Science.gov

Sample records for recovery efficiency including

  1. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project

  2. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  3. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  4. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  5. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  6. High efficiency shale oil recovery. [Kilntrol program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency is first being demonstrated at bench scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications, now completed, provide for a great improvement in the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. Last quarter we reported on equipment modifications and refurbishments which resulted in a sophisticated analytical rotary kiln. As we began operating the equipment this quarter, we observed that the software package was inadequate for our purpose and that the appropriate software could not be purchased as a shelf item. Therefore, we were required to modify the equipment interface and to write our own software. The quartz sand kiln calibration runs have been completed and the results are included in this report. Computer Interface: The computer interface was designed on CTR-05, DAS-08 and MUX-32 Boards from ComputerBoards Inc. We purchased a software program, Control EG by Quinn-Curtis, to use with these boards. As we began operating the equipment we realized that the software control was inadequately sensitive for our system as it would not provide time-proportioning output. This problem was resolved by writing our own software and providing time-proportioning duty cycles for the output to each of five heaters. We have entitled this program Kilntrol.'' It is included in the Appendix of this report.

  7. Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Nian; Criddle, Craig S; Cui, Yi

    2013-10-01

    By harnessing the oxidative power of microorganisms, energy can be recovered from reservoirs of less-concentrated organic matter, such as marine sediment, wastewater, and waste biomass. Left unmanaged, these reservoirs can become eutrophic dead zones and sites of greenhouse gas generation. Here, we introduce a unique means of energy recovery from these reservoirs-a microbial battery (MB) consisting of an anode colonized by microorganisms and a reoxidizable solid-state cathode. The MB has a single-chamber configuration and does not contain ion-exchange membranes. Bench-scale MB prototypes were constructed from commercially available materials using glucose or domestic wastewater as electron donor and silver oxide as a coupled solid-state oxidant electrode. The MB achieved an efficiency of electrical energy conversion of 49% based on the combustion enthalpy of the organic matter consumed or 44% based on the organic matter added. Electrochemical reoxidation of the solid-state electrode decreased net efficiency to about 30%. This net efficiency of energy recovery (unoptimized) is comparable to methane fermentation with combined heat and power. PMID:24043800

  8. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Anbo Wang; Kristie L. Cooper; Gary R. Pickrell

    2003-06-01

    Efficient recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has been proven to be difficult due to the lack of robust instrumentation that can accurately and reliably monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multilateral wells. This is the final report for the four-year program ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'', funded by the National Petroleum Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2003. The main objective of this research program was to develop cost-effective, reliable optical fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. During the program, optical fiber sensors were demonstrated for the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow, and acoustic waves, including three successful field tests in the Chevron/Texaco oil fields in Coalinga, California, and at the world-class oil flow simulation facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Research efforts included the design and fabrication of sensor probes, development of signal processing algorithms, construction of test systems, development and testing of strategies for the protection of optical fibers and sensors in the downhole environment, development of remote monitoring capabilities allowing real-time monitoring of the field

  9. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    A. Wang; H. Xiao; R. May

    1999-10-29

    Efficient and complete recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has proven difficult due to a lack of robust instrumentation that can monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multi-lateral wells. The main objective of the research program is to develop cost-effective, reliable fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring and /or control of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. This report presents the detailed research work and technical progress from October 1, 1998 to September 30, 1999. The research performed over the first year of the program has followed the schedule as proposed, and solid research progress has been made in specification of the technical requirements, design and fabrication of the SCIIB sensor probes, development of the sensor systems, development of DSP-based signal processing techniques, and construction of the test systems. These technical achievements will significantly help to advance continued research on sensor tests and evaluation during the second year of the program.

  10. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Wilkins, D.W.; Keltch, B.; Saradji, B.; Salamy, S.P.

    1988-04-01

    This report is the second volume of the Recovery Efficiency Test Phase I Report of Activities. Volume 1 covered selection, well planning, drilling, coring, logging and completion operations. This volume reports on well testing activities, reclamation activities on the drilling site and access roads, and the results of physical and mechanical properties tests on the oriented core material obtained from a horizontal section of the well. 3 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Sulfur recovery process including removal of residual sulfur from Claus catalyst after regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Cabanaw, B.E.

    1990-03-13

    This patent describes a process for the recovery of sulfur. It comprises: passing an acid gas feedstream having as a sulfur species essentially only hydrogen sulfide therein to a Claus plant comprising a thermal conversion zone and at least one Claus catalytic reaction zone operated under adsorption conditions including temperature for forming and depositing a preponderance of sulfur formed on catalyst therein.

  12. An efficient method of noroviruses recovery from oysters and clams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Deqing; Ma, Liping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Su, Laijin; Li, Xinguang

    2013-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish. This study aimed to select a simple, rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR. Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams, respectively, were compared, of them, the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient. With this method, 9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams, respectively. This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan. 2011 to Feb. 2012. The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84). All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII. The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

  13. High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisac, Miguel; Villasevil, Francesc X.; López, Antonio M.

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic solar energy is a clean and reliable source for producing electric power. Most photovoltaic systems have been designed and built up for use in applications with low power requirements. The efficiency of solar cells is quite low, obtaining best results in monocrystalline silicon structures, with an efficiency of about 18%. When temperature rises, photovoltaic cell efficiency decreases, given that the short-circuit current is slightly increased, and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power output are reduced. To ensure that this does not affect performance, this paper describes how to interconnect photovoltaic and thermoelectric technology into a single structure. The temperature gradient in the solar panel is used to supply thermoelectric cells, which generate electricity, achieving a positive contribution to the total balance of the complete system.

  14. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. On the Efficiency of Fluidic Oscillators for Aerofoil Performance Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkorov, Dima; Seifert, Avraham

    2014-11-01

    The paper describes a recent experiment in which the Suction and Oscillatory blowing (SaOB) actuator was used to control the flow on a thick, turbulent, trailing edge separating aerofoil. The Reynolds number range is 0.5 to 1.5 million. The experiment deals with performance recovery of a thick aerofoil in laminar and turbulent flow conditions. Performance was significantly degraded due to premature boundary layer separation. An array of 12 SaOB actuators was used to effectively restore lift and reduce drag. Overall system efficiency was increased in both turbulent and laminar flow conditions. The AFC outlets, located at 20% chord location were shown to supplement or even being capable of replacing a slat. Support by the EU FP7 is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...

  17. Impact of including regional anaesthesia in enhanced recovery protocols: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    McIsaac, D I; Cole, E T; McCartney, C J L

    2015-12-01

    Regional anaesthesia (RA) is often included in enhanced recovery protocols (ERPs) as an important component of a bundle of interventions to improve outcomes after surgery. We sought to delineate whether the literature supports the use of RA in this setting with regard to commonly measured outcomes. We further sought to assess whether such improvements would translate into positive impacts on healthcare value as defined by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Triple Aim. We conducted a scoping review to address our objectives. Studies of ERPs that included RA and reported at least one outcome of interest in comparison to a control group were included. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CDSR, PROSPERO, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database were searched up to May 2015. Two reviewers assessed studies and extracted data. Of 695 identified citations, 58 studies were included for analysis. The majority (53%) were in colorectal surgery. Positive impacts of RA on all outcomes were identified; however, value-based outcomes were rarely reported. Where value-based outcomes were reported, RA appears to have a positive impact on global measures of health and function and on economic outcomes. Existing literature supports a positive impact of RA on ERP outcomes, which may be reflected in improved healthcare value. In order to justify the value of RA in ERPs, a future focus on appropriate measures is needed to align research with widely accepted frameworks, such as the Triple Aim. PMID:26658201

  18. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the fourth year of the ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'' program, funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. During the reporting period, research efforts under the program were focused on the development and evaluation of the fiber optic flow sensor system, and field testing in Tulsa, OK and the second field test of the pressure and temperature sensors in Coalinga, CA. The feasibility of a self-compensating fiber optic flow sensor based on a cantilever beam and interferometer for real-time flow rate measurements in the fluid filled pipes of oil field was clearly demonstrated. In addition, field testing of the pressure and temperature sensors deployed downhole continued. These accomplishments are summarized here: (1) Theoretical analysis and simulations were performed to ensure performance of the design. (2) The sensor fabrication and packaging techniques were investigated and improved. (3) Prototype flow sensors were fabricated based on the fabrication experience of hundreds of test sensors. (4) A lab-scale flow testing system was constructed and used for sensor evaluation. (5) Field-testing was performed in both the indoor and outdoor flow testing facility at the University of Tulsa, OK. (6) Testing of a multimode white light pressure and temperature sensor system continued at the oil site of Chevron/Texaco Company (Coalinga CA).

  19. Modelling total duration of traffic incidents including incident detection and recovery time.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil; Shobeirinejad, Ameneh

    2014-10-01

    Traffic incidents are key contributors to non-recurrent congestion, potentially generating significant delay. Factors that influence the duration of incidents are important to understand so that effective mitigation strategies can be implemented. To identify and quantify the effects of influential factors, a methodology for studying total incident duration based on historical data from an 'integrated database' is proposed. Incident duration models are developed using a selected freeway segment in the Southeast Queensland, Australia network. The models include incident detection and recovery time as components of incident duration. A hazard-based duration modelling approach is applied to model incident duration as a function of a variety of factors that influence traffic incident duration. Parametric accelerated failure time survival models are developed to capture heterogeneity as a function of explanatory variables, with both fixed and random parameters specifications. The analysis reveals that factors affecting incident duration include incident characteristics (severity, type, injury, medical requirements, etc.), infrastructure characteristics (roadway shoulder availability), time of day, and traffic characteristics. The results indicate that event type durations are uniquely different, thus requiring different responses to effectively clear them. Furthermore, the results highlight the presence of unobserved incident duration heterogeneity as captured by the random parameter models, suggesting that additional factors need to be considered in future modelling efforts. PMID:24974360

  20. Validation of a Nylon-Flocked-Swab Protocol for Efficient Recovery of Bacterial Spores from Smooth and Rough Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander; Facius, Rainer; Wirth, Reinhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet planetary-protection requirements, culturable bacterial spore loads are measured representatively for the total microbial contamination of spacecraft. However, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) cotton swab protocols for spore load determination have not changed for decades. To determine whether a more efficient alternative was available, a novel swab was evaluated for recovery of different Bacillus atrophaeus spore concentrations on stainless steel and other surfaces. Two protocols for the nylon-flocked swab (NFS) were validated and compared to the present NASA standard protocol. The results indicate that the novel swab protocols recover 3- to 4-fold more (45.4% and 49.0% recovery efficiency) B. atrophaeus spores than the NASA standard method (13.2%). Moreover, the nylon-flocked-swab protocols were superior in recovery efficiency for spores of seven different Bacillus species, including Bacillus anthracis Sterne (recovery efficiency, 20%). The recovery efficiencies for B. atrophaeus spores from different surfaces showed a variation from 5.9 to 62.0%, depending on the roughness of the surface analyzed. Direct inoculation of the swab resulted in a recovery rate of about 80%, consistent with the results of scanning electron micrographs that allowed detailed comparisons of the two swab types. The results of this investigation will significantly contribute to the cleanliness control of future life detection missions and will provide significant improvement in detection of B. anthracis contamination for law enforcement and security efforts. PMID:20543054

  1. EFFICIENT RECOVERY OF BIOETHANOL USING NOVEL PERVAPORATION-DEPHLEGMATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioethanol is the most important liquid fuel made in the U.S. from domestically produced renewable resources. Traditional production of bioethanol involves batch fermation of biomass followed by ethanol recovery from the fermentation broths using distillation. The distillation st...

  2. 20 CFR 10.712 - What amounts are included in the gross recovery?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contested verdict attributable to each of several plaintiffs, OWCP or SOL will accept that division. (b) In..., OWCP or SOL will determine the appropriate amount of the FECA beneficiary's gross recovery and advise the beneficiary of its determination. FECA beneficiaries may accept OWCP's or SOL's determination...

  3. 32 CFR 37.580 - What is recovery of funds and when should I consider including it in my TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consider including it in my TIA? 37.580 Section 37.580 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... consider including it in my TIA? (a) Recovery of funds refers to the use of the authority in 10 U.S.C. 2371... and the awarding organization, but its purpose is not to augment program budgets. It may be used...

  4. 32 CFR 37.580 - What is recovery of funds and when should I consider including it in my TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consider including it in my TIA? 37.580 Section 37.580 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... consider including it in my TIA? (a) Recovery of funds refers to the use of the authority in 10 U.S.C. 2371... and the awarding organization, but its purpose is not to augment program budgets. It may be used...

  5. 32 CFR 37.580 - What is recovery of funds and when should I consider including it in my TIA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consider including it in my TIA? 37.580 Section 37.580 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... consider including it in my TIA? (a) Recovery of funds refers to the use of the authority in 10 U.S.C. 2371... and the awarding organization, but its purpose is not to augment program budgets. It may be used...

  6. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments: Convex curvature effects including introduction and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the heat transfer rate through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20% to 50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15% to 20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: the effect of initial boundary layer thickness, the effect of freestream velocity, the effect of freestream acceleration, the effect of unheated starting length, and the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. An existing curvature prediction model was tested against this broad heat transfer data base to determine where it could appropriately be used for heat transfer predictions.

  7. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments: Convex curvature effects, including introduction and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Heat transfer rates were measured through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20-50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15-20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: (1) the effect of initial boundary layer thickness; (2) the effect of freestream velocity; (3) the effect of freestream acceleration; (4) the effect of unheated starting length; and (5) the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. Regardless of the initial state, curvature eventually forced the boundary layer into an asymptotic curved condition. The slope, minus one, is believed to be significant.

  8. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-01

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield. PMID:21145722

  9. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-15

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield.

  10. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Trucks, Daimler

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  11. Identification of Docking Possibility Criteria including Recovery from Incomplete Grasping of Docking Mechanism for Nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ui, Kyoichi; Matunaga, Saburo

    This paper deals with a docking methodology for inspection and measurement missions with nanosatellites (less than 50kg in mass). According to the proposed docking concept where a docking procedure is divided into an approaching/grasping phase and a guiding phase, a functional test model for docking mechanism is designed and assembled to conduct verification experiments. In the paper, the docking methodology, the docking mechanism, and a docking control algorithm are introduced briefly. Three dimensional microgravity experiments using a drop shaft are conducted. In the experiments, the authors classify grasping conditions into two types called “complete grasping” and “incomplete grasping”. In the complete grasping, the docking mechanism can easily guide the nanosatellite to the docking port, but in case of the incomplete grasping, it is difficult to recover from the incomplete grasping to the complete one. The incomplete grasping condition is explained experimentally, and a guiding control algorithm for recovery from the condition is proposed. Finally, docking possibility criteria are identified, and feasibility of the methodology is clarified.

  12. Wall-plug efficiency and beam dynamics in free-electron lasers using energy recovery linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, P.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Penano, J.; Hafizi, B.

    2010-08-01

    In a high average power free-electron laser (FEL) the wall-plug efficiency is of critical importance in determining the size, complexity, and cost of the overall system. The wall-plug efficiency for the FEL oscillator and amplifier (uniform and tapered wiggler) is strongly dependent on the energy recovery process. A theoretical model for electron beam dynamics in the energy recovery linac is derived and applied to the acceleration and deceleration of nano-Coulomb electron bunches for a tapered FEL amplifier. For the tapered amplifier, the spent electron beam exiting the wiggler consists of trapped and untrapped electrons. Decelerating these two populations using different phases of the radio-frequency wave in the recovery process enhances wall-plug efficiency. For the parameters considered here, the wall-plug efficiency for the tapered amplifier can be {approx}10% using this approach.

  13. Message Efficient Checkpointing and Rollback Recovery in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggi, Parmeet Kaur; Singh, Awadhesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous networks provide an appealing way of expanding the computing capability of mobile networks by combining infrastructure-less mobile ad-hoc networks with the infrastructure-based cellular mobile networks. The nodes in such a network range from low-power nodes to macro base stations and thus, vary greatly in their capabilities such as computation power and battery power. The nodes are susceptible to different types of transient and permanent failures and therefore, the algorithms designed for such networks need to be fault-tolerant. The article presents a checkpointing algorithm for the rollback recovery of mobile hosts in a heterogeneous mobile network. Checkpointing is a well established approach to provide fault tolerance in static and cellular mobile distributed systems. However, the use of checkpointing for fault tolerance in a heterogeneous environment remains to be explored. The proposed protocol is based on the results of zigzag paths and zigzag cycles by Netzer-Xu. Considering the heterogeneity prevalent in the network, an uncoordinated checkpointing technique is employed. Yet, useless checkpoints are avoided without causing a high message overhead.

  14. Behavior and Distribution of Heavy Metals Including Rare Earth Elements, Thorium, and Uranium in Sludge from Industry Water Treatment Plant and Recovery Method of Metals by Biosurfactants Application

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90–100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution. PMID:22693485

  15. Effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency of coagulants recovery by acidification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Jui; Wang, Wen-May; Wei, Ming-Jun; Chen, Jiann-Long; He, Ju-Liang; Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Wu, Chih-Chao

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency ofcoagulant recovery by acidification with H2SO4. Two sludge characteristics were studied: types of coagulant and textures of the suspended solid in raw water. The coagulant types are aluminium sulphate and polyaluminium chloride (PACl); the textures of the suspended solid are sand-based and clay-based. Efficiency of aluminium recovery at a pH of 2 was compared for different sludges obtained from water treatment plants in Taiwan. The results showed that efficiency of aluminium recovery from sludge containing clayey particles was higher than that from sludge containing sandy particles. As for the effect of coagulant types, the aluminium recovery efficiency for sludge using PACl ranged between 77% and 100%, whereas it ranged between 65% and 72% for sludge using aluminium sulphate as the coagulant. This means using PACl as the coagulant could result in higher recovery efficiency of coagulant and be beneficial for water treatment plants where renewable materials and waste reduction as the factors for making decisions regarding plant operations. However, other metals, such as manganese, could be released with aluminium during the acidification process and limit the use of the recovered coagulants. It is suggested that the recovered coagulants be used in wastewater treatment processes. PMID:23437650

  16. An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H.

    2008-07-01

    Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

  17. Energy-Efficient Bioalcohol Recovery by Gel Stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, Rutvik; Ma, Lan; Hedden, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Design of energy-efficient processes for recovering butanol and ethanol from dilute fermentations is a key challenge facing the biofuels industry due to the high energy consumption of traditional multi-stage distillation processes. Gel stripping is an alternative purification process by which a dilute alcohol is stripped from the fermentation product by passing it through a packed bed containing particles of a selectively absorbent polymeric gel material. The gel must be selective for the alcohol, while swelling to a reasonable degree in dilute alcohol-water mixtures. To accelerate materials optimization, a combinatorial approach is taken to screen a matrix of copolymer gels having orthogonal gradients in crosslinker concentration and hydrophilicity. Using a combination of swelling in pure solvents, the selectivity and distribution coefficients of alcohols in the gels can be predicted based upon multi-component extensions of Flory-Rehner theory. Predictions can be validated by measuring swelling in water/alcohol mixtures and conducting h HPLC analysis of the external liquid. 95% + removal of butanol from dilute aqueous solutions has been demonstrated, and a mathematical model of the unsteady-state gel stripping process has been developed. NSF CMMI Award 1335082.

  18. Efficiency of beef extract for the recovery of poliovirus from wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Landry, E F; Vaughn, J M; Thomas, M Z; Vicale, T J

    1978-10-01

    The efficiency of poliovirus elution from fiber glass cartridge filters (K27), epoxy-fiber glass-asbestos filters (M780), and pleated cartridge filters was assessed by using 3% beef extract (pH 9.0) or 0.1 M glycine (pH 11.5). Poliovirus type I, strain LSc, was seeded into 20- to 25-gallon (ca. 75.6- to 95.6-liter) samples of treated sewage effluent and concentrated by using a filter adsorption-elution technique. Virus elution was accomplished by using either two 600-ml portions of 3% beef extract (pH 9.0), or two 1-liter portions of 0.1 M glycine (pH 11.5). In all experiments, beef extract elution followed by organic flocculation was found to be superior, yielding a mean recovery efficiency of 85%, with recoveries ranging from 68 to 100%. Elution with 0.1 M glycine (pH 11.5) followed by inorganic flocculation resulted in a mean recovery efficiency of 36%. The variable range of recoveries with beef extract could not be significantly improved by varying the type of beef extract or by extending the elution time to 30 min. Second-step reconcentration of 1-liter seeded sewage effluent and renovated wastewater samples indicated that organic flocculation was a more efficient method for virus recovery than inorganic flocculation. Beef extract concentrations of less than 3% were found to be efficient in the recovery of poliovirus from renovated wastewater. PMID:30391

  19. Modulating Astrocyte Transition after Stroke to Promote Brain Rescue and Functional Recovery: Emerging Targets Include Rho Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Abeysinghe, Hima Charika S.; Phillips, Ellie L.; Chin-Cheng, Heung; Beart, Philip M.; Roulston, Carli L.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a common and serious condition, with few therapies. Whilst previous focus has been directed towards biochemical events within neurons, none have successfully prevented the progression of injury that occurs in the acute phase. New targeted treatments that promote recovery after stroke might be a better strategy and are desperately needed for the majority of stroke survivors. Cells comprising the neurovascular unit, including blood vessels and astrocytes, present an alternative target for supporting brain rescue and recovery in the late phase of stroke, since alteration in the unit also occurs in regions outside of the lesion. One of the major changes in the unit involves extensive morphological transition of astrocytes resulting in altered energy metabolism, decreased glutamate reuptake and recycling, and retraction of astrocyte end feed from both blood vessels and neurons. Whilst globally inhibiting transitional change in astrocytes after stroke is reported to result in further damage and functional loss, we discuss the available evidence to suggest that the transitional activation of astrocytes after stroke can be modulated for improved outcomes. In particular, we review the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in reactive gliosis and show that inhibiting ROCK after stroke results in reduced scar formation and improved functional recovery. PMID:26927079

  20. Modulating Astrocyte Transition after Stroke to Promote Brain Rescue and Functional Recovery: Emerging Targets Include Rho Kinase.

    PubMed

    Abeysinghe, Hima Charika S; Phillips, Ellie L; Chin-Cheng, Heung; Beart, Philip M; Roulston, Carli L

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a common and serious condition, with few therapies. Whilst previous focus has been directed towards biochemical events within neurons, none have successfully prevented the progression of injury that occurs in the acute phase. New targeted treatments that promote recovery after stroke might be a better strategy and are desperately needed for the majority of stroke survivors. Cells comprising the neurovascular unit, including blood vessels and astrocytes, present an alternative target for supporting brain rescue and recovery in the late phase of stroke, since alteration in the unit also occurs in regions outside of the lesion. One of the major changes in the unit involves extensive morphological transition of astrocytes resulting in altered energy metabolism, decreased glutamate reuptake and recycling, and retraction of astrocyte end feed from both blood vessels and neurons. Whilst globally inhibiting transitional change in astrocytes after stroke is reported to result in further damage and functional loss, we discuss the available evidence to suggest that the transitional activation of astrocytes after stroke can be modulated for improved outcomes. In particular, we review the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in reactive gliosis and show that inhibiting ROCK after stroke results in reduced scar formation and improved functional recovery. PMID:26927079

  1. A new direct steel making process based upon the blast furnace (Including scrap processing with recovery of tramp elements)

    SciTech Connect

    Nabi, G.

    1996-12-31

    Steel is produced from raw materials containing iron and alloying elements with direct elimination of oxygen and impurities in the blast furnace process. The blast furnace shaft is modified to take off load from the liquid bath and carbon is prevented from going into the liquid steel. In the gas purification system sulphur and CO{sub 2} removal facilities are included and purified reducing gases so obtained are combusted in the hearth with oxygen to produce heat for smelting. Scrap can be charged as raw material with the recovery of tramp elements with continuous production of liquid steel.

  2. EFFICIENCY OF DIOXIN RECOVERY FROM FLY ASH SAMPLES DURING EXTRACTION AND CLEANUP PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The data from preliminary investigations of the efficiency of dioxin recovery from fly ash samples during sample extraction and subsequent column cleanup of sample extracts are discussed. teps of the extraction and the column cleanup procedures were evaluated by using radiolabele...

  3. Improving ASR Recovery Efficiency by Partially-penetrating Wells in Brackish Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a proven cost-effective powerful technology for environmental protection and water resources optimization. The recovery efficiency (RE) is regarded as the key criteria for evaluating the ASR performance. In this study, a particular ASR scheme with the fully-penetrating well (FPW) for injection and the partially-penetrating well (PPW) for recovery is proposed to improve the RE for ASR schemes implemented in brackish aquifers. This design appreciates the tilting shape of the interface with underlying heavier salt water. For the FPW, recovery has to be terminated as soon as the interface toe reaches the well, while the toe can be pulled up to the PPW for recovery termination, resulting in later breakthrough of salt water into the pumping well, more recoverable water extracted from the shallow layers, and a higher RE. Key hydrogeological and operational parameters affecting the RE were investigated by numerical simulations. Results demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of the new ASR scheme and provided practical guidance for designing such a scheme in various hydrogeological conditions.

  4. Efficient centrifugal recovery of Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides from fermented wastewater and wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Brar, Satinder K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2006-03-01

    Studies were conducted on harvesting of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based biopesticides from fermented broths of starch industry wastewater (SIW), wastewater sludge (raw and hydrolyzed-NH and TH, respectively) and semi-synthetic soyameal to enhance entomotoxicity (Tx) by centrifugation. Pertinent factors influencing Tx, solids concentration, pH, temperature and centrifugal force were investigated. The centrifugate solids concentration beyond 100 g/l did not enhance Tx, instead caused pellet formation. Centrifugation efficiency (Tx recovery) was higher at pH 4, and temperature 20 degrees C for starch wastewater (98%), wastewater sludge (98% and 97.8% for non-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed, respectively) and soya broth (83%). For maximum Tx recovery (SIW-95%; NH-90%; TH-98% and soya-78%), the centrifugal force and time required was 48,000 g and 30 min, respectively. Losses in recovery efficiency were lower for SIW and wastewater sludge in comparison to soya on adopting commercially recommended centrifugal force of 9000 g. The settling velocity computations for different fermented broths enabled calculation of Sigma factor for continuous commercial centrifuge of a given capacity and hence simulation of power requirements. It was established that power requirements for a given Tx recovery efficiency were highest for conventional medium (soya) in comparison to other waste-based fermented broths. PMID:16515801

  5. Global Aerodynamic Modeling for Stall/Upset Recovery Training Using Efficient Piloted Flight Test Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunningham, Kevin; Hill, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Flight test and modeling techniques were developed for efficiently identifying global aerodynamic models that can be used to accurately simulate stall, upset, and recovery on large transport airplanes. The techniques were developed and validated in a high-fidelity fixed-base flight simulator using a wind-tunnel aerodynamic database, realistic sensor characteristics, and a realistic flight deck representative of a large transport aircraft. Results demonstrated that aerodynamic models for stall, upset, and recovery can be identified rapidly and accurately using relatively simple piloted flight test maneuvers. Stall maneuver predictions and comparisons of identified aerodynamic models with data from the underlying simulation aerodynamic database were used to validate the techniques.

  6. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Third quarterly report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-10-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency is first being demonstrated at bench scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications, now completed, provide for a great improvement in the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. Last quarter we reported on equipment modifications and refurbishments which resulted in a sophisticated analytical rotary kiln. As we began operating the equipment this quarter, we observed that the software package was inadequate for our purpose and that the appropriate software could not be purchased as a shelf item. Therefore, we were required to modify the equipment interface and to write our own software. The quartz sand kiln calibration runs have been completed and the results are included in this report. Computer Interface: The computer interface was designed on CTR-05, DAS-08 and MUX-32 Boards from ComputerBoards Inc. We purchased a software program, Control EG by Quinn-Curtis, to use with these boards. As we began operating the equipment we realized that the software control was inadequately sensitive for our system as it would not provide time-proportioning output. This problem was resolved by writing our own software and providing time-proportioning duty cycles for the output to each of five heaters. We have entitled this program ``Kilntrol.`` It is included in the Appendix of this report.

  7. [Recovery].

    PubMed

    Estingoy, Pierrette; Gilliot, Élodie; Parisot, Clément

    2015-01-01

    The historical fatalism of the impossibility of recovering from psychosis eased from the 1970s with the shaping of the idea of a possible recovery. Recovery is today the objective for the patient and caregivers. The key to achieving this lies in the encounter with Others. A collective approach, on the level of the institution, must be established. The aim is to create opportunities for the patient to express their doubts and feelings. PMID:26363659

  8. Optimally efficient swimming in hyper-redundant mechanisms: control, design, and energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Wiens, A J; Nahon, M

    2012-12-01

    Hyper-redundant mechanisms (HRMs), also known as snake-like robots, are highly adaptable during locomotion on land. Researchers are currently working to extend their capabilities to aquatic environments through biomimetic undulatory propulsion. In addition to increasing the versatility of the system, truly biomimetic swimming could also provide excellent locomotion efficiency. Unfortunately, the complexity of the system precludes the development of a functional solution to achieve this. To explore this problem, a rapid optimization process is used to generate efficient HRM swimming gaits. The low computational cost of the approach allows for multiple optimizations over a broad range of system conditions. By observing how these conditions affect optimal kinematics, a number of new insights are developed regarding undulatory swimming in robotic systems. Two key conditions are varied within the study, swimming speed and energy recovery. It is found that the swimmer mimics the speed control behaviour of natural fish and that energy recovery drastically increases the system's efficiency. Remarkably, this efficiency increase is accompanied by a distinct change in swimming kinematics. With energy recovery, the swimmer converges to a clearly anguilliform gait, without, it tends towards the carangiform mode. PMID:23135166

  9. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  10. Evaluation of vapor recovery systems efficiency and personal exposure in service stations in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl; Hernández-Solís, José M; Ruiz-Suárez, Luis G

    2003-06-20

    Results of a field study on the efficiency of vapor recovery systems currently used in gasoline service stations in Mexico City are presented. Nine gasoline stations were studied, representing the several technologies available in Mexico City. The test was applied to a fixed vehicular fleet of approximately 10 private and public service vehicles. Each one of the gasoline service stations tested reported efficiencies above 80% in the recovery of vapor losses from gasoline which is the minimum permissible value by Mexican regulations. Implications to the emissions inventory are discussed. A second goal of this study was to measure the potential exposure of service attendants to three important components of gasoline: benzene; toluene; and xylenes. The influence of spatial location of personnel within the service station was also evaluated by measuring levels of the three compounds both at the refueling area and in the service station office. Results are discussed and compared to a previous study. PMID:12798092

  11. High efficiency shale oil recovery. First quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  12. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA-funded energy

  13. Analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage: a Rayleigh-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schout, Gilian; Drijver, Benno; Gutierrez-Neri, Mariene; Schotting, Ruud

    2013-10-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) is an important technique for energy conservation. A controlling factor for the economic feasibility of HT-ATES is the recovery efficiency. Due to the effects of density-driven flow (free convection), HT-ATES systems applied in permeable aquifers typically have lower recovery efficiencies than conventional (low-temperature) ATES systems. For a reliable estimation of the recovery efficiency it is, therefore, important to take the effect of density-driven flow into account. A numerical evaluation of the prime factors influencing the recovery efficiency of HT-ATES systems is presented. Sensitivity runs evaluating the effects of aquifer properties, as well as operational variables, were performed to deduce the most important factors that control the recovery efficiency. A correlation was found between the dimensionless Rayleigh number (a measure of the relative strength of free convection) and the calculated recovery efficiencies. Based on a modified Rayleigh number, two simple analytical solutions are proposed to calculate the recovery efficiency, each one covering a different range of aquifer thicknesses. The analytical solutions accurately reproduce all numerically modeled scenarios with an average error of less than 3 %. The proposed method can be of practical use when considering or designing an HT-ATES system.

  14. The Wheelabrator Falls story -- Integrated recycling, highly efficient energy recovery: An update two years later

    SciTech Connect

    Felago, R.T.; Anderson, R.L.; Scanlon, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wheelabrator Environmental Systems Inc., based in Hampton, New Hampshire, has developed America`s first privately initiated, totally integrated Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) with a commercial trash-to-energy facility in Falls Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. The MRF is successfully recovering and marketing a variety of recycled products, while demonstrating that waste-to-energy and recycling are compatible and can be successfully integrated at a single site. The energy recovery plant and the MRF have completed one year of operation, giving adequate time to evaluate the impact of project innovations. These innovations will have a significant impact on how future projects, including waste-to-energy, wastewater and biosolids processing, will be developed. The energy recovery facility is capable of processing 1,600 tons per day of municipal solid waste from the Bucks County area.

  15. Performance investigation of a cogeneration plant with the efficient and compact heat recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Young-Deuk; Choon, Ng Kim

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a cogeneration plant equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The proposed cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely: (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling and (iv) dehumidification. The proposed plant comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine which generates 24 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heat activated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption chiller and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The numerical analysis for the host of waste heat recovery system and thermally activated devices using FORTRAN power station linked to powerful IMSL library is performed to investigate the performance of the overall system. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor (EUF) could achieve as high as 70% while Fuel Energy Saving Ratio (FESR) is found to be 28%.

  16. Design and implementation of a new low-cost subsurface mooring system for efficient data recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun; Tian, Jiwei; Zhao, Wei; Song, Dalei; Xu, Ming; Xu, Xiaoyang; Lu, Jun

    2013-09-23

    Mooring systems are the most effective method for making sustained time series observations in the oceans. Generally there are two types of ocean mooring systems: surface and subsurface. Subsurface mooring system is less likely to be damaged after deployment than surface system. However, subsurface system usually needs to be retrieved from the ocean for data recovery. This paper describes the design and implementation of a new low-cost subsurface mooring system for efficient data recovery: Timed Communication Buoy System (TCBS). TCBS is usually integrated in the main float and the designated data is downloaded from the control system. After data retrieval, TCBS will separate from main float, rise up to the sea surface, and transmit data by satellite communication.

  17. Quantitation of Binding, Recovery and Desalting Efficiency in Solid Phase Extraction Micropipette Tips

    SciTech Connect

    Palmblad, M N; Vogel, J S

    2004-08-02

    Micropipette-tip solid phase extraction systems are common in proteomic analyses for desalting and concentrating samples for mass spectrometry, removing interferences, and increasing sensitivity. These systems are inexpensive, disposable, and highly efficient. Here we show micropipette-tip solid phase extraction is a direct sample preparation method for {sup 14}C-accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), removing salts or reagent from labeled macromolecules. We compared loading, recovery and desalting efficiency in commercially available SPE micro-tips using {sup 14}C-labeled peptides and proteins, AMS, and alpha spectrometry ion energy loss quantitation. The polypropylene in the tips was nearly {sup 14}C-free and simultaneously provided low-background carrier for AMS. The silica material did not interfere with the analysis. Alpha spectrometry provided an absolute measurement of desalting efficiency.

  18. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Final report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-09-29

    The Adams Counter-current shale oil recovery process is an improved retorting technology enabling highly efficient oil recovery from oil shale. The high efficiency results primarily from the following facts: it (1) recovers the ash heat to preheat the feed ore; (2) burns and uses the coke energy and (3) operates without using hot ash recycling as a heat carrier. This latter feature is doubly important, contributing to high oil yield and to the generation of highly reactive coke which can be burned below 1000{degree}F, avoiding the endothermal calcination of the mineral carbonates and helping to clean the ash of contaminants. This project demonstrates that oil shale can be retorted under the specified conditions and achieve the objectives of very high efficiency. The project accomplished the following: 51 quartz sand rotary kiln runs provided significant engineering data. A heat transfer value of 107 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degree}F was obtained at optimum RPM; eight oil shale samples were obtained and preliminary shakedown runs were made. Five of the samples were selected for kiln processing and twelve pyrolysis runs were made on the five different oil shales;average off recovery was 109% of Fisher Assay; retorted residue from all five samples was oxidized at approximately 1000{degree}F. The ash from these runs was oxidized to varying extents, depending on the oil shale and oxidizing temperatures. While 1000{degree}F is adequately hot to provide process heat from coke combustion for these ores, some Eastern oil shales, without mineral carbonates, may be oxidized at higher temperatures, perhaps 100--300 degrees hotter, to obtain a more complete oxidation and utilization of the coke.

  19. Evaluation of lead recovery efficiency from waste CRT funnel glass by chlorinating volatilization process.

    PubMed

    Erzat, Aris; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2014-01-01

    The current study was carried out to develop a novel process, namely chloride volatilization procedure for lead recovery from waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass. In the recovery system, the glass powder was first compressed into cylindrical pellet homogeneously with chlorinating agents, and then subjected to thermal treatment for solid-phase reaction. In this case, lead could be easily released from the silicon oxide network of the glass and it was recovered in the form of PbCl₂. It was found that CaCl2 was the most effective chlorinating agent, and the optimum operation temperature, holding time and system pressure were 1000 °C, 2 h, 600 ± 50 Pa, respectively. The evaporated PbCl₂could be easily recovered by a cooling device. The evaporation ratio of lead from waste CRT was 99.1% and the purity of the recovered PbCl₂product was 97.0%. The reaction routes and lead recovery mechanisms of the process were identified. This study provides an efficient and practical process for waste CRT funnel glass detoxification and recycling. PMID:25176480

  20. Demonstrate the removal efficiency and capacity of MOF materials for krypton recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.

    2013-08-23

    Metal organic framework materials (MOFs) were developed and tested in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal of xenon (Xe) and krypton (Kr) from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing unit operations. Two metal organic framework structures were investigated in greater detail to demonstrate the removal efficiency and capacity of MOF materials for krypton recovery. Our two bed breakthrough measurements on NiDOBDC and FMOFCu indicate these materials can capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe and Kr from air. The removal efficiency and adsorption capacity for Kr on these two MOFs were further increased upon removal of Xe upfront.

  1. Fast hybrid SPECT simulation including efficient septal penetration modelling (SP-PSF).

    PubMed

    Staelens, Steven; de Wit, Tim; Beekman, Freek

    2007-06-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images are degraded by the detection of scattered photons and photons that penetrate the collimator septa. In this paper, a previously proposed Monte Carlo software that employs fast object scatter simulation using convolution-based forced detection (CFD) is extended towards a wide range of medium and high energy isotopes measured using various collimators. To this end, a fast method was developed for incorporating effects of septal penetrating (SP) photons. The SP contributions are obtained by calculating the object attenuation along the path from primary emission to detection followed by sampling a pre-simulated and scalable septal penetration point spread function (SP-PSF). We found that with only a very slight reduction in accuracy, we could accelerate the SP simulation by four orders of magnitude. To achieve this, we combined: (i) coarse sampling of the activity and attenuation distribution; (ii) simulation of the penetration only for a coarse grid of detector pixels followed by interpolation and (iii) neglection of SP-PSF elements below a certain threshold. By inclusion of this SP-PSF-based simulation it became possible to model both primary and septal penetrated photons while only 10% extra computation time was added to the CFD-based Monte Carlo simulator. As a result, a SPECT simulation of a patient-like distribution including SP now takes less than 5 s per projection angle on a dual processor PC. Therefore, the simulator is well-suited as an efficient projector for fully 3D model-based reconstruction or as a fast data-set generator for applications such as image processing optimization or observer studies. PMID:17505087

  2. Patterns and trends in nitrogen use and nitrogen recovery efficiency in world agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conant, Richard T.; Berdanier, Aaron B.; Grace, Peter R.

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide increases in nitrogen (N) inputs to croplands have been and will continue to be an important contributor to growing more food. But a substantial portion of N inputs to croplands are not captured in harvested products and leave the field, contributing to air and water pollution. Whether the proportion of N inputs captured in harvest grows, shrinks, or remains unchanged will have important impacts on both food production and N pollution. We created a new global N input database (fertilizer, manure, fixation, deposition, and residues) that enables evaluation of trends in nitrogen use and recovery by country and by crop from the 1960s through 2007. These data show that despite growth in yields and increased N fertilization, differences in efficiency of N use between Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; http://www.oecd.org) and other countries have persisted over nearly 50 years and exhibit no sign of convergence. The high yield, high nitrogen input systems characteristic of rich countries have released large amounts of reactive N to the environment but have operated with greater efficiency—recovering a greater portion of added N in crops. Aggregate yields in OECD countries are 70% greater than in non-OECD countries on N input rates just 54% greater. Variation in recovery efficiency between countries suggests that there is scope for improvements through enhanced N delivery and capture in the world's low-yielding croplands and that increasing efficiency of N use is an important component of meeting food demand in the future.

  3. Modular Energy-Efficient and Robust Paradigms for a Disaster-Recovery Process over Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Robust paradigms are a necessity, particularly for emerging wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. The lack of robust and efficient paradigms causes a reduction in the provision of quality of service (QoS) and additional energy consumption. In this paper, we introduce modular energy-efficient and robust paradigms that involve two archetypes: (1) the operational medium access control (O-MAC) hybrid protocol and (2) the pheromone termite (PT) model. The O-MAC protocol controls overhearing and congestion and increases the throughput, reduces the latency and extends the network lifetime. O-MAC uses an optimized data frame format that reduces the channel access time and provides faster data delivery over the medium. Furthermore, O-MAC uses a novel randomization function that avoids channel collisions. The PT model provides robust routing for single and multiple links and includes two new significant features: (1) determining the packet generation rate to avoid congestion and (2) pheromone sensitivity to determine the link capacity prior to sending the packets on each link. The state-of-the-art research in this work is based on improving both the QoS and energy efficiency. To determine the strength of O-MAC with the PT model; we have generated and simulated a disaster recovery scenario using a network simulator (ns-3.10) that monitors the activities of disaster recovery staff; hospital staff and disaster victims brought into the hospital. Moreover; the proposed paradigm can be used for general purpose applications. Finally; the QoS metrics of the O-MAC and PT paradigms are evaluated and compared with other known hybrid protocols involving the MAC and routing features. The simulation results indicate that O-MAC with PT produced better outcomes. PMID:26153768

  4. Modular Energy-Efficient and Robust Paradigms for a Disaster-Recovery Process over Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Robust paradigms are a necessity, particularly for emerging wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. The lack of robust and efficient paradigms causes a reduction in the provision of quality of service (QoS) and additional energy consumption. In this paper, we introduce modular energy-efficient and robust paradigms that involve two archetypes: (1) the operational medium access control (O-MAC) hybrid protocol and (2) the pheromone termite (PT) model. The O-MAC protocol controls overhearing and congestion and increases the throughput, reduces the latency and extends the network lifetime. O-MAC uses an optimized data frame format that reduces the channel access time and provides faster data delivery over the medium. Furthermore, O-MAC uses a novel randomization function that avoids channel collisions. The PT model provides robust routing for single and multiple links and includes two new significant features: (1) determining the packet generation rate to avoid congestion and (2) pheromone sensitivity to determine the link capacity prior to sending the packets on each link. The state-of-the-art research in this work is based on improving both the QoS and energy efficiency. To determine the strength of O-MAC with the PT model; we have generated and simulated a disaster recovery scenario using a network simulator (ns-3.10) that monitors the activities of disaster recovery staff; hospital staff and disaster victims brought into the hospital. Moreover; the proposed paradigm can be used for general purpose applications. Finally; the QoS metrics of the O-MAC and PT paradigms are evaluated and compared with other known hybrid protocols involving the MAC and routing features. The simulation results indicate that O-MAC with PT produced better outcomes. PMID:26153768

  5. STIMULI-RESPONSIVE POLYMERS WITH ENHANCED EFFICIENCY IN RESERVOIR RECOVERY PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2004-09-30

    This sixth and final progress report for DOE Award Number DE-FC26-01BC15317 describes research during the period March 01, 2004 through August 31, 2004 performed at the University of Southern Mississippi on ''Stimuli Responsive Polymers with Enhanced Efficiency in Reservoir Recovery'' processes. Significantly, terpolymers that are responsive to changes in pH and ionic strength have been synthesized, characterized, and their solution properties have been extensively examined. Terpolymers composed of acrylamide, a carboxylated acrylamido monomer (AMBA), and a quaternary ammonium monomer (AMBATAC) with balanced compositions of the latter two, exhibit increases in aqueous solution viscosity as NaCl concentration is increased. This increase in polymer coil size can be expected upon injection of this type of polymer into oil reservoirs of moderate-to-high salinity, leading to better mobility control. The opposite effect (loss of viscosity) is observed for conventional polymer systems. Additionally polymer mobility characteristics have been conducted for a number of hydrophilic copolymers utilizing an extensional flow apparatus and size exclusion chromatography. This study reveled that oil recovery enhancement through use of polymers in a water flood is due to the polymer's resistance to deformation as it flows through the reservoir. Individual polymers when in aqueous solution form coils. The larger the polymer's coil size, the greater the polymer's resistance to extensional flow and the more effective the polymer is in enhancing oil recovery. Large coil sizes are obtained by increasing the polymer molecular weight and having macromolecular structures that favor greater swelling of the coil by the aqueous solvent conditions (temperature, pH and electrolyte concentration) existing in the reservoir.

  6. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Paula; Piepel, Gregory F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matthew S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-02-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10x10^-3 to 1.86 CFU/cm^2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (>1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm^2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  7. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    PubMed Central

    Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10−3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (≥1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

  8. Development of an ELISA for Evaluation of Swab Recovery Efficiencies of Bovine Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Sparding, Nadja; Slotved, Hans-Christian; Nicolaisen, Gert M.; Giese, Steen B.; Elmlund, Jón; Steenhard, Nina R.

    2014-01-01

    After a potential biological incident the sampling strategy and sample analysis are crucial for the outcome of the investigation and identification. In this study, we have developed a simple sandwich ELISA based on commercial components to quantify BSA (used as a surrogate for ricin) with a detection range of 1.32–80 ng/mL. We used the ELISA to evaluate different protein swabbing procedures (swabbing techniques and after-swabbing treatments) for two swab types: a cotton gauze swab and a flocked nylon swab. The optimal swabbing procedure for each swab type was used to obtain recovery efficiencies from different surface materials. The surface recoveries using the optimal swabbing procedure ranged from 0–60% and were significantly higher from nonporous surfaces compared to porous surfaces. In conclusion, this study presents a swabbing procedure evaluation and a simple BSA ELISA based on commercial components, which are easy to perform in a laboratory with basic facilities. The data indicate that different swabbing procedures were optimal for each of the tested swab types, and the particular swab preference depends on the surface material to be swabbed. PMID:25402464

  9. An efficient pipeline wavefront phase recovery for the CAFADIS camera for extremely large telescopes.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO) problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs). Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations. PMID:22315523

  10. An Efficient Pipeline Wavefront Phase Recovery for the CAFADIS Camera for Extremely Large Telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO) problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs). Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations. PMID:22315523

  11. To enhancement illuminance efficiency of OLED by thin film included microparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Chuang-Hung; Chien, Chao-Heng; Lee, Jen-Chi; Chien, Wei-Cheng

    2015-09-01

    An optical thin film was provided to address light illuminance efficiency of OLED up to 80%. A polymer material was used as a film base material which could avoid the influence of total reflection angle. One kinds of oxidized metal micro-particles was chosen to dope inside the optical thin film and to increase scattering and refractive effect.

  12. Redundancy management for efficient fault recovery in NASA's distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malek, Miroslaw; Pandya, Mihir; Yau, Kitty

    1991-01-01

    The management of redundancy in computer systems was studied and guidelines were provided for the development of NASA's fault-tolerant distributed systems. Fault recovery and reconfiguration mechanisms were examined. A theoretical foundation was laid for redundancy management by efficient reconfiguration methods and algorithmic diversity. Algorithms were developed to optimize the resources for embedding of computational graphs of tasks in the system architecture and reconfiguration of these tasks after a failure has occurred. The computational structure represented by a path and the complete binary tree was considered and the mesh and hypercube architectures were targeted for their embeddings. The innovative concept of Hybrid Algorithm Technique was introduced. This new technique provides a mechanism for obtaining fault tolerance while exhibiting improved performance.

  13. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  14. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000{degrees}F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  15. Evaluation of two spike-and-recovery controls for assessment of extraction efficiency in microbial source tracking studies.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, Donald M; Stelzer, Erin A; Dick, Linda K

    2009-11-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR), applied to complex environmental samples such as water, wastewater, and feces, is susceptible to methodological and sample related biases. In this study, we evaluated two exogenous DNA spike-and-recovery controls as proxies for recovery efficiency of Bacteroidales 16S rDNA gene sequences (AllBac and qHF183) that are used for microbial source tracking (MST) in river water. Two controls--(1) the plant pathogen Pantoea stewartii, carrying the chromosomal target gene cpsD, and (2) Escherichia coli, carrying the plasmid-borne target gene DsRed2--were added to raw water samples immediately prior to concentration and DNA extraction for qPCR. When applied to samples processed in replicate, recovery of each control was positively correlated with the observed concentration of each MST marker. Adjustment of MST marker concentrations according to recovery efficiency reduced variability in replicate analyses when consistent processing and extraction methodologies were applied. Although the effects of this procedure on accuracy could not be tested due to uncertainties in control DNA concentrations, the observed reduction in variability should improve the strength of statistical comparisons. These findings suggest that either of the tested spike-and-recovery controls can be useful to measure efficiency of extraction and recovery in routine laboratory processing. PMID:19589555

  16. Evaluation of two spike-and-recovery controls for assessment of extraction efficiency in microbial source tracking studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeckel, D.M.; Stelzer, E.A.; Dick, L.K.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR), applied to complex environmental samples such as water, wastewater, and feces, is susceptible to methodological and sample related biases. In this study, we evaluated two exogenous DNA spike-and-recovery controls as proxies for recovery efficiency of Bacteroidales 16S rDNA gene sequences (AllBac and qHF183) that are used for microbial source tracking (MST) in river water. Two controls-(1) the plant pathogen Pantoea stewartii, carrying the chromosomal target gene cpsD, and (2) Escherichia coli, carrying the plasmid-borne target gene DsRed2-were added to raw water samples immediately prior to concentration and DNA extraction for qPCR. When applied to samples processed in replicate, recovery of each control was positively correlated with the observed concentration of each MST marker. Adjustment of MST marker concentrations according to recovery efficiency reduced variability in replicate analyses when consistent processing and extraction methodologies were applied. Although the effects of this procedure on accuracy could not be tested due to uncertainties in control DNA concentrations, the observed reduction in variability should improve the strength of statistical comparisons. These findings suggest that either of the tested spike-and-recovery controls can be useful to measure efficiency of extraction and recovery in routine laboratory processing. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Efficient beam-column finite element including application to thermoelastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, F.D.

    1980-02-01

    During the study of the structural design of the core of the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR), there is evidence of undue frictional interaction between fuel rod claddings and their spacer grids. In cases for which thermal bowing of the rods is sufficient to cause two-sided contact between the rods and their supporting grids (and thus a tendency to lock up), subsequent rod deformation caused by the axial thermal expansion would result in excessive buckling of the rods between locked supports. The numerical solution is best served by the finite element method. Yet there is a large number of fuel rods in the reactor, of which each is multiply-supported by spacers. Hence, an efficient finite element is needed that would model each section between supports with not more than three elements. The new efficient finite element is developed, beginning with the principle of virtual work.

  18. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Second quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  19. Enhanced oil recovery by surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency: Second annual report, September 30, 1986-September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, J H; Scamehorn, J F

    1988-04-01

    It is widely known that heterogeneities in oil reservoirs occurring as a result of permeability variations in the rock can have a detrimental effect on an oil recovery process; preferential diversion of injected displacement fluid occurs through the high-permeability zones, leaving the lower-permeability zones at a high residual oil content at a time when it is no longer economically viable to continue the oil recovery process. A novel oil recovery process is described which aims to improve the volumetric sweep efficiency of oil recovery. High-permeability zones are partially or completely plugged off by using the chromatographic and phase behavior of surfactants and their mixtures and the preferential invasion of high-permeability areas by low-viscosity injected fluids. The plugging will divert flow into regions of higher oil saturation. 85 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Methods of improving the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. [including X ray analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loferski, J. J.; Roessler, B.; Crisman, E. E.; Chen, L. Y.; Kaul, R.

    1974-01-01

    Work on aluminum-alloyed silicon grating cells is continued. Optimization of the geometry (grating line width and spacing) confirms the analysis of such cells. A 1 sq cm grating cell was fabricated and its i-V characteristic was measured under an AMO solar simulator. It is found that the efficiency of this cell would be about 7.9%, if it were covered by the usual antireflection coating. The surface of the cell is not covered by a diffused junction. The response is blue shifted; the current is somewhat higher than that produced by a commercial Si cell. However, the open circuit voltage is low, and attempts to optimize the open circuit voltage of the aluminum-alloy junctions are described. A preliminary X-ray topographic examination of GaAs specimens of the type commonly used to make solar cells is studied. The X-ray study shows that the wafers are filled with regions having strain gradients, possibly caused by precipitates. It is possible that a correlation exists between the presence of low mechanical perfection and minority carrier diffusion lengths of GaAs crystals.

  1. Efficient distance-including integral screening in linear-scaling Møller-Plesset perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Simon A.; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Efficient estimates for the preselection of two-electron integrals in atomic-orbital based Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (AO-MP2) theory are presented, which allow for evaluating the AO-MP2 energy with computational effort that scales linear with molecular size for systems with a significant HOMO-LUMO gap. The estimates are based on our recently introduced QQR approach [S. A. Maurer, D. S. Lambrecht, D. Flaig, and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 144107 (2012), 10.1063/1.3693908], which exploits the asympotic decay of the integral values with increasing bra-ket separation as deduced from the multipole expansion and combines this decay behavior with the common Schwarz bound to a tight and simple estimate. We demonstrate on a diverse selection of benchmark systems that our AO-MP2 method in combination with the QQR-type estimates produces reliable results for systems with both localized and delocalized electronic structure, while in the latter case the screening essentially reverts to the common Schwarz screening. For systems with localized electronic structure, our AO-MP2 method shows an early onset of linear scaling as demonstrated on DNA systems. The favorable scaling behavior allows to compute systems with more than 1000 atoms and 10 000 basis functions on a single core that are clearly not accessible with conventional MP2 methods. Furthermore, our AO-MP2 method is particularly suited for parallelization and we present benchmark calculations on a protein-DNA repair complex comprising 2025 atoms and 20 371 basis functions.

  2. Improvement of III-nitride visible and ultraviolet light-emitting diode performance, including extraction efficiency, electrical efficiency, thermal management and efficiency maintenance at high current densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vampola, Kenneth

    In this work, highly efficient broad-area LEDs on bulk GaN substrates were developed and the fabrication process and device layout were optimized. This optimization relied in part on electrical, optical, thermal and recombination models. The peak external quantum efficiency of the 450 nm LEDs was over 68% when biased at 20 mA. The efficiency characteristic showed a typical droop curve, decreasing at high current densities. The cause of this droop is unknown. An exploratory experiment was conducted to characterize electron overflow and its role in efficiency droop. Novel device structures were developed, allowing direct measurement of overflow electrons in LED-like structures under electrical injection. In these test structures, electrons were observed in the p-type region of the LED only at current densities where efficiency droop was active. The onset of efficiency droop was preceded by the onset of electron overflow. However, the magnitude of the overflow current could not be measured and it is undetermined whether the dominant cause of efficiency droop is electron overflow or some other process such as Auger recombination. Calibration structures allowing measurement of the magnitude of the overflow are proposed. Work on deep-ultraviolet, 275 nm, LEDs is also presented. Demonstration of direct-wafer bonded LEDs to beta-Ga2O3 is presented. A SiC substrate removal process is discussed. LEDs fabricated by this flip-chip process exhibited up to 1.8 times greater power compared to LEDs fabricated by a standard process but suffered from increased forward voltage and premature failure. Further process development leading to electrically efficient operation is proposed.

  3. Efficient parallel seismic simulations including topography and 3-D material heterogeneities on locally refined composite grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, Anders; Rodgers, Arthur

    2010-05-01

    The finite difference method on a uniform Cartesian grid is a highly efficient and easy to implement technique for solving the elastic wave equation in seismic applications. However, the spacing in a uniform Cartesian grid is fixed throughout the computational domain, whereas the resolution requirements in realistic seismic simulations usually are higher near the surface than at depth. This can be seen from the well-known formula h ≤ L-P which relates the grid spacing h to the wave length L, and the required number of grid points per wavelength P for obtaining an accurate solution. The compressional and shear wave lengths in the earth generally increase with depth and are often a factor of ten larger below the Moho discontinuity (at about 30 km depth), than in sedimentary basins near the surface. A uniform grid must have a grid spacing based on the small wave lengths near the surface, which results in over-resolving the solution at depth. As a result, the number of points in a uniform grid is unnecessarily large. In the wave propagation project (WPP) code, we address the over-resolution-at-depth issue by generalizing our previously developed single grid finite difference scheme to work on a composite grid consisting of a set of structured rectangular grids of different spacings, with hanging nodes on the grid refinement interfaces. The computational domain in a regional seismic simulation often extends to depth 40-50 km. Hence, using a refinement ratio of two, we need about three grid refinements from the bottom of the computational domain to the surface, to keep the local grid size in approximate parity with the local wave lengths. The challenge of the composite grid approach is to find a stable and accurate method for coupling the solution across the grid refinement interface. Of particular importance is the treatment of the solution at the hanging nodes, i.e., the fine grid points which are located in between coarse grid points. WPP implements a new, energy

  4. Effect of morphology of aluminium oxide nanoparticles on viscosity and interfacial tension (IFT) and the recovery efficiency in enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Hasnah Mohd; Radzi, Nur Shahbinar Ahmad; Latiff, Noor Rasyada Ahmad; Shafie, Afza

    2014-10-01

    Conventional enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods failed to extract the remaining oil from unconventional, high salinity and high temperature high pressure (HTHP) oil reservoirs. In surfactant flooding method, surfactants are injected to reduce the interfacial tension between oil and water hence sufficiently displaces oil from the reservoir. In steam flooding, high temperature steam is injected into a reservoir to heat oil to make it less viscous, making it easier to move to the production wells. However these methods fail to failed to perform because injection agents start to change its properties under the extreme condition. Therefore, nanoparticles are introduced to mitigate these challenges because of its ability to change certain factor in certain condition. Previous studies had shown that increments in the oil recovery were observed when core-flooding experiments using Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) nanofluid were conducted. In this research, the effect of morphology of Al2O3 nanoparticles on viscosity and interfacial tension (IFT) and the recovery efficiency in EOR was studied. Al2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized and the morphology was altered by hydrothermal treatment using different concentration of NaOH. After being treated, the morphology of Al2O3 changed from hexagonal to thin lath. The IFT between crude oil and the nanofluids of the treated Al2O3 showed lower values compared to the untreated ones. It was also observed from core-flooding experiment that the Al2O3 nanofluid which had undergone treatment with 10 M NaOH gave the highest recovery of 52.50% of residual oil in place (ROIP). The change in morphology could have resulted in better dispersion and thus lead to higher recovery.

  5. Centromere protein F includes two sites that couple efficiently to depolymerizing microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Vladimir A.; Grissom, Paula M.; Arzhanik, Vladimir K.; Zaytsev, Anatoly V.; Renganathan, Kutralanathan; McClure-Begley, Tristan; Old, William M.; Ahn, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Firm attachments between kinetochores and dynamic spindle microtubules (MTs) are important for accurate chromosome segregation. Centromere protein F (CENP-F) has been shown to include two MT-binding domains, so it may participate in this key mitotic process. Here, we show that the N-terminal MT-binding domain of CENP-F prefers curled oligomers of tubulin relative to MT walls by approximately fivefold, suggesting that it may contribute to the firm bonds between kinetochores and the flared plus ends of dynamic MTs. A polypeptide from CENP-F’s C terminus also bound MTs, and either protein fragment diffused on a stable MT wall. They also followed the ends of dynamic MTs as they shortened. When either fragment was coupled to a microbead, the force it could transduce from a shortening MT averaged 3–5 pN but could exceed 10 pN, identifying CENP-F as a highly effective coupler to shortening MTs. PMID:26101217

  6. An efficient phase-selective gelator for aromatic solvents recovery based on a cyanostilbene amide derivative.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Ma, Yao; Deng, Mengyu; Shang, Hongxing; Liang, Chunshuang; Jiang, Shimei

    2015-07-01

    Two novel low molecular weight organogelators (LMOGs) 1 and 2 composed of a cholesteryl group, an amide group and various terminal cyanostilbene moieties were synthesized. They could form stable gels in p-xylene. In particular, 2 with more extended π-conjugation length showed remarkable gelation ability in many aromatic solvents, chloroform and chloroform-containing mixed solvents at a relatively low concentration. FT-IR and XRD spectra indicated that the difference between 1 and 2 in the gelation properties may result from the deviation of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding and π–π stacking as driving forces for the formation of the gels. Significantly, 2 can function as an efficient room-temperature phase-selective gelator (PSG) for potential application in the separation and recovery of various aromatic solvents from its mixture with water. Meanwhile, the gelator can be easily recovered and reused several times. Furthermore, the phase-selective gelation properties of 2 can provide a simple and feasible approach for the removal of the rhodamine B (RhB) dye from water. PMID:26035825

  7. Recovery efficiency and limit of detection of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne from environmental surface samples.

    PubMed

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Baron, Paul A; Beard, Jeremy K; Hein, Misty J; Larsen, Lloyd D; Rose, Laura; Schaefer, Frank W; Noble-Wang, Judith; Hodges, Lisa; Lindquist, H D Alan; Deye, Gregory J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2009-07-01

    After the 2001 anthrax incidents, surface sampling techniques for biological agents were found to be inadequately validated, especially at low surface loadings. We aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores within a chamber to achieve very low surface loading (ca. 3, 30, and 200 CFU per 100 cm(2)). Steel and carpet coupons seeded in the chamber were sampled with swab (103 cm(2)) or wipe or vacuum (929 cm(2)) surface sampling methods and analyzed at three laboratories. Agar settle plates (60 cm(2)) were the reference for determining recovery efficiency (RE). The minimum estimated surface concentrations to achieve a 95% response rate based on probit regression were 190, 15, and 44 CFU/100 cm(2) for sampling steel surfaces and 40, 9.2, and 28 CFU/100 cm(2) for sampling carpet surfaces with swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively; however, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of high observed variability. Mean REs at the highest surface loading were 5.0%, 18%, and 3.7% on steel and 12%, 23%, and 4.7% on carpet for the swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively. Precision (coefficient of variation) was poor at the lower surface concentrations but improved with increasing surface concentration. The best precision was obtained with wipe samples on carpet, achieving 38% at the highest surface concentration. The wipe sampling method detected B. anthracis at lower estimated surface concentrations and had higher RE and better precision than the other methods. These results may guide investigators to more meaningfully conduct environmental sampling, quantify contamination levels, and conduct risk assessment for humans. PMID:19429546

  8. Evaluation of Sample Recovery Efficiency for Bacteriophage P22 on Fomites

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Amanda B.; Pandey, Alok K.; Reyes-Gastelum, David; Gerba, Charles P.; Rose, Joan B.

    2012-01-01

    Fomites are known to play a role in the transmission of pathogens. Quantitative analysis of the parameters that affect sample recovery efficiency (SRE) at the limit of detection of viruses on fomites will aid in improving quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and infection control. The variability in SRE as a function of fomite type, fomite surface area, sampling time, application media, relative humidity (rH), and wetting agent was evaluated. To quantify the SRE, bacteriophage P22 was applied onto fomites at average surface densities of 0.4 ± 0.2 and 4 ± 2 PFU/cm2. Surface areas of 100 and 1,000 cm2 of nonporous fomites found in indoor environments (acrylic, galvanized steel, and laminate) were evaluated with premoistened antistatic wipes. The parameters with the most effects on the SRE were sampling time, fomite surface area, wetting agent, and rH. At time zero (the initial application of bacteriophage P22), the SRE for the 1,000-cm2 fomite surface area was, on average, 40% lower than that for the 100-cm2 fomite surface area. For both fomite surface areas, the application medium Trypticase soy broth (TSB) and/or the laminate fomite predominantly resulted in a higher SRE. After the applied samples dried on the fomites (20 min), the average SRE was less than 3%. A TSB wetting agent applied on the fomite improved the SRE for all samples at 20 min. In addition, an rH greater than 28% generally resulted in a higher SRE than an rH less than 28%. The parameters impacting SRE at the limit of detection have the potential to enhance sampling strategies and data collection for QMRA models. PMID:22941090

  9. Recovery Efficiency and Limit of Detection of Aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne from Environmental Surface Samples ▿

    PubMed Central

    Estill, Cheryl Fairfield; Baron, Paul A.; Beard, Jeremy K.; Hein, Misty J.; Larsen, Lloyd D.; Rose, Laura; Schaefer, Frank W.; Noble-Wang, Judith; Hodges, Lisa; Lindquist, H. D. Alan; Deye, Gregory J.; Arduino, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    After the 2001 anthrax incidents, surface sampling techniques for biological agents were found to be inadequately validated, especially at low surface loadings. We aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores within a chamber to achieve very low surface loading (ca. 3, 30, and 200 CFU per 100 cm2). Steel and carpet coupons seeded in the chamber were sampled with swab (103 cm2) or wipe or vacuum (929 cm2) surface sampling methods and analyzed at three laboratories. Agar settle plates (60 cm2) were the reference for determining recovery efficiency (RE). The minimum estimated surface concentrations to achieve a 95% response rate based on probit regression were 190, 15, and 44 CFU/100 cm2 for sampling steel surfaces and 40, 9.2, and 28 CFU/100 cm2 for sampling carpet surfaces with swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively; however, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of high observed variability. Mean REs at the highest surface loading were 5.0%, 18%, and 3.7% on steel and 12%, 23%, and 4.7% on carpet for the swab, wipe, and vacuum methods, respectively. Precision (coefficient of variation) was poor at the lower surface concentrations but improved with increasing surface concentration. The best precision was obtained with wipe samples on carpet, achieving 38% at the highest surface concentration. The wipe sampling method detected B. anthracis at lower estimated surface concentrations and had higher RE and better precision than the other methods. These results may guide investigators to more meaningfully conduct environmental sampling, quantify contamination levels, and conduct risk assessment for humans. PMID:19429546

  10. Evaluation of sludge reduction and phosphorus recovery efficiencies in a new advanced wastewater treatment system using denitrifying polyphosphate accumulating organisms.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Kondo, T; Nakagawa, K; Tsuneda, S; Hirata, A; Shimizu, Y; Inamori, Y

    2006-01-01

    A new biological nutrient removal process, anaerobic-oxic-anoxic (A/O/A) system using denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (DNPAOs), was proposed. To attain excess sludge reduction and phosphorus recovery, the A/O/A system equipped with ozonation tank and phosphorus adsorption column was operated for 92 days, and water quality of the effluent, sludge reduction efficiency, and phosphorus recovery efficiency were evaluated. As a result, TOC, T-N and T-P removal efficiency were 85%, 70% and 85%, respectively, throughout the operating period. These slightly lower removal efficiencies than conventional anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) processes were due to the unexpected microbial population in this system where DNPAOs were not the dominant group but normal polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) that could not utilize nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor became dominant. However, it was successfully demonstrated that 34-127% of sludge reduction and around 80% of phosphorus recovery were attained. In conclusion, the A/O/A system equipped with ozonation and phosphorus adsorption systems is useful as a new advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to resolve the problems of increasing excess sludge and depleted phosphorus. PMID:16749446

  11. Energy-efficient modification of reduction-melting for lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takashi Yonezawa, Susumu

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • We recovered Pb from cathode ray tube funnel glass using reduction melting process. • We modified the melting process to achieve Pb recovery with low energy consumption. • Pb in the funnel glass is efficiently recovered at 1000 °C by adding Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • Pb remaining in the glass after reduction melting is extracted with 1 M HCl. • 98% of Pb in the funnel glass was recovered by reduction melting and HCl leaching. - Abstract: Lead can be recovered from funnel glass of waste cathode ray tubes via reduction melting. While low-temperature melting is necessary for reduced energy consumption, previously proposed methods required high melting temperatures (1400 °C) for the reduction melting. In this study, the reduction melting of the funnel glass was performed at 900–1000 °C using a lab-scale reactor with varying concentrations of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at different melting temperatures and melting times. The optimum Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} dosage and melting temperature for efficient lead recovery was 0.5 g per 1 g of the funnel glass and 1000 °C respectively. By the reduction melting with the mentioned conditions, 92% of the lead in the funnel glass was recovered in 60 min. However, further lead recovery was difficult because the rate of the lead recovery decreased as with the recovery of increasing quantity of the lead from the glass. Thus, the lead remaining in the glass after the reduction melting was extracted with 1 M HCl, and the lead recovery improved to 98%.

  12. Multicenter Comparison of ESP Culture System II with BACTEC 460TB and with Lowenstein-Jensen Medium for Recovery of Mycobacteria from Different Clinical Specimens, Including Blood

    PubMed Central

    Tortoli, Enrico; Cichero, Paola; Chirillo, M. Gabriella; Gismondo, M. Rita; Bono, Letizia; Gesu, Giampietro; Simonetti, M. Tullia; Volpe, Gisella; Nardi, Giampietro; Marone, Piero

    1998-01-01

    The recently developed ESP Culture System II (AccuMed, Chicago, Ill.) was compared with radiometric BACTEC 460TB (Becton Dickinson, Towson, Md.) and with Lowenstein-Jensen medium for recovery of mycobacteria from over 2,500 clinical specimens both of respiratory and nonrespiratory origin, including blood. The majority of the 219 mycobacterial isolates (129) belonged to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, followed by 37 isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and 53 isolates of eight other mycobacterial species. Rates of recovery obtained with BACTEC, ESP, and Lowenstein-Jensen medium were 89, 79, and 64%, respectively, with such differences being statistically significant. Different media and systems appeared to behave differently when the more frequently detected organisms were considered: M. tuberculosis complex isolates grew better with BACTEC, and MAC isolates grew better with ESP. An analysis of the combinations of Lowenstein-Jensen medium with BACTEC and with ESP did not reveal significant differences in recovery rates. With regard to the times needed for the detection of positive cultures, they were significantly longer on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (average, 28 days) than with the remaining two systems, between which there was no difference (average, 18 days). We conclude, therefore, that the ESP system, when used in combination with a solid medium, performs as well as the thoroughly validated radiometric BACTEC system and offers the advantages of full automation and absence of radioisotopes. PMID:9574709

  13. Energy-efficient modification of reduction-melting for lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2013-08-01

    Lead can be recovered from funnel glass of waste cathode ray tubes via reduction melting. While low-temperature melting is necessary for reduced energy consumption, previously proposed methods required high melting temperatures (1400 °C) for the reduction melting. In this study, the reduction melting of the funnel glass was performed at 900-1000 °C using a lab-scale reactor with varying concentrations of Na(2)CO(3) at different melting temperatures and melting times. The optimum Na(2)CO(3) dosage and melting temperature for efficient lead recovery was 0.5 g per 1g of the funnel glass and 1000 °C respectively. By the reduction melting with the mentioned conditions, 92% of the lead in the funnel glass was recovered in 60 min. However, further lead recovery was difficult because the rate of the lead recovery decreased as with the recovery of increasing quantity of the lead from the glass. Thus, the lead remaining in the glass after the reduction melting was extracted with 1M HCl, and the lead recovery improved to 98%. PMID:23711698

  14. Efficient ethanol recovery from yeast fermentation broth with integrated distillation-membrane process

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to conventional distillatio...

  15. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-membrane process

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane separati...

  16. An efficient algorithm for solving coupled Schroedinger type ODE`s, whose potentials include {delta}-functions

    SciTech Connect

    Gousheh, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    I have used the shooting method to find the eigenvalues (bound state energies) of a set of strongly coupled Schroedinger type equations. I have discussed the advantages of the shooting method when the potentials include {delta}-functions. I have also discussed some points which are universal in these kind of problems, whose use make the algorithm much more efficient. These points include mapping the domain of the ODE into a finite one, using the asymptotic form of the solutions, best use of the normalization freedom, and converting the {delta}-functions into boundary conditions.

  17. 3M: Hutchinson Plant Focuses on Heat Recovery and Cogeneration during Plan-Wide Energy-Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-01

    3M performed a plant-wide energy efficiency assessment at its Hutchinson, Minnesota, plant to identify energy- and cost-saving opportunities. Assessment staff developed four separate implementation packages that represented various combinations of energy-efficiency projects involving chiller consolidation, air compressor cooling improvements, a steam turbine used for cogeneration, and a heat recovery boiler for two of the plant's thermal oxidizers. Staff estimated that the plant could save 6 million kWh/yr in electricity and more than 200,000 MMBtu/yr in natural gas and fuel oil, and avoid energy costs of more than $1 million during the first year.

  18. Efficiency of energy recovery from municipal solid waste and the resultant effect on the greenhouse gas balance.

    PubMed

    Gohlke, Oliver

    2009-11-01

    Global warming is a focus of political interest and life-cycle assessment of waste management systems reveals that energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a key issue. This paper demonstrates how the greenhouse gas effects of waste treatment processes can be described in a simplified manner by considering energy efficiency indicators. For evaluation to be consistent, it is necessary to use reasonable system boundaries and to take the generation of electricity and the use of heat into account. The new European R1 efficiency criterion will lead to the development and implementation of optimized processes/systems with increased energy efficiency which, in turn, will exert an influence on the greenhouse gas effects of waste management in Europe. Promising technologies are: the increase of steam parameters, reduction of in-plant energy consumption, and the combined use of heat and power. Plants in Brescia and Amsterdam are current examples of good performance with highly efficient electricity generation. Other examples of particularly high heat recovery rates are the energy-from-waste (EfW) plants in Malmö and Gothenburg. To achieve the full potential of greenhouse gas reduction in waste management, it is necessary to avoid landfilling combustible wastes, for example, by means of landfill taxes and by putting incentives in place for increasing the efficiency of EfW systems. PMID:19837705

  19. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A. Compton); "Reading Recovery in Arizona--A…

  20. Investigating potential light-duty efficiency improvements through simulation of turbo-compounding and waste-heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M; Briggs, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment. While there are significant opportunities for recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler for heavy-duty applications, achieving similar benefits for light-duty applications is complicated by transient, low-load operation at typical driving conditions and competition with the turbocharger and aftertreatment system for the limited thermal resources. We have developed an organic Rankine cycle model using GT-Suite to investigate the potential for efficiency improvement through waste-heat recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler of a light-duty diesel engine. The model is used to examine the effects of efficiency-improvement strategies such as cylinder deactivation, use of advanced materials and improved insulation to limit ambient heat loss, and turbo-compounding on the steady-state performance of the ORC system and the availability of thermal energy for downstream aftertreatment systems. Results from transient drive-cycle simulations are also presented, and we discuss strategies to address operational difficulties associated with transient drive cycles and balancing the thermal requirements of waste-heat recovery

  1. High efficiency recovery and epitope specific sorting of an scFv yeast display library

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Robert W.; Coleman, James R.; Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Michael

    2004-03-01

    In order to more productively utilize the rich source of antigen specific reagents present in the previously described non-immune scFv yeast display library (Feldhaus et al., 2003) one must be able to efficiently isolate and characterize clones within the library. To this end, we have developed and validated a magnetic bead sorting technique utilizing the Miltenyi MacsTm system to recover greater than 90% of the antigen specific clones present in the library. In combination with flow cytometry, we rapidly reduced diversity and enriched for antigen specific clones in three rounds of selection. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of pre-existing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for antigen labeling and subsequent flow cytometric sorting and characterization of epitope specific scFv. Combining these two improvements in library screening allowed isolation and characterization of 3 epitope specific scFv (including a previously uncharacterized epitope) to a 6 kd protein, epidermal growth factor EGF.

  2. Including quality attributes in efficiency measures consistent with net benefit: creating incentives for evidence based medicine in practice.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Simon; Coelli, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Evidence based medicine supports net benefit maximising therapies and strategies in processes of health technology assessment (HTA) for reimbursement and subsidy decisions internationally. However, translation of evidence based medicine to practice is impeded by efficiency measures such as cost per case-mix adjusted separation in hospitals, which ignore health effects of care. In this paper we identify a correspondence method that allows quality variables under control of providers to be incorporated in efficiency measures consistent with maximising net benefit. Including effects framed from a disutility bearing (utility reducing) perspective (e.g. mortality, morbidity or reduction in life years) as inputs and minimising quality inclusive costs on the cost-disutility plane is shown to enable efficiency measures consistent with maximising net benefit under a one to one correspondence. The method combines advantages of radial properties with an appropriate objective of maximising net benefit to overcome problems of inappropriate objectives implicit with alternative methods, whether specifying quality variables with utility bearing output (e.g. survival, reduction in morbidity or life years), hyperbolic or exogenous variables. This correspondence approach is illustrated in undertaking efficiency comparison at a clinical activity level for 45 Australian hospitals allowing for their costs and mortality rates per admission. Explicit coverage and comparability conditions of the underlying correspondence method are also shown to provide a robust framework for preventing cost-shifting and cream-skimming incentives, with appropriate qualification of analysis and support for data linkage and risk adjustment where these conditions are not satisfied. Comparison on the cost-disutility plane has previously been shown to have distinct advantages in comparing multiple strategies in HTA, which this paper naturally extends to a robust method and framework for comparing efficiency of

  3. Efficient recovery of fluoroquinolone-susceptible and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains from frozen samples.

    PubMed

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Santana, Evelyn; Lee, Abby; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Babson, Andrew; Perencevich, Eli N; Harris, Anthony D; Smith, Catherine A; Maslow, Joel

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the rate of recovery of fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates from culture of frozen perirectal swab samples compared with the results for culture of the same specimen before freezing. Recovery rates for these 2 classes of E. coli were 91% and 83%, respectively. The majority of distinct strains recovered from the initial sample were also recovered from the frozen sample. The strains that were not recovered were typically present only in low numbers in the initial sample. These findings emphasize the utility of frozen surveillance samples. PMID:18279070

  4. Efficient Recovery of Fluoroquinolone-Susceptible and Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains From Frozen Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Santana, Evelyn; Lee, Abby; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Babson, Andrew; Perencevich, Eli N.; Harris, Anthony D.; Smith, Catherine A.; Maslow, Joel

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the rate of recovery of fluoroquinolone-resistant and fluoroquinolone-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates from culture of frozen perirectal swab samples compared with the results for culture of the same specimen before freezing. Recovery rates for these 2 classes of E. coli were 91% and 83%, respectively. The majority of distinct strains recovered from the initial sample were also recovered from the frozen sample. The strains that were not recovered were typically present only in low numbers in the initial sample. These findings emphasize the utility of frozen surveillance samples. PMID:18279070

  5. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-vapor permeation hybrid process

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative hybrid process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane s...

  6. A superhydrophobic zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-90) with high steam stability for efficient recovery of bioalcohols.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanyao; Liu, Qian; Huang, Aisheng

    2016-02-16

    A superhydrophobic zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-90) with high steam stability is prepared through post-functionalization via an amine condensation reaction. The developed superhydrophobic ZIF-90 is highly promising as an effective and reusable adsorbent for bio-alcohol recovery. PMID:26878906

  7. Recovery Act: Integrated DC-DC Conversion for Energy-Efficient Multicore Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, Kenneth L

    2013-03-31

    In this project, we have developed the use of thin-film magnetic materials to improve in energy efficiency of digital computing applications by enabling integrated dc-dc power conversion and management with on-chip power inductors. Integrated voltage regulators also enables fine-grained power management, by providing dynamic scaling of the supply voltage in concert with the clock frequency of synchronous logic to throttle power consumption at periods of low computational demand. The voltage converter generates lower output voltages during periods of low computational performance requirements and higher output voltages during periods of high computational performance requirements. Implementation of integrated power conversion requires high-capacity energy storage devices, which are generally not available in traditional semiconductor processes. We achieve this with integration of thin-film magnetic materials into a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process for high-quality on-chip power inductors. This project includes a body of work conducted to develop integrated switch-mode voltage regulators with thin-film magnetic power inductors. Soft-magnetic materials and inductor topologies are selected and optimized, with intent to maximize efficiency and current density of the integrated regulators. A custom integrated circuit (IC) is designed and fabricated in 45-nm CMOS silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to provide the control system and power-train necessary to drive the power inductors, in addition to providing a digital load for the converter. A silicon interposer is designed and fabricated in collaboration with IBM Research to integrate custom power inductors by chip stacking with the 45-nm CMOS integrated circuit, enabling power conversion with current density greater than 10A/mm2. The concepts and designs developed from this work enable significant improvements in performance-per-watt of future microprocessors in servers, desktops, and mobile

  8. Energy efficient of ethanol recovery in pervaporation membrane bioreactor with mechanical vapor compression eliminating the cold traps.

    PubMed

    Fan, Senqing; Xiao, Zeyi; Li, Minghai

    2016-07-01

    An energy efficient pervaporation membrane bioreactor with mechanical vapor compression was developed for ethanol recovery during the process of fermentation coupled with pervaporation. Part of the permeate vapor at the membrane downstream under the vacuum condition was condensed by running water at the first condenser and the non-condensed vapor enriched with ethanol was compressed to the atmospheric pressure and pumped into the second condenser, where the vapor was easily condensed into a liquid by air. Three runs of fermentation-pervaporation experiment have been carried out lasting for 192h, 264h and 360h respectively. Complete vapor recovery validated the novel pervaporation membrane bioreactor. The total flux of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was in the range of 350gm(-2)h(-1) and 600gm(-2)h(-1). Compared with the traditional cold traps condensation, mechanical vapor compression behaved a dominant energy saving feature. PMID:26995618

  9. Copper chelator induced efficient episodic memory recovery in a non-transgenic Alzheimer's mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ceccom, Johnatan; Coslédan, Frédéric; Halley, Hélène; Francès, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean Michel; Meunier, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative syndrom involving many different biological parameters, including the accumulation of copper metal ions in Aβ amyloid peptides due to a perturbation of copper circulation and homeostasis within the brain. Copper-containing amyloids activated by endogenous reductants are able to generate an oxidative stress that is involved in the toxicity of abnormal amyloids and contribute to the progressive loss of neurons in AD. Since only few drugs are currently available for the treatment of AD, we decided to design small molecules able to interact with copper and we evaluated these drug-candidates with non-transgenic mice, since AD is mainly an aging disease, not related to genetic disorders. We created a memory deficit mouse model by a single icv injection of Aβ(1-42) peptide, in order to mimic the early stage of the disease and the key role of amyloid oligomers in AD. No memory deficit was observed in the control mice with the antisense Aβ(42-1) peptide. Here we report the capacity of a new copper-specific chelating agent, a bis-8-aminoquinoline PA1637, to fully reverse the deficit of episodic memory after three weeks of treatment by oral route on non-transgenic amyloid-impaired mice. Clioquinol and memantine have been used as comparators to validate this fast and efficient mouse model. PMID:22927947

  10. FILTUS: a desktop GUI for fast and efficient detection of disease-causing variants, including a novel autozygosity detector

    PubMed Central

    Vigeland, Magnus D.; Gjøtterud, Kristina S.; Selmer, Kaja K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: FILTUS is a stand-alone tool for working with annotated variant files, e.g. when searching for variants causing Mendelian disease. Very flexible in terms of input file formats, FILTUS offers efficient filtering and a range of downstream utilities, including statistical analysis of gene sharing patterns, detection of de novo mutations in trios, quality control plots and autozygosity mapping. The autozygosity mapping is based on a hidden Markov model and enables accurate detection of autozygous regions directly from exome-scale variant files. Availability and implementation: FILTUS is written in Python and runs on Windows, Mac and Linux. Binaries and source code are freely available at http://folk.uio.no/magnusv/filtus.html and on GitHub: https://github.com/magnusdv/filtus. Automatic installation is available via PyPI (e.g. pip install filtus). Contact: magnusdv@medisin.uio.no Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26819469

  11. Energy Efficient Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Ethanol Recovery ad Dehydration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower f...

  12. Energy efficient recovery and dehydration of ethanol from fermentation broths by Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower ...

  13. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Structure Segmentation and Transfer Faults in the Marcellus Shale, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania: Implications for Gas Recovery Efficiency and Risk Assessment Using 3D Seismic Attribute Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Emily D.

    The Marcellus Shale has become an important unconventional gas reservoir in the oil and gas industry. Fractures within this organic-rich black shale serve as an important component of porosity and permeability useful in enhancing production. Horizontal drilling is the primary approach for extracting hydrocarbons in the Marcellus Shale. Typically, wells are drilled perpendicular to natural fractures in an attempt to intersect fractures for effective hydraulic stimulation. If the fractures are contained within the shale, then hydraulic fracturing can enhance permeability by further breaking the already weakened rock. However, natural fractures can affect hydraulic stimulations by absorbing and/or redirecting the energy away from the wellbore, causing a decreased efficiency in gas recovery, as has been the case for the Clearfield County, Pennsylvania study area. Estimating appropriate distances away from faults and fractures, which may limit hydrocarbon recovery, is essential to reducing the risk of injection fluid migration along these faults. In an attempt to mitigate the negative influences of natural fractures on hydrocarbon extraction within the Marcellus Shale, fractures were analyzed through the aid of both traditional and advanced seismic attributes including variance, curvature, ant tracking, and waveform model regression. Through the integration of well log interpretations and seismic data, a detailed assessment of structural discontinuities that may decrease the recovery efficiency of hydrocarbons was conducted. High-quality 3D seismic data in Central Pennsylvania show regional folds and thrusts above the major detachment interval of the Salina Salt. In addition to the regional detachment folds and thrusts, cross-regional, northwest-trending lineaments were mapped. These lineaments may pose a threat to hydrocarbon productivity and recovery efficiency due to faults and fractures acting as paths of least resistance for induced hydraulic stimulation fluids

  15. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12

    using feasibly-implementable rate adaptivity. • A buffer-management algorithm that is designed to reduce the size of router buffers, and hence energy consumed. • A packet-scheduling algorithm designed to minimize packet-processing energy requirements. Additional research is recommended in at least two areas: further exploration of rate-adaptation in network switching equipment, including incorporation of rate-adaptation in actual hardware, allowing experimentation in operational networks; and development of control protocols that allow parts of networks to be shut down while minimizing disruption to traffic flow in the network. The research is an integral part of a large effort within Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent, aimed at dramatic improvements in the energy efficiency of telecommunication networks. This Study did not explicitly consider any commercialization opportunities.

  16. Including Thermal Fluctuations in Actomyosin Stable States Increases the Predicted Force per Motor and Macroscopic Efficiency in Muscle Modelling.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Lorenzo; Washio, Takumi; Yanagida, Toshio

    2016-09-01

    Muscle contractions are generated by cyclical interactions of myosin heads with actin filaments to form the actomyosin complex. To simulate actomyosin complex stable states, mathematical models usually define an energy landscape with a corresponding number of wells. The jumps between these wells are defined through rate constants. Almost all previous models assign these wells an infinite sharpness by imposing a relatively simple expression for the detailed balance, i.e., the ratio of the rate constants depends exponentially on the sole myosin elastic energy. Physically, this assumption corresponds to neglecting thermal fluctuations in the actomyosin complex stable states. By comparing three mathematical models, we examine the extent to which this hypothesis affects muscle model predictions at the single cross-bridge, single fiber, and organ levels in a ceteris paribus analysis. We show that including fluctuations in stable states allows the lever arm of the myosin to easily and dynamically explore all possible minima in the energy landscape, generating several backward and forward jumps between states during the lifetime of the actomyosin complex, whereas the infinitely sharp minima case is characterized by fewer jumps between states. Moreover, the analysis predicts that thermal fluctuations enable a more efficient contraction mechanism, in which a higher force is sustained by fewer attached cross-bridges. PMID:27626630

  17. The Long-Term Effectiveness of Reading Recovery and the Cost-Efficiency of Reading Recovery Relative to the Learning Disabled Classification Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a great deal of research supporting Reading Recovery as a successful reading intervention program that assists below level first graders readers in closing the gap in reading at the same level of their average peers. There is a lack of research that analyses the cost-effectiveness of the Reading Recovery program compared to the cost in…

  18. Enhanced xylose recovery from oil palm empty fruit bunch by efficient acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hooi Teng; Dykes, Gary A; Wu, Ta Yeong; Siow, Lee Fong

    2013-08-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is abundantly available in Malaysia and it is a potential source of xylose for the production of high-value added products. This study aimed to optimize the hydrolysis of EFB using dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) via response surface methodology for maximum xylose recovery. Hydrolysis was carried out in an autoclave. An optimum xylose yield of 91.2 % was obtained at 116 °C using 2.0 % (v/v) H2SO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. A lower optimum xylose yield of 24.0 % was observed for dilute H3PO4 hydrolysis at 116 °C using 2.4 % (v/v) H3PO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. The optimized hydrolysis conditions suggested that EFB hydrolysis by H2SO4 resulted in a higher xylose yield at a lower acid concentration as compared to H3PO4. PMID:23709290

  19. End-of-Life Vehicles management: Italian material and energy recovery efficiency.

    PubMed

    Santini, Alessandro; Morselli, Luciano; Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano; Di Carlo, Salvatore; Bonino, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Each European Member State must comply with Directive 2000/53/EC recycling and recovery targets by 2015, set to 85% and 95%, respectively. This paper reports a shredder campaign trial developed and performed in Italy at the beginning of 2008. It turns out to be the first assessment about the critical aspects belonging to the Italian End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) reverse supply chain involving 18 dismantling plants, a shredder plant and 630 ELV representatives of different categories of vehicles treated in Italy during 2006. This trial aims at improving the experimental knowledge related to ELVs added waste, pre-treatment, part reuse, recycling and final metal separation and car fluff disposal. Finally, the study also focuses on the calculation of the effective Italian ELV recycling rate, which results equal to 80.8%, and auto shredder residue (ASR) characterization. According to the results obtained in this work, ASR still contains up to 8% of metals and 40% of polymers that could be recovered. Moreover, physical-chemical analysis showed a Lower Heat Value of almost 20,000 kJ/kg and revealed the presence of pollutants such as heavy metals, mineral oils, PCBs and hydrocarbons. PMID:20943364

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED WETTABLILITY AT DIFFERENT SCALES AND ITS IMPACT ON OIL RECOVERY EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    Mukul M. Sharma; George J. Hirasaki

    2003-08-31

    The objectives of the this research project were to: (1) Quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir; (2) Study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states; (3) Clarify the effect of mixed-wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods; and (4) Develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturations and relative permeabilities.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED WETTABILITY AT DIFFERENT SCALES AND ITS IMPACT ON OIL RECOVERY EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect

    Mukul M. Sharma; George J. Hirasaki

    2003-09-01

    The objectives of the this research project were to: (1) Quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir; (2) Study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states; (3) Clarify the effect of mixed-wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods; and (4) Develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturations and relative permeabilities.

  2. Efficient regulation of elemental sulfur recovery through optimizing working height of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor during denitrifying sulfide removal process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cong; Li, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Fan; Liu, Qian; Zhao, You-Kang; Gao, Ling-Fang; Chen, Chuan; Zhou, Ji-Zhong; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two lab-scale UASB reactors were established to testify S(0) recovery efficiency, and one of which (M-UASB) was improved from the previous T-UASB by shortening reactor height once S(2-) over oxidation was observed. After the height was shortened from 60 to 30cm, S(0) recovery rate was improved from 7.4% to 78.8%, and while, complete removal of acetate, nitrate and S(2-) was simultaneously maintained. Meanwhile, bacterial community distribution was homogenous throughout the reactor, with denitrifying sulfide oxidization bacteria predominant, such as Thauera and Azoarcus spp., indicating the optimized condition for S(0) recovery. The effective control of working height/volume in reactors plays important roles for the efficient regulation of S(0) recovery during DSR process. PMID:26497112

  3. Accurate and efficient modeling of global seismic wave propagation for an attenuative Earth model including the center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    We propose a method for modeling global seismic wave propagation through an attenuative Earth model including the center. This method enables accurate and efficient computations since it is based on the 2.5-D approach, which solves wave equations only on a 2-D cross section of the whole Earth and can correctly model 3-D geometrical spreading. We extend a numerical scheme for the elastic waves in spherical coordinates using the finite-difference method (FDM), to solve the viscoelastodynamic equation. For computation of realistic seismic wave propagation, incorporation of anelastic attenuation is crucial. Since the nature of Earth material is both elastic solid and viscous fluid, we should solve stress-strain relations of viscoelastic material, including attenuative structures. These relations represent the stress as a convolution integral in time, which has had difficulty treating viscoelasticity in time-domain computation such as the FDM. However, we now have a method using so-called memory variables, invented in the 1980s, followed by improvements in Cartesian coordinates. Arbitrary values of the quality factor (Q) can be incorporated into the wave equation via an array of Zener bodies. We also introduce the multi-domain, an FD grid of several layers with different grid spacings, into our FDM scheme. This allows wider lateral grid spacings with depth, so as not to perturb the FD stability criterion around the Earth center. In addition, we propose a technique to avoid the singularity problem of the wave equation in spherical coordinates at the Earth center. We develop a scheme to calculate wavefield variables on this point, based on linear interpolation for the velocity-stress, staggered-grid FDM. This scheme is validated through a comparison of synthetic seismograms with those obtained by the Direct Solution Method for a spherically symmetric Earth model, showing excellent accuracy for our FDM scheme. As a numerical example, we apply the method to simulate seismic

  4. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  5. Double-quantum homonuclear rotary resonance: Efficient dipolar recovery in magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, N. C.; Bildsøe, H.; Jakobsen, H. J.; Levitt, M. H.

    1994-08-01

    We describe an efficient method for the recovery of homonuclear dipole-dipole interactions in magic-angle spinning NMR. Double-quantum homonuclear rotary resonance (2Q-HORROR) is established by fulfilling the condition ωr=2ω1, where ωr is the sample rotation frequency and ω1 is the nutation frequency around an applied resonant radio frequency (rf) field. This resonance can be used for double-quantum filtering and measurement of homonuclear dipolar interactions in the presence of magic-angle spinning. The spin dynamics depend only weakly on crystallite orientation allowing good performance for powder samples. Chemical shift effects are suppressed to zeroth order. The method is demonstrated for singly and doubly 13C labeled L-alanine.

  6. Optimization of cell disruption methods for efficient recovery of bioactive metabolites via NMR of three freshwater microalgae (chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Ma, Nyuk Ling; Teh, Kit Yinn; Lam, Su Shiung; Kaben, Anne Marie; Cha, Thye San

    2015-08-01

    This study demonstrates the use of NMR techniques coupled with chemometric analysis as a high throughput data mining method to identify and examine the efficiency of different disruption techniques tested on microalgae (Chlorella variabilis, Scenedesmus regularis and Ankistrodesmus gracilis). The yield and chemical diversity from the disruptions together with the effects of pre-oven and pre-freeze drying prior to disruption techniques were discussed. HCl extraction showed the highest recovery of oil compounds from the disrupted microalgae (up to 90%). In contrast, NMR analysis showed the highest intensity of bioactive metabolites obtained for homogenized extracts pre-treated with freeze-drying, indicating that homogenizing is a more favorable approach to recover bioactive substances from the disrupted microalgae. The results show the potential of NMR as a useful metabolic fingerprinting tool for assessing compound diversity in complex microalgae extracts. PMID:25812996

  7. Characterization of Mixed Wettability at Different Scales and its Impact on Oil Recovery Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Mukul M.; Hirasaki, George J.

    2002-01-28

    The objectives of this project was to: (1) quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir, (2) study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states, (3) clarify the effect of mixed - wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods, (4) develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturation's and relative permeabilities, and (5) develop methods for properly incorporating wettability in up-scaling from pore to core to reservoir scales.

  8. Efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells by including inverse opals with controlled layer thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hanbin; Shah, Said Karim; Abbas, Mamatimin; Ly, Isabelle; Rivera, Thomas; Almeida, Rui M.; Hirsch, Lionel; Toupance, Thierry; Ravaine, Serge

    2016-09-01

    The photoconversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells can be enhanced by the incorporation of light management nanostructures such as photonic crystals. Here, we present a facile route to incorporate titania inverse opals into solid state dye sensitized solar cells and report photoconversion efficiency enhancements of up to 56% compared with a model system without the inverse opal. Our approach is based on the precise design of titania inverse opals with a predetermined thickness that can be controlled at the individual layer level. By choosing an inverse opal exhibiting a photonic bandgap which overlaps the absorption bands of the dye, our results show that there is an optimal thickness of the inverse opal structure for maximum efficiency enhancement of the cell. This is the first experimental proof that the thickness of a titania inverse opal plays a pivotal role in cell efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells.

  9. Efficient Sparse Coding in Early Sensory Processing: Lessons from Signal Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Lörincz, András; Palotai, Zsolt; Szirtes, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Sensory representations are not only sparse, but often overcomplete: coding units significantly outnumber the input units. For models of neural coding this overcompleteness poses a computational challenge for shaping the signal processing channels as well as for using the large and sparse representations in an efficient way. We argue that higher level overcompleteness becomes computationally tractable by imposing sparsity on synaptic activity and we also show that such structural sparsity can be facilitated by statistics based decomposition of the stimuli into typical and atypical parts prior to sparse coding. Typical parts represent large-scale correlations, thus they can be significantly compressed. Atypical parts, on the other hand, represent local features and are the subjects of actual sparse coding. When applied on natural images, our decomposition based sparse coding model can efficiently form overcomplete codes and both center-surround and oriented filters are obtained similar to those observed in the retina and the primary visual cortex, respectively. Therefore we hypothesize that the proposed computational architecture can be seen as a coherent functional model of the first stages of sensory coding in early vision. PMID:22396629

  10. Recovery Act: Low-Cost, Highly Lambertian Reflector Composite For Improved LED Fixture Efficiency and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Teather, Eric

    2013-02-15

    The overall objective of the program was to demonstrate a 98% or greater reflective, highly diffuse, low-cost composite material that significantly improves luminaire efficiency, is able to withstand 50,000 hours or greater luminaire operation under expected LED system thermal and environmental operating extremes and meets the cost targets required to be an effective commercial solution for the Solid State Lighting industry. This project met most of the goals defined and contributed to the understanding of high reflectance, white coatings. Research under this program increased the understanding of coatings development using particle size reduction techniques and preparation of coating solutions with a broad range of particle types. The research explored scale-up of coating systems and generated understanding of processing required for high volume manufacturing applications. The work demonstrated how coating formulation and application technique can translate to material durability and LED system lifetime. The research also demonstrated improvements in lighting efficiency to be gained using high reflectance white coatings.

  11. Rapid and efficient removal/recovery of molybdenum onto ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yao-Jen; Chan, Ting-Shan; Tu, Hao-Wei; Wang, Shan-Li; You, Chen-Feng; Chang, Chien-Kuei

    2016-04-01

    An efficient method for removing and recovering molybdenum (Mo) from water was developed by using ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles. The Mo adsorption displayed a nonlinear isotherm that fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm, showing limited adsorption sites on the surface of ZnFe2O4. The adsorption of Mo(VI) was dependent on solution pH. With increasing pH, the build-up of negative charges of both adsorbent and adsorbate led to enhanced electric repulsion between them. The K-edge XANES spectra for the adsorbents collected after Mo adsorption revealed that Mo(VI) was the predominant oxidation state sorbed on ZnFe2O4, indicating that the reduction of Mo(VI) did not occur on ZnFe2O4. The different peak positions of k-space and R-space shown in K-edge EXAFS spectra demonstrated that the adsorbed Mo could be bound on the surface or be slipped in the vacancy position of the ZnFe2O4 crystal. Importantly, Mo could be efficiently adsorbed from photoelectric industrial wastewater and these adsorbed Mo anions were rapidly replaced by OH(-) ions, implying the potential for Mo removing and recovering in industrial wastewater. PMID:26835649

  12. FOR STIMULI-RESPONSIVE POLYMERS WITH ENHANCED EFFICIENCY IN RESERVOIR RECOVERY PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2002-04-29

    To date, our synthetic research efforts have been focused on the development of stimuli-responsive water-soluble polymers designed for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications. These model systems are structurally tailored for potential application as viscosifiers and/or mobility control agents for secondary and tertiary EOR methods. The following report discloses the progress of our ongoing research of polyzwitterions, polymers derived from monomers bearing both positive and negative charges, that show the ability to sustain or increase their hydrodynamic volume (and thus, solution viscosity) in the presence of electrolytes. Such polymers appear to be well-suited for use under conditions similar to those encountered in EOR operations. Additionally, we disclose the synthesis and characterization of a well-defined set of polyacrylamide (PAM) homopolymers that vary by MW. The MW of the PAM samples is controlled by addition of sodium formate to the polymerization medium as a conventional chain transfer agent. Data derived from polymer characterization is used to determine the kinetic parameter C{sub CT}, the chain transfer constant to sodium formate under the given polymerization conditions. The PAM homopolymer series will be employed in future set of experiments designed to test a simplified intrinsic viscosity equation. The flow resistance of a polymer solution through a porous medium is controlled by the polymer's hydrodynamic volume, which is strongly related to it's intrinsic viscosity. However, the hydrodynamic volume of a polymer molecule in an aqueous solution varies with fluid temperature, solvent composition, and polymer structure. This report on the theory of polymer solubility accentuates the importance of developing polymer solutions that increase in intrinsic viscosity when fluid temperatures are elevated above room conditions. The intrinsic viscosity response to temperature and molecular weight variations of three polymer solutions verified the

  13. Energy Efficient Building Ventilation Systems: Innovative Building-Integrated Enthalpy Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-15

    BEETIT Project: A2 is developing a building moisture and heat exchange technology that leverages a new material and design to create healthy buildings with lower energy use. Commercial building owners/operators are demanding buildings with greater energy efficiency and healthier indoor environments. A2 is developing a membrane-based heat and moisture exchanger that controls humidity by transferring the water vapor in the incoming fresh air to the drier air leaving the building. Unlike conventional systems, A2 locates the heat and moisture exchanger within the depths of the building’s wall to slow down the air flow and increase the surface area that captures humidity, but with less fan power. The system’s integration into the wall reduces the size and demand on the air conditioning equipment and increases liable floor area flexibility.

  14. A Robust and Cost-Effective Superhydrophobic Graphene Foam for Efficient Oil and Organic Solvent Recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiguang; Chen, Dongyun; An, Wei; Li, Najun; Xu, Qingfeng; Li, Hua; He, Jinghui; Lu, Jianmei

    2015-10-21

    Water pollution caused by chemical reagent leaking, industrial wastewater discharging, and crude oil spills has raised global concerns on environmental sustainability, calling for high-performance absorbent materials for effective treatments. However, low-cost materials capable of effectively separating oils and organic solvents from water with a high adsorption capacity and good recyclability are rare on the market. Here, a cost-effective method is reported to fabricate high-performance graphene modified absorbents through the facile thermal reduction of graphene oxide on the skeletons of melamine foam. By integrating the high porosity, superior elasticity, and mechanical stability of raw sponge with the chemical stability and hydrophobicity of graphene sheets, the as-fabricated graphene foam not only possesses a rough and superhydrophobic surface, but also exhibits an excellent adsorption performance and extraordinary recyclability for various oils and organic solvents. It is worth mentioning that the superhydrophobic surface also endows the graphene foam with an excellent efficiency for oil/water separation. More importantly, the cost-effective fabrication method without involving expensive raw materials and sophisticated equipment permits a scale-up of the graphene foam for pollution disposal. All these features make the graphene foam an ideal candidate for removal and collection of oils and organic solvents from water. PMID:26265103

  15. Efficient Recovery of Enu-Induced Mutations from the Zebrafish Germline

    PubMed Central

    Solnica-Krezel, L.; Schier, A. F.; Driever, W.

    1994-01-01

    We studied the efficiency with which two chemical mutagens, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) can induce mutations at different stages of spermatogenesis in zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio). Both EMS and ENU induced mutations at high rates in post-meiotic germ cells, as indicated by the incidence of F(1) progeny mosaic for the albino mutation. For pre-meiotic germ cells, however, only ENU was found to be an effective mutagen, as indicated by the frequencies of non-mosaic mutant progeny at four different pigmentation loci. Several mutagenic regimens that varied in either the number of treatments or the concentration of ENU were studied to achieve an optimal ratio between the mutagenicity and toxicity. For the two most mutagenic regimens: 4 X 1 hr in 3 mM ENU and 6 X 1 hr in 3 mM ENU, the minimum estimate of frequencies of independent mutations per locus per gamete was 0.9-1.3 X 10(-3). We demonstrate that embryonic lethal mutations induced with ENU were transmitted to offspring and that they could be recovered in an F(2) screen. An average frequency of specific-locus mutations of 1.1 X 10(-3) corresponded to approximately 1.7 embryonic lethal mutations per single mutagenized genome. The high rates of mutations achievable with ENU allow for rapid identification of large numbers of genes involved in a variety of aspects of zebrafish development. PMID:8013916

  16. Modelling the effect of exposing algae to pulses of S-metolachlor: How to include a delay to the onset of the effect and in the recovery.

    PubMed

    Copin, Pierre-Jean; Perronet, Léa; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2016-01-15

    In agriculture, herbicides are applied to improve crop productivity. During and after rain event, herbicides can be transported by surface runoff in streams and rivers. As a result, the exposure pattern in creeks is time-varying, i.e., a repeated pollution of aquatic system. In previous studies, we developed a model to assess the effects of pulse exposure patterns on algae. This model was validated for triazines and phenylureas, which are substances that induce effects directly after exposure with no delay in recovery. However, other herbicides display a mode of action characterized by a time-dependency effect and a delay in recovery. In this study, we therefore investigate whether this previous model could be used to assess the effects of pulse exposure by herbicides with time delay in effect and recovery. The current study focuses on the herbicide S-metolachlor. We showed that the effect of the herbicide begins only after 20 h of exposure for the alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus based on both the optical density and algal cells size measurements. Furthermore, the duration of delay of the recovery for algae previously exposed to S-metolachlor was 20 h and did not depend on the pulse exposure duration or the height of the peak concentration. By accounting for these specific effects, the measured and predicted effects were similar when pulse exposure of S-metolachlor is tested on the alga S. vacuolatus. However, the sensitivity of the alga is greatly modified after being previously exposed to a pulse of S-metolachlor. In the case of scenarios composed of several pulses, this sensitivity should be considered in the modelling. Therefore, modelling the effects of any pulse scenario of S-metolachlor on an alga is feasible but requires the determination of the effect trigger, the delay in recovery and the possible change in the sensitivity of the alga to the substance. PMID:26410701

  17. Efficient process for previous metal recovery from cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail; Heinz, Robert

    2010-05-04

    A method is provided for recovering a catalytic element from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly. The method includes grinding the membrane electrode assembly into a powder, extracting the catalytic element by forming a slurry comprising the powder and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve the catalytic element into a soluble salt, and separating the slurry into a depleted powder and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt. The depleted powder is washed to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted powder and the catalytic element is purified from the salt.

  18. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  19. For Stimul-Responsive Polymers with Enhanced Efficiency in Reservoir Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2003-02-28

    Acrylamide-based hydrophobically modified (HM) polybetaines containing N-butylphenylacrylamide (BPAM) and varying amounts of either sulfobetaine (3-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanedimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate, AMPDAPS) or carboxybetaine (4-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropyldimethylammonio) butanoate, AMPDAB) comonomers were synthesized via micellar copolymerization. The terpolymers were characterized via {sup 13}C NMR and UV spectroscopies, classical and dynamic light scattering, and potentiometric titration. The response of aqueous polymer solutions to various external stimuli, including changes in solution pH, electrolyte concentration, and the addition of small molecule surfactants, was investigated using surface tension and rheological measurements. Low charge density terpolymers were found to show greater viscosity enhancement upon the addition of surfactant compared to the high charge density terpolymers. The addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) produced the largest maximum in solution viscosity, while N-dodecyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SB3-12), and Triton X-100 tended to show reduced viscosity enhancement. In most cases, the high charge density carboxybetaine terpolymer exhibited diminished solution viscosities upon surfactant addition. In our last report, we discussed solution thermodynamic theory that described changes in polymer coil conformation as a function of solution temperature and polymer molecular weight. These polymers contained no ionic charges. In this report, we expand polymer solution theory to account for the electrostatic interactions present in solutions of charged polymers. Polymers with ionic charges are referred to as polyions or polyelectrolytes.

  20. An Improved DNA Extraction Method for Efficient and Quantitative Recovery of Phytoplankton Diversity in Natural Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian; Li, Meizhen; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are highly diverse with different species possessing different cell coverings, posing challenges for thoroughly breaking the cells in DNA extraction yet preserving DNA integrity. While quantitative molecular techniques have been increasingly used in phytoplankton research, an effective and simple method broadly applicable to different lineages and natural assemblages is still lacking. In this study, we developed a bead-beating protocol based on our previous experience and tested it against 9 species of phytoplankton representing different lineages and different cell covering rigidities. We found the bead-beating method enhanced the final yield of DNA (highest as 2 folds) in comparison with the non-bead-beating method, while also preserving the DNA integrity. When our method was applied to a field sample collected at a subtropical bay located in Xiamen, China, the resultant ITS clone library revealed a highly diverse assemblage of phytoplankton and other micro-eukaryotes, including Archaea, Amoebozoa, Chlorophyta, Ciliphora, Bacillariophyta, Dinophyta, Fungi, Metazoa, etc. The appearance of thecate dinoflagellates, thin-walled phytoplankton and “naked” unicellular organisms indicates that our method could obtain the intact DNA of organisms with different cell coverings. All the results demonstrate that our method is useful for DNA extraction of phytoplankton and environmental surveys of their diversity and abundance. PMID:26218575

  1. Highly enantioselective and efficient synthesis of flavanones including pinostrobin through the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric 1,4-addition.

    PubMed

    Korenaga, Toshinobu; Hayashi, Keigo; Akaki, Yusuke; Maenishi, Ryota; Sakai, Takashi

    2011-04-15

    An efficient synthesis of bioactive chiral flavanones (1) was achieved through the Rh-catalyzed asymmetric 1,4-addition of arylboronic acid to chromone. The reaction in toluene proceeded smoothly at room temperature in the presence of 0.5% Rh catalyst with electron-poor chiral diphosphine MeO-F(12)-BIPHEP. In this reaction, the 1,2-addition to (S)-1 frequently occurred to yield (2S,4R)-2,4-diaryl-4-chromanol as a byproduct, which could be reduced by changing the reaction solvent to CH(2)Cl(2) to deactivate the Rh catalyst (3% required). PMID:21413690

  2. The use of salinity contrast for density difference compensation to improve the thermal recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lopik, Jan H.; Hartog, Niels; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan

    2016-02-01

    The efficiency of heat recovery in high-temperature (>60 °C) aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) systems is limited due to the buoyancy of the injected hot water. This study investigates the potential to improve the efficiency through compensation of the density difference by increased salinity of the injected hot water for a single injection-recovery well scheme. The proposed method was tested through numerical modeling with SEAWATv4, considering seasonal HT-ATES with four consecutive injection-storage-recovery cycles. Recovery efficiencies for the consecutive cycles were investigated for six cases with three simulated scenarios: (a) regular HT-ATES, (b) HT-ATES with density difference compensation using saline water, and (c) theoretical regular HT-ATES without free thermal convection. For the reference case, in which 80 °C water was injected into a high-permeability aquifer, regular HT-ATES had an efficiency of 0.40 after four consecutive recovery cycles. The density difference compensation method resulted in an efficiency of 0.69, approximating the theoretical case (0.76). Sensitivity analysis showed that the net efficiency increase by using the density difference compensation method instead of regular HT-ATES is greater for higher aquifer hydraulic conductivity, larger temperature difference between injection water and ambient groundwater, smaller injection volume, and larger aquifer thickness. This means that density difference compensation allows the application of HT-ATES in thicker, more permeable aquifers and with larger temperatures than would be considered for regular HT-ATES systems.

  3. The use of salinity contrast for density difference compensation to improve the thermal recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lopik, Jan H.; Hartog, Niels; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of heat recovery in high-temperature (>60 °C) aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) systems is limited due to the buoyancy of the injected hot water. This study investigates the potential to improve the efficiency through compensation of the density difference by increased salinity of the injected hot water for a single injection-recovery well scheme. The proposed method was tested through numerical modeling with SEAWATv4, considering seasonal HT-ATES with four consecutive injection-storage-recovery cycles. Recovery efficiencies for the consecutive cycles were investigated for six cases with three simulated scenarios: (a) regular HT-ATES, (b) HT-ATES with density difference compensation using saline water, and (c) theoretical regular HT-ATES without free thermal convection. For the reference case, in which 80 °C water was injected into a high-permeability aquifer, regular HT-ATES had an efficiency of 0.40 after four consecutive recovery cycles. The density difference compensation method resulted in an efficiency of 0.69, approximating the theoretical case (0.76). Sensitivity analysis showed that the net efficiency increase by using the density difference compensation method instead of regular HT-ATES is greater for higher aquifer hydraulic conductivity, larger temperature difference between injection water and ambient groundwater, smaller injection volume, and larger aquifer thickness. This means that density difference compensation allows the application of HT-ATES in thicker, more permeable aquifers and with larger temperatures than would be considered for regular HT-ATES systems.

  4. FOR STIMUL-RESPONSIVE POLYMERS WITH ENHANCED EFFICIENCY IN RESERVOIR RECOVERY PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2004-03-26

    This report contains a series of terpolymers containing acrylic acid, methacrylamide and a twin-tailed hydrophobic monomer that were synthesized using micellar polymerization methods. These polymer systems were characterized using light scattering, viscometry, and fluorescence methods. Viscosity studies indicate that increasing the nonpolar character of the hydrophobic monomer (longer chain length or twin tailed vs. single tailed) results in enhanced viscosity in aqueous solutions. The interactions of these polymers with surfactants were investigated. These surfactants include sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), Triton X-100. Viscosity measurements of DiC{sub 6}AM and DiC{sub 8}AM mixtures indicate little interaction with SDS, gelation with CTAB, and hemimicelle formation followed by polymer hydrophobe solubilization with Triton X-100. The DiC{sub 10}Am terpolymer shows similar interaction behavior with CTAB and Triton X-100. However, the enhanced hydrophobic nature of the DiC{sub 10} polymer allows complex formation with SDS as confirmed by surface tensiometry. Fluorescence measurements performed on a dansyl labeled DiC{sub 10}Am terpolymer in the presence of increasing amounts of each of the surfactant indicate relative interaction strengths to be CTAB>Triton X-100>SDS. A modified model based on Yamakawa-Fujii and Odjik-Skolnick-Fixman theories was found to describe the contribution of electrostatic forces to the excluded volume of a polyelectrolyte in solution. The model was found to be valid for flexible polymer coils in aqueous salt solutions where intermolecular interactions are minimal. The model suggested that a dimensionless group of parameters termed the dimensionless viscosity should be proportional to the dimensionless ratio of solution screening length to polyion charge spacing. Several sets of experimental data from the literature and from our laboratory have been analyzed according to the model and the results

  5. Mixed-scale channel networks including Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnels for efficient single particle entrapment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunjeong; Lim, Yeongjin; Shin, Heungjoo

    2016-06-01

    Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic carbon mold is fabricated by pyrolyzing a polymer mold patterned by photolithography. During pyrolysis, the polymer mold shrinks by ∼90%, which enables nanosized carbon molds to be produced without a complex nanofabrication process. Because of the good adhesion between the polymer mold and the Si substrate, non-uniform volume reduction occurs during pyrolysis resulting in the formation of curved carbon mold side walls. These curved side walls and the relatively low surface energy of the mold provide efficient demolding of the PDMS channel networks. In addition, the trigonal prismatic shape of the polymer is converted into to a Kingfisher-beak-shaped carbon structure due to the non-uniform volume reduction. The transformation of this mold architecture produces a PDMS Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnel that connects the microchannel and the nanochannel smoothly. The smooth reduction in the cross-sectional area of the 3D microfunnels enables efficient single microparticle trapping at the nanochannel entrance; this is beneficial for studies of cell transfection. PMID:27279423

  6. Use of 222Rn as natural tracer for LNAPL quantification and recovery efficiency in a crude-oil contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsin, Violaine; Chablais, Amélie; Dumont, Julien; Cardetti, Marc; Radakovitch, Olivier; Höhener, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    the mean activities were generally significantly lower than upgradient. This is due to partitioning into the oil phase. Decreases were correlated with NAPL recovery efficiency. The laboratory-determined crude oil-water partitioning coefficient of 38,5 ± 2,9 was used for estimating LNAPL saturation in each recovery well. However, extrapolations of LNAPL saturations to whole-site oil volume estimations are difficult since at low water tables, the volume in the capillary fringe is not assessed. Nevertheless, we find that 222Rn is a useful and cheap groundwater tracer for finding zones of good LNAPL recovery in a heavily pumped aquifer. Hunkeler, D., E. Hoehn, P. Höhener and J. Zeyer, 1997. 222Rn as a partitioning tracer to detect mineral oil contaminations: laboratory experiments and field study. Environmental Science and Technology 31, 3180-3187. Semprini, L., O.S. Hopkins and B.R. Tasker, 2000. Laboratory, field and modeling studies of radon-222 as a natural tracer for monitoring NAPL contamination. Transport in Porous Media 38, 223-240. Schubert, M., A. Paschke, S. Lau, W. Geyer and K. Knöller, 2007. Radon as a naturally occurring tracer for the assessment of residual NAPL contamination of aquifers. Environmental Pollution 145, 920-927.

  7. A Highly Efficient Six-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine Cycle with Water Injection for In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, Jim; Szybist, James P

    2010-01-01

    A concept is presented here that adds two additional strokes to the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle that has the potential to increase fuel efficiency of the basic cycle. The engine cycle can be thought of as a 4 stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a 2-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. Early exhaust valve closing during the exhaust stroke coupled with water injection are employed to add an additional power stroke at the end of the conventional four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection at top center, and expansion was used to investigate this modification that effectively recovers waste heat from both the engine coolant and combustion exhaust gas. Thus, this concept recovers energy from two waste heat sources of current engine designs and converts heat normally discarded to useable power and work. This concept has the potential of a substantial increase in fuel efficiency over existing conventional internal combustion engines, and under appropriate injected water conditions, increase the fuel efficiency without incurring a decrease in power density. By changing the exhaust valve closing angle during the exhaust stroke, the ideal amount of exhaust can be recompressed for the amount of water injected, thereby minimizing the work input and maximizing the mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). The value of this exhaust valve closing for maximum MEPsteam depends on the limiting conditions of either one bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens to discard the spent gas mixture in the sixth stroke. The range of MEPsteam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline spark-ignited internal combustion engine and for plausible water injection parameters is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEPcombustion) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this

  8. Mixed-scale channel networks including Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnels for efficient single particle entrapment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yunjeong; Lim, Yeongjin; Shin, Heungjoo

    2016-06-01

    Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic carbon mold is fabricated by pyrolyzing a polymer mold patterned by photolithography. During pyrolysis, the polymer mold shrinks by ~90%, which enables nanosized carbon molds to be produced without a complex nanofabrication process. Because of the good adhesion between the polymer mold and the Si substrate, non-uniform volume reduction occurs during pyrolysis resulting in the formation of curved carbon mold side walls. These curved side walls and the relatively low surface energy of the mold provide efficient demolding of the PDMS channel networks. In addition, the trigonal prismatic shape of the polymer is converted into to a Kingfisher-beak-shaped carbon structure due to the non-uniform volume reduction. The transformation of this mold architecture produces a PDMS Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnel that connects the microchannel and the nanochannel smoothly. The smooth reduction in the cross-sectional area of the 3D microfunnels enables efficient single microparticle trapping at the nanochannel entrance; this is beneficial for studies of cell transfection.Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic

  9. Efficient Recovery of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes of Spent Mushroom Compost from Oyster Mushrooms, Pleurotus spp., and Potential Use in Dye Decolorization.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yun-Hae; Kang, Hee-Wan

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted in order to perform efficient extraction of lignocellulolytic enzymes amylase (EC 3.2.1.1), cellulase (EC 3.2.1.4), laccase (EC 1.10.3.2), and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and P. cornucopiae. Optimal enzyme recovery was achieved when SMCs were extracted with 50 mM sodium citrate (pH 4.5) buffer at 4℃ for 2 hr. Amylase, cellulase, and xylanase activities showed high values in extracts from P. ostreatus SMC, with 2.97 U/g, 1.67 U/g, and 91.56 U/g, respectively, whereas laccase activity and filter paper degradation ability were highest in extracts from P. eryngii SMC, with values of 9.01 U/g and 0.21 U/g, respectively. Enzymatic activities varied according to the SMCs released from different mushroom farms. The synthetic dyes remazol brilliant blue R and Congo red were decolorized completely by the SMC extract of P. eryngii within 120 min, and the decolorization ability of the extract was comparable to that of 0.3 U of commercial laccase. In addition, laccase activity of the SMC extract from P. eryngii was compared to that of commercial enzymes or its industrial application in decolorization. PMID:24493942

  10. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Fatih Kilicaslan, M.; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hong, Hyun-Seon; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► In this study, we recovered indium from a waste LCD panel. ► The ITO glass was milled to obtain micron size particles in a HEBM machine. ► Effect of particle size of ITO glass on the amount of dissolved In was investigated. ► In a very short time, a considerable amount of In was recovered. ► Amount of HCl in acid solution was decreased to 40 vol.%. - Abstract: In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.

  11. A low-rank matrix recovery approach for energy efficient EEG acquisition for a wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. PMID:25157551

  12. A Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Energy Efficient EEG Acquisition for a Wireless Body Area Network

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. PMID:25157551

  13. Membrane-Based Energy Efficient Dewatering of Microalgae in Biofuels Production and Recovery of Value Added Co-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Ramesh R; Kuritz, Tanya; Powell, Lawrence E; Adcock, Kenneth Dale

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. We have evaluated the dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ~99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, it can be shown that an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes.

  14. Efficient Recovery of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes of Spent Mushroom Compost from Oyster Mushrooms, Pleurotus spp., and Potential Use in Dye Decolorization

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yun-Hae

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to perform efficient extraction of lignocellulolytic enzymes amylase (EC 3.2.1.1), cellulase (EC 3.2.1.4), laccase (EC 1.10.3.2), and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and P. cornucopiae. Optimal enzyme recovery was achieved when SMCs were extracted with 50 mM sodium citrate (pH 4.5) buffer at 4℃ for 2 hr. Amylase, cellulase, and xylanase activities showed high values in extracts from P. ostreatus SMC, with 2.97 U/g, 1.67 U/g, and 91.56 U/g, respectively, whereas laccase activity and filter paper degradation ability were highest in extracts from P. eryngii SMC, with values of 9.01 U/g and 0.21 U/g, respectively. Enzymatic activities varied according to the SMCs released from different mushroom farms. The synthetic dyes remazol brilliant blue R and Congo red were decolorized completely by the SMC extract of P. eryngii within 120 min, and the decolorization ability of the extract was comparable to that of 0.3 U of commercial laccase. In addition, laccase activity of the SMC extract from P. eryngii was compared to that of commercial enzymes or its industrial application in decolorization. PMID:24493942

  15. Membrane-based energy efficient dewatering of microalgae in biofuels production and recovery of value added co-products.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Ramesh; Kuritz, Tanya; Powell, Lawrence; Adcock, Dale

    2012-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of membranes for energy efficient biomass harvesting and dewatering. The dewatering of Nannochloropsis sp. was evaluated with polymeric hollow fiber and tubular inorganic membranes to demonstrate the capabilities of a membrane-based system to achieve microalgal biomass of >150 g/L (dry wt.) and ∼99% volume reduction through dewatering. The particle free filtrate containing the growth media is suitable for recycle and reuse. For cost-effective processing, hollow fiber membranes can be utilized to recover 90-95% media for recycle. Tubular membranes can provide additional media and water recovery to achieve target final concentrations. Based on the operating conditions used in this study and taking into scale-up considerations, an integrated hollow fiber-tubular membrane system can process microalgal biomass with at least 80% lower energy requirement compared to traditional processes. Backpulsing was found to be an effective flux maintenance strategy to minimize flux decline at high biomass concentration. An effective chemical cleaning protocol was developed for regeneration of fouled membranes. PMID:22510094

  16. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14

    The problem in CO{sub 2} flooding lies with its higher mobility causing low conformance or sweep efficiency. This is an issue in oilfield applications where an injected fluid or gas used to mobilize and produce the oil in a marginal field has substantially higher mobility (function of viscosity and density and relative permeability) relative to the crude oil promoting fingering and early breakthrough. Conformance is particularly critical in CO{sub 2} oilfield floods where the end result is less oil recovered and substantially higher costs related to the CO{sub 2}. The SPI-CO{sub 2} (here after called “SPI”) gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a technically effective solution to the conformance problem with CO{sub 2} floods. This SPI gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an external initiator (CO{sub 2}) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current technologies where the gels set up as a function of time, regardless of where it is placed in the reservoir. In those current systems, the internal initiator is included in the injected fluid for water shut off applications. In this new research effort, the CO{sub 2} is an external initiator contacted after SPI gel solution placement. This concept ensures in the proper water wet reservoir environment that the SPI gel sets up in the precise high permeability path followed by the CO{sub 2}, therefore improving sweep efficiency to a greater degree than conventional systems. In addition, the final SPI product in commercial quantities is expected to be low cost over the competing systems. This Phase I research effort provided “proof of concept” that SPI gels possess strength and may be formed in a sand pack reducing the permeability to brine and CO{sub 2} flow. This SPI technology is a natural extension of prior R & D and the Phase I effort that together show a high potential for success in a Phase II follow-on project. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a major by-product of

  17. Three-dimensional simulations of the non-thermal broadband emission from young supernova remnants including efficient particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrand, Gilles; Safi-Harb, Samar; Decourchelle, Anne E-mail: samar@physics.umanitoba.ca

    2014-07-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be major contributors to Galactic cosmic rays. In this paper, we explore how the non-thermal emission from young remnants can be used to probe the production of energetic particles at the shock (both protons and electrons). Our model couples hydrodynamic simulations of a supernova remnant with a kinetic treatment of particle acceleration. We include two important back-reaction loops upstream of the shock: energetic particles can (1) modify the flow structure and (2) amplify the magnetic field. As the latter process is not fully understood, we use different limit cases that encompass a wide range of possibilities. We follow the history of the shock dynamics and of the particle transport downstream of the shock, which allows us to compute the non-thermal emission from the remnant at any given age. We do this in three dimensions, in order to generate projected maps that can be compared with observations. We observe that completely different recipes for the magnetic field can lead to similar modifications of the shock structure, although to very different configurations of the field and particles. We show how this affects the emission patterns in different energy bands, from radio to X-rays and γ-rays. High magnetic fields (>100 μG) directly impact the synchrotron emission from electrons, by restricting their emission to thin rims, and indirectly impact the inverse Compton emission from electrons and also the pion decay emission from protons, mostly by shifting their cut-off energies to respectively lower and higher energies.

  18. RAPP, a systematic e-assessment of postoperative recovery in patients undergoing day surgery: study protocol for a mixed-methods study design including a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, K; Odencrants, S; Hagberg, L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Day surgery is a well-established practice in many European countries, but only limited information is available regarding postoperative recovery at home though there is a current lack of a standard procedure regarding postoperative follow-up. Furthermore, there is also a need for improvement of modern technology in assessing patient-related outcomes such as mobile applications. This article describes the Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) study protocol, a mixed-methods study to evaluate if a systematic e-assessment follow-up in patients undergoing day surgery is cost-effective and improves postoperative recovery, health and quality of life. Methods and analysis This study has a mixed-methods study design that includes a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies. 1000 patients >17 years of age who are undergoing day surgery will be randomly assigned to either e-assessed postoperative recovery follow-up daily in 14 days measured via smartphone app including the Swedish web-version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) or to standard care (ie, no follow-up). The primary aim is cost-effectiveness. Secondary aims are (A) to explore whether a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery has a positive effect on postoperative recovery, health-related quality of life (QoL) and overall health; (B) to determine whether differences in postoperative recovery have an association with patient characteristic, type of surgery and anaesthesia; (C) to determine whether differences in health literacy have a substantial and distinct effect on postoperative recovery, health and QoL; and (D) to describe day surgery patient and staff experiences with a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery. The primary aim will be measured at 2 weeks postoperatively and secondary outcomes (A–C) at 1 and 2 weeks and (D) at 1 and 4 months. Trial registration number NCT02492191; Pre

  19. Investigating potential efficiency improvement for light-duty transportation applications through simulation of an organic Rankine cycle for waste-heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to heat loss and combustion irreversibility. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment. While there are significant opportunities for recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler for heavy-duty applications, the potential benefits of such a strategy for light-duty applications are unknown due to transient operation, low-load operation at typical driving conditions, and the added mass of the system. We have developed an organic Rankine cycle model using GT-Suite to investigate the potential for efficiency improvement through waste-heat recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler of a light-duty diesel engine. Results from steady-state and drive-cycle simulations are presented, and we discuss strategies to address operational difficulties associated with transient drive cycles and competition between waste-heat recovery systems, turbochargers, aftertreatment devices, and other systems for the limited thermal resources.

  20. Integrated Framework for Assessing Impacts of CO₂ Leakage on Groundwater Quality and Monitoring-Network Efficiency: Case Study at a CO₂ Enhanced Oil Recovery Site.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changbing; Hovorka, Susan D; Treviño, Ramón H; Delgado-Alonso, Jesus

    2015-07-21

    This study presents a combined use of site characterization, laboratory experiments, single-well push-pull tests (PPTs), and reactive transport modeling to assess potential impacts of CO2 leakage on groundwater quality and leakage-detection ability of a groundwater monitoring network (GMN) in a potable aquifer at a CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) site. Site characterization indicates that failures of plugged and abandoned wells are possible CO2 leakage pathways. Groundwater chemistry in the shallow aquifer is dominated mainly by silicate mineral weathering, and no CO2 leakage signals have been detected in the shallow aquifer. Results of the laboratory experiments and the field test show no obvious damage to groundwater chemistry should CO2 leakage occur and further were confirmed with a regional-scale reactive transport model (RSRTM) that was built upon the batch experiments and validated with the single-well PPT. Results of the RSRTM indicate that dissolved CO2 as an indicator for CO2 leakage detection works better than dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, and alkalinity at the CO2 EOR site. The detection ability of a GMN was assessed with monitoring efficiency, depending on various factors, including the natural hydraulic gradient, the leakage rate, the number of monitoring wells, the aquifer heterogeneity, and the time for a CO2 plume traveling to the monitoring well. PMID:26052928

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Efficient Ethanol Recovery from Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions [1]. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation ...

  2. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 2, Well testing and analysis data evaluation and report preparation site reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Wilkins, D.W.; Keltch, B.; Saradji, B.; Salamy, S.P.

    1988-04-01

    This report is the second volume of the Recovery Efficiency Test Phase I Report of Activities. Volume 1 covered selection, well planning, drilling, coring, logging and completion operations. This volume reports on well testing activities, reclamation activities on the drilling site and access roads, and the results of physical and mechanical properties tests on the oriented core material obtained from a horizontal section of the well. 3 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. High-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Model of the Lockheed YP-80A Airplane Including Correlation with Flight Tests and Tests of Dive-Recovery Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.; Gray, Lyle J.

    1947-01-01

    This report contains the results of tests of a 1/3-scale model of the Lockheed YP-90A "Shooting Star" airplane and a comparison of drag, maximum lift coefficient, and elevator angle required for level flight as measured in the wind tunnel and in flight. Included in the report are the general aerodynamic characteristics of the model and of two types of dive-recovery flaps, one at several positions along the chord on the lower surface of the wing and the other on the lower surface of the fuselage. The results show good agreement between the flight and wind-tunnel measurements at all Mach numbers. The results indicate that the YP-80A is controllable in pitch by the elevators to a Mach number of at least 0.85. The fuselage dive-recovery flaps are effective for producing a climbing moment and increasing the drag at Mach numbers up to at least 0.8. The wing dive-recovery flaps are most effective for producing a climbing moment at 0.75 Mach number. At 0.85 Mach number, their effectiveness is approximately 50 percent of the maximum. The optimum position for the wing dive-recovery flaps to produce a climbing moment is at approximately 35 percent of the chord.

  4. Comparison of the solid-phase extraction efficiency of a bounded and an included cyclodextrin-silica microporous composite for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in water samples.

    PubMed

    Mauri-Aucejo, Adela; Amorós, Pedro; Moragues, Alaina; Guillem, Carmen; Belenguer-Sapiña, Carolina

    2016-08-15

    Solid-phase extraction is one of the most important techniques for sample purification and concentration. A wide variety of solid phases have been used for sample preparation over time. In this work, the efficiency of a new kind of solid-phase extraction adsorbent, which is a microporous material made from modified cyclodextrin bounded to a silica network, is evaluated through an analytical method which combines solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. Several parameters that affected the analytes recovery, such as the amount of solid phase, the nature and volume of the eluent or the sample volume and concentration influence have been evaluated. The experimental results indicate that the material possesses adsorption ability to the tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Under the optimum conditions, the quantification limits of the method were in the range of 0.09-2.4μgL(-1) and fine linear correlations between peak height and concentration were found around 1.3-70μgL(-1). The method has good repeatability and reproducibility, with coefficients of variation under 8%. Due to the concentration results, this material may represent an alternative for trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water trough solid-phase extraction. PMID:27260440

  5. Efficiencies of metal separation and recovery in ash-melting of municipal solid waste under non-oxidative atmospheres with different reducing abilities.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2016-01-15

    Ash-melting of municipal solid waste produces molten metal that contains Fe and Cu, and melting furnace fly ash (MFA) that contains Pb and Zn. To recover the metal from the fly ash, Pb and Zn are extracted from the ash by water or enriched in the ash by washing out salts; this separation depends on their leachability. In this study, we investigated the effects of the reducing ability of the atmosphere on the efficiencies of metal separation during melting and metal recovery in water treatment. Different feedstocks (incineration residues) were melted under N2 or CO + N2 atmospheres. In some of the feedstock materials, volatilization of metallic Cu into MFA was promoted under the atmosphere with greater reducing ability (CO + N2). This increased volatilization inhibited the metal separation in the ash-melting process. Moreover, the higher reducing ability inhibited the formation of water-soluble lead chlorides and decreased the efficiency of metal recovery from the MFA because of the water leaching of the lead compounds. The reducing ability of the atmosphere is difficult to control uniformly in actual ash-melting plants, and we investigated appropriate melting conditions under which the effect of the reducing ability was minimized to promote metal separation and recovery. This minimization was achieved by melting incineration fly ash without additives with Cl gas treatment at 1400 °C. PMID:26496845

  6. Augmenting a Microbial Selective Plugging Technique with Polymer Flooding to Increase the Efficiency of Oil Recovery - A Search for Synergy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lewis R.; Pittman Jr., Charles U.; Lynch, F. Leo; Vadie, A. Alex

    2003-02-10

    The overall objective of this project was to improve the effectiveness of a microbial selective plugging technique of improving oil recovery through the use of polymer floods. More specifically, the intent was to increase the total amount of oil recovered and to reduce the cost per barrel of incremental oil.

  7. Integrating theory, synthesis, spectroscopy and device efficiency to design and characterize donor materials for organic photovoltaics: a case study including 12 donors

    SciTech Connect

    Oosterhout, S. D.; Kopidakis, N.; Owczarczyk, Z. R.; Braunecker, W. A.; Larsen, R. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Olson, D. C.

    2015-04-07

    There have been remarkable improvements in the power conversion efficiency of solution-processable Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) have largely been driven by the development of novel narrow bandgap copolymer donors comprising an electron-donating (D) and an electron-withdrawing (A) group within the repeat unit. The large pool of potential D and A units and the laborious processes of chemical synthesis and device optimization, has made progress on new high efficiency materials slow with a few new efficient copolymers reported every year despite the large number of groups pursuing these materials. In our paper we present an integrated approach toward new narrow bandgap copolymers that uses theory to guide the selection of materials to be synthesized based on their predicted energy levels, and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to select the best-performing copolymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction to be incorporated into complete OPV devices. We validate our methodology by using a diverse group of 12 copolymers, including new and literature materials, to demonstrate good correlation between (a) theoretically determined energy levels of polymers and experimentally determined ionization energies and electron affinities and (b) photoconductance, measured by TRMC, and OPV device performance. The materials used here also allow us to explore whether further copolymer design rules need to be incorporated into our methodology for materials selection. For example, we explore the effect of the enthalpy change (ΔH) during exciton dissociation on the efficiency of free charge carrier generation and device efficiency and find that ΔH of -0.4 eV is sufficient for efficient charge generation.

  8. Integrating theory, synthesis, spectroscopy and device efficiency to design and characterize donor materials for organic photovoltaics: a case study including 12 donors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Oosterhout, S. D.; Kopidakis, N.; Owczarczyk, Z. R.; Braunecker, W. A.; Larsen, R. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Olson, D. C.

    2015-04-07

    There have been remarkable improvements in the power conversion efficiency of solution-processable Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) have largely been driven by the development of novel narrow bandgap copolymer donors comprising an electron-donating (D) and an electron-withdrawing (A) group within the repeat unit. The large pool of potential D and A units and the laborious processes of chemical synthesis and device optimization, has made progress on new high efficiency materials slow with a few new efficient copolymers reported every year despite the large number of groups pursuing these materials. In our paper we present an integrated approach toward new narrow bandgap copolymersmore » that uses theory to guide the selection of materials to be synthesized based on their predicted energy levels, and time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to select the best-performing copolymer–fullerene bulk heterojunction to be incorporated into complete OPV devices. We validate our methodology by using a diverse group of 12 copolymers, including new and literature materials, to demonstrate good correlation between (a) theoretically determined energy levels of polymers and experimentally determined ionization energies and electron affinities and (b) photoconductance, measured by TRMC, and OPV device performance. The materials used here also allow us to explore whether further copolymer design rules need to be incorporated into our methodology for materials selection. For example, we explore the effect of the enthalpy change (ΔH) during exciton dissociation on the efficiency of free charge carrier generation and device efficiency and find that ΔH of -0.4 eV is sufficient for efficient charge generation.« less

  9. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  10. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were

  11. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies. PMID:27214029

  12. High-Efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery, STTR Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Timothy

    2011-01-07

    This is the final report of DoE STTR Phase II project, “High-efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery”. The objective of this STTR project is to develop a cost-effective processing approach to produce bulk high-performance thermoelectric (TE) nanocomposites, which will enable the development of high-power, high-power-density TE modulus for waste heat recovery and industrial refrigeration. The use of this nanocomposite into TE modules are expected to bring about significant technical benefits in TE systems (e.g. enhanced energy efficiency, smaller sizes and light weight). The successful development and applications of such nanocomposite and the resultant TE modules can lead to reducing energy consumption and environmental impacts, and creating new economic development opportunities.

  13. Efficient marker-free recovery of custom genetic modifications with CRISPR/Cas9 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Arribere, Joshua A; Bell, Ryan T; Fu, Becky X H; Artiles, Karen L; Hartman, Phil S; Fire, Andrew Z

    2014-11-01

    Facilitated by recent advances using CRISPR/Cas9, genome editing technologies now permit custom genetic modifications in a wide variety of organisms. Ideally, modified animals could be both efficiently made and easily identified with minimal initial screening and without introducing exogenous sequence at the locus of interest or marker mutations elsewhere. To this end, we describe a coconversion strategy, using CRISPR/Cas9 in which screening for a dominant phenotypic oligonucleotide-templated conversion event at one locus can be used to enrich for custom modifications at another unlinked locus. After the desired mutation is identified among the F1 progeny heterozygous for the dominant marker mutation, F2 animals that have lost the marker mutation are picked to obtain the desired mutation in an unmarked genetic background. We have developed such a coconversion strategy for Caenorhabditis elegans, using a number of dominant phenotypic markers. Examining the coconversion at a second (unselected) locus of interest in the marked F1 animals, we observed that 14-84% of screened animals showed homologous recombination. By reconstituting the unmarked background through segregation of the dominant marker mutation at each step, we show that custom modification events can be carried out recursively, enabling multiple mutant animals to be made. While our initial choice of a coconversion marker [rol-6(su1006)] was readily applicable in a single round of coconversion, the genetic properties of this locus were not optimal in that CRISPR-mediated deletion mutations at the unselected rol-6 locus can render a fraction of coconverted strains recalcitrant to further rounds of similar mutagenesis. An optimal marker in this sense would provide phenotypic distinctions between the desired mutant/+ class and alternative +/+, mutant/null, null/null, and null/+ genotypes. Reviewing dominant alleles from classical C. elegans genetics, we identified one mutation in dpy-10 and one mutation in

  14. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  15. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    SciTech Connect

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the environmental impact of recycling and incineration of household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling of paper, glass, steel and aluminium is better than incineration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling and incineration of cardboard and plastic can be equally good alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclables can be transported long distances and still have environmental benefits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paper has a higher environmental benefit than recyclables found in smaller amounts. - Abstract: Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  16. Large-scale high-efficiency air stripper and recovery well network for removing volatile organic chlorocarbons from ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, L F; Lorfenz, R; Muska, C F; Steele, J L

    1986-05-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) produces special nuclear materials for the US Government. Since 1958, chemical wastes generated by an aluminum forming/metal finishing process used to manufacture fuel and target assemblies were discharged to a settling basin. This process waste stream contained acids, alkalis, metals, and chlorinated degreasing solvents. In 1981, these solvents, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, were discovered in monitor wells near the settling basin. A monitor well network was installed to define the vertical and horizontal extent of the plume. The current inventory of total chlorocarbons in the saturated zone is approximately 360,000 pounds within the 100 ppB contour interval. During 1983, air stripping technology was evaluated to remove these solvents from the ground water. A 20-gpm ground water pilot air stripper with one recovery well was tested. Performance data from this unit were then used to design a 50-gpm production prototype air stripper. This unit demonstrated that degreaser solvent concentrations in ground water could be reduced from 120,000 ppB to less than the detection limit of 1 ppB. Data from these two units were then used to design an air stripper column that would process contaminated ground water at a rate of 400 gpm. Water is fed to this column from a network of 11 recovery wells. These wells were located in the zone of contamination, as defined by analytical and numerical modeling techniques. This system has been operational since April 1985. To date, over 65,000 pounds of chlorinated degreaser solvents have been removed from an underlying aquifer. The effects of this program on the hydraulic gradient and contamination movement are currently being evaluated. The purpose of this paper is to describe the ground water remediation program at the Savannah River Plant.

  17. A Novel Energy Recovery System for Parallel Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented. PMID:25405215

  18. Sustainable and efficient pathways for bioenergy recovery from low-value process streams via bioelectrochemical systems in biorefineries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2015-08-25

    Conversion of biomass into bioenergy is possible via multiple pathways resulting in production of biofuels, bioproducts and biopower. Efficient and sustainable conversion of biomass, however, requires consideration of many environmental and societal parameters in order to minimize negative impacts. Integration of multiple conversion technologies and inclusion of upcoming alternatives such as bioelectrochemical systems can minimize these impacts and improve conservation of resources such as hydrogen, water and nutrients via recycle and reuse. This report outlines alternate pathways integrating microbial electrolysis in biorefinery schemes to improve energy efficiency while evaluating environmental sustainability parameters.

  19. Tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Byham, D. E.

    1985-03-05

    An improved method for the recovery of tertiary oil from oil formations containing connate waters having a high brine concentration. A stable alcohol external microemulsion is formed from specific brine-soluble surfactants and alcohols for employment as a chemical slug. Such a microemulsion may be used to efficiently and effectively recover tertiary oil from formations in high brine concentrations. Specific examples of surfactants which may be employed to form the microemulsions of the present invention include amphoteric surfactants such as bis-2-hydroxyethylcocoamine propane sulfonate and bis-2-hydroxyethyloctadecyl amine propane sulfonate.

  20. Large-scale production and efficient recovery of PHB with desirable material properties, from the newly characterised Bacillus cereus SPV.

    PubMed

    Valappil, S P; Misra, S K; Boccaccini, A R; Keshavarz, T; Bucke, C; Roy, I

    2007-11-01

    A newly characterised Bacillus strain, Bacillus cereus SPV was found to produce PHB at a concentration of 38% of its dry cell weight in shaken flask cultures, using glucose as the main carbon source. Polymer production was then scaled up to 20 L batch fermentations where 29% dry cell weight of PHB was obtained within 48 h. Following this, a simple glucose feeding strategy was developed and the cells accumulated 38% dry cell weight of PHB, an increase in the overall volumetric yield by 31% compared to the batch fermentation. Sporulation is the cause of low PHB productivity from the genus Bacillus [Wu, Q., Huang, H., Hu, G.H., Chen, J., Ho, K.P., Chen, G.Q., 2001. Production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate by Bacillus sp. JMa5 cultivated in molasses media. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 80, 111-118]. However, in this study, acidic pH conditions (4.5-5.8) completely suppress sporulation, in accordance with Kominek and Halvorson [Kominek, L.A., Halvorson, H.O., 1965. Metabolism of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoin in Bacillus cereus. J. Bacteriol. 90, 1251-1259], and result in an increase in the yield of PHB production. This observation emphasises the potential of the use of Bacillus in the commercial production of PHB and other PHAs. The recovery of the PHB produced was optimised and the isolated polymer characterised to identify its material properties. The polymer extracted, was found to have similar molecular weight, polydispersity index and lower crystallinity index than others reported in literature. Also, the extracted polymer was found to have desirable material properties for potential tissue engineering applications. PMID:17532079

  1. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-04-16

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

  2. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-12-05

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

  3. Alternative lattice options for energy recovery in high-average-power high-efficiency free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /NICADD, DeKalb /Fermilab

    2009-03-01

    High-average-power free-electron lasers often rely on energy-recovering linacs. In a high-efficiency free electron laser, the main limitation to high average power stems from the fractional energy spread induced by the free-electron laser process. Managing beams with large fractional energy spread while simultaneously avoiding beam losses is extremely challenging and relies on intricate longitudinal phase space manipulations. In this paper we discuss a possible alternative technique that makes use of an emittance exchange between one of the transverse and the longitudinal phase spaces.

  4. [Comparison of the efficiency of 2 culture media in the recovery of heterotrophic bacteria damaged with chlorine].

    PubMed

    Guerrero, J J

    1987-01-01

    In this study, culture mediums R2A and m-HPC were compared with respect to their efficiency in the recuperation of injured heterotrophic bacteria present in water, which previously was treated with chlorine. The results of total counts obtained by membrane filtration, show that medium R2A was better than m-HPC. These two culture mediums are indicated by the 16th edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste-water. The results obtained may be due to the low concentration of organic matter, or to the presence of yeast extract in the R2A medium. PMID:3332384

  5. Integrated adsorptive technique for efficient recovery of m-cresol and m-toluidine from actual acidic and salty wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Liu, Fuqiang; Zong, Lidan; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Changqing; Tao, Xuewen; Li, Aimin

    2016-07-15

    An integrated adsorptive technique combining an m-cresol adsorption unit, an acid retardation unit and an m-toluidine adsorption unit in sequence was designed to recover m-cresol and m-toluidine from highly acidic and salty m-cresol manufacturing wastewater. In the first column packed with hypercrosslinked polymeric resin (NDA-99), most m-cresol was captured through π-π and hydrogen-bonding interactions as well as the salting-out effect, while m-toluidine was not absorbed due to protonation. To separate acid from salt, an acid retardation unit was introduced successively to adsorb sulfuric acid by strong base anion exchange resin (201×7). After the acid retardation unit and mild neutralization reaction, the last column filled with NDA-99 was applied to trap neutral m-toluidine from the salty effluent. Moreover, the eluent of the acid retardation unit was utilized as the regenerant to recover m-toluidine, and the recycled high-acidity and low-salinity solution of m-toluidine was directly used to produce m-cresol as the raw material. Therefore, the proposed method not only efficiently recycled m-cresol and m-toluidine, but also reduced the consumption of alkali dramatically (saving 0.1628t/t wastewater). These findings will inspire design of integrated adsorptive techniques for treating complex organic wastewater with high efficiency and low cost. PMID:27037473

  6. What Is "No Recovery?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Thanatologists, as Balk recently commented (Balk, 2004), have been saying that there is no recovery from bereavement, or that we should not speak of bereavement as leading to a recovery. The term recovery has a high level of plasticity and can be shaped to fit diverse meanings, including contradictory meanings. We will sort our way through some of…

  7. Efficient recovery of nitrate and phosphate from wastewater by an amine-grafted adsorbent for cyanobacterial biomass production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmin; Hwang, Min-Jin; Lee, Sang-Jun; Noh, Won; Kwon, Jung Min; Choi, Jin Soo; Kang, Chang-Min

    2016-04-01

    Various types of wastewater have been widely utilized in microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation for environmental and economic reasons. However, the problems of low cell growth and biomass contamination due to direct use of wastewater remain unresolved. In the present study, nitrate and phosphate were separated from wastewater by adsorption and subsequently used for cyanobacterial biomass production. To this end, an amine-grafted magnetic absorbent was synthesized. The synthesized absorbent recovered ca. 78% nitrate and 93% phosphate from wastewater. Regenerated medium was prepared using recovered nutrients as nitrogen and phosphate sources, which were efficiently assimilated by cyanobacterial culture. Compared to synthetic medium, there was no difference in growth and nutrient removal using regenerated medium. The proposed indirect method of wastewater utilization would prevent contamination of the produced biomass by unfavorable substances, which will broaden its potential applications. PMID:26827169

  8. Enhanced oil recovery by surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency: First annual report for the period September 30, 1985-September 30, 1986. [Sandpacks

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, J H; Scamehorn, J F

    1987-05-01

    Surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency is a novel EOR method which utilizes precipitation/coacervation of surfactants to plug the most permeable regions of the reservoir, improving the efficiency of a waterflooding operation. This technique does not rely on reduction of interfacial tension between aqueous and oleic phases to enhance oil recovery. Therefore, even though surfactants are involved, this new technique is not a substitute or improvement on classical surfactant flooding; however, it has the potantial to compete with polymer flooding as an alternative sweep efficiency improvement method. In surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency, a slug containing one kind of surfactant is injected into the reservoir, followed by a brine spacer. This is followed by injection of a second kind of surfactant which has lower adsorption than the first surfactant used. Anionic and cationic surfactants are one possible combination for this application. These may form either a precipitate or a coacervate upon mixing. Phase boundaries for some specific systems of this type have been determined over a wide range of conditions and a model developed to describe this behavior. Another possibility is the use of nonionic surfactants, which may form coacervate under proper conditions. The adsorption behavior of mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants was measured to aid in modeling the chromatographic effects with these surfactants in the reservoir. Studies with sandpacks of different permeabilities in parallel configuration using mixtures of anionic and cationic surfactants have demonstrated the capability of this method to reduce flow rates through a more permeable sandpack more than that through a less permeable sandpack. 4 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Influence of the drying step within disk-based solid-phase extraction both on the recovery and the limit of quantification of organochlorine pesticides in surface waters including suspended particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Günter, Anastasia; Balsaa, Peter; Werres, Friedrich; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-06-10

    In this study, 21 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined based on sample preparation using solid-phase extraction disks (SPE disks) coupled with programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV)-large-volume injection gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS). The work includes a comprehensive testing scheme on the suitability of the method for routine analysis of surface and drinking water including suspended particulate matter (SPM) with regard to requirements derived from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, Directive 2000/60/EC). SPM is an important reservoir for OCPs, which contributes to the transport of these compounds in the aquatic environment. To achieve the detection limits required by the WFD, a high pre-concentration factor during sample preparation is necessary, which was achieved by disk SPE in this study. The performance of disk SPE is strongly influenced by the drying step, which could be significantly improved by effective elimination of the residual water by combination of a high vacuum pump and a low humidity atmosphere. Detection limits of the WFD in the ng/L range were achieved by large volume injection of 100μL sample extract. The recoveries ranged from 82% to 117% with an RSD smaller than 13%. The applicability of this method to natural samples was tested for instrumental qualification and system suitability evaluation. Successful participation in an interlaboratory comparison proved the suitability of the method for routine analysis. PMID:27173769

  10. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, Daniel

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  11. Cascaded-systems analyses and the detective quantum efficiency of single-Z x-ray detectors including photoelectric, coherent and incoherent interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Seungman; Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A.; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Theoretical models of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of x-ray detectors are an important step in new detector development by providing an understanding of performance limitations and benchmarks. Previous cascaded-systems analysis (CSA) models accounted for photoelectric interactions only. This paper describes an extension of the CSA approach to incorporate coherent and incoherent interactions, important for low-Z detectors such as silicon and selenium. Methods: A parallel-cascade approach is used to describe the three types of x-ray interactions. The description of incoherent scatter required developing expressions for signal and noise transfer through an 'energy-labeled reabsorption' process where the parameters describing reabsorption are random functions of the scatter photon energy. The description of coherent scatter requires the use of scatter form factors that may not be accurate for some crystalline detector materials. The model includes the effects of scatter reabsorption and escape, charge collection, secondary quantum sinks, noise aliasing, and additive noise. Model results are validated by Monte Carlo calculations for Si and Se detectors assuming free-atom atomic form factors. Results: The new signal and noise transfer expressions were validated by showing agreement with Monte Carlo results. Coherent and incoherent scatter can degrade the DQE of Si and sometimes Se detectors depending on detector thickness and incident-photon energy. Incoherent scatter can produce a substantial low-frequency drop in the modulation transfer function and DQE. Conclusions: A generally useful CSA model of the DQE is described that is believed valid for any single-Z material up to 10 cycles/mm at both mammographic and radiographic energies within the limitations of Fourier-based linear-systems models and the use of coherent-scatter form factors. The model describes a substantial low-frequency drop in the DQE of Si systems due to incoherent scatter above 20

  12. Displacement and sweep efficiencies in a DNAPL recovery test using micellar and polymer solutions injected in a five-spot pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Richard; Hébert, Alain; Lefebvre, René; Gélinas, Pierre; Gabriel, Uta

    2004-11-01

    Soil washing with micellar solutions is a promising alternative for the remediation of DNAPL source zones. As with any flushing technology, the success of soil washing with micellar solutions depends in a very large part on the ability of the solution to contact the contaminant (sweep efficiency) and then on the efficiency of contaminant removal once this contact is made (displacement efficiency). We report here on a field test where a micellar solution was used to recover a DNAPL in an open five-spot pattern in which polymer solutions were also injected before and after the washing solution to improve sweep efficiency. The washing solution formulation was optimised in the laboratory prior to the test to obtain good dissolution capacity. For a high-concentration and low-volume soil flushing remediation test such as the one performed (0.8 pore volumes of actual washing solution injected), slug sizing of the washing solution is critical. It was evaluated by an analytical solution. In a five-spot pattern, the displacement efficiency of the washing solution was observed to vary in the porous medium as a function of the radial distance from the injection well because: (1) the volume of the washing solution flowing through a section of the test cell changes (maximum close to the injection well and minimal at the pumping wells); (2) the in situ velocity changes (maximum at the wells and minimum between the wells) and; (3) the contact time of the washing solution with the NAPL changes as a function of the distance from the injection well. The relative importance of the recovery mechanisms, mobilisation and dissolution, was also observed to vary in the test cell. The reduced velocity increased the contact time of the washing solution with the DNAPL enhancing its dissolution, but the decrease of the capillary number caused less mobilisation. The washing process is much more extensive around the injection well. The use of an injection-pumping pattern allowing a complete sweep

  13. Displacement and sweep efficiencies in a DNAPL recovery test using micellar and polymer solutions injected in a five-spot pattern.

    PubMed

    Martel, Richard; Hébert, Alain; Lefebvre, René; Gélinas, Pierre; Gabriel, Uta

    2004-11-01

    Soil washing with micellar solutions is a promising alternative for the remediation of DNAPL source zones. As with any flushing technology, the success of soil washing with micellar solutions depends in a very large part on the ability of the solution to contact the contaminant (sweep efficiency) and then on the efficiency of contaminant removal once this contact is made (displacement efficiency). We report here on a field test where a micellar solution was used to recover a DNAPL in an open five-spot pattern in which polymer solutions were also injected before and after the washing solution to improve sweep efficiency. The washing solution formulation was optimised in the laboratory prior to the test to obtain good dissolution capacity. For a high-concentration and low-volume soil flushing remediation test such as the one performed (0.8 pore volumes of actual washing solution injected), slug sizing of the washing solution is critical. It was evaluated by an analytical solution. In a five-spot pattern, the displacement efficiency of the washing solution was observed to vary in the porous medium as a function of the radial distance from the injection well because: (1) the volume of the washing solution flowing through a section of the test cell changes (maximum close to the injection well and minimal at the pumping wells); (2) the in situ velocity changes (maximum at the wells and minimum between the wells) and; (3) the contact time of the washing solution with the NAPL changes as a function of the distance from the injection well. The relative importance of the recovery mechanisms, mobilisation and dissolution, was also observed to vary in the test cell. The reduced velocity increased the contact time of the washing solution with the DNAPL enhancing its dissolution, but the decrease of the capillary number caused less mobilisation. The washing process is much more extensive around the injection well. The use of an injection-pumping pattern allowing a complete sweep

  14. SPECT imaging with resolution recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bronnikov, A. V.

    2011-07-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)

  15. Benefits of Group Living Include Increased Feeding Efficiency and Lower Mass Loss during Desiccation in the Social and Inbreeding Spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    PubMed

    Vanthournout, Bram; Greve, Michelle; Bruun, Anne; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Overgaard, Johannes; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment, and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments. PMID:26869936

  16. Benefits of Group Living Include Increased Feeding Efficiency and Lower Mass Loss during Desiccation in the Social and Inbreeding Spider Stegodyphus dumicola

    PubMed Central

    Vanthournout, Bram; Greve, Michelle; Bruun, Anne; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Overgaard, Johannes; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment, and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments. PMID:26869936

  17. The Wheelabrator Falls story: Integrated recycling, highly efficient energy recovery, innovative use of by-products and timing to advance the state-of-the-art in integrated waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Felago, R.T.; Anderson, R.L.; Scanlon, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses how significant state-of-the-art advancements in recycling, utilization of recycled materials and energy production will cut the template for future projects. A corollary benefit will be the enhancement of the concept of privatization of any plant, waste-to-energy, wastewater or biosolids processing, by providing an understanding of private initiation of the project, and the demonstration of a Company`s commitment through self-financing of the facility. All of these advancements point to the fact that waste-to-energy projects of the future will include some or all of these points from the Wheelabrator Falls Project: innovative on-site recycling; innovative utilization of mixed glass cullet; maximum post-combustion automatic recovery of ferrous metal; state-of-the-art boiler upgrades, including a super-efficient thermal cycle design refinements in the plant; specific innovations at falls; sequencing in the operations of the plant`s quality of operations; and expectations going forward.

  18. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A

    2016-10-01

    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated. PMID:27425859

  19. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  20. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  1. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L; Amidan, Brett G.; Sydor, Michael A.; Barrett, Christopher A.

    2015-03-31

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in. × 2 in.) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results will be discussed in a subsequent report.

  2. Recovery in soccer: part I - post-match fatigue and time course of recovery.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2012-12-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently required to play consecutive matches interspersed by 3 days and complete physical performance recovery may not be achieved. Incomplete recovery might result in underperformance and injury. During congested schedules, recovery strategies are therefore required to alleviate post-match fatigue, regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. This article is Part I of a subsequent companion review and deals with post-match fatigue mechanisms and recovery kinetics of physical performance (sprints, jumps, maximal strength and technical skills), cognitive, subjective and biochemical markers. The companion review will analyse recovery strategies used in contemporary professional soccer. Soccer involves many physically demanding activities including sprinting, changes in running speed, changes of direction, jumps and tackles, as well as technical actions such as dribbling, shooting and passing. These activities lead to a post-match fatigue that is linked to a combination of dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. The magnitude of soccer match-induced fatigue, extrinsic factors (i.e. match result, quality of the opponent, match location, playing surface) and/or intrinsic factors (i.e. training status, age, gender, muscle fibre typology), potentially influence the time course of recovery. Recovery in soccer is a complex issue, reinforcing the need for future research to estimate the quantitative importance of fatigue mechanisms and identify influencing factors. Efficient and individualized recovery strategies may consequently be proposed. PMID:23046224

  3. The Exploration Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

  4. Enhanced oil recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A. B.; Jackson, E. J.

    1985-10-15

    An improved portable, versatile, modular, above-ground system and process for generating combustion gases, principally nitrogen and carbon dioxide, and steam, for removing particulate matter and corrosive components from the combustion gases, and for injecting the purified nitrogen and CO/sub 2/, and steam, individually or in selected mixtures, at controlled temperatures and pressures into a subterranean formation bearing hydrocarbons to enhance the recovery thereof. The system includes a high-pressure combustion reactor for efficient generation of combustion gases at the required rates and at pressures up to about 8000 psi and temperatures up to about 4500/sup 0/ F. The reactor is water-jacketed but lined with refractory material to minimize soot formation. Combustion chamber temperature is reduced to a safe level by water injection with the fuel.

  5. Apollo Recovery Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Describe the organization of recovery force command and control and landing areas; b) Describe the function and timeline use of the Earth Landing System (ELS); c) Describe Stable 1 vs Stable 2 landing configurations and the function of the Command Module Uprighting System; d) Explain the activities of the helicopter and swimmer teams in egress and recovery of the crew; e)Explain the activities of the swimmer teams and primary recovery ship in recovery of the Command Module; and f) Describe several landing incidents that occurred during Apollo.

  6. Cameroon and Chad: cost recovery.

    PubMed

    Godin, C

    1998-04-01

    African Ministers of Health adopted the Bamako Initiative in 1987 to ensure sustainable and efficient primary health care (PHC), with an eye toward decreasing levels of morbidity and mortality in Africa. The initiative has made local communities largely responsible for identifying problems and distributing and managing local health care resources. Cost recovery is a key component of the Bamako Initiative. The adoption of a policy of decentralization in which the immediate providers and users of PHC services are responsible for the recovery of costs was recommended. Chad and Cameroon decentralized its health services in 1990 and 1992, respectively. With onchocerciasis one of these 2 countries' most important public health problems, the 2 governments decided to base onchocerciasis control efforts upon the mass distribution of Mectizan (ivermectin, MSD) integrated into the local PHC systems and including cost recovery. Community participation must now be developed to ensure the sustainability of treatment programs in both countries. In both Cameroon and Chad, studies have found that the introduction of cost recovery has had no significant effect upon treatment coverage in hyper- and meso-endemic communities. In fact, those charged for Mectizan treatment often believe that the drug must be worthwhile because they have to pay for it. PMID:9861286

  7. Hydrogeology and Aquifer Storage and Recovery Performance in the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    Well construction, hydraulic well test, ambient water-quality, and cycle test data were inventoried and compiled for 30 aquifer storage and recovery facilities constructed in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida. Most of the facilities are operated by local municipalities or counties in coastal areas, but five sites are currently being evaluated as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The relative performance of all sites with adequate cycle test data was determined, and compared with four hydrogeologic and design factors that may affect recovery efficiency. Testing or operational cycles include recharge, storage, and recovery periods that each last days or months. Cycle test data calculations were made including the potable water (chloride concentration of less than 250 milligrams per liter) recovery efficiency per cycle, total recovery efficiency per cycle, and cumulative potable water recovery efficiencies for all of the cycles at each site. The potable water recovery efficiency is the percentage of the total amount of potable water recharged for each cycle that is recovered; potable water recovery efficiency calculations (per cycle and cumulative) were the primary measures used to evaluate site performance in this study. Total recovery efficiency, which is the percent recovery at the end of each cycle, however, can be substantially higher and is the performance measure normally used in the operation of water-treatment plants. The Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system currently is being used, or planned for use, at 29 of the aquifer storage and recovery sites. The Upper Floridan aquifer is continuous throughout southern Florida, and its overlying confinement is generally good; however, the aquifer contains brackish to saline ground water that can greatly affect freshwater storage and recovery due to dispersive mixing within the aquifer. The hydrogeology of the Upper Floridan varies in southern Florida; confinement

  8. Very High Fuel Economy, Heavy Duty, Constant Speed, Truck Engine Optimized Via Unique Energy Recovery Turbines and Facilitated High Efficiency Continuously Variable Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect

    Bahman Habibzadeh

    2010-01-31

    The project began under a corporative agreement between Mack Trucks, Inc and the Department of Energy starting from September 1, 2005. The major objective of the four year project is to demonstrate a 10% efficiency gain by operating a Volvo 13 Litre heavy-duty diesel engine at a constant or narrow speed and coupled to a continuously variable transmission. The simulation work on the Constant Speed Engine started on October 1st. The initial simulations are aimed to give a basic engine model for the VTEC vehicle simulations. Compressor and turbine maps are based upon existing maps and/or qualified, realistic estimations. The reference engine is a MD 13 US07 475 Hp. Phase I was completed in May 2006 which determined that an increase in fuel efficiency for the engine of 10.5% over the OICA cycle, and 8.2% over a road cycle was possible. The net increase in fuel efficiency would be 5% when coupled to a CVT and operated over simulated highway conditions. In Phase II an economic analysis was performed on the engine with turbocompound (TC) and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). The system was analyzed to determine the payback time needed for the added cost of the TC and CVT system. The analysis was performed by considering two different production scenarios of 10,000 and 60,000 units annually. The cost estimate includes the turbocharger, the turbocompound unit, the interstage duct diffuser and installation details, the modifications necessary on the engine and the CVT. Even with the cheapest fuel and the lowest improvement, the pay back time is only slightly more than 12 months. A gear train is necessary between the engine crankshaft and turbocompound unit. This is considered to be relatively straight forward with no design problems.

  9. Aminopropyl-modified mesoporous silica SBA-15 as recovery agents of Cu(II)-sulfate solutions: Adsorption efficiency, functional stability and reusability aspects.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, M V; Videla, M; Calvo, A; Requejo, F G; Soler-Illia, G J A A

    2012-07-15

    Hybrid mesoporous materials are potentially useful for metal ion scavenging and retrieval because of their high surface areas, controlled accessibility and tailored functionalization. Some aspects that are linked to the performance of HMM include pore accessibility, stability of the organic functions and reusability. Knowledge of these aspects is critical in the design of adsorption-desorption protocols. In this work we produce and characterize propylamino-substituted large pore silica (SBA-15-N), which is submitted to Cu(II) adsorption from copper sulfate solutions, followed by desorption in acid media and material regeneration. We find that the hybrid material is an efficient adsorbent (1.15-1.75mmol Cu(II)g(-1)), although a fraction of the organic groups is lost during the adsorption process. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study demonstrates that the contents of amino groups are higher in the material surface, leading to different behaviors in Cu(II) complexation along the material. These materials can be regenerated by exposure to acidic media. Thermal processing of the hybrid materials leads to better durability in aqueous solutions during reprocessing, due to enhanced polycondensation of the inorganic framework. Thermally treated samples, once regenerated, are efficient adsorbents in a second step of Cu(II) adsorption. We discuss the materials processing factors involved in the improved adsorption of Cu(II), its quantitative release and reusability of the material. PMID:22595542

  10. Integrated distillation-membrane process for bio-ethanol and bio-butanol recovery from actual fermentation broths: Separation energy efficiency and fate of secondary fermentation products

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol and/or 1-butanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to convent...

  11. Register file soft error recovery

    DOEpatents

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  12. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  13. Recovery Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  14. RECOVERY OF PRINCIPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS AND PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM A VOLATILE ORGANIC SAMPLING TRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an investigation of the recovery efficiencies of selected principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) from the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) under laboratory conditions. The compounds included: vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethy...

  15. Recovery Act: High-Efficiency, Wideband Three-Phase Rectifiers and Adaptive Rectifier Management for Telecomm Central Office and Large Data Center Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Johnson

    2012-06-29

    Lineage Power and Verizon teamed up to address a DOE funding opportunity focused on improving the power conversion chain in telecommunications facilities and data centers. The project had three significant elements: the design and development of high efficiency and high power three-phase rectifiers by Lineage Power, design and development of software to optimize overall plant energy efficiency by Lineage Power, and a field trial in active Verizon telecommunications facilities where energy consumption was measured before and after efficiency upgrades.

  16. Modification of chemical and physical factors in steamflood to increase heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-01-19

    This report covers the work performed in the various physicochemical factors for the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. In this context the following general areas were studied: (1) The understanding of vapor-liquid flows in porous media, including processes in steam injection; (2) The effect of reservoir heterogeneity in a variety of foams, from pore scale to macroscopic scale; (3) The flow properties of additives for improvement of recovery efficiency, particularly foams and other non-Newtonian fluids; and (4) The development of optimization methods to maximize various measures of oil recovery.

  17. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future recoveries will be conducted in accordance with § 4287.169 of this chapter....

  18. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future recoveries will be conducted in accordance with § 4287.169 of this chapter....

  19. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future recoveries will be conducted in accordance with § 4287.169 of this chapter....

  20. Efficient butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation cultures grown on sweet sorghum juice by pervaporation using silicalite-1 membrane.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Miho; Negishi, Hideyuki; Sakaki, Keiji; Ikegami, Toru; Chohnan, Shigeru; Nitta, Youji; Kurusu, Yasurou; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    We investigated butanol recovery by pervaporation separation, using a silicalite-1 membrane, from batch cultures of butanol-producing Clostridium beijerinckii SBP2 grown on sweet sorghum juice as a fermentation medium. The pervaporation system yielded 73% (w/v) butanol from intact feed cultures containing 1% (w/v) butanol, and had a butanol permeation flux of 11 g m(-2) h(-1). Upon neutralization and activated charcoal treatment of the feed cultures, butanol yield and total flux increased to 82% (w/v) and 40 g m(-2) h(-1), respectively. This system is applicable to refining processes for practical biobutanol production from a promising energy crop, sweet sorghum. PMID:26718336

  1. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Muro, M. A.; La Rocca, C. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Havlin, S.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2016-03-01

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 ‑ p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ ‑ p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse.

  2. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Di Muro, M. A.; La Rocca, C. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Havlin, S.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 − p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ − p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse. PMID:26956773

  3. Power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Due to the energy consciousness of the United States and to the ever increasing cost of engine fuels, power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts has come of age. The addition of waste recovery systems to these exhausts increases the thermal efficiencies of typical systems from the range of 21% to 39% up to the range of 28% to 49%. The new ''expander'' type power recovery system includes a waste heat recovery exchanger which will transfer heat from the engine exhaust into any of numerous thermal fluids. The recovered heat energy now in the thermal fluid medium can, in turn, be used to produce power for any desired application (i.e. gas compression, process refrigeration, electrical power generation, etc.). The particular systems put forth in this paper concentrate on the use of expansion fluids (other than steam) driving ''expanders'' as motive devices.

  4. Energy Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The United States and other countries face the problem of waste disposal in an economical, environmentally safe manner. A widely applied solution adopted by Americans is "waste to energy," incinerating the refuse and using the steam produced by trash burning to drive an electricity producing generator. NASA's computer program PRESTO II, (Performance of Regenerative Superheated Steam Turbine Cycles), provides power engineering companies, including Blount Energy Resources Corporation of Alabama, with the ability to model such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiency, exhaust loss, leakage, mechanical losses and generator losses are used to calculate the cycle heat rate. The generator output program is sufficiently precise that it can be used to verify performance quoted in turbine generator supplier's proposals.

  5. Influence of food colorant and initial COD concentration on the efficiencies of micro-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (micro-aerobic SBR) for casein recovery under non-sterile condition by Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500.

    PubMed

    Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Sasaki, Ken; Techapun, Charin

    2009-09-01

    The acid biocoagulants produced from non-sterile lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 were used to settle colloidal protein, mainly casein, at the isoelectric point in dairy effluent prior to secondary treatment. High concentration of azo dye (Ponceau 4R) in the dairy wastewater and the stress of starvation decreased the efficiencies of the micro-aerobic SBR. Consequently, low casein recovery obtained and organic removal suffered a decline. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) also declined from log 7.4 to log 5.30 in the system fed with 400 mg L(-1) of the dye containing wastewater. The recovery of the system, however, showed that 25,000 mg COD L(-1) influent with 200 mg L(-1) of the dye maintained the growth of LAB in the range of log 7.74-8.12, with lactic and acetic production (2597 and 197 mg L(-1)) and 83% protein removal. The results in this study suggested that the inhibitory effects were compensated with high organic content feeding. PMID:19423333

  6. High efficiency klystron for the SPS application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larue, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The enhancement of klystron efficiency through the use of collector depression, that is by recovering energy from the spent electron beam after microwave amplification, was investigated. Design considerations included noise, harmonics, cooling, and service life. The mod anode, to be employed for beam control, and the depressed collector, used in spent electron beam energy recovery, are described.

  7. Microbial mineral recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, H.L.; Brierly, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents the scientific basis for using microbial biomass to remove metals from solution. Reports on current and potential microbial technology, including bioleaching of ores, bio-benefication of ores and fossil fuels, metal recovery from solution, and microbial EOR. Examines how microorganisms used in these technologies might improve through genetic engineering.

  8. Looking South at south End of Green Room Including Scrubber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking South at south End of Green Room Including Scrubber for Incinerator within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  9. Waste heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.M.; Cornelison, R.C.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes a waste heat recovery system. It comprises a conduit for conveying an exhaust gas stream; a boiler assembly connected to the conduit including a heat recovery steam generator through which the exhaust gas if flowed, and characterized by a high temperature stream tube heat exchanger and, at a downstream location relative thereto, a water-tube boiler; an ammonia gas injector for injecting ammonia gas into the exhaust gas stream and located upstream of the water-tube boiler in juxtaposition to the exhaust gas source; and a low temperature selective catalytic reduction unit located downstream of the water-tube boiler.

  10. Oil recovery from petroleum sludge through ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Huang, Shuhui; Li, Yubao

    2016-09-18

    The effect of ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) process on oil recovery from refinery oily sludge was examined in this study. Two types of UAE treatment including UAE probe (UAEP) system and UAE bath (UAEB) system were investigated. Their oil recovery efficiencies were compared to that of mechanical shaking extraction (MSE). Three solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), ethyl acetate (EA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were examined as the extraction solvents. The influence of experimental factors on oil and solvent recovery was investigated using an orthogonal experimental design. Results indicated that solvent type, solvent-to-sludge (S/S) ratio, and treatment duration could have significant effects on oil recovery in UAE treatment. Under the optimum conditions, UAEP treatment can obtain an oil recovery of 68.8% within 20 s, which was higher than that (i.e., 62.0%) by MSE treatment after 60 min' extraction. UAEB treatment can also obtain a promising oil recovery within shorter extraction duration (i.e., 15 min) than MSE. UAE was thus illustrated as an effective and improved approach for oily sludge recycling. PMID:27294566

  11. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2010-12-16

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the probability of correct detection (PCD) (or equivalently the false negative rate FNR = 1 - PCD). The PCD/FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not PCD/FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the PCD/FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in PCD/FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The study will investigate the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination

  12. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2011-05-01

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the false negative rate (FNR). The FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The testing was performed by SNL and is now completed. The study investigated the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge

  13. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2002-09-30

    The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI-A) conducts a broad spectrum of research intended to help improve the recovery efficiency from difficult to produce reservoirs including heavy oil and fractured low permeability systems. Our scope of work is relevant across near-, mid-, and long-term time frames. The primary functions of the group are to conduct direction-setting research, transfer research results to industry, and educate and train students for careers in industry. Presently, research in SUPRI-A is divided into 5 main project areas. These projects and their goals include: (1) Multiphase flow and rock properties--to develop better understanding of the physics of displacement in porous media through experiment and theory. This category includes work on imbibition, flow in fractured media, and the effect of temperature on relative permeability and capillary pressure. (2) Hot fluid injection--to improve the application of nonconventional wells for enhanced oil recovery and elucidate the mechanisms of steamdrive in low permeability, fractured porous media. (3) Mechanisms of primary heavy oil recovery--to develop a mechanistic understanding of so-called ''foamy oil'' and its associated physical chemistry. (4) In-situ combustion--to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the insitu combustion process. (5) Reservoir definition--to develop and improve techniques for evaluating formation properties from production information. What follows is a report on activities for the past year. Significant progress was made in all areas.

  14. Nanostructured systems for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Kuvshinov, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    The reservoir energy or that of the injected heat carrier was used to generate in situ intelligent chemical systems—nanostructured gels, sols and oil-displacing surfactants systems, preserving for a long time in the reservoir a complex of the properties being optimal for oil displacement. The results of field tests and commercial application of physicochemical technologies using nanostructured systems for enhanced oil recovery in oilfields with difficult-to-recover reserves, including deposits of high-viscosity oils, have been presented. Field tests of new "cold" technologies on the deposit of high-viscosity oil in Usinskoye oilfield proved their high efficiency.

  15. Continuous microalgae recovery using electrolysis with polarity exchange.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmin; Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Bo-Kyong; Han, Jong-In; Yang, Ji-Won

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of microalgae as a renewable source for the production of fuels and chemicals, but improvements are needed in all steps of this process, including harvesting. A continuous microalgae harvest system was developed based on electrolysis, referred to here as a continuous electrolytic microalgae (CEM) harvest system. This innovative system combines cultivation and harvesting and enables continuous and efficient concentration of microalgae. The electrodes were subject to a polarity exchange (PE) in the middle of the operation to further improve the harvest efficiency. Use of PE, rather than conventional electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF), led to more efficient cell recovery and more uniform recovery over the entire harvest chamber. In addition, PE increased the cell growth rate and the circulated cells remained intact after harvesting. PMID:22397823

  16. Concept definition study for recovery of tumbling satellites. Volume 2: Supporting research and technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, D. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Cathcart, J. A.; Keeley, M. G.; Madayev, L.; Nguyen, T. K.; Preese, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    A number of areas of research and laboratory experiments were identified which could lead to development of a cost efficient remote, disable satellite recovery system. Estimates were planned of disabled satellite motion. A concept is defined as a Tumbling Satellite Recovery kit which includes a modular system, composed of a number of subsystem mechanisms that can be readily integrated into varying combinations. This would enable the user to quickly configure a tailored remote, disabled satellite recovery kit to meet a broad spectrum of potential scenarios. The capability was determined of U.S. Earth based satellite tracking facilities to adequately determine the orientation and motion rates of disabled satellites.

  17. Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts. Views include Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the Gemini 4 space flight, sitting in life raft awaiting pickup by helicopter from the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp (33490); Navy frogmen stand on the flotation collar of the Gemini 4 spacecraft during recovery operations (33491).

  18. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Yorstos, Yanis C.

    2002-03-11

    The emphasis of this work was on investigating the mechanisms and factors that control the recovery of heavy oil with the objective to improve recovery efficiencies. For this purpose the interaction of flow transport and reaction at various scales from the pore network to the field scales were studied. Particular mechanisms to be investigated included the onset of gas flow in foamy oil production and in in-situ steam drive, gravity drainage in steam processes, the development of sustained combustion fronts and the propagation of foams in porous media. Analytical, computational and experimental methods were utilized to advance the state of the art in heavy oil recovery. Successful completion of this research was expected to lead to improvements in the Recovery efficiency of various heavy oil processes.

  19. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  20. Protein recovery from surfactant precipitation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu Ian; Stuckey, David C

    2011-01-01

    The recovery of lysozyme from an aqueous solution containing precipitated lysozyme-AOT complexes formed by the direct addition of sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) to a lysozyme solution was studied using both solvents, and a counterionic surfactant. Ethanol,methanol and solvent mixtures dissolved the surfactant precipitate and recovered lysozyme as a solid. Recovery efficiency and protein stability varied with the type of solvent used. An entirely different method of recovery was also evaluated using a counterionic surfactant: tri-octylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC) which bound to AOT releasing lysozyme into solution.Complete recovery (100%) of lysozyme was achieved at a molar ratio of 2:1(TOMAC:AOT), and the original protein activity was maintained in the final aqueous phase.The recovered lysozyme retained its secondary structure as observed in circular dichroism(CD) spectra. Specific activity studies show that counterionic surfactant extraction does not alter the biological activity of the enzyme. PMID:22235487

  1. Design of a new type vapor recovery system nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, S. H.; Cao, G. J.; Zhang, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    To settle the problem of low-efficiency recovery for Vapor recovery system nozzle, this paper advances a purely mechanical structure of the self-sealing refueling VRS nozzle. The structure, operating principle and controlled process of the nozzle is given. And an application of the nozzle is discussed. All indicated that the nozzle has a reasonable structure, can fuel and vapor recovery simultaneous start and stop. And thus improve the recovery efficiency and reduce oil leakage.

  2. Volatile organic compound matrix spike recoveries for ground- and surface-water samples, 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, Barbara L.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Bender, David A.; Zogorski, John S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program used field matrix spikes (FMSs), field matrix spike replicates (FMSRs), laboratory matrix spikes (LMSs), and laboratory reagent spikes (LRSs), in part, to assess the quality of volatile organic compound (VOC) data from water samples collected and analyzed in more than 50 of the Nation's largest river basins and aquifers (Study Units). The data-quality objectives of the NAWQA Program include estimating the extent to which variability, degradation, and matrix effects, if any, may affect the interpretation of chemical analyses of ground- and surface-water samples. In order to help meet these objectives, a known mass of VOCs was added (spiked) to water samples collected in 25 Study Units. Data within this report include recoveries from 276 ground- and surface-water samples spiked with a 25-microliter syringe with a spike solution containing 85 VOCs to achieve a concentration of 0.5 microgram per liter. Combined recoveries for 85 VOCs from spiked ground- and surface-water samples and reagent water were used to broadly characterize the overall recovery of VOCs. Median recoveries for 149 FMSs, 107 FMSRs, 20 LMSs, and 152 LRSs were 79.9, 83.3, 113.1, and 103.5 percent, respectively. Spike recoveries for 85 VOCs also were calculated individually. With the exception of a few VOCs, the median percent recoveries determined from each spike type for individual VOCs followed the same pattern as for all VOC recoveries combined, that is, listed from least to greatest recovery-FMSs, FMSRs, LRSs, and LMSs. The median recoveries for individual VOCs ranged from 63.7 percent to 101.5 percent in FMSs; 63.1 percent to 101.4 percent in FMSRs; 101.7 percent to 135.0 percent in LMSs; and 91.0 percent to 118.7 percent in LRSs. Additionally, individual VOC recoveries were compared among paired spike types, and these recoveries were used to evaluate potential bias in the method. Variability associated with field

  3. Elements That Define Recovery: The Experiential Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Borkman, Thomasina J; Laudet, Alexandre; Ritter, Lois A; Witbrodt, Jane; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Stunz, Aina; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although recovery increasingly guides substance use disorder services and policy, definitions of recovery continue to lack specificity, thereby hindering measure development and research. The goal of this study was to move the substance use disorders field beyond broad definitions by empirically identifying the domains and specific elements of recovery as experienced by persons in recovery from diverse pathways. Method: An Internet-based survey was completed by 9,341 individuals (54% female) who self-identified as being in recovery, recovered, in medication-assisted recovery, or as having had a problem with alcohol or drugs (but no longer do). Respondents were recruited via extensive outreach with treatment and recovery organizations, electronic media, and self-help groups. The survey included 47 recovery elements developed through qualitative work followed by an iterative reduction process. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using split-half samples, followed by sensitivity analyses for key sample groupings. Results: Four recovery domains with 35 recovery elements emerged: abstinence in recovery, essentials of recovery, enriched recovery, and spirituality of recovery. The four-factor structure was robust regardless of length of recovery, 12-step or treatment exposure, and current substance use status. Four uncommon elements did not load on any factor but are presented to indicate the diversity of definitions. Conclusions: Our empirical findings offer specific items that can be used in evaluating recovery-oriented systems of care. Researchers studying recovery should include measures that extend beyond substance use and encompass elements such as those examined here—e.g., self-care, concern for others, personal growth, and developing ways of being that sustain change in substance use. PMID:25343658

  4. Optimal and suboptimal control technique for aircraft spin recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    An analytic investigation has been made of procedures for effecting recovery from equilibrium spin conditions for three assumed aircraft configurations. Three approaches which utilize conventional aerodynamic controls are investigated. Included are a constant control recovery mode, optimal recoveries, and a suboptimal control logic patterned after optimal recovery results. The optimal and suboptimal techniques are shown to yield a significant improvement in recovery performance over that attained by using a constant control recovery procedure.

  5. Reading Recovery. [Fact Sheets].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This set of 10 fact sheets (each 2 to 4 pages long) addresses aspects of Reading Recovery, a program that helps children to be proficient readers and writers by the end of the first grade. It discusses the basic facts of Reading Recovery; Reading Recovery for Spanish literacy; Reading Recovery lessons; Reading Recovery professional development;…

  6. Efficient recovery of carbon dioxide from flue gases of coal-fired power plants by cyclic fixed-bed operations over K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Hiromu; Taniuchi, Jun; Furuyashiki, Nobuyoshi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Hirano, Shinichi; Shigemoto, Naoya; Nonaka, Takazumi

    1998-01-01

    An efficient chemical absorption method capable of cyclic fixed-bed operations under moist conditions for the recovery of carbon dioxide from flue gases has been proposed employing K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon. Carbon dioxide was chemically absorbed by the reaction K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O {r_equilibrium} 2KHCO{sub 3} to form potassium hydrogen carbonate. Moisture, usually contained as high as 8--17% in flue gases, badly affects the capacity of conventional adsorbents such as zeolites, but the present technology has no concern with moisture; water is rather necessary in principle as shown in the equation above. Deliquescent potassium carbonate should be supported on an appropriate porous material to adapt for fixed-bed operations. After breakthrough of carbon dioxide, the entrapped carbon dioxide was released by the decomposition of hydrogen carbonate to shift the reaction in reverse on flushing with steam, which could be condensed by cooling to afford carbon dioxide in high purity. Among various preparations of alkaline-earth carbonates (X{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, X = Li, Na, K) on porous materials, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-activated carbon revealed excellent properties for the present purpose. Preparation and characterization of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon and illustrative fixed-bed operations under flue gas conditions in laboratory columns and a bench-scale plant are described.

  7. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future...

  8. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future...

  9. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 24,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  10. A novel recovery mechanism for polymer flooding in gravity-dominated viscous-oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Goodyear, S.G.; Mead, B.J.; Woods, C.L.

    1995-11-01

    The viscous oil and poor vertical sweep make these reservoirs possible targets for IOR with polymers. This study shows that polymer incremental recoveries can be high, well within the range of potential economic viability. The incremental recovery mechanism is not the usual improved Buckley-Leverett sweep efficiency resulting from correction of an adverse displacement ratio. A novel recovery mechanism is identified in which the polymer increases the ratio of viscous to gravity forces, reducing the water slumping. This leads to improved vertical sweep, recovering oil from regions of high oil saturation at the top of the reservoir. They simulated polymer flooding including temperature effects. Comparison of waterflood simulations including temperature effects with conventional isothermal simulations shows that, counter to normal expectations, isothermal simulations can underpredict recovery by >10%.

  11. Conceptualizing Social Recovery: Recovery Routes of Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, Miriam; Gibson, David; Boshears, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our qualitative study was to gain a phenomenological understanding of routes to recovery from problematic drug use. In-depth interviews and drug histories were collected from 50 former methamphetamine users recruited from a U.S. metropolitan suburb who identified as having had problematic use of this drug in the past. Transcripts of the audio-recorded interviews were coded for common themes regarding types of recovery strategies or tools employed on the route to recovery. The common strategies used for recovery from problematic methamphetamine use in all routes were social in nature and did not necessarily include cessation of all substances. Based on our findings, we suggest a conceptualization of social recovery that focuses on reducing the social harms caused by problematic drug use rather than focusing primarily on cessation of all drug use. Social recovery may be employed as both a treatment strategy and analytical tool. More research is needed to advance the concept of social recovery for intervention, drug policy, and criminal justice implications. PMID:25574504

  12. Technical aspects of resolution recovery reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pagnanelli, Robert; Borges-Neto, Salvador

    2016-02-01

    Technological advances in processing have allowed nuclear cardiology labs to increase efficiency as well as reduce radiation exposure to both patients and staff. With increased awareness on reduced radiation exposure, efficiency and quality resolution recovery reconstruction is a perfect fit for nuclear cardiology. Having a basic understanding of what is required as well as being aware of the potential pitfalls can provide some clarity on how to incorporate resolution recovery reconstruction into the existing workflow of a nuclear cardiology lab. PMID:26645602

  13. Recovery education: a tool for psychiatric nurses.

    PubMed

    Knutson, M B; Newberry, S; Schaper, A

    2013-12-01

    Patient teaching is vital for nursing care of psychiatric patients. This paper describes the process of developing Recovery Education as a tool for nurses who lead daily patient education groups. Gundersen Lutheran's Recovery Model developed for the Inpatient Psychiatric Unit includes seven Elements of Recovery--Hope, Security, Support/Managing Symptoms, Empowerment, Relationships, Coping and Finding Meaning. Concepts of cognitive behavioural therapy, mindfulness and case-based education were woven through recovery lessons in ready-to-use folders. Statistics on patient satisfaction and patient outcome data were positive. Education for self-management can move patients forward to improve health and healing on their recovery journey. PMID:23445505

  14. Recovery system for an underwater projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.

    1986-10-01

    A recovery system has been designed to recover and bring to the surface of the ocean a vehicle weighting 640 lbs under water and approximately 800 lbs in air. The vehicle has a terminal sink rate of 52-55 ft/sec. The recovery system includes a 4.2-ft-dia ribbon parachute, a 13-ft/sup 3/ flotation bag, and a gas generator for inflating the bag. Deployment of the recovery system normally occurs at depths between 400 and 600 ft. Components of the recovery system were tested before the system was used. Results of the tests along with a description of the recovery system are presented.

  15. What Is the Nature of Poststroke Language Recovery and Reorganization?

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on three main topics related to the nature of poststroke language recovery and reorganization. The first topic pertains to the nature of anatomical and physiological substrates in the infarcted hemisphere in poststroke aphasia, including the nature of the hemodynamic response in patients with poststroke aphasia, the nature of the peri-infarct tissue, and the neuronal plasticity potential in the infarcted hemisphere. The second section of the paper reviews the current neuroimaging evidence for language recovery in the acute, subacute, and chronic stages of recovery. The third and final section examines changes in connectivity as a function of recovery in poststroke aphasia, specifically in terms of changes in white matter connectivity, changes in functional effective connectivity, and changes in resting state connectivity after stroke. While much progress has been made in our understanding of language recovery, more work needs to be done. Future studies will need to examine whether reorganization of language in poststroke aphasia corresponds to a tighter, more coherent, and efficient network of residual and new regions in the brain. Answering these questions will go a long way towards being able to predict which patients are likely to recover and may benefit from future rehabilitation. PMID:23320190

  16. Energy recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, V.

    1982-08-31

    The energy recovery device includes a housing having a central shaft which is connected to a lever operating a work-load system capable of generating work-load forces. The central shaft is also connected to a disk having four posts generally parallel to the shaft and initially located at positions corresponding to the four major points of a compass. Within each corner of the housing, a helically coiled spring is positioned over a support post. Each spring has two extending arms which contact two respective adjacent posts on the disk so as to maintain the spring under tension. When the lever is at the neutral position, I.E., when no work-load forces are generated, the recovery forces generated by the four springs within the housing are generally balanced. As the lever is displaced from the neutral position by a driving force, the disk rotates whereby the angular displacement between the arms of any spring decreases. Once the disk is displaced, the spring forces aid in continuing displacement of the disk. Simultaneously the work-load system generates forces which oppose any displacement. The springs are preferably configured and dimensioned so that, at any given displacement of the lever from the neutral position, the recovery forces generally counterbalance the work-load forces. Thus the lever will remain at a given displacement when the driving force applied to the lever is removed. Additionally, the counterbalancing of forces permits continued displacement of the lever with a minimal and constant driving force.

  17. The CEOS Recovery Observatory Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosford, S.; Proy, C.; Giros, A.; Eddy, A.; Petiteville, I.; Ishida, C.; Gaetani, F.; Frye, S.; Zoffoli, S.; Danzeglocke, J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last decade, large populations living in vulnerable areas have led to record damages and substantial loss of life in mega-disasters ranging from the deadly Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 and Haiti earthquake of 2010; the catastrophic flood damages of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Tohoku tsunami of 2011, and the astonishing extent of the environmental impact of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2009. These major catastrophes have widespread and long-lasting impacts with subsequent recovery and reconstruction costing billions of euros and lasting years. While satellite imagery is used on an ad hoc basis after many disasters to support damage assessment, there is currently no standard practice or system to coordinate acquisition of data and facilitate access for early recovery planning and recovery tracking and monitoring. CEOS led the creation of a Recovery Observatory Oversight Team, which brings together major recovery stakeholders such as the UNDP and the World Bank/Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, value-adding providers and leading space agencies. The principal aims of the Observatory are to: 1. Demonstrate the utility of a wide range of earth observation data to facilitate the recovery and reconstruction phase following a major catastrophic event; 2. Provide a concrete case to focus efforts in identifying and resolving technical and organizational obstacles to facilitating the visibility and access to a relevant set of EO data; and 3. Develop dialogue and establish institutional relationships with the Recovery phase user community to best target data and information requirements; The paper presented here will describe the work conducted in preparing for the triggering of a Recovery Observatory including support to rapid assessments and Post Disaster Needs Assessments by the EO community.

  18. Credit Recovery Hits the Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In communities including New Orleans, Los Angeles, and Chicago, educators are creating alternative schools for struggling students that employ online credit-recovery programs as a core portion, or all, of their curriculum. The growth in online learning generally, including blended learning, has fueled the proliferation of computer-based credit…

  19. An efficient plane-grating monochromator based on conical diffraction for continuous tuning in the entire soft X-ray range including tender X-rays (2-8 keV).

    PubMed

    Jark, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Recently it was verified that the diffraction efficiency of reflection gratings with rectangular profile, when illuminated at grazing angles of incidence with the beam trajectory along the grooves and not perpendicular to them, remains very high for tender X-rays of several keV photon energy. This very efficient operation of a reflection grating in the extreme off-plane orientation, i.e. in conical diffraction, offers the possibility of designing a conical diffraction monochromator scheme that provides efficient continuous photon energy tuning over rather large tuning ranges. For example, the tuning could cover photon energies from below 1000 eV up to 8 keV. The expected transmission of the entire instrument is high as all components are always operated below the critical angle for total reflection. In the simplest version of the instrument a plane grating is preceded by a plane mirror rotating simultaneously with it. The photon energy selection will then be made using the combination of a focusing mirror and exit slit. As is common for grating monochromators for soft X-ray radiation, the minimum spectral bandwidth is source-size-limited, while the bandwidth can be adjusted freely to any larger value. As far as tender X-rays (2-8 keV) are concerned, the minimum bandwidth is at least one and up to two orders of magnitude larger than the bandwidth provided by Si(111) double-crystal monochromators in a collimated beam. Therefore the instrument will provide more flux, which can even be increased at the expense of a bandwidth increase. On the other hand, for softer X-rays with photon energies below 1 keV, competitive relative spectral resolving powers of the order of 10000 are possible. PMID:26698063

  20. Manned Spacecraft Landing and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, Don

    2004-01-01

    As recent history has tragically demonstrated, a successful space mission is not complete until the crew has safely returned to earth and has been successfully recovered. It is noted that a safe return to earth does not guarantee a successful recovery. The focus of this presentation will be a discussion of the ground operation assets involved in a successful recovery. The author's experience in land and water-based recovery of crewed vehicles and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Edwards Air Force Base, international landing sites, and the Atlantic Ocean provides for some unique insight into this topic. He has participated in many aspects of Space Shuttle landing and recovery operations including activation of Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) sites and Emergency Landing Sites (ELS) as an Operations Test Director, execution of post landing convoy operations as an Orbiter Move Director, Operations Test Director, and Landing and Recovery Director, and recovery of solid rocket boosters, frustum and their parachutes 140 miles offshore in a wide range of sea states as a Retrieval Diver/Engineer. The recovery operations for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were similar from a landing and recovery perspective in th t they all were capsules with limited "flying" capability and had a planned End of Mission (EOM) in an ocean with a descent slowed by parachutes. The general process was to deploy swim teams via helicopters to prepare the capsule for recovery and assist with crew extraction when required. The capsule was then hoisted onto the deck of a naval vessel. This approach required the extensive use and deployment of military assets to support the primary landing zone as well as alternate and contingency locations. The Russian Soyuz capsule also has limited "flying" capability; however, the planned EOM is terrestrial. In addition to use of parachutes to slow the reentry descent, soft-landing rockets on the bottom of the vehicle are employed to cushion the

  1. Energy Recovery Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolitsa Merminga

    2007-06-01

    The success and continuing progress of the three operating FELs based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), the Jefferson Lab IR FEL Upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) FEL, and the Novosibirsk High Power THz FEL, have inspired multiple future applications of ERLs, which include higher power FELs, synchrotron radiation sources, electron cooling devices, and high luminosity electron-ion colliders. The benefits of using ERLs for these applications are presented. The key accelerator physics and technology challenges of realizing future ERL designs, and recent developments towards resolving these challenges are reviewed.

  2. Factors influencing recovery and restoration following a chemical incident.

    PubMed

    Peña-Fernández, A; Wyke, S; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    Chemicals are an important part of our society. A wide range of chemicals are discharged into the environment every day from residential, commercial and industrial sources. Many of these discharges do not pose a threat to public health or the environment. However, global events have shown that chemical incidents or accidents can have severe consequences on human health, the environment and society. It is important that appropriate tools and technical guidance are available to ensure that a robust and efficient approach to developing a remediation strategy is adopted. The purpose of remediation is to protect human health from future exposure and to return the affected area back to normal as soon as possible. There are a range of recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that are applicable to a broad range of chemicals and incidents. Recovery options should be evaluated according to their appropriateness and efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment; however economic drivers and social and political considerations often influence decision makers on which remedial actions are implemented during the recovery phase of a chemical incident. To date, there is limited information in the literature on remediation strategies and recovery options that have been implemented following a chemical incident, or how successful they have been. Additional factors that can affect the approach taken for recovery are not well assessed or understood by decision makers involved in the remediation and restoration of the environment following a chemical incident. The identification of this gap has led to the development of the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents to provide a framework for choosing an effective recovery strategy. A compendium of practical evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) for inhabited areas, food production systems and water environments has also been developed and is included in the chemical

  3. USDOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project: Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark}. Final report: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Final Report provides available design, operational, and maintenance information, and marketing plans, on the Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} demonstration Project at the Dragon Products company`s cement plant at Thomaston, Maine. In addition, data on pollutant removal efficiencies and system economics are reviewed. The Recovery Scrubber was developed to simultaneously address the emission of acid gas pollutants and the disposal of alkaline solid waste at a cement plant. The process, however, has general application to other combustion processes including waste or fossil fuel fired boilers. Selected chemistry of the exhaust gas, (before and after treatment by the Recovery Scrubber), selected chemistry of the cement plant kiln baghouse dust catch (before and after treatment by the Recovery Scrubber), and Dragon cement plant economics are presented. current marketing efforts and potential markets for the Recovery Scrubber in several industries are discussed.

  4. Recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Apffel, F.

    1989-06-13

    This patent describes a process for manufacturing char and hydrocarbons from discarded used tires. The process consists of: introducing the substantially whole tires into a reactor; pyrolyzing the substantially whole tires in a reaction chamber continuously at a temperature and pressure and for a reaction time sufficient to cause the tires to dissociate into a vapor and a solid phase; the pyrolyzing step including directly heating the tires with a radiant heat source at temperatures of 1000{sup 0} to 3000{sup 0}F; producing char from the solid phase; and processing the vapor phase to produce hydrocarbons.

  5. Recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Apffel, F.

    1987-03-03

    A process is described for manufacturing carbon black and hydrocarbons from discarded tires, comprising: introducing the tires into a reactor; pyrolyzing the tires in a pyrolysis reaction vessel substantially in the absence of artificially introduced oil heating media at a temperature and pressure and for a reaction time sufficient to cause the tires to dissociate into a vapor phase and a solid phase; the pyrolyzing step including directly, internally heating the tires in the reaction vessel using microwave energy; producing carbon black from the solid phase; and processing the vapor phase to produce hyrocarbons.

  6. Short review on heat recovery from exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, Hassan; Khaled, Mahmoud; Lemenand, Thierry; Ramadan, Mohamad

    2016-07-01

    The increasing growth of energy demand leads to issues associated with energy demand reduction and propose new energy efficient solutions. Heat recovery consists the most promising solution especially in regions where renewable energy resources are not available. That is why the domain of heat recovery has shown a tremendous improvement during the recent years. On the other hand, few works have been dedicated to heat recovery from exhaust gas. This paper presents a review on heat recovery from exhaust gas. The authors propose to classify exhaust gas heat recovery systems within three different classifications that are exhaust gas temperature, utilized equipment and recovery purposes.

  7. Economic and environmental evaluation of nitrogen removal and recovery methods from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanzi; Guo, Miao; Shah, Nilay; Stuckey, David C

    2016-09-01

    The driver for waste-based economic growth is long-term strategic design, and a paradigm-shift from waste treatment to resource recovery. This study aims to use an integrated modelling approach to evaluate the holistic economic and environmental profiles of three alternative nitrogen removal and recovery methods integrated into wastewater treatment systems, including conventional nitrification-denitrification, Anammox, and the anaerobic ion exchange route, to provide insights into N recovery system designs which are key elements in building a sustainable circular economy. Our results suggest that ion exchange is a promising technology showing high N removal-recovery efficiency from municipal wastewater and delivering competitive sustainability scores. In comparison with the well-developed conventional route, ion exchange and Anammox are undergoing significant research and development; as highlighted in sensitivity analyses, there is considerable room for process design and optimisation of ion exchange systems to achieve economically and environmentally optimal performance. PMID:27005785

  8. Investigation of Electrochemical Recovery of Zirconium from Spent Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Simpson; II-Soon Hwang

    2014-06-01

    This project uses both modeling and experimental studies to design optimal electrochemical technology methods for recovery of zirconium from used nuclear fuel rods for more effective waste management. The objectives are to provide a means of efficiently separating zirconium into metallic high-level waste forms and to support development of a process for decontamination of zircaloy hulls to enable their disposal as low- and intermediate-level waste. Modeling work includes extension of a 3D model previously developed by Seoul National University for uranium electrorefining by adding the ability to predict zirconium behavior. Experimental validation activities include tests for recovery of zirconium from molten salt solutions and aqueous tests using surrogate materials. *This is a summary of the FY 2013 progress for I-NERI project # 2010-001-K provided to the I-NERI office.

  9. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, T.; Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K.

    1996-08-01

    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Protracted Recovery From a Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Kostyun, Regina O.; Hafeez, Imran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have demonstrated that age and sex may influence concussion recovery time frames, with female athletes and adolescents being potentially more susceptible to a protracted recovery course. Currently, limited work has examined the influence sex may have on concussion management strategies and treatment interventions, especially for younger individuals suffering persistent concussion symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions. Hypothesis: Female athletes are prescribed more treatment interventions than male athletes during a protracted recovery from a concussion. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected for adolescent athletes presenting to a sports medicine concussion clinic between September 2010 and September 2011. Results: A total of 266 adolescent athletes were evaluated and treated for concussion. Female athletes had a longer recovery course (P = 0.002) and required more treatment interventions (P < 0.001) for their symptoms and dysfunction. Female athletes were more likely to require academic accommodations (P < 0.001), vestibular therapy (P < 0.001), or medication (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Medical providers should be aware that during the recovery course, adolescent female athletes may require a management plan that will most likely include additional treatment interventions beyond the standard cognitive and physical rest. Clinical Relevance: Treatment interventions are more commonly prescribed for adolescent female athletes than for adolescent male athletes during a protracted recovery from a concussion. This highlights the need for identifying evidence-based clinical management guidelines that focus on sex, especially when dealing with persistent concussion symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:25553213

  11. Proceedings of the improved oil recovery conference

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.W.

    1989-03-01

    The goal of this conference was to introduce enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and other improved oil recovery (IOR) techniques to the many independent oil operators in this area. Topics of discussion included surfactant/polymer recovery, CO/sub 2/ injection, polymer augmented waterflooding, hydrocarbon leaching, control of water production, improvements in gelled acid technology, and new variations in chemical EOR. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  12. Advanced space recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wailes, William K.

    1989-01-01

    The design evolution of a space recovery system designed by a NASA-contracted study is described, with particular attention given to the design of a recovery system for a propulsion/avionics module (P/AM), which weighs 60,000 lb at the recovery initiation and achieves subsonic terminal descent at or above 50,000 ft msl. The components of the recovery system concept are described together with the operational sequences of the recovery. The recovery system concept offers low cost, low weight, good performance, a potential for pinpoint landing, and an operational flexibility.

  13. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  14. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  15. Disaster Recovery Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jeannine W.

    1985-01-01

    Every school needs an effective disaster recovery plan that is flexible, comprehensive and designed to take into account unexpected disasters. Presents guidelines for preparing such a plan, with immediate and long-range recovery procedures. (MD)

  16. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  17. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2013-05-29

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  18. Enhanced oil recovery process and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A. B.; Jackson, E. V.

    1985-02-19

    An improved portable, versatile, modular, aboveground system and process for generating combustion gases, principally nitrogen and carbon dioxide, and steam, for removing particulate matter and corrosive components from the combustion gases, and for injecting the purified nitrogen and CO/sub 2/, and steam, individually or in selected mixtures, at controlled temperatures and pressures into a subterranean formation bearing hydrocarbons to enhance the recovery thereof. The system includes a high-pressure combustion reactor for efficient generation of combustion gases at the required rates and at pressures up to about 8000 psi and temperatures up to about 4500/sup 0/ F. The reactor is water-jacketed but lined with refractory material to minimize soot formation. Combustion chamber temperature is reduced to a safe level by water injection with the fuel.

  19. Clinical management IT system for enhanced recovery.

    PubMed

    Yi, Eunjue; Jheon, Sanghoon

    2016-02-01

    Surgical resection has a key role for the treatment of early stage lung cancer along with certain advanced cases, and minimally invasive techniques, representatively video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), are becoming standard for lung cancer surgery. Implementation of integrated programs which could manage the whole process of patient treatment including preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative care is thought to be essential partner for successful application of minimally invasive thoracic surgery for lung cancer treatment. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), so called "fast-track" programs pursue the adequate and efficient delivery of health care services therefore to improve postoperative outcomes and reduce medical cost. Well-organized information technology systems would be helpful to achieve the goals of ERAS without increasing the burden of budget or working staffs. Furthermore, it could contribute to create knowledge and translate to the clinical process. PMID:26941972

  20. Recovery of gallium from aluminum industry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, M.S.; Neto, K.C.M.; Nobrega, A.W.; Medeiros, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A procedure is proposed to recover gallium from flue dust aluminum residues produced in plants by using solid-phase extraction with a commercial polyether-type polyurethane foam (PUF). Gallium can be separated from high concentrations of aluminum, iron, nickel, titanium, vanadium, copper, zinc, sulfate, fluoride, and chloride by extraction with PUF from 3 M sulfuric acid and 3 M sodium chloride concentration medium with at least a 92% efficiency. Gallium backextraction was fast and quantitative with ethanol solution. In all recovery steps commercial-grade reagents could be used, including tap water. The recovered gallium was precipitated with sodium hydroxide solution, purified by dissolution and precipitation, calcinated, and the final oxide was 98.6% pure.

  1. Recovery in Scotland: beyond service development.

    PubMed

    Bradstreet, Simon; McBrierty, Rona

    2012-02-01

    Over the last ten years there has been significant activity related to the promotion and support of recovery in Scotland, much of it linked to the work of the Scottish Recovery Network. A range of government policies have consistently identified recovery as a guiding principle of both service design and mental health improvement efforts. New learning has been developed and shared, workforce competencies reviewed and training developed, and a range of national initiatives put in place. In Scotland, as elsewhere, these efforts have tended to focus primarily on ensuring that mental health services offer environments and practices that support personal recovery. While service improvement is crucial, a wider challenge is ensuring that opportunities and support for self-directed recovery are enhanced outside statutory services. Providing examples, this paper will look at the development of recovery in Scotland - including the work of the Scottish Recovery Network - and consider the potential for building on progress made by rebalancing efforts to support personal recovery, highlighting the importance of public attitudes and community-based learning approaches. We will also touch on the role of identity in personal recovery and consider cultural issues related to the promotion of recovery in Scotland. PMID:22385428

  2. Factors associated with recovery from anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Lund, Brian C; Von Holle, Ann; Thornton, Laura M; Berrettini, Wade H; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steven; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S; La Via, Maria; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D Blake; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies of prognostic factors of anorexia nervosa (AN) course and recovery have followed clinical populations after treatment discharge. This retrospective study examined the association between prognostic factors--eating disorder features, personality traits, and psychiatric comorbidity--and likelihood of recovery in a large sample of women with AN participating in a multi-site genetic study. The study included 680 women with AN. Recovery was defined as the offset of AN symptoms if the participant experienced at least one year without any eating disorder symptoms of low weight, dieting, binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Participants completed a structured interview about eating disorders features, psychiatric comorbidity, and self-report measures of personality. Survival analysis was applied to model time to recovery from AN. Cox regression models were used to fit associations between predictors and the probability of recovery. In the final model, likelihood of recovery was significantly predicted by the following prognostic factors: vomiting, impulsivity, and trait anxiety. Self-induced vomiting and greater trait anxiety were negative prognostic factors and predicted lower likelihood of recovery. Greater impulsivity was a positive prognostic factor and predicted greater likelihood of recovery. There was a significant interaction between impulsivity and time; the association between impulsivity and likelihood of recovery decreased as duration of AN increased. The anxiolytic function of some AN behaviors may impede recovery for individuals with greater trait anxiety. PMID:23535032

  3. Leading a Recovery-oriented Social Enterprise.

    PubMed

    Raeburn, Toby; Hungerford, Catherine; Sayers, Jan; Escott, Phil; Lopez, Violeta; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Recovery-oriented mental health services promote the principles of recovery, such as hope and optimism, and are characterized by a personalized approach to developing consumer self-determination. Nurse leaders are increasingly developing such services as social enterprises, but there is limited research on the leadership of these programs. Leading a recovery-oriented mental health nurse social enterprise requires visionary leadership, collaboration with consumers and local health providers, financial viability, and commitment to recovery-focused practice. This article describes the framework of an Australian mental health nursing social enterprise, including the service attributes and leadership lessons that have been learned from developing program sustainability. PMID:26090553

  4. Do clinical outcome measures assess consumer-defined recovery?

    PubMed

    Andresen, Retta; Caputi, Peter; Oades, Lindsay G

    2010-05-30

    There is an international call for mental health services to become recovery-oriented, and also to use evidence-based practices. Addressing this call requires recovery-oriented measurement of outcomes and service evaluation. Mental health consumers view recovery as leading as meaningful life, and have criticised traditional clinical measures for being too disability-oriented. This study compares three measures of consumer-defined recovery from enduring mental illness: the Recovery Assessment Scale, the Mental Health Recovery Measure and the Self-Identified Stage of Recovery, with four conventional clinical measures. Correlational analyses supported the convergent validity of the recovery measures, although certain subscales were unrelated to each other. More importantly, little relationship was found between consumer-defined recovery and the clinical measures. Analyses of variance revealed that scores on the recovery measures increased across self-identified stage of recovery, but scores on most clinical measures did not improve consistently across stage of recovery. The findings demonstrate the qualitative difference between the two types of measures, supporting the claim by consumers that clinical measures do not assess important aspects of recovery. There is a need for further research and refinement of recovery measurement, including assessment of stages of recovery, with the aim of including such measures as an adjunct in routine clinical assessment, service evaluation and research. PMID:20227768

  5. Youth in Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  6. Enhanced oil recovery update

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V

    1989-03-01

    Technology continues to grow in the realm of enhanced oil recovery. Since 1950 several processes have proven economic for oil recovery. Others are still in their infancy and must be custom designed for each reservoir. This paper gives a general overview of these processes. The author focuses on the latest technology and the outlook for enhanced oil recovery operations.

  7. The Role of Meditation in Addiction Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, James M.; Nishimura, Nancy J.; Priest, Ronnie

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the role of meditation as an important component in addiction recovery. Successful addiction recovery is often related to an individual's ability to develop and use a repertoire of coping behaviors, including the ability to maintain an ongoing awareness of one's vulnerability. These learned behaviors serve as reliable…

  8. Solid Waste: Resource Recovery and Reuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, James V.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses some of the processes involved in resource recovery (recycling) from municipal solid wastes. Provides specific examples of recovery of valuable resources, and suggests that the environmental consequences and technology related to solid waste treatment should be included in high school science courses. (JR)

  9. Designing and managing successful endangered species recovery programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Tim W.; Crete, Ron; Cada, John

    1989-03-01

    Endangered species recovery is characterized by complexity and uncertainty in both its biological and organizational aspects. To improve performance in the organizational dimension, some models of organizations are briefly introduced with an emphasis on the organization as a system for processing information, i.e., for successfully dealing with the high uncertainty in the task environment. A strong task orientation,which rewards achievement of the primary goal, is suggested as ideal for this task, as is generative rationality, which encourages workers to observe, critique, and generate new ideas. The parallel organization—a flexible, participatory, problem-solving structure set up alongside traditional bureaucracies—is offered as a useful structure for meeting the demands of uncertainties encountered during recovery. Task forces and projects teams can be set up as parallel organizations. Improved managerial functions include coordinating roles to facilitate the flow and use of information; decision making to avoid “groupthink”—the defects, symptoms, and countermeasures are described; and productive, active management of the inevitable conflict. The inability of organizations to solve dilemmas, to examine their own structures and management, and to change themselves for more effective, efficient, and equitable performance is seen as the major obstacle to improved recovery programs. Some recommendations for effecting change in bureaucracies are made along with a call for case studies detailing the organizational dimensions of endangered species recovery programs.

  10. Hypophosphatemia and recovery of post-hepatectomy liver insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Karanicolas, Paul J.; Zih, Francis S. W.; Cheng, Eva; Wong, Julia; Hanna, Sherif; Coburn, Natalie G.; Law, Calvin H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypophosphatemia (HP) is frequent following liver resection, and thought to represent use of phosphate during liver regeneration. We sought to evaluate the association of post-hepatectomy HP with liver insufficiency and recovery. Methods Liver resections were retrospectively reviewed from 2009 to 2012 at a single institution. We explored the relationship between HP (defined as serum phosphate ≤0.65 mmol/L), occurrence of initial liver insufficiency (ILI) [bilirubin >50 µmol/L, international normalized ratio (INR) >1.7 within 72 hours of surgery] and in-hospital recovery of ILI. Secondary outcomes included 30-day post-operative major morbidity (Clavien grade 3 and 4 complications), mortality, and re-admission. Results Among 402 patients, 223 (55.5%) experienced HP and 64 (15.9%) met our definition of ILI, of which 53 (82.8%) recovered. Length of stay, 30-day post-operative major morbidity, mortality, and re-admission were similar between patients with and without HP. Among patients with ILI, 44 (68.8%) experienced HP. Following ILI, patients with HP recovered more often than those with NP (90.9% vs. 65.0%; P=0.03). Conclusions In patients who experience post-hepatectomy ILI, HP is associated with improved recovery, potentially indicating more efficient liver regeneration. Further studies should explore the usefulness of post-hepatectomy HP as an early prognostic factor of recovery from ILI. PMID:27275463

  11. Efficient methods for including quantum effects in Monte Carlo calculations of large systems: Extension of the displaced points path integral method and other effective potential methods to calculate properties and distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, Steven L.; Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Siepmann, J. Ilja; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a procedure to calculate ensemble averages, thermodynamic derivatives, and coordinate distributions by effective classical potential methods. In particular, we consider the displaced-points path integral (DPPI) method, which yields exact quantal partition functions and ensemble averages for a harmonic potential and approximate quantal ones for general potentials, and we discuss the implementation of the new procedure in two Monte Carlo simulation codes, one that uses uncorrelated samples to calculate absolute free energies, and another that employs Metropolis sampling to calculate relative free energies. The results of the new DPPI method are compared to those from accurate path integral calculations as well as to results of two other effective classical potential schemes for the case of an isolated water molecule. In addition to the partition function, we consider the heat capacity and expectation values of the energy, the potential energy, the bond angle, and the OH distance. We also consider coordinate distributions. The DPPI scheme performs best among the three effective potential schemes considered and achieves very good accuracy for all of the properties considered. A key advantage of the effective potential schemes is that they display much lower statistical sampling variances than those for accurate path integral calculations. The method presented here shows great promise for including quantum effects in calculations on large systems.

  12. Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gregory

    2011-03-01

    Essential to the long term success of advanced thermoelectric (TE) technology for practical waste heat recovery is fundamental physics and materials research aimed at discovering and understanding new high performance TE materials. Applications of such new materials require their development into efficient and robust TE modules for incorporation into real devices such as a TE generator (TEG) for automotive exhaust gas waste heat recovery. Our work at GM Global R&D includes a continuing investigation of Skutterudite-based material systems and new classes of compounds that have potential for TE applications. To assess and demonstrate the viability of a TEG using state-of-the-art materials and modules, we have designed, fabricated, installed, and integrated a working prototype TEG to recover exhaust gas waste heat from a production test vehicle. Preliminary results provide important data for the operation and validation of the mechanical, thermal, and electrical systems of the TEG in combination with the various vehicle systems (e.g., exhaust bypass valve and controls, thermocouples, gas and coolant flow and pressure sensors, TE voltage and output power). Recent results from our materials research work and our functioning automotive TEG will be presented. This work is supported by US DOE Grant # DE-FC26-04NT 42278.

  13. What does recovery mean to you? Lessons from the recovery experience for research and practice

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, Alexandre B.

    2007-01-01

    Recovery is a ubiquitous concept but remains poorly understood and ill-defined, hindering the development of assessment tools necessary to evaluate treatment effectiveness. This study examines recovery definitions and experiences among persons who self-identify as ‘in recovery.’ Two questions are addressed: (1) Does recovery require total abstinence from all drugs and alcohol? and (2) Is recovery defined solely in terms of substance use or does it extend to other areas of functioning as well? Inner-city residents with resolved dependence to crack or heroin were interviewed yearly three times (N = 289). Most defined recovery as total abstinence. However, recovery goes well beyond abstinence; it is experienced as a bountiful ‘new life’, an ongoing process of growth, self-change and of reclaiming the self. Implications for clinical and assessment practice are discussed, including the need to effect paradigmatic shifts from pathology to wellness and from acute to continuing models. PMID:17889296

  14. Economic Implementation and Optimization of Secondary Oil Recovery Process: St. Mary West Field, Lafayette County, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Brock P.E., Cary D.

    2003-03-10

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the economic appropriateness of several enhanced oil recovery processes that are available to a small mature oil field located in southwest Arkansas and to implement the most economic efficient process evaluated. The State of Arkansas natural resource laws require that an oilfield is to be unitized before conducting a secondary recovery project. This requires all properties that can reasonably be determined to include the oil productive reservoir must be bound together as one common lease by a legal contract that must be approved to be fair and equitable to all property owners within the proposed unit area.

  15. Adaptive control of sulfur recovery units

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, D.B. )

    1994-08-01

    In a recent trial, adaptive control reduce the standard deviation of the tail gas ratio by 38%--increasing sulfur recovery efficiency by an estimated 0.3%. By using the controller on other control loops in the process, further increases are expected. Improved process control is a cost effective way to meet existing emissions limits. Future legislation will reduce the permissible emissions level, so it is imperative that existing sulfur recovery equipment by operated at peak efficiency. Peak efficiency can only be achieved with good trim air control, since it determines recovery efficiency. But process time delays and changes in the incoming gas stream make good control difficult to achieve. An adaptive controller is well suited to trim air control, since it can easily handle time delay sand adapt to changing process conditions. The improved efficiency is a considerable economic benefit to gas processing plants, since: (1) capital and operating expenses needed to improve recovery efficiency are avoided; (2) increased production is possible, since sulfur license limits are easier to meet; and (3) catalyst bed life is extended. Results of the test are discussed.

  16. Integrated oxygen recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. Gene; Davenport, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Life Systems has conceptualized an innovative Integrated Oxygen Recovery System (IORS) applicable to advanced mission air revitalization. The IORS provides the capability to electrochemically generate metabolic oxygen (O2) and recover O2 from the space habitat atmosphere via a carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction process within a single assembly. To achieve this capability, the IORS utilizes a Solid Metal Cathode (SMC) water electrolysis unit that simultaneously serves as the Sabatier CO2 reduction reactor. The IORS enables two major life support systems currently baselined in closed loop air revitalization systems to be combined into one smaller, less complex system. This concept reduces fluidic and electrical interface requirements and eliminates a hydrogen (H2) interface. Life Systems is performing an evaluation of the IORS process directed at demonstrating performance and quantifying key physical characteristics including power, weight, and volume. The results of the checkout, shakedown, and initial parametric tests are summarized.

  17. Integrated oxygen recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. Gene; Davenport, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Life Systems has conceptualized an innovative Integrated Oxygen Recovery System (IORS) applicable to advanced mission air revitalization. The IORS provides the capability to electrochemically generate metabolic oxygen (O2) and recover O2 from the space habitat atmosphere via a carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction process within a single assembly. To achieve this capability, the IORS utilizes a Solid Metal Cathode (SMC) water electrolysis unit that simultaneously serves as the Sabatier CO2 reduction reactor. The IORS enables two major life support systems currently baselined in closed loop air revitalization systems to be combined into one smaller, less complex system. This concept reduces fluidic and electrical interface requirements and eliminates a hydrogen (H2) interface. Life Systems is performing an evaluation of the IORS process directed at demonstrating performance and quantifying key physical characteristics including power, weight, and volume. Technical progress achieved during the first two months of the program is summarized.

  18. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    measures which prevent extensive edemas are: avoiding transection of the temporal pedicle, or to realizing platysma plication too tight by using strong aspirative drainage instead of elastic bandages. In the post-op, the manual lymphatic drainage is initiated on the third or fifth day, but must be done by a trained professional, in a method contrary to that specified in the books for non-operated individuals. An aesthetician washes the hair and applies decongestive cold tea on the face the second day, and on the fifth, moisturizes the skin and cosmetically conceals any signs of bruising. The psychological support provided by the staff keeps the patient calm and relaxed. Five years experience with this protocol has enabled us to minimize post-op pain. The edema can be predicted with certain consistency (in which surgery there will be more or less edema) and the proper technique can be selected, permitting the patient to choose the best moment for a FL while the surgeon can avoid intra and postoperative measures that increase the edema. After surgery, the patient receives the daily assistance of the staff, which rapidly and efficiently improves this condition. We can predict and control the post-op recovery and the patient feels fine, unlike the past when recovery was abandoned to its natural evolution. If the patient perceived an intensive, positive support on behalf of the entire staff that kept him or her content, then we have succeeded in doing an excellent marketing. This may encourage others to undergo aesthetic surgery, especially those who are convinced that after surgery they might have to endure considerable suffering. PMID:12140694

  19. 40 CFR 60.2770 - What information must I include in my annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in the relevant standard. (p) For energy recovery units, include the annual heat input and average annual heat input rate of all fuels being burned in the unit to verify which subcategory of energy recovery unit applies....

  20. 40 CFR 60.2770 - What information must I include in my annual report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in the relevant standard. (p) For energy recovery units, include the annual heat input and average annual heat input rate of all fuels being burned in the unit to verify which subcategory of energy recovery unit applies....

  1. Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.

    2008-06-30

    On March 19, 2008, policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and Public Health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about restoration and recovery through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems.

  2. Previous Mental Distress May Slow Concussion Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Concussion Recovery If 'psychosomatic symptoms' were present before head injury, it took twice as long for most athletes ... and pains caused by mental distress -- before their head injury, new research suggests. The study included 127 high ...

  3. Heat recovery apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, I.

    1987-01-01

    Heat transfer is a living science and technical advances are constantly being made. However, in many cases, progress is limited by the equipment that is available on the market, rather than by knowledge of the heat transfer process. A case in point is the design of economizers: in such equipment a small quantity of water (with a relatively good heat transfer coefficient) is heated by a large quantity of low-pressure gas (with an inherently low heat transfer coefficient). As a first step in design finned tubing is used to lessen the discrepancy in coefficients. From this point, it becomes apparent that the equipment consists of a small number of tubes (to maintain good velocity on the water side) of considerable length (to provide sufficient area). In the process industries the base pressure, though low, may be in the region of 0.5 bar, and there is no convenient flue in which to place the heat recovery coil. It is therefore contained in a flat-sided enclosure, which is ill-fitted to pressure containment and is therefore reinforced with a plethora of structural sections. Such inelegant construction is quite common in North America; in Europe, cylindrical containments of vast size have been supplied for the same purposes. The real shortcoming is a successful marriage of different disciplines to produce reliable and efficient heat transfer equipment suitably contained.

  4. Influence of Ssurfactants on Physico-chemical Properties of Nanofluids for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, B. M.; Darnault, C. J. G.

    2014-12-01

    Surfactant water flooding has been used in petroleum engineering as a technology for enhancing the recovery of petroleum from geological systems following the primary and secondary phases of oil recovery. Enhanced oil recovery or tertiary phase may produce about 25% of additional oil. It is essential to exploit petroleum reservoirs efficiently as oil resources are being continuously depleted and becoming scarce. Recent advances in petroleum engineering involve the application of nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery. Therefore our experimental research investigates the couple use of surfactants and nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery. We studied the influence of nonionic and anionic surfactants on the physico-chemical properties of nano-silica particles that are critical for enhanced oil recovery processes. These physico-chemical properties include the interfacial tension between crude oil and nanofluids with and without the addition of surfactants, the contact angle of these (surfactant) nanofluids on mineral thin sections, the size of nanoaggregates in these (surfactant) nanofluids, as well as their surfaces charges. As surfactants impact the physico-chemical properties of nanofluids, multiphase flow will also be impacted.

  5. Dutchess County Resource Recovery Task Force report: Dutchess County Pyrolysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Dutchess County initiated development of a long-range master plan for Solid Waste Management in 1971. The plan included development of a resource recovery facility to service the municipalities in the County population center. Based on early recommendations, a pyrolysis facility employing Purox technology was to be implemented. A feasibility study, paid for by County funds was completed in 1975. The study provided siting recommendations, estimation of available waste, and preliminary facility design. Because of various considerations, the project was not developed. Under the Department of Energy grant, the County reassessed the feasibility of a resource recovery facility, with emphasis on confirming previous conclusions supporting the Purox technology, waste availability, energy recovery and sale and siting of the plant. The conclusions reached in the new study were: a resource recovery facility is feasible for the County; sufficient waste for such a facility is available and subject to control; While Purox technology was feasible it is not the most appropriate available technoloy for the County; that mass burning with steam recovery is the most appropriate technology; and that resource recovery while presently more expensive than landfilling, represents the only cost effective, energy efficient, and environmentally sound way to handle the solid waste problem in the County.

  6. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial recovery plan. 971.203... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a) General. The application must include a proposed...

  7. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial recovery plan. 971.203... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a) General. The application must include a proposed...

  8. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial recovery plan. 971.203... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a) General. The application must include a proposed...

  9. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial recovery plan. 971.203... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a) General. The application must include a proposed...

  10. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial recovery plan. 971.203... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a) General. The application must include a proposed...

  11. Recovery After Prolonged Bed-Rest Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Quach, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery data were analyzed from normal healthy test subjects maintained in the horizontal or head-down body position in well-controlled bed rest (BR) studies in which adherence to the well-designed protocol was monitored. Because recovery data were almost always of secondary importance to the data collected during the BR period, there was little consistency in the recovery experimental designs regarding control factors (e.g., diet or exercise), duration, or timing of data collection. Thus, only about half of the BR studies that provided appropriate data were analyzed here. These recovery data were sorted into two groups: those from BR protocols of less than 37 days, and those from protocols greater than 36 days. There was great disparity in the unchanged responses at the end of BR in these two groups. Likewise with the variables that required more than 40 days for recovery; for example, some immune variables required more than 180 days. Knowledge of the recovery process after BR in healthy people should assist rehabilitation workers in differentiating "healthy" BR recovery responses from those of the infirmity of sick or injured patients; this should result in more appropriate and efficient health care.

  12. Quantifying fault recovery in multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malek, Miroslaw; Harary, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Various aspects of reliable computing are formalized and quantified with emphasis on efficient fault recovery. The mathematical model which proves to be most appropriate is provided by the theory of graphs. New measures for fault recovery are developed and the value of elements of the fault recovery vector are observed to depend not only on the computation graph H and the architecture graph G, but also on the specific location of a fault. In the examples, a hypercube is chosen as a representative of parallel computer architecture, and a pipeline as a typical configuration for program execution. Dependability qualities of such a system is defined with or without a fault. These qualities are determined by the resiliency triple defined by three parameters: multiplicity, robustness, and configurability. Parameters for measuring the recovery effectiveness are also introduced in terms of distance, time, and the number of new, used, and moved nodes and edges.

  13. Inventory and review of aquifer storage and recovery in southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2002-01-01

    publications > water resources investigations > report 02-4036 US Department of the Interior US Geological Survey WRI 02-4036Inventory and Review of Aquifer Storage and Recovery in Southern Florida By Ronald S. ReeseTallahassee, Florida 2002 prepared as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Place-Based Studies Program ABSTRACT Abstract Introduction Inventory of Data Case Studies Summary References Tables Aquifer storage and recovery in southern Florida has been proposed on an unprecedented scale as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Aquifer storage and recovery wells were constructed or are under construction at 27 sites in southern Florida, mostly by local municipalities or counties located in coastal areas. The Upper Floridan aquifer, the principal storage zone of interest to the restoration plan, is the aquifer being used at 22 of the sites. The aquifer is brackish to saline in southern Florida, which can greatly affect the recovery of the freshwater recharged and stored.Well data were inventoried and compiled for all wells at most of the 27 sites. Construction and testing data were compiled into four main categories: (1) well identification, location, and construction data; (2) hydraulic test data; (3) ambient formation water-quality data; and (4) cycle testing data. Each cycle during testing or operation includes periods of recharge of freshwater, storage, and recovery that each last days or months. Cycle testing data include calculations of recovery efficiency, which is the percentage of the total amount of potable water recharged for each cycle that is recovered.Calculated cycle test data include potable water recovery efficiencies for 16 of the 27 sites. However, the number of cycles at most sites was limited; except for two sites, the highest number of cycles was five. Only nine sites had a recovery efficiency above 10 percent for the first cycle, and 10 sites achieved a recovery efficiency above 30 percent during at least one cycle. The

  14. Integrated analysis of error detection and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, K. G.; Lee, Y. H.

    1985-01-01

    An integrated modeling and analysis of error detection and recovery is presented. When fault latency and/or error latency exist, the system may suffer from multiple faults or error propagations which seriously deteriorate the fault-tolerant capability. Several detection models that enable analysis of the effect of detection mechanisms on the subsequent error handling operations and the overall system reliability were developed. Following detection of the faulty unit and reconfiguration of the system, the contaminated processes or tasks have to be recovered. The strategies of error recovery employed depend on the detection mechanisms and the available redundancy. Several recovery methods including the rollback recovery are considered. The recovery overhead is evaluated as an index of the capabilities of the detection and reconfiguration mechanisms.

  15. Houston Recovery Initiative: A Rich Case Study of Building Recovery Communities One Voice at a Time.

    PubMed

    Bitting, Sara; Nash, Angela; Ochoa, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Recovery from alcohol and drug problems is a process of change through which an individual achieves control and improved quality of life. Recovery is a primary goal for individuals with substance use disorder as it provides hope that treatment and overall health are possible for every individual. More than 23 million Americans are in recovery from addiction to alcohol and other drugs.Recovery-oriented systems of care (ROSC) are networks of community services and peer support that help individuals and families achieve recovery from substances and improve overall health. ROSC is a strengths-based and person-centered model that leverages existing community resources to address the needs of individuals and families as they progress through the journey of recovery. The ROSC model serves as the foundation of the Houston Recovery Initiative (HRI).The purpose of this article is to describe the history, development, and infrastructure of the HRI, which is a volunteer collaboration whose main goal is to educate the community on recovery and broaden the recovery safety net for people with substance use disorder in Houston, Texas. Since 2010, the HRI has grown to include more than 200 agencies across the spectrum of treatment and recovery support services in Houston so as to provide a resource for the community. Herein, we detail efforts to grow the HRI, lessons learned, future plans, and resources needed to move the HRI forward. PMID:27272996

  16. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  17. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  18. Wettability modified nanoporous ceramic membrane for simultaneous residual heat and condensate recovery.

    PubMed

    Hu, H W; Tang, G H; Niu, D

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of both latent heat and condensate from boiler flue gas is significant for improving boiler efficiency and water conservation. The condensation experiments are carried out to investigate the simultaneous heat and mass transfer across the nanoporous ceramic membranes (NPCMs) which are treated to be hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces using the semicontinuous supercritical reactions. The effects of typical parameters including coolant flow rate, vapor/nitrogen gas mixture temperature, water vapor volume fraction and transmembrane pressure on heat and mass transfer performance are studied. The experimental results show that the hydrophilic NPCM exhibits higher performances of condensation heat transfer and condensate recovery. However, the hydrophobic modification results in remarkable degradation of heat and condensate recovery from the mixture. Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to establish a hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore/water liquid system, and the infiltration characteristics of the single hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore is revealed. PMID:27270997

  19. Wettability modified nanoporous ceramic membrane for simultaneous residual heat and condensate recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hu, H. W.; Tang, G. H.; Niu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of both latent heat and condensate from boiler flue gas is significant for improving boiler efficiency and water conservation. The condensation experiments are carried out to investigate the simultaneous heat and mass transfer across the nanoporous ceramic membranes (NPCMs) which are treated to be hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces using the semicontinuous supercritical reactions. The effects of typical parameters including coolant flow rate, vapor/nitrogen gas mixture temperature, water vapor volume fraction and transmembrane pressure on heat and mass transfer performance are studied. The experimental results show that the hydrophilic NPCM exhibits higher performances of condensation heat transfer and condensate recovery. However, the hydrophobic modification results in remarkable degradation of heat and condensate recovery from the mixture. Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to establish a hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore/water liquid system, and the infiltration characteristics of the single hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore is revealed. PMID:27270997

  20. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  1. Wettability modified nanoporous ceramic membrane for simultaneous residual heat and condensate recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H. W.; Tang, G. H.; Niu, D.

    2016-06-01

    Recovery of both latent heat and condensate from boiler flue gas is significant for improving boiler efficiency and water conservation. The condensation experiments are carried out to investigate the simultaneous heat and mass transfer across the nanoporous ceramic membranes (NPCMs) which are treated to be hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces using the semicontinuous supercritical reactions. The effects of typical parameters including coolant flow rate, vapor/nitrogen gas mixture temperature, water vapor volume fraction and transmembrane pressure on heat and mass transfer performance are studied. The experimental results show that the hydrophilic NPCM exhibits higher performances of condensation heat transfer and condensate recovery. However, the hydrophobic modification results in remarkable degradation of heat and condensate recovery from the mixture. Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to establish a hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore/water liquid system, and the infiltration characteristics of the single hydrophilic/hydrophobic nanopore is revealed.

  2. From the Kinetic Energy Recovery System to the Thermo-Hydraulic Hybrid Motor Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Guta, Dragos; Dumitrescu, Catalin

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents some theoretical and experimental results obtained by the Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000-IHP with its partners, regarding the creating of one hydraulic system able to recovering the kinetic energy of the motor vehicles, in the braking phases, and use this recovered energy in the starting and accelerating phases. Also, in the article is presented a testing stand, which was especially designed for testing the hydraulic system for recovery the kinetic energy. Through mounting of the kinetic energy recovering hydraulic system, on one motor vehicle, this vehicle became a thermo-hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Therefore, the dynamic behavior was analyzed for the whole hybrid motor vehicle, which includes the energy recovery system. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the possible performances of the hybrid vehicle and that the kinetic energy recovery hydraulic systems are good means to increase energy efficiency of the road motor vehicles and to decrease of the fuel consumption.

  3. Oil Recovery Increases by Low-Salinity Flooding: Minnelusa and Green River Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-09-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely used method in the world to increase oil recovery. Historically, little consideration has been given in reservoir engineering practice to the effect of injection brine composition on waterflood displacement efficiency or to the possibility of increased oil recovery through manipulation of the composition of the injected water. However, recent work has shown that oil recovery can be significantly increased by modifying the injection brine chemistry or by injecting diluted or low salinity brine. This paper reports on laboratory work done to increase the understanding of improved oil recovery by waterflooding with low salinity injection water. Porous media used in the studies included outcrop Berea sandstone (Ohio, U.S.A.) and reservoir cores from the Green River formation of the Uinta basin (Utah, U.S.A.). Crude oils used in the experimental protocols were taken from the Minnelusa formation of the Powder River basin (Wyoming, U.S.A.) and from the Green River formation, Monument Butte field in the Uinta basin. Laboratory corefloods using Berea sandstone, Minnelusa crude oil, and simulated Minnelusa formation water found a significant relationship between the temperature at which the oil- and water-saturated cores were aged and the oil recovery resulting from low salinity waterflooding. Lower aging temperatures resulted in very little to no additional oil recovery, while cores aged at higher temperatures resulted in significantly higher recoveries from dilute-water floods. Waterflood studies using reservoir cores and fluids from the Green River formation of the Monument Butte field also showed significantly higher oil recoveries from low salinity waterfloods with cores flooded with fresher water recovering 12.4% more oil on average than those flooded with undiluted formation brine.

  4. The Relevance of Phosphorus and Iron Chemistry to the Recovery of Phosphorus from Wastewater: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wilfert, Philipp; Kumar, Prashanth Suresh; Korving, Leon; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-08-18

    The addition of iron is a convenient way for removing phosphorus from wastewater, but this is often considered to limit phosphorus recovery. Struvite precipitation is currently used to recover phosphorus, and this approach has attracted much interest. However, it requires the use of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). EBPR is not yet widely applied and the recovery potential is low. Other phosphorus recovery methods, including sludge application to agricultural land or recovering phosphorus from sludge ash, also have limitations. Energy-producing wastewater treatment plants increasingly rely on phosphorus removal using iron, but the problem (as in current processes) is the subsequent recovery of phosphorus from the iron. In contrast, phosphorus is efficiently mobilized from iron by natural processes in sediments and soils. Iron-phosphorus chemistry is diverse, and many parameters influence the binding and release of phosphorus, including redox conditions, pH, presence of organic substances, and particle morphology. We suggest that the current poor understanding of iron and phosphorus chemistry in wastewater systems is preventing processes being developed to recover phosphorus from iron-phosphorus rich wastes like municipal wastewater sludge. Parameters that affect phosphorus recovery are reviewed here, and methods are suggested for manipulating iron-phosphorus chemistry in wastewater treatment processes to allow phosphorus to be recovered. PMID:25950504

  5. Stress and Recovery during Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Michel

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 60-day head-down tilt long-term bed rest (HDT) on stress and recovery in sixteen healthy female volunteers during the WISE-2005 study (Women International Space Simulation for Exploration). Participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise group (Exe) that followed a training program combining resistive and aerobic exercises, or to a no-exercise control group (Ctl). Psychological states were assessed using the Rest-Q, a validated questionnaire based on stress-recovery responses. A longitudinal analysis revealed significant changes in the general and specific stress scales for all participants throughout the experiment with a critical stage from supine to standing posture leading to a significant decrease in physical recovery. During HDT, Exe reported higher scores in stress subscales, as well as lower recovery scores compared to the Ctl. During the post HDT ambulatory recovery period, the exercisers still reported higher scores than the non-exercisers on the Lack of energy stress related scale, along with lower scores in general well-being and personal accomplishment. The present findings show that simulated weightlessness such as HDT may induce psychological stress and lead to subsequent alterations in perceived recovery. Exercise did not reduce HDT impaired effects on stress and recovery states. In the perspective of spaceflights of long-duration such as the future missions to Mars, there is a need for additional experiments to further investigate spaceflight-induced changes of stress and recovery parameters and the effects of exercise on these parameters. Further studies might determine and analyze the psychological factors involved, but also how to intervene concerning these factors with efficient psychological preparation which, although not yet fully investigated, may reduce stress, promote recovery and support adaptive responses to such extreme environments.

  6. Disaster Resiliency and Recovery: Capabilities (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the nation's leader in energy efficient and renewable energy technologies, practices, and strategies. For the last 15 years, NREL has provided expertise, tools, and innovations to private industry; federal, state, and local governments; non-profit organizations; and communities during the planning, recovery, and rebuilding stages after disaster strikes.

  7. Audit Report on "The Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act -- Florida State Energy Program"

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) provides grants to states, territories, and the District of Columbia to support their energy priorities through the State Energy Program (SEP). The SEP provides Federal financial assistance to carry out energy efficiency and renewable energy projects that meet each state's unique energy needs while also addressing national goals such as energy security. Federal funding is based on a grant formula that takes into account population and energy consumption. The SEP emphasizes the state's role as the decision maker and administrator for the program. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) expanded the SEP, authorizing $3.1 billion in grants. Based on existing grant formulas and after reviewing state-level plans, EERE made awards to states. The State of Florida's Energy Office (Florida) was allocated $126 million - a 90-fold increase over Florida's average annual SEP grant of $1.4 million. Per the Recovery Act, this funding must be obligated by September 30, 2010, and spent by April 30, 2012. As of March 10, 2010, Florida had expended $13.2 million of the SEP Recovery Act funds. Florida planned to use its grant funds to undertake activities that would preserve and create jobs; save energy; increase renewable energy sources; and, reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To accomplish Recovery Act objectives, states could either fund new or expand existing projects. As a condition of the awards, EERE required states to develop and implement sound internal controls over the use of Recovery Act funds. Based on the significant increase in funding from the Recovery Act, we initiated this review to determine whether Florida had internal controls in place to provide assurance that the goals of the SEP and Recovery Act will be met and accomplished efficiently and effectively. We identified weaknesses in the implementation of SEP Recovery Act projects that have adversely impacted

  8. Dictionary learning and sparse recovery for electrodermal activity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, Malia; Dallal, Ahmed; Eldeeb, Safaa; Akcakaya, Murat; Kleckner, Ian; Gerard, Christophe; Quigley, Karen S.; Goodwin, Matthew S.

    2016-05-01

    Measures of electrodermal activity (EDA) have advanced research in a wide variety of areas including psychophysiology; however, the majority of this research is typically undertaken in laboratory settings. To extend the ecological validity of laboratory assessments, researchers are taking advantage of advances in wireless biosensors to gather EDA data in ambulatory settings, such as in school classrooms. While measuring EDA in naturalistic contexts may enhance ecological validity, it also introduces analytical challenges that current techniques cannot address. One limitation is the limited efficiency and automation of analysis techniques. Many groups either analyze their data by hand, reviewing each individual record, or use computationally inefficient software that limits timely analysis of large data sets. To address this limitation, we developed a method to accurately and automatically identify SCRs using curve fitting methods. Curve fitting has been shown to improve the accuracy of SCR amplitude and location estimations, but have not yet been used to reduce computational complexity. In this paper, sparse recovery and dictionary learning methods are combined to improve computational efficiency of analysis and decrease run time, while maintaining a high degree of accuracy in detecting SCRs. Here, a dictionary is first created using curve fitting methods for a standard SCR shape. Then, orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is used to detect SCRs within a dataset using the dictionary to complete sparse recovery. Evaluation of our method, including a comparison to for speed and accuracy with existing software, showed an accuracy of 80% and a reduced run time.

  9. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes - Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) - were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities--incineration or gasification--co-generation is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net electric efficiency may reach values up to 30-31%. In small-medium plants, net electric efficiency is constrained by scale effect and remains at values around 20-24%. Other types of technical solutions--gasification with syngas use in internally fired devices, pyrolysis and plasma gasification--are less common or studied at pilot or demonstrative scale and, in any case, offer at present similar or lower levels

  10. Methane Recovery from Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    J. Carlos Santamarina; Costas Tsouris

    2011-04-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds made of gas and water molecules. Methane hydrates are found in marine sediments and permafrost regions; extensive amounts of methane are trapped in the form of hydrates. Methane hydrate can be an energy resource, contribute to global warming, or cause seafloor instability. This study placed emphasis on gas recovery from hydrate bearing sediments and related phenomena. The unique behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments required the development of special research tools, including new numerical algorithms (tube- and pore-network models) and experimental devices (high pressure chambers and micromodels). Therefore, the research methodology combined experimental studies, particle-scale numerical simulations, and macro-scale analyses of coupled processes. Research conducted as part of this project started with hydrate formation in sediment pores and extended to production methods and emergent phenomena. In particular, the scope of the work addressed: (1) hydrate formation and growth in pores, the assessment of formation rate, tensile/adhesive strength and their impact on sediment-scale properties, including volume change during hydrate formation and dissociation; (2) the effect of physical properties such as gas solubility, salinity, pore size, and mixed gas conditions on hydrate formation and dissociation, and it implications such as oscillatory transient hydrate formation, dissolution within the hydrate stability field, initial hydrate lens formation, and phase boundary changes in real field situations; (3) fluid conductivity in relation to pore size distribution and spatial correlation and the emergence of phenomena such as flow focusing; (4) mixed fluid flow, with special emphasis on differences between invading gas and nucleating gas, implications on relative gas conductivity for reservoir simulations, and gas recovery efficiency; (5) identification of advantages and limitations in different gas production strategies with

  11. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The topic of energy recovery from waste by thermal treatment is reviewed. • Combustion, gasification and pyrolysis were considered. • Data about energy recovery performances were collected and compared. • Main limitations to high values of energy performances were illustrated. • Diffusion of energy recovery from waste in EU, USA and other countries was discussed. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes – Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) – were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities – incineration or gasification – cogeneration is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net

  12. Gas engine heat recovery unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubasco, A. J.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of Gas Engine Heat Recovery Unit was to design, fabricate, and test an efficient, compact, and corrosion resistant heat recovery unit (HRU) for use on exhaust of natural gas-fired reciprocating engine-generator sets in the 50-500 kW range. The HRU would be a core component of a factory pre-packaged cogeneration system designed around component optimization, reliability, and efficiency. The HRU uses finned high alloy, stainless steel tubing wound into a compact helical coil heat exchanger. The corrosion resistance of the tubing allows more heat to be taken from the exhaust gas without fear of the effects of acid condensation. One HRU is currently installed in a cogeneration system at the Henry Ford Hospital Complex in Dearborn, Michigan. A second unit underwent successful endurance testing for 850 hours. The plan was to commercialize the HRU through its incorporation into a Caterpillar pre-packaged cogeneration system. Caterpillar is not proceeding with the concept at this time because of a downturn in the small size cogeneration market.

  13. Energy recovery ventilator

    DOEpatents

    Benoit, Jeffrey T.; Dobbs, Gregory M.; Lemcoff, Norberto O.

    2015-06-23

    An energy recovery heat exchanger (100) includes a housing (102). The housing has a first flowpath (144) from a first inlet (104) to a first outlet (106). The housing has a second flowpath (146) from a second inlet (108) to a second outlet (110). Either of two cores may be in an operative position in the housing. Each core has a number of first passageways having open first and second ends and closed first and second sides. Each core has a number of second such passageways interspersed with the first passageways. The ends of the second passageways are aligned with the sides of the first passageways and vice versa. A number of heat transfer member sections separate adjacent ones of the first and second passageways. An actuator is coupled to the carrier to shift the cores between first and second conditions. In the first condition, the first core (20) is in the operative position and the second core (220) is not. In the second condition, the second core is in the operative position and the first core is not. When a core is in the operative position, its first passageways are along the first flowpath and the second passageways are along the second flowpath.

  14. Optimization of mechanical oil spill recovery equipment under variable environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broje, Viktoria A.

    Oil spills in marine environments may cause significant damage to marine and coastal ecosystems if not recovered quickly and efficiently. Although mechanical recovery is the most commonly used oil spill response technique, it can be very time consuming and expensive when employed at a large scale due, to its low recovery rates. The goal of this work was to optimize mechanical oil spill recovery for various environmental conditions by analyzing the recovery process and identifying parameters with the most significant impact on the recovery efficiency. As a result of this work, laboratory equipment and procedures tailored to the study of oil spill recovery at small scale were developed. A number of materials and surface patterns that can increase the adhesion skimmer recovery efficiency up to three times were identified and tested in a full scale oil spill recovery study.

  15. Enhanced recovery of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Buinicky, E.P.; Estes, J.H.

    1980-09-16

    An enhanced oil recovery method comprising injecting an aqueous ammonium bisulfite (NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 3/) solution into a petroleum-bearing earth formation, heating said injected aqueous solution to a temperature in the range of about 120*-300* F., or higher in the presence of said petroleum-bearing earth formation, flowing said aqueous solution through said petroleum bearing earth formation to drive petroleum to a recovery well, and producing increased amounts of petroleum from said earth formation through said recovery well.

  16. Solvent recycle/recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  17. Metaphor shifts in stroke recovery.

    PubMed

    Boylstein, Craig; Rittman, Maude; Hinojosa, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    An illness event like stroke is generally believed to produce a biographical disruption in the individual, resulting in a reconstruction of one's self identity. One method of narrative reconstruction is the use of personal metaphor. Although previous research has illustrated a variety of illness metaphors, including that of war, there has been little research conducted on how these metaphors shift throughout a person's recovery period. The authors present data that indicate an intricate connection exists among changes in individuals' physical functioning, self-reported depression level, self-identity, and the metaphors they use to describe the stroke and stroke recovery experience. As the metaphor one uses to describe one's stroke experience shifts, so does one's sense of self. As one's self-identity changes, one's level of self-reported depression may also increase. PMID:17567259

  18. Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

    The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

  19. Galileo spacecraft anomaly and safing recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilio, Ralph R.; Durham, David M.

    1993-03-01

    A high-level anomaly recovery plan which identifies the steps necessary to recover from a spacecraft 'Safing' incident was developed for the Galileo spacecraft prior to launch. Since launch, a total of four in-flight anomalies have lead to entry into a system fault protection 'Safing' routine which has required the Galileo flight team to refine and execute the recovery plan. These failures have allowed the flight team to develop an efficient recovery process when permanent spacecraft capability degradation is minimal and the cause of the anomaly is quickly diagnosed. With this previous recovery experience and the very focused boundary conditions of a specific potential failure, a Gaspra asteroid recovery plan was designed to be implemented in as quickly as forty hours (desired goal). This paper documents the work performed above, however, the Galileo project remains challenged to develop a generic detailed recovery plan which can be implemented in a relatively short time to configure the spacecraft to a nominal state prior to future high priority mission objectives.

  20. Galileo spacecraft anomaly and safing recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilio, Ralph R.; Durham, David M.

    1993-01-01

    A high-level anomaly recovery plan which identifies the steps necessary to recover from a spacecraft 'Safing' incident was developed for the Galileo spacecraft prior to launch. Since launch, a total of four in-flight anomalies have lead to entry into a system fault protection 'Safing' routine which has required the Galileo flight team to refine and execute the recovery plan. These failures have allowed the flight team to develop an efficient recovery process when permanent spacecraft capability degradation is minimal and the cause of the anomaly is quickly diagnosed. With this previous recovery experience and the very focused boundary conditions of a specific potential failure, a Gaspra asteroid recovery plan was designed to be implemented in as quickly as forty hours (desired goal). This paper documents the work performed above, however, the Galileo project remains challenged to develop a generic detailed recovery plan which can be implemented in a relatively short time to configure the spacecraft to a nominal state prior to future high priority mission objectives.

  1. Recovery after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Porela-Tiihonen, Susanna; Kokki, Hannu; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kokki, Merja

    2016-04-01

    Cataract surgery is the most common ophthalmological surgical procedure, and it is predicted that the number of surgeries will increase significantly in the future. However, little is known about the recovery after surgery. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, severity and duration of pain and other ocular discomfort symptoms experienced after cataract surgery. The other objectives were to identify the factors associated with lower postoperative patient satisfaction and to measure the effect of cataract surgery on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and visual function in everyday life. The study design was a prospective follow-up study. The course of the recovery and the presence of ocular symptoms were evaluated by interviewing the patients via a questionnaire at 1 day, 1 week, 6 weeks and one year after surgery The visual functioning in everyday life was measured with Visual Functioning Index VF-7 and Catquest-9SF-questionnaires and furthermore the HRQoL was measured with the 15D-instrument before surgery and at 12 months after surgery. The patients returned the questionnaires by mail and were interviewed in the hospital on the day of the surgery. The same patients filled-in all the questionnaires. The patient reports were used to collect the data on medical history. A total of 303 patients were approached at Kuopio University Hospital in 2010-2011 and of these 196 patients were eligible and willing to participate, with postoperative data being available from 186 (95%) patients. A systematic review article was included in the study procedure and it revealed the wide range in the reported incidence of postoperative ocular pain. Some of the identified randomized controlled studies reported no or only minor pain whereas in some studies significant pain or pain lasting for several weeks has been described in more than 50% of the study patients. In the present study setting, pain was reported by 34% during the first

  2. RECOVERY OF RUTHENIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Grummitt, W.E.; Hardwick, W.H.

    1961-01-01

    A process is given for the recovery of ruthenium from its aqueous solutions by oxidizing the ruthenium to the octavalent state and subsequently extracting the ruthenium into a halogen-substituted liquid paraffin.

  3. Silver recovery system data

    SciTech Connect

    Boulineau, B.

    1991-08-26

    In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

  4. Hydrocarbon recovery from diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Scinta, J.

    1984-05-15

    Supercritical extraction of diatomaceous earth results in a much more significant improvement in hydrocarbon recovery over Fischer retorting than achievable with tar sands. Process and apparatus for supercritical extraction of diatomaceous earth are disclosed.

  5. Recovery High Schools: Students and Responsive Academic and Therapeutic Services

    PubMed Central

    Moberg, D. Paul; Finch, Andrew J.; Lindsley, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews findings from the authors’ studies of recovery high schools (RHS), including a 1995 program evaluation of a school in New Mexico (Moberg and Thaler, 1995), a 2006-09 descriptive study of 17 recovery high schools (Moberg and Finch, 2008), and presents early findings from a current study of the effectiveness of recovery high schools. Descriptive and qualitative findings are presented. The focus is on characteristics of RHS students and, in light of those student characteristics, findings regarding academic and recovery support programming in recovery high schools. PMID:24976659

  6. Localized recovery of complex networks against failure

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yilun

    2016-01-01

    Resilience of complex networks to failure has been an important issue in network research for decades, and recent studies have begun to focus on the inverse recovery of network functionality through strategically healing missing nodes or edges. However, the effect of network recovery is far from fully understood, and a general theory is still missing. Here we propose and study a general model of localized recovery, where a group of neighboring nodes are restored in an invasive way from a seed node. We develop a theoretical framework to compare the effect of random recovery (RR) and localized recovery (LR) in complex networks including Erdős-Rényi networks, random regular networks, and scale-free networks. We find detailed phase diagrams for the subnetwork of occupied nodes and the “complement network” of failed nodes under RR and LR. By identifying the two competitive forces behind LR, we present an analytical and numerical approach to guide us in choosing the appropriate recovery strategy and provide estimation on its effect by using the degree distribution of the original network as the only input. Our work therefore provides insight for quantitatively understanding recovery process and its implications in infrastructure protection in various complex systems. PMID:27456202

  7. Localized recovery of complex networks against failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yilun

    2016-07-01

    Resilience of complex networks to failure has been an important issue in network research for decades, and recent studies have begun to focus on the inverse recovery of network functionality through strategically healing missing nodes or edges. However, the effect of network recovery is far from fully understood, and a general theory is still missing. Here we propose and study a general model of localized recovery, where a group of neighboring nodes are restored in an invasive way from a seed node. We develop a theoretical framework to compare the effect of random recovery (RR) and localized recovery (LR) in complex networks including Erdős-Rényi networks, random regular networks, and scale-free networks. We find detailed phase diagrams for the subnetwork of occupied nodes and the “complement network” of failed nodes under RR and LR. By identifying the two competitive forces behind LR, we present an analytical and numerical approach to guide us in choosing the appropriate recovery strategy and provide estimation on its effect by using the degree distribution of the original network as the only input. Our work therefore provides insight for quantitatively understanding recovery process and its implications in infrastructure protection in various complex systems.

  8. Localized recovery of complex networks against failure.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yilun

    2016-01-01

    Resilience of complex networks to failure has been an important issue in network research for decades, and recent studies have begun to focus on the inverse recovery of network functionality through strategically healing missing nodes or edges. However, the effect of network recovery is far from fully understood, and a general theory is still missing. Here we propose and study a general model of localized recovery, where a group of neighboring nodes are restored in an invasive way from a seed node. We develop a theoretical framework to compare the effect of random recovery (RR) and localized recovery (LR) in complex networks including Erdős-Rényi networks, random regular networks, and scale-free networks. We find detailed phase diagrams for the subnetwork of occupied nodes and the "complement network" of failed nodes under RR and LR. By identifying the two competitive forces behind LR, we present an analytical and numerical approach to guide us in choosing the appropriate recovery strategy and provide estimation on its effect by using the degree distribution of the original network as the only input. Our work therefore provides insight for quantitatively understanding recovery process and its implications in infrastructure protection in various complex systems. PMID:27456202

  9. Recovery in England: transforming statutory services?

    PubMed

    Perkins, Rachel; Slade, Mike

    2012-02-01

    English mental health policy has explicitly supported a focus on recovery since 2001. More recently, this has been elaborated through policy support for social inclusion, employment and well-being. We review several drivers for this political orientation, including a refocusing of the role of health services as a whole from treating illnesses to helping people to make the most of their lives, the shift to greater power for the individual, reflected in personal social care and personal health budgets, and the evidence informing clinical guidelines issued by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). A disjunction remains between policy and practice, with organizational policies espousing a recovery orientation and teams re-branding as 'recovery and support' teams, whilst pursuing clinical practices which prioritize symptomatic treatment rather than recovery support. The next phase of development in English statutory mental health services is therefore bridging this gap, through organizational transformation in mental health services towards a focus on recovery. We describe two funded initiatives to support this process of organizational transformation. The first (ImROC) is a national initiative to develop a pro-recovery organizational climate. The second (REFOCUS) is a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN02507940) investigating a team-level pro-recovery intervention. PMID:22385424

  10. Refuse recycling and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sanitary landfill of domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes is the predominant method of waste disposal in the United Kingdom. Although there was various waste disposal processes at various stages of design and test, landfill and incineration are still the only reliable methods of waste processing. Methods of recovery and use of refuse are examined in this book together with various separation processes, waste derived fuels, refuse composting, and glass and metal recovery. (Refs. 39).

  11. Recovery of precious metals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freiser, H.

    1990-01-01

    This program is proceeding along the lines compatible with the objective of developing feasible separation and recovery processes for precious metals in a space environment. Efficient, compact, solvent extraction systems (both single and multistage) capable of high selectivity and rapid equilibration that are based on chelate and ion pair complexes are being explored. Two research projects were undertaken: (1) study of the time-dependent aspects of the formation of Pd(2) extractable chelate complexes; and (2) development of a multistage countercurrent distribution process for the separation and recovery of Pd(2) and Pt(2) ions.

  12. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2015-03-01

    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  13. An evidence-based review of enhanced recovery interventions in knee replacement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Alazzawi, S; Nizam, I; Haddad, FS

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Total knee replacement (TKR) is a very common surgical procedure. Improved pain management techniques, surgical practices and the introduction of novel interventions have enhanced the patient’s postoperative experience after TKR. Safe, efficient pathways are needed to address the increasing need for knee arthroplasty in the UK. Enhanced recovery programmes can help to reduce hospital stays following knee replacements while maintaining patient safety and satisfaction. This review outlines common evidence-based pre, intra and postoperative interventions in use in enhanced recovery protocols following TKR. Methods A thorough literature search of the electronic healthcare databases (MEDLINE®, Embase™ and the Cochrane Library) was conducted to identify articles and studies concerned with enhanced recovery and fast track pathways for TKR. Results A literature review revealed several non-operative and operative interventions that are effective in enhanced recovery following TKR including preoperative patient education, pre-emptive and local infiltration analgesia, preoperative nutrition, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, pulsed electromagnetic fields, perioperative rehabilitation, modern wound dressings, different standard surgical techniques, minimally invasive surgery and computer assisted surgery. Conclusions Enhanced recovery programmes require a multidisciplinary team of dedicated professionals, principally involving preoperative education, multimodal pain control and accelerated rehabilitation; this will be boosted if combined with minimally invasive surgery. The current economic climate and restricted healthcare budget further necessitate brief hospitalisation while minimising costs. These non-operative interventions are the way forward to achieve such requirements. PMID:24025284

  14. Recovery of palladium from an industrial wastewater using liquid surfactant membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kakoe, T.; Horinouchi, N; Goto, M.; Nakashio, F.

    1996-02-01

    Selective recovery of palladium from an industrial wastewater including a large amount of iron was studied by liquid surfactant membranes (LSMs) prepared with a sulfur-containing extractant as a carrier in a stirred cell. The extraction behavior of palladium and iron ions in liquid-liquid extraction was also investigated in order to choose an appropriate carrier for the LSM operations. Palladium ions were found to be extracted selectively over iron ions by using the sulfur-containing extractant from an acidic aqueous solution. The effects of several chemical species and operation factors on the recovery of palladium by LSMs were systematically examined with several kinds of sulfur-containing carriers and thiourea as a stripping reagent. The selection of carrier is a key factor for designing an efficient recovery process of palladium with an LSM technique. Di-2-ethylexyl monothiophosphoric acid (commercial name MSP-8) appears to be one of the best carriers currently available for palladium recovery using the LSM technique. Recovery of more than 95% palladium from a pseudoindustrial wastewater could be attained in a few minutes under optimum conditions.

  15. Assembly of oxygen-evolving Photosystem II efficiently occurs with the apo-Cytb559 but the holo-Cytb559 accelerates the recovery of a functional enzyme upon photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Miwa; Nakamura, Makoto; Koyama, Kazumi; Boussac, Alain

    2015-02-01

    Cytb559 in Photosystem II is a heterodimeric b-type cytochrome. The subunits, PsbE and PsbF, consist each in a membrane α-helix. Roles for Cytb559 remain elusive. In Thermosynechococcus elongatus, taking advantage of the robustness of the PSII variant with PsbA3 as the D1 subunit (WT*3), 4 mutants were designed hoping to get mutants nevertheless the obligatory phototrophy of this cyanobacterium. In two of them, an axial histidine ligand of the haem-iron was substituted for either a methionine, PsbE/H23M, which could be potentially a ligand or for an alanine, PsbE/H23A, which cannot. In the other mutants, PsbE/Y19F and PsbE/T26P, the environment around PsbE/H23 was expected to be modified. From EPR, MALDI-TOF and O2 evolution activity measurements, the following results were obtained: Whereas the PsbE/H23M and PsbE/H23A mutants assemble only an apo-Cytb559 the steady-state level of active PSII was comparable to that in WT*3. The lack of the haem or, in PsbE/T26P, conversion of the high-potential into a lower potential form, slowed-down the recovery rate of the O2 activity after high-light illumination but did not affect the photoinhibition rate. This resulted in the following order for the steady-state level of active PSII centers under high-light conditions: PsbE/H23M≈PsbE/H23A< PsbE/Y19F≤PsbE/T26P≤WT*3. These data show i) that the haem has no structural role provided that PsbE and PsbF are present, ii) a lack of correlation between the rate of photoinhibition and the Em of the haem and iii) that the holo-Cytb559 favors the recovery of a functional enzyme upon photoinhibition. PMID:25481108

  16. ASHRAE's new Chiller Heat Recovery Application Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, C.B.; Dorgan, C.E.

    2000-07-01

    The new Chiller Heat Recovery Application Guide, published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), provides a comprehensive reference manual on the options available for chiller heat recovery. The information in the guide will assist engineers, owners, and system operators in evaluating the potential of integrating chiller heat recovery into their cooling and heating systems. The primary focus is on new construction and applications where a chiller is being replaced due to inefficiency, high operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, or elimination of refrigerants containing ozone-depleting chemicals known as CFC/HCFCs. While chiller systems for commercial buildings are the primary focus of the guide, the information and procedures also apply to industrial heat pumps. The function of this paper is to highlight key information contained in the guide, including the major benefits of chiller heat recovery, primary candidates, and application procedures. A description of the guide's general format and contents is also provided.

  17. Learning from recovery after Hurricane Mitch.

    PubMed

    Christoplos, Ian; Rodríguez, Tomás; Schipper, E Lisa F; Narvaez, Eddy Alberto; Bayres Mejia, Karla Maria; Buitrago, Rolando; Gómez, Ligia; Pérez, Francisco J

    2010-04-01

    This paper reviews how Nicaragua has recovered from Hurricane Mitch of October 1998. In particular, it examines how the assumptions and claims that were made during initial recovery planning have proven relevant in light of subsequent development. One must consider the response to Hurricane Mitch from the perspective of the broader trends that have driven recovery, including household, community and government initiatives and the wider economic context. Recovery efforts have not 'transformed' Nicaragua. In fact, market upheavals and livelihood changes in rural areas have had a more profound impact on poverty profiles than recovery programmes. Social protection programmes have been piloted, but patron-client ties and relations with aid providers are still more reliable sources of support in a time of crisis. Risk reduction has become more deeply integrated into the rural development discourse than was the case before the disaster, but risk reduction initiatives continue to place undue emphasis on hazard response rather than addressing vulnerability. PMID:20132267

  18. Metal recovery enhancement using Taguchi style experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, P.A.; Andreas, R.E.; Fox, T.M.

    1995-12-31

    In the remelting of scrap, the ultimate goal is to produce clean aluminum while minimizing metal losses. Recently, it has become more difficult to make significant recovery improvements in Reynolds` Reclamation Plants since metal recoveries were nearing the theoretical maximum. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the factors impacting Reynolds remelting process, a series of experiments using a Taguchi-type design was performed. Specifically, the critical variables and interactions affecting metal recovery of shredded, delacquered Used Beverage Containers (UBC) melted in a side-well reverbatory furnace were examined. This furnace was equipped with plunger-style puddlers and metal circulation. Both delacquering and melting processes operated continuously with downtime only for necessary mechanical repairs. The experimental design consisted of an orthogonal array with eight trials, each using nominal 500,000 lb shred charge volumes. Final recovery results included molten output and metal easily recovered from dross generated during the test.

  19. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy. PMID:27434305

  20. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sy, Amy; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Johnson, Rolland; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  1. Maximizing Social Model Principles in Residential Recovery Settings

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas; Mericle, Amy; Howell, Jason; Sheridan, Dave; Christensen, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Peer support is integral to a variety of approaches to alcohol and drug problems. However, there is limited information about the best ways to facilitate it. The “social model” approach developed in California offers useful suggestions for facilitating peer support in residential recovery settings. Key principles include using 12-step or other mutual-help group strategies to create and facilitate a recovery environment, involving program participants in decision making and facility governance, using personal recovery experience as a way to help others, and emphasizing recovery as an interaction between the individual and their environment. Although limited in number, studies have shown favorable outcomes for social model programs. Knowledge about social model recovery and how to use it to facilitate peer support in residential recovery homes varies among providers. This article presents specific, practical suggestions for enhancing social model principles in ways that facilitate peer support in a range of recovery residences. PMID:25364996

  2. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  3. Phytosterols: applications and recovery methods.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; Cabral, J M S

    2007-09-01

    Phytosterols, or plant sterols, are compounds that occur naturally and bear close structural resemblance to cholesterol, but have different side-chain configurations. Phytosterols are relevant in pharmaceuticals (production of therapeutic steroids), nutrition (anti-cholesterol additives in functional foods, anti-cancer properties), and cosmetics (creams, lipstick). Phytosterols can be obtained from vegetable oils or from industrial wastes, which gives an added value to the latter. Considerable efforts have been recently dedicated to the development of efficient processes for phytosterol isolation from natural sources. The present work aims to summarize information on the applications of phytosterols and to review recent approaches, mainly from the industry, for the large-scale recovery of phytosterols. PMID:17123816

  4. Audit Report on "Management Controls over the Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - Louisiana State Energy Program"

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    The Department of Energy's (Department) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) provides grants to states, territories and the District of Columbia (states) to support their energy priorities through the State Energy Program (SEP). Federal funding is based on a grant formula that considers the population and energy consumption in each state, and amounted to $25 million for Fiscal Year (FY) 2009. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) expanded the SEP by authorizing an additional $3.1 billion to states using the existing grant formula. EERE made grant awards to states after reviewing plans that summarize the activities states will undertake to achieve SEP Recovery Act objectives, including preserving and creating jobs; saving energy; increasing renewable energy sources; and, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. EERE program guidance emphasizes that states are responsible for administering SEP within each state, and requires each state to implement internal controls over the use of Recovery Act funds. The State of Louisiana received $71.6 million in SEP Recovery Act funds; a 164-fold increase over its FY 2009 SEP grant of $437,000. As part of the Office of Inspector General's strategy for reviewing the Department's implementation of the Recovery Act, we initiated this review to determine whether the Louisiana State Energy Office had internal controls in place to efficiently and effectively administer Recovery Act funds provided for its SEP program. Louisiana developed a strategy for SEP Recovery Act funding that focused on improving energy efficiency in state buildings, housing and small businesses; increasing Energy Star appliance rebates; and, expanding the use of alternative fuels and renewable energy. Due to a statewide hiring freeze, Louisiana outsourced management of the majority of its projects ($63.3 million) to one general contractor. Louisiana plans to internally manage one project, Education and Outreach ($2

  5. Preliminary design of the Shuttle-C avionics recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brookfield, Morgan; Decker, Deron; Gilbert, Harold; Moore, David; Rist, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The analysis done in developing a recovery system for the Shuttle-C cargo vehicle is presented. This recovery system is comprised of a reentry capsule which houses the vehicles avionics. The avionics are contained in a single package which is extracted from the capsule by the parachute recovery system. The Shuttle-C will be able to satisfy NASA's design and mission requirements. Included, is an analysis of the structural, thermal protection, and parachute recovery systems. A discussion of the merits of the proposed system is also included.

  6. A regenerable carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery system for the Japanese experiment module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, K.; Hirao, M.; Satoh, S.

    The Japanese Space Station Program is now under Phase B study by the National Space Development Agency of Japan in participation with the U.S. Space Station Program. A Japanese Space Station participation will be a dedicated pressurized module to be attached to the U.S. Space Station, and is called Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). Astronaut scientists will conduct various experimental operations there. Thus an environment control and life support system is required. Regenerable carbon dioxide removal and collection technique as well as oxygen recovery technique has been studied and investigated for several years. A regenerable carbon dioxide removal subsystem using steam desorbed solid amine and an oxygen recovery subsystem using Sabatier methane cracking have a good possibility for the application to the Japanese Experiment Module. Basic performance characteristics of the carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery subsystem are presented according to the results of a fundamental performance test program. The trace contaminant removal process is also investigated and discussed. The solvent recovery plant for the regeneration of various industrial solvents, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and so on, utilizes the multi-bed solvent adsorption and steam desorption process, which is very similar to the carbon dioxide removal subsystem. Therefore, to develop essential components including adsorption tank (bed), condensor, process controller and energy saving system, the technology obtained from the experience to construct solvent recovery plant can be easily and effectively applicable to the carbon dioxide removal subsystem. The energy saving efficiency is evaluated for blower power reduction, steam reduction and waste heat utilization technique. According to the above background, the entire environment control and life support system for the Japanese Experiment Module including the carbon dioxide removal and oxygen recovery subsystem is evaluated and proposed.

  7. Recovery from vestibular ototoxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Gianna-Poulin, C.; Pesznecker, S. C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Determine whether subjects with documented vestibular ototoxicity recover vestibular function and, if so, investigate the recovery dynamics. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective reviews and repeated measures. SETTING: Clinical research and technology center. SUBJECTS: Twenty-eight subjects who received vestibulotoxic medications were followed for at least 12 months after initial treatment. CONTROLS: Our subject sample was compared with a published database of normal individuals. INTERVENTIONS: All 28 subjects received systemically administered medications known to be ototoxic. The subjects' treating physicians controlled medication, dosage, and administration schedules. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tests of horizontal canal vestibulo-ocular function were performed. Subjects' auditory and vestibular symptoms were recorded. RESULTS: Eleven subjects (39%) showed changes in horizontal canal vestibulo-ocular gain constant (GC) and/or time constant (TC) consistent with vestibular ototoxicity. When tested 1 year after ototoxic drug administration, eight of the nine subjects who experienced ototoxic decrease in GC showed a recovery of GC to normal limits. Only one of the eight subjects who experienced ototoxic decrease in TC showed recovery of TC to within normal limits. Ototoxicity onset and recovery were independent of baseline vestibular function, and ototoxicity onset did not correlate with cumulative dose of ototoxic medication. There was no relationship between subjective symptoms and ototoxicity onset. CONCLUSIONS: Recovery of GC after vestibular ototoxicity is more commonly observed than recovery of TC. Because ototoxic changes developed and continued in an unpredictable time and manner in relation to ototoxic drug administration, we propose that once ototoxic changes in vestibulo-ocular reflex are detected, ototoxic medications should be discontinued as soon as possible.

  8. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOEpatents

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A; Hugle, Richard E

    2005-06-21

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions and about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler. An image pre-processing circuit (95) in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. An image segmentation module (105) for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. An image-understanding unit (115) matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system (130) for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  9. Rockets for spin recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effectiveness of rockets as an auxiliary means for an aircraft to effect recovery from spins was investigated. The advances in rocket technology produced by the space effort suggested that currently available systems might obviate many of the problems encountered in earlier rocket systems. A modern fighter configuration known to exhibit a flat spin mode was selected. An analytical study was made of the thrust requirements for a rocket spin recovery system for the subject configuration. These results were then applied to a preliminary systems study of rocket components appropriate to the problem. Subsequent spin tunnel tests were run to evaluate the analytical results.

  10. Psychosocial Recovery and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses a psychosocial recovery and rehabilitation recovery model that uses an intensive case management approach. The approach offers an interdisciplinary model that integrates pharmacotherapy, social skills training, cognitive remediation, family involvement, and community integration. This evidence-based plan of care instills hope and nurtures one's capacity to learn and improve function and quality of life. It is cost-effective and offers psychiatric nurses opportunities to facilitate symptomatic remission, facilitate self-efficacy, and improve communication and social cognition skills. Nurses in diverse practice settings must be willing to plan and implement innovative treatment models that provide seamless mental health care across the treatment continuum. PMID:27229282

  11. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  12. JLAB Hurricane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hutton; D. Arenius; J. Benesch; S. Chattopadhyay; E. F. Daly; O. Garza; R. Kazimi; R. Lauzi; L. Merminga; W. Merz; R. Nelson; W. Oren; M. Poelker; P. Powers; J. Preble; V. Ganni; C. R. Reece; R. Rimmer; M. Spata; S. Suhring

    2004-07-01

    Hurricane Isabel, originally a Category 5 storm, arrived at Jefferson Lab on September 18, 2003 with winds of only 75 mph, creating little direct damage to the infrastructure. However, electric power was lost for four days allowing the superconducting cryomodules to warm up and causing a total loss of the liquid helium. The subsequent recovery of the cryomodules and the impact of the considerable amount of opportunistic preventive maintenance provides important lessons for all accelerator complexes, not only those with superconducting elements. The details of how the recovery process was structured and the resulting improvement in accelerator availability will be discussed in detail.

  13. Microwave Plasma Hydrogen Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James; Wheeler, Richard, Jr.; Dahl, Roger; Hadley, Neal

    2010-01-01

    A microwave plasma reactor was developed for the recovery of hydrogen contained within waste methane produced by Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA), which reclaims oxygen from CO2. Since half of the H2 reductant used by the CRA is lost as CH4, the ability to reclaim this valuable resource will simplify supply logistics for longterm manned missions. Microwave plasmas provide an extreme thermal environment within a very small and precisely controlled region of space, resulting in very high energy densities at low overall power, and thus can drive high-temperature reactions using equipment that is smaller, lighter, and less power-consuming than traditional fixed-bed and fluidized-bed catalytic reactors. The high energy density provides an economical means to conduct endothermic reactions that become thermodynamically favorable only at very high temperatures. Microwave plasma methods were developed for the effective recovery of H2 using two primary reaction schemes: (1) methane pyrolysis to H2 and solid-phase carbon, and (2) methane oligomerization to H2 and acetylene. While the carbon problem is substantially reduced using plasma methods, it is not completely eliminated. For this reason, advanced methods were developed to promote CH4 oligomerization, which recovers a maximum of 75 percent of the H2 content of methane in a single reactor pass, and virtually eliminates the carbon problem. These methods were embodied in a prototype H2 recovery system capable of sustained high-efficiency operation. NASA can incorporate the innovation into flight hardware systems for deployment in support of future long-duration exploration objectives such as a Space Station retrofit, Lunar outpost, Mars transit, or Mars base. The primary application will be for the recovery of hydrogen lost in the Sabatier process for CO2 reduction to produce water in Exploration Life Support systems. Secondarily, this process may also be used in conjunction with a Sabatier reactor employed to

  14. Cultural competency and recovery within diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Ida, D J

    2007-01-01

    Recovery for diverse populations with mental health problems includes communities of color, those with limited English proficiency and individuals who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT). The process of healing and recovery must take into consideration the critical role of culture and language and look at the individual within the context of an environment that is influenced by racism, sexism, colonization, homophobia, and poverty as well as the stigma and shame associated with having a mental illness. Recovery must assess the impact of isolation brought about by cultural and language barriers and work towards reducing the negative influence it has on the emotional and physical well-being of the person. It is imperative that recovery occur at multiple levels and involves the person in recovery, the service provider, the larger community and the system that establishes policies that often work against those who do not fit the mold of what mainstream society considers being "the norm." Recovery must respect the cultural and language backgrounds of the individual. PMID:17694715

  15. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Education and Training Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles A.; Peters, Jane S.; Albers, Nathaniel; Stuart, Elizabeth; Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-03-19

    This report provides a baseline assessment of the current state of energy efficiency-related education and training programs and analyzes training and education needs to support expected growth in the energy efficiency services workforce. In the last year, there has been a significant increase in funding for 'green job' training and workforce development (including energy efficiency), through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Key segments of the energy efficiency services sector (EESS) have experienced significant growth during the past several years, and this growth is projected to continue and accelerate over the next decade. In a companion study (Goldman et al. 2009), our research team estimated that the EESS will increase two- to four-fold by 2020, to 220,000 person-years of employment (PYE) (low-growth scenario) or up to 380,000 PYE (high-growth scenario), which may represent as many as 1.3 million individuals. In assessing energy efficiency workforce education and training needs, we focus on energy-efficiency services-related jobs that are required to improve the efficiency of residential and nonresidential buildings. Figure ES-1 shows the market value chain for the EESS, sub-sectors included in this study, as well as the types of market players and specific occupations. Our assessment does not include the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail distribution subsectors, or energy efficiency-focused operations and maintenance performed by facility managers.

  16. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  17. Computer Disaster Recovery Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Orvin R.

    Arguing that complete, reliable, up-to-date system documentation is critical for every data processing environment, this paper on computer disaster recovery planning begins by discussing the importance of such documentation both for recovering from a systems crash, and for system maintenance and enhancement. The various components of system…

  18. Spacecraft oxygen recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1974-01-01

    Recovery system is comprised of three integrated subsystems: electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator which removes carbon dioxide from atmosphere, Sabatier reactor in which carbon dioxide is reduced with hydrogen to form methane and water, and static-feed water electrolysis cell to recover oxygen from water.

  19. Behaviour Recovery. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Bill

    2004-01-01

    This second edition of Behaviour Recovery puts emphasis on teaching behaviour concerning children with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). These children have many factors in their lives that affect their behaviour over which schools have limited control. This book acknowledges the challenge and explores the practical realities, options and…

  20. Recovery of EUVL substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, S.P.; Baker, S.L.

    1995-01-19

    Mo/Si multilayers, were removed from superpolished zerodur and fused silica substrates with a dry etching process that, under suitable processing conditions, produces negligible change in either the substrate surface figure or surface roughness. Full recovery of the initial normal incidence extreme ultra-violet (EUV) reflectance response has been demonstrated on reprocessed substrates.

  1. Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…

  2. ONSITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery. The technologies were (1) atmospheric batch distillation, (2) vacuum heat-pump distillation, and (3) low-emission vapor degreas...

  3. Recovery High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Carl

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses recovery high schools which are designed specifically to serve students who have been through a professional substance abuse treatment program and are working to stay away from drugs and alcohol. The schools typically serve multiple districts and are funded from both the per-pupil state funds that follow a student and what…

  4. Enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Brigand, G.; Kragen, H.

    1982-10-12

    Application of an agent for the enhanced oil recovery by means of an aqueous solution capable of increasing the viscosity of the solution is disclosed. Said agent consists of a mixture of a xanthan salt of a trivalent metal, iron or aluminum, with a complexant for the ion of the trivalent metal.

  5. Monkey Able After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    On May 28, 1959, a Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by a U.S. Army team in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, A South American squirrel monkey and Able, An American-born rhesus monkey. This photograph shows Able after recovery of the nose cone of the Jupiter rocket by U.S.S. Kiowa.

  6. ONSITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery: atmospheric batch distillation, vacuum heat-pump distillation, and a low-emission vapor degreaser with closed solvent, liquid an...

  7. Heating apparatus comprising a heat recovery apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Pibernat, T.

    1983-08-09

    A heating apparatus includes at least one combustion air inlet, a reverse-draft hearth having a grill positioned within a hearth plate, an ash receptacle for recovering combustion wastes, a fume outlet combustion chamber positoned under the reverse-draft hearth, and a heat recovery device. A heat transport and exchange fluid is adapted to be fed through the heat recovery device, and it circulates through the device in order to recover heat generated in the hearth. The heat recovery device also includes at least one casing positioned beneath the hearth, over the ash receptacle, and which is spaced from the walls of the heating apparatus. The rear portion of the casing is connected to the hearth plate so as to block combustion gases so that the combustion gases will pass over and thereafter under the casing prior to leaving the apparatus via the fume outlet.

  8. Impact of Processing Method on Recovery of Bacteria from Wipes Used in Biological Surface Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Nathan D.; Filliben, James J.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental sampling for microbiological contaminants is a key component of hygiene monitoring and risk characterization practices utilized across diverse fields of application. However, confidence in surface sampling results, both in the field and in controlled laboratory studies, has been undermined by large variation in sampling performance results. Sources of variation include controlled parameters, such as sampling materials and processing methods, which often differ among studies, as well as random and systematic errors; however, the relative contributions of these factors remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the relative impacts of sample processing methods, including extraction solution and physical dissociation method (vortexing and sonication), on recovery of Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Burkholderia thailandensis and Escherichia coli) bacteria from directly inoculated wipes. This work showed that target organism had the largest impact on extraction efficiency and recovery precision, as measured by traditional colony counts. The physical dissociation method (PDM) had negligible impact, while the effect of the extraction solution was organism dependent. Overall, however, extraction of organisms from wipes using phosphate-buffered saline with 0.04% Tween 80 (PBST) resulted in the highest mean recovery across all three organisms. The results from this study contribute to a better understanding of the factors that influence sampling performance, which is critical to the development of efficient and reliable sampling methodologies relevant to public health and biodefense. PMID:22706055

  9. Alcoholic neurobiology: changes in dependence and recovery.

    PubMed

    Crews, Fulton T; Buckley, Tracey; Dodd, Peter R; Ende, Gabriele; Foley, Nina; Harper, Clive; He, Jun; Innes, David; Loh, El-Wui; Pfefferbaum, Adolph; Zou, Jian; Sullivan, Edith V

    2005-08-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium held at the meeting of the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA) in Mannheim, Germany, in October, 2004. Chronic alcoholism follows a fluctuating course, which provides a naturalistic experiment in vulnerability, resilience, and recovery of human neural systems in response to presence, absence, and history of the neurotoxic effects of alcoholism. Alcohol dependence is a progressive chronic disease that is associated with changes in neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neural gene expression, psychology, and behavior. Specifically, alcohol dependence is characterized by a neuropsychological profile of mild to moderate impairment in executive functions, visuospatial abilities, and postural stability, together with relative sparing of declarative memory, language skills, and primary motor and perceptual abilities. Recovery from alcoholism is associated with a partial reversal of CNS deficits that occur in alcoholism. The reversal of deficits during recovery from alcoholism indicates that brain structure is capable of repair and restructuring in response to insult in adulthood. Indirect support of this repair model derives from studies of selective neuropsychological processes, structural and functional neuroimaging studies, and preclinical studies on degeneration and regeneration during the development of alcohol dependence and recovery form dependence. Genetics and brain regional specificity contribute to unique changes in neuropsychology and neuroanatomy in alcoholism and recovery. This symposium includes state-of-the-art presentations on changes that occur during active alcoholism as well as those that may occur during recovery-abstinence from alcohol dependence. Included are human neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessments, changes in human brain gene expression, allelic combinations of genes associated with alcohol dependence and preclinical studies investigating mechanisms of

  10. Analysis of an energy recovery system for reformate-based PEM fuel cells involving a binary two-phase mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yiding

    A comprehensive analysis on a novel energy recovery system for reformate-based proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems is presented. The energy recovery system includes a throttling valve, a heat exchanger, a compressor, and is coupled with a coolant loop for the fuel cell stack. The feed stock of the fuel reformer, which is primarily a mixture of water and fuel, is vaporized in the heat exchanger and is then compressed to a sufficiently high pressure before it is ducted into the fuel reformer. The analysis includes the throttling of two-phase fuel/water mixture and vaporization in the heat exchanger to obtain the temperature and pressure of the mixture at the inlet of the compressor. The results indicate that the power plant efficiency with the energy recovery system can be increased by more than 20% compared to that of a fuel cell power plant without the energy recovery system. Additionally, more than 25% of the waste heat generated by the fuel cell stack can be removed due to the energy recovery system, and the fuel burned for the fuel reforming purpose is reduced by more than 70%.

  11. SURFACTANT - POLYMER INTERACTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-10-01

    The goal of this research is to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, adsorption and mobility control. Surfactant--polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation high adsorption and viscous/heterogeneity fingering. A mixture comprising a ''pseudo oil'' with appropriate surfactant and polymer has been selected to study micellar-polymer chemical flooding. The physical properties and phase behavior of this system have been determined. A surfactant-polymer slug has been designed to achieve high efficiency recovery by improving phase behavior and mobility control. Recovery experiments have been performed on linear cores and a quarter 5-spot. The same recovery experiments have been simulated using a commercially available simulator (UTCHEM). Good agreement between experimental data and simulation results has been achieved.

  12. Lessons from the past: Biotic recoveries from mass extinctions

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Douglas H.

    2001-01-01

    Although mass extinctions probably account for the disappearance of less than 5% of all extinct species, the evolutionary opportunities they have created have had a disproportionate effect on the history of life. Theoretical considerations and simulations have suggested that the empty niches created by a mass extinction should refill rapidly after extinction ameliorates. Under logistic models, this biotic rebound should be exponential, slowing as the environmental carrying capacity is approached. Empirical studies reveal a more complex dynamic, including positive feedback and an exponential growth phase during recoveries. Far from a model of refilling ecospace, mass extinctions appear to cause a collapse of ecospace, which must be rebuilt during recovery. Other generalities include the absence of a clear correlation between the magnitude of extinction and the pace of recovery or the resulting ecological and evolutionary disruption the presence of a survival interval, with few originations, immediately after an extinction and preceding the recovery phase, and the presence of many lineages that persist through an extinction event only to disappear during the subsequent recovery. Several recoveries include numerous missing lineages, groups that are found before the extinction, then latter in the recovery, but are missing during the initial survival–recovery phase. The limited biogeographic studies of recoveries suggest considerable variability between regions. PMID:11344285

  13. Concept analysis of recovery in mental illness in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    McCauley, C O; McKenna, H P; Keeney, S; McLaughlin, D F

    2015-10-01

    Recovery, as a concept, emerged as a core philosophy of the service user movement that began in the late 1960s and 1970s. Previous reviews on recovery in mental health have presented definitions or a conceptual framework; however, over time it has been open to disparate interpretations. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first concept analysis of mental health recovery in young adulthood within various multidisciplinary contexts. Rodgers's (2000) six-stepped evolutionary method enabled the analysis of recovery's conceptual characteristics, the identification of an exemplar and the proposition of a hypothesis with implications for practice. This analysis has revealed the derivation of the term recovery does not convey its identified conceptual characteristics. Identified attributes include the reawakening of hope, reclaiming a positive self and meaning through personal growth. Antecedents include the disruption of illness, stigmatization, internal inventory and contemplative recovery. Identified consequences include the return to normality, reconstruction of self and active social connection. The new conceptual definition is the reawakening of hope and rediscovery of a positive sense of self through finding meaning and purpose within personal growth and connection using creative self-care coping strategies. This paper reveals an apparent disparity between professional and personal interpretations of recovery. Therefore, the implication for mental health nursing is the congruence of recovery-orientated practice with the process of recovery experienced by young adult service users. PMID:26148795

  14. Lessons from the past: biotic recoveries from mass extinctions.

    PubMed

    Erwin, D H

    2001-05-01

    Although mass extinctions probably account for the disappearance of less than 5% of all extinct species, the evolutionary opportunities they have created have had a disproportionate effect on the history of life. Theoretical considerations and simulations have suggested that the empty niches created by a mass extinction should refill rapidly after extinction ameliorates. Under logistic models, this biotic rebound should be exponential, slowing as the environmental carrying capacity is approached. Empirical studies reveal a more complex dynamic, including positive feedback and an exponential growth phase during recoveries. Far from a model of refilling ecospace, mass extinctions appear to cause a collapse of ecospace, which must be rebuilt during recovery. Other generalities include the absence of a clear correlation between the magnitude of extinction and the pace of recovery or the resulting ecological and evolutionary disruption the presence of a survival interval, with few originations, immediately after an extinction and preceding the recovery phase, and the presence of many lineages that persist through an extinction event only to disappear during the subsequent recovery. Several recoveries include numerous missing lineages, groups that are found before the extinction, then latter in the recovery, but are missing during the initial survival-recovery phase. The limited biogeographic studies of recoveries suggest considerable variability between regions. PMID:11344285

  15. 77 FR 4030 - Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  16. Simulation of subsurface storage and recovery of effluent using multiple wells, St Petersburg, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    The potential for subsurface storage and recovery, otherwise called aquifer storage and recovery, of effluent in the uppermost producing zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer in St. Petersburg, Florida, was studied by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of St. Petersburg and the Southwest Florida Water Management District. The success of subsurface storage and recovery depends on the recovery efficiency, or the quantity of water, relative to the quantity injected, that can be recovered before the water that is withdrawn fails to meet salinity limits. The viability of this practice will depend upon the ability of the injected zone to receive, store, and discharge the injected fluid. A three-dimensional numerical model of ground-water flow and solute transport, incorporating available data on aquifer properties and water quality, was developed to evaluate the effects of changing various operational factors on recovery efficiency. The reference case for testing was a base model considered representative of the aquifer system underlying the Southwest St. Petersburg Water Treatment Facility. The base simulation used as a standard for comparison consisted of a single cycle of 90 days of simultaneous injection of effluent in three wells at a rate of 4.0 million gallons per day and then equal rate withdrawal of 4.0 million gallons per day until the pumped water in each well reached a dissolvedsolids concentration of 1,500 milligrams per liter. A recovery efficiency of 14.8 percent was estimated for the base simulation. Ten successive injection and recovery cycles increased recovery efficiency to about 56 percent. Based on model simulations for hypothetical conditions, recovery efficiency (1) increased with successive injection and recovery cycles; (2) increased when the volume of injectant increased; (3) decreased when storage time increased; (4) did not change significantly when the injection rate or recovery rate increased, or when the ratio of recovery

  17. Recovery of valuable materials from waste liquid crystal display panel

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinhui Gao Song; Duan Huabo; Liu Lili

    2009-07-15

    Associated with the rapid development of the information and electronic industry, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been increasingly sold as displays. However, during the discarding at their end-of-life stage, significant environmental hazards, impacts on health and a loss of resources may occur, if the scraps are not managed in an appropriate way. In order to improve the efficiency of the recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs panel in an environmentally sound manner, this study presents a combined recycling technology process on the basis of manual dismantling and chemical treatment of LCDs. Three key processes of this technology have been studied, including the separation of LCD polarizing film by thermal shock method the removal of liquid crystals between the glass substrates by the ultrasonic cleaning, and the recovery of indium metal from glass by dissolution. The results show that valuable materials (e.g. indium) and harmful substances (e.g. liquid crystals) could be efficiently recovered or separated through above-mentioned combined technology. The optimal conditions are: (1) the peak temperature of thermal shock to separate polarizing film, ranges from 230 to 240 deg. C, where pyrolysis could be avoided; (2) the ultrasonic-assisted cleaning was most efficient at a frequency of 40 KHz (P = 40 W) and the exposure of the substrate to industrial detergents for 10 min; and (3) indium separation from glass in a mix of concentrated hydrochloric acid at 38% and nitric acid at 69% (HCl:HNO{sub 3}:H{sub 2}O = 45:5:50, volume ratio). The indium separation process was conducted with an exposure time of 30 min at a constant temperature of 60 deg. C.

  18. Engine Would Recover Exhaust Energy More Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpelfeld, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaust energy used for supercharging and extra shaft power. Flow of exhaust apportioned by waste gate to meet demand of turbocharger, and portion not fed to turbocharger sent to power-recovery turbine. Expected to increase fuel efficiency.

  19. Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration (IBRD): a collaborative approach to biological incident recovery.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Katie

    2011-09-01

    Following the terrorist attacks in 2001, much time and effort has been put toward improving catastrophic incident response. But recovery--the period following initial response that focuses on the long-term viability of the affected area--has received less attention. Recognizing the importance of being able to recover an area following a catastrophic incident, the Department of Defense, through its Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and the Department of Homeland Security, through its Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), created the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration (IBRD) program. IBRD was a 4-year program jointly managed and funded by DTRA and DHS S&T, the goal of which was to reduce the time and resources necessary to recover a wide urban area from an intentional release of Bacillus anthracis. Specific program objectives included understanding the social, economic, and operational interdependencies that affect recovery; establishing long-term coordination between the Departments of Defense and Homeland Security; developing strategic recovery/restoration plans; identifying and demonstrating technologies that support recovery; and exercising recovery activities and technology solutions. IBRD has made important first steps toward improving national preparedness in the area biological incident recovery. Specifically, IBRD has helped enhance the efficacy and efficiency of recovering large urban areas by developing consequence management guidance; identifying key S&T capabilities and integrating them with planning and guidance documents; and establishing key relationships across the federal interagency, federal-to-regional, civilian-to-military, and public-to-private stakeholders. Upon completion of IBRD in fall 2010, both DTRA and DHS S&T planned follow-on programs. PMID:21882966

  20. Sieving wastewater--cellulose recovery, economic and energy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ruiken, C J; Breuer, G; Klaversma, E; Santiago, T; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-01-01

    Application of fine-mesh sieves (<0.35 mm) as pretreatment for municipal biological wastewater treatment gives an opportunity to recover resources and increase sustainability of wastewater treatment processes. Sieves are traditionally used for single stage mechanical treatment (typical mesh of 0.35 mm) or in combination with an MBR (typical mesh >0.7 mm). When sieves with a mesh of 0.35 mm are used on raw sewage we observed that cellulose fibres mainly originating from toilet paper are removed efficiently from the influent with a high recovery and purity. The application of sieves as pretreatment for conventional activated sludge processes has been evaluated based on pilot plant research at three WWTPs in the Netherlands. With sieving applied to the dry weather flow only the overall energy usage of the WWTP including sludge treatment can be decreased by at least 40% with a payback time of 7 years. PMID:23121895

  1. Validating Indicators of Disaster Recovery with Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Caroline; Horney, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recovery from disasters is a critical function of federal, state, and local governments, yet measurable, validated indicators of community recovery remain unidentified. A list of potential recovery indicators was developed by the authors through a literature review, recovery plan review, and case study of two disaster impacted communities. Methods: To validate the indicators, qualitative data was collected from experts on disaster recovery. Twenty-one key informant interviews and two focus groups were conducted between January and April of 2014 to solicit feedback from disaster recovery practitioners and academics. Results: Five major themes emerged from the qualitative data. These included: the flexibility of the indicators to serve multiple purposes for communities and individuals both pre- and post- disaster; the focus areas are comprehensive, but content and organization can be improved; the importance of seeing the indicators as a self-assessment, rather than a tool for comparing communities; the potential challenges of collecting data for some indicators; and the identification of potential measurement issues with the indicators. Discussion: The proposed recovery indicators can be utilized by both practitioners and researchers to effectively track post-disaster recovery. They capture many of the complexities of community disaster recovery and provide potential opportunities for linkages to the development of disaster recovery plans and other activities that could increase community resilience in the future. PMID:25685626

  2. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-07-01

    This second quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. This report describes testing using the laboratory apparatus but operated at the pilot plant using the actual pilot plant

  3. Libraries and Computers: Disaster Prevention and Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, R. Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Surveys areas of vulnerability for library databases, provides guidelines to minimize the threat of disasters, and outlines recovery procedures. Topics covered include planning for natural catastrophes, designing physical and data environments, prevention of computer failure, vendor failure, and steps for developing a disaster prevention and…

  4. THERMAL TECHNOLOGY TESTED FOR CONTAMINANT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A research project on steam enhanced remediation (SER) for the recovery of dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) from fractured limestone has been undertaken at the former Loring Air Force Base Quarry site in Limestone, ME. Participants in the project include the Maine Departmen...

  5. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-08-12

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  6. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and to a system and method for regulation of a fluid inventory in a condenser and a receiver of a Rankine cycle WHR system. Such regulation includes the ability to regulate the pressure in a WHR system to control cavitation and energy conversion.

  7. Managing costs. [Resource recovery facility costs

    SciTech Connect

    Paret, M.P. ); Strouse, R.K. )

    1992-03-01

    This article examines the costs associated with a resource recovery facility in Indianapolis and how keeping these costs low provides flexibility for enacting economic incentives and new funding mechanisms that are generally needed today to encourage cost-effective recycling. The topics discussed in the article include project development, program finances, cogeneration, and the future outlook.

  8. Overtraining and recovery. A conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Kenttä, G; Hassmén, P

    1998-07-01

    Fiercer competition between athletes and a wider knowledge of optimal training regimens dramatically influence current training methods. A single training bout per day was previously considered sufficient, whereas today athletes regularly train twice a day or more. Consequently, the number of athletes who are overtraining and have insufficient rest is increasing. Positive overtraining can be regarded as a natural process when the end result is adaptation and improved performance: the supercompensation principle--which includes the breakdown process (training) followed by the recovery process (rest)--is well known in sports. However, negative overtraining, causing maladaptation and other negative consequences such as staleness, can occur. Physiological, psychological, biochemical and immunological symptoms must be considered, both independently and together, to fully understand the 'staleness' syndrome. However, psychological testing may reveal early-warning signs more readily than the various physiological or immunological markers. The time frame of training and recovery is also important since the consequences of negative overtraining comprise an overtraining-response continuum from short to long term effects. An athlete failing to recover within 72 hours has presumably negatively overtrained and is in an overreached state. For an elite athlete to refrain from training for > 72 hours is extremely undesirable, highlighting the importance of a carefully monitored recovery process. There are many methods used to measure the training process but few with which to match the recovery process against it. One such framework for this is referred to as the total quality recovery (TQR) process. By using a TQR scale, structured around the scale developed for ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), the recovery process can be monitored and matched against the breakdown (training) process (TQR versus RPE). The TQR scale emphasises both the athlete's perception of recovery and the

  9. Water recovery in space.

    PubMed

    Tamponnet, C; Savage, C J; Amblard, P; Lasserre, J C; Personne, J C; Germain, J C

    1999-03-01

    In the absence of recycling, water represents over 90% of the life-support consumables for a manned spacecraft. In addition, over 90% of the waste water generated can be classified as moderately or slightly contaminated (e.g. shower water, condensate from the air-conditioning system, etc.). The ability to recover potable water from moderately contaminated waste water hence enables significant savings to be made in resupply costs. A development model of such a water-recovery system, based on membrane technology has been produced and tested using "real waste water" based on used shower water Results indicate some 95% recovery of potable water meeting ESA standards, with total elimination of microbial contaminants such as bacteria, spores and viruses. PMID:11725802

  10. Gasoline Vapor Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  11. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Stevenson, J.W.; Werkema, R.G.

    1959-07-28

    The recovery of uranium from magnesium fluoride slag obtained as a by- product in the production of uranium metal by the bomb reduction prccess is presented. Generally the recovery is accomplished by finely grinding the slag, roasting ihe ground slag air, and leaching the roasted slag with a hot, aqueous solution containing an excess of the sodium bicarbonate stoichiometrically required to form soluble uranium carbonate complex. The roasting is preferably carried out at between 425 and 485 deg C for about three hours. The leaching is preferably done at 70 to 90 deg C and under pressure. After leaching and filtration the uranium may be recovered from the clear leach liquor by any desired method.

  12. Designer drilling increases recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Eck-Olsen, J.; Drevdal, K.E.

    1995-04-01

    Implementation of a new designer-well profile has resulted in increased recovery and production rates. The geologically complex Gullfaks field, located in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, required a new type of well profile to increase total recovery and production rates from Gullfaks A, B and C platforms. Advances in steerable technology and directional drilling performance enabled a 3-D horizontal, extended-reach well profile, now designated as a designer well, to penetrate multiple targets. This article presents the concept, implementation and conclusions drawn from designer well application. Gullfaks field, in Norwegian North Sea Block 34/10, is the first license ever run by a fully Norwegian joint venture corporation. The license group consists of Statoil (operator), Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum. The field currently produces more than 535,000 bopd from three main Jurassic reservoirs.

  13. Microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, W.R.; Singer, M.E.

    1983-06-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) attempts to exploit the metabolic processes of microorganisms to increase oil production from reservoirs of marginal oil productivity. MEOR can be achieved by direct stimulation of existing microflora within the reservoir, introduction of specialized microroganisms, or above ground use of bioproducts as chemically enhanced oil recovery agents. Reservoir microbiology, the biotransformation of crude oil, and bioproducts applicable to EOR all need further study. Xanthan and polyacrylamine have been applied to EOR, but with some problems. Other selected polysaccharides for which reasonable data bases exist are listed. Some tests on injection of microorganisms, CEOR use, and use of biosurfactants (bacteria that reduces the viscosity of crude oil) are reviewed. The status of MEOR currently resides at a basic level of research and developement.

  14. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  15. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  16. Energy Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Cogeneration system is one in which the energy ordinarily wasted in an industrial process is recovered and reused to create a second form of energy. Such an energy recovery system is in use at Crane Company's plant in Ferguson, KY, which manufactures ceramic bathroom fixtures. Crane's system captures hot stack gases from the company's four ceramic kilns and uses them to produce electrical power for plant operations.

  17. Recovery High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Moberg, D. Paul; Finch, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    High schools specifically designed for students recovering from a substance use disorder (substance abuse or dependence) have been emerging as a continuing care resource since 1987. This study of 17 schools provides the first systematic description of recovery school programs and their students. The most common school model is that of a program or affiliated school, embedded organizationally and physically with another school or set of alternative school programs. Although embedded, there are serious efforts to maintain physical separation of recovery school students from other students, using scheduling and physical barriers. Affiliation with public school systems is the case for most recovery schools, and seems to be a major factor in assuring fiscal and organizational feasibility. The students in the recovery high schools studied were predominantly white (78%), with about one-half from two parent homes. Overall parent educational levels suggest a higher mean SES than in the general population. Most students (78%) had prior formal treatment for substance use disorders, often concomitantly with treatment for mental health concerns, and were often referred by treatment providers. Students came with a broad and complex range of mental health issues, traumatic experiences, drug use patterns, criminal justice involvement, and educational backgrounds. The complexity of these problems clearly limits the enrollment capacity of the schools. Retrospective pretest to post-test analysis suggests significant reduction in substance use as well as in mental health symptoms among the students. Students were very positive in their assessment of the therapeutic value of the schools, but less enthusiastic regarding the educational programs. The school programs appear to successfully function as continuing care to reinforce and sustain the therapeutic benefits students gained from their treatment experiences. PMID:19165348

  18. SPE/DOE eighth symposium on enhanced oil recovery: Proceedings, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume 1 of the Proceeding includes discussion on enhanced recovery, thermal recovery, displacement fluids, horizontal injection, waterflooding, alkaline flooding, sandstone reservoirs, CO{sub 2} flooding, tracer testing, surfactant flooding, and polymer flooding.

  19. Recovery High Schools: Students and Responsive Academic and Therapeutic Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberg, D. Paul; Finch, Andrew J.; Lindsley, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews findings from the authors' studies of recovery high schools (RHS), including a 1995 program evaluation of a school in New Mexico (Moberg & Thaler, 1995), a 2006-09 descriptive study of 17 recovery high schools (Moberg & Finch, 2008), and presents early findings from a current study of the effectiveness of recovery…

  20. Disaster recovery: mitigating loss through documentation.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Flood, fire, tornado, hurricane. Whatever the cause, natural or man-made, the result on an organization can be devastating. Planning and preparation for disaster must include significant attention to disaster recovery. The ability to produce documentation of what existed, what was damaged, recovery costs and income losses will be essential to the claims adjustment process. This article discusses strategies for creating a historical record, leveraging contemporaneous incident command documentation and working with contractors to identify and record disaster-related expenses. PMID:21990198

  1. Applications guide for waste heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of commercially available organic Rankine cycle (ORC) hardware from a literature search and industry survey is assessed. Engineering criteria for applying ORC technology are established, and a set of nomograms to enable the rapid sizing of the equipment is presented. A comparison of an ORC system with conventional heat recovery techniques can be made with a nomogram developed for a recuperative heat exchanger. A graphical technique for evaluating the economic aspects of an ORC system and conventional heat recovery method is discussed: also included is a description of anticipated future trends in organic Rankine cycle R&D.

  2. Recovery Ship Freedom Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.

  3. Chemically enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.

    1989-03-01

    Yet when conducted according to present state of the art, chemical flooding (i.e., micellar/polymer flooding, surfactant/polymer flooding, surfactant flooding) can mobilize more residual crude oil than any other method of enhanced oil recovery. It also is one of the most expensive methods of enhanced oil recovery. This contribution will describe some of the technology that comprises the state of the art technology that must be adhered to if a chemical flood is to be successful. Although some of the efforts to reduce cost and other points are discussed, the principle focus is on technical considerations in designing a good chemical flooding system. The term chemical flooding is restricted here to methods of enhanced oil recovery that employs a surfactant, either injected into the oil reservoir or generated in situ, primarily to reduce oil-water interfacial tension. Hence, polymer-water floods for mobility or profile control, steam foams, and carbon dioxide foams are excluded. Some polymer considerations are mentioned because they apply to providing mobility control for chemical flooding systems.

  4. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  5. Integrating water flow, locomotor performance and respiration of Chinese sturgeon during multiple fatigue-recovery cycles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Lei; Johnson, David; Gao, Yong; Mandal, Prashant; Fang, Min; Tu, Zhiying; Huang, Yingping

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish) subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1) critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2) active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption) decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3) excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4) with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism) began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species. PMID:24714585

  6. Recovery of Missing Persons in Cyprus: Heavy Equipment Methods and Techniques for Complex Well Excavations.

    PubMed

    Ceker, Deren; Stevens, William D

    2015-11-01

    This technical note presents the methods and techniques developed by the Bi-communal Forensic Team (BCFT) of the Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus (CMP) used to excavate and exhume the remains of missing persons, many of whom were buried in deep wells at sites across the island of Cyprus during the conflict period of the 1960s and 1970s. A total of 493 Turkish Cypriots and 1508 Greek Cypriots were officially reported missing by the two communities as a result of the conflict. Since the team's formation, in 2005, the BCFT has excavated 114 wells, resulting in the recovery of 195 missing individuals from 35 of these well excavations. The standard excavation approach used by the BCFT, especially for deep well recovery, consists of "ramp," "pocket," and "pool" components. These excavation features enable CMP archaeologists to excavate deep wells safely and efficiently while simultaneously permitting time for thorough documentation and unimpeded recovery of human remains. The team uses three variants of this approach to cope with the variety of geological, physical, and hydrological contexts faced in Cyprus' wells, including hard and soft landforms, the presence or absence of water, and limitations imposed by surrounding infrastructure. The "terracing", "double-ramp", and "single-ramp" variations are detailed with respect to the environmental contexts which prescribe their use. The BCFT's general procedures for human remains recovery and standard well safety protocols conclude the article. PMID:26250595

  7. Analysis and design of energy recovery snubbers for switched reluctance motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Gharpure, V.S.; Krishnan, R.; Lee, S.

    1994-12-31

    Snubber studies for switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives are nonexistent even though the power converter topologies are unique and do not fall under the category of inverter topologies applicable to AC motor drives. The importance of the snubbers does not come into the picture until either the power rating of the converter is high and in the multi-kW range or the switching frequency requirement is in the 20 kHz range. Such requirements are coming to the fore in many product development applications such as extruders, general purpose drives, integral starter generators for aircraft, electric vehicles, high speed spindles and centrifuges, etc. This paper is concerned with extending the Undeland snubber configuration to the two-switches per phase power converter topology of the SRM drive including the energy recovery feature. The energy recovery snubbers are then analyzed in terms of the various modes of operation encountered in the converter. A design procedure for the energy recovery snubbers is developed. The design procedure and the operation of the proposed snubber configuration in the SRM drive are experimentally verified with a laboratory prototype SRM drive. The impact of the proposed snubber on the power converter efficiency and its comparison with conventional snubber based systems, such as RCDs, is evaluated to assess the advantages of the proposed energy recovery snubber. 10 refs.

  8. Development of a preprototype times wastewater recovery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Dehner, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    A three-man wastewater recovery preprototype subsystem using a hollow fiber membrane evaporator with a thermoelectric heat pump to provide efficient potable water recovery from wastewater on extended duration space flights was designed, fabricated, and tested at one-gravity. Low power, compactness and gravity insensitive operation are featured in this vacuum distillation subsystem. The tubular hollow fiber elements provide positive liquid/gas phase control with no moving parts, and provide structural integrity, improving on previous flat sheet membrane designs. A thermoelectric heat pump provides latent energy recovery. Application and integration of these key elements solved problems inherent in all previous reclamation subsystem designs.

  9. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co-mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery, it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil-in-water and oil-water-solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers, water can be discharged and oil is collected. High-frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale, residual oil, drill cuttings, tar sands oil, contaminated dredge/sediments, tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly, fuel-generating recycler to reduce waste, cut emissions, and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

  10. Energy-recovery linac project at Cornell University.

    PubMed

    Bilderback, Donald H; Bazarov, I V; Finkelstein, K; Gruner, S M; Padamsee, H S; Sinclair, C K; Shen, Q; Talman, R; Tigner, M; Krafft, G A; Merminga, L

    2003-09-01

    There is considerable interest in using superconducting electron linacs with energy recovery as synchrotron radiation sources. Such energy recovery linacs (ERLs) would open new regimes of X-ray science because they are capable of producing ultra-brilliant X-ray beams [>5 x 10(22) photons s(-1) (0.1% bandwidth)(-1) mm(-2) mrad(-2) at 10 keV], maintaining a very small source size ( approximately 3 micro m r.m.s.) suitable for micro X-ray beams, and making very intense fast ( approximately 100 fs) X-ray pulses. Each of these characteristics would permit the execution of experiments that are not feasible with existing synchrotron sources. Many technical issues must be satisfactorily resolved before the potential of a full-scale ERL can be realised, including the generation of high average current (10 to 100 mA), high-brightness electron beams (0.015 to 0.15 nm rad emittances, respectively); acceleration of these beams to energies of 5-7 GeV without unacceptable emittance degradation; stable and efficient operation of superconducting linear accelerators at very high gradients etc. Cornell University, in collaboration with Jefferson Laboratory, has proposed to resolve these issues by the construction of a 100 MeV, 100 mA prototype ERL. The intention is to then utilize the information that is learned from the prototype to propose the construction of a full-scale ERL light source. PMID:12944617

  11. Recovery of agricultural nutrients from biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Carey, Daniel E; Yang, Yu; McNamara, Patrick J; Mayer, Brooke K

    2016-09-01

    This review lays the foundation for why nutrient recovery must be a key consideration in design and operation of biorefineries and comprehensively reviews technologies that can be used to recover an array of nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or potassium-rich products of relevance to agricultural applications. Recovery of these products using combinations of physical, chemical, and biological operations will promote sustainability at biorefineries by converting low-value biomass (particularly waste material) into a portfolio of higher-value products. These products can include a natural partnering of traditional biorefinery outputs such as biofuels and chemicals together with nutrient-rich fertilizers. Nutrient recovery not only adds an additional marketable biorefinery product, but also avoids the negative consequences of eutrophication, and helps to close anthropogenic nutrient cycles, thereby providing an alternative to current unsustainable approaches to fertilizer production, which are energy-intensive and reliant on nonrenewable natural resource extraction. PMID:26948442

  12. Lithium: Sources, Production, Uses, and Recovery Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara; Ayres, Robert U.

    2013-08-01

    The demand for lithium has increased significantly during the last decade as it has become key for the development of industrial products, especially batteries for electronic devices and electric vehicles. This article reviews sources, extraction and production, uses, and recovery and recycling, all of which are important aspects when evaluating lithium as a key resource. First, it describes the estimated reserves and lithium production from brine and pegmatites, including the material and energy requirements. Then, it continues with a description about the current uses of lithium focusing on its application in batteries and concludes with a description of the opportunities for recovery and recycling and the future demand forecast. The article concludes that the demand of lithium for electronic vehicles will increase from 30% to almost 60% by 2020. Thus, in the next years, the recovery and recycling of lithium from batteries is decisive to ensure the long-term viability of the metal.

  13. Reminiscence and item recovery in free recall.

    PubMed

    Madigan, S

    1976-05-01

    The item recovery or reminiscence component of recall in RTT procedures was investigated in two free recall experiments. In the first, Erdelyi and Becker's (1974) "hypermnesia" effect was found with pictures as the to-be-remembered material: total amount recalled increased over two successive test trials, and included a large reminiscence effect, with some 27% of previously unrecalled items appearing in the second test. The second experiment, with word lists, showed that the frequency of occurrence of new items was greater following a 12-min separation of two test trials than in two relatively massed tests. This kind of item recovery is relevant to models of output interference and retrieval limitations in free recall, and may be also related to spontaneous recovery effects. PMID:21287027

  14. Neuroplasticity and Predictors of Alcohol Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol-related neuroadaptations in key neural circuits of emotional and cognitive control play a critical role in the development of, and recovery from, alcoholism. Converging evidence in the neurobiological literature indicates that neuroplastic changes in the prefrontal–striatal–limbic circuit, which governs emotion regulation and decisionmaking and controls physiological responses in the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis system, contribute to chronic alcoholism and also are significant predictors of relapse and recovery. This paper reviews recent evidence on the neuroplasticity associated with alcoholism in humans, including acute and chronic effects, and how these neurobiological adaptations contribute to alcohol recovery, along with the discussion of relevant clinical implications and future research directions. PMID:26259094

  15. Recovery from alcoholism: a spiritual journey.

    PubMed

    Bowden, J W

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover the internal aspects of change in persons who are doing well living without alcohol. The heuristic research method, a qualitative phenomenological design, was used to investigate the experience of recovery. Eight recovering alcoholics were interviewed in depth. The process of recovery reflected a mythological journey comprising a departure from the shadowland of drinking, initiation into the world of sobriety, and knowledge gained along the way. New adaptive strategies were acquired, including strengthening the will, training the mind, and exercising spiritual qualities in one's daily life. The profile of doing well in recovery also reflected self-acceptance and an ongoing search for connecting with the transpersonal realm. PMID:9782855

  16. Recovery of Extracellular Lipolytic Enzymes from Macrophomina phaseolina by Foam Fractionation with Air.

    PubMed

    Schinke, Claudia; Germani, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina was cultivated in complex and simple media for the production of extracellular lipolytic enzymes. Culture supernatants were batch foam fractionated for the recovery of these enzymes, and column design and operation included the use of P 2 frit (porosity 40 to 100  μ m), air as sparging gas at variable flow rates, and Triton X-100 added at the beginning or gradually in aliquots. Samples taken at intervals showed the progress of the kinetic and the efficiency parameters. Best results were obtained with the simple medium supernatant by combining the stepwise addition of small amounts of the surfactant with the variation of the air flow rates along the separation. Inert proteins were foamed out first, and the subsequent foamate was enriched in the enzymes, showing estimated activity recovery (R), enrichment ratio (E), and purification factor (P) of 45%, 34.7, and 2.9, respectively. Lipases were present in the enriched foamate. PMID:23738054

  17. Recovery of Extracellular Lipolytic Enzymes from Macrophomina phaseolina by Foam Fractionation with Air

    PubMed Central

    Germani, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina was cultivated in complex and simple media for the production of extracellular lipolytic enzymes. Culture supernatants were batch foam fractionated for the recovery of these enzymes, and column design and operation included the use of P 2 frit (porosity 40 to 100 μm), air as sparging gas at variable flow rates, and Triton X-100 added at the beginning or gradually in aliquots. Samples taken at intervals showed the progress of the kinetic and the efficiency parameters. Best results were obtained with the simple medium supernatant by combining the stepwise addition of small amounts of the surfactant with the variation of the air flow rates along the separation. Inert proteins were foamed out first, and the subsequent foamate was enriched in the enzymes, showing estimated activity recovery (R), enrichment ratio (E), and purification factor (P) of 45%, 34.7, and 2.9, respectively. Lipases were present in the enriched foamate. PMID:23738054

  18. Umbilical cable recovery load analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao

    2013-06-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  19. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline employing direct energy recovery of unneutralized residual ions is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell, and thus improves the overall neutral beamline efficiency. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beam direction in the neutral izer exit region. The ions which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be loosely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell are reflected onto and collected at an interior wall of the neutralizer formed by the modified end geometry, and thus do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell. Electrons within the neutralizer are prevented from exiting the neutralizer end opening by the action of crossed fields drift (ExB) and are terminated to a collector collar around the downstream opening of the neutralizer. The correct combination of the extended neutralizer end structure and the magnet region is designed so as to maximize the exit of full energy ions and to contain the fractional energy ions.

  20. Recovery potential of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is expected to increase in the future due to growing concerns about the direct use of sludge in agriculture. Sewage sludge is the pollutant sink of wastewater treatment and thus loaded with contaminants that might pose environmental hazards. Incineration degrades organic pollutants efficiently, but since the ash is currently mostly disposed of, all valuable component like phosphorus (P) and technologically relevant metals present in the sewage sludge ash (SSA) are removed from the economic cycle entirely. We conducted a complete survey of SSA from German mono-incineration facilities and determined the theoretical recovery potential of 57 elements. German SSA contains up to 19,000 t/a P which equals approximately 13% of phosphorus applied in the German agriculture in form of phosphate rock based mineral fertilizers. Thus, SSA is an important secondary resource of P. However, its P-solubility in ammonium citrate solution, an indicator for the bioavailability, is only about 26%. Treatment of SSA is recommended to enhance P bioavailability and remove heavy metals before it is applied as fertilizer. The recovery potential for technologically relevant metals is generally low, but some of these elements might be recovered efficiently in the course of P recovery exploiting synergies. PMID:25697389

  1. Evaluation of energy recovery and CO{sub 2} reduction potential in Japan through integrated waste and utility management

    SciTech Connect

    Horio, M.; Shigeto, S. Shiga, M.

    2009-07-15

    This paper examines the potential of integrated waste and utility power management over the mid-term planning horizon in Japan. Energy recovery and CO{sub 2} emission reduction were estimated under two situations: (1) energy recovery efforts within the current waste management/power generation framework and (2) integrated waste management with sewage treatment systems and electric power industries. Scenario simulation results showed that under the current policy framework it is not feasible to achieve large energy recovery and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, while the integrated waste management scenarios show the potential of large energy recovery which is equivalent to about an 18 million t-CO{sub 2} emission reduction. The utilization of dry wastes for power generation at existing fossil power stations is significant in achieving the result. We also consider the effects of the 'CO{sub 2} emission per GW generated' for electric power generation on the total CO{sub 2} emission reduction because it varies by country and assumptions selected. Although this research did not include an economic analysis, based on estimated CO{sub 2} emissions and energy recovery, the integrated scenarios indicate a large potential in countries that have high dependence of fossil power generation and relatively low power generation efficiency.

  2. Evaluation of energy recovery and CO2 reduction potential in Japan through integrated waste and utility management.

    PubMed

    Horio, M; Shigeto, S; Shiga, M

    2009-07-01

    This paper examines the potential of integrated waste and utility power management over the mid-term planning horizon in Japan. Energy recovery and CO(2) emission reduction were estimated under two situations: (1) energy recovery efforts within the current waste management/power generation framework and (2) integrated waste management with sewage treatment systems and electric power industries. Scenario simulation results showed that under the current policy framework it is not feasible to achieve large energy recovery and CO(2) emission reduction, while the integrated waste management scenarios show the potential of large energy recovery which is equivalent to about an 18 million t-CO(2) emission reduction. The utilization of dry wastes for power generation at existing fossil power stations is significant in achieving the result. We also consider the effects of the 'CO(2) emission per GW generated' for electric power generation on the total CO(2) emission reduction because it varies by country and assumptions selected. Although this research did not include an economic analysis, based on estimated CO(2) emissions and energy recovery, the integrated scenarios indicate a large potential in countries that have high dependence of fossil power generation and relatively low power generation efficiency. PMID:19272763

  3. Nonconventional energy resources. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Worldwide energy problems suggest that unconventional energy sources will contribute an increasing share of energy supplies. The chapters of this book present a rationale for developing unconventional resources, but they also look at the practical aspects of environmental, social, and economic impacts assocated with their development. The introduction reviews several possible scenarios, then gives an overview of the contributions that can be made by renewable, semi-renewable, nondepletable, and nonrenewable energy resources. It stresses the importance of conversion efficiency and net energy, both local and global environmental issues, and economics. A separate abstract was prepared for 10 chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  4. Differentiation method for phase recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özcan, Meriç

    2015-03-01

    Here we consider a derivative based method for phase recovery and demonstrate a numerical method that can be described as differentiate and cross multiply operation to obtain the phase gradient. This method uses quadrature phase data that is in sine and cosine form, which is a natural outcome many interferometric measurements including that of digital holographic reconstruction. Since the differentiation is performed on trigonometric functions which are discrete, it is shown that the method of differentiation and the sampling rate are important considerations especially for the noise corrupt signals. The method is initially developed for 1D phase signals, and then later extended to 2D. Noise performance of the method is also investigated, and it is shown that for extremely noisy signals the method can be adapted to an iteration routine which recovers the phase successfully. We present simulations and the experimental results which show the validity of the approach.

  5. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  6. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.; Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R.

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  7. Selective olefin recovery

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This report presents the results of the outstanding studies on olefin product purities, pyridine recovery, and absorber offgas utilization. Other reports issued since the May 2 technical review meeting in Grangemouth evaluated the impact of the new VLE data on the solution stripping operation and the olefin loadings in the lean and rich solutions. This report completes the bulk of Stone & Webster`s engineering development of the absorber/stripper process for Phase I. The final feasibility study report (to be issued in August) will present an updated design and economics.

  8. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  9. Pyrolysis with staged recovery

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Lumpkin, Robert E.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1979-03-20

    In a continuous process for recovery of values contained in a solid carbonaceous material, the carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to flash pyrolysis in the presence of a particulate heat source fed over an overflow weir to form a pyrolysis product stream containing a carbon containing solid residue and volatilized hydrocarbons. After the carbon containing solid residue is separated from the pyrolysis product stream, values are obtained by condensing volatilized hydrocarbons. The particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing carbon in the solid residue.

  10. Resource recovery utility

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a resource recovery utility comprising: (i) a landfill; (ii) a continuous wall surrounding the perimeter of the landfill; (iii) a containment structure extending completely over the landfill and affixed to the continuous wall; (iv) means for introducing refuse into the landfill; (v) means for compacting the refuse; (vi) means for removing and recovering methane generated by anaerobic bacterial digestion of organic materials contained in the refuse; and (vii) means for removing at least a portion of the compacted refuse from the landfill.

  11. Deepwater pipeline recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McStravick, D.M.; Baugh, B.F.

    1997-07-01

    The paper gives a presentation of the tooling concepts used for the recovery of steel and flexible flowlines in the Gulf of Mexico Shell Tahoe I area in the summer of 1996 in 1,370 ft. of sea water. This offshore operation required a Global Grabber to engage and retrieve 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, an ROV Pipeline Spear to internally engage the end of the 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, and a FlexGrip Assembly to wrap and grab 5.566-in. OD flexible pipe. The design of the tooling emphasized the use of API 17D ROV interfaces.

  12. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  13. Recovery of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  14. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  15. Recovery of silver from radiographic fixer.

    PubMed

    Goshima, T; Hori, K; Yamamoto, A

    1994-06-01

    This study examined the silver content of 10 brands of dental x-ray film that are commercially available in Japan. Kodak Ektaspeed EP-22 (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.) was found to have the highest silver content, and SD 100 Gold X-ray Film (San Dental Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) had the lowest content of silver. Electrolysis and ion exchange were used as the methods of silver recovery from films in the general dental office. Ion exchange was more than 99% efficient in silver recovery from the radiographic fixer and resulted in an 80% reduction in biochemical oxygen demand and a 95% reduction in chemical oxygen demand. However, these levels and other environmental pollutants were still above the limits set by the Japanese Pollutant Control law. PMID:8065739

  16. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and compositions therefor

    DOEpatents

    Bryant, Rebecca S.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for microbial enhanced oil recovery, wherein a combination of microorganisms is empirically formulated based on survivability under reservoir conditions and oil recovery efficiency, such that injection of the microbial combination may be made, in the presence of essentially only nutrient solution, directly into an injection well of an oil bearing reservoir having oil present at waterflood residual oil saturation concentration. The microbial combination is capable of displacing residual oil from reservoir rock, which oil may be recovered by waterflooding without causing plugging of the reservoir rock. Further, the microorganisms are capable of being transported through the pores of the reservoir rock between said injection well and associated production wells, during waterflooding, which results in a larger area of the reservoir being covered by the oil-mobilizing microorganisms.

  17. High Current Energy Recovery Linac at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir N. Litvinenko; Donald Barton; D. Beavis; Ilan Ben-Zvi; Michael Blaskiewicz; J.M. Brennan; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X. Chang; Roger Connolly; D. Gassner; H. Hahn; A. Hershcovitch; H.C. Hseuh; P. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R. Lambiase; G. McIntyre; W. Meng; T. C. Nehring; A. Nicoletti; D. Pate; J. Rank; T. Roser; T. Russo; J. Scaduto; K. Smith; T. Srinivasan-Rao; N. Williams; K.-C. Wu; Vitaly Yakimenko; K. Yip; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; H. Bluem; A. Burger; Mike Cole; A. Favale; D. Holmes; John Rathke; Tom Schultheiss; A. Todd; J. Delayen; W. Funk; L. Phillips; Joe Preble

    2004-08-01

    We present the design, the parameters of a small test Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction at Collider-Accelerator Department, BNL. This R&D facility has goals to demonstrate CW operation of ERL with average beam current in the range of 0.1 - 1 ampere, combined with very high efficiency of energy recovery. A possibility for future up-grade to a two-pass ERL is considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 700 MHz super-conducting RF linac with HOM damping. Flexible lattice of ERL provides a test-bed for testing issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW e-beam. ERL is also perfectly suited for a far-IR FEL. We present the status and our plans for construction and commissioning of this facility.

  18. HIGH CURRENT ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    LITVINENKO,V.N.; BEN-ZVI,I.; BARTON,D.S.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    We present the design and parameters of an energy recovery linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction in the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL. This R&D facility has the goal of demonstrating CW operation of an ERL with an average beam current in the range of 0.1-1 ampere and with very high efficiency of energy recovery. The possibility of a future upgrade to a two-pass ERL is also being considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 703.75 MHz super-conducting RF linac with strong Higher Order Mode (HOM) damping. The flexible lattice of the ERL provides a test-bed for exploring issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW electron beams. This ERL is also perfectly suited for a far-IR FEL. We present the status and plans for construction and commissioning of this facility.

  19. Oil recovery by imbibition from polymer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ghedan, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    The success of a polymer flood in a water-wet fractured reservoir is dependent on the recovery of oil from the matrix blocks by the polymer solution imbibition. This thesis presents the results of an experimental and theoretical study investigating this problem. Two sets of experiments were performed, static and dynamic. The results of the static experiments, in which a matrix block was surrounded by the imbibing fluid, showed that the amounts of oil that ultimately could be recovered by the water and polymer solutions are practically equal. However, the rate of oil recovery by the polymer solutions is always less than that of the water. This delay in the oil recovery was found to be a function of the polymer solutions molecular weight, concentration, and salt content. The theoretical investigation of the experimental data found that the polymer retention and the high apparent viscosity were the causes for the delay. The dynamic experiments consisted of flooding oil-saturated fractured cores through the fracture by water and different polymer solutions. The oil recovery behavior in these experiments was found to be dependent not only on the rate of injected fluid imbibition from the fracture into the matrix blocks, but also on the operating injection rate and the displacement efficiency of the oil in the fracture by the injected fluid. It is also dependent on the amount of viscous forces that are generated by the injected fluid flow through the fracture. Under certain conditions, polymer flooding of the fractures gave greater oil recovery than water flooding, whereas under others it did not.

  20. RECOVERY OF FRESHWATER STORED IN SALINE AQUIFERS IN PENINSULAR FLORIDA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, Michael L.

    1986-01-01

    Subsurface freshwater storage has been operationally tested at seven sites in central and south Florida. Injection was into a high chloride water aquifer at six sites, and into a high sulfate water aquifer at the seventh. Recovery efficiency has ranged from 0 to 75 percent in high chloride water aquifers, and has exceeded 100 percent in the high sulfate water aquifer. Computer modeling techniques were used to examine the geohydrologic, design, and management factors governing the recovery efficiency of subsurface freshwater storage. The modeling approach permitted many combinations of geohydrologic and operational conditions to be studied at relatively low cost.

  1. Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-11-30

    The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber{trademark} for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe{trademark} concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising.

  2. A review of the scope and measurement of postoperative quality of recovery.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, A; Jakobsson, J; Ljungqvist, O; Royse, C

    2014-11-01

    To date, postoperative quality of recovery lacks a universally accepted definition and assessment technique. Current quality of recovery assessment tools vary in their development, breadth of assessment, validation, use of continuous vs dichotomous outcomes and focus on individual vs group recovery. They have progressed from identifying pure restitution of physiological parameters to multidimensional assessments of postoperative function and patient-focused outcomes. This review focuses on the progression of these tools towards an as yet unreached ideal that would provide multidimensional assessment of recovery over time at the individual and group level. A literature search identified 11 unique recovery assessment tools. The Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale assesses recovery in multiple domains, including physiological, nociceptive, emotive, activities of daily living, cognition and patient satisfaction. It addresses recovery over time and compares individual patient data with base line, thus describing resumption of capacities and is an acceptable method for identification of individual patient recovery. PMID:24888412

  3. Sustainable Remediation for Enhanced NAPL Recovery from Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaher, M.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainable remediation relates to the achievement of balance between environmental, social, and economic elements throughout the remedial lifecycle. A significant contributor to this balance is the use of green and sustainable technologies which minimize environmental impacts, while maximizing social and economic benefits of remedial implementation. To this end, a patented mobile vapor energy generation (VEG) technology has been developed targeting variable applications, including onsite soil remediation for unrestricted reuse and enhanced non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) recover at the water table. At the core of the mobile VEG technology is a compact, high efficiency vapor generator, which utilizes recycled water and propane within an entirely enclosed system to generate steam as high as 1100°F. Operating within a fully enclosed system and capturing all heat that is generated within this portable system, the VEG technology eliminates all emissions to the atmosphere and yields an undetected carbon footprint with resulting carbon dioxide concentrations that are below ambient levels. Introduction of the steam to the subsurface via existing wells results in a desired change in the NAPL viscosity and the interfacial tension at the soil, water, NAPL interface; in turn, this results in mobilization and capture of the otherwise trapped, weathered NAPL. Approved by the California Air Resources Control Board (and underlying Air Quality Management Districts) and applied in California's San Joaquin Valley, in-well heating of NAPLs trapped at the water table using the VEG technology has proven as effective as electrical resistivity heating (ERH) in changing the viscosity of and mobilizing NAPLs in groundwater in support of recovery, but has achieved these results while minimizing the remedial carbon footprint by 90%, reducing energy use by 99%, and reducing remedial costs by more than 95%. NAPL recovery using VEG has also allowed for completion of source removal historically

  4. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.; Gerdemann, Steve; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul; Patrick, Brian R.

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  5. Recovery Trends in Marine Mammal Populations

    PubMed Central

    Magera, Anna M.; Mills Flemming, Joanna E.; Kaschner, Kristin; Christensen, Line B.; Lotze, Heike K.

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1) publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2) abundance trends and recovery status, and (3) historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%), Significantly Decreasing (10%), Non-Significant Change (28%) and Unknown (20%). Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters) showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47), larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular, increased

  6. Core flooding tests to investigate the effects of IFT reduction and wettability alteration on oil recovery during MEOR process in an Iranian oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Arash; Sharifinik, Milad; Niazi, Ali; Hashemi, Abdolnabi; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2013-07-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) refers to the process of using bacterial activities for more oil recovery from oil reservoirs mainly by interfacial tension reduction and wettability alteration mechanisms. Investigating the impact of these two mechanisms on enhanced oil recovery during MEOR process is the main objective of this work. Different analytical methods such as oil spreading and surface activity measurements were utilized to screen the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from the brine of a specific oil reservoir located in the southwest of Iran. The isolates identified by 16S rDNA and biochemical analysis as Enterobacter cloacae (Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC) 1798) and Enterobacter hormaechei (PTCC 1799) produce 1.53 g/l of biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant caused substantial surface tension reduction of the growth medium and interfacial tension reduction between oil and brine to 31 and 3.2 mN/m from the original value of 72 and 29 mN/m, respectively. A novel set of core flooding tests, including in situ and ex situ scenarios, was designed to explore the potential of the isolated consortium as an agent for MEOR process. Besides, the individual effects of wettability alteration and IFT reduction on oil recovery efficiency by this process were investigated. The results show that the wettability alteration of the reservoir rock toward neutrally wet condition in the course of the adsorption of bacteria cells and biofilm formation are the dominant mechanisms on the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. PMID:23553033

  7. Overview of the OSIRIS-REx Parachute Recovery Subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, S.; Rowan, J.; Witkowski, A.

    2014-06-01

    A general overview of the planned Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) parachute recovery subsystem, to include modifications to the Stardust design and design and testing of a new PRS mortar.

  8. Improving Biofuels Recovery Processes for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels are made from living or recently living organisms. For example, ethanol can be made from fermented plant materials. Biofuels have a number of important benefits when compared to fossil fuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable energy sources such as agricultural resou...

  9. Improving Biofuel Recovery Processes For Efficiency and Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) provided for increased production of biofuels with, among other provisions, a specified share to be derived from non-sugar or cellulose feedstocks. The EISA further established standards for renewable fuels achieving 20, 50, a...

  10. Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, a.; Pickrell, G.; Xiao, H.; May, r.

    2003-02-27

    The overall goal of this project was to develop reliable cost effective sensors for application in the down-hole environment. The physical parameters measured by these sensors were temperature, pressure, flow and acoustic signals. Sensor head configurations for each of the physical measurands were optimized to increase the sensitivity to the particular measurand of interest while decreasing the cross-sensitivity to the other physical measurands and to environmental influences. In addition, the optical signal demodulation electronics was designed to be insensitive to environmental influences while maintaining the required resolution, precision and accuracy of the parameter being sensed. The influence of potentially detrimental agents such as water in the down-hole environment was investigated as well as methods to protect both the optical fiber and the sensor from these detrimental effects.

  11. Introduction to deployable recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.

    1985-08-01

    This report provides an introduction to deployable recovery systems for persons with little or no background in parachutes but who are knowledgeable in aerodynamics. A historical review of parachute development is given along with a description of the basic components of most deployable recovery systems. Descriptions are given of the function of each component and of problems that occur if a component fails to perform adequately. Models are presented for deployable recovery systems. Possible directions for future work are suggested in the summary.

  12. Recovering waste industrial heat efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, J.G.; Bartone, L.M.; Cutting, J.C.; Patten, J.S.

    1983-03-01

    Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC's) are being used in the generation of electrical or mechanical power in situations where little demand exists for process steam. Using organic fluids in Rankine cycles improves the potential for economic recovery of waste heat. The right organic fluid can enhance the conversion efficiency by tailoring the ORC heat recovery cycle to the thermodynamic characteristics of the waste heat stream. The selection of the working fluid is affected by its flammability, toxicity, environmental impact, materials compatibility, and cost. Water, ethanol, 2-methyl Pyridine/H2O, Flourinol, Toluene, Freon R-11, and Freon R-113 are compared. An organic cycle using toluene as the working fluid is schematicized.

  13. Reactive Transport Modeling of Microbe-mediated Fe (II) Oxidation for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surasani, V.; Li, L.

    2011-12-01

    Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) aims to improve the recovery of entrapped heavy oil in depleted reservoirs using microbe-based technology. Reservoir ecosystems often contain diverse microbial communities those can interact with subsurface fluids and minerals through a network of nutrients and energy fluxes. Microbe-mediated reactions products include gases, biosurfactants, biopolymers those can alter the properties of oil and interfacial interactions between oil, brine, and rocks. In addition, the produced biomass and mineral precipitates can change the reservoir permeability profile and increase sweeping efficiency. Under subsurface conditions, the injection of nitrate and Fe (II) as the electron acceptor and donor allows bacteria to grow. The reaction products include minerals such as Fe(OH)3 and nitrogen containing gases. These reaction products can have large impact on oil and reservoir properties and can enhance the recovery of trapped oil. This work aims to understand the Fe(II) oxidation by nitrate under conditions relevant to MEOR. Reactive transport modeling is used to simulate the fluid flow, transport, and reactions involved in this process. Here we developed a complex reactive network for microbial mediated nitrate-dependent Fe (II) oxidation that involves both thermodynamic controlled aqueous reactions and kinetic controlled Fe (II) mineral reaction. Reactive transport modeling is used to understand and quantify the coupling between flow, transport, and reaction processes. Our results identify key parameter controls those are important for the alteration of permeability profile under field conditions.

  14. General presentation including new structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soons, A.

    2002-12-01

    Electrical, electronic and electro-mechanical components play an essential role in the functional performance, quality, life cycle and costs of space systems. Their standardisation, product specification, development, evaluation, qualification and procurement must be based on a coherent and efficient approach, paying due attention to present and prospective European space policies and must be commensurate with user needs, market developments and technology trends. The European Space Components Coordination (ESCC) is established with the objective of harmonising the efforts concerning the various aspects of EEE space components by ESA. European national and international public space organisations, the component manufacturers and the user industries. The goal of the ESCC is to improve the availability of strategic EEE space components with the required performance and at affordable costs for institutional and commercial space programmes. It is the objective of ESCC to achieve this goal by harmonising the resources and development efforts for space components in the ESA Member States and by providing a single and unified system for the standardisation, product specification, evaluation, qualification and procurement of European EEE space components and for the certification of components and component manufacturers.

  15. Recovery of tritium from water

    SciTech Connect

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.; Lentz, J.E. . Mound)

    1988-09-01

    The pilot-scale Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) system developed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound facility has evolved into a fully operational tritium recovery system. This has resulted from the evaluation of recent developments in AECL/CRNL hydrophobic exchange catalyst in the CECE system. Data obtained during recent tests led to the design and installation of an aqueous tritium recovery facility. Operation of the Tritium Aqueous Waste Recovery System makes possible the recovery of tritium from low-level tritiated aqueous waste streams.

  16. Recovery of tritium from water

    SciTech Connect

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.; Lentz, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The pilot-scale Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) system developed at the US Department of Energy's Mound facility has evolved into a fully operational tritium recovery system. This has resulted from the evaluation of recent developments in AECL/ORNL hydrophobic exchange catalyst in the CECE system. Data obtained during recent tests led to the design and installation of an aqueous tritium recovery facility. Operation of the Tritium Aqueous Waste Recovery System makes possible the recovery of tritium from low-level tritiated aqueous waste streams. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  17. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2003-07-01

    This second quarter report of 2003 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and off-shore applications. CrystaSulf{reg_sign} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. Bench-scale catalyst testing at the CrystaSulf pilot plant using the actual pilot plant gas was successful, and

  18. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Lundeen; Girish Srinivas; David W. DeBerry

    2003-01-01

    This fourth quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. Bench-scale catalyst testing at the CrystaSulf pilot plant using the actual pilot plant gas was successful and a skid

  19. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2003-04-01

    This first quarter report of 2003 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and off-shore applications. CrystaSulf{reg_sign} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. Previous reports described development of a catalyst with the required selectivity and efficiency for producing sulfur dioxide from H{sub 2}S. In the laboratory, the catalyst was shown to be robust and stable in the presence of several intentionally added contaminants, including condensate from the pilot plant site. Bench-scale catalyst testing at the CrystaSulf pilot plant using the actual pilot plant gas was successful, and

  20. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper generally describes

  1. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  2. Speech recovery device

    DOEpatents

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  3. Speech recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  4. Hurricane Recovery Report 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Joseph P.

    2005-01-01

    During August and September 2004, four hurricanes tested the mettle of Space Coast residents and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) leadership and workforce. These threats underscored two important points: the very real vulnerability of KSC and its valuable space program assets to the devastating power of a hurricane, and the planning required to effectively deal with such threats. The damage was significant even though KSC did not experience sustained hurricane-force winds. To better understand and appreciate these points, this report provides an overview of the meteorological history of the Space Coast and what is involved in the planning, preparation, and recovery activities, as well as addressing the impacts of the 2004 hurricane season.

  5. Exercise and cancer recovery.

    PubMed

    Visovsky, Constance; Dvorak, Colleen

    2005-05-01

    Disease and cancer treatment-related side effects such as decreased energy level, muscle weakness, and declines in functional status and body mass have been well documented. There is evidence that exercise, such as low intensity aerobics walking, Tai Chi, or cycling, results in an overall decrease in fatigue levels over the course of cancer treatment. Additionally, there is evidence that regular physical activity or exercise can decrease emotional stress, blood pressure, the duration of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pain. Exercise also has been shown to increase quality of life and improve the maximal oxygen uptake during exertion, sleep patterns, and cognition. However, the majority of studies of exercise and cancer have been conducted with women with early stage breast cancer, limiting the generalizability of these studies to other cancer populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a synthesis of the extant research evidence about th e benefits of exercise related to cancer recovery. PMID:15977980

  6. Energy recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Albert S.; Verhoff, Francis H.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved wet air oxidation system and method for reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste water used from scrubbers of coal gasification plants, with this COD reduction being sufficient to effectively eliminate waste water as an environmental pollutant. The improvement of the present invention is provided by heating the air used in the oxidation process to a temperature substantially equal to the temperature in the oxidation reactor before compressing or pressurizing the air. The compression of the already hot air further heats the air which is then passed in heat exchange with gaseous products of the oxidation reaction for "superheating" the gaseous products prior to the use thereof in turbines as the driving fluid. The superheating of the gaseous products significantly minimizes condensation of gaseous products in the turbine so as to provide a substantially greater recovery of mechanical energy from the process than heretofore achieved.

  7. Toward a fully integrated neurostimulator with inductive power recovery front-end.

    PubMed

    Mounaïm, Fayçal; Sawan, Mohamad

    2012-08-01

    In order to investigate new neurostimulation strategies for micturition recovery in spinal cord injured patients, custom implantable stimulators are required to carry-on chronic animal experiments. However, higher integration of the neurostimulator becomes increasingly necessary for miniaturization purposes, power consumption reduction, and for increasing the number of stimulation channels. As a first step towards total integration, we present in this paper the design of a highly-integrated neurostimulator that can be assembled on a 21-mm diameter printed circuit board. The prototype is based on three custom integrated circuits fabricated in High-Voltage (HV) CMOS technology, and a low-power small-scale commercially available FPGA. Using a step-down approach where the inductive voltage is left free up to 20 V, the inductive power and data recovery front-end is fully integrated. In particular, the front-end includes a bridge rectifier, a 20-V voltage limiter, an adjustable series regulator (5 to 12 V), a switched-capacitor step-down DC/DC converter (1:3, 1:2, or 2:3 ratio), as well as data recovery. Measurements show that the DC/DC converter achieves more than 86% power efficiency while providing around 3.9-V from a 12-V input at 1-mA load, 1:3 conversion ratio, and 50-kHz switching frequency. With such efficiency, the proposed step-down inductive power recovery topology is more advantageous than its conventional step-up counterpart. Experimental results confirm good overall functionality of the system. PMID:23853175

  8. 3D inversion of full gravity gradient tensor data using SL0 sparse recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaohai

    2016-04-01

    We present a new method dedicated to the interpretation of full gravity gradient tensor data, based on SL0 sparse recovery inversion. The SL0 sparse recovery method aims to find out the minimum value of the objective function to fit the data function and to solve the non-zero solution to the objective function. Based on continuous iteration, we can easily obtain the final global minimum (namely the property and space attribute of the inversion target). We consider which type of tensor data combination produces the best inversion results based on the inversion results of different full gravity gradient tensor data combinations (separate tensor data and combined tensor data). We compare the recovered models obtained by inverting the different combinations of different gravity gradient tensor components to understand how different component combinations contribute to the resolution of the recovered model. Based on the comparison between the SL0 sparse recovery inversion results and the smoothest and focusing inversion results of the full gravity gradient tensor data, we show that SL0 sparse recovery inversion can obtain more stable and efficient inversion results with relatively sharp edge information, and that this method can also produce a stable solution of the inverse problem for complex geological structures. This new method to resolve very large full gravity gradient tensor datasets has the considerable advantage of being highly efficient; the full gravity gradient tensor inversion requires very little time. This new method is very effective in explaining the full gravity tensor which is very sensitive to small changes in local anomaly. The numerical simulation and inversion results of the compositional model indicates that including multiple components for inversion increases the resolution of the recovered density model and improves the structure delineation. We apply our inversion method to invert the gravity gradient tensor survey data from the Vinton salt

  9. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

    SciTech Connect

    A. Walton; Don W. Green; G. Paul Whillhite; L. Schoeling; L. Watney; M. Michnick; R. Reynolds

    1997-07-15

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by North American Resources Company. The Nelson Lease is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. General topics to be addressed are 1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, 2) waterflood optimization, and 3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. In the Stewart Project, the reservoir management portion of the project conducted during Budget Period 1 involved performance evaluation. This included 1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, 2) volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance, 3) reservoir modeling, 4) laboratory work, 5) identification of operational problems, 6) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and 7) identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. To accomplish these objectives the initial budget period was subdivided into three major tasks. The tasks were 1) geological and engineering analysis, 2) laboratory testing, and 3) unitization. Due to the presence of different operators within the field, it was necessary to unitize the field in order to demonstrate a field-wide improved recovery process. This work was completed and the project moved into Budget Period 2. Budget Period 2 objectives consisted of the design, construction, and operation of a field-wide waterflood utilizing state-of-the-art, off-the-shelf technologies in an attempt to

  10. Recovery, as Experienced by Women with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Larivière, Nadine; Couture, Élise; Blackburn, Catherine; Carbonneau, Manon; Lacombe, Christophe; Schinck, Shella-Ann; David, Pierre; St-Cyr-Tribble, Denise

    2015-12-01

    Studies examining recovery through the service users' perspectives have mainly included persons with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Giving voice to those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) would enrich our understanding of recovery, as their specific experiences may bring new dimensions, obstacles and facilitators. The objective of this study was to qualitatively capture the experience of recovery in women with BPD. Participants were women between 18 and 65 years old who had a diagnosis of BPD and completed at least 2 years in a program for persons with BPD. During the first meeting, they produced a picture collage, followed by an interview on their experience of recovery. The second meeting was a phone interview to discuss new thoughts. In addition, their medical records were reviewed. A thematic analysis of the interviews was conducted and organized with the Person-Environment-Occupation model. Although recovery was not the best term to name their experience, they all talked about a process towards stability and wellbeing (n = 12). Dimensions of recovery included, for example, letting go of the past (person), being involved in meaningful activities (occupation) and having healthy relationships (environment). Facilitators included social support and participation in a specialized therapy program. The main obstacle was unstable family relationships. The findings from this study showed similar dimensions to previous recovery studies, new perspectives on certain dimensions, as well as new ones. They also reinforced the importance to incorporate intervention outcomes that target the person with BPD, their social environment and meaningful occupations. PMID:25736797

  11. Metals removal and recovery from municipal sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.L.; Scheybeler, B.J.; Smith, M.L.; Baird, R.; Lo, M.P.; Haug, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of metals removal from municipal sludges that may be disposed of on agricultural land was studied. Heavy metal accumulation in such vegetables as lettuce and heavy metal toxicity to such crops as oats, beans, corn, and radishes is of concern. The purpose of the study was to assess metal removal systems for sludges obtained from the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant, Carson, Calif. Primary sludge, waste activated sludge, and their anaerobically digested counterparts were dosed with sulfuric acid and the chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), to effect metal solubilization. Seven metals were examined for removal from sludge: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Recovery of metals from the sludges was also examined. Using an acid dosage to effect pH decrease to pH 2 and a-stirring time of 24 hours, the removal efficiencies for Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr were found to be upwards of 75%. Removal efficiencies for Pb and Cd were less, at about 30 to 70%. At less than 10%, Cu was hardly removed. Metal extraction using EDTA gave slightly higher removal efficiencies for Cd, Pb, and Cu. The recovery of solubilized metals from solution with lime was very successful at greater than 90% efficiencies. Examination of the dewaterability of the acid-treated sludge found no significant difference between treated and untreated. Preliminary estimates indicated that about 0.5 metric ton of acid would be required for each dry metric ton of sludge solids to effect significant metal removal of better than 50% of the cadmium and 33% of the lead. To precipitate the metals from the acid filtrate, 1 metric ton of lime per dry metric ton of sludge would be needed. Considering the chemical costs and metal removal efficiency by sludge acidification, it would seem that industrial source control would be a more practical approach, although its full economic impact on the industries has not been estimated.

  12. Cost analysis of oxygen recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Report is made of the cost analysis of four leading oxygen recovery subsystems which include two carbon dioxide reduction subsystems and two water electrolysis subsystems, namely, the solid polymer electrolyte and the circulating KOH electrolyte. The four oxygen recovery systems were quantitatively evaluated. System characteristics, including process flows, performance, and physical characteristics were also analyzed. Additionally, the status of development of each of the systems considered and the required advance technology efforts required to bring conceptual and/or pre-prototype hardware to an operational prototype status were defined. Intimate knowledge of the operations, development status, and capabilities of the systems to meet space mission requirements were found to be essential in establishing the cost estimating relationships for advanced life support systems.

  13. PREDICTIVE MODELS. Enhanced Oil Recovery Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.M.

    1992-02-26

    PREDICTIVE MODELS is a collection of five models - CFPM, CO2PM, ICPM, PFPM, and SFPM - used in the 1982-1984 National Petroleum Council study of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential. Each pertains to a specific EOR process designed to squeeze additional oil from aging or spent oil fields. The processes are: 1 chemical flooding; 2 carbon dioxide miscible flooding; 3 in-situ combustion; 4 polymer flooding; and 5 steamflood. CFPM, the Chemical Flood Predictive Model, models micellar (surfactant)-polymer floods in reservoirs, which have been previously waterflooded to residual oil saturation. Thus, only true tertiary floods are considered. An option allows a rough estimate of oil recovery by caustic or caustic-polymer processes. CO2PM, the Carbon Dioxide miscible flooding Predictive Model, is applicable to both secondary (mobile oil) and tertiary (residual oil) floods, and to either continuous CO2 injection or water-alternating gas processes. ICPM, the In-situ Combustion Predictive Model, computes the recovery and profitability of an in-situ combustion project from generalized performance predictive algorithms. PFPM, the Polymer Flood Predictive Model, is switch-selectable for either polymer or waterflooding, and an option allows the calculation of the incremental oil recovery and economics of polymer relative to waterflooding. SFPM, the Steamflood Predictive Model, is applicable to the steam drive process, but not to cyclic steam injection (steam soak) processes. The IBM PC/AT version includes a plotting capability to produces a graphic picture of the predictive model results.

  14. Heat recovery and seed recovery development project: preliminary design report (PDR)

    SciTech Connect

    Arkett, A. H.; Alexander, K. C.; Bolek, A. D.; Blackman, B. K.; Kurrle, P. E.; Tram, S. V.; Warren, A. M.; Ziobrowski, A. J.

    1981-06-01

    The preliminary design and performance characteristics are described of the 20 MWt heat recovery and seed recovery (HRSR) system to be fabricated, installed, and evaluated to provide a technological basis for the design of commercial size HRSR systems for coal-fired open-cycle MHD power plants. The system description and heat and material balances, equipment description and functional requirements, controls, interfacing systems, and operation and maintenance are detailed. Appendices include: (1) recommended environmental requirements for compliance with federal and state of Tennessee regulations, (2) channel and diffuser simulator, (3) equipment arrangement drawings, and (4) channel and diffuser simulator barrel drawings. (WHK)

  15. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Haselton, Halsey H.; Stirling, William L.; Whealton, John H.

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline generator with unneutralized ion energy recovery is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell of the beamline. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beamline in the cell exit region. The ions, which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage, are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be closely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell with the full energy ions are reflected back into the gas cell. Thus, the fractional energy ions do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell which can reach the ground potential interior surfaces of the beamline housing.

  16. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  17. Recovery of combustibles from electrostatic precipitator discharge.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pankaj Kumar; Bhattacharya, Sumantra; Kumar, Shravan

    2016-06-01

    Coal is the main fuel for the direct reduced iron (DRI) plants of India, which are one of the major sources of fly ash generation. The generation of fly ash and its disposal has raised concern because of the environmental impacts. In the present study, two different fly ash samples were investigated to explore the scope of recovery of combustibles. One did not show any recovery potential. The second sample indicated that about 40% of material could be recovered, with 35% fixed carbon and 10,841 kJ kg(-1) gross calorific value. This can be used as a fuel blend in standard fluidised bed combustion boilers efficiently burning inferior coal. A process flowsheet has been suggested for the recovery purpose. It was estimated that for a small 0.2 million tonnes per year (Mtpy) capacity DRI plant, approximately 3.4 ha of land could thus annually be saved from dumping of the generated fly ash, while recovering 1.83 MW of electrical energy. PMID:27053376

  18. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  19. Neoclassical Transport Including Collisional Nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.; Belli, E. A.

    2011-06-10

    In the standard {delta}f theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction {delta}f is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlueter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  20. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.