled peptides and proteins, AMS, and alpha spectrometry ion energy loss quantitation. The polypropylene in the tips was nearly {sup 14}C-free and simultaneously provided low-background carrier for AMS. The silica material did not interfere with the analysis. Alpha spectrometry provided an absolute measurement of desalting efficiency.

  18. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Final report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-09-29

    The Adams Counter-current shale oil recovery process is an improved retorting technology enabling highly efficient oil recovery from oil shale. The high efficiency results primarily from the following facts: it (1) recovers the ash heat to preheat the feed ore; (2) burns and uses the coke energy and (3) operates without using hot ash recycling as a heat carrier. This latter feature is doubly important, contributing to high oil yield and to the generation of highly reactive coke which can be burned below 1000{degree}F, avoiding the endothermal calcination of the mineral carbonates and helping to clean the ash of contaminants. This project demonstrates that oil shale can be retorted under the specified conditions and achieve the objectives of very high efficiency. The project accomplished the following: 51 quartz sand rotary kiln runs provided significant engineering data. A heat transfer value of 107 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degree}F was obtained at optimum RPM; eight oil shale samples were obtained and preliminary shakedown runs were made. Five of the samples were selected for kiln processing and twelve pyrolysis runs were made on the five different oil shales;average off recovery was 109% of Fisher Assay; retorted residue from all five samples was oxidized at approximately 1000{degree}F. The ash from these runs was oxidized to varying extents, depending on the oil shale and oxidizing temperatures. While 1000{degree}F is adequately hot to provide process heat from coke combustion for these ores, some Eastern oil shales, without mineral carbonates, may be oxidized at higher temperatures, perhaps 100--300 degrees hotter, to obtain a more complete oxidation and utilization of the coke.

  19. Evaluation of lead recovery efficiency from waste CRT funnel glass by chlorinating volatilization process.

    PubMed

    Erzat, Aris; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2014-01-01

    The current study was carried out to develop a novel process, namely chloride volatilization procedure for lead recovery from waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass. In the recovery system, the glass powder was first compressed into cylindrical pellet homogeneously with chlorinating agents, and then subjected to thermal treatment for solid-phase reaction. In this case, lead could be easily released from the silicon oxide network of the glass and it was recovered in the form of PbCl₂. It was found that CaCl2 was the most effective chlorinating agent, and the optimum operation temperature, holding time and system pressure were 1000 °C, 2 h, 600 ± 50 Pa, respectively. The evaporated PbCl₂could be easily recovered by a cooling device. The evaporation ratio of lead from waste CRT was 99.1% and the purity of the recovered PbCl₂product was 97.0%. The reaction routes and lead recovery mechanisms of the process were identified. This study provides an efficient and practical process for waste CRT funnel glass detoxification and recycling. PMID:25176480

  20. Demonstrate the removal efficiency and capacity of MOF materials for krypton recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.

    2013-08-23

    Metal organic framework materials (MOFs) were developed and tested in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal of xenon (Xe) and krypton (Kr) from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing unit operations. Two metal organic framework structures were investigated in greater detail to demonstrate the removal efficiency and capacity of MOF materials for krypton recovery. Our two bed breakthrough measurements on NiDOBDC and FMOFCu indicate these materials can capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe and Kr from air. The removal efficiency and adsorption capacity for Kr on these two MOFs were further increased upon removal of Xe upfront.

  1. Fast hybrid SPECT simulation including efficient septal penetration modelling (SP-PSF).

    PubMed

    Staelens, Steven; de Wit, Tim; Beekman, Freek

    2007-06-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images are degraded by the detection of scattered photons and photons that penetrate the collimator septa. In this paper, a previously proposed Monte Carlo software that employs fast object scatter simulation using convolution-based forced detection (CFD) is extended towards a wide range of medium and high energy isotopes measured using various collimators. To this end, a fast method was developed for incorporating effects of septal penetrating (SP) photons. The SP contributions are obtained by calculating the object attenuation along the path from primary emission to detection followed by sampling a pre-simulated and scalable septal penetration point spread function (SP-PSF). We found that with only a very slight reduction in accuracy, we could accelerate the SP simulation by four orders of magnitude. To achieve this, we combined: (i) coarse sampling of the activity and attenuation distribution; (ii) simulation of the penetration only for a coarse grid of detector pixels followed by interpolation and (iii) neglection of SP-PSF elements below a certain threshold. By inclusion of this SP-PSF-based simulation it became possible to model both primary and septal penetrated photons while only 10% extra computation time was added to the CFD-based Monte Carlo simulator. As a result, a SPECT simulation of a patient-like distribution including SP now takes less than 5 s per projection angle on a dual processor PC. Therefore, the simulator is well-suited as an efficient projector for fully 3D model-based reconstruction or as a fast data-set generator for applications such as image processing optimization or observer studies. PMID:17505087

  2. Patterns and trends in nitrogen use and nitrogen recovery efficiency in world agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conant, Richard T.; Berdanier, Aaron B.; Grace, Peter R.

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide increases in nitrogen (N) inputs to croplands have been and will continue to be an important contributor to growing more food. But a substantial portion of N inputs to croplands are not captured in harvested products and leave the field, contributing to air and water pollution. Whether the proportion of N inputs captured in harvest grows, shrinks, or remains unchanged will have important impacts on both food production and N pollution. We created a new global N input database (fertilizer, manure, fixation, deposition, and residues) that enables evaluation of trends in nitrogen use and recovery by country and by crop from the 1960s through 2007. These data show that despite growth in yields and increased N fertilization, differences in efficiency of N use between Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; http://www.oecd.org) and other countries have persisted over nearly 50 years and exhibit no sign of convergence. The high yield, high nitrogen input systems characteristic of rich countries have released large amounts of reactive N to the environment but have operated with greater efficiency—recovering a greater portion of added N in crops. Aggregate yields in OECD countries are 70% greater than in non-OECD countries on N input rates just 54% greater. Variation in recovery efficiency between countries suggests that there is scope for improvements through enhanced N delivery and capture in the world's low-yielding croplands and that increasing efficiency of N use is an important component of meeting food demand in the future.

  3. Modular Energy-Efficient and Robust Paradigms for a Disaster-Recovery Process over Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Robust paradigms are a necessity, particularly for emerging wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. The lack of robust and efficient paradigms causes a reduction in the provision of quality of service (QoS) and additional energy consumption. In this paper, we introduce modular energy-efficient and robust paradigms that involve two archetypes: (1) the operational medium access control (O-MAC) hybrid protocol and (2) the pheromone termite (PT) model. The O-MAC protocol controls overhearing and congestion and increases the throughput, reduces the latency and extends the network lifetime. O-MAC uses an optimized data frame format that reduces the channel access time and provides faster data delivery over the medium. Furthermore, O-MAC uses a novel randomization function that avoids channel collisions. The PT model provides robust routing for single and multiple links and includes two new significant features: (1) determining the packet generation rate to avoid congestion and (2) pheromone sensitivity to determine the link capacity prior to sending the packets on each link. The state-of-the-art research in this work is based on improving both the QoS and energy efficiency. To determine the strength of O-MAC with the PT model; we have generated and simulated a disaster recovery scenario using a network simulator (ns-3.10) that monitors the activities of disaster recovery staff; hospital staff and disaster victims brought into the hospital. Moreover; the proposed paradigm can be used for general purpose applications. Finally; the QoS metrics of the O-MAC and PT paradigms are evaluated and compared with other known hybrid protocols involving the MAC and routing features. The simulation results indicate that O-MAC with PT produced better outcomes. PMID:26153768

  4. Modular Energy-Efficient and Robust Paradigms for a Disaster-Recovery Process over Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Robust paradigms are a necessity, particularly for emerging wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. The lack of robust and efficient paradigms causes a reduction in the provision of quality of service (QoS) and additional energy consumption. In this paper, we introduce modular energy-efficient and robust paradigms that involve two archetypes: (1) the operational medium access control (O-MAC) hybrid protocol and (2) the pheromone termite (PT) model. The O-MAC protocol controls overhearing and congestion and increases the throughput, reduces the latency and extends the network lifetime. O-MAC uses an optimized data frame format that reduces the channel access time and provides faster data delivery over the medium. Furthermore, O-MAC uses a novel randomization function that avoids channel collisions. The PT model provides robust routing for single and multiple links and includes two new significant features: (1) determining the packet generation rate to avoid congestion and (2) pheromone sensitivity to determine the link capacity prior to sending the packets on each link. The state-of-the-art research in this work is based on improving both the QoS and energy efficiency. To determine the strength of O-MAC with the PT model; we have generated and simulated a disaster recovery scenario using a network simulator (ns-3.10) that monitors the activities of disaster recovery staff; hospital staff and disaster victims brought into the hospital. Moreover; the proposed paradigm can be used for general purpose applications. Finally; the QoS metrics of the O-MAC and PT paradigms are evaluated and compared with other known hybrid protocols involving the MAC and routing features. The simulation results indicate that O-MAC with PT produced better outcomes. PMID:26153768

  5. STIMULI-RESPONSIVE POLYMERS WITH ENHANCED EFFICIENCY IN RESERVOIR RECOVERY PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2004-09-30

    This sixth and final progress report for DOE Award Number DE-FC26-01BC15317 describes research during the period March 01, 2004 through August 31, 2004 performed at the University of Southern Mississippi on ''Stimuli Responsive Polymers with Enhanced Efficiency in Reservoir Recovery'' processes. Significantly, terpolymers that are responsive to changes in pH and ionic strength have been synthesized, characterized, and their solution properties have been extensively examined. Terpolymers composed of acrylamide, a carboxylated acrylamido monomer (AMBA), and a quaternary ammonium monomer (AMBATAC) with balanced compositions of the latter two, exhibit increases in aqueous solution viscosity as NaCl concentration is increased. This increase in polymer coil size can be expected upon injection of this type of polymer into oil reservoirs of moderate-to-high salinity, leading to better mobility control. The opposite effect (loss of viscosity) is observed for conventional polymer systems. Additionally polymer mobility characteristics have been conducted for a number of hydrophilic copolymers utilizing an extensional flow apparatus and size exclusion chromatography. This study reveled that oil recovery enhancement through use of polymers in a water flood is due to the polymer's resistance to deformation as it flows through the reservoir. Individual polymers when in aqueous solution form coils. The larger the polymer's coil size, the greater the polymer's resistance to extensional flow and the more effective the polymer is in enhancing oil recovery. Large coil sizes are obtained by increasing the polymer molecular weight and having macromolecular structures that favor greater swelling of the coil by the aqueous solvent conditions (temperature, pH and electrolyte concentration) existing in the reservoir.

  6. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Paula; Piepel, Gregory F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matthew S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-02-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10x10^-3 to 1.86 CFU/cm^2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (>1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm^2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  7. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    PubMed Central

    Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10−3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (≥1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

  8. An efficient pipeline wavefront phase recovery for the CAFADIS camera for extremely large telescopes.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO) problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs). Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations. PMID:22315523

  9. An Efficient Pipeline Wavefront Phase Recovery for the CAFADIS Camera for Extremely Large Telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO) problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs). Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations. PMID:22315523

  10. Development of an ELISA for Evaluation of Swab Recovery Efficiencies of Bovine Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Sparding, Nadja; Slotved, Hans-Christian; Nicolaisen, Gert M.; Giese, Steen B.; Elmlund, Jón; Steenhard, Nina R.

    2014-01-01

    After a potential biological incident the sampling strategy and sample analysis are crucial for the outcome of the investigation and identification. In this study, we have developed a simple sandwich ELISA based on commercial components to quantify BSA (used as a surrogate for ricin) with a detection range of 1.32–80 ng/mL. We used the ELISA to evaluate different protein swabbing procedures (swabbing techniques and after-swabbing treatments) for two swab types: a cotton gauze swab and a flocked nylon swab. The optimal swabbing procedure for each swab type was used to obtain recovery efficiencies from different surface materials. The surface recoveries using the optimal swabbing procedure ranged from 0–60% and were significantly higher from nonporous surfaces compared to porous surfaces. In conclusion, this study presents a swabbing procedure evaluation and a simple BSA ELISA based on commercial components, which are easy to perform in a laboratory with basic facilities. The data indicate that different swabbing procedures were optimal for each of the tested swab types, and the particular swab preference depends on the surface material to be swabbed. PMID:25402464

  11. To enhancement illuminance efficiency of OLED by thin film included microparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Chuang-Hung; Chien, Chao-Heng; Lee, Jen-Chi; Chien, Wei-Cheng

    2015-09-01

    An optical thin film was provided to address light illuminance efficiency of OLED up to 80%. A polymer material was used as a film base material which could avoid the influence of total reflection angle. One kinds of oxidized metal micro-particles was chosen to dope inside the optical thin film and to increase scattering and refractive effect.

  12. Redundancy management for efficient fault recovery in NASA's distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malek, Miroslaw; Pandya, Mihir; Yau, Kitty

    1991-01-01

    The management of redundancy in computer systems was studied and guidelines were provided for the development of NASA's fault-tolerant distributed systems. Fault recovery and reconfiguration mechanisms were examined. A theoretical foundation was laid for redundancy management by efficient reconfiguration methods and algorithmic diversity. Algorithms were developed to optimize the resources for embedding of computational graphs of tasks in the system architecture and reconfiguration of these tasks after a failure has occurred. The computational structure represented by a path and the complete binary tree was considered and the mesh and hypercube architectures were targeted for their embeddings. The innovative concept of Hybrid Algorithm Technique was introduced. This new technique provides a mechanism for obtaining fault tolerance while exhibiting improved performance.

  13. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  14. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000{degrees}F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  15. Evaluation of two spike-and-recovery controls for assessment of extraction efficiency in microbial source tracking studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeckel, D.M.; Stelzer, E.A.; Dick, L.K.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR), applied to complex environmental samples such as water, wastewater, and feces, is susceptible to methodological and sample related biases. In this study, we evaluated two exogenous DNA spike-and-recovery controls as proxies for recovery efficiency of Bacteroidales 16S rDNA gene sequences (AllBac and qHF183) that are used for microbial source tracking (MST) in river water. Two controls-(1) the plant pathogen Pantoea stewartii, carrying the chromosomal target gene cpsD, and (2) Escherichia coli, carrying the plasmid-borne target gene DsRed2-were added to raw water samples immediately prior to concentration and DNA extraction for qPCR. When applied to samples processed in replicate, recovery of each control was positively correlated with the observed concentration of each MST marker. Adjustment of MST marker concentrations according to recovery efficiency reduced variability in replicate analyses when consistent processing and extraction methodologies were applied. Although the effects of this procedure on accuracy could not be tested due to uncertainties in control DNA concentrations, the observed reduction in variability should improve the strength of statistical comparisons. These findings suggest that either of the tested spike-and-recovery controls can be useful to measure efficiency of extraction and recovery in routine laboratory processing. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of two spike-and-recovery controls for assessment of extraction efficiency in microbial source tracking studies.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, Donald M; Stelzer, Erin A; Dick, Linda K

    2009-11-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR), applied to complex environmental samples such as water, wastewater, and feces, is susceptible to methodological and sample related biases. In this study, we evaluated two exogenous DNA spike-and-recovery controls as proxies for recovery efficiency of Bacteroidales 16S rDNA gene sequences (AllBac and qHF183) that are used for microbial source tracking (MST) in river water. Two controls--(1) the plant pathogen Pantoea stewartii, carrying the chromosomal target gene cpsD, and (2) Escherichia coli, carrying the plasmid-borne target gene DsRed2--were added to raw water samples immediately prior to concentration and DNA extraction for qPCR. When applied to samples processed in replicate, recovery of each control was positively correlated with the observed concentration of each MST marker. Adjustment of MST marker concentrations according to recovery efficiency reduced variability in replicate analyses when consistent processing and extraction methodologies were applied. Although the effects of this procedure on accuracy could not be tested due to uncertainties in control DNA concentrations, the observed reduction in variability should improve the strength of statistical comparisons. These findings suggest that either of the tested spike-and-recovery controls can be useful to measure efficiency of extraction and recovery in routine laboratory processing. PMID:19589555

  17. Efficient beam-column finite element including application to thermoelastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, F.D.

    1980-02-01

    During the study of the structural design of the core of the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR), there is evidence of undue frictional interaction between fuel rod claddings and their spacer grids. In cases for which thermal bowing of the rods is sufficient to cause two-sided contact between the rods and their supporting grids (and thus a tendency to lock up), subsequent rod deformation caused by the axial thermal expansion would result in excessive buckling of the rods between locked supports. The numerical solution is best served by the finite element method. Yet there is a large number of fuel rods in the reactor, of which each is multiply-supported by spacers. Hence, an efficient finite element is needed that would model each section between supports with not more than three elements. The new efficient finite element is developed, beginning with the principle of virtual work.

  18. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Second quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  19. Methods of improving the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. [including X ray analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loferski, J. J.; Roessler, B.; Crisman, E. E.; Chen, L. Y.; Kaul, R.

    1974-01-01

    Work on aluminum-alloyed silicon grating cells is continued. Optimization of the geometry (grating line width and spacing) confirms the analysis of such cells. A 1 sq cm grating cell was fabricated and its i-V characteristic was measured under an AMO solar simulator. It is found that the efficiency of this cell would be about 7.9%, if it were covered by the usual antireflection coating. The surface of the cell is not covered by a diffused junction. The response is blue shifted; the current is somewhat higher than that produced by a commercial Si cell. However, the open circuit voltage is low, and attempts to optimize the open circuit voltage of the aluminum-alloy junctions are described. A preliminary X-ray topographic examination of GaAs specimens of the type commonly used to make solar cells is studied. The X-ray study shows that the wafers are filled with regions having strain gradients, possibly caused by precipitates. It is possible that a correlation exists between the presence of low mechanical perfection and minority carrier diffusion lengths of GaAs crystals.

  20. Enhanced oil recovery by surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency: Second annual report, September 30, 1986-September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, J H; Scamehorn, J F

    1988-04-01

    It is widely known that heterogeneities in oil reservoirs occurring as a result of permeability variations in the rock can have a detrimental effect on an oil recovery process; preferential diversion of injected displacement fluid occurs through the high-permeability zones, leaving the lower-permeability zones at a high residual oil content at a time when it is no longer economically viable to continue the oil recovery process. A novel oil recovery process is described which aims to improve the volumetric sweep efficiency of oil recovery. High-permeability zones are partially or completely plugged off by using the chromatographic and phase behavior of surfactants and their mixtures and the preferential invasion of high-permeability areas by low-viscosity injected fluids. The plugging will divert flow into regions of higher oil saturation. 85 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Efficient distance-including integral screening in linear-scaling Møller-Plesset perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Simon A.; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Efficient estimates for the preselection of two-electron integrals in atomic-orbital based Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (AO-MP2) theory are presented, which allow for evaluating the AO-MP2 energy with computational effort that scales linear with molecular size for systems with a significant HOMO-LUMO gap. The estimates are based on our recently introduced QQR approach [S. A. Maurer, D. S. Lambrecht, D. Flaig, and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 144107 (2012), 10.1063/1.3693908], which exploits the asympotic decay of the integral values with increasing bra-ket separation as deduced from the multipole expansion and combines this decay behavior with the common Schwarz bound to a tight and simple estimate. We demonstrate on a diverse selection of benchmark systems that our AO-MP2 method in combination with the QQR-type estimates produces reliable results for systems with both localized and delocalized electronic structure, while in the latter case the screening essentially reverts to the common Schwarz screening. For systems with localized electronic structure, our AO-MP2 method shows an early onset of linear scaling as demonstrated on DNA systems. The favorable scaling behavior allows to compute systems with more than 1000 atoms and 10 000 basis functions on a single core that are clearly not accessible with conventional MP2 methods. Furthermore, our AO-MP2 method is particularly suited for parallelization and we present benchmark calculations on a protein-DNA repair complex comprising 2025 atoms and 20 371 basis functions.

  2. Efficient parallel seismic simulations including topography and 3-D material heterogeneities on locally refined composite grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, Anders; Rodgers, Arthur

    2010-05-01

    The finite difference method on a uniform Cartesian grid is a highly efficient and easy to implement technique for solving the elastic wave equation in seismic applications. However, the spacing in a uniform Cartesian grid is fixed throughout the computational domain, whereas the resolution requirements in realistic seismic simulations usually are higher near the surface than at depth. This can be seen from the well-known formula h ≤ L-P which relates the grid spacing h to the wave length L, and the required number of grid points per wavelength P for obtaining an accurate solution. The compressional and shear wave lengths in the earth generally increase with depth and are often a factor of ten larger below the Moho discontinuity (at about 30 km depth), than in sedimentary basins near the surface. A uniform grid must have a grid spacing based on the small wave lengths near the surface, which results in over-resolving the solution at depth. As a result, the number of points in a uniform grid is unnecessarily large. In the wave propagation project (WPP) code, we address the over-resolution-at-depth issue by generalizing our previously developed single grid finite difference scheme to work on a composite grid consisting of a set of structured rectangular grids of different spacings, with hanging nodes on the grid refinement interfaces. The computational domain in a regional seismic simulation often extends to depth 40-50 km. Hence, using a refinement ratio of two, we need about three grid refinements from the bottom of the computational domain to the surface, to keep the local grid size in approximate parity with the local wave lengths. The challenge of the composite grid approach is to find a stable and accurate method for coupling the solution across the grid refinement interface. Of particular importance is the treatment of the solution at the hanging nodes, i.e., the fine grid points which are located in between coarse grid points. WPP implements a new, energy

  3. Improvement of III-nitride visible and ultraviolet light-emitting diode performance, including extraction efficiency, electrical efficiency, thermal management and efficiency maintenance at high current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vampola, Kenneth

    In this work, highly efficient broad-area LEDs on bulk GaN substrates were developed and the fabrication process and device layout were optimized. This optimization relied in part on electrical, optical, thermal and recombination models. The peak external quantum efficiency of the 450 nm LEDs was over 68% when biased at 20 mA. The efficiency characteristic showed a typical droop curve, decreasing at high current densities. The cause of this droop is unknown. An exploratory experiment was conducted to characterize electron overflow and its role in efficiency droop. Novel device structures were developed, allowing direct measurement of overflow electrons in LED-like structures under electrical injection. In these test structures, electrons were observed in the p-type region of the LED only at current densities where efficiency droop was active. The onset of efficiency droop was preceded by the onset of electron overflow. However, the magnitude of the overflow current could not be measured and it is undetermined whether the dominant cause of efficiency droop is electron overflow or some other process such as Auger recombination. Calibration structures allowing measurement of the magnitude of the overflow are proposed. Work on deep-ultraviolet, 275 nm, LEDs is also presented. Demonstration of direct-wafer bonded LEDs to beta-Ga2O3 is presented. A SiC substrate removal process is discussed. LEDs fabricated by this flip-chip process exhibited up to 1.8 times greater power compared to LEDs fabricated by a standard process but suffered from increased forward voltage and premature failure. Further process development leading to electrically efficient operation is proposed.

  4. Centromere protein F includes two sites that couple efficiently to depolymerizing microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Vladimir A.; Grissom, Paula M.; Arzhanik, Vladimir K.; Zaytsev, Anatoly V.; Renganathan, Kutralanathan; McClure-Begley, Tristan; Old, William M.; Ahn, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Firm attachments between kinetochores and dynamic spindle microtubules (MTs) are important for accurate chromosome segregation. Centromere protein F (CENP-F) has been shown to include two MT-binding domains, so it may participate in this key mitotic process. Here, we show that the N-terminal MT-binding domain of CENP-F prefers curled oligomers of tubulin relative to MT walls by approximately fivefold, suggesting that it may contribute to the firm bonds between kinetochores and the flared plus ends of dynamic MTs. A polypeptide from CENP-F’s C terminus also bound MTs, and either protein fragment diffused on a stable MT wall. They also followed the ends of dynamic MTs as they shortened. When either fragment was coupled to a microbead, the force it could transduce from a shortening MT averaged 3–5 pN but could exceed 10 pN, identifying CENP-F as a highly effective coupler to shortening MTs. PMID:26101217

  5. Effect of morphology of aluminium oxide nanoparticles on viscosity and interfacial tension (IFT) and the recovery efficiency in enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Hasnah Mohd; Radzi, Nur Shahbinar Ahmad; Latiff, Noor Rasyada Ahmad; Shafie, Afza

    2014-10-01

    Conventional enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods failed to extract the remaining oil from unconventional, high salinity and high temperature high pressure (HTHP) oil reservoirs. In surfactant flooding method, surfactants are injected to reduce the interfacial tension between oil and water hence sufficiently displaces oil from the reservoir. In steam flooding, high temperature steam is injected into a reservoir to heat oil to make it less viscous, making it easier to move to the production wells. However these methods fail to failed to perform because injection agents start to change its properties under the extreme condition. Therefore, nanoparticles are introduced to mitigate these challenges because of its ability to change certain factor in certain condition. Previous studies had shown that increments in the oil recovery were observed when core-flooding experiments using Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) nanofluid were conducted. In this research, the effect of morphology of Al2O3 nanoparticles on viscosity and interfacial tension (IFT) and the recovery efficiency in EOR was studied. Al2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized and the morphology was altered by hydrothermal treatment using different concentration of NaOH. After being treated, the morphology of Al2O3 changed from hexagonal to thin lath. The IFT between crude oil and the nanofluids of the treated Al2O3 showed lower values compared to the untreated ones. It was also observed from core-flooding experiment that the Al2O3 nanofluid which had undergone treatment with 10 M NaOH gave the highest recovery of 52.50% of residual oil in place (ROIP). The change in morphology could have resulted in better dispersion and thus lead to higher recovery.

  6. An efficient phase-selective gelator for aromatic solvents recovery based on a cyanostilbene amide derivative.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Ma, Yao; Deng, Mengyu; Shang, Hongxing; Liang, Chunshuang; Jiang, Shimei

    2015-07-01

    Two novel low molecular weight organogelators (LMOGs) 1 and 2 composed of a cholesteryl group, an amide group and various terminal cyanostilbene moieties were synthesized. They could form stable gels in p-xylene. In particular, 2 with more extended π-conjugation length showed remarkable gelation ability in many aromatic solvents, chloroform and chloroform-containing mixed solvents at a relatively low concentration. FT-IR and XRD spectra indicated that the difference between 1 and 2 in the gelation properties may result from the deviation of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding and π–π stacking as driving forces for the formation of the gels. Significantly, 2 can function as an efficient room-temperature phase-selective gelator (PSG) for potential application in the separation and recovery of various aromatic solvents from its mixture with water. Meanwhile, the gelator can be easily recovered and reused several times. Furthermore, the phase-selective gelation properties of 2 can provide a simple and feasible approach for the removal of the rhodamine B (RhB) dye from water. PMID:26035825

  7. Evaluation of Sample Recovery Efficiency for Bacteriophage P22 on Fomites

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Amanda B.; Pandey, Alok K.; Reyes-Gastelum, David; Gerba, Charles P.; Rose, Joan B.

    2012-01-01

    Fomites are known to play a role in the transmission of pathogens. Quantitative analysis of the parameters that affect sample recovery efficiency (SRE) at the limit of detection of viruses on fomites will aid in improving quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and infection control. The variability in SRE as a function of fomite type, fomite surface area, sampling time, application media, relative humidity (rH), and wetting agent was evaluated. To quantify the SRE, bacteriophage P22 was applied onto fomites at average surface densities of 0.4 ± 0.2 and 4 ± 2 PFU/cm2. Surface areas of 100 and 1,000 cm2 of nonporous fomites found in indoor environments (acrylic, galvanized steel, and laminate) were evaluated with premoistened antistatic wipes. The parameters with the most effects on the SRE were sampling time, fomite surface area, wetting agent, and rH. At time zero (the initial application of bacteriophage P22), the SRE for the 1,000-cm2 fomite surface area was, on average, 40% lower than that for the 100-cm2 fomite surface area. For both fomite surface areas, the application medium Trypticase soy broth (TSB) and/or the laminate fomite predominantly resulted in a higher SRE. After the applied samples dried on the fomites (20 min), the average SRE was less than 3%. A TSB wetting agent applied on the fomite improved the SRE for all samples at 20 min. In addition, an rH greater than 28% generally resulted in a higher SRE than an rH less than 28%. The parameters impacting SRE at the limit of detection have the potential to enhance sampling strategies and data collection for QMRA models. PMID:22941090

  8. Recovery efficiency and limit of detection of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne from environmental surface samples.

    PubMed

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Baron, Paul A; Beard, Jeremy K; Hein, Misty J; Larsen, Lloyd D; Rose, Laura; Schaefer, Frank W; Noble-Wang, Judith; Hodges, Lisa; Lindquist, H D Alan; Deye, Gregory J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2009-07-01

    After the 2001 anthrax incidents, surface sampling techniques for biological agents were found to be inadequately validated, especially at low surface loadings. We aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores within a chamber to achieve very low surface loading (ca. 3, 30, and 200 CFU per 100 cm(2)). Steel and carpet coupons seeded in the chamber were sampled with swab (103 cm(2)) or wipe or vacuum (929 cm(2)) surface sampling methods and analyzed at three laboratories. Agar settle plates (60 cm(2)) were the reference for determining recovery efficiency (RE). The minimum estimated surface concentrations to achieve a 95% response rate based on probit regression were 190, 15, and 44 CFU/100 cm(2) for sampling steel surfaces and 40, 9.2, and 28 CFU/100 cm(2) for sampling carpet surfaces with swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively; however, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of high observed variability. Mean REs at the highest surface loading were 5.0%, 18%, and 3.7% on steel and 12%, 23%, and 4.7% on carpet for the swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively. Precision (coefficient of variation) was poor at the lower surface concentrations but improved with increasing surface concentration. The best precision was obtained with wipe samples on carpet, achieving 38% at the highest surface concentration. The wipe sampling method detected B. anthracis at lower estimated surface concentrations and had higher RE and better precision than the other methods. These results may guide investigators to more meaningfully conduct environmental sampling, quantify contamination levels, and conduct risk assessment for humans. PMID:19429546

  9. Recovery Efficiency and Limit of Detection of Aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne from Environmental Surface Samples ▿

    PubMed Central

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Baron, Paul A.; Beard, Jeremy K.; Hein, Misty J.; Larsen, Lloyd D.; Rose, Laura; Schaefer, Frank W.; Noble-Wang, Judith; Hodges, Lisa; Lindquist, H. D. Alan; Deye, Gregory J.; Arduino, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    After the 2001 anthrax incidents, surface sampling techniques for biological agents were found to be inadequately validated, especially at low surface loadings. We aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores within a chamber to achieve very low surface loading (ca. 3, 30, and 200 CFU per 100 cm2). Steel and carpet coupons seeded in the chamber were sampled with swab (103 cm2) or wipe or vacuum (929 cm2) surface sampling methods and analyzed at three laboratories. Agar settle plates (60 cm2) were the reference for determining recovery efficiency (RE). The minimum estimated surface concentrations to achieve a 95% response rate based on probit regression were 190, 15, and 44 CFU/100 cm2 for sampling steel surfaces and 40, 9.2, and 28 CFU/100 cm2 for sampling carpet surfaces with swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively; however, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of high observed variability. Mean REs at the highest surface loading were 5.0%, 18%, and 3.7% on steel and 12%, 23%, and 4.7% on carpet for the swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively. Precision (coefficient of variation) was poor at the lower surface concentrations but improved with increasing surface concentration. The best precision was obtained with wipe samples on carpet, achieving 38% at the highest surface concentration. The wipe sampling method detected B. anthracis at lower estimated surface concentrations and had higher RE and better precision than the other methods. These results may guide investigators to more meaningfully conduct environmental sampling, quantify contamination levels, and conduct risk assessment for humans. PMID:19429546

  10. Multicenter Comparison of ESP Culture System II with BACTEC 460TB and with Lowenstein-Jensen Medium for Recovery of Mycobacteria from Different Clinical Specimens, Including Blood

    PubMed Central

    Tortoli, Enrico; Cichero, Paola; Chirillo, M. Gabriella; Gismondo, M. Rita; Bono, Letizia; Gesu, Giampietro; Simonetti, M. Tullia; Volpe, Gisella; Nardi, Giampietro; Marone, Piero

    1998-01-01

    The recently developed ESP Culture System II (AccuMed, Chicago, Ill.) was compared with radiometric BACTEC 460TB (Becton Dickinson, Towson, Md.) and with Lowenstein-Jensen medium for recovery of mycobacteria from over 2,500 clinical specimens both of respiratory and nonrespiratory origin, including blood. The majority of the 219 mycobacterial isolates (129) belonged to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, followed by 37 isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and 53 isolates of eight other mycobacterial species. Rates of recovery obtained with BACTEC, ESP, and Lowenstein-Jensen medium were 89, 79, and 64%, respectively, with such differences being statistically significant. Different media and systems appeared to behave differently when the more frequently detected organisms were considered: M. tuberculosis complex isolates grew better with BACTEC, and MAC isolates grew better with ESP. An analysis of the combinations of Lowenstein-Jensen medium with BACTEC and with ESP did not reveal significant differences in recovery rates. With regard to the times needed for the detection of positive cultures, they were significantly longer on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (average, 28 days) than with the remaining two systems, between which there was no difference (average, 18 days). We conclude, therefore, that the ESP system, when used in combination with a solid medium, performs as well as the thoroughly validated radiometric BACTEC system and offers the advantages of full automation and absence of radioisotopes. PMID:9574709

  11. Evaluation of sludge reduction and phosphorus recovery efficiencies in a new advanced wastewater treatment system using denitrifying polyphosphate accumulating organisms.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Kondo, T; Nakagawa, K; Tsuneda, S; Hirata, A; Shimizu, Y; Inamori, Y

    2006-01-01

    A new biological nutrient removal process, anaerobic-oxic-anoxic (A/O/A) system using denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (DNPAOs), was proposed. To attain excess sludge reduction and phosphorus recovery, the A/O/A system equipped with ozonation tank and phosphorus adsorption column was operated for 92 days, and water quality of the effluent, sludge reduction efficiency, and phosphorus recovery efficiency were evaluated. As a result, TOC, T-N and T-P removal efficiency were 85%, 70% and 85%, respectively, throughout the operating period. These slightly lower removal efficiencies than conventional anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) processes were due to the unexpected microbial population in this system where DNPAOs were not the dominant group but normal polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) that could not utilize nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor became dominant. However, it was successfully demonstrated that 34-127% of sludge reduction and around 80% of phosphorus recovery were attained. In conclusion, the A/O/A system equipped with ozonation and phosphorus adsorption systems is useful as a new advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to resolve the problems of increasing excess sludge and depleted phosphorus. PMID:16749446

  12. Energy-efficient modification of reduction-melting for lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takashi Yonezawa, Susumu

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • We recovered Pb from cathode ray tube funnel glass using reduction melting process. • We modified the melting process to achieve Pb recovery with low energy consumption. • Pb in the funnel glass is efficiently recovered at 1000 °C by adding Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • Pb remaining in the glass after reduction melting is extracted with 1 M HCl. • 98% of Pb in the funnel glass was recovered by reduction melting and HCl leaching. - Abstract: Lead can be recovered from funnel glass of waste cathode ray tubes via reduction melting. While low-temperature melting is necessary for reduced energy consumption, previously proposed methods required high melting temperatures (1400 °C) for the reduction melting. In this study, the reduction melting of the funnel glass was performed at 900–1000 °C using a lab-scale reactor with varying concentrations of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at different melting temperatures and melting times. The optimum Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} dosage and melting temperature for efficient lead recovery was 0.5 g per 1 g of the funnel glass and 1000 °C respectively. By the reduction melting with the mentioned conditions, 92% of the lead in the funnel glass was recovered in 60 min. However, further lead recovery was difficult because the rate of the lead recovery decreased as with the recovery of increasing quantity of the lead from the glass. Thus, the lead remaining in the glass after the reduction melting was extracted with 1 M HCl, and the lead recovery improved to 98%.

  13. Energy-efficient modification of reduction-melting for lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2013-08-01

    Lead can be recovered from funnel glass of waste cathode ray tubes via reduction melting. While low-temperature melting is necessary for reduced energy consumption, previously proposed methods required high melting temperatures (1400 °C) for the reduction melting. In this study, the reduction melting of the funnel glass was performed at 900-1000 °C using a lab-scale reactor with varying concentrations of Na(2)CO(3) at different melting temperatures and melting times. The optimum Na(2)CO(3) dosage and melting temperature for efficient lead recovery was 0.5 g per 1g of the funnel glass and 1000 °C respectively. By the reduction melting with the mentioned conditions, 92% of the lead in the funnel glass was recovered in 60 min. However, further lead recovery was difficult because the rate of the lead recovery decreased as with the recovery of increasing quantity of the lead from the glass. Thus, the lead remaining in the glass after the reduction melting was extracted with 1M HCl, and the lead recovery improved to 98%. PMID:23711698

  14. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-membrane process

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane separati...

  15. Efficient ethanol recovery from yeast fermentation broth with integrated distillation-membrane process

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to conventional distillatio...

  16. An efficient algorithm for solving coupled Schroedinger type ODE`s, whose potentials include {delta}-functions

    SciTech Connect

    Gousheh, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    I have used the shooting method to find the eigenvalues (bound state energies) of a set of strongly coupled Schroedinger type equations. I have discussed the advantages of the shooting method when the potentials include {delta}-functions. I have also discussed some points which are universal in these kind of problems, whose use make the algorithm much more efficient. These points include mapping the domain of the ODE into a finite one, using the asymptotic form of the solutions, best use of the normalization freedom, and converting the {delta}-functions into boundary conditions.

  17. 3M: Hutchinson Plant Focuses on Heat Recovery and Cogeneration during Plan-Wide Energy-Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-01

    3M performed a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment at its Hutchinson, Minnesota, plant to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities. Assessment staff developed four separate implementation packages that represented various combinations of energy-efficiency projects involving chiller consolidation, air compressor cooling improvements, a steam turbine used for cogeneration, and a heat recovery boiler for two of the plant's thermal oxidizers. Staff estimated that the plant could save 6 million kWh/yr in electricity and more than 200,000 MMBtu/yr in natural gas and fuel oil, and avoid energy costs of more than $1 million during the first year.

  18. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A. Compton); "Reading Recovery in Arizona--A…

  19. Efficiency of energy recovery from municipal solid waste and the resultant effect on the greenhouse gas balance.

    PubMed

    Gohlke, Oliver

    2009-11-01

    Global warming is a focus of political interest and life-cycle assessment of waste management systems reveals that energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a key issue. This paper demonstrates how the greenhouse gas effects of waste treatment processes can be described in a simplified manner by considering energy efficiency indicators. For evaluation to be consistent, it is necessary to use reasonable system boundaries and to take the generation of electricity and the use of heat into account. The new European R1 efficiency criterion will lead to the development and implementation of optimized processes/systems with increased energy efficiency which, in turn, will exert an influence on the greenhouse gas effects of waste management in Europe. Promising technologies are: the increase of steam parameters, reduction of in-plant energy consumption, and the combined use of heat and power. Plants in Brescia and Amsterdam are current examples of good performance with highly efficient electricity generation. Other examples of particularly high heat recovery rates are the energy-from-waste (EfW) plants in Malmö and Gothenburg. To achieve the full potential of greenhouse gas reduction in waste management, it is necessary to avoid landfilling combustible wastes, for example, by means of landfill taxes and by putting incentives in place for increasing the efficiency of EfW systems. PMID:19837705

  20. Investigating potential light-duty efficiency improvements through simulation of turbo-compounding and waste-heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M; Briggs, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment. While there are significant opportunities for recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler for heavy-duty applications, achieving similar benefits for light-duty applications is complicated by transient, low-load operation at typical driving conditions and competition with the turbocharger and aftertreatment system for the limited thermal resources. We have developed an organic Rankine cycle model using GT-Suite to investigate the potential for efficiency improvement through waste-heat recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler of a light-duty diesel engine. The model is used to examine the effects of efficiency-improvement strategies such as cylinder deactivation, use of advanced materials and improved insulation to limit ambient heat loss, and turbo-compounding on the steady-state performance of the ORC system and the availability of thermal energy for downstream aftertreatment systems. Results from transient drive-cycle simulations are also presented, and we discuss strategies to address operational difficulties associated with transient drive cycles and balancing the thermal requirements of waste-heat recovery

  1. Including quality attributes in efficiency measures consistent with net benefit: creating incentives for evidence based medicine in practice.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Simon; Coelli, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Evidence based medicine supports net benefit maximising therapies and strategies in processes of health technology assessment (HTA) for reimbursement and subsidy decisions internationally. However, translation of evidence based medicine to practice is impeded by efficiency measures such as cost per case-mix adjusted separation in hospitals, which ignore health effects of care. In this paper we identify a correspondence method that allows quality variables under control of providers to be incorporated in efficiency measures consistent with maximising net benefit. Including effects framed from a disutility bearing (utility reducing) perspective (e.g. mortality, morbidity or reduction in life years) as inputs and minimising quality inclusive costs on the cost-disutility plane is shown to enable efficiency measures consistent with maximising net benefit under a one to one correspondence. The method combines advantages of radial properties with an appropriate objective of maximising net benefit to overcome problems of inappropriate objectives implicit with alternative methods, whether specifying quality variables with utility bearing output (e.g. survival, reduction in morbidity or life years), hyperbolic or exogenous variables. This correspondence approach is illustrated in undertaking efficiency comparison at a clinical activity level for 45 Australian hospitals allowing for their costs and mortality rates per admission. Explicit coverage and comparability conditions of the underlying correspondence method are also shown to provide a robust framework for preventing cost-shifting and cream-skimming incentives, with appropriate qualification of analysis and support for data linkage and risk adjustment where these conditions are not satisfied. Comparison on the cost-disutility plane has previously been shown to have distinct advantages in comparing multiple strategies in HTA, which this paper naturally extends to a robust method and framework for comparing efficiency of

  2. High efficiency recovery and epitope specific sorting of an scFv yeast display library

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Robert W.; Coleman, James R.; Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Michael

    2004-03-01

    In order to more productively utilize the rich source of antigen specific reagents present in the previously described non-immune scFv yeast display library (Feldhaus et al., 2003) one must be able to efficiently isolate and characterize clones within the library. To this end, we have developed and validated a magnetic bead sorting technique utilizing the Miltenyi MacsTm system to recover greater than 90% of the antigen specific clones present in the library. In combination with flow cytometry, we rapidly reduced diversity and enriched for antigen specific clones in three rounds of selection. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of pre-existing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for antigen labeling and subsequent flow cytometric sorting and characterization of epitope specific scFv. Combining these two improvements in library screening allowed isolation and characterization of 3 epitope specific scFv (including a previously uncharacterized epitope) to a 6 kd protein, epidermal growth factor EGF.

  3. Efficient Recovery of Fluoroquinolone-Susceptible and Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains From Frozen Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Santana, Evelyn; Lee, Abby; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Babson, Andrew; Perencevich, Eli N.; Harris, Anthony D.; Smith, Catherine A.; Maslow, Joel

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the rate of recovery of fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates from culture of frozen perirectal swab samples compared with the results for culture of the same specimen before freezing. Recovery rates for these 2 classes of E. coli were 91% and 83%, respectively. The majority of distinct strains recovered from the initial sample were also recovered from the frozen sample. The strains that were not recovered were typically present only in low numbers in the initial sample. These findings emphasize the utility of frozen surveillance samples. PMID:18279070

  4. Efficient recovery of fluoroquinolone-susceptible and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains from frozen samples.

    PubMed

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Santana, Evelyn; Lee, Abby; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Babson, Andrew; Perencevich, Eli N; Harris, Anthony D; Smith, Catherine A; Maslow, Joel

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the rate of recovery of fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates from culture of frozen perirectal swab samples compared with the results for culture of the same specimen before freezing. Recovery rates for these 2 classes of E. coli were 91% and 83%, respectively. The majority of distinct strains recovered from the initial sample were also recovered from the frozen sample. The strains that were not recovered were typically present only in low numbers in the initial sample. These findings emphasize the utility of frozen surveillance samples. PMID:18279070

  5. A superhydrophobic zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-90) with high steam stability for efficient recovery of bioalcohols.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanyao; Liu, Qian; Huang, Aisheng

    2016-02-16

    A superhydrophobic zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-90) with high steam stability is prepared through post-functionalization via an amine condensation reaction. The developed superhydrophobic ZIF-90 is highly promising as an effective and reusable adsorbent for bio-alcohol recovery. PMID:26878906

  6. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-vapor permeation hybrid process

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative hybrid process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane s...

  7. Recovery Act: Integrated DC-DC Conversion for Energy-Efficient Multicore Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, Kenneth L

    2013-03-31

    In this project, we have developed the use of thin-film magnetic materials to improve in energy efficiency of digital computing applications by enabling integrated dc-dc power conversion and management with on-chip power inductors. Integrated voltage regulators also enables fine-grained power management, by providing dynamic scaling of the supply voltage in concert with the clock frequency of synchronous logic to throttle power consumption at periods of low computational demand. The voltage converter generates lower output voltages during periods of low computational performance requirements and higher output voltages during periods of high computational performance requirements. Implementation of integrated power conversion requires high-capacity energy storage devices, which are generally not available in traditional semiconductor processes. We achieve this with integration of thin-film magnetic materials into a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process for high-quality on-chip power inductors. This project includes a body of work conducted to develop integrated switch-mode voltage regulators with thin-film magnetic power inductors. Soft-magnetic materials and inductor topologies are selected and optimized, with intent to maximize efficiency and current density of the integrated regulators. A custom integrated circuit (IC) is designed and fabricated in 45-nm CMOS silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to provide the control system and power-train necessary to drive the power inductors, in addition to providing a digital load for the converter. A silicon interposer is designed and fabricated in collaboration with IBM Research to integrate custom power inductors by chip stacking with the 45-nm CMOS integrated circuit, enabling power conversion with current density greater than 10A/mm2. The concepts and designs developed from this work enable significant improvements in performance-per-watt of future microprocessors in servers, desktops, and mobile

  8. Energy efficient of ethanol recovery in pervaporation membrane bioreactor with mechanical vapor compression eliminating the cold traps.

    PubMed

    Fan, Senqing; Xiao, Zeyi; Li, Minghai

    2016-07-01

    An energy efficient pervaporation membrane bioreactor with mechanical vapor compression was developed for ethanol recovery during the process of fermentation coupled with pervaporation. Part of the permeate vapor at the membrane downstream under the vacuum condition was condensed by running water at the first condenser and the non-condensed vapor enriched with ethanol was compressed to the atmospheric pressure and pumped into the second condenser, where the vapor was easily condensed into a liquid by air. Three runs of fermentation-pervaporation experiment have been carried out lasting for 192h, 264h and 360h respectively. Complete vapor recovery validated the novel pervaporation membrane bioreactor. The total flux of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was in the range of 350gm(-2)h(-1) and 600gm(-2)h(-1). Compared with the traditional cold traps condensation, mechanical vapor compression behaved a dominant energy saving feature. PMID:26995618

  9. Copper chelator induced efficient episodic memory recovery in a non-transgenic Alzheimer's mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ceccom, Johnatan; Coslédan, Frédéric; Halley, Hélène; Francès, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean Michel; Meunier, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative syndrom involving many different biological parameters, including the accumulation of copper metal ions in Aβ amyloid peptides due to a perturbation of copper circulation and homeostasis within the brain. Copper-containing amyloids activated by endogenous reductants are able to generate an oxidative stress that is involved in the toxicity of abnormal amyloids and contribute to the progressive loss of neurons in AD. Since only few drugs are currently available for the treatment of AD, we decided to design small molecules able to interact with copper and we evaluated these drug-candidates with non-transgenic mice, since AD is mainly an aging disease, not related to genetic disorders. We created a memory deficit mouse model by a single icv injection of Aβ(1-42) peptide, in order to mimic the early stage of the disease and the key role of amyloid oligomers in AD. No memory deficit was observed in the control mice with the antisense Aβ(42-1) peptide. Here we report the capacity of a new copper-specific chelating agent, a bis-8-aminoquinoline PA1637, to fully reverse the deficit of episodic memory after three weeks of treatment by oral route on non-transgenic amyloid-impaired mice. Clioquinol and memantine have been used as comparators to validate this fast and efficient mouse model. PMID:22927947

  10. FILTUS: a desktop GUI for fast and efficient detection of disease-causing variants, including a novel autozygosity detector

    PubMed Central

    Vigeland, Magnus D.; Gjøtterud, Kristina S.; Selmer, Kaja K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: FILTUS is a stand-alone tool for working with annotated variant files, e.g. when searching for variants causing Mendelian disease. Very flexible in terms of input file formats, FILTUS offers efficient filtering and a range of downstream utilities, including statistical analysis of gene sharing patterns, detection of de novo mutations in trios, quality control plots and autozygosity mapping. The autozygosity mapping is based on a hidden Markov model and enables accurate detection of autozygous regions directly from exome-scale variant files. Availability and implementation: FILTUS is written in Python and runs on Windows, Mac and Linux. Binaries and source code are freely available at http://folk.uio.no/magnusv/filtus.html and on GitHub: https://github.com/magnusdv/filtus. Automatic installation is available via PyPI (e.g. pip install filtus). Contact: magnusdv@medisin.uio.no Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26819469

  11. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Energy Efficient Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Ethanol Recovery ad Dehydration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower f...

  13. Energy efficient recovery and dehydration of ethanol from fermentation broths by Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower ...

  14. Structure Segmentation and Transfer Faults in the Marcellus Shale, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania: Implications for Gas Recovery Efficiency and Risk Assessment Using 3D Seismic Attribute Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Emily D.

    The Marcellus Shale has become an important unconventional gas reservoir in the oil and gas industry. Fractures within this organic-rich black shale serve as an important component of porosity and permeability useful in enhancing production. Horizontal drilling is the primary approach for extracting hydrocarbons in the Marcellus Shale. Typically, wells are drilled perpendicular to natural fractures in an attempt to intersect fractures for effective hydraulic stimulation. If the fractures are contained within the shale, then hydraulic fracturing can enhance permeability by further breaking the already weakened rock. However, natural fractures can affect hydraulic stimulations by absorbing and/or redirecting the energy away from the wellbore, causing a decreased efficiency in gas recovery, as has been the case for the Clearfield County, Pennsylvania study area. Estimating appropriate distances away from faults and fractures, which may limit hydrocarbon recovery, is essential to reducing the risk of injection fluid migration along these faults. In an attempt to mitigate the negative influences of natural fractures on hydrocarbon extraction within the Marcellus Shale, fractures were analyzed through the aid of both traditional and advanced seismic attributes including variance, curvature, ant tracking, and waveform model regression. Through the integration of well log interpretations and seismic data, a detailed assessment of structural discontinuities that may decrease the recovery efficiency of hydrocarbons was conducted. High-quality 3D seismic data in Central Pennsylvania show regional folds and thrusts above the major detachment interval of the Salina Salt. In addition to the regional detachment folds and thrusts, cross-regional, northwest-trending lineaments were mapped. These lineaments may pose a threat to hydrocarbon productivity and recovery efficiency due to faults and fractures acting as paths of least resistance for induced hydraulic stimulation fluids

  15. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12

    using feasibly-implementable rate adaptivity. • A buffer-management algorithm that is designed to reduce the size of router buffers, and hence energy consumed. • A packet-scheduling algorithm designed to minimize packet-processing energy requirements. Additional research is recommended in at least two areas: further exploration of rate-adaptation in network switching equipment, including incorporation of rate-adaptation in actual hardware, allowing experimentation in operational networks; and development of control protocols that allow parts of networks to be shut down while minimizing disruption to traffic flow in the network. The research is an integral part of a large effort within Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent, aimed at dramatic improvements in the energy efficiency of telecommunication networks. This Study did not explicitly consider any commercialization opportunities.

  16. Including Thermal Fluctuations in Actomyosin Stable States Increases the Predicted Force per Motor and Macroscopic Efficiency in Muscle Modelling.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Lorenzo; Washio, Takumi; Yanagida, Toshio

    2016-09-01

    Muscle contractions are generated by cyclical interactions of myosin heads with actin filaments to form the actomyosin complex. To simulate actomyosin complex stable states, mathematical models usually define an energy landscape with a corresponding number of wells. The jumps between these wells are defined through rate constants. Almost all previous models assign these wells an infinite sharpness by imposing a relatively simple expression for the detailed balance, i.e., the ratio of the rate constants depends exponentially on the sole myosin elastic energy. Physically, this assumption corresponds to neglecting thermal fluctuations in the actomyosin complex stable states. By comparing three mathematical models, we examine the extent to which this hypothesis affects muscle model predictions at the single cross-bridge, single fiber, and organ levels in a ceteris paribus analysis. We show that including fluctuations in stable states allows the lever arm of the myosin to easily and dynamically explore all possible minima in the energy landscape, generating several backward and forward jumps between states during the lifetime of the actomyosin complex, whereas the infinitely sharp minima case is characterized by fewer jumps between states. Moreover, the analysis predicts that thermal fluctuations enable a more efficient contraction mechanism, in which a higher force is sustained by fewer attached cross-bridges. PMID:27626630

  17. The Long-Term Effectiveness of Reading Recovery and the Cost-Efficiency of Reading Recovery Relative to the Learning Disabled Classification Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a great deal of research supporting Reading Recovery as a successful reading intervention program that assists below level first graders readers in closing the gap in reading at the same level of their average peers. There is a lack of research that analyses the cost-effectiveness of the Reading Recovery program compared to the cost in…

  18. Enhanced xylose recovery from oil palm empty fruit bunch by efficient acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hooi Teng; Dykes, Gary A; Wu, Ta Yeong; Siow, Lee Fong

    2013-08-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is abundantly available in Malaysia and it is a potential source of xylose for the production of high-value added products. This study aimed to optimize the hydrolysis of EFB using dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) via response surface methodology for maximum xylose recovery. Hydrolysis was carried out in an autoclave. An optimum xylose yield of 91.2 % was obtained at 116 °C using 2.0 % (v/v) H2SO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. A lower optimum xylose yield of 24.0 % was observed for dilute H3PO4 hydrolysis at 116 °C using 2.4 % (v/v) H3PO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. The optimized hydrolysis conditions suggested that EFB hydrolysis by H2SO4 resulted in a higher xylose yield at a lower acid concentration as compared to H3PO4. PMID:23709290

  19. End-of-Life Vehicles management: Italian material and energy recovery efficiency.

    PubMed

    Santini, Alessandro; Morselli, Luciano; Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano; Di Carlo, Salvatore; Bonino, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Each European Member State must comply with Directive 2000/53/EC recycling and recovery targets by 2015, set to 85% and 95%, respectively. This paper reports a shredder campaign trial developed and performed in Italy at the beginning of 2008. It turns out to be the first assessment about the critical aspects belonging to the Italian End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) reverse supply chain involving 18 dismantling plants, a shredder plant and 630 ELV representatives of different categories of vehicles treated in Italy during 2006. This trial aims at improving the experimental knowledge related to ELVs added waste, pre-treatment, part reuse, recycling and final metal separation and car fluff disposal. Finally, the study also focuses on the calculation of the effective Italian ELV recycling rate, which results equal to 80.8%, and auto shredder residue (ASR) characterization. According to the results obtained in this work, ASR still contains up to 8% of metals and 40% of polymers that could be recovered. Moreover, physical-chemical analysis showed a Lower Heat Value of almost 20,000 kJ/kg and revealed the presence of pollutants such as heavy metals, mineral oils, PCBs and hydrocarbons. PMID:20943364

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED WETTABLILITY AT DIFFERENT SCALES AND ITS IMPACT ON OIL RECOVERY EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    Mukul M. Sharma; George J. Hirasaki

    2003-08-31

    The objectives of the this research project were to: (1) Quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir; (2) Study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states; (3) Clarify the effect of mixed-wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods; and (4) Develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturations and relative permeabilities.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED WETTABILITY AT DIFFERENT SCALES AND ITS IMPACT ON OIL RECOVERY EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    Mukul M. Sharma; George J. Hirasaki

    2003-09-01

    The objectives of the this research project were to: (1) Quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir; (2) Study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states; (3) Clarify the effect of mixed-wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods; and (4) Develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturations and relative permeabilities.

  2. Accurate and efficient modeling of global seismic wave propagation for an attenuative Earth model including the center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    We propose a method for modeling global seismic wave propagation through an attenuative Earth model including the center. This method enables accurate and efficient computations since it is based on the 2.5-D approach, which solves wave equations only on a 2-D cross section of the whole Earth and can correctly model 3-D geometrical spreading. We extend a numerical scheme for the elastic waves in spherical coordinates using the finite-difference method (FDM), to solve the viscoelastodynamic equation. For computation of realistic seismic wave propagation, incorporation of anelastic attenuation is crucial. Since the nature of Earth material is both elastic solid and viscous fluid, we should solve stress-strain relations of viscoelastic material, including attenuative structures. These relations represent the stress as a convolution integral in time, which has had difficulty treating viscoelasticity in time-domain computation such as the FDM. However, we now have a method using so-called memory variables, invented in the 1980s, followed by improvements in Cartesian coordinates. Arbitrary values of the quality factor (Q) can be incorporated into the wave equation via an array of Zener bodies. We also introduce the multi-domain, an FD grid of several layers with different grid spacings, into our FDM scheme. This allows wider lateral grid spacings with depth, so as not to perturb the FD stability criterion around the Earth center. In addition, we propose a technique to avoid the singularity problem of the wave equation in spherical coordinates at the Earth center. We develop a scheme to calculate wavefield variables on this point, based on linear interpolation for the velocity-stress, staggered-grid FDM. This scheme is validated through a comparison of synthetic seismograms with those obtained by the Direct Solution Method for a spherically symmetric Earth model, showing excellent accuracy for our FDM scheme. As a numerical example, we apply the method to simulate seismic

  3. Efficient regulation of elemental sulfur recovery through optimizing working height of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor during denitrifying sulfide removal process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cong; Li, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Fan; Liu, Qian; Zhao, You-Kang; Gao, Ling-Fang; Chen, Chuan; Zhou, Ji-Zhong; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two lab-scale UASB reactors were established to testify S(0) recovery efficiency, and one of which (M-UASB) was improved from the previous T-UASB by shortening reactor height once S(2-) over oxidation was observed. After the height was shortened from 60 to 30cm, S(0) recovery rate was improved from 7.4% to 78.8%, and while, complete removal of acetate, nitrate and S(2-) was simultaneously maintained. Meanwhile, bacterial community distribution was homogenous throughout the reactor, with denitrifying sulfide oxidization bacteria predominant, such as Thauera and Azoarcus spp., indicating the optimized condition for S(0) recovery. The effective control of working height/volume in reactors plays important roles for the efficient regulation of S(0) recovery during DSR process. PMID:26497112

  4. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  5. Double-quantum homonuclear rotary resonance: Efficient dipolar recovery in magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, N. C.; Bildsøe, H.; Jakobsen, H. J.; Levitt, M. H.

    1994-08-01

    We describe an efficient method for the recovery of homonuclear dipole-dipole interactions in magic-angle spinning NMR. Double-quantum homonuclear rotary resonance (2Q-HORROR) is established by fulfilling the condition ωr=2ω1, where ωr is the sample rotation frequency and ω1 is the nutation frequency around an applied resonant radio frequency (rf) field. This resonance can be used for double-quantum filtering and measurement of homonuclear dipolar interactions in the presence of magic-angle spinning. The spin dynamics depend only weakly on crystallite orientation allowing good performance for powder samples. Chemical shift effects are suppressed to zeroth order. The method is demonstrated for singly and doubly 13C labeled L-alanine.

  6. Optimization of cell disruption methods for efficient recovery of bioactive metabolites via NMR of three freshwater microalgae (chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Ma, Nyuk Ling; Teh, Kit Yinn; Lam, Su Shiung; Kaben, Anne Marie; Cha, Thye San

    2015-08-01

    This study demonstrates the use of NMR techniques coupled with chemometric analysis as a high throughput data mining method to identify and examine the efficiency of different disruption techniques tested on microalgae (Chlorella variabilis, Scenedesmus regularis and Ankistrodesmus gracilis). The yield and chemical diversity from the disruptions together with the effects of pre-oven and pre-freeze drying prior to disruption techniques were discussed. HCl extraction showed the highest recovery of oil compounds from the disrupted microalgae (up to 90%). In contrast, NMR analysis showed the highest intensity of bioactive metabolites obtained for homogenized extracts pre-treated with freeze-drying, indicating that homogenizing is a more favorable approach to recover bioactive substances from the disrupted microalgae. The results show the potential of NMR as a useful metabolic fingerprinting tool for assessing compound diversity in complex microalgae extracts. PMID:25812996

  7. Efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells by including inverse opals with controlled layer thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hanbin; Shah, Said Karim; Abbas, Mamatimin; Ly, Isabelle; Rivera, Thomas; Almeida, Rui M.; Hirsch, Lionel; Toupance, Thierry; Ravaine, Serge

    2016-09-01

    The photoconversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells can be enhanced by the incorporation of light management nanostructures such as photonic crystals. Here, we present a facile route to incorporate titania inverse opals into solid state dye sensitized solar cells and report photoconversion efficiency enhancements of up to 56% compared with a model system without the inverse opal. Our approach is based on the precise design of titania inverse opals with a predetermined thickness that can be controlled at the individual layer level. By choosing an inverse opal exhibiting a photonic bandgap which overlaps the absorption bands of the dye, our results show that there is an optimal thickness of the inverse opal structure for maximum efficiency enhancement of the cell. This is the first experimental proof that the thickness of a titania inverse opal plays a pivotal role in cell efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells.

  8. Characterization of Mixed Wettability at Different Scales and its Impact on Oil Recovery Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Mukul M.; Hirasaki, George J.

    2002-01-28

    The objectives of this project was to: (1) quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir, (2) study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states, (3) clarify the effect of mixed - wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods, (4) develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturation's and relative permeabilities, and (5) develop methods for properly incorporating wettability in up-scaling from pore to core to reservoir scales.

  9. Efficient Sparse Coding in Early Sensory Processing: Lessons from Signal Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Lörincz, András; Palotai, Zsolt; Szirtes, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Sensory representations are not only sparse, but often overcomplete: coding units significantly outnumber the input units. For models of neural coding this overcompleteness poses a computational challenge for shaping the signal processing channels as well as for using the large and sparse representations in an efficient way. We argue that higher level overcompleteness becomes computationally tractable by imposing sparsity on synaptic activity and we also show that such structural sparsity can be facilitated by statistics based decomposition of the stimuli into typical and atypical parts prior to sparse coding. Typical parts represent large-scale correlations, thus they can be significantly compressed. Atypical parts, on the other hand, represent local features and are the subjects of actual sparse coding. When applied on natural images, our decomposition based sparse coding model can efficiently form overcomplete codes and both center-surround and oriented filters are obtained similar to those observed in the retina and the primary visual cortex, respectively. Therefore we hypothesize that the proposed computational architecture can be seen as a coherent functional model of the first stages of sensory coding in early vision. PMID:22396629

  10. Recovery Act: Low-Cost, Highly Lambertian Reflector Composite For Improved LED Fixture Efficiency and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Teather, Eric

    2013-02-15

    The overall objective of the program was to demonstrate a 98% or greater reflective, highly diffuse, low-cost composite material that significantly improves luminaire efficiency, is able to withstand 50,000 hours or greater luminaire operation under expected LED system thermal and environmental operating extremes and meets the cost targets required to be an effective commercial solution for the Solid State Lighting industry. This project met most of the goals defined and contributed to the understanding of high reflectance, white coatings. Research under this program increased the understanding of coatings development using particle size reduction techniques and preparation of coating solutions with a broad range of particle types. The research explored scale-up of coating systems and generated understanding of processing required for high volume manufacturing applications. The work demonstrated how coating formulation and application technique can translate to material durability and LED system lifetime. The research also demonstrated improvements in lighting efficiency to be gained using high reflectance white coatings.

  11. Rapid and efficient removal/recovery of molybdenum onto ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yao-Jen; Chan, Ting-Shan; Tu, Hao-Wei; Wang, Shan-Li; You, Chen-Feng; Chang, Chien-Kuei

    2016-04-01

    An efficient method for removing and recovering molybdenum (Mo) from water was developed by using ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles. The Mo adsorption displayed a nonlinear isotherm that fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm, showing limited adsorption sites on the surface of ZnFe2O4. The adsorption of Mo(VI) was dependent on solution pH. With increasing pH, the build-up of negative charges of both adsorbent and adsorbate led to enhanced electric repulsion between them. The K-edge XANES spectra for the adsorbents collected after Mo adsorption revealed that Mo(VI) was the predominant oxidation state sorbed on ZnFe2O4, indicating that the reduction of Mo(VI) did not occur on ZnFe2O4. The different peak positions of k-space and R-space shown in K-edge EXAFS spectra demonstrated that the adsorbed Mo could be bound on the surface or be slipped in the vacancy position of the ZnFe2O4 crystal. Importantly, Mo could be efficiently adsorbed from photoelectric industrial wastewater and these adsorbed Mo anions were rapidly replaced by OH(-) ions, implying the potential for Mo removing and recovering in industrial wastewater. PMID:26835649

  12. FOR STIMULI-RESPONSIVE POLYMERS WITH ENHANCED EFFICIENCY IN RESERVOIR RECOVERY PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2002-04-29

    To date, our synthetic research efforts have been focused on the development of stimuli-responsive water-soluble polymers designed for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications. These model systems are structurally tailored for potential application as viscosifiers and/or mobility control agents for secondary and tertiary EOR methods. The following report discloses the progress of our ongoing research of polyzwitterions, polymers derived from monomers bearing both positive and negative charges, that show the ability to sustain or increase their hydrodynamic volume (and thus, solution viscosity) in the presence of electrolytes. Such polymers appear to be well-suited for use under conditions similar to those encountered in EOR operations. Additionally, we disclose the synthesis and characterization of a well-defined set of polyacrylamide (PAM) homopolymers that vary by MW. The MW of the PAM samples is controlled by addition of sodium formate to the polymerization medium as a conventional chain transfer agent. Data derived from polymer characterization is used to determine the kinetic parameter C{sub CT}, the chain transfer constant to sodium formate under the given polymerization conditions. The PAM homopolymer series will be employed in future set of experiments designed to test a simplified intrinsic viscosity equation. The flow resistance of a polymer solution through a porous medium is controlled by the polymer's hydrodynamic volume, which is strongly related to it's intrinsic viscosity. However, the hydrodynamic volume of a polymer molecule in an aqueous solution varies with fluid temperature, solvent composition, and polymer structure. This report on the theory of polymer solubility accentuates the importance of developing polymer solutions that increase in intrinsic viscosity when fluid temperatures are elevated above room conditions. The intrinsic viscosity response to temperature and molecular weight variations of three polymer solutions verified the

  13. Energy Efficient Building Ventilation Systems: Innovative Building-Integrated Enthalpy Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-15

    BEETIT Project: A2 is developing a building moisture and heat exchange technology that leverages a new material and design to create healthy buildings with lower energy use. Commercial building owners/operators are demanding buildings with greater energy efficiency and healthier indoor environments. A2 is developing a membrane-based heat and moisture exchanger that controls humidity by transferring the water vapor in the incoming fresh air to the drier air leaving the building. Unlike conventional systems, A2 locates the heat and moisture exchanger within the depths of the building’s wall to slow down the air flow and increase the surface area that captures humidity, but with less fan power. The system’s integration into the wall reduces the size and demand on the air conditioning equipment and increases liable floor area flexibility.

  14. Modelling the effect of exposing algae to pulses of S-metolachlor: How to include a delay to the onset of the effect and in the recovery.

    PubMed

    Copin, Pierre-Jean; Perronet, Léa; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2016-01-15

    In agriculture, herbicides are applied to improve crop productivity. During and after rain event, herbicides can be transported by surface runoff in streams and rivers. As a result, the exposure pattern in creeks is time-varying, i.e., a repeated pollution of aquatic system. In previous studies, we developed a model to assess the effects of pulse exposure patterns on algae. This model was validated for triazines and phenylureas, which are substances that induce effects directly after exposure with no delay in recovery. However, other herbicides display a mode of action characterized by a time-dependency effect and a delay in recovery. In this study, we therefore investigate whether this previous model could be used to assess the effects of pulse exposure by herbicides with time delay in effect and recovery. The current study focuses on the herbicide S-metolachlor. We showed that the effect of the herbicide begins only after 20 h of exposure for the alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus based on both the optical density and algal cells size measurements. Furthermore, the duration of delay of the recovery for algae previously exposed to S-metolachlor was 20 h and did not depend on the pulse exposure duration or the height of the peak concentration. By accounting for these specific effects, the measured and predicted effects were similar when pulse exposure of S-metolachlor is tested on the alga S. vacuolatus. However, the sensitivity of the alga is greatly modified after being previously exposed to a pulse of S-metolachlor. In the case of scenarios composed of several pulses, this sensitivity should be considered in the modelling. Therefore, modelling the effects of any pulse scenario of S-metolachlor on an alga is feasible but requires the determination of the effect trigger, the delay in recovery and the possible change in the sensitivity of the alga to the substance. PMID:26410701

  15. A Robust and Cost-Effective Superhydrophobic Graphene Foam for Efficient Oil and Organic Solvent Recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiguang; Chen, Dongyun; An, Wei; Li, Najun; Xu, Qingfeng; Li, Hua; He, Jinghui; Lu, Jianmei

    2015-10-21

    Water pollution caused by chemical reagent leaking, industrial wastewater discharging, and crude oil spills has raised global concerns on environmental sustainability, calling for high-performance absorbent materials for effective treatments. However, low-cost materials capable of effectively separating oils and organic solvents from water with a high adsorption capacity and good recyclability are rare on the market. Here, a cost-effective method is reported to fabricate high-performance graphene modified absorbents through the facile thermal reduction of graphene oxide on the skeletons of melamine foam. By integrating the high porosity, superior elasticity, and mechanical stability of raw sponge with the chemical stability and hydrophobicity of graphene sheets, the as-fabricated graphene foam not only possesses a rough and superhydrophobic surface, but also exhibits an excellent adsorption performance and extraordinary recyclability for various oils and organic solvents. It is worth mentioning that the superhydrophobic surface also endows the graphene foam with an excellent efficiency for oil/water separation. More importantly, the cost-effective fabrication method without involving expensive raw materials and sophisticated equipment permits a scale-up of the graphene foam for pollution disposal. All these features make the graphene foam an ideal candidate for removal and collection of oils and organic solvents from water. PMID:26265103

  16. Efficient Recovery of Enu-Induced Mutations from the Zebrafish Germline

    PubMed Central

    Solnica-Krezel, L.; Schier, A. F.; Driever, W.

    1994-01-01

    We studied the efficiency with which two chemical mutagens, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) can induce mutations at different stages of spermatogenesis in zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio). Both EMS and ENU induced mutations at high rates in post-meiotic germ cells, as indicated by the incidence of F(1) progeny mosaic for the albino mutation. For pre-meiotic germ cells, however, only ENU was found to be an effective mutagen, as indicated by the frequencies of non-mosaic mutant progeny at four different pigmentation loci. Several mutagenic regimens that varied in either the number of treatments or the concentration of ENU were studied to achieve an optimal ratio between the mutagenicity and toxicity. For the two most mutagenic regimens: 4 X 1 hr in 3 mM ENU and 6 X 1 hr in 3 mM ENU, the minimum estimate of frequencies of independent mutations per locus per gamete was 0.9-1.3 X 10(-3). We demonstrate that embryonic lethal mutations induced with ENU were transmitted to offspring and that they could be recovered in an F(2) screen. An average frequency of specific-locus mutations of 1.1 X 10(-3) corresponded to approximately 1.7 embryonic lethal mutations per single mutagenized genome. The high rates of mutations achievable with ENU allow for rapid identification of large numbers of genes involved in a variety of aspects of zebrafish development. PMID:8013916

  17. Efficient process for previous metal recovery from cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail; Heinz, Robert

    2010-05-04

    A method is provided for recovering a catalytic element from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly. The method includes grinding the membrane electrode assembly into a powder, extracting the catalytic element by forming a slurry comprising the powder and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve the catalytic element into a soluble salt, and separating the slurry into a depleted powder and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt. The depleted powder is washed to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted powder and the catalytic element is purified from the salt.

  18. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  19. An Improved DNA Extraction Method for Efficient and Quantitative Recovery of Phytoplankton Diversity in Natural Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian; Li, Meizhen; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are highly diverse with different species possessing different cell coverings, posing challenges for thoroughly breaking the cells in DNA extraction yet preserving DNA integrity. While quantitative molecular techniques have been increasingly used in phytoplankton research, an effective and simple method broadly applicable to different lineages and natural assemblages is still lacking. In this study, we developed a bead-beating protocol based on our previous experience and tested it against 9 species of phytoplankton representing different lineages and different cell covering rigidities. We found the bead-beating method enhanced the final yield of DNA (highest as 2 folds) in comparison with the non-bead-beating method, while also preserving the DNA integrity. When our method was applied to a field sample collected at a subtropical bay located in Xiamen, China, the resultant ITS clone library revealed a highly diverse assemblage of phytoplankton and other micro-eukaryotes, including Archaea, Amoebozoa, Chlorophyta, Ciliphora, Bacillariophyta, Dinophyta, Fungi, Metazoa, etc. The appearance of thecate dinoflagellates, thin-walled phytoplankton and “naked” unicellular organisms indicates that our method could obtain the intact DNA of organisms with different cell coverings. All the results demonstrate that our method is useful for DNA extraction of phytoplankton and environmental surveys of their diversity and abundance. PMID:26218575

  20. For Stimul-Responsive Polymers with Enhanced Efficiency in Reservoir Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2003-02-28

    Acrylamide-based hydrophobically modified (HM) polybetaines containing N-butylphenylacrylamide (BPAM) and varying amounts of either sulfobetaine (3-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanedimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate, AMPDAPS) or carboxybetaine (4-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropyldimethylammonio) butanoate, AMPDAB) comonomers were synthesized via micellar copolymerization. The terpolymers were characterized via {sup 13}C NMR and UV spectroscopies, classical and dynamic light scattering, and potentiometric titration. The response of aqueous polymer solutions to various external stimuli, including changes in solution pH, electrolyte concentration, and the addition of small molecule surfactants, was investigated using surface tension and rheological measurements. Low charge density terpolymers were found to show greater viscosity enhancement upon the addition of surfactant compared to the high charge density terpolymers. The addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) produced the largest maximum in solution viscosity, while N-dodecyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SB3-12), and Triton X-100 tended to show reduced viscosity enhancement. In most cases, the high charge density carboxybetaine terpolymer exhibited diminished solution viscosities upon surfactant addition. In our last report, we discussed solution thermodynamic theory that described changes in polymer coil conformation as a function of solution temperature and polymer molecular weight. These polymers contained no ionic charges. In this report, we expand polymer solution theory to account for the electrostatic interactions present in solutions of charged polymers. Polymers with ionic charges are referred to as polyions or polyelectrolytes.

  1. Highly enantioselective and efficient synthesis of flavanones including pinostrobin through the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric 1,4-addition.

    PubMed

    Korenaga, Toshinobu; Hayashi, Keigo; Akaki, Yusuke; Maenishi, Ryota; Sakai, Takashi

    2011-04-15

    An efficient synthesis of bioactive chiral flavanones (1) was achieved through the Rh-catalyzed asymmetric 1,4-addition of arylboronic acid to chromone. The reaction in toluene proceeded smoothly at room temperature in the presence of 0.5% Rh catalyst with electron-poor chiral diphosphine MeO-F(12)-BIPHEP. In this reaction, the 1,2-addition to (S)-1 frequently occurred to yield (2S,4R)-2,4-diaryl-4-chromanol as a byproduct, which could be reduced by changing the reaction solvent to CH(2)Cl(2) to deactivate the Rh catalyst (3% required). PMID:21413690

  2. The use of salinity contrast for density difference compensation to improve the thermal recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lopik, Jan H.; Hartog, Niels; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan

    2016-02-01

    The efficiency of heat recovery in high-temperature (>60 °C) aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) systems is limited due to the buoyancy of the injected hot water. This study investigates the potential to improve the efficiency through compensation of the density difference by increased salinity of the injected hot water for a single injection-recovery well scheme. The proposed method was tested through numerical modeling with SEAWATv4, considering seasonal HT-ATES with four consecutive injection-storage-recovery cycles. Recovery efficiencies for the consecutive cycles were investigated for six cases with three simulated scenarios: (a) regular HT-ATES, (b) HT-ATES with density difference compensation using saline water, and (c) theoretical regular HT-ATES without free thermal convection. For the reference case, in which 80 °C water was injected into a high-permeability aquifer, regular HT-ATES had an efficiency of 0.40 after four consecutive recovery cycles. The density difference compensation method resulted in an efficiency of 0.69, approximating the theoretical case (0.76). Sensitivity analysis showed that the net efficiency increase by using the density difference compensation method instead of regular HT-ATES is greater for higher aquifer hydraulic conductivity, larger temperature difference between injection water and ambient groundwater, smaller injection volume, and larger aquifer thickness. This means that density difference compensation allows the application of HT-ATES in thicker, more permeable aquifers and with larger temperatures than would be considered for regular HT-ATES systems.

  3. The use of salinity contrast for density difference compensation to improve the thermal recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lopik, Jan H.; Hartog, Niels; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of heat recovery in high-temperature (>60 °C) aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) systems is limited due to the buoyancy of the injected hot water. This study investigates the potential to improve the efficiency through compensation of the density difference by increased salinity of the injected hot water for a single injection-recovery well scheme. The proposed method was tested through numerical modeling with SEAWATv4, considering seasonal HT-ATES with four consecutive injection-storage-recovery cycles. Recovery efficiencies for the consecutive cycles were investigated for six cases with three simulated scenarios: (a) regular HT-ATES, (b) HT-ATES with density difference compensation using saline water, and (c) theoretical regular HT-ATES without free thermal convection. For the reference case, in which 80 °C water was injected into a high-permeability aquifer, regular HT-ATES had an efficiency of 0.40 after four consecutive recovery cycles. The density difference compensation method resulted in an efficiency of 0.69, approximating the theoretical case (0.76). Sensitivity analysis showed that the net efficiency increase by using the density difference compensation method instead of regular HT-ATES is greater for higher aquifer hydraulic conductivity, larger temperature difference between injection water and ambient groundwater, smaller injection volume, and larger aquifer thickness. This means that density difference compensation allows the application of HT-ATES in thicker, more permeable aquifers and with larger temperatures than would be considered for regular HT-ATES systems.

  4. Mixed-scale channel networks including Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnels for efficient single particle entrapment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunjeong; Lim, Yeongjin; Shin, Heungjoo

    2016-06-01

    Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic carbon mold is fabricated by pyrolyzing a polymer mold patterned by photolithography. During pyrolysis, the polymer mold shrinks by ∼90%, which enables nanosized carbon molds to be produced without a complex nanofabrication process. Because of the good adhesion between the polymer mold and the Si substrate, non-uniform volume reduction occurs during pyrolysis resulting in the formation of curved carbon mold side walls. These curved side walls and the relatively low surface energy of the mold provide efficient demolding of the PDMS channel networks. In addition, the trigonal prismatic shape of the polymer is converted into to a Kingfisher-beak-shaped carbon structure due to the non-uniform volume reduction. The transformation of this mold architecture produces a PDMS Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnel that connects the microchannel and the nanochannel smoothly. The smooth reduction in the cross-sectional area of the 3D microfunnels enables efficient single microparticle trapping at the nanochannel entrance; this is beneficial for studies of cell transfection. PMID:27279423

  5. FOR STIMUL-RESPONSIVE POLYMERS WITH ENHANCED EFFICIENCY IN RESERVOIR RECOVERY PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2004-03-26

    This report contains a series of terpolymers containing acrylic acid, methacrylamide and a twin-tailed hydrophobic monomer that were synthesized using micellar polymerization methods. These polymer systems were characterized using light scattering, viscometry, and fluorescence methods. Viscosity studies indicate that increasing the nonpolar character of the hydrophobic monomer (longer chain length or twin tailed vs. single tailed) results in enhanced viscosity in aqueous solutions. The interactions of these polymers with surfactants were investigated. These surfactants include sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), Triton X-100. Viscosity measurements of DiC{sub 6}AM and DiC{sub 8}AM mixtures indicate little interaction with SDS, gelation with CTAB, and hemimicelle formation followed by polymer hydrophobe solubilization with Triton X-100. The DiC{sub 10}Am terpolymer shows similar interaction behavior with CTAB and Triton X-100. However, the enhanced hydrophobic nature of the DiC{sub 10} polymer allows complex formation with SDS as confirmed by surface tensiometry. Fluorescence measurements performed on a dansyl labeled DiC{sub 10}Am terpolymer in the presence of increasing amounts of each of the surfactant indicate relative interaction strengths to be CTAB>Triton X-100>SDS. A modified model based on Yamakawa-Fujii and Odjik-Skolnick-Fixman theories was found to describe the contribution of electrostatic forces to the excluded volume of a polyelectrolyte in solution. The model was found to be valid for flexible polymer coils in aqueous salt solutions where intermolecular interactions are minimal. The model suggested that a dimensionless group of parameters termed the dimensionless viscosity should be proportional to the dimensionless ratio of solution screening length to polyion charge spacing. Several sets of experimental data from the literature and from our laboratory have been analyzed according to the model and the results

  6. Use of 222Rn as natural tracer for LNAPL quantification and recovery efficiency in a crude-oil contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsin, Violaine; Chablais, Amélie; Dumont, Julien; Cardetti, Marc; Radakovitch, Olivier; Höhener, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    the mean activities were generally significantly lower than upgradient. This is due to partitioning into the oil phase. Decreases were correlated with NAPL recovery efficiency. The laboratory-determined crude oil-water partitioning coefficient of 38,5 ± 2,9 was used for estimating LNAPL saturation in each recovery well. However, extrapolations of LNAPL saturations to whole-site oil volume estimations are difficult since at low water tables, the volume in the capillary fringe is not assessed. Nevertheless, we find that 222Rn is a useful and cheap groundwater tracer for finding zones of good LNAPL recovery in a heavily pumped aquifer. Hunkeler, D., E. Hoehn, P. Höhener and J. Zeyer, 1997. 222Rn as a partitioning tracer to detect mineral oil contaminations: laboratory experiments and field study. Environmental Science and Technology 31, 3180-3187. Semprini, L., O.S. Hopkins and B.R. Tasker, 2000. Laboratory, field and modeling studies of radon-222 as a natural tracer for monitoring NAPL contamination. Transport in Porous Media 38, 223-240. Schubert, M., A. Paschke, S. Lau, W. Geyer and K. Knöller, 2007. Radon as a naturally occurring tracer for the assessment of residual NAPL contamination of aquifers. Environmental Pollution 145, 920-927.

  7. Mixed-scale channel networks including Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnels for efficient single particle entrapment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yunjeong; Lim, Yeongjin; Shin, Heungjoo

    2016-06-01

    Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic carbon mold is fabricated by pyrolyzing a polymer mold patterned by photolithography. During pyrolysis, the polymer mold shrinks by ~90%, which enables nanosized carbon molds to be produced without a complex nanofabrication process. Because of the good adhesion between the polymer mold and the Si substrate, non-uniform volume reduction occurs during pyrolysis resulting in the formation of curved carbon mold side walls. These curved side walls and the relatively low surface energy of the mold provide efficient demolding of the PDMS channel networks. In addition, the trigonal prismatic shape of the polymer is converted into to a Kingfisher-beak-shaped carbon structure due to the non-uniform volume reduction. The transformation of this mold architecture produces a PDMS Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnel that connects the microchannel and the nanochannel smoothly. The smooth reduction in the cross-sectional area of the 3D microfunnels enables efficient single microparticle trapping at the nanochannel entrance; this is beneficial for studies of cell transfection.Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic

  8. A Highly Efficient Six-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine Cycle with Water Injection for In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, Jim; Szybist, James P

    2010-01-01

    A concept is presented here that adds two additional strokes to the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle that has the potential to increase fuel efficiency of the basic cycle. The engine cycle can be thought of as a 4 stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a 2-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. Early exhaust valve closing during the exhaust stroke coupled with water injection are employed to add an additional power stroke at the end of the conventional four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection at top center, and expansion was used to investigate this modification that effectively recovers waste heat from both the engine coolant and combustion exhaust gas. Thus, this concept recovers energy from two waste heat sources of current engine designs and converts heat normally discarded to useable power and work. This concept has the potential of a substantial increase in fuel efficiency over existing conventional internal combustion engines, and under appropriate injected water conditions, increase the fuel efficiency without incurring a decrease in power density. By changing the exhaust valve closing angle during the exhaust stroke, the ideal amount of exhaust can be recompressed for the amount of water injected, thereby minimizing the work input and maximizing the mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). The value of this exhaust valve closing for maximum MEPsteam depends on the limiting conditions of either one bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens to discard the spent gas mixture in the sixth stroke. The range of MEPsteam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline spark-ignited internal combustion engine and for plausible water injection parameters is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEPcombustion) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this

  9. A Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Energy Efficient EEG Acquisition for a Wireless Body Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. PMID:25157551

  10. Membrane-Based Energy Efficient Dewatering of Microalgae in Biofuels Production and Recovery of Value Added Co-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Ramesh R; Kuritz, Tanya; Powell, Lawrence E; Adcock, Kenneth Dale

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. We have evaluated the dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ~99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, it can be shown that an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes.

  11. Efficient Recovery of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes of Spent Mushroom Compost from Oyster Mushrooms, Pleurotus spp., and Potential Use in Dye Decolorization.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yun-Hae; Kang, Hee-Wan

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted in order to perform efficient extraction of lignocellulolytic enzymes amylase (EC 3.2.1.1), cellulase (EC 3.2.1.4), laccase (EC 1.10.3.2), and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and P. cornucopiae. Optimal enzyme recovery was achieved when SMCs were extracted with 50 mM sodium citrate (pH 4.5) buffer at 4℃ for 2 hr. Amylase, cellulase, and xylanase activities showed high values in extracts from P. ostreatus SMC, with 2.97 U/g, 1.67 U/g, and 91.56 U/g, respectively, whereas laccase activity and filter paper degradation ability were highest in extracts from P. eryngii SMC, with values of 9.01 U/g and 0.21 U/g, respectively. Enzymatic activities varied according to the SMCs released from different mushroom farms. The synthetic dyes remazol brilliant blue R and Congo red were decolorized completely by the SMC extract of P. eryngii within 120 min, and the decolorization ability of the extract was comparable to that of 0.3 U of commercial laccase. In addition, laccase activity of the SMC extract from P. eryngii was compared to that of commercial enzymes or its industrial application in decolorization. PMID:24493942

  12. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Fatih Kilicaslan, M.; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hong, Hyun-Seon; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► In this study, we recovered indium from a waste LCD panel. ► The ITO glass was milled to obtain micron size particles in a HEBM machine. ► Effect of particle size of ITO glass on the amount of dissolved In was investigated. ► In a very short time, a considerable amount of In was recovered. ► Amount of HCl in acid solution was decreased to 40 vol.%. - Abstract: In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.

  13. A low-rank matrix recovery approach for energy efficient EEG acquisition for a wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. PMID:25157551

  14. Membrane-based energy efficient dewatering of microalgae in biofuels production and recovery of value added co-products.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Ramesh; Kuritz, Tanya; Powell, Lawrence; Adcock, Dale

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. The dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. was evaluated with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ∼99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes. PMID:22510094

  15. Efficient Recovery of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes of Spent Mushroom Compost from Oyster Mushrooms, Pleurotus spp., and Potential Use in Dye Decolorization

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yun-Hae

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to perform efficient extraction of lignocellulolytic enzymes amylase (EC 3.2.1.1), cellulase (EC 3.2.1.4), laccase (EC 1.10.3.2), and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and P. cornucopiae. Optimal enzyme recovery was achieved when SMCs were extracted with 50 mM sodium citrate (pH 4.5) buffer at 4℃ for 2 hr. Amylase, cellulase, and xylanase activities showed high values in extracts from P. ostreatus SMC, with 2.97 U/g, 1.67 U/g, and 91.56 U/g, respectively, whereas laccase activity and filter paper degradation ability were highest in extracts from P. eryngii SMC, with values of 9.01 U/g and 0.21 U/g, respectively. Enzymatic activities varied according to the SMCs released from different mushroom farms. The synthetic dyes remazol brilliant blue R and Congo red were decolorized completely by the SMC extract of P. eryngii within 120 min, and the decolorization ability of the extract was comparable to that of 0.3 U of commercial laccase. In addition, laccase activity of the SMC extract from P. eryngii was compared to that of commercial enzymes or its industrial application in decolorization. PMID:24493942

  16. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14

    The problem in CO{sub 2} flooding lies with its higher mobility causing low conformance or sweep efficiency. This is an issue in oilfield applications where an injected fluid or gas used to mobilize and produce the oil in a marginal field has substantially higher mobility (function of viscosity and density and relative permeability) relative to the crude oil promoting fingering and early breakthrough. Conformance is particularly critical in CO{sub 2} oilfield floods where the end result is less oil recovered and substantially higher costs related to the CO{sub 2}. The SPI-CO{sub 2} (here after called “SPI”) gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a technically effective solution to the conformance problem with CO{sub 2} floods. This SPI gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an external initiator (CO{sub 2}) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current technologies where the gels set up as a function of time, regardless of where it is placed in the reservoir. In those current systems, the internal initiator is included in the injected fluid for water shut off applications. In this new research effort, the CO{sub 2} is an external initiator contacted after SPI gel solution placement. This concept ensures in the proper water wet reservoir environment that the SPI gel sets up in the precise high permeability path followed by the CO{sub 2}, therefore improving sweep efficiency to a greater degree than conventional systems. In addition, the final SPI product in commercial quantities is expected to be low cost over the competing systems. This Phase I research effort provided “proof of concept” that SPI gels possess strength and may be formed in a sand pack reducing the permeability to brine and CO{sub 2} flow. This SPI technology is a natural extension of prior R & D and the Phase I effort that together show a high potential for success in a Phase II follow-on project. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a major by-product of

  17. Three-dimensional simulations of the non-thermal broadband emission from young supernova remnants including efficient particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrand, Gilles; Safi-Harb, Samar; Decourchelle, Anne E-mail: samar@physics.umanitoba.ca

    2014-07-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be major contributors to Galactic cosmic rays. In this paper, we explore how the non-thermal emission from young remnants can be used to probe the production of energetic particles at the shock (both protons and electrons). Our model couples hydrodynamic simulations of a supernova remnant with a kinetic treatment of particle acceleration. We include two important back-reaction loops upstream of the shock: energetic particles can (1) modify the flow structure and (2) amplify the magnetic field. As the latter process is not fully understood, we use different limit cases that encompass a wide range of possibilities. We follow the history of the shock dynamics and of the particle transport downstream of the shock, which allows us to compute the non-thermal emission from the remnant at any given age. We do this in three dimensions, in order to generate projected maps that can be compared with observations. We observe that completely different recipes for the magnetic field can lead to similar modifications of the shock structure, although to very different configurations of the field and particles. We show how this affects the emission patterns in different energy bands, from radio to X-rays and γ-rays. High magnetic fields (>100 μG) directly impact the synchrotron emission from electrons, by restricting their emission to thin rims, and indirectly impact the inverse Compton emission from electrons and also the pion decay emission from protons, mostly by shifting their cut-off energies to respectively lower and higher energies.

  18. RAPP, a systematic e-assessment of postoperative recovery in patients undergoing day surgery: study protocol for a mixed-methods study design including a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, K; Odencrants, S; Hagberg, L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Day surgery is a well-established practice in many European countries, but only limited information is available regarding postoperative recovery at home though there is a current lack of a standard procedure regarding postoperative follow-up. Furthermore, there is also a need for improvement of modern technology in assessing patient-related outcomes such as mobile applications. This article describes the Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) study protocol, a mixed-methods study to evaluate if a systematic e-assessment follow-up in patients undergoing day surgery is cost-effective and improves postoperative recovery, health and quality of life. Methods and analysis This study has a mixed-methods study design that includes a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies. 1000 patients >17 years of age who are undergoing day surgery will be randomly assigned to either e-assessed postoperative recovery follow-up daily in 14 days measured via smartphone app including the Swedish web-version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) or to standard care (ie, no follow-up). The primary aim is cost-effectiveness. Secondary aims are (A) to explore whether a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery has a positive effect on postoperative recovery, health-related quality of life (QoL) and overall health; (B) to determine whether differences in postoperative recovery have an association with patient characteristic, type of surgery and anaesthesia; (C) to determine whether differences in health literacy have a substantial and distinct effect on postoperative recovery, health and QoL; and (D) to describe day surgery patient and staff experiences with a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery. The primary aim will be measured at 2 weeks postoperatively and secondary outcomes (A–C) at 1 and 2 weeks and (D) at 1 and 4 months. Trial registration number NCT02492191; Pre

  19. Investigating potential efficiency improvement for light-duty transportation applications through simulation of an organic Rankine cycle for waste-heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to heat loss and combustion irreversibility. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment. While there are significant opportunities for recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler for heavy-duty applications, the potential benefits of such a strategy for light-duty applications are unknown due to transient operation, low-load operation at typical driving conditions, and the added mass of the system. We have developed an organic Rankine cycle model using GT-Suite to investigate the potential for efficiency improvement through waste-heat recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler of a light-duty diesel engine. Results from steady-state and drive-cycle simulations are presented, and we discuss strategies to address operational difficulties associated with transient drive cycles and competition between waste-heat recovery systems, turbochargers, aftertreatment devices, and other systems for the limited thermal resources.

  20. Integrated Framework for Assessing Impacts of CO₂ Leakage on Groundwater Quality and Monitoring-Network Efficiency: Case Study at a CO₂ Enhanced Oil Recovery Site.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changbing; Hovorka, Susan D; Treviño, Ramón H; Delgado-Alonso, Jesus

    2015-07-21

    This study presents a combined use of site characterization, laboratory experiments, single-well push-pull tests (PPTs), and reactive transport modeling to assess potential impacts of CO2 leakage on groundwater quality and leakage-detection ability of a groundwater monitoring network (GMN) in a potable aquifer at a CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) site. Site characterization indicates that failures of plugged and abandoned wells are possible CO2 leakage pathways. Groundwater chemistry in the shallow aquifer is dominated mainly by silicate mineral weathering, and no CO2 leakage signals have been detected in the shallow aquifer. Results of the laboratory experiments and the field test show no obvious damage to groundwater chemistry should CO2 leakage occur and further were confirmed with a regional-scale reactive transport model (RSRTM) that was built upon the batch experiments and validated with the single-well PPT. Results of the RSRTM indicate that dissolved CO2 as an indicator for CO2 leakage detection works better than dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, and alkalinity at the CO2 EOR site. The detection ability of a GMN was assessed with monitoring efficiency, depending on various factors, including the natural hydraulic gradient, the leakage rate, the number of monitoring wells, the aquifer heterogeneity, and the time for a CO2 plume traveling to the monitoring well. PMID:26052928

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Efficient Ethanol Recovery from Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions [1]. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation ...

  2. High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Model of the Lockheed YP-80A Airplane Including Correlation with Flight Tests and Tests of Dive-Recovery Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.; Gray, Lyle J.

    1947-01-01

    This report contains the results of tests of a 1/3-scale model of the Lockheed YP-90A "Shooting Star" airplane and a comparison of drag, maximum lift coefficient, and elevator angle required for level flight as measured in the wind tunnel and in flight. Included in the report are the general aerodynamic characteristics of the model and of two types of dive-recovery flaps, one at several positions along the chord on the lower surface of the wing and the other on the lower surface of the fuselage. The results show good agreement between the flight and wind-tunnel measurements at all Mach numbers. The results indicate that the YP-80A is controllable in pitch by the elevators to a Mach number of at least 0.85. The fuselage dive-recovery flaps are effective for producing a climbing moment and increasing the drag at Mach numbers up to at least 0.8. The wing dive-recovery flaps are most effective for producing a climbing moment at 0.75 Mach number. At 0.85 Mach number, their effectiveness is approximately 50 percent of the maximum. The optimum position for the wing dive-recovery flaps to produce a climbing moment is at approximately 35 percent of the chord.

  3. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 2, Well testing and analysis data evaluation and report preparation site reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Wilkins, D.W.; Keltch, B.; Saradji, B.; Salamy, S.P.

    1988-04-01

    This report is the second volume of the Recovery Efficiency Test Phase I Report of Activities. Volume 1 covered selection, well planning, drilling, coring, logging and completion operations. This volume reports on well testing activities, reclamation activities on the drilling site and access roads, and the results of physical and mechanical properties tests on the oriented core material obtained from a horizontal section of the well. 3 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Comparison of the solid-phase extraction efficiency of a bounded and an included cyclodextrin-silica microporous composite for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in water samples.

    PubMed

    Mauri-Aucejo, Adela; Amorós, Pedro; Moragues, Alaina; Guillem, Carmen; Belenguer-Sapiña, Carolina

    2016-08-15

    Solid-phase extraction is one of the most important techniques for sample purification and concentration. A wide variety of solid phases have been used for sample preparation over time. In this work, the efficiency of a new kind of solid-phase extraction adsorbent, which is a microporous material made from modified cyclodextrin bounded to a silica network, is evaluated through an analytical method which combines solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. Several parameters that affected the analytes recovery, such as the amount of solid phase, the nature and volume of the eluent or the sample volume and concentration influence have been evaluated. The experimental results indicate that the material possesses adsorption ability to the tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Under the optimum conditions, the quantification limits of the method were in the range of 0.09-2.4μgL(-1) and fine linear correlations between peak height and concentration were found around 1.3-70μgL(-1). The method has good repeatability and reproducibility, with coefficients of variation under 8%. Due to the concentration results, this material may represent an alternative for trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water trough solid-phase extraction. PMID:27260440

  5. Efficiencies of metal separation and recovery in ash-melting of municipal solid waste under non-oxidative atmospheres with different reducing abilities.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2016-01-15

    Ash-melting of municipal solid waste produces molten metal that contains Fe and Cu, and melting furnace fly ash (MFA) that contains Pb and Zn. To recover the metal from the fly ash, Pb and Zn are extracted from the ash by water or enriched in the ash by washing out salts; this separation depends on their leachability. In this study, we investigated the effects of the reducing ability of the atmosphere on the efficiencies of metal separation during melting and metal recovery in water treatment. Different feedstocks (incineration residues) were melted under N2 or CO + N2 atmospheres. In some of the feedstock materials, volatilization of metallic Cu into MFA was promoted under the atmosphere with greater reducing ability (CO + N2). This increased volatilization inhibited the metal separation in the ash-melting process. Moreover, the higher reducing ability inhibited the formation of water-soluble lead chlorides and decreased the efficiency of metal recovery from the MFA because of the water leaching of the lead compounds. The reducing ability of the atmosphere is difficult to control uniformly in actual ash-melting plants, and we investigated appropriate melting conditions under which the effect of the reducing ability was minimized to promote metal separation and recovery. This minimization was achieved by melting incineration fly ash without additives with Cl gas treatment at 1400 °C. PMID:26496845

  6. Integrating theory, synthesis, spectroscopy and device efficiency to design and characterize donor materials for organic photovoltaics: a case study including 12 donors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Oosterhout, S. D.; Kopidakis, N.; Owczarczyk, Z. R.; Braunecker, W. A.; Larsen, R. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Olson, D. C.

    2015-04-07

    There have been remarkable improvements in the power conversion efficiency of solution-processable Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) have largely been driven by the development of novel narrow bandgap copolymer donors comprising an electron-donating (D) and an electron-withdrawing (A) group within the repeat unit. The large pool of potential D and A units and the laborious processes of chemical synthesis and device optimization, has made progress on new high efficiency materials slow with a few new efficient copolymers reported every year despite the large number of groups pursuing these materials. In our paper we present an integrated approach toward new narrow bandgap copolymersmore » that uses theory to guide the selection of materials to be synthesized based on their predicted energy levels, and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to select the best-performing copolymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction to be incorporated into complete OPV devices. We validate our methodology by using a diverse group of 12 copolymers, including new and literature materials, to demonstrate good correlation between (a) theoretically determined energy levels of polymers and experimentally determined ionization energies and electron affinities and (b) photoconductance, measured by TRMC, and OPV device performance. The materials used here also allow us to explore whether further copolymer design rules need to be incorporated into our methodology for materials selection. For example, we explore the effect of the enthalpy change (ΔH) during exciton dissociation on the efficiency of free charge carrier generation and device efficiency and find that ΔH of -0.4 eV is sufficient for efficient charge generation.« less

  7. Integrating theory, synthesis, spectroscopy and device efficiency to design and characterize donor materials for organic photovoltaics: a case study including 12 donors

    SciTech Connect

    Oosterhout, S. D.; Kopidakis, N.; Owczarczyk, Z. R.; Braunecker, W. A.; Larsen, R. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Olson, D. C.

    2015-04-07

    There have been remarkable improvements in the power conversion efficiency of solution-processable Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) have largely been driven by the development of novel narrow bandgap copolymer donors comprising an electron-donating (D) and an electron-withdrawing (A) group within the repeat unit. The large pool of potential D and A units and the laborious processes of chemical synthesis and device optimization, has made progress on new high efficiency materials slow with a few new efficient copolymers reported every year despite the large number of groups pursuing these materials. In our paper we present an integrated approach toward new narrow bandgap copolymers that uses theory to guide the selection of materials to be synthesized based on their predicted energy levels, and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to select the best-performing copolymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction to be incorporated into complete OPV devices. We validate our methodology by using a diverse group of 12 copolymers, including new and literature materials, to demonstrate good correlation between (a) theoretically determined energy levels of polymers and experimentally determined ionization energies and electron affinities and (b) photoconductance, measured by TRMC, and OPV device performance. The materials used here also allow us to explore whether further copolymer design rules need to be incorporated into our methodology for materials selection. For example, we explore the effect of the enthalpy change (ΔH) during exciton dissociation on the efficiency of free charge carrier generation and device efficiency and find that ΔH of -0.4 eV is sufficient for efficient charge generation.

  8. Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lewis R.; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo; Vadie, A. Alex

    2003-02-10

    The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

  9. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  10. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were

  11. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies. PMID:27214029

  12. High-Efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery, STTR Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Timothy

    2011-01-07

    This is the final report of DoE STTR Phase II project, “High-efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery”. The objective of this STTR project is to develop a cost-effective processing approach to produce bulk high-performance thermoelectric (TE) nanocomposites, which will enable the development of high-power, high-power-density TE modulus for waste heat recovery and industrial refrigeration. The use of this nanocomposite into TE modules are expected to bring about significant technical benefits in TE systems (e.g. enhanced energy efficiency, smaller sizes and light weight). The successful development and applications of such nanocomposite and the resultant TE modules can lead to reducing energy consumption and environmental impacts, and creating new economic development opportunities.

  13. Efficient marker-free recovery of custom genetic modifications with CRISPR/Cas9 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Arribere, Joshua A; Bell, Ryan T; Fu, Becky X H; Artiles, Karen L; Hartman, Phil S; Fire, Andrew Z

    2014-11-01

    Facilitated by recent advances using CRISPR/Cas9, genome editing technologies now permit custom genetic modifications in a wide variety of organisms. Ideally, modified animals could be both efficiently made and easily identified with minimal initial screening and without introducing exogenous sequence at the locus of interest or marker mutations elsewhere. To this end, we describe a coconversion strategy, using CRISPR/Cas9 in which screening for a dominant phenotypic oligonucleotide-templated conversion event at one locus can be used to enrich for custom modifications at another unlinked locus. After the desired mutation is identified among the F1 progeny heterozygous for the dominant marker mutation, F2 animals that have lost the marker mutation are picked to obtain the desired mutation in an unmarked genetic background. We have developed such a coconversion strategy for Caenorhabditis elegans, using a number of dominant phenotypic markers. Examining the coconversion at a second (unselected) locus of interest in the marked F1 animals, we observed that 14-84% of screened animals showed homologous recombination. By reconstituting the unmarked background through segregation of the dominant marker mutation at each step, we show that custom modification events can be carried out recursively, enabling multiple mutant animals to be made. While our initial choice of a coconversion marker [rol-6(su1006)] was readily applicable in a single round of coconversion, the genetic properties of this locus were not optimal in that CRISPR-mediated deletion mutations at the unselected rol-6 locus can render a fraction of coconverted strains recalcitrant to further rounds of similar mutagenesis. An optimal marker in this sense would provide phenotypic distinctions between the desired mutant/+ class and alternative +/+, mutant/null, null/null, and null/+ genotypes. Reviewing dominant alleles from classical C. elegans genetics, we identified one mutation in dpy-10 and one mutation in

  14. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  15. A Novel Energy Recovery System for Parallel Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented. PMID:25405215

  16. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    SciTech Connect

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the environmental impact of recycling and incineration of household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling of paper, glass, steel and aluminium is better than incineration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling and incineration of cardboard and plastic can be equally good alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclables can be transported long distances and still have environmental benefits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paper has a higher environmental benefit than recyclables found in smaller amounts. - Abstract: Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  17. Large-scale high-efficiency air stripper and recovery well network for removing volatile organic chlorocarbons from ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, L F; Lorfenz, R; Muska, C F; Steele, J L

    1986-05-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) produces special nuclear materials for the US Government. Since 1958, chemical wastes generated by an aluminum forming/metal finishing process used to manufacture fuel and target assemblies were discharged to a settling basin. This process waste stream contained acids, alkalis, metals, and chlorinated degreasing solvents. In 1981, these solvents, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, were discovered in monitor wells near the settling basin. A monitor well network was installed to define the vertical and horizontal extent of the plume. The current inventory of total chlorocarbons in the saturated zone is approximately 360,000 pounds within the 100 ppB contour interval. During 1983, air stripping technology was evaluated to remove these solvents from the ground water. A 20-gpm ground water pilot air stripper with one recovery well was tested. Performance data from this unit were then used to design a 50-gpm production prototype air stripper. This unit demonstrated that degreaser solvent concentrations in ground water could be reduced from 120,000 ppB to less than the detection limit of 1 ppB. Data from these two units were then used to design an air stripper column that would process contaminated ground water at a rate of 400 gpm. Water is fed to this column from a network of 11 recovery wells. These wells were located in the zone of contamination, as defined by analytical and numerical modeling techniques. This system has been operational since April 1985. To date, over 65,000 pounds of chlorinated degreaser solvents have been removed from an underlying aquifer. The effects of this program on the hydraulic gradient and contamination movement are currently being evaluated. The purpose of this paper is to describe the ground water remediation program at the Savannah River Plant.

  18. Sustainable and efficient pathways for bioenergy recovery from low-value process streams via bioelectrochemical systems in biorefineries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2015-08-25

    Conversion of biomass into bioenergy is possible via multiple pathways resulting in production of biofuels, bioproducts and biopower. Efficient and sustainable conversion of biomass, however, requires consideration of many environmental and societal parameters in order to minimize negative impacts. Integration of multiple conversion technologies and inclusion of upcoming alternatives such as bioelectrochemical systems can minimize these impacts and improve conservation of resources such as hydrogen, water and nutrients via recycle and reuse. This report outlines alternate pathways integrating microbial electrolysis in biorefinery schemes to improve energy efficiency while evaluating environmental sustainability parameters.

  19. Tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Byham, D. E.

    1985-03-05

    An improved method for the recovery of tertiary oil from oil formations containing connate waters having a high brine concentration. A stable alcohol external microemulsion is formed from specific brine-soluble surfactants and alcohols for employment as a chemical slug. Such a microemulsion may be used to efficiently and effectively recover tertiary oil from formations in high brine concentrations. Specific examples of surfactants which may be employed to form the microemulsions of the present invention include amphoteric surfactants such as bis-2-hydroxyethylcocoamine propane sulfonate and bis-2-hydroxyethyloctadecyl amine propane sulfonate.

  20. Large-scale production and efficient recovery of PHB with desirable material properties, from the newly characterised Bacillus cereus SPV.

    PubMed

    Valappil, S P; Misra, S K; Boccaccini, A R; Keshavarz, T; Bucke, C; Roy, I

    2007-11-01

    A newly characterised Bacillus strain, Bacillus cereus SPV was found to produce PHB at a concentration of 38% of its dry cell weight in shaken flask cultures, using glucose as the main carbon source. Polymer production was then scaled up to 20 L batch fermentations where 29% dry cell weight of PHB was obtained within 48 h. Following this, a simple glucose feeding strategy was developed and the cells accumulated 38% dry cell weight of PHB, an increase in the overall volumetric yield by 31% compared to the batch fermentation. Sporulation is the cause of low PHB productivity from the genus Bacillus [Wu, Q., Huang, H., Hu, G.H., Chen, J., Ho, K.P., Chen, G.Q., 2001. Production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate by Bacillus sp. JMa5 cultivated in molasses media. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 80, 111-118]. However, in this study, acidic pH conditions (4.5-5.8) completely suppress sporulation, in accordance with Kominek and Halvorson [Kominek, L.A., Halvorson, H.O., 1965. Metabolism of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoin in Bacillus cereus. J. Bacteriol. 90, 1251-1259], and result in an increase in the yield of PHB production. This observation emphasises the potential of the use of Bacillus in the commercial production of PHB and other PHAs. The recovery of the PHB produced was optimised and the isolated polymer characterised to identify its material properties. The polymer extracted, was found to have similar molecular weight, polydispersity index and lower crystallinity index than others reported in literature. Also, the extracted polymer was found to have desirable material properties for potential tissue engineering applications. PMID:17532079

  1. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-04-16

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

  2. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-12-05

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

  3. Alternative lattice options for energy recovery in high-average-power high-efficiency free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /NICADD, DeKalb /Fermilab

    2009-03-01

    High-average-power free-electron lasers often rely on energy-recovering linacs. In a high-efficiency free electron laser, the main limitation to high average power stems from the fractional energy spread induced by the free-electron laser process. Managing beams with large fractional energy spread while simultaneously avoiding beam losses is extremely challenging and relies on intricate longitudinal phase space manipulations. In this paper we discuss a possible alternative technique that makes use of an emittance exchange between one of the transverse and the longitudinal phase spaces.

  4. [Comparison of the efficiency of 2 culture media in the recovery of heterotrophic bacteria damaged with chlorine].

    PubMed

    Guerrero, J J

    1987-01-01

    In this study, culture mediums R2A and m-HPC were compared with respect to their efficiency in the recuperation of injured heterotrophic bacteria present in water, which previously was treated with chlorine. The results of total counts obtained by membrane filtration, show that medium R2A was better than m-HPC. These two culture mediums are indicated by the 16th edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste-water. The results obtained may be due to the low concentration of organic matter, or to the presence of yeast extract in the R2A medium. PMID:3332384

  5. What Is "No Recovery?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Thanatologists, as Balk recently commented (Balk, 2004), have been saying that there is no recovery from bereavement, or that we should not speak of bereavement as leading to a recovery. The term recovery has a high level of plasticity and can be shaped to fit diverse meanings, including contradictory meanings. We will sort our way through some of…

  6. Integrated adsorptive technique for efficient recovery of m-cresol and m-toluidine from actual acidic and salty wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Liu, Fuqiang; Zong, Lidan; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Changqing; Tao, Xuewen; Li, Aimin

    2016-07-15

    An integrated adsorptive technique combining an m-cresol adsorption unit, an acid retardation unit and an m-toluidine adsorption unit in sequence was designed to recover m-cresol and m-toluidine from highly acidic and salty m-cresol manufacturing wastewater. In the first column packed with hypercrosslinked polymeric resin (NDA-99), most m-cresol was captured through π-π and hydrogen-bonding interactions as well as the salting-out effect, while m-toluidine was not absorbed due to protonation. To separate acid from salt, an acid retardation unit was introduced successively to adsorb sulfuric acid by strong base anion exchange resin (201×7). After the acid retardation unit and mild neutralization reaction, the last column filled with NDA-99 was applied to trap neutral m-toluidine from the salty effluent. Moreover, the eluent of the acid retardation unit was utilized as the regenerant to recover m-toluidine, and the recycled high-acidity and low-salinity solution of m-toluidine was directly used to produce m-cresol as the raw material. Therefore, the proposed method not only efficiently recycled m-cresol and m-toluidine, but also reduced the consumption of alkali dramatically (saving 0.1628t/t wastewater). These findings will inspire design of integrated adsorptive techniques for treating complex organic wastewater with high efficiency and low cost. PMID:27037473

  7. Influence of the drying step within disk-based solid-phase extraction both on the recovery and the limit of quantification of organochlorine pesticides in surface waters including suspended particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Günter, Anastasia; Balsaa, Peter; Werres, Friedrich; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-06-10

    In this study, 21 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined based on sample preparation using solid-phase extraction disks (SPE disks) coupled with programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV)-large-volume injection gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS). The work includes a comprehensive testing scheme on the suitability of the method for routine analysis of surface and drinking water including suspended particulate matter (SPM) with regard to requirements derived from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, Directive 2000/60/EC). SPM is an important reservoir for OCPs, which contributes to the transport of these compounds in the aquatic environment. To achieve the detection limits required by the WFD, a high pre-concentration factor during sample preparation is necessary, which was achieved by disk SPE in this study. The performance of disk SPE is strongly influenced by the drying step, which could be significantly improved by effective elimination of the residual water by combination of a high vacuum pump and a low humidity atmosphere. Detection limits of the WFD in the ng/L range were achieved by large volume injection of 100μL sample extract. The recoveries ranged from 82% to 117% with an RSD smaller than 13%. The applicability of this method to natural samples was tested for instrumental qualification and system suitability evaluation. Successful participation in an interlaboratory comparison proved the suitability of the method for routine analysis. PMID:27173769

  8. Efficient recovery of nitrate and phosphate from wastewater by an amine-grafted adsorbent for cyanobacterial biomass production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmin; Hwang, Min-Jin; Lee, Sang-Jun; Noh, Won; Kwon, Jung Min; Choi, Jin Soo; Kang, Chang-Min

    2016-04-01

    Various types of wastewater have been widely utilized in microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation for environmental and economic reasons. However, the problems of low cell growth and biomass contamination due to direct use of wastewater remain unresolved. In the present study, nitrate and phosphate were separated from wastewater by adsorption and subsequently used for cyanobacterial biomass production. To this end, an amine-grafted magnetic absorbent was synthesized. The synthesized absorbent recovered ca. 78% nitrate and 93% phosphate from wastewater. Regenerated medium was prepared using recovered nutrients as nitrogen and phosphate sources, which were efficiently assimilated by cyanobacterial culture. Compared to synthetic medium, there was no difference in growth and nutrient removal using regenerated medium. The proposed indirect method of wastewater utilization would prevent contamination of the produced biomass by unfavorable substances, which will broaden its potential applications. PMID:26827169

  9. Enhanced oil recovery by surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency: First annual report for the period September 30, 1985-September 30, 1986. [Sandpacks

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, J H; Scamehorn, J F

    1987-05-01

    Surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency is a novel EOR method which utilizes precipitation/coacervation of surfactants to plug the most permeable regions of the reservoir, improving the efficiency of a waterflooding operation. This technique does not rely on reduction of interfacial tension between aqueous and oleic phases to enhance oil recovery. Therefore, even though surfactants are involved, this new technique is not a substitute or improvement on classical surfactant flooding; however, it has the potantial to compete with polymer flooding as an alternative sweep efficiency improvement method. In surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency, a slug containing one kind of surfactant is injected into the reservoir, followed by a brine spacer. This is followed by injection of a second kind of surfactant which has lower adsorption than the first surfactant used. Anionic and cationic surfactants are one possible combination for this application. These may form either a precipitate or a coacervate upon mixing. Phase boundaries for some specific systems of this type have been determined over a wide range of conditions and a model developed to describe this behavior. Another possibility is the use of nonionic surfactants, which may form coacervate under proper conditions. The adsorption behavior of mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants was measured to aid in modeling the chromatographic effects with these surfactants in the reservoir. Studies with sandpacks of different permeabilities in parallel configuration using mixtures of anionic and cationic surfactants have demonstrated the capability of this method to reduce flow rates through a more permeable sandpack more than that through a less permeable sandpack. 4 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, Daniel

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  11. Cascaded-systems analyses and the detective quantum efficiency of single-Z x-ray detectors including photoelectric, coherent and incoherent interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Seungman; Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A.; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Theoretical models of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of x-ray detectors are an important step in new detector development by providing an understanding of performance limitations and benchmarks. Previous cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) models accounted for photoelectric interactions only. This paper describes an extension of the CSA approach to incorporate coherent and incoherent interactions, important for low-Z detectors such as silicon and selenium. Methods: A parallel-cascade approach is used to describe the three types of x-ray interactions. The description of incoherent scatter required developing expressions for signal and noise transfer through an 'energy-labeled reabsorption' process where the parameters describing reabsorption are random functions of the scatter photon energy. The description of coherent scatter requires the use of scatter form factors that may not be accurate for some crystalline detector materials. The model includes the effects of scatter reabsorption and escape, charge collection, secondary quantum sinks, noise aliasing, and additive noise. Model results are validated by Monte Carlo calculations for Si and Se detectors assuming free-atom atomic form factors. Results: The new signal and noise transfer expressions were validated by showing agreement with Monte Carlo results. Coherent and incoherent scatter can degrade the DQE of Si and sometimes Se detectors depending on detector thickness and incident-photon energy. Incoherent scatter can produce a substantial low-frequency drop in the modulation transfer function and DQE. Conclusions: A generally useful CSA model of the DQE is described that is believed valid for any single-Z material up to 10 cycles/mm at both mammographic and radiographic energies within the limitations of Fourier-based linear-systems models and the use of coherent-scatter form factors. The model describes a substantial low-frequency drop in the DQE of Si systems due to incoherent scatter above 20

  12. Displacement and sweep efficiencies in a DNAPL recovery test using micellar and polymer solutions injected in a five-spot pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Richard; Hébert, Alain; Lefebvre, René; Gélinas, Pierre; Gabriel, Uta

    2004-11-01

    Soil washing with micellar solutions is a promising alternative for the remediation of DNAPL source zones. As with any flushing technology, the success of soil washing with micellar solutions depends in a very large part on the ability of the solution to contact the contaminant (sweep efficiency) and then on the efficiency of contaminant removal once this contact is made (displacement efficiency). We report here on a field test where a micellar solution was used to recover a DNAPL in an open five-spot pattern in which polymer solutions were also injected before and after the washing solution to improve sweep efficiency. The washing solution formulation was optimised in the laboratory prior to the test to obtain good dissolution capacity. For a high-concentration and low-volume soil flushing remediation test such as the one performed (0.8 pore volumes of actual washing solution injected), slug sizing of the washing solution is critical. It was evaluated by an analytical solution. In a five-spot pattern, the displacement efficiency of the washing solution was observed to vary in the porous medium as a function of the radial distance from the injection well because: (1) the volume of the washing solution flowing through a section of the test cell changes (maximum close to the injection well and minimal at the pumping wells); (2) the in situ velocity changes (maximum at the wells and minimum between the wells) and; (3) the contact time of the washing solution with the NAPL changes as a function of the distance from the injection well. The relative importance of the recovery mechanisms, mobilisation and dissolution, was also observed to vary in the test cell. The reduced velocity increased the contact time of the washing solution with the DNAPL enhancing its dissolution, but the decrease of the capillary number caused less mobilisation. The washing process is much more extensive around the injection well. The use of an injection-pumping pattern allowing a complete sweep

  13. Displacement and sweep efficiencies in a DNAPL recovery test using micellar and polymer solutions injected in a five-spot pattern.

    PubMed

    Martel, Richard; Hébert, Alain; Lefebvre, René; Gélinas, Pierre; Gabriel, Uta

    2004-11-01

    Soil washing with micellar solutions is a promising alternative for the remediation of DNAPL source zones. As with any flushing technology, the success of soil washing with micellar solutions depends in a very large part on the ability of the solution to contact the contaminant (sweep efficiency) and then on the efficiency of contaminant removal once this contact is made (displacement efficiency). We report here on a field test where a micellar solution was used to recover a DNAPL in an open five-spot pattern in which polymer solutions were also injected before and after the washing solution to improve sweep efficiency. The washing solution formulation was optimised in the laboratory prior to the test to obtain good dissolution capacity. For a high-concentration and low-volume soil flushing remediation test such as the one performed (0.8 pore volumes of actual washing solution injected), slug sizing of the washing solution is critical. It was evaluated by an analytical solution. In a five-spot pattern, the displacement efficiency of the washing solution was observed to vary in the porous medium as a function of the radial distance from the injection well because: (1) the volume of the washing solution flowing through a section of the test cell changes (maximum close to the injection well and minimal at the pumping wells); (2) the in situ velocity changes (maximum at the wells and minimum between the wells) and; (3) the contact time of the washing solution with the NAPL changes as a function of the distance from the injection well. The relative importance of the recovery mechanisms, mobilisation and dissolution, was also observed to vary in the test cell. The reduced velocity increased the contact time of the washing solution with the DNAPL enhancing its dissolution, but the decrease of the capillary number caused less mobilisation. The washing process is much more extensive around the injection well. The use of an injection-pumping pattern allowing a complete sweep

  14. SPECT imaging with resolution recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bronnikov, A. V.

    2011-07-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)

  15. Benefits of Group Living Include Increased Feeding Efficiency and Lower Mass Loss during Desiccation in the Social and Inbreeding Spider Stegodyphus dumicola

    PubMed Central

    Vanthournout, Bram; Greve, Michelle; Bruun, Anne; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Overgaard, Johannes; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment, and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments. PMID:26869936

  16. Benefits of Group Living Include Increased Feeding Efficiency and Lower Mass Loss during Desiccation in the Social and Inbreeding Spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    PubMed

    Vanthournout, Bram; Greve, Michelle; Bruun, Anne; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Overgaard, Johannes; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment, and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments. PMID:26869936

  17. The Wheelabrator Falls story: Integrated recycling, highly efficient energy recovery, innovative use of by-products and timing to advance the state-of-the-art in integrated waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Felago, R.T.; Anderson, R.L.; Scanlon, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses how significant state-of-the-art advancements in recycling, utilization of recycled materials and energy production will cut the template for future projects. A corollary benefit will be the enhancement of the concept of privatization of any plant, waste-to-energy, wastewater or biosolids processing, by providing an understanding of private initiation of the project, and the demonstration of a Company`s commitment through self-financing of the facility. All of these advancements point to the fact that waste-to-energy projects of the future will include some or all of these points from the Wheelabrator Falls Project: innovative on-site recycling; innovative utilization of mixed glass cullet; maximum post-combustion automatic recovery of ferrous metal; state-of-the-art boiler upgrades, including a super-efficient thermal cycle design refinements in the plant; specific innovations at falls; sequencing in the operations of the plant`s quality of operations; and expectations going forward.

  18. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A

    2016-10-01

    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated. PMID:27425859

  19. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  20. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  1. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Amidan, Brett G.; Sydor, Michael A.; Barrett, Christopher A.

    2015-03-31

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in. × 2 in.) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results will be discussed in a subsequent report.

  2. Recovery in soccer: part I - post-match fatigue and time course of recovery.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2012-12-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently required to play consecutive matches interspersed by 3 days and complete physical performance recovery may not be achieved. Incomplete recovery might result in underperformance and injury. During congested schedules, recovery strategies are therefore required to alleviate post-match fatigue, regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. This article is Part I of a subsequent companion review and deals with post-match fatigue mechanisms and recovery kinetics of physical performance (sprints, jumps, maximal strength and technical skills), cognitive, subjective and biochemical markers. The companion review will analyse recovery strategies used in contemporary professional soccer. Soccer involves many physically demanding activities including sprinting, changes in running speed, changes of direction, jumps and tackles, as well as technical actions such as dribbling, shooting and passing. These activities lead to a post-match fatigue that is linked to a combination of dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. The magnitude of soccer match-induced fatigue, extrinsic factors (i.e. match result, quality of the opponent, match location, playing surface) and/or intrinsic factors (i.e. training status, age, gender, muscle fibre typology), potentially influence the time course of recovery. Recovery in soccer is a complex issue, reinforcing the need for future research to estimate the quantitative importance of fatigue mechanisms and identify influencing factors. Efficient and individualized recovery strategies may consequently be proposed. PMID:23046224

  3. The Exploration Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

  4. Enhanced oil recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A. B.; Jackson, E. J.

    1985-10-15

    An improved portable, versatile, modular, above-ground system and process for generating combustion gases, principally nitrogen and carbon dioxide, and steam, for removing particulate matter and corrosive components from the combustion gases, and for injecting the purified nitrogen and CO/sub 2/, and steam, individually or in selected mixtures, at controlled temperatures and pressures into a subterranean formation bearing hydrocarbons to enhance the recovery thereof. The system includes a high-pressure combustion reactor for efficient generation of combustion gases at the required rates and at pressures up to about 8000 psi and temperatures up to about 4500/sup 0/ F. The reactor is water-jacketed but lined with refractory material to minimize soot formation. Combustion chamber temperature is reduced to a safe level by water injection with the fuel.

  5. Apollo Recovery Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Describe the organization of recovery force command and control and landing areas; b) Describe the function and timeline use of the Earth Landing System (ELS); c) Describe Stable 1 vs Stable 2 landing configurations and the function of the Command Module Uprighting System; d) Explain the activities of the helicopter and swimmer teams in egress and recovery of the crew; e)Explain the activities of the swimmer teams and primary recovery ship in recovery of the Command Module; and f) Describe several landing incidents that occurred during Apollo.

  6. Cameroon and Chad: cost recovery.

    PubMed

    Godin, C

    1998-04-01

    African Ministers of Health adopted the Bamako Initiative in 1987 to ensure sustainable and efficient primary health care (PHC), with an eye toward decreasing levels of morbidity and mortality in Africa. The initiative has made local communities largely responsible for identifying problems and distributing and managing local health care resources. Cost recovery is a key component of the Bamako Initiative. The adoption of a policy of decentralization in which the immediate providers and users of PHC services are responsible for the recovery of costs was recommended. Chad and Cameroon decentralized its health services in 1990 and 1992, respectively. With onchocerciasis one of these 2 countries' most important public health problems, the 2 governments decided to base onchocerciasis control efforts upon the mass distribution of Mectizan (ivermectin, MSD) integrated into the local PHC systems and including cost recovery. Community participation must now be developed to ensure the sustainability of treatment programs in both countries. In both Cameroon and Chad, studies have found that the introduction of cost recovery has had no significant effect upon treatment coverage in hyper- and meso-endemic communities. In fact, those charged for Mectizan treatment often believe that the drug must be worthwhile because they have to pay for it. PMID:9861286

  7. Hydrogeology and Aquifer Storage and Recovery Performance in the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    Well construction, hydraulic well test, ambient water-quality, and cycle test data were inventoried and compiled for 30 aquifer storage and recovery facilities constructed in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida. Most of the facilities are operated by local municipalities or counties in coastal areas, but five sites are currently being evaluated as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The relative performance of all sites with adequate cycle test data was determined, and compared with four hydrogeologic and design factors that may affect recovery efficiency. Testing or operational cycles include recharge, storage, and recovery periods that each last days or months. Cycle test data calculations were made including the potable water (chloride concentration of less than 250 milligrams per liter) recovery efficiency per cycle, total recovery efficiency per cycle, and cumulative potable water recovery efficiencies for all of the cycles at each site. The potable water recovery efficiency is the percentage of the total amount of potable water recharged for each cycle that is recovered; potable water recovery efficiency calculations (per cycle and cumulative) were the primary measures used to evaluate site performance in this study. Total recovery efficiency, which is the percent recovery at the end of each cycle, however, can be substantially higher and is the performance measure normally used in the operation of water-treatment plants. The Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system currently is being used, or planned for use, at 29 of the aquifer storage and recovery sites. The Upper Floridan aquifer is continuous throughout southern Florida, and its overlying confinement is generally good; however, the aquifer contains brackish to saline ground water that can greatly affect freshwater storage and recovery due to dispersive mixing within the aquifer. The hydrogeology of the Upper Floridan varies in southern Florida; confinement

  8. Very High Fuel Economy, Heavy Duty, Constant Speed, Truck Engine Optimized Via Unique Energy Recovery Turbines and Facilitated High Efficiency Continuously Variable Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect

    Bahman Habibzadeh

    2010-01-31

    The project began under a corporative agreement between Mack Trucks, Inc and the Department of Energy starting from September 1, 2005. The major objective of the four year project is to demonstrate a 10% efficiency gain by operating a Volvo 13 Litre heavy-duty diesel engine at a constant or narrow speed and coupled to a continuously variable transmission. The simulation work on the Constant Speed Engine started on October 1st. The initial simulations are aimed to give a basic engine model for the VTEC vehicle simulations. Compressor and turbine maps are based upon existing maps and/or qualified, realistic estimations. The reference engine is a MD 13 US07 475 Hp. Phase I was completed in May 2006 which determined that an increase in fuel efficiency for the engine of 10.5% over the OICA cycle, and 8.2% over a road cycle was possible. The net increase in fuel efficiency would be 5% when coupled to a CVT and operated over simulated highway conditions. In Phase II an economic analysis was performed on the engine with turbocompound (TC) and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). The system was analyzed to determine the payback time needed for the added cost of the TC and CVT system. The analysis was performed by considering two different production scenarios of 10,000 and 60,000 units annually. The cost estimate includes the turbocharger, the turbocompound unit, the interstage duct diffuser and installation details, the modifications necessary on the engine and the CVT. Even with the cheapest fuel and the lowest improvement, the pay back time is only slightly more than 12 months. A gear train is necessary between the engine crankshaft and turbocompound unit. This is considered to be relatively straight forward with no design problems.

  9. Aminopropyl-modified mesoporous silica SBA-15 as recovery agents of Cu(II)-sulfate solutions: Adsorption efficiency, functional stability and reusability aspects.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, M V; Videla, M; Calvo, A; Requejo, F G; Soler-Illia, G J A A

    2012-07-15

    Hybrid mesoporous materials are potentially useful for metal ion scavenging and retrieval because of their high surface areas, controlled accessibility and tailored functionalization. Some aspects that are linked to the performance of HMM include pore accessibility, stability of the organic functions and reusability. Knowledge of these aspects is critical in the design of adsorption-desorption protocols. In this work we produce and characterize propylamino-substituted large pore silica (SBA-15-N), which is submitted to Cu(II) adsorption from copper sulfate solutions, followed by desorption in acid media and material regeneration. We find that the hybrid material is an efficient adsorbent (1.15-1.75mmol Cu(II)g(-1)), although a fraction of the organic groups is lost during the adsorption process. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study demonstrates that the contents of amino groups are higher in the material surface, leading to different behaviors in Cu(II) complexation along the material. These materials can be regenerated by exposure to acidic media. Thermal processing of the hybrid materials leads to better durability in aqueous solutions during reprocessing, due to enhanced polycondensation of the inorganic framework. Thermally treated samples, once regenerated, are efficient adsorbents in a second step of Cu(II) adsorption. We discuss the materials processing factors involved in the improved adsorption of Cu(II), its quantitative release and reusability of the material. PMID:22595542

  10. Integrated distillation-membrane process for bio-ethanol and bio-butanol recovery from actual fermentation broths: Separation energy efficiency and fate of secondary fermentation products

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol and/or 1-butanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to convent...

  11. Register file soft error recovery

    DOEpatents

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  12. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  13. Recovery Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  14. RECOVERY OF PRINCIPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS AND PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM A VOLATILE ORGANIC SAMPLING TRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an investigation of the recovery efficiencies of selected principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) from the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) under laboratory conditions. The compounds included: vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethy...

  15. Recovery Act: High-Efficiency, Wideband Three-Phase Rectifiers and Adaptive Rectifier Management for Telecomm Central Office and Large Data Center Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Johnson

    2012-06-29

    Lineage Power and Verizon teamed up to address a DOE funding opportunity focused on improving the power conversion chain in telecommunications facilities and data centers. The project had three significant elements: the design and development of high efficiency and high power three-phase rectifiers by Lineage Power, design and development of software to optimize overall plant energy efficiency by Lineage Power, and a field trial in active Verizon telecommunications facilities where energy consumption was measured before and after efficiency upgrades.

  16. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-01-19

    This report covers the work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context the following general areas were studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flows in porous media, including processes in steam injection; (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity in a variety of foams, from pore scale to macroscopic scale; (3) The flow properties of additives for improvement of recovery efficiency, particularly foams and other non-Newtonian fluids; and (4) The development of optimization methods to maximize various measures of oil recovery.

  17. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future recoveries will be conducted in accordance with § 4287.169 of this chapter....

  18. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future recoveries will be conducted in accordance with § 4287.169 of this chapter....

  19. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future recoveries will be conducted in accordance with § 4287.169 of this chapter....

  20. Efficient butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation cultures grown on sweet sorghum juice by pervaporation using silicalite-1 membrane.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Miho; Negishi, Hideyuki; Sakaki, Keiji; Ikegami, Toru; Chohnan, Shigeru; Nitta, Youji; Kurusu, Yasurou; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    We investigated butanol recovery by pervaporation separation, using a silicalite-1 membrane, from batch cultures of butanol-producing Clostridium beijerinckii SBP2 grown on sweet sorghum juice as a fermentation medium. The pervaporation system yielded 73% (w/v) butanol from intact feed cultures containing 1% (w/v) butanol, and had a butanol permeation flux of 11 g m(-2) h(-1). Upon neutralization and activated charcoal treatment of the feed cultures, butanol yield and total flux increased to 82% (w/v) and 40 g m(-2) h(-1), respectively. This system is applicable to refining processes for practical biobutanol production from a promising energy crop, sweet sorghum. PMID:26718336

  1. Power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Due to the energy consciousness of the United States and to the ever increasing cost of engine fuels, power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts has come of age. The addition of waste recovery systems to these exhausts increases the thermal efficiencies of typical systems from the range of 21% to 39% up to the range of 28% to 49%. The new ''expander'' type power recovery system includes a waste heat recovery exchanger which will transfer heat from the engine exhaust into any of numerous thermal fluids. The recovered heat energy now in the thermal fluid medium can, in turn, be used to produce power for any desired application (i.e. gas compression, process refrigeration, electrical power generation, etc.). The particular systems put forth in this paper concentrate on the use of expansion fluids (other than steam) driving ''expanders'' as motive devices.

  2. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Muro, M. A.; La Rocca, C. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Havlin, S.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2016-03-01

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 ‑ p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ ‑ p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse.

  3. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Di Muro, M. A.; La Rocca, C. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Havlin, S.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 − p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ − p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse. PMID:26956773

  4. Energy Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The United States and other countries face the problem of waste disposal in an economical, environmentally safe manner. A widely applied solution adopted by Americans is "waste to energy," incinerating the refuse and using the steam produced by trash burning to drive an electricity producing generator. NASA's computer program PRESTO II, (Performance of Regenerative Superheated Steam Turbine Cycles), provides power engineering companies, including Blount Energy Resources Corporation of Alabama, with the ability to model such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiency, exhaust loss, leakage, mechanical losses and generator losses are used to calculate the cycle heat rate. The generator output program is sufficiently precise that it can be used to verify performance quoted in turbine generator supplier's proposals.

  5. Influence of food colorant and initial COD concentration on the efficiencies of micro-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (micro-aerobic SBR) for casein recovery under non-sterile condition by Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500.

    PubMed

    Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Sasaki, Ken; Techapun, Charin

    2009-09-01

    The acid biocoagulants produced from non-sterile lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 were used to settle colloidal protein, mainly casein, at the isoelectric point in dairy effluent prior to secondary treatment. High concentration of azo dye (Ponceau 4R) in the dairy wastewater and the stress of starvation decreased the efficiencies of the micro-aerobic SBR. Consequently, low casein recovery obtained and organic removal suffered a decline. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) also declined from log 7.4 to log 5.30 in the system fed with 400 mg L(-1) of the dye containing wastewater. The recovery of the system, however, showed that 25,000 mg COD L(-1) influent with 200 mg L(-1) of the dye maintained the growth of LAB in the range of log 7.74-8.12, with lactic and acetic production (2597 and 197 mg L(-1)) and 83% protein removal. The results in this study suggested that the inhibitory effects were compensated with high organic content feeding. PMID:19423333

  6. Looking South at south End of Green Room Including Scrubber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking South at south End of Green Room Including Scrubber for Incinerator within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  7. High efficiency klystron for the SPS application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larue, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The enhancement of klystron efficiency through the use of collector depression, that is by recovering energy from the spent electron beam after microwave amplification, was investigated. Design considerations included noise, harmonics, cooling, and service life. The mod anode, to be employed for beam control, and the depressed collector, used in spent electron beam energy recovery, are described.

  8. Microbial mineral recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, H.L.; Brierly, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents the scientific basis for using microbial biomass to remove metals from solution. Reports on current and potential microbial technology, including bioleaching of ores, bio-benefication of ores and fossil fuels, metal recovery from solution, and microbial EOR. Examines how microorganisms used in these technologies might improve through genetic engineering.

  9. Oil recovery from petroleum sludge through ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Huang, Shuhui; Li, Yubao

    2016-09-18

    The effect of ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) process on oil recovery from refinery oily sludge was examined in this study. Two types of UAE treatment including UAE probe (UAEP) system and UAE bath (UAEB) system were investigated. Their oil recovery efficiencies were compared to that of mechanical shaking extraction (MSE). Three solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), ethyl acetate (EA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were examined as the extraction solvents. The influence of experimental factors on oil and solvent recovery was investigated using an orthogonal experimental design. Results indicated that solvent type, solvent-to-sludge (S/S) ratio, and treatment duration could have significant effects on oil recovery in UAE treatment. Under the optimum conditions, UAEP treatment can obtain an oil recovery of 68.8% within 20 s, which was higher than that (i.e., 62.0%) by MSE treatment after 60 min' extraction. UAEB treatment can also obtain a promising oil recovery within shorter extraction duration (i.e., 15 min) than MSE. UAE was thus illustrated as an effective and improved approach for oily sludge recycling. PMID:27294566

  10. Waste heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.M.; Cornelison, R.C.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes a waste heat recovery system. It comprises a conduit for conveying an exhaust gas stream; a boiler assembly connected to the conduit including a heat recovery steam generator through which the exhaust gas if flowed, and characterized by a high temperature stream tube heat exchanger and, at a downstream location relative thereto, a water-tube boiler; an ammonia gas injector for injecting ammonia gas into the exhaust gas stream and located upstream of the water-tube boiler in juxtaposition to the exhaust gas source; and a low temperature selective catalytic reduction unit located downstream of the water-tube boiler.

  11. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2010-12-16

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the probability of correct detection (PCD) (or equivalently the false negative rate FNR = 1 - PCD). The PCD/FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not PCD/FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the PCD/FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in PCD/FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The study will investigate the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination

  12. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2011-05-01

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the false negative rate (FNR). The FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The testing was performed by SNL and is now completed. The study investigated the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge

  13. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2002-09-30

    The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI-A) conducts a broad spectrum of research intended to help improve the recovery efficiency from difficult to produce reservoirs including heavy oil and fractured low permeability systems. Our scope of work is relevant across near-, mid-, and long-term time frames. The primary functions of the group are to conduct direction-setting research, transfer research results to industry, and educate and train students for careers in industry. Presently, research in SUPRI-A is divided into 5 main project areas. These projects and their goals include: (1) Multiphase flow and rock properties--to develop better understanding of the physics of displacement in porous media through experiment and theory. This category includes work on imbibition, flow in fractured media, and the effect of temperature on relative permeability and capillary pressure. (2) Hot fluid injection--to improve the application of nonconventional wells for enhanced oil recovery and elucidate the mechanisms of steamdrive in low permeability, fractured porous media. (3) Mechanisms of primary heavy oil recovery--to develop a mechanistic understanding of so-called ''foamy oil'' and its associated physical chemistry. (4) In-situ combustion--to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the insitu combustion process. (5) Reservoir definition--to develop and improve techniques for evaluating formation properties from production information. What follows is a report on activities for the past year. Significant progress was made in all areas.

  14. Nanostructured systems for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Kuvshinov, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    The reservoir energy or that of the injected heat carrier was used to generate in situ intelligent chemical systems—nanostructured gels, sols and oil-displacing surfactants systems, preserving for a long time in the reservoir a complex of the properties being optimal for oil displacement. The results of field tests and commercial application of physicochemical technologies using nanostructured systems for enhanced oil recovery in oilfields with difficult-to-recover reserves, including deposits of high-viscosity oils, have been presented. Field tests of new "cold" technologies on the deposit of high-viscosity oil in Usinskoye oilfield proved their high efficiency.

  15. Continuous microalgae recovery using electrolysis with polarity exchange.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmin; Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Bo-Kyong; Han, Jong-In; Yang, Ji-Won

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of microalgae as a renewable source for the production of fuels and chemicals, but improvements are needed in all steps of this process, including harvesting. A continuous microalgae harvest system was developed based on electrolysis, referred to here as a continuous electrolytic microalgae (CEM) harvest system. This innovative system combines cultivation and harvesting and enables continuous and efficient concentration of microalgae. The electrodes were subject to a polarity exchange (PE) in the middle of the operation to further improve the harvest efficiency. Use of PE, rather than conventional electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF), led to more efficient cell recovery and more uniform recovery over the entire harvest chamber. In addition, PE increased the cell growth rate and the circulated cells remained intact after harvesting. PMID:22397823

  16. Concept definition study for recovery of tumbling satellites. Volume 2: Supporting research and technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, D. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Cathcart, J. A.; Keeley, M. G.; Madayev, L.; Nguyen, T. K.; Preese, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    A number of areas of research and laboratory experiments were identified which could lead to development of a cost efficient remote, disable satellite recovery system. Estimates were planned of disabled satellite motion. A concept is defined as a Tumbling Satellite Recovery kit which includes a modular system, composed of a number of subsystem mechanisms that can be readily integrated into varying combinations. This would enable the user to quickly configure a tailored remote, disabled satellite recovery kit to meet a broad spectrum of potential scenarios. The capability was determined of U.S. Earth based satellite tracking facilities to adequately determine the orientation and motion rates of disabled satellites.

  17. Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts. Views include Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the Gemini 4 space flight, sitting in life raft awaiting pickup by helicopter from the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp (33490); Navy frogmen stand on the flotation collar of the Gemini 4 spacecraft during recovery operations (33491).

  18. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yorstos, Yanis C.

    2002-03-11

    The emphasis of this work was on investigating the mechanisms and factors that control the recovery of heavy oil with the objective to improve recovery efficiencies. For this purpose the interaction of flow transport and reaction at various scales from the pore network to the field scales were studied. Particular mechanisms to be investigated included the onset of gas flow in foamy oil production and in in-situ steam drive, gravity drainage in steam processes, the development of sustained combustion fronts and the propagation of foams in porous media. Analytical, computational and experimental methods were utilized to advance the state of the art in heavy oil recovery. Successful completion of this research was expected to lead to improvements in the Recovery efficiency of various heavy oil processes.

  19. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  20. Protein recovery from surfactant precipitation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu Ian; Stuckey, David C

    2011-01-01

    The recovery of lysozyme from an aqueous solution containing precipitated lysozyme-AOT complexes formed by the direct addition of sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) to a lysozyme solution was studied using both solvents, and a counterionic surfactant. Ethanol,methanol and solvent mixtures dissolved the surfactant precipitate and recovered lysozyme as a solid. Recovery efficiency and protein stability varied with the type of solvent used. An entirely different method of recovery was also evaluated using a counterionic surfactant: tri-octylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC) which bound to AOT releasing lysozyme into solution.Complete recovery (100%) of lysozyme was achieved at a molar ratio of 2:1(TOMAC:AOT), and the original protein activity was maintained in the final aqueous phase.The recovered lysozyme retained its secondary structure as observed in circular dichroism(CD) spectra. Specific activity studies show that counterionic surfactant extraction does not alter the biological activity of the enzyme. PMID:22235487

  1. Design of a new type vapor recovery system nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, S. H.; Cao, G. J.; Zhang, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    To settle the problem of low-efficiency recovery for Vapor recovery system nozzle, this paper advances a purely mechanical structure of the self-sealing refueling VRS nozzle. The structure, operating principle and controlled process of the nozzle is given. And an application of the nozzle is discussed. All indicated that the nozzle has a reasonable structure, can fuel and vapor recovery simultaneous start and stop. And thus improve the recovery efficiency and reduce oil leakage.

  2. Volatile organic compound matrix spike recoveries for ground- and surface-water samples, 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, Barbara L.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Bender, David A.; Zogorski, John S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program used field matrix spikes (FMSs), field matrix spike replicates (FMSRs), laboratory matrix spikes (LMSs), and laboratory reagent spikes (LRSs), in part, to assess the quality of volatile organic compound (VOC) data from water samples collected and analyzed in more than 50 of the Nation's largest river basins and aquifers (Study Units). The data-quality objectives of the NAWQA Program include estimating the extent to which variability, degradation, and matrix effects, if any, may affect the interpretation of chemical analyses of ground- and surface-water samples. In order to help meet these objectives, a known mass of VOCs was added (spiked) to water samples collected in 25 Study Units. Data within this report include recoveries from 276 ground- and surface-water samples spiked with a 25-microliter syringe with a spike solution containing 85 VOCs to achieve a concentration of 0.5 microgram per liter. Combined recoveries for 85 VOCs from spiked ground- and surface-water samples and reagent water were used to broadly characterize the overall recovery of VOCs. Median recoveries for 149 FMSs, 107 FMSRs, 20 LMSs, and 152 LRSs were 79.9, 83.3, 113.1, and 103.5 percent, respectively. Spike recoveries for 85 VOCs also were calculated individually. With the exception of a few VOCs, the median percent recoveries determined from each spike type for individual VOCs followed the same pattern as for all VOC recoveries combined, that is, listed from least to greatest recovery-FMSs, FMSRs, LRSs, and LMSs. The median recoveries for individual VOCs ranged from 63.7 percent to 101.5 percent in FMSs; 63.1 percent to 101.4 percent in FMSRs; 101.7 percent to 135.0 percent in LMSs; and 91.0 percent to 118.7 percent in LRSs. Additionally, individual VOC recoveries were compared among paired spike types, and these recoveries were used to evaluate potential bias in the method. Variability associated with field

  3. Elements That Define Recovery: The Experiential Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Borkman, Thomasina J; Laudet, Alexandre; Ritter, Lois A; Witbrodt, Jane; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Stunz, Aina; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although recovery increasingly guides substance use disorder services and policy, definitions of recovery continue to lack specificity, thereby hindering measure development and research. The goal of this study was to move the substance use disorders field beyond broad definitions by empirically identifying the domains and specific elements of recovery as experienced by persons in recovery from diverse pathways. Method: An Internet-based survey was completed by 9,341 individuals (54% female) who self-identified as being in recovery, recovered, in medication-assisted recovery, or as having had a problem with alcohol or drugs (but no longer do). Respondents were recruited via extensive outreach with treatment and recovery organizations, electronic media, and self-help groups. The survey included 47 recovery elements developed through qualitative work followed by an iterative reduction process. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using split-half samples, followed by sensitivity analyses for key sample groupings. Results: Four recovery domains with 35 recovery elements emerged: abstinence in recovery, essentials of recovery, enriched recovery, and spirituality of recovery. The four-factor structure was robust regardless of length of recovery, 12-step or treatment exposure, and current substance use status. Four uncommon elements did not load on any factor but are presented to indicate the diversity of definitions. Conclusions: Our empirical findings offer specific items that can be used in evaluating recovery-oriented systems of care. Researchers studying recovery should include measures that extend beyond substance use and encompass elements such as those examined here—e.g., self-care, concern for others, personal growth, and developing ways of being that sustain change in substance use. PMID:25343658

  4. Optimal and suboptimal control technique for aircraft spin recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    An analytic investigation has been made of procedures for effecting recovery from equilibrium spin conditions for three assumed aircraft configurations. Three approaches which utilize conventional aerodynamic controls are investigated. Included are a constant control recovery mode, optimal recoveries, and a suboptimal control logic patterned after optimal recovery results. The optimal and suboptimal techniques are shown to yield a significant improvement in recovery performance over that attained by using a constant control recovery procedure.

  5. Reading Recovery. [Fact Sheets].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This set of 10 fact sheets (each 2 to 4 pages long) addresses aspects of Reading Recovery, a program that helps children to be proficient readers and writers by the end of the first grade. It discusses the basic facts of Reading Recovery; Reading Recovery for Spanish literacy; Reading Recovery lessons; Reading Recovery professional development;…

  6. Efficient recovery of carbon dioxide from flue gases of coal-fired power plants by cyclic fixed-bed operations over K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Hiromu; Taniuchi, Jun; Furuyashiki, Nobuyoshi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Hirano, Shinichi; Shigemoto, Naoya; Nonaka, Takazumi

    1998-01-01

    An efficient chemical absorption method capable of cyclic fixed-bed operations under moist conditions for the recovery of carbon dioxide from flue gases has been proposed employing K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon. Carbon dioxide was chemically absorbed by the reaction K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O {r_equilibrium} 2KHCO{sub 3} to form potassium hydrogen carbonate. Moisture, usually contained as high as 8--17% in flue gases, badly affects the capacity of conventional adsorbents such as zeolites, but the present technology has no concern with moisture; water is rather necessary in principle as shown in the equation above. Deliquescent potassium carbonate should be supported on an appropriate porous material to adapt for fixed-bed operations. After breakthrough of carbon dioxide, the entrapped carbon dioxide was released by the decomposition of hydrogen carbonate to shift the reaction in reverse on flushing with steam, which could be condensed by cooling to afford carbon dioxide in high purity. Among various preparations of alkaline-earth carbonates (X{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, X = Li, Na, K) on porous materials, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-activated carbon revealed excellent properties for the present purpose. Preparation and characterization of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon and illustrative fixed-bed operations under flue gas conditions in laboratory columns and a bench-scale plant are described.

  7. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future...

  8. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future...

  9. A novel recovery mechanism for polymer flooding in gravity-dominated viscous-oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Goodyear, S.G.; Mead, B.J.; Woods, C.L.

    1995-11-01

    The viscous oil and poor vertical sweep make these reservoirs possible targets for IOR with polymers. This study shows that polymer incremental recoveries can be high, well within the range of potential economic viability. The incremental recovery mechanism is not the usual improved Buckley-Leverett sweep efficiency resulting from correction of an adverse displacement ratio. A novel recovery mechanism is identified in which the polymer increases the ratio of viscous to gravity forces, reducing the water slumping. This leads to improved vertical sweep, recovering oil from regions of high oil saturation at the top of the reservoir. They simulated polymer flooding including temperature effects. Comparison of waterflood simulations including temperature effects with conventional isothermal simulations shows that, counter to normal expectations, isothermal simulations can underpredict recovery by >10%.

  10. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 24,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...