These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Formulation and Evaluation of Irinotecan Suppository for Rectal Administration  

PubMed Central

Irinotecan suppository was prepared using the moulding method with a homogeneous blend. A sensitive and specific fluorescence method was developed and validated for the determination of irinotecan in plasma using HPLC. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous administered and rectal administered in rabbits was investigated. Following a single intravenous dose of irinotecan (50 mg/kg), the plasma irinotecan concentration demonstrated a bi-exponential decay, with a rapid decline over 15 min. Cmax, t1/2, AUC0–30h and AUC0-? were 16.1 ± 2.7 g/ml, 7.6 ± 1.2 h, 71.3 ± 8.8 ?g·h/ml and 82.3 ± 9.5 ?g·h/ml, respectively. Following rectal administration of 100 mg/kg irinotecan, the plasma irinotecan concentration reached a peak of 5.3 ± 2.5 ?g/ml at 4 h. The AUC0–30h and AUC0-? were 32.2 ± 6.2 ?g·h/ml and 41.6 ± 7.2 ?g·h/ml, respectively. It representing ?50.6% of the absolute bioavailability. PMID:24596626

Feng, Haiyang; Zhu, Yuping; Li, Dechuan

2014-01-01

2

Pharmacokinetics of artesunate following oral and rectal administration in healthy Sudanese volunteers.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of a single dose of 200 mg oral and rectal artesunate in healthy volunteers, and to suggest a rational dosage regimen for rectal administration. The study design was a randomized open cross-over study of 12 healthy volunteers; the analytical method used was a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with post column derivatization and subsequent ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from the main metabolite alpha-dihydroartemisinin data due to the rapid disappearance of artesunate from the plasma. Dihydroartemisinin following oral administration of artesunate had a significantly higher AUC(0-infinity) (P<0.05 95% confidence interval (CI) -1168.73, -667.61 ng x h/mL(-1)) and Cmax (P<0.05; 95% CI -419.73, -171.44 ng/mL(-1)), and had shorter tmax (P<0.05; 95% CI -0.97, -0.10 h) than that following rectal artesunate. There was no statistically significant difference in the elimination half-life between both routes of administration (P>0.05; 95% CI -0.14, 0.53 h). The relative bioavailability of rectal artesunate was [mean (coefficient of variation %) 54.9 (24.8%) %]. On the basis of these data an 8 hourly dosing regimen per day with rectal artesunate is proposed. PMID:15267037

Awad, M I; Eltayeb, I B; Baraka, O Z; Behrens, R H; Alkadru, A M Y

2004-07-01

3

Improvement by adjuvants on the rectal bioavailability of non-absorbable drugs following administration of suppository.  

PubMed

The influence of suppository bases and adjuvants on the release rate of drugs and the absorption of non-absorbable drugs such as sulfanilic acid (SA) and sulfaguanidine (SG), was investigated following the rectal administration of suppositories. The suppository bases used were lipophilic bases such as Witepsol W 35, H 15, S 55, E 75 and hydrophilic base such as macrogol. SA was rapidly released from macrogol, W 35, H 15 and S 55, except E 75. On the other hand, SG was rapidly released from macrogol, whereas the release of SG from lipophilic bases was slow. Rectal absorption of SA and SG following administration of each drug alone in suppository form was slight. On the addition of diclofenac sodium (DF) as absorption promoter the blood levels of SA and SG released from all suppositories increased by about two to four fold compared with those suppositories containing only SA or SG, respectively. However, the absorption of SG still did not attain sufficient levels by the administration of DF only. The rectal absorption of SG was markedly increased by the release rate of the drug from the suppository. These results indicate that after administration of these suppositories the bioavailability of non-absorbable drugs was sufficiently improved by enhancing both the release rate from the suppositories and the rectal membrane permeability. PMID:2098548

Nakanishi, K; Masada, M; Nadai, T

1990-12-01

4

Pharmacokinetics of dicrofenac after its intrarectal and intracolostomal administration to rabbits with rectal resection or colostoma construction.  

PubMed

We investigated the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac, one of the important analgesics in palliative care, after its intrarectal and intracolostomal administration to rabbits with rectal resection or colostoma construction. In rectal-resected rabbits, its bioavailability after rectal administration was significantly lower than that in normal rabbits, and furthermore that after intracolostomal administration was significantly lower than that in rectal-resected rabbits. This decreased bioavailability in rabbits with rectal resection and colostoma construction was thought to be due to the increased first-pass effect. With increase in the dose up to 1.5-fold, the plasma concentrations in both rectal-resected and colostoma-constructed rabbits increased to the normal rabbit level. These results indicate that the bioavailability of diclofenac sodium after its rectal and intracolostomal administration decreases, and that an increased dose can restore the decreased plasma concentration. There was no difference in the plasma concentration with diclofenac sodium suppositories between administration into the normal rectum and the remaining rectum following colostoma construction, and the remaining rectum was found to be a useful administration route for suppositories. Therefore, it was indicated that when administering diclofenac sodium suppositories to rectal-resected and colostoma-constructed patients, the dose should be increased, because the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac was similar in rabbits and human. PMID:11745905

Nagasawa, K; Nakanishi, H; Matsuda, T; Takara, K; Ohnishi, N; Yokoyama, T; Fujimoto, S

2001-01-01

5

Decreased bioavailability of carbamazepine suppository after its intrarectal and intracolostomal administration to rectal-resected or colostoma-constructed rabbits.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine (CBZ), one of the useful analgesic adjunctive agents for palliative care, and its major active metabolite, CBZ-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E), were investigated after the intrarectal and intracolostomal administration of CBZ to rabbits with rectal-resection or colostoma-construction. In rectal-resected rabbits, the bioavailability of CBZ and the plasma level of CBZ-E after rectal administration were significantly lower than those in normal rabbits, and furthermore these values after intracolostomal administration to colostoma-constructed rabbits tended to be lower than those in rectal-resected ones. This decreased bioavailability of CBZ was thought to be not due to an increased first-pass effect, but to the lower CBZ absorption ability in the upper rectum and colon, since absorption profile of CBZ was not affected by first-pass metabolism. When the dose was increased based upon the difference in the absolute bioavailability values in the rectal-resected and colostoma-constructed rabbits, the decreased plasma levels of CBZ were restored to the control levels incompletely, and the elimination of CBZ and CBZ-E was retarded. These findings suggest that owing to the similarity of their pharmacokinetics in rabbit and man, the increment of dosages of CBZ should be avoided, when CBZ suppositories are administered to rectal-resected or colostoma-constructed patients. PMID:12100865

Nagasawa, Kazuki; Nakanishi, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Ryoji; Kintsuji, Sumiko; Fujimoto, Sadaki

2002-07-25

6

Evaluation of Epirubicin in Thermogelling and Bioadhesive Liquid and Solid Suppository Formulations for Rectal Administration  

PubMed Central

Temperature sensitive Pluronic (Plu) and pH-sensitive polyacrylic acid (PAA) were successfully mixed in different ratios to form in situ gelling formulations for colon cancer therapy. The major formulations were prepared as the liquid and solid suppository dosage forms. Epirubicin (Epi) was chosen as a model anticancer drug. In vitro characterization and in vivo pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of Epi in six Plu/PAA formulations were evaluated. Our in vitro data indicate that Epi in Plu 14%/PAA 0.75% of both solid and liquid suppositories possess significant cytotoxicity, strong bioadhesive force, long-term appropriate suppository base, sustained release, and high accumulation of Epi in rat rectums. These solid and liquid suppositories were retained in the upper rectum of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for at least 12 h. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study using SD rats showed that after rectal administration of solid and liquid suppositories, Epi had greater area under the curve and higher relative bioavailability than in a rectal solution. These solid and liquid suppositories exhibited remarkable inhibition on the tumor growth of CT26 bearing Balb/c mice in vivo. Our findings suggest that in situ thermogelling and mucoadhesive suppositories demonstrate a great potential as colon anticancer delivery systems for protracted release of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24384838

Lo, Yu-Li; Lin, Yijun; Lin, Hong-Ru

2014-01-01

7

Evaluation of epirubicin in thermogelling and bioadhesive liquid and solid suppository formulations for rectal administration.  

PubMed

Temperature sensitive Pluronic (Plu) and pH-sensitive polyacrylic acid (PAA) were successfully mixed in different ratios to form in situ gelling formulations for colon cancer therapy. The major formulations were prepared as the liquid and solid suppository dosage forms. Epirubicin (Epi) was chosen as a model anticancer drug. In vitro characterization and in vivo pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of Epi in six Plu/PAA formulations were evaluated. Our in vitro data indicate that Epi in Plu 14%/PAA 0.75% of both solid and liquid suppositories possess significant cytotoxicity, strong bioadhesive force, long-term appropriate suppository base, sustained release, and high accumulation of Epi in rat rectums. These solid and liquid suppositories were retained in the upper rectum of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for at least 12 h. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study using SD rats showed that after rectal administration of solid and liquid suppositories, Epi had greater area under the curve and higher relative bioavailability than in a rectal solution. These solid and liquid suppositories exhibited remarkable inhibition on the tumor growth of CT26 bearing Balb/c mice in vivo. Our findings suggest that in situ thermogelling and mucoadhesive suppositories demonstrate a great potential as colon anticancer delivery systems for protracted release of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24384838

Lo, Yu-Li; Lin, Yijun; Lin, Hong-Ru

2014-01-01

8

Rectal administration of Escherichia coli O157:H7: novel model for colonization of ruminants.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic colitis and life-threatening complications. Because healthy cattle are reservoirs for the bacterium, ruminant infection models have applications in analyzing the relationship between cattle and this human pathogen and in testing interventions to reduce or prevent bovine colonization with this bacterium. Current approaches often do not reliably mimic natural, long-term bovine colonization with E. coli O157:H7 in older calves and adult animals (ages that enter our food chain). Based on the recent identification of the bovine rectoanal junction mucosa as a site of E. coli O157:H7 colonization, we developed a novel rectal swab administration colonization model. We compared this method with oral dosing and direct contact transmission (Trojan) methods. E. coli O157:H7 carriage status was determined by fecal or rectoanal mucosa swab culture. High ( approximately 10(10) CFU) and low ( approximately 10(7) CFU) oral doses of E. coli O157:H7 in sheep and cattle resulted in variable infection with the bacterium. Some animals became colonized with the bacteria and remained culture positive for several weeks, and some animals did not become colonized and rapidly cleared the bacteria in a few days. Pen mates of E. coli O157:H7 culture-positive Trojan cattle had a low infection rate and variable colonization status. However, rectal swab administration of E. coli O157:H7 to cattle resulted in consistent long-term colonization in all animals. The surprising ease with which long-term infections resulted from a single application of bacteria to the rectoanal mucosa also strongly supported this location as a site of E. coli O157:H7 colonization in cattle. PMID:15294790

Sheng, Haiqing; Davis, Margaret A; Knecht, Hannah J; Hovde, Carolyn J

2004-08-01

9

Comparison of rectal diazepam and subcutaneous morphine-scopolamine administration for outpatient sedation in minor oral surgery.  

PubMed

In a randomized cross-over study on sedation in outpatient oral surgery, subcutaneous administration of morphine-scopolamine was compared with rectal administration of diazepam. The mean dose of morphine was 0.13 mg kg-1 (range 0.13-0.24) and of diazepam 0.57 mg kg-1 (range 0.50-0.71). Apprehension, the determining factor for patients' preference for sedation method, the recovery from sedation and the postoperative course were studied. Both methods produced the desired effects. For diazepam, the effect was scored higher by the patient than the nurse observer and for morphine-scopolamine the opposite was found. Postoperative pain and patients' preference for sedation did not differ between the methods and the determining factor for the patients' preference for sedation method was the experience of stronger tranquilization. Side-effects such as prolonged recovery, nausea, dizziness, and dysphoria were frequent during the postoperative course after the morphine-scopolamine sedation but were not seen during diazepam sedation. Thus, rectal administration of diazepam should be preferred to morphine and scopolamine for sedation in minor oral surgery performed under local anesthesia. PMID:4072591

Lundgren, S

1985-10-01

10

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2011-04-01

11

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2012-04-01

12

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2010-04-01

13

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2014-04-01

14

21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

2013-04-01

15

Rectal Hyposensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectal hyposensitivity (RH) relates to a diminished perception of rectal distension that is diagnosed during anorectal physiologic investigation. There have been few direct studies of this physiologic abnormality, and its contribution to the development of functional bowel disorders has been relatively neglected. However, it appears to be common in patients with such disorders, being most prevalent in patients with functional

Marc A. Gladman; Peter J. Lunniss; S. M. Scott; Michael Swash

2006-01-01

16

Clearance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infection in Calves by Rectal Administration of Bovine Lactoferrin.  

PubMed

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains, of which E. coli O157:H7 is the best-studied serotype, are an important group of foodborne pathogens causing severe illness in humans worldwide. The main reservoirs for EHEC are ruminants, mostly cattle, which harbor the bacteria in their intestinal tracts without showing clinical symptoms. In this study, we used bovine lactoferrin, a natural occurring bactericidal and immunomodulating protein, as an antibacterial agent against EHEC infection in cattle. Nine 3-month-old Holstein-Friesian calves were experimentally infected with EHEC (strain NCTC12900). Three animals received a daily rectal spray treatment with bovine lactoferrin, three animals received an oral treatment, and three animals served as a control group. Blood samples were collected weekly and fecal samples twice weekly to monitor antibody responses and fecal excretion, respectively. Animals in the rectal group ceased shedding within 26 days of the experimental treatment and remained negative. This beneficial effect of bovine lactoferrin was not observed in the oral group, where animals were still shedding at the time of euthanasia (day 61). All groups developed serum responses, but no clear differences could be observed between the groups. However, the results indicate that the use of bovine lactoferrin as a rectal treatment can be a useful strategy to preclude further transmission of EHEC infections from cattle to humans. PMID:25527551

Kieckens, E; Rybarczyk, J; De Zutter, L; Duchateau, L; Vanrompay, D; Cox, E

2015-03-01

17

Histopathologic features of endometriotic rectal nodules and the implications for management by rectal nodule excision.  

PubMed

Using data from 27 women with deep rectal endometriosis, managed by segmental resection, we observed that in 89% of cases active glandular endometrial foci were responsible for a deeper infiltration of rectal layers than that of fibrosis and smooth fibers by 5 mm on average. These data might be useful for surgeons performing rectal nodule excision, suggesting the benefits of administrating postoperative medical treatment to reduce the risk of rectal recurrences caused by remaining active endometriotic foci. PMID:19409552

Roman, Horace; Opris, Ioana; Resch, Benoit; Tuech, Jean Jacques; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Marpeau, Loïc

2009-10-01

18

Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... the possible causes of minor rectal bleeding? Hemorrhoids Anal fissures Proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) Polyps Colon or anal cancer Rectal ulcers Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding Minor ...

19

Rectal Hyposensitivity  

PubMed Central

Impaired or blunted rectal sensation, termed rectal hyposensitivity (RH), which is defined clinically as elevated sensory thresholds to rectal balloon distension, is associated with disorders of hindgut function, characterised primarily by symptoms of constipation and fecal incontinence. However, its role in symptom generation and the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the sensory dysfunction remain incompletely understood, although there is evidence that RH may be due to 'primary' disruption of the afferent pathway, 'secondary' to abnormal rectal biomechanics, or to both. Nevertheless, correction of RH by various interventions (behavioural, neuromodulation, surgical) is associated with, and may be responsible for, symptomatic improvement. This review provides a contemporary overview of RH, focusing on diagnosis, clinical associations, pathophysiology, and treatment paradigms. PMID:23105997

Burgell, Rebecca E

2012-01-01

20

Diazepam Rectal  

MedlinePLUS

... buttocks to expose the rectum. Gently insert the syringe tip into the rectum until the rim is snug against the rectal opening. Slowly count to 3 while pushing in the plunger until it stops. Slowly count to 3 again, ...

21

Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Reirradiation combined with chemotherapy for patients developing recurrent rectal cancer after radiation or chemo-radiation\\u000a is feasible and provides high chances for cure and palliation. Nearly one half of patients with resected disease achieve long-term\\u000a control of pelvic disease and up to 65% of them can have long-term (5 years) survival. Even in unresected patients, long-term\\u000a control can be achieved in about

Vincenzo Valentini; Mariangela Massaccesi

22

Rectal prolapse repair  

MedlinePLUS

Rectal prolapse repair is surgery to fix a rectal prolapse . This is a condition in which the last part ... Rectal prolapse may be partial, involving only the mucosa . Or it may be complete, involving the entire wall of ...

23

Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

24

Rectal impaction with epoxy resin: a case report.  

PubMed

We describe a unique case of a patient presenting with rectal impaction following self-administration of a liquid used as masonry adhesive for anal sexual gratification. The solidified matter required laparotomy for its removal. Strategies for removing rectal foreign bodies are discussed as well as other consequences of inserting foreign material per rectum. PMID:15862274

Hemandas, Anil K; Muller, Guy W; Ahmed, Ibrahim

2005-01-01

25

Effect of surface chemistry on nanoparticle interaction with gastrointestinal mucus and distribution in the gastrointestinal tract following oral and rectal administration in the mouse.  

PubMed

It is believed that mucoadhesive surface properties on particles delivered to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract improve oral absorption or local targeting of various difficult-to-deliver drug classes. To test the effect of nanoparticle mucoadhesion on distribution of nanoparticles in the GI tract, we orally and rectally administered nano- and microparticles that we confirmed possessed surfaces that were either strongly mucoadhesive or non-mucoadhesive. We found that mucoadhesive particles (MAP) aggregated in mucus in the center of the GI lumen, far away from the absorptive epithelium, both in healthy mice and in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis (UC). In striking contrast, water absorption by the GI tract rapidly and uniformly transported non-mucoadhesive mucus-penetrating particles (MPP) to epithelial surfaces, including reaching the surfaces between villi in the small intestine. When using high gavage fluid volumes or injection into ligated intestinal loops, common methods for assessing oral drug and nanoparticle absorption, we found that both MAP and MPP became well-distributed throughout the intestine, indicating that the barrier properties of GI mucus were compromised. In the mouse colorectum, MPP penetrated into mucus in the deeply in-folded surfaces to evenly coat the entire epithelial surface. Moreover, in a mouse model of UC, MPP were transported preferentially into the disrupted, ulcerated tissue. Our results suggest that delivering drugs in non-mucoadhesive MPP is likely to provide enhanced particle distribution, and thus drug delivery, in the GI tract, including to ulcerated tissues. PMID:25449804

Maisel, Katharina; Ensign, Laura; Reddy, Mihika; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

2015-01-10

26

Rectal culture (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

27

Stages of Rectal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells. Monoclonal antibody therapy is a type of targeted therapy being used for the treatment of rectal cancer. Monoclonal antibody therapy uses antibodies made in the laboratory from a ...

28

Rectal Microbicide Development  

PubMed Central

The last few years have seen important progress in demonstrating the efficacy of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, vaginal microbicides, and treatment as prevention as effective strategies for reducing the risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV infection. There has also been significant progress in the development of rectal microbicides. Preclinical non-human primate studies have demonstrated that antiretroviral microbicides can provide significant protection from rectal challenge with SIV or SHIV. Recent Phase 1 rectal microbicide studies have characterized the safety, acceptability, compartmental pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmaco-dynamics (PD) of both UC781 and tenofovir gels. The tenofovir gel formulation used in vaginal studies was not well tolerated in the rectum and newer rectal-specific formulations have been developed and evaluated in Phase 1 studies. The PK/PD data generated in these Phase 1 studies may reduce the risk of advancing ineffective candidate rectal microbicides into late stage development. Tenofovir gel is currently poised to move into Phase 2 evaluation and it is possible that a Phase 2B/3 effectiveness study with this product could be initiated in the next 2–3 years. PMID:23612991

Dezzutti, Charlene

2014-01-01

29

Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care  

PubMed Central

Background Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III “pain ladder” drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient’s refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures), and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal) on the bupivacaine plasma concentration. Cases We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours). The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 mL every 4.5–11 hours). Methods Total bupivacaine plasma concentrations were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. Results Effective pain control was achieved with intrathecal bupivacaine (0.077–0.154 mg·kg?1) and bupivacaine in enema (1.820 mg·kg?1). Intrathecal bupivacaine (0.5%, 2 mL) caused a drop in blood pressure; other side effects were absent in both cases. Total plasma bupivacaine concentrations following intrathecal and rectal bupivacaine application did not exceed 317.2 ng·mL?1 and 235.7 ng·mL?1, respectively. Bupivacaine elimination was slower after rectal than after intrathecal administration (t½= 5.50 versus 2.02 hours, respectively). Limitations This study reports two cases only, and there could be inter-patient variation. Conclusion Bupivacaine in boluses administered intrathecally (0.25%, 2 mL) provided effective, safe analgesia in advanced cancer patients. Bupivacaine enema (100 mg·100 mL?1) was shown to be a valuable option for control of end-of-life tenesmoid cancer pain. PMID:25336967

Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kowalski, Grzegorz; ?uczak, Jacek; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Sopata, Maciej; G?ówka, Franciszek

2014-01-01

30

Administration  

Cancer.gov

Overview The Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory (CGR) Administrative team is responsible for the support of all staff and operational requirements for the laboratory.  With approximately 50 staff members to support this team covers a wide breadth of

31

Treatment Options by Stage (Rectal Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 (Carcinoma ... from the NCI Web site . Stage I Rectal Cancer Treatment of stage I rectal cancer may include the ...

32

Magnetic resonance colonography without bowel cleansing using oral and rectal stool softeners (fecal cracking)—a feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to assess the effect of oral and rectal stool softeners on dark-lumen magnetic resonance (MR) colonography without bowel cleansing. Ten volunteers underwent MR colonography without colonic cleansing. A baseline examination was performed without oral or rectal administration of stool softeners. In a second set, volunteers ingested 60 ml of lactulose 24 h prior to MR examination.

Waleed Ajaj; Thomas C. Lauenstein; Hubert Schneemann; Christiane Kuehle; Christoph U. Herborn; Susanne C. Goehde; Stefan G. Ruehm; Mathias Goyen

2005-01-01

33

Treatment Option Overview (Rectal Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... the cells or by stopping the cells from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected ... This may stop cancer cells from growing and dividing. See Drugs Approved for Rectal Cancer for more ...

34

Presentations of Localized Rectal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Rectal Cancer: Advanced Technologies Chris Willett, M.D. Department of Radiation Oncology Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC Gastric Intergroup 0116: RT Considerations 35% of initially submitted RT plans: Major deviations (2/3 undertreatment) 2

35

Chemoradiation of rectal cancer.  

PubMed

The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is a challenge. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy comprise the multimodal therapy that is administered in most cases. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is required. Because this cancer has a high rate of local recurrence, efforts have been made to improve clinical outcomes while minimizing toxicity and maintaining quality of life. Thus, total mesorectal excision technique was developed as the standard surgery, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been established as neoadjuvant treatment. Both approaches reduce locoregional relapse. Two neoadjuvant treatments have emerged as standards of care: short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiotherapy with fluoropyrimidines; however, long-course chemoradiotherapy might be more appropriate for low-lying neoplasias, bulky tumours or tumours with near-circumferential margins. If neoadjuvant treatment is not administered and locally advanced stage is demonstrated in surgical specimens, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is recommended. The addition of chemotherapy to the treatment regimen confers a significant benefit. Adjuvant chemotherapy is widely accepted despite scarce evidence of its benefit. The optimal time for surgery after neoadjuvant therapy, the treatment of low-risk T3N0 neoplasms, the convenience of avoiding radiotherapy in some cases and tailoring treatment to pathological response have been recurrent subjects of debate that warrant more extensive research. Adding new drugs, changing the treatment sequence and selecting the treatment based on prognostic or predictive factors other than stage remain experimental. PMID:23584263

Arrazubi, V; Suárez, J; Novas, P; Pérez-Hoyos, M T; Vera, R; Martínez Del Prado, P

2013-02-01

36

ACR Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer was updated by the Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology-Rectal/Anal Cancer, based on a literature review completed in 2007.

Suh, W. Warren [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: wsuh@lroc.harvard.edu; Blackstock, A. William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University, School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Herman, Joseph [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Konski, Andre A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mohiuddin, Mohammed [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University, School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Poggi, Matthew M. [Inova Alexandria Cancer Center, Alexandria, VA (United States); Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cosman, Bard C. [VA Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Saltz, Leonard [Department of Medical Oncology, Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Johnstone, Peter A.S. [Radiation Oncology Department, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2008-04-01

37

Efficacy of rectal ibuprofen in controlling postoperative pain in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of ibuprofen with scheduled administration, starting preoperatively, for postoperative pain was studied in 128\\u000a boys and girls, 4 to 12 yr old, having elective surgery. In a double blind placebo-controlled study, rectal ibuprofen (40\\u000a mg · kg?1. day?1 in divided doses) or placebo was given for up to three days. For two hours after surgery heart rate, blood

Eeva-Liisa Maunuksela; Pauli Ryhänen; Leena Janhunen

1992-01-01

38

Thermometers and rectal perforations in the neonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three neonates with rectal perforations probably caused by the use of the rectal thermometer, are reported. The dangers of this condition and the difficulty of diagnosis even at laporatomy are emphasised. It is suggested that since the axillary temperature in the neonate is an adequate reflection of the core temperature the routine use of the rectal thermometer, except in exceptional

J D Frank; S Brown

1978-01-01

39

Overview of Radiation Therapy for Treating Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

A major outcome of importance for rectal cancer is local control. Parallel to improvements in surgical technique, adjuvant therapy regimens have been tested in clinical trials in an effort to reduce the local recurrence rate. Nowadays, the local recurrence rate has been reduced because of both good surgical techniques and the addition of radiotherapy. Based on recent reports in the literature, preoperative chemoradiotherapy is now considered the standard of care for patients with stages II and III rectal cancer. Also, short-course radiotherapy appears to provide effective local control and the same overall survival as more long-course chemoradiotherapy schedules and, therefore, may be an appropriate choice in some situations. Capecitabine is an acceptable alternative to infusion fluorouracil in those patients who are able to manage the responsibilities inherent in self-administered, oral chemotherapy. However, concurrent administration of oxaliplatin and radiotherapy is not recommended at this time. Radiation therapy has long been considered an important adjunct in the treatment of rectal cancer. Although no prospective data exist for several issues, we hope that in the near future, patients with rectal cancer can be treated by using the best combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy in near future. PMID:25210685

Kye, Bong-Hyeon

2014-01-01

40

The emerging role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Locally advanced rectal cancer remains a substantial public health problem. Historically, the disease has been plagued by high rates of both distant and local recurrences. The standardization of pre-operative chemoradiation and transmesorectal excision (TME) have greatly lowered the rates of local recurrence. Efforts to improve treatment through use of more effective radiosensitizing therapies have proven unsuccessful in rectal cancer. Presently, due to improved local therapies, distal recurrences represent the dominant problem in this disease. Adjuvant chemotherapy is currently of established benefit in colorectal cancer. As such, adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin, represent the standard of care for many patients. However, after pre-operative chemoradiotherapy and rectal surgery, the administration of highly effective chemotherapy regimens has proven difficult. For this reason, novel neoadjuvant approaches represent appealing avenues for investigation. Strategies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation and neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by chemotherapy are under investigation. Initial encouraging results have been noted, though definitive phase III data is lacking. PMID:25276409

Fakih, Marwan

2014-01-01

41

The emerging role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Locally advanced rectal cancer remains a substantial public health problem. Historically, the disease has been plagued by high rates of both distant and local recurrences. The standardization of pre-operative chemoradiation and transmesorectal excision (TME) have greatly lowered the rates of local recurrence. Efforts to improve treatment through use of more effective radiosensitizing therapies have proven unsuccessful in rectal cancer. Presently, due to improved local therapies, distal recurrences represent the dominant problem in this disease. Adjuvant chemotherapy is currently of established benefit in colorectal cancer. As such, adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin, represent the standard of care for many patients. However, after pre-operative chemoradiotherapy and rectal surgery, the administration of highly effective chemotherapy regimens has proven difficult. For this reason, novel neoadjuvant approaches represent appealing avenues for investigation. Strategies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation and neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by chemotherapy are under investigation. Initial encouraging results have been noted, though definitive phase III data is lacking. PMID:25276409

Boland, Patrick M; Fakih, Marwan

2014-10-01

42

Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin Calcium, and Oxaliplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Rectal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

2014-11-20

43

Avoiding inappropriate surgery for secondary rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Secondary rectal carcinoma occurs by invasion of the rectum by local primaries or by metastatic spread from a distant primary. The principle management of primary rectal carcinoma is surgery, but this is not usually the case for secondary carcinoma. This study investigates how these two may be differentiated and inappropriate surgery, in particular inappropriate abdominoperineal excision, can be avoided.

C. M. H. Bailey; J. M. Gilbert

2002-01-01

44

Pathology Case Study: Rectal Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a clinical microbiology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 78-year-old man has rectal adenocarcinoma. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical microbiology.

Horn, Kevin D.

45

Müllerian Adenosarcoma Arising From Rectal Endometriosis  

PubMed Central

A Müllerian adenosarcoma is an extremely rare tumor characterized by a stromal component of usually low-grade malignancy and by a benign glandular epithelial component. A Müllerian adenosarcoma occurs mainly in the uterus, but also in extrauterine locations. Extrauterine Müllerian adenosarcomas are thought to arise from endometriotic deposits. A 36-year-old female presented to Daegu Catholic University Medical Center with a symptom of loose stool for several months. The imaging studies revealed a rectal mass, so she underwent a laparoscopic low anterior resection. Although extemporary pathology revealed an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, the final histologic diagnosis was a Müllerian adenosarcoma arising from rectal endometriosis. To our knowledge, except a concomitant rectal villotubular adenoma, cases of Müllerian adenosarcomas arising the rectal wall are rare. An adenosarcoma arising from endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass, even one appearing in rectal wall, because ectopic endometrial tissue exists everywhere. PMID:25360431

Yang, Chunseok; Oh, Hoon Kyu

2014-01-01

46

Genetic Mutations in Blood and Tissue Samples in Predicting Response to Treatment in Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

2014-05-06

47

Screening paediatric rectal forms of azithromycin as an alternative to oral or injectable treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify a candidate formulation for further development of a home or near-home administrable paediatric rectal form of a broad-spectrum antibiotic - specially intended for (emergency) use in tropical rural settings, in particular for children who cannot take medications orally and far from health facilities where injectable treatments can be given. Azithromycin, a broad-spectrum macrolide used orally or intravenously for the treatment of respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue infections, was selected because of its pharmacokinetic and therapeutic properties. Azithromycin in vitro solubility and stability in physiologically relevant conditions were studied. Various pharmaceutical forms, i.e. rectal suspension, two different rectal gels, polyethylene glycol (PEG) suppository and hard gelatin capsule (HGC) were assessed for in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability in the rabbit. Azithromycin PEG suppository appears to be a promising candidate. PMID:22868232

Kauss, Tina; Gaudin, Karen; Gaubert, Alexandra; Ba, Boubakar; Tagliaferri, Serena; Fawaz, Fawaz; Fabre, Jean-Louis; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Lafarge, Xavier; White, Nicholas J; Olliaro, Piero L; Millet, Pascal

2012-10-15

48

Screening paediatric rectal forms of azithromycin as an alternative to oral or injectable treatment  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify a candidate formulation for further development of a home or near-home administrable paediatric rectal form of a broad-spectrum antibiotic – specially intended for (emergency) use in tropical rural settings, in particular for children who cannot take medications orally and far from health facilities where injectable treatments can be given. Azithromycin, a broad-spectrum macrolide used orally or intravenously for the treatment of respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue infections, was selected because of its pharmacokinetic and therapeutic properties. Azithromycin in vitro solubility and stability in physiologically relevant conditions were studied. Various pharmaceutical forms, i.e. rectal suspension, two different rectal gels, polyethylene glycol (PEG) suppository and hard gelatin capsule (HGC) were assessed for in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability in the rabbit. Azithromycin PEG suppository appears to be a promising candidate. PMID:22868232

Kauss, Tina; Gaudin, Karen; Gaubert, Alexandra; Ba, Boubakar; Tagliaferri, Serena; Fawaz, Fawaz; Fabre, Jean-Louis; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Lafarge, Xavier; White, Nicholas J.; Olliaro, Piero L.; Millet, Pascal

2012-01-01

49

PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

2014-11-06

50

Transanal endoscopic surgery in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard treatment for rectal cancer, but complications are frequent and rates of morbidity, mortality and genitourinary alterations are high. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows preservation of the anal sphincters and, via its vision system through a rectoscope, allows access to rectal tumors located as far as 20 cm from the anal verge. The capacity of local surgery to cure rectal cancer depends on the risk of lymph node invasion. This means that correct preoperative staging of the rectal tumor is necessary. Currently, local surgery is indicated for rectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas invading the submucosa, but not beyond (T1). Here we describe the standard technique for TEM, the different types of equipment used, and the technical limitations of this approach. TEM to remove rectal adenoma should be performed in the same way as if the lesion were an adenocarcinoma, due to the high percentage of infiltrating adenocarcinomas in these lesions. In spite of the generally good results with T1, some authors have published surprisingly high recurrence rates; this is due to the existence of two types of lesions, tumors with good and poor prognosis, divided according to histological and surgical factors. The standard treatment for rectal adenocarcinoma T2N0M0 is TME without adjuvant therapy. In this type of adenocarcinoma, local surgery obtains the best results when complete pathological response has been achieved with previous chemoradiotherapy. The results with chemoradiotherapy and TEM are encouraging, but the scientific evidence remains limited at present. PMID:25206260

Serra-Aracil, Xavier; Mora-Lopez, Laura; Alcantara-Moral, Manel; Caro-Tarrago, Aleidis; Gomez-Diaz, Carlos Javier; Navarro-Soto, Salvador

2014-01-01

51

Comparison between Preoperative Rectal Diclofenac Plus Paracetamol and Diclofenac Alone for PostoperativePain of Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To detect whether the preoperative combined administration of rectal diclofenac and paracetamol is superior to placebo or rectal diclofenac alone for pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Materials and methods: Ninety female patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II), scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were recruited to this double blind trial and were randomized to receive one of three modalities before surgery: rectal combination of diclofenac and paracetamol, rectal diclofenac alone or rectal placebo alone which were given as a suppository one hour prior to surgery. The primary outcomes were visual analogue pain scores measured at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours after surgery and the time of first administration and also total amount of morphine used in the first 24 hour after surgery. A 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS ) was used to assess pain intensity at rest. Results: In patients receiving the combination of diclofenac and paracetamol total dose of morphine used in the first 24 hour after surgery was significantly lower (13.9 ± 2.7 mg) compared to diclofenac group (16.8± 2.8 mg) and placebo group (20.1 ± 3.6 mg) (p<0.05). VAS pain score was significantly lower in combination group compared to other groups all time during first 24 hours (p<0.05). There had been a significant difference between combination group and the two other groups in terms of the first request of morphine (p<0.05). Conclusion: According to our study Patients who receive the rectal diclofenac-paracetamol combination experience significantly a lower pain scale in the first 24 hour after surgery compared with patients receiving diclofenac or placebo alone. Their need to supplementary analgesic is significantly later and lower compared to placebo and diclofenac alone. PMID:25628716

Samimi Sede, Saghar; Davari Tanha, Fateme; Valadan, Mehrnaz; Modaressi, Zeinab

2014-01-01

52

Rectal mesh exposure after laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy.  

PubMed

Herein we report the case of a 68-year-old woman who had rectal bleeding 13 days after laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Clinical examination and rectoscopy revealed rectal exposure of the posterior polyester mesh placed during the surgery. Endorectal surgery was performed to remove the exposed mesh and repair the rectal erosion. No further complications occurred during follow-up. Although vaginal erosions are a well-known complication of synthetic implants after surgery to repair pelvic organ prolapse, one must keep in mind the possibility of more uncommon types of mesh exposure. PMID:24075836

Ferry, Philippe; Sedille, Lucie; Roncheau, Valérie

2014-01-01

53

Evaluating the effect of rectal distension and rectal movement on prostate gland position using cine MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the dynamic interrelationship between rectal distension and rectal movements, and to determine the effect of rectal movement on the position of the prostatic gland using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods and Materials: Fifty-five patients with biopsy-proven or suspected prostate cancer were examined in the axial plane using repeated spoiled gradient-echo sequences every 10 seconds for 7 minutes.

Anwar R Padhani; Vincent S Khoo; John Suckling; Janet E Husband; Martin O Leach; David P Dearnaley

1999-01-01

54

Administration of IV Tylenol (Glass Bottle) IV Acetaminophen ( Tylenol) is clinically appropriate when an antipyretic is indicated or in cases where  

E-print Network

Administration of IV Tylenol (Glass Bottle) IV Acetaminophen ( Tylenol) is clinically appropriate and rectal suppositories for most patients. Since the manufacturer provided bottle of IV Tylenol (OFIRMEV

Oliver, Douglas L.

55

Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Other Drug Resources A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Drugs Approved for Different Types of Cancer Drugs Approved ... NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms NCI Drug Dictionary Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer This page ...

56

Low Rectal Cancer Study (MERCURY II)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Colorectal Neoplasms; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases; Rectal Diseases

2013-12-04

57

Treatment of Rectal Hemorrhage by Coil Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Four patients, aged 54-84 years, presenting with life-threatening rectal bleeding from the superior hemorrhoidal artery, underwent percutaneous fibered platinum coil embolization via coaxial catheters. Pre-procedure sigmoidoscopy had failed to identify the source of hemorrhage, because the rectum was filled with fresh blood. Embolization was technically and clinically successful in all four patients. Subsequent sigmoidoscopy confirmed the diagnoses in three patients as a solitary rectal ulcer, iatrogenic traumatic ulceration following manual evacuation, and a rectal Dieulafoy's lesion. The other case was angiographically seen to be due to a rectal angiodysplasia. Embolization is an effective procedure in life-threatening superior hemorrhoidal arterial bleeding when endoscopic treatment fails, and should be preferred to rectosigmoid resection.

Dobson, Craig Charles; Nicholson, Anthony A. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, East Yorkshire HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)

1998-03-15

58

Treatment of rectal hemorrhage by coil embolization  

SciTech Connect

Four patients, aged 54-84 years, presenting with life-threatening rectal bleeding from the superior hemorrhoidal artery, underwent percutaneous fibered platinum coil embolization via coaxial catheters. Preprocedure sigmoidoscopy had failed to identify the source of hemorrhage, because the rectum was filled with fresh blood. Embolization was technically and clinically successful in all four patients. Subsequent sigmoidoscopy confirmed the diagnoses in three patients as a solitary rectal ulcer, iatrogenic traumatic ulceration following manual evacuation, and a rectal Dieulafoy's lesion. The other case was angiographically seen to be due to a rectal angiodysplasia. Embolization is an effective procedure in life-threatening superior hemorrhoidal arterial bleeding when endoscopic treatment fails, and should be preferred to rectosigmoid resection.

Dobson, Craig Charles; Nicholson, Anthony A. [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

1999-03-15

59

[Mycobacterium chelonae and solitary rectal ulcer].  

PubMed

Solitary rectal ulcer is of varied etiology and the appearance of this syndrome due to Mycobacterium chelonae is exceptional. We present a case of a solitary rectal ulcer associated with Mycobacterium chelonae subspecies chelonae in an immunocompetent individual. This microorganism is involved in cutaneous, ocular, pulmonary and soft tissue infections. Treatment of infections has traditionally been surgical, although various antibiotic treatments have been used depending on the sensitivity of the microorganism, the severity of the infection and the surgical possibilities. PMID:11149222

Rodríguez, J C; Reyes, D M; Royo, G; Andrada, E; Sillero, C

2000-12-01

60

Surgical care of massive rectal prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  Massive rectal prolapse is due to a loss of the normal posterior curve of the rectum and rectosigmoid in which the rectum\\u000a becomes a straight tube and intra-abdominal pressure is exerted in its long axis, causing intussusception.\\u000a \\u000a Anterior rectal displacement takes place because of a congenital mesorectum or loose presacral areolar tissue that prevents\\u000a fixation of the rectum

Charles B. Ripstein

1965-01-01

61

Rectal biopsy in the investigation of constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo develop criteria to prevent unnecessary rectal biopsies in constipated children.METHODSA retrospective review of 186 rectal biopsies from 141 children, comparing the age at onset of symptoms with the diagnosis of Hirschsprung’s disease.RESULTSAll of the 17 children with Hirschsprung’s disease had the onset of symptoms before the age of 4 weeks. Twenty seven children had delayed passage of meconium (more

A Ghosh; D M Griffiths

1998-01-01

62

Rectal mesh erosion after robotic sacrocolpopexy.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of rectal mesh erosion presenting 16 months after robotic sacrocolpopexy. The patient initially underwent a robotic sacrocolpopexy, lysis of adhesions, midurethral sling, and posterior colporrhaphy for symptomatic grade 2 pelvic organ prolapse and urodynamic stress incontinence. Her postoperative recovery was uneventful. Sixteen months later, an anterior 2 × 2-cm rectal mesh erosion was noted on the colonoscopy performed when she presented with hematochezia. PMID:23982580

Hirai, Cori-Ann; Bohrer, Justin C; Ruel, Matthew; Minaglia, Steven M

2013-01-01

63

Rectal GIST Presenting as a Submucosal Calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report presents an incidental finding of a rectal GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumor) presenting as a submucosal\\u000a calculus, not previously reported. A 53-year-old man without a significant medical history presented with abdominal pain in\\u000a the left lower quadrant, and with constipation. Upon rectal examination, a hard submucosal swelling was palpated 4 cm from\\u000a the anus, at 3 o’clock, in the

Mark Testroote; Marije Hoornweg; Steven Rhemrev

2007-01-01

64

Regorafenib in Reducing Recurrence in Patients With Non-metastatic Rectal Cancer Who Have Completed Curative-Intent Treatment  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer

2015-02-05

65

Advances in rectal cancer surgery in Japan.  

PubMed

A review of advancement of rectal cancer surgery in Japan is presented. The standard operation for rectal cancer was altered in the 1960s from abdominoperineal resection to the pull-through technique and the handsewn anterior resection in the 1970s, and it became the stapled anterior resection in the 1980s. Today, more than 75 percent of rectal cancers are treated with sphincter-preserving anterior resections, and the remaining 20 percent by abdominoperineal resections. Colonic J-pouch is used with anastomoses involving very low anterior rectal resection for cancers. In the late 1970s, a method of dissecting extended pelvic nodes was adopted to decrease local recurrence. However, extended dissection has been applied to only T3 and T4 cancers of the lower rectum because of postoperative dysfunction of pelvic organs. This was caused by injury to the pelvic nerve plexus, thus lowering the quality of life of the patients. Since the middle of the 1980s, the autonomic nerve-preserving operation attracted surgeons' attention because it prevented these dysfunctions from occurring as a result of the treatment of cancer in the upper rectum and for T1 or T2 cancers in the lower rectum. In this article, recent advances in rectal cancer surgery in Japan are reviewed. PMID:9378017

Yasutomi, M

1997-10-01

66

A case of rectal neuroendocrine tumor presenting as polyp  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is detected in the examination of polypectomy material, presenting as rectal polyp. Since this is a rare case, we aimed to summarize the approach to rectal NET’s. PMID:25625492

RAKICI, Halil; AKDOGAN, Remzi Adnan; YURDAKUL, Cüneyt; CANTURK, Ne?e

2015-01-01

67

A case of rectal neuroendocrine tumor presenting as polyp.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is detected in the examination of polypectomy material, presenting as rectal polyp. Since this is a rare case, we aimed to summarize the approach to rectal NET's. PMID:25625492

Rakici, Halil; Akdogan, Remzi Adnan; Yurdakul, Cüneyt; Canturk, Ne?e

2015-01-01

68

Skipping Surgery May Work for Some Rectal Cancer Patients  

MedlinePLUS

... Skipping Surgery May Work for Some Rectal Cancer Patients: Study Researchers found just chemo/radiation was as ... 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For many rectal cancer patients, the prospect of surgery is a worrisome reality, ...

69

Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.  

PubMed Central

Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

1989-01-01

70

Novel radiation techniques for rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

The concepts for management of rectal cancer have changed drastically over the past few years. Through national bowel cancer screening programmes in the Western countries and the increasing use of endoscopic procedures as diagnostic tool, there is increase in detection of rectal cancer in early stages. There is increase in ageing population worldwide but more so in Western countries. In addition, there is realisation of harm from extirpative surgical procedures which are directed towards managing advanced rectal cancer in the past. Increase in cost of health care burden has also led the investigators to seek alternative treatment options which are effective, safe and cost effective. There are several modern radiation techniques which fits this bill and we need to be aware of newer novel radiation techniques to fulfil this gap. PMID:24982769

2014-01-01

71

Rectal atresia: a rare cause of failure to pass meconium  

PubMed Central

Rectal atresia or stenosis is an extremely rare anorectal malformation associating a normal anal canal with a stricture or a complete rectal atresia. We describe a case of rectal atresia in a newborn female presenting with an abdominal distension and failure of passing meconium.

Laamrani, Fatima Zahrae; Dafiri, Rachida

2014-01-01

72

Curative Surgery for Local Pelvic Recurrence of Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Local pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer after radical resection has been associated with morbidity and cancer-related death. This study retrospectively evaluated outcome following curative resection for rectal cancer recurring after surgery on the basis of prognosis, type of procedure and perioperative morbidity. Methods: A total of 85 consecutive patients with local pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer were evaluated. Of

Norio Saito; Keiji Koda; Nobuhiro Takiguchi; Kenji Oda; Masato Ono; Masanori Sugito; Kiyotaka Kawashima; Masaaki Ito

2003-01-01

73

Comparison of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Regimens in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Rectal Cancer Who Are Receiving Radiation Therapy and Fluorouracil Before or After Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

2013-02-26

74

Rectal Hyposensitivity: A Disorder of the Rectal Wall or the Afferent Pathway? An Assessment Using the Barostat  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Rectal hyposensitivity (RH) relates to a diminished perception of rectal distension. Diagnosis on the basis of abnormal threshold volumes on balloon distension alone may be inaccurate due to the influence of differing rectal wall properties. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RH was actually due to impaired afferent nerve function or whether it could be secondary to

Marc A. Gladman; Lee S. Dvorkin; Peter J. Lunniss; Norman S. Williams; S. Mark Scott

2005-01-01

75

Results of the Ripstein operation in the treatment of rectal prolapse and internal rectal procidentia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 15 years 108 patients with either rectal prolapse or internal rectal procidentia were treated by the Ripstein operation.\\u000a Postoperative evaluation was possible in 97 patients (mean observation time, 6.9 years). The mortality rate was 2.8 percent\\u000a and surgical complications occurred in an additional 3.7 percent. The recurrence rate was 4.1 percent. Preoperative, and postoperative\\u000a functional analysis was possible in

Bo Holmstrom; Goran Brodén; Anders Dolk

1986-01-01

76

Differences in microbial signatures between rectal mucosal biopsies and rectal swabs  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence the microbiota of the large bowel may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other diseases including type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Current sampling methods to obtain microbial specimens, such as feces and mucosal biopsies, are inconvenient and unappealing to patients. Obtaining samples through rectal swabs could prove to be a quicker and relatively easier method, but it is unclear if swabs are an adequate substitute. We compared bacterial diversity and composition from rectal swabs and rectal mucosal biopsies in order to examine the viability of rectal swabs as an alternative to biopsies. Paired rectal swabs and mucosal biopsy samples were collected in un-prepped participants (n = 11) and microbial diversity was characterized by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial community composition from swab samples was different from rectal mucosal biopsies (p = 0.001). Overall the bacterial diversity was higher in swab samples than in biopsies as assessed by diversity indexes such as: richness (p = 0.01), evenness (p = 0.06) and Shannon’s diversity (p = 0.04). Analysis of specific bacterial groups by qPCR showed higher copy number of Lactobacillus (p < 0.0001) and Eubacteria (p = 0.0003) in swab samples compared with biopsies. Our findings suggest that rectal swabs and rectal mucosal samples provide different views of the microbiota in the large intestine. PMID:23060016

Araújo-Pérez, Félix; McCoy, Amber N.; Okechukwu, Charles; Carroll, Ian M.; Smith, Kevin M.; Jeremiah, Kim; Sandler, Robert S.; Asher, Gary N.; Keku, Temitope O.

2012-01-01

77

Severe rectal injury following radiation for prostatic cancer  

SciTech Connect

Between 1970 and 1981, 348 patients underwent definitive irradiation. Of these patients 6 (1.7 per cent) sustained severe rectal injury as manifest by major rectal bleeding, rectal stricture, rectal mucosal slough and rectal ulceration. Severe rectal injury was observed in 0 of 13 patients (0 per cent) treated with 125iodine, 3 of 329 (1 per cent) treated with 6,400 to 6,800 rad external irradiation, 2 of 39 (5 per cent) treated with 7,000 to 7,300 rad external irradiation, and 1 of 7 (14 per cent) treated with 198gold and external irradiation. The impact of radiation dose, radiation therapy technique and surgical trauma was assessed. Rectal injury was managed by supportive measures in 2 patients and by diverting colostomy in 3 with benefit. One patient underwent abdominoperineal resection. A small bowel fistula and an intra-abdominal abscess developed, and the patient died.

Green, N.; Goldberg, H.; Goldman, H.; Lombardo, L.; Skaist, L.

1984-04-01

78

Cardiac metastasis of rectal adenocarcinoma. Surgical treatment.  

PubMed Central

The authors report a case of cardiac metastasis of a rectal adenocarcinoma that infiltrated the right ventricle and partially obstructed its outflow tract. Surgical treatment was performed because of syncopal attacks. The differential diagnosis between organized thrombi and intracardiac tumor is considered. Images PMID:8298329

Parravicini, R; Fahim, N A; Cocconcelli, F; Barchetti, M; Nafeh, M; Benassi, A; Grisendi, A; Garuti, W; Benimeo, A

1993-01-01

79

Cardiac metastasis of rectal adenocarcinoma. Surgical treatment.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of cardiac metastasis of a rectal adenocarcinoma that infiltrated the right ventricle and partially obstructed its outflow tract. Surgical treatment was performed because of syncopal attacks. The differential diagnosis between organized thrombi and intracardiac tumor is considered. PMID:8298329

Parravicini, R; Fahim, N A; Cocconcelli, F; Barchetti, M; Nafeh, M; Benassi, A; Grisendi, A; Garuti, W; Benimeo, A

1993-01-01

80

Staging Rectal Cancer by MR and CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen patients with knewn rectal cancer were evaluated and staged with CT and MR, and at surgery. Detailed evaluation of the pathologic specimens was performed and correlated with CT and MR to determine the accuracy of staging. Most of the cases were advanced stages, and both CT and MR were equally effective in staging. Prone positioning using an air-distension technique

Rodney J. Butch; David D. Stark; Jack Wittenberg; Joel E. Tepper; Sanjay Saini; Joseph F. Sirneone; Peter A. Mueller; Joseph T. Ferrucci

81

Rectal-specific microbicide applicator: evaluation and comparison with a vaginal applicator used rectally.  

PubMed

An applicator designed for rectal delivery of microbicides was tested for acceptability by 95 young men who have sex with men, who self-administered 4 mL of placebo gel prior to receptive anal intercourse over 90 days. Subsequently, 24 of the participants self-administered rectally 4 mL of tenofovir or placebo gel over 7 days using a vaginal applicator, and compared both applicators on a Likert scale of 1-10, with 10 the highest rating. Participants reported high likelihood to use either applicator in the future (mean scores 9.3 and 8.8 respectively, p = ns). Those who tested both liked the vaginal applicator significantly more than the rectal applicator (7.8 vs. 5.2, p = 0.003). Improvements in portability, conspicuousness, aesthetics, tip comfort, product assembly and packaging were suggested for both. This rectal-specific applicator was not superior to a vaginal applicator. While likelihood of future use is reportedly high, factors that decrease acceptability may erode product use over time in clinical trials. Further attention is needed to develop user-friendly, quick-acting rectal microbicide delivery systems. PMID:24858481

Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Giguere, Rebecca; Dolezal, Curtis; Bauermeister, José; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Valladares, Juan; Rohan, Lisa C; Anton, Peter A; Cranston, Ross D; Febo, Irma; Mayer, Kenneth; McGowan, Ian

2014-09-01

82

Surgical management of locally recurrent rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Developments in chemotherapeutic strategies and surgical technique have led to improved loco regional control of rectal cancer and a decrease in recurrence rates over time. However, locally recurrent rectal cancer continues to present considerable technical challenges and results in significant morbidity and mortality. Surgery remains the only therapy with curative potential. Despite a hostile intra-operative environment, with meticulous pre-operative planning and judicious patient selection, safe surgery is feasible. The potential benefit of new techniques such as intra-operative radiotherapy and high intensity focussed ultrasonography has yet to be thoroughly investigated. The future lies in identification of predictors of recurrence, development of schematic clinical algorithms to allow standardised surgical technique and further research into genotyping platforms to allow individualisation of therapy. This review highlights important aspects of pre-operative planning, intra-operative tips and future strategies, focussing on a multimodal multidisciplinary approach. PMID:22701789

Hogan, Niamh M; Joyce, Myles R

2012-01-01

83

Surgical Management of Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Developments in chemotherapeutic strategies and surgical technique have led to improved loco regional control of rectal cancer and a decrease in recurrence rates over time. However, locally recurrent rectal cancer continues to present considerable technical challenges and results in significant morbidity and mortality. Surgery remains the only therapy with curative potential. Despite a hostile intra-operative environment, with meticulous pre-operative planning and judicious patient selection, safe surgery is feasible. The potential benefit of new techniques such as intra-operative radiotherapy and high intensity focussed ultrasonography has yet to be thoroughly investigated. The future lies in identification of predictors of recurrence, development of schematic clinical algorithms to allow standardised surgical technique and further research into genotyping platforms to allow individualisation of therapy. This review highlights important aspects of pre-operative planning, intra-operative tips and future strategies, focussing on a multimodal multidisciplinary approach. PMID:22701789

Hogan, Niamh M.; Joyce, Myles R.

2012-01-01

84

Rectal mucosal dysplasia in Crohn's disease.  

PubMed Central

Serial sections of 812 rectal biopsy specimens from 356 Crohn's disease patients were analysed for mucosal epithelial dysplasia. Dysplasia was found in 18 patients (5%), with four showing dysplasia on repeat biopsy specimen. In these 22 biopsy specimens the dysplasia was mild in 13, moderate in nine, and severe in none. Subsequently, three patients (17%) developed neoplasms including carcinoma in two and an adenomatous polyp in one. In colectomy specimens which showed dysplasia, significantly more dysplastic changes were found in seven patients who underwent colonic resection than in 10 others who underwent operation but had no prior dysplasia (p less than 0.001). Thirteen patients still have their rectum in situ and remain at risk of developing colonic cancer. Four carcinomas developed in patients with Crohn's disease who did not have dysplasia on rectal biopsy specimen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2265778

Korelitz, B I; Lauwers, G Y; Sommers, S C

1990-01-01

85

Transanal Evisceration Caused by Rectal Laceration  

PubMed Central

Transrectal evisceration caused by colorectal injury is an unusual entity. This pathology is more frequent in elderly patients and it is usually produced spontaneously. Rectal prolapse is the principal predisposing factor. An 81-year-old woman was taken to the hospital presenting exit of intestinal loops through the anus. After first reanimation measures, an urgent surgery was indicated. We observed the absence of almost every small intestine loop in the abdominal cavity; these had been moved to the pelvis. After doing the reduction, a 3 to 4 cm linear craniocaudal perforation in upper rectum was objectified, and Hartmann's procedure was performed. We investigated and knew that she frequently manipulate herself to extract her faeces. The fast preoperative management avoided a fatal conclusion or an extensive intestinal resection. Reasons that make us consider rectal self-injury as the etiologic factor are explained. PMID:24639971

Torres Sánchez, María Teresa; Richart Aznar, Jose Manuel; Martí Martínez, Eva María; Martínez-Abad, Manuel

2014-01-01

86

Prostatic carcinoma: rectal bleeding after radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

A 64-year-old man had a prostatic nodule on routine physical examination; per-rectal needle biopsies revealed a single focus of well differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient had no history of urinary obstruction or of bowel difficulties. Accordingly, this was clinical stage II carcinoma of the prostate. The patient chose to receive external radiation therapy and was given small-field rotational treatment to a dose of 7000 rad (70 Gy) at a rate of 800 rad (8 Gy) weekly. Late in treatment, he experienced transitory diarrhea with flatulence, but this cleared with completion of treatment. Twenty months later he began to note frequent soft bowel movements, occasionally with red blood. At sigmoidoscopy 24 months after completion of treatment, the rectal mucosa was noted to be friable with minimal bleeding, presumably the result of radiation proctitis.

Kagan, A.R.; Steckel, R.J. (eds.)

1981-06-01

87

Current status of laparoscopy for the treatment of rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Surgery for rectal cancer in complex and entails many challenges. While the laparoscopic approach in general and specific to colon cancer has been long proven to have short term benefits and to be oncologically safe, it is still a debatable topic for rectal cancer. The attempt to benefit rectal cancer patients with the known advantages of the laparoscopic approach while not compromising their oncologic outcome has led to the conduction of many studies during the past decade. Herein we describe our technique for laparoscopic proctectomy and assess the current literature dealing with short term outcomes, immediate oncologic measures (such as lymph node yield and specimen quality) and long term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. We also briefly evaluate the evolving issues of robotic assisted rectal cancer surgery and the current innovations and trends in the minimally invasive approach to rectal cancer surgery. PMID:25386061

Shussman, Noam; Wexner, Steven D

2014-01-01

88

Spiral rectal valves: Anatomy, eponyms, and clinical significance.  

PubMed

Rectal wall valves are obscure anatomic parts that rarely are considered in current medical practice. Yet from the seminal analysis of them in the early nineteenth century by the Irish anatomist and surgeon, John Houston, their structure, purpose, and clinical significance were topics of surprising disagreement. Were they true structures? What function might they have? Did disease originate in rectal valves? Were special operations required for any such diseases? Because Houston's anatomic analyses of rectal valves were substantiated, they came to be known in the English literature as the Spiral Rectal Valves of Houston. In the mid-nineteenth century, a single mid-rectal valve was described by the Hanoverian, Otto Kohlrausch., creating confusion with the established eponym "Houston's Valves." Many hypotheses about rectal valves have been discredited; and their physiologic functions are still unknown. Clin. Anat. 28:436-441, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25220837

Ikard, Robert W

2015-05-01

89

Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Colon or Rectal Cancer That is Metastatic or Locally Advanced and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Colon Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Colon Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

2015-03-10

90

Rectal dosimetric analysis following prostate brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To retrospectively assess the rectal tolerance dose in transperineal ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy using easily measured point doses.Methods and Materials: Forty-five consecutive patients who underwent prostate seed implantation from January 1996 to October 1996, using either 125I or 103Pd as monotherapy or as a boost following 45 Gy of external beam radiotherapy (XRT), were evaluated. For monotherapy using 125I, the

Gregory S Merrick; Wayne M Butler; Anthony T Dorsey; Jonathan H Lief; Holly L Walbert; Heather J Blatt

1999-01-01

91

The pharmacokinetics of a single oral or rectal dose of concurrently administered isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).  

PubMed

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a disease of concern in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Treatment for tuberculosis in elephants utilizes multidrug protocols combining isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and/or ethambutol. In this study, a single, coformulated dose of isoniazid 5 mg/kg, rifampin 10 mg/kg, pyrazinamide 30 mg/kg, and ethambutol 30 mg/kg was administered orally to six Asian elephants, and rectally to five elephants using a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected serially over 24 h. Pyrazinamide and ethambutol concentrations were determined using validated gas chromatography assays. Isoniazid and rifampin concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography assays. Rectal isoniazid produced an earlier Tmax compared with oral administration. Oral isoniazid resulted in a comparatively lower Cmax , but higher AUC values compared with rectal isoniazid. Oral rifampin and oral ethambutol were well absorbed while rectal rifampin was not. Oral pyrazinamide produced comparatively higher Cmax and AUC values compared with rectal pyrazinamide. Results of this study indicate that currently recommended therapeutic monitoring sample collection times for rectal isoniazid and oral rifampin do not provide an accurate assessment of exposure for these drugs. This study demonstrates notable individual variability, indicating that dosing of these medications requires individual monitoring and provides additional information to guide the clinician when treating elephants. PMID:24684601

P Brock, A; Isaza, R; Egelund, E F; Hunter, R P; Peloquin, C A

2014-10-01

92

Preoperative staging of rectal cancer by intrarectal ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital examination and computed tomography are the current modalities employed to assess the depth of invasion of rectal\\u000a cancer. Each technique has limitations in that high rectal tumors cannot be examined digitally and CT is unable to detect\\u000a small tumors. However, preoperative diagnostic capability can be improved with the use of intrarectal ultrasound. We have\\u000a examined 25 patients with rectal

U. Hildebrandt; G. Feifel

1985-01-01

93

Rectal antinociceptive properties of alverine citrate are linked to antagonism at the 5-HT1A receptor subtype.  

PubMed

Serotonin (5-HT) is considered as a major mediator causing hyperalgesia and is involved in inflammatory reactions and irritable bowel syndrome. Alverine citrate may possess visceral antinociceptive properties in a rat model of rectal distension-induced abdominal contractions. This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological properties of alverine citrate in a rat model of rectal hyperalgesia induced by 5-HTP (5-HT precursor) and by a selective 5-HT1A agonist (8-OH-DPAT) and to compare this activity with a reference 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY 100635). At 4 h after their administration, 5-HTP and 8-OH-DPAT increased the number of abdominal contractions in response to rectal distension at the lowest volume of distension (0.4 mL). When injected intraperitoneally before 8-OH-DPAT and 5-HTP, WAY 100635 (1 mg kg(-1)) blocked their nociceptive effect, but also reduced the response to the highest volume of distension (1.6 mL). Similarly, when injected intraperitoneally, alverine citrate (20 mg kg(-1)) suppressed the effect of 5-HTP, but not that of 8-OH-DPAT. However, when injected intracerebroventricularly (75 microg/rat) alverine citrate reduced 8-OH-DPAT-induced enhancement of rectal distension-induced abdominal contractions. In-vitro binding studies revealed that alverine citrate had a high affinity for 5-HT1A receptors and a weak affinity for 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 subtypes. These results suggest that 5-HTP-induced rectal hypersensitivity involves 5-TH1A receptors and that alverine citrate acts as a selective antagonist at the 5-HT1A receptor subtype to block both 5-HTP and 8-OH-DPAT-induced rectal hypersensitivity. PMID:11697552

Coelho, A M; Jacob, L; Fioramonti, J; Bueno, L

2001-10-01

94

Rectal acetaminophen versus peritonsillar infiltration of bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia after adenotonsillectomy in children.  

PubMed

There are a wide range of analgesic methods used for postoperative pain control in children undergoing elective adenotonsillectomy and there are many cases in which the postoperative analgesic modalities have not been fully successful to treat pain effectively. The acute postoperative analgesic effects of peritonsillar bupivacaine infiltration compared with rectal acetaminophen suppositories in elective adenotonsillectomy have been compared here. The methods employed were a single blind randomized clinical trail where 110 cases were selected to enter the study. After induction of anesthesia and intubation, and just before start of the procedure, the 1st group received 30 mg/kg of acetaminophen rectally; while, the 2nd group received 1 mg/kg peritonsillar bupivacaine infiltration around the tonsils. Throat pain at rest, after swallowing, after taking fluid and after soft food and also, parents' and nurses satisfaction regarding patient analgesia were compared. The results stated that there was no difference between the two groups regarding throat pain at rest, after swallowing, after taking fluid and after soft food and also, parents' and nurses' satisfaction. We concluded that when considering the feasibility of rectal acetaminophen, the results of the study suggest it superior due to minimal risks compared with local peritonsillar administration of bupivacaine for elective adenotonsillectomy of children. PMID:21136070

Dahi-Taleghani, Mastaneh; Mousavifard, Samira; Tahmoureszade, Shahrokh; Dabbagh, Ali

2011-04-01

95

Tricyclic antidepressant overdose: an unusual method of administration  

PubMed Central

Drug poisoning as a result of tricyclic antidepressant overdose is frequently encountered in emergency departments and is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity. The usual route of administration is oral. Here we report the case of a 42-year-old man with a history of depression who had taken a large overdose of amitriptyline by the rectal route. This case highlights the management difficulties that arose as a result of rectal administration of the drug and possible ways in which treatment should differ from that of an oral overdose.

Barton, Marc; Harris, Dan

2010-01-01

96

Pelvic bioelectrical impedance measurements to detect rectal filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorectal sensory deficits are an important cause of defecatory disorders and are also a reason for evacuatory difficulties in patients undergoing total anorectal reconstruction. A method to detect rectal filling would be beneficial in such patients. We have investigated the feasibility of detecting rectal filling in vitro and in vivo by measuring changes in pelvic impedance. In vitro, a model

R S Ratani; E Yazaki; A Maw; M A Pilot; J Rogers; N S Williams

1998-01-01

97

Improvement in irritable bowel syndrome following ano-rectal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: To assess the effect on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) of treating ano-rectal problems by applying multiple Barron's bands to prolapsing mucosa and excising haemorrhoids, with or without a low lateral sphincterotomy. Patients and methods: 144 patients with IBS whose ano-rectal abnormalities were treated by a single consultant surgeon. A prospective 'within person' study of consecutive patients referred

Bernard V. Palmer; John W. Lockley; Robert B. Palmer; Elena Kulinskaya

2002-01-01

98

Rectal sensory evoked potentials: an Assessment of their clinical value  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess abnomalities of sensory conduction in anorectal disease we have evaluated peripheral sensory perception and somatosensory evoked potentials produced by rectal stimulation in control subjects and patients with either constipation or idiopathic faecal incontinence. Evoked potentials were also recorded after posterior tibial and dorsal genital nerve stimulation. Rectal sensation was also assessed using electrical stimulation. Reproducible evoked potential recordings

C. T. M. Speakman; M. A. Kamm; M. Swash

1993-01-01

99

Carcinoma of the rectal pouch following restorative proctocolectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of adenocarcinoma developing in the pouch following restorative proctocolectomy is presented. This seems to be the third reported in the literature. The carcinoma developed from the remnants of precancerous rectal mucosa left in the muscular rectal cuff. The patient had been suffering from ulcerative colitis for 17 years prior to the development of the malignancy. He presented with

Devanand Puthu; Narayanan Rajan; Ravikala Rao; Lakshmi Rao; P. Venugopal

1992-01-01

100

Sphincter denervation in anorectal incontinence and rectal prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biopsies of the external anal sphincter, puborectalis, and levator ani muscles have been examined in 24 women and one man with long-standing anorectal incontinence, 18 of whom also had rectal prolapse, and in two men with rectal prolapse alone. In 16 of the women anorectal incontinence was of unknown cause, but in eight there was a history of difficult labour.

A G Parks; M Swash; H Urich

1977-01-01

101

Laser therapy for severe radiation-induced rectal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Four patients with chronic hematochezia and transfusion-dependent anemia from postradiation rectal vascular lesions were successfully managed by endoscopic laser coagulation. In all four patients, symptomatic, hematologic, and endoscopic improvement was evident. Laser therapy for severe radiation-induced rectal bleeding seems to be safe and efficacious and should be considered before surgical intervention.

Ahlquist, D.A.; Gostout, C.J.; Viggiano, T.R.; Pemberton, J.H.

1986-12-01

102

Why Rectal Douches May Be Acceptable Rectal-Microbicide Delivery Vehicles for MSM  

PubMed Central

Rationale To explore age of onset of rectal douching among men who have sex with men (MSM) and reasons leading to and maintaining douching behavior; and to consider whether rectal douches containing microbicidal agents might be acceptable for men at HIV risk. Methods In Stage 1, we used qualitative methods to explore douching behavior in a sample of 20 MSM. Subsequently, we developed a structured questionnaire that was administered in Stage 2 to 105 MSM. Results More than half of participants who completed Stage 1 douched during the trial despite having been advised not to do so. Of the 105 HIV uninfected participants in Stage 2, 51% reported using rectal douches in the prior six months; 47% douched before and 25% after anal intercourse. Most participants reported douching frequently or always. On average, men reported douching about two hours prior to or one hour following intercourse. Average age of onset was late 20s. Most men who douched wanted to be clean or were encouraged to douche by their partners. Some men thought douching after sex could prevent STIs. Conclusion Rectal douching appears to be a popular behavior among men who have RAI. It is necessary to identify harmless douches. If HIV/STI preventive douches can be developed, rectal douching prior to or following sexual intercourse could become an important additional prevention tool. To reshape an existing behavior to which some men strongly adhere, like douching, by suggesting use of one type of douche over another may be more successful than trying to convince MSM to engage in behaviors they never practiced before or those they resist (e.g., condom use). PMID:19959973

Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Bauermeister, José; Ventuneac, Ana; Dolezal, Curtis; Mayer, Kenneth

2009-01-01

103

Pelvic resection of recurrent rectal cancer.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors describe their experience with pelvic resection of recurrent rectal cancer with emphasis on patient selection for curative intent based on known tumor risk factors. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pelvic recurrence is a formidable problem in 30% of patients who have undergone a curative resection of primary rectal cancer. Although radiation can reduce the development of local recurrence and can provide palliation to many patients with localized disease, it is not curative. The authors and others have used the technique of abdominal sacral resection (ABSR) with or without pelvic exenteration to resect pelvic recurrence and its musculoskeletal extensions in selected patients with satisfactory long-term survival. METHODS: The technique of ABSR with or without pelvic exenteration or resection of pelvic viscera, which the authors have described previously, was used in 53 patients with recurrent rectal cancer--47 patients for curative intent and 6 for palliation. Previous surgeries were abdominal perineal resections (APRs) in 26 patients, anterior resections in 19 patients, and other procedures in 2 patients; original primary Dukes' stage was B in 52% and C in 48%. Almost all patients had been irradiated previously, generally in the 4000 to 5900 cGy range. Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels (before ABSR) were elevated (> 5 ng/mL) in 54%. RESULTS: Postoperative morbidity was encountered in most patients. Mortality was 8.5% in the curative group. Long-term survival for 4 years was achieved in 14 of 43 patients (33%), and 10 patients were alive with an acceptable quality of life after 5 years. Patients who had previous anterior resections or whose preoperative CEA levels were less than 10 ng/mL had a survival rate of approximately 45%, whereas patients with previous APRs and preoperative CEA levels greater than 10 ng/mL had a survival rate of only 15% to 18%. Patients with bone marrow invasion, positive margins, or pelvic node metastases had a median survival of only 10 months. CONCLUSIONS: Pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer can be resected safely with expectation of long-term survival of 33%. Patient selection based on known risk factors can identify patients most likely to benefit from resection and eliminate those who should be treated for palliation only. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:7524455

Wanebo, H J; Koness, R J; Vezeridis, M P; Cohen, S I; Wrobleski, D E

1994-01-01

104

Transileocolic vein obliteration for bleeding rectal varices with portal thrombus.  

PubMed

We report a case of rectal varices treated successfully with transileocolic vein obliteration (TIO). A 70-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of fresh bloody stools in January 2011. Emergent colonoscopy revealed fresh blood in the rectum and tortuous rectal varices. Three-dimensional computed tomography was used as a non-invasive method for the identification of rectal varices and thrombus in the extrahepatic portal vein. Angiography demonstrated that rectal varices were supplied with backward blood flow by the inferior mesenteric vein. Transileocolic variceal obliteration was performed using coils and 5% ethanolamine oleate with iopamidol. Complete hemostasis was achieved without complications. We conclude that TIO is a safe and effective hemostatic measure for ruptured rectal varices with portal thrombus. PMID:23626507

Arai, Hirotaka; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takizawa, Daichi; Toyoda, Mitsuo; Takayama, Hisashi; Abe, Takehiko

2013-01-01

105

MRI in local staging of rectal cancer: an update.  

PubMed

Preoperative imaging for staging of rectal cancer has become an important aspect of current approach to rectal cancer management, because it helps to select suitable patients for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and determine the appropriate surgical technique. Imaging modalities such as endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play an important role in assessing the depth of tumor penetration, lymph node involvement, mesorectal fascia and anal sphincter invasion, and presence of distant metastatic diseases. Currently, there is no consensus on a preferred imaging technique for preoperative staging of rectal cancer. However, high-resolution phased-array MRI is recommended as a standard imaging modality for preoperative local staging of rectal cancer, with excellent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capability, and absence of ionizing radiation. This review will mainly focus on the role of MRI in preoperative local staging of rectal cancer and discuss recent advancements in MRI technique such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. PMID:25010367

Tapan, Umit; Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Tatl?, Servet

2014-01-01

106

Preoperative hyperthermochemoradiotherapy for patients with rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Preoperative hyperthermochemoradiotherapy (HCR therapy), consists of a combination of hyperthermia at 42 to 45 degrees C for 40 minutes (2 times per week for two weeks), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) intravenously (total, 1000 to 1750 mg), and a total of 30 Gy irradiation. The therapy was prescribed preoperatively most recently for 11 patients with rectal cancer. The authors used a radiofrequency system involving an endotract electrode with thermosensors for the hyperthermia. The effectiveness of preoperative HCR therapy was evaluated by irrigography, fiberscopy, and histopathologic findings in the resected specimens. Reduction in tumor size and amount was evident in all patients, with all modes of assessment. Histologically, no or only a few viable cancer cells were seen in the resected specimens in six patients, a small number of viable cancer cells in three, and a fair number of viable cancer cells in two patients; there were no complications. This method of treatment is expected to play an important role in the interdisciplinary treatment for rectal cancer. PMID:2924671

Mori, M; Sugimachi, K; Matsuda, H; Ohno, S; Inoue, T; Nagamatsu, M; Kuwano, H

1989-04-01

107

Penile Metastasis From Rectal Cancer by PET/CT.  

PubMed

It is extremely rare for rectal tumors to metastasize to the penis, and when it occurs, it is associated with poor prognosis. The appearance of penile metastasis from rectal primary tumor on PET imaging has not been widely reported. We report a case of a 70-year-old man with previous history of treated stage III adenocarcinoma of the rectum 26 months ago. The restaging F-FDG PET/CT scan demonstrated a hypermetabolic mass at the base of his penile shaft. This lesion was confirmed on core biopsy to be a metastatic adenocarcinoma of colorectal origin consistent with the known primary rectal tumor. PMID:25546188

Alzayed, Mohammed Fahad; Artho, Giovanni; Nahal, Ayoub; Hickeson, Marc

2015-04-01

108

The radiation-induced changes in rectal mucosa: Hyperfractionated vs. hypofractionated preoperative radiation for rectal cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of the study was the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of acute radiation-induced rectal changes in patients who underwent preoperative radiotherapy according to two different irradiation protocols. Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent preoperative radiotherapy; 44 and 24 patients underwent hyperfractionated and hypofractionated protocol, respectively. Fifteen patients treated with surgery alone served as a control group. Five basic histopathologic features (meganucleosis, inflammatory infiltrations, eosinophils, mucus secretion, and erosions) and two additional features (mitotic figures and architectural glandular abnormalities) of radiation-induced changes were qualified and quantified. Results: Acute radiation-induced reactions were found in 66 patients. The most common were eosinophilic and plasma-cell inflammatory infiltrations (65 patients), erosions, and decreased mucus secretion (54 patients). Meganucleosis and mitotic figures were more common in patients who underwent hyperfractionated radiotherapy. The least common were the glandular architectural distortions, especially in patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. Statistically significant differences in morphologic parameters studied between groups treated with different irradiation protocols were found. Conclusion: The system of assessment is a valuable tool in the evaluation of radiation-induced changes in the rectal mucosa. A greater intensity of regenerative changes was found in patients treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy.

Starzewski, Jacek J. [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Pajak, Jacek T. [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Pawelczyk, Iwona [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Lange, Dariusz [Department of Tumor Pathology, Comprehensive Cancer Center Division, Gliwice (Poland); Golka, Dariusz [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland)]. E-mail: dargolka@wp.pl; Brzeziska, Monika [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Lorenc, Zbigniew [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland)

2006-03-01

109

Approach of trans-rectal NIR optical tomography probing for the imaging of prostate with trans-rectal ultrasound correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trans-rectal implementation of NIR optical tomography makes it possible to assess functional status like hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in prostate non-invasively. Trans-rectal NIR tomography may provide tissue-specific functional contrast that is potentially valuable for differentiation of cancerous lesions from normal tissues. Such information will help to determine if a prostate biopsy is needed or can be excluded for an otherwise ambiguous lesion. The relatively low spatial resolution due to the diffuse light detection in trans-rectal NIR tomography, however, limits the accuracy of localizing a suspicious tissue volume. Trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) is the clinical standard for guiding the positioning of biopsy needle owing to its resolution and convenience; nevertheless, TRUS lacks the pathognomic specificity to guide biopsy to only the suspicious lesions. The combination of trans-rectal NIR tomography with TRUS could potentially give better differentiation of cancerous tissue from normal background and to accurately localize the cancer-suspicious contrast obtained from NIR tomography. This paper will demonstrate the design and initial evaluation of a trans-rectal NIR tomography probe that can conveniently integrate with a commercial TRUS transducer. The transrectal NIR tomography obtained from this probe is concurrent with TRUS at matching sagittal imaging plane. This design provides the flexibility of simple correlation of trans-rectal NIR with TRUS, and using TRUS anatomic information as spatial prior for NIR image reconstruction.

Piao, Daqing; Jiang, Zhen; Xu, Guan; Musgrove, Cameron; Bunting, Charles F.

2008-02-01

110

Rectal Douching and Implications for Rectal Microbicides among Populations Vulnerable to HIV in South America: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Objective While gel-formulated Rectal Microbicides (RM) are the first to enter clinical trials, rectal douching in preparation for anal intercourse is a common practise, thus RMs formulated as douches may be a convenient alternative to gels. Nonetheless, little is known about potential users’ thoughts regarding douche-formulated RMs or rectal douching practises, data needed to inform the advancement of douche-based RMs. This qualitative study examined thoughts regarding douches, their use as a RM and current douching practises among men who have sex with men and transgender women. Methods Ten focus groups and 36 in-depth interviews were conducted (N=140) to examine the overall acceptability of RM, of which one component focused on rectal douching. Focus groups and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded; text relating to rectal douching was extracted and analysed. Sociodemographic information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results Support for a douche-formulated RM centred on the possibility of combined pre-coital hygiene and HIV protection, and it was believed that a deeply-penetrating liquid douche would confer greater HIV protection than a gel. Drawbacks included rectal dryness; impracticality and portability issues; and, potential side effects. Non-commercial douching apparatus use was common and liquids used included detergents, vinegar, bleach, lemon juice and alcohol. Conclusions A douche-formulated RM while desirable and perceived as more effective than a gel-formulated RM also generated questions regarding practicality and side-effects. Of immediate concern were the non-commercial liquids already being used which likely damage rectal epithelia, potentially increasing HIV infection risk. Pre-coital rectal douching is common and a RM formulated as such is desirable, but education on rectal douching practices is needed now. PMID:23966338

Galea, Jerome T.; Kinsler, Janni J.; Imrie, John; Nureña, César R.; Sánchez, Jorge; Cunningham, William E.

2014-01-01

111

Rectal diverticulum in a terrier dog: A case report  

PubMed Central

Rectal diverticulum is a rare condition in dogs characterized by formation of a pouch or sac due to hernial protrusion of the mucous membranes through a defect in the muscular coat of the rectum. A 12-year-old male terrier dog was admitted with a history of a left perineal swelling, dyschezia and tenesmus during the last five months. Digital rectal examination identified a weakness in the left pelvic diaphragm and feces-filled sac within the lateral wall of the rectum. Positive contrast radiography showed a marked solitary diverticulum (3.5 × 4 × 4.5 cm) with wide-orifice neck arising from the left rectal wall. Using a lateral approach, a large rectal diverticulum was found and diverticulectomy following standard herniorrhaphy was performed. The dog recovered uneventfully with no signs of dyschezia during the next three years. Diverticulectomy by lateral approach and perineal herniorrhaphy produced excellent results. PMID:25593689

Kazemi Mehrjerdi, Hossein; Mirshahi, Ali; Afkhami, Amir

2013-01-01

112

Successful hemostasis of intractable rectal variceal bleeding using variceal embolization.  

PubMed

Portal hypertension causes portosystemic shunting along the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in gastrointestinal varices. Rectal varices and their bleeding is a rare complication, but it can be fatal without appropriate treatment. However, because of its rarity, no established treatment strategy is yet available. In the setting of intractable rectal variceal bleeding, a transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt can be a treatment of choice to enable portal decompression and thus achieve hemostasis. However, in the case of recurrent rectal variceal bleeding despite successful transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt, alternative measures to control bleeding are required. Here, we report on a patient with liver cirrhosis who experienced recurrent rectal variceal bleeding even after successful transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt and was successfully treated with variceal embolization. PMID:25741168

Ahn, Sung Soo; Kim, Eun Hye; Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Seung Up

2015-02-28

113

Successful hemostasis of intractable rectal variceal bleeding using variceal embolization  

PubMed Central

Portal hypertension causes portosystemic shunting along the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in gastrointestinal varices. Rectal varices and their bleeding is a rare complication, but it can be fatal without appropriate treatment. However, because of its rarity, no established treatment strategy is yet available. In the setting of intractable rectal variceal bleeding, a transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt can be a treatment of choice to enable portal decompression and thus achieve hemostasis. However, in the case of recurrent rectal variceal bleeding despite successful transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt, alternative measures to control bleeding are required. Here, we report on a patient with liver cirrhosis who experienced recurrent rectal variceal bleeding even after successful transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt and was successfully treated with variceal embolization. PMID:25741168

Ahn, Sung Soo; Kim, Eun Hye; Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Seung Up

2015-01-01

114

Cytomegalovirus ileitis presenting as massive rectal bleeding in infancy.  

PubMed Central

Two Zambian infants presented with massive rectal bleeding caused by cytomegalovirus ileitis. The first was seropositive for HIV and the second seronegative, though her mother was seropositive. Both infants died. Images Figure 1 PMID:1650544

Kawimbe, B; Bem, C; Patil, P S; Bharucha, H

1991-01-01

115

USC researchers link genetic marker to rectal cancer treatment:  

Cancer.gov

A team of University of Southern California researchers has identified a genetic marker that may predict which patients with rectal cancer can be cured by certain chemotherapies when combined with surgery.

116

Role of laparoscopy in rectal cancer: A review  

PubMed Central

Despite established evidence on the advantages of laparoscopy in colon cancer resection, the use of laparoscopy for rectal cancer resection is still controversial. The initial concern was mainly regarding the feasibility of laparoscopy to achieve an adequate total mesorectal excision specimen. These concerns have been raised following early studies demonstrating higher rates of circumferential margins positivity following laparoscopic resection, as compared to open surgery. Similar to colon resection, patients undergoing laparoscopic rectal cancer resection are expected to benefit from a shorter length of hospital stay, less analgesic requirements, and a faster recovery of bowel function. In the past decade there have been an increasing number of large scale clinical trials investigating the oncological and perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic rectal cancer resection. In this review we summarize the current literature available on laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. PMID:24803801

Mizrahi, Ido; Mazeh, Haggi

2014-01-01

117

[Use of preventive colostomas in surgery for rectal cancer].  

PubMed

The study included 482 patients with rectal cancer. Colostoma was formed in 179 for prophylaxis of anastomotic leakage complication. Such measures are indicated in sphincter-sparing surgery on rectum. Preference should be given to transversostomy. PMID:17969417

Em, A E; Vasil'ev, S V; Grigorian, V V; Popov, D E

2007-01-01

118

Rectal Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)  

PubMed Central

Rectal pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) will be a critical component of HIV prevention products due to the prevalence of unprotected receptive anal intercourse among men who have sex with men and heterosexual couples. Given the biological considerations of this compartment and the complexity of HIV infection, design of a successful rectal microbicide product faces a number of challenges. Important information is being compiled to begin to address deficits in knowledge toward design of rectal PrEP products for men and women. Aspects of formulation development and preclinical and clinical evaluation of rectal products studied to date are summarized in this review. This article is based on a presentation at the "Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies," held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21–22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188705

Yang, Haitao; Wang, Lin

2014-01-01

119

Manometric evaluation of rectal prolapse and faecal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-three patients with complete rectal prolapse and\\/or faecal incontinence have undergone anal manometry and the results have been compared with an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls. Maximal basal pressure (MBP) and maximum squeeze pressure (MSP) were measured before and at four months and a year after treatment. The anal pressures of normal subjects are presented. Patients with rectal

D M Matheson; M R Keighley

1981-01-01

120

On biomarkers and pathways in rectal cancer: What's the target?  

PubMed Central

In spite of tremendous progresses in surgical and chemo-radiotherapeutic regimens, rectal cancer still suffers from high relapse and mortality rates, and metastatic disease is incurable. Here we assess some of the most recent and validated biomarkers and potential targets studied in rectal cancer, and provide comments to a recent monographic topic covering several aspects of colorectal cancer, published in Current Cancer Drug Targets. PMID:23493582

Zoppoli, Gabriele; Ferrando, Valter; Scabini, Stefano

2012-01-01

121

High Rate of Sexual Dysfunction Following Surgery for Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although rectal cancer is a very common malignancy and has an improved cure rate in response to oncological treatment, research on rectal-cancer survivors' sexual function remains limited. Sexual dysfunction (SD) after rectal cancer treatment was measured, and possible predisposing factors that may have an impact on the development of this disorder were identified. Methods Patients undergoing curative rectal cancer surgery from January 2012 to September 2013 were surveyed using questionnaires. The female sexual function index or the International Index of Erectile Function was recorded. A multiple logistic regression was used to test associations of clinical factors with outcomes. Results Fifty-six men (56%) and 28 women (44%) who completed the questionnaire were included in the study. A total of 76 patients of the 86 patients (90.5%) with the diagnosis of rectal cancer who were included in this study reported different levels of SD after radical surgery. A total of 64 patients (76%) from the whole cohort reported moderate to severe SD after treatment of rectal cancer. Gender (P = 0.011) was independently associated with SD. Female patients reported significantly higher rates of moderate to severe SD than male patients. Patients were rarely treated for dysfunction. Conclusion Sexual problems after surgery for rectal cancer are common, but patients are rarely treated for SD. Female patients reported higher rates of SD than males. These results point out the importance of sexual (dys)function in survivors of rectal cancer. More attention should be drawn to this topic for clinical and research purposes. PMID:25360427

Ertekin, Caglar; Tinay, Ilker; Yegen, Cumhur

2014-01-01

122

Image-guided radiotherapy for rectal cancer: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Radiotherapy for rectal cancer is becoming more conformal. Both the rectum and the mesorectum are mobile structures and the use of image-guided radiotherapy techniques may improve treatment delivery. Studies up to 2008 have previously been reviewed; rectal motion was mostly studied in bladder and prostate cancer cases. Large variations were seen in both the rectal volume and rectal wall displacement during the treatment course. We reviewed the literature on primary rectal cancer. A systematic review was conducted using Medline and Embase databases using the keywords 'rectal, radiotherapy, IGRT, image guided, organ motion, internal margin, target shape/volume'. Nine studies looked at both inter- and intrafractional motion of the gross tumour volume, rectum, mesorectum and the clinical target volume using a variety of imaging modalities. There was significant movement in the upper mesorectum. There was a strong relationship between rectal filling and mesorectal motion. Differences according to gender and body mass index have been reported. One study showed adequate dose to the rectum despite rectal motion and deformation. Current margin recipes may not apply to deformable structures. Suggested margins for the clinical target volume to planning target volume expansion are between 1 and 3.5cm. There may be a role for re-imaging and re-planning during a treatment course. From the available data, electronic portal imaging devices should continue to be used to match for bony anatomy. Additional information on internal motion can be obtained by cone beam computer tomography or tomotherapy and if available its use should be considered. Individualised anisotropic margins may be required. Further work is required to assess the optimal imaging modality, whether to match to bone or soft tissue, and to assess if internal motion affects treatment outcome. PMID:21856136

Gwynne, S; Webster, R; Adams, R; Mukherjee, S; Coles, B; Staffurth, J

2012-05-01

123

Isolation of Helicobacter spp. from Mice with Rectal Prolapses  

PubMed Central

Enterohepatic Helicobacter species (EHS) often are associated with typhlocolitis and rectal prolapse in mice. We sought to describe rectal prolapses histologically, relate lesions to mouse genotype and EHS infection status, and characterize EHS pathogens on our campus. Our mouse population was housed among 6 facilities on our main campus and a seventh, nearby facility. We investigated cases of rectal prolapse over 1 y and included 76 mice, which were broadly categorized according to genotype. Microscopically, lesions ranged from mild to severe typhlocolitis, often with hyperplastic and dysplastic foci. Neoplastic foci tended to occur at the ileocecal–colic junction. Lesions were most severe in strains that had lower-bowel inflammatory disease, notably IL10, Rag1, and Rag2 knockout strains; prolapses occurred in these strains when housed both in areas with endemic EHS and in our Helicobacter-free barrier facility. Most mice with rectal prolapses were immunocompromised genetically modified mice; however, the most frequently sampled strain, the lamellipodin knockout, was noteworthy for its high incidence of rectal prolapse, localized distal colonic and rectal lesions, and lack of known immunodeficiency. This strain is being explored as a model of rectal carcinoma. Most of the colons examined tested PCR-positive for EHS, often with coinfections. Although H. bilis is prevalent on our campus, we did not find this organism in any mice exhibiting clinical signs of rectal prolapse. Identification of H. apodemus in 22% of cases has fueled increased surveillance on our campus to characterize this organism and differentiate it from the closely related H. rodentium. PMID:24956208

Miller, Cassandra L; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Shen, Zeli; Fox, James G

2014-01-01

124

Isolation of Helicobacter spp. from mice with rectal prolapses.  

PubMed

Enterohepatic Helicobacter species (EHS) often are associated with typhlocolitis and rectal prolapse in mice. We sought to describe rectal prolapses histologically, relate lesions to mouse genotype and EHS infection status, and characterize EHS pathogens on our campus. Our mouse population was housed among 6 facilities on our main campus and a seventh, nearby facility. We investigated cases of rectal prolapse over 1 y and included 76 mice, which were broadly categorized according to genotype. Microscopically, lesions ranged from mild to severe typhlocolitis, often with hyperplastic and dysplastic foci. Neoplastic foci tended to occur at the ileocecal-colic junction. Lesions were most severe in strains that had lower-bowel inflammatory disease, notably IL10, Rag1, and Rag2 knockout strains; prolapses occurred in these strains when housed both in areas with endemic EHS and in our Helicobacter-free barrier facility. Most mice with rectal prolapses were immunocompromised genetically modified mice; however, the most frequently sampled strain, the lamellipodin knockout, was noteworthy for its high incidence of rectal prolapse, localized distal colonic and rectal lesions, and lack of known immunodeficiency. This strain is being explored as a model of rectal carcinoma. Most of the colons examined tested PCR-positive for EHS, often with coinfections. Although H. bilis is prevalent on our campus, we did not find this organism in any mice exhibiting clinical signs of rectal prolapse. Identification of H. apodemus in 22% of cases has fueled increased surveillance on our campus to characterize this organism and differentiate it from the closely related H. rodentium. PMID:24956208

Miller, Cassandra L; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Shen, Zeli; Fox, James G

2014-06-01

125

Excretory transport of xenobiotics by dogfish shark rectal gland tubules.  

PubMed

Marine elasmobranch rectal gland is a specialized, osmoregulatory organ composed of numerous blind-ended, branched tubules emptying into a central duct. To date, NaCl excretion has been its only described function. Here we use isolated rectal gland tubule fragments from dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias), fluorescent xenobiotics, and confocal microscopy to describe a second function, xenobiotic excretion. Isolated rectal gland tubules rapidly transported the fluorescent organic anion sulforhodamine 101 from bath to lumen. Luminal accumulation was concentrative, saturable, and inhibited by cyclosporin A (CSA), chlorodinitrobenzene, leukotriene C4, and KCN. Inhibitors of renal organic anion transport (probenecid, p-aminohippurate), organic cation transport (tetraethylammonium and verapamil), and P-glycoprotein (verapamil) were without effect. Cellular accumulation of sulforhodamine 101 was not concentrative, saturable, or inhibitable. Rectal gland tubules did not secrete fluorescein, daunomycin, or a fluorescent CSA derivative. Finally, frozen rectal gland sections stained with an antibody to a hepatic canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT or MRP2) showed heavy and specific staining on the luminal membrane of the epithelial cells. We conclude that rectal gland is capable of active and specific excretion of xenobiotics and that such transport is mediated by a shark analog of MRP2, an ATP-driven xenobiotic transporter, but not by P-glycoprotein. PMID:9728065

Miller, D S; Masereeuw, R; Henson, J; Karnaky, K J

1998-09-01

126

Geometric modeling, functional parameter calculation, and visualization of the in-vivo distended rectal wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rectum can distend to accommodate stool, and contracts in response to distention during defecation. Rectal motor dysfunctions are implicated in the pathophysiology of functional defecation disorders and fecal incontinence. These rectal motor functions can be studied by intra-luminal measurements of pressure by manometry, or combined with volume during rectal balloon distention. Pressure-volume (p-v) relationships provide a global index of rectal mechanical properties. However, balloon distention alone does not measure luminal radius or wall thickness, which are necessary to compute wall tension and stress respectively. It has been suggested that the elastic modulus, which is the linear slope of the stress-strain relationship, is a more accurate measure of wall stiffness. Also, measurements of compliance may not reflect differences in rectal diameter between subjects prior to inflation, and imaging is necessary to determine if, as has been suggested, rectal pressure-volume relationships are affected by extra-rectal structures. We have developed a technique to measure rectal stress:strain relationships in humans, by simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during rectal balloon distention. After a conditioning distention, a rectal balloon was distended with water from 0 to 400 ml in 50 ml steps, and imaged at each step with MRI. The fluid filled balloon was segmented from each volume, the phase-ordered binary volumes were transformed into a geometric characterization of the inflated rectal surface. Taken together with measurements of balloon pressure and of rectal wall thickness, this model of the rectal surface was used to calculate regional values of curvature, tension, strain, and stress for the rectum. In summary, this technique has the unique ability to non-invasively measure the rectal stress:strain relationship and also determine if rectal expansion is limited by extra-rectal structures. This functional information allows the direct clinical analysis of rectal motor function and offers the potential for characterizing abnormal mechanical properties of the rectal wall in disease.

Haider, Clifton R.; Manduca, Armando; Camp, Jon J.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Robb, Richard A.; Bharucha, Adil E.

2006-03-01

127

Does Rectal Indomethacin Eliminate the Need for Prophylactic Pancreatic Stent Placement in Patients Undergoing High-Risk ERCP? Post hoc Efficacy and Cost-Benefit Analyses Using Prospective Clinical Trial Data  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES A recent large-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated that rectal indomethacin administration is effective in addition to pancreatic stent placement (PSP) for preventing post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) in high-risk cases. We performed a post hoc analysis of this RCT to explore whether rectal indomethacin can replace PSP in the prevention of PEP and to estimate the potential cost savings of such an approach. METHODS We retrospectively classified RCT subjects into four prevention groups: (1) no prophylaxis, (2) PSP alone, (3) rectal indomethacin alone, and (4) the combination of PSP and indomethacin. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for imbalances in the prevalence of risk factors for PEP between the groups. Based on these adjusted PEP rates, we conducted an economic analysis comparing the costs associated with PEP prevention strategies employing rectal indomethacin alone, PSP alone, or the combination of both. RESULTS After adjusting for risk using two different logistic regression models, rectal indomethacin alone appeared to be more effective for preventing PEP than no prophylaxis, PSP alone, and the combination of indomethacin and PSP. Economic analysis revealed that indomethacin alone was a cost-saving strategy in 96% of Monte Carlo trials. A prevention strategy employing rectal indomethacin alone could save approximately $150 million annually in the United States compared with a strategy of PSP alone, and $85 million compared with a strategy of indomethacin and PSP. CONCLUSIONS This hypothesis-generating study suggests that prophylactic rectal indomethacin could replace PSP in patients undergoing high-risk ERCP, potentially improving clinical outcomes and reducing healthcare costs. A RCT comparing rectal indomethacin alone vs. indomethacin plus PSP is needed. PMID:23295278

Elmunzer, B. Joseph; Higgins, Peter D.R.; Saini, Sameer D.; Scheiman, James M.; Parker, Robert A.; Chak, Amitabh; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Mosler, Patrick; Hayward, Rodney A.; Elta, Grace H.; Korsnes, Sheryl J.; Schmidt, Suzette E.; Sherman, Stuart; Lehman, Glen A.; Fogel, Evan L.

2014-01-01

128

Quantitative Assessment of Altered Rectal Mucosal Permeability Due to Rectally Applied Nonoxynol-9, Biopsy, and Simulated Intercourse  

PubMed Central

Background.?Microbicide toxicity may reduce the efficacy of topical preexposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Noninvasive quantitative measures of microbicide toxicity would usefully inform microbicide development. Methods.?Ten subjects received 3 one-time interventions: 5 mL of Normosol-R fluid alone (negative control), 5 mL of 2% nonoxynol-9 (N-9) gel, and 5 mL of Normosol-R with coital simulation and sigmoidoscopic biopsy (CS + BX). Each dose of N-9 and Normosol-R contained 500 µCi of 99mtechnetium–diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid. Plasma and urine radioactivity was assessed over 24 hours. Results.?The plasma radioisotope concentration peaked 1 hour after N-9 dosing. The mean maximum radioisotope concentration after N-9 receipt was 12.0 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.8–21.0) and 8.4 times (95% CI, 5.2–13.5) the mean concentration after Normosol-R control receipt and CS + BX receipt, respectively; paired differences persisted for 24 hours. After N-9 dosing, the urine isotope level was 3.6 times (95% CI, 1.1–11.4) the level observed 8 hours after Normosol-R control receipt and 4.0 times (95% CI, 1.4–11.4) the level observed 4 hours after CS + BX receipt. Permeability after CS + BX receipt was greater than that after Normosol-R control receipt in 0–2-hour urine specimens only (mean permeability, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0–5.8) but was not greater in blood. Conclusions.?Plasma sampling after rectal radioisotope administration provided quantitative estimates of altered mucosal permeability after chemical and mechanical stresses. Permeability testing may provide a useful noninvasive adjunct to assess the mucosal effects of candidate microbicides. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00389311. PMID:23325915

Fuchs, Edward J.; Grohskopf, Lisa A.; Lee, Linda A.; Bakshi, Rahul P.; Hendrix, Craig W.

2013-01-01

129

Rectal adenocarcinoma with oncocytic features: possible relationship with preoperative chemoradiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background The introduction of preoperative chemoradiation into the treatment protocol of rectal adenocarcinomas has affected the microscopical morphology in subsequent resection specimens. The constellation of histopathological changes is varied and well documented. Aim To describe oncocytic change in rectal cancers that have been treated with chemoradiation before surgery. Methods 7 of 54 patients with rectal cancer were identified with a history of chemoradiation, specifically directed to the rectal tumours in fractions of 4500–5000?cGy of radiation and 5?fluorouracil. The rectal tumours in five of these seven patients were composed of oncocytes that constituted 30–80% of the cancers. The patients were three men and two women aged 65–73?years, all with T3 N0 tumours. The intervals between chemoradiation and resection varied from 3 to 12?weeks. Results The tumour cells conformed to oncocytes morphologically (large size with abundant, granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei and prominent acidophilic nucleoli), immunohistochemically (positive for carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 20 and caudal type homeo box transcription factor 2, but negative for both chromogranin and synaptophysin) and ultrastructurally (large cells showing tight junctions, cytoplasmic engorgement by mitochondria and absence of neurosecretory granules). Conclusions The changes in these cells differ from those described previously in endocrine cells encountered in pretreated rectal cancers. Oncocytic change in this particular clinical context occurs as a reflection of cytotoxic damage or cellular hypoxia induced by chemoradiation resulting in degeneration of the cell and the oncocytic phenotype. Oncocytic change may be an under?recognised histopathological change in rectal cancers receiving preoperative chemoradiation. PMID:16467161

Rouzbahman, M; Serra, S; Chetty, R

2006-01-01

130

Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.  

PubMed

Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards. PMID:1681170

Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

1991-09-28

131

Surgical strategy for low rectal cancers.  

PubMed

The two goals of surgery for lower rectal cancer surgery are to obtain clear "curative" margins and to limit post-surgical functional disorders. The question of whether or not to preserve the anal sphincter lies at the center of the therapeutic choice. Histologically, tumor-free distal and circumferential margins of>1mm allow a favorable oncologic outcome. Whether such margins can be obtained depends of TNM staging, tumor location, response to chemoradiotherapy and type of surgical procedure. The technique of intersphincteric resection relies on these narrow margins to spare the sphincter. This procedure provides satisfactory oncologic outcome with a rate of circumferential margin involvement ranging from 5% to 11%, while good continence is maintained in half of the patients. The extralevator abdominoperineal resection provides good oncologic results, however this procedure requires a permanent colostomy. A permanent colostomy alters several domains of quality of life when located at the classical abdominal site but not when brought out at the perineal site as a perineal colostomy. PMID:25455959

Dumont, F; Mariani, A; Elias, D; Goéré, D

2015-02-01

132

Sexual Function in Males After Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Knowledge of sexual problems after pre- or postoperative radiotherapy (RT) with 50 Gy for rectal cancer is limited. In this study, we aimed to compare self-rated sexual functioning in irradiated (RT+) and nonirradiated (RT-) male patients at least 2 years after surgery for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients diagnosed with rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Male patients without recurrence at the time of the study. The International Index of Erectile Function, a self-rated instrument, was used to assess sexual functioning, and serum levels of serum testosterone were measured. Results: Questionnaires were returned from 241 patients a median of 4.5 years after surgery. The median age was 67 years at survey. RT+ patients (n = 108) had significantly poorer scores for erectile function, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction with sex life compared with RT- patients (n = 133). In multiple age-adjusted analysis, the odds ratio for moderate-severe erectile dysfunction in RT+ patients was 7.3 compared with RT- patients (p <0.001). Furthermore, erectile dysfunction of this degree was associated with low serum testosterone (p = 0.01). Conclusion: RT for rectal cancer is associated with significant long-term effects on sexual function in males.

Bruheim, Kjersti, E-mail: Kjersti.bruheim@medisin.uio.n [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Guren, Marianne G. [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Dahl, Alv A. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Clinical Cancer Research, the Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Skovlund, Eva [School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Balteskard, Lise [University Hospital of Northern Norway, Tromso (Norway); Carlsen, Erik [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Ulleval, Oslo (Norway); Fossa, Sophie D. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Clinical Cancer Research, the Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Tveit, Kjell Magne [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

2010-03-15

133

Cystic rectal duplication: a rare cause of neonatal intestinal obstruction.  

PubMed

A case of cystic rectal duplication revealed on day 2 of life by a low intestinal occluding syndrome is reported. Radiologic imaging (ultrasonography, cystography, rectography) showed a large, retrorectal liquid formation in the pelvis and abdomen, with pelvic compression of the terminal alimentary canal and lower urinary tract. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a liquid formation with clearly defined edges and no medullary involvement, thus ruling out the possibility of a previous meningeal hernia. Biological markers were within normal limits. On day 4, a 9 x 6-cm cystic rectal duplication was removed, followed by a temporary colostomy. Pathologic examination demonstrated typical rectal architecture with ciliated cells. Radiologic and clinical findings at 2-month follow-up were reassuring. This case report is exceptional for the following reasons: (1) As a rule, rectal duplications are relatively rare (70 cases reported in the literature); (2) The means of disclosing a neonatal rectal duplication is unusual (4 cases reported in the literature); (3) The volume of the malformation was considerable; and (4) Heterotopic ciliated epithelium was present. PMID:9244127

Mboyo, A; Monek, O; Massicot, R; Martin, L; Destuynder, O; Lemouel, A; Aubert, D

1997-07-01

134

Chemoembolization Using Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Liver Metastases From Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

2014-05-13

135

Quantification of Organ Motion During Chemoradiotherapy of Rectal Cancer Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: There has been no previously published data related to the quantification of rectal motion using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) during standard conformal long-course chemoradiotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the interfractional changes in rectal movement and dimensions and rectal and bladder volume using CBCT and to quantify the bony anatomy displacements to calculate the margins required to account for systematic ({Sigma}) and random ({sigma}) setup errors. Methods and Materials: CBCT images were acquired from 16 patients on the first 3 days of treatment and weekly thereafter. The rectum and bladder were outlined on all CBCT images. The interfraction movement was measured using fixed bony landmarks as references to define the rectal location (upper, mid, and low), The maximal rectal diameter at the three rectal locations was also measured. The bony anatomy displacements were quantified, allowing the calculation of systematic ({Sigma}) and random ({sigma}) setup errors. Results: A total of 123 CBCT data sets were analyzed. Analysis of variance for standard deviation from planning scans showed that rectal anterior and lateral wall movement differed significantly by rectal location. Anterior and lateral rectal wall movements were larger in the mid and upper rectum compared with the low rectum. The posterior rectal wall movement did not change significantly with the rectal location. The rectal diameter changed more in the mid and upper than in the low rectum. No consistent relationship was found between the rectal and bladder volume and time, nor was a significant relationship found between the rectal volume and bladder volume. Conclusions: In the present study, the anterior and lateral rectal movement and rectal diameter were found to change most in the upper rectum, followed by the mid rectum, with the smallest changes seen in the low rectum. Asymmetric margins are warranted to ensure phase 2 coverage.

Chong, Irene; Hawkins, Maria; Hansen, Vibeke; Thomas, Karen; McNair, Helen; O'Neill, Brian; Aitken, Alexandra [Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Tait, Diana, E-mail: Diana.Tait@rmh.nhs.uk [Royal Marsden National Health Service Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

2011-11-15

136

Rectal Perforation Caused by Anal Stricture After Hemorrhoid Treatment  

PubMed Central

Inappropriate therapies for hemorrhoids can lead to various complications including anorectal stricture. We report a patient presenting with catastrophic rectal perforation due to severe anal stricture after inappropriate hemorrhoid treatment. A 67-years old man with perianal pain visited the emergency room. The hemorrhoids accompanied by constipation, had tortured him since his youth. Thus he had undergone injection sclerotherapy several times by an unlicensed therapist and hemorrhoidectomy twice at the clinics of private practitioners. His body temperature was as high as 38.5?. The computed tomographic scan showed a focal perforation of posterior rectal wall. The emergency operation was performed. The fibrotic tissues of the anal canal were excised. And then a sigmoid loop colostomy was constructed. The patient was discharged four days following the operation. This report calls attention to the enormous risk of unlicensed injection sclerotherapy and overzealous hemorrhoidectomy resulting in scarring, progressive stricture, and eventual rectal perforation. PMID:23586012

Suh, Yong Joon; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Shin, Rumi; Jeong, Seung-Yong

2013-01-01

137

Role of MRI for staging of rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Total mesorectal excision has been established as a standard surgical procedure for rectal cancer. MRI is now routinely used for preoperative staging of rectal cancer and provides accurate assessment of the tumor relative to the circumferential margin, that is, the mesorectal fascia. This identifies patients at risk of local recurrence and those likely to benefit from neoadjuvant therapy. Compared with CT and ultrasound, MRI is more reliable for the evaluation of the extent of locoregional disease, planning radiation therapy, assessing postoperative changes and pelvic recurrence. The evaluation of nodal metastases remains a challenge with routine MRI. In this review, we describe the role of MRI in staging rectal cancer as well as highlight some limitations and recent advances to overcome these. PMID:19374600

Jhaveri, Kartik S; Sadaf, Arifa

2009-04-01

138

[Evaluation of preoperative effect for rectal cancer by transrectal ultrasonography].  

PubMed

The ultrasonographic examination was applied for the purpose of volume estimation of rectal cancer. We have performed 15 cases of echographic volume estimation compared with that of resected specimen (control group) and mean volume estimation error rate was 14.6% between two methods. And we also performed 17 preoperative irradiation cases of rectal cancer. Each tumor volume of pre- and post-irradiation was estimated echogenically and was compared with that of resected specimen. In the case when irradiation effect was remarkable, estimated volume by ultrasonography was much smaller in post-irradiation compared with that of pre-irradiation. Same tendency was also recognized in the study of resected specimen. Histopathological irradiation effect was also highly recognized in the case when echographic diminished rate was prominent. This method will useful for the judgement of preoperative irradiation effect in rectal cancer. PMID:2038288

Taniyama, S

1991-02-01

139

Nitrates in Drinking Water and Risk of Death from Rectal Cancer in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between nitrate levels in drinking water and rectal cancer development has been inconclusive. A matched case-control and nitrate ecology study was used to investigate the association between mortality attributed to rectal cancer and drinking-water nitrate exposure in Taiwan. All deaths due to rectal cancer of Taiwan residents from 1999 through 2003 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital

Hsin-Wei Kuo; Trong-Neng Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang

2007-01-01

140

Variability of Marker-Based Rectal Dose Evaluation in HDR Cervical Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

In film-based intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer, position of the rectal markers may not accurately represent the anterior rectal wall. This study was aimed at analyzing the variability of rectal dose estimation as a result of interfractional variation of marker placement. A cohort of five patients treated with multiple-fraction tandem and ovoid high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy was studied. The cervical os point and the orientation of the applicators were matched among all fractional plans for each patient. Rectal points obtained from all fractions were then input into each clinical treated plan. New fractional rectal doses were obtained and a new cumulative rectal dose for each patient was calculated. The maximum interfractional variation of distances between rectal dose points and the closest source positions was 1.1 cm. The corresponding maximum variability of fractional rectal dose was 65.5%. The percentage difference in cumulative rectal dose estimation for each patient was 5.4%, 19.6%, 34.6%, 23.4%, and 13.9%, respectively. In conclusion, care should be taken when using rectal markers as reference points for estimating rectal dose in HDR cervical brachytherapy. The best estimate of true rectal dose for each fraction should be determined by the most anterior point among all fractions.

Wang Zhou, E-mail: Zhou.Wang@RoswellPark.or [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Malhotra, Harish K.; Podgorsak, Matthew B. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

2010-01-01

141

In siblings of celiac children, rectal gluten challenge reveals gluten sensitization not restricted to celiac HLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammatory changes in the rectum of patients with celiac disease after local instillation of gluten have been reported. The aim of this study was to examine rectal mucosa after local gluten challenge in children with celiac disease and their siblings. METHODS: Rectal biopsy specimens were obtained before and 6 hours after rectal challenge with a peptictryptic digest

R Troncone; L Greco; M Mayer; G Mazzarella; L Maiuri; M Congia; F Frau; S De Virgiliis; S Auricchio

1996-01-01

142

Human Collagen Injections to Reduce Rectal Dose During Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: The continuing search for interventions, which address the incidence and grade of rectal toxicities associated with radiation treatment of prostate cancer, is a major concern. We are reporting an investigational trial using human collagen to increase the distance between the prostate and anterior rectal wall, thereby decreasing the radiation dose to the rectum. Methods: This is a pilot study evaluating the use of human collagen as a displacing agent for the rectal wall injected before starting a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Using a transperineal approach, 20 mL of human collagen was injected into the perirectal space in an outpatient setting. Computerized IMRT plans were performed pre- and postcollagen injection, and after a patient completed their radiotherapy, to determine radiation dose reduction to the rectum associated with the collagen injection. Computed tomography scans were performed 6 months and 12 months after completing their radiotherapy to evaluate absorption rate of the collagen. All patients were treated with IMRT to a dose of 75.6 Gy to the prostate. Results: Eleven patients were enrolled into the study. The injection of human collagen in the outpatient setting was well tolerated. The mean separation between the prostate and anterior rectum was 12.7 mm. The mean reduction in dose to the anterior rectal wall was 50%. All men denied any rectal symptoms during the study. Conclusions: The transperineal injection of human collagen for the purpose of tissue displacement is well tolerated in the outpatient setting. The increased separation between the prostate and rectum resulted in a significant decrease in radiation dose to the rectum while receiving IMRT and was associated with no rectal toxicities.

Noyes, William R., E-mail: noyes@cancercenternd.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Hosford, Charles C. [Department of Medical Statistics, University of North Dakota School of Medicine, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Schultz, Steven E. [Department of Urology, RiverView Health, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

2012-04-01

143

A Ca(2+)-sensing receptor modulates shark rectal gland function.  

PubMed

The elasmobranch Squalus acanthias controls plasma osmolality and extracellular fluid volume by secreting a hypertonic fluid from its rectal gland. Because we found a correlation between extracellular Ca(2+) concentration and changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)), we sought the possible presence of a calcium-sensing receptor in rectal gland artery and tubules. Cytosolic Ca(2+) of both tissues responded to the addition of external Ca(2+) (0.8-5.3 mmol l(-1)) in a linear fashion. Spermine, Gd(3+) and Ni(2+), known agonists of the calcium-sensing receptor, increased [Ca(2+)](i). To assess the participation of inositol triphosphate (IP(3)) generation, sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) Ca(2+) depletion, and activation of store-operated Ca(2+) entry, we utilized thapsigargin and ryanodine to deplete Ca(2+) SR/ER stores and the inhibitory reagents TMB-8 and 2-APB to block IP(3) receptors. In each case, these agents inhibited the [Ca(2+)](i) response to agonist stimulation by approximately 50 %. Blockade of L-channels with nifedipine had no significant effect. Increases in ionic strength are known to inhibit the calcium-sensing receptor. We postulate that the CaSR stimulates Ca(2+)-mediated constriction of the rectal gland artery and diminishes cyclic AMP-mediated salt secretion in rectal gland tubules during non-feeding conditions. When the shark ingests sea water and fish, an increase in blood and interstitial fluid ionic strength inhibits the activity of the calcium-sensing receptor, relaxing the rectal gland artery and permitting salt secretion by the rectal gland tubules. PMID:12077165

Fellner, Susan K; Parker, Laurel

2002-07-01

144

143Business Administration BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION  

E-print Network

143Business Administration BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (BUS) PROFESSORS CLINE, DEAN, KESTER VISITING ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR GIBBS ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REITER MAJOR A major in business administration leading at least 24 credits in business administration and 26 credits not in business administration, as follows: 1

Dresden, Gregory

145

Rectal tonsil: A case report and literature review.  

PubMed

The rectal tonsil, a reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue located in the rectum, is rare. Histologically, benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the rectum is usually characterized by large lymphoid follicles with active germinal centers and a narrow surrounding mantle zone and marginal zone. This lesion is benign, but must be differentiated from the polypoid type of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. In the current paper, we present a case of rectal tonsil in a 59-year-old woman. We describe the endoscopic ultrasound imaging findings with literature review. PMID:25741169

Hong, Joung Boom; Kim, Hyung Wook; Kang, Dae Hwan; Choi, Cheol Woong; Park, Su Bum; Kim, Dong Jun; Ji, Byoung Hoon; Koh, Kyung Won

2015-02-28

146

Management of stage IV rectal cancer: Palliative options  

PubMed Central

Approximately 30% of patients with rectal cancer present with metastatic disease. Many of these patients have symptoms of bleeding or obstruction. Several treatment options are available to deal with the various complications that may afflict these patients. Endorectal stenting, laser ablation, and operative resection are a few of the options available to the patient with a malignant large bowel obstruction. A thorough understanding of treatment options will ensure the patient is offered the most effective therapy with the least amount of associated morbidity. In this review, we describe various options for palliation of symptoms in patients with metastatic rectal cancer. Additionally, we briefly discuss treatment for asymptomatic patients with metastatic disease. PMID:21412493

Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Sean M; Kennedy, Gregory D

2011-01-01

147

Lingual tonsillar metastasis from rectal carcinoma: a rare occurrence.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old man presenting with sacral pain 18 months after radical transabdominal resection of rectal mucinous adenocarcinoma underwent F-FDG PET/CT cancer surveillance. Detection of multiple nodules in lingual tonsil and left neck by imaging initially suggested tonsillar squamous carcinoma (as a second primary) with spread to cervical nodes, given the rarity with which rectal carcinoma metastasizes to the head and neck. Ultimately, the tonsillar neoplasm proved to be adenocarcinoma of colorectal origin based on its shared histologic features and compatible immunostaining profile. PMID:24686212

Su, Minggang; Jiang, Chong; Li, Lin; Li, Fanglan; Tian, Rong

2014-06-01

148

Diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography for rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and the differential diagnosis of rectal NENs from other subepithelial lesions (SELs). METHODS: The study group consisted of 36 consecutive patients with rectal NENs histopathologically diagnosed using biopsy and/or resected specimens. The control group consisted of 31 patients with homochronous rectal non-NEN SELs confirmed by pathology. Epithelial lesions such as cancer and adenoma were excluded from this study. One EUS expert blinded to the histological results reviewed the ultrasonic images. The size, original layer, echoic intensity and homogeneity of the lesions and the perifocal structures were investigated. The single EUS diagnosis recorded by the EUS expert was compared with the histological results. RESULTS: All NENs were located at the rectum 2-10 cm from the anus and appeared as nodular (n = 12), round (n = 19) or egg-shaped (n = 5) lesions with a hypoechoic (n = 7) or intermediate (n = 29) echo pattern and a distinct border. Tumors ranged in size from 2.3 to 13.7 mm, with an average size of 6.8 mm. Homogeneous echogenicity was seen in all tumors except three. Apart from three patients (stage T2 in two and stage T3 in one), the tumors were located in the second and/or third wall layer without involvement of the fourth and fifth layers. In the patients with stage T1 disease, the tumors were located in the second wall layer only in seven cases, the third wall layer only in two cases, and both the second and third wall layers in 27 cases. Approximately 94.4% (34/36) of rectal NENs were diagnosed correctly by EUS, and 74.2% (23/31) of other rectal SELs were classified correctly as non-NENs. Eight cases of other SELs were misdiagnosed as NENs, including two cases of inflammatory lesions and one case each of gastrointestinal tumor, endometriosis, metastatic tumor, lymphoma, neurilemmoma, and hemangioma. The positive predictive value of EUS for rectal NENs was 80.9% (34/42), the negative predictive value was 92.0% (23/25), and the diagnostic accuracy was 85.1%. CONCLUSION: EUS has satisfactory diagnostic accuracy for rectal NENs with good sensitivity, but unfavorable specificity, making the differential diagnosis of NENs from other SELs challenging. PMID:25132764

Chen, Hong-Tan; Xu, Guo-Qiang; Teng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Yi-Peng; Chen, Li-Hua; Li, You-Ming

2014-01-01

149

Rectal tonsil: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

The rectal tonsil, a reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue located in the rectum, is rare. Histologically, benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the rectum is usually characterized by large lymphoid follicles with active germinal centers and a narrow surrounding mantle zone and marginal zone. This lesion is benign, but must be differentiated from the polypoid type of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. In the current paper, we present a case of rectal tonsil in a 59-year-old woman. We describe the endoscopic ultrasound imaging findings with literature review. PMID:25741169

Hong, Joung Boom; Kim, Hyung Wook; Kang, Dae Hwan; Choi, Cheol Woong; Park, Su Bum; Kim, Dong Jun; Ji, Byoung Hoon; Koh, Kyung Won

2015-01-01

150

Preliminary report of a new treatment strategy for advanced pelvic malignancy: surgical resection and radiation therapy using afterloading catheters plus an inflatable displacement prosthesis in the treatment of advanced primary and recurrent rectal cancer  

SciTech Connect

An unsolved problem in colon and rectal surgery involves the treatment of locally invasive primary and recurrent rectal cancer. An approach is described that uses intracavitary iridium-192 sources in combination with a pelvic displacement prosthesis to augment external beam radiation doses to sites of residual disease identified at surgery. This approach should permit administration of tumoricidal doses of radiation to positive surgical margins minimizing radiation toxicity to the small bowel. The radiation source and all prosthetic materials are removed at the bedside within 2 weeks of surgery, ensuring accurate radiation dosimetry, minimizing infectious complications, and sparing the patient the need for full high-dose pelvic irradiation.

Edington, H.D.; Hancock, S.; Coe, F.L.; Sugarbaker, P.H.

1986-09-01

151

[An end to smearing! Detecting and treating rectal rectal and anal prolapse].  

PubMed

Rectal prolapse is defined as the invagination of the entire wall of the rectum into or through the lumen of the anal canal. In the main it is a disorder of elderly women. The leading symptom is a sensation of incomplete defecation. Patients commonly complain of incontinence of varying severity, tenesmus, unsuccessful straining, and the passage of blood and mucus in the stools. The diagnosis is based on the history and physical examination. Equipment-based diagnostic procedures serve treatment planning. For therapy, a range of possibilities are available. Anal prolapse is categorized as third-degree hemorrhoidal disease, and the diagnosis can be made by simple inspection. Reduction may be attempted during digital examination of the rectum. Treatment is determined by the clinical presentation. PMID:11215338

Mappes, H J

2001-01-18

152

Treatment of bleeding rectal varices with transumbilical venous obliteration of the inferior mesenteric vein.  

PubMed

A 56-year-old male with alcohol-induced liver cirrhosis developed rectal varices. He had a prior history of treatment for esophageal varices with endoscopic variceal ligation. Despite the repeated treatment for rectal varices with endoscopic variceal ligation, endoscopic injection sclerotherapy, and surgery, the bleeding from the rectal varices could not be controlled. Multidetector-row computed tomography and 3D-angiography revealed the hemodynamic profile of the rectal varices. We next approached the rectal varices through the umbilical vein on the abdominal wall, and successfully embolized the varices continuing from the inferior mesenteric vein using coils and a 5% solution of ethanolamine oleate with iopamidol. PMID:23752023

Hashimoto, Naotaka; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Kamori, Masahiro; Tomikawa, Morimasa; Yoshida, Daisuke; Nagao, Yoshihiro; Morita, Kazutoyo; Kayashima, Hiroto; Ikegami, Toru; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko

2013-06-01

153

Rectal Dose and Source Strength of the High-Dose-Rate Iridium192 Both Affect Late Rectal Bleeding After Intracavitary Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reconfirm our previous findings that the rectal dose and source strength both affect late rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT), by using a rectal dose calculated in accordance with the definitions of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 (ICRU{sub RP}) or of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters by

Fumiaki Isohashi; Yasuo Yoshioka; Masahiko Koizumi; Osamu Suzuki; Koji Konishi; Iori Sumida; Yutaka Takahashi; Toshiyuki Ogata; Tadayuki Kotsuma; Takehiro Inoue

2010-01-01

154

The Expression Level and Prognostic Value of Y-Box Binding Protein-1 in Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to simultaneously evaluate the expression of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) in non-neoplastic rectal tissue and rectal cancer tissue, and to collect clinical follow-up data for individual patients. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the developmental functions and prognostic value of YB-1 in rectal cancer. We performed immunohistochemical studies to examine YB-1 expression in tissue samples from 80 patients with rectal cancer, 30 patients with rectal tubular adenoma, and 30 patients with rectitis. The mean YB-1 histological scores for rectal cancer, rectal tubular adenoma, and rectitis tissue specimens were 205.5, 164.3, and 137.7, respectively. Shorter disease-free and overall survival times were found in patients with rectal cancer who had higher YB-1 expression than in those with lower expression (38.2 months vs. 52.4 months, P = 0.013; and 44.4 months vs. 57.3 months, P = 0.008, respectively). Our results indicate that YB-1 expression is higher in rectal cancer tissue than in rectal tubular adenoma and rectitis tissue and that it may be an independent prognostic factor for rectal cancer. PMID:25790262

Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Ping-Wu; Feng, Gang; Xie, Gang; Wang, An-Qun; Yang, Yong-Hong; Wang, Dong; Du, Xiao-Bo

2015-01-01

155

Treatment of rectal chlamydia infection may be more complicated than we originally thought.  

PubMed

Rectal chlamydia diagnoses have been increasing among MSM and may also rise among women as anal sex rates increase among heterosexuals. However, there is growing concern about treatment for rectal chlamydia with treatment failures of up to 22% being reported. This article addresses factors that may be contributing to treatment failure for rectal chlamydia, including the pharmacokinetic properties of azithromycin and doxycycline in rectal tissue, the ability of chlamydia to transform into a persistent state that is less responsive to antimicrobial therapy, the impact of the rectal microbiome on chlamydia, heterotypic resistance, failure to detect cases of lymphogranuloma venereum and the performance of screening tests. If we are to reduce the burden of genital chlamydia, treatment for rectal chlamydia must be efficacious. This highlights the need for randomized controlled trial evidence comparing azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of rectal chlamydia. PMID:25480490

Hocking, Jane S; Kong, Fabian Y S; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

2015-04-01

156

Refining Preoperative Therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In the current clinical trial, dubbed PROSPECT, patients with locally advanced, resectable rectal cancer will be randomly assigned to receive either standard neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy or neoadjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy, with chemoradiation reserved for those patients who cannot tolerate or do not respond to FOLFOX chemotherapy.

157

Screening and Testing to Detect Cancer: Colon and Rectal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Screening methods to find colon or rectal changes that may lead to cancer include laboratory tests such as fecal occult blood tests (FOBT), and imaging tests such as sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. Screening by the latter two tests can find precancerous polyps which can be removed during the test and may find cancer early when it is most treatable.

158

Palliative Resection in the Presence of Advanced Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: At some time, every general surgeon will be faced with the task of trying to decide what to do with a patient who presents with rectal cancer and unresectable distant metastases. What advice should be given? Should the primary tumor be resected despite the incurability of the disease? Should only a defunctioning stoma be raised or should the patient

Nasser Al-Sanea; William H. Isbister

2003-01-01

159

Biomarkers for Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is currently treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Although approximately 45% of patients respond to neoadjuvant therapy with T-level downstaging, there is no effective method of predicting which patients will respond. Molecular biomarkers have been investigated for their ability to predict outcome in LARC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. A literature search using PubMed resulted in

Jeffrey G. Kuremsky; Joel E. Tepper; Howard L. Phar McLeod

2009-01-01

160

Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

161

Rectal Foreign Bodies: What Is the Current Standard?  

PubMed Central

Rectal foreign bodies represent a challenging and unique field of colorectal trauma. The approach includes a careful history and physical examination, a high index of suspicion for any evidence of perforation, a creative approach to nonoperative removal, and appropriate short-term follow-up to detect any delayed perforation. PMID:24294123

Cologne, Kyle G.; Ault, Glenn T.

2012-01-01

162

Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation  

PubMed Central

Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD. PMID:25552833

Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh

2015-01-01

163

The neoadjuvant treatment of rectal cancer: a review.  

PubMed

Rectal adenocarcinoma is an important cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and key anatomic differences between the rectum and the colon have significant implications for management of rectal cancer, especially in the curative setting. For stage II and III rectal cancers, combined chemoradiotherapy offers the lowest rates of local and distant relapse, and is delivered neoadjuvantly to improve tolerability and optimize surgical outcomes, particularly when sphincter-sparing surgery is an endpoint. We review both pivotal trial data that has shaped the current standard of care, fluoropyrimidine-based chemoradiotherapy, while also presenting results from more recent studies, which aim to outperform this standard. Strategies combining 5FU radiotherapy with oxaliplatin, VEGF inhibition, EGFR inhibition, other targeted agents, and/or use of induction chemotherapy hold promise but thus far have failed to improve outcomes in randomized trials. Results of studies such as the ongoing PROSPECT trial may help further define our current therapeutic algorithm for stage II and III rectal cancer. PMID:25691086

Nussbaum, Nathan; Altomare, Ivy

2015-03-01

164

Colostomy and drainage for civilian rectal injuries: is that all?  

PubMed Central

One hundred consecutive patients with injuries to the extraperitoneal rectum were treated over a ten-year period at an urban trauma center. The mechanisms of injury included firearms in 82 patients, stab wounds in 3 patients, a variety of other penetrating injuries in 10 patients, and in 5 patients the injuries resulted from blunt trauma. Treatment of the rectal injury was determined by the bias of the operating surgeon, the condition of the patient, and the magnitude of the rectal injury. Proximal loop colostomies were performed in 44 patients, diverting colostomies in 51 patients, Hartmann's procedure in 4 patients, and an abdominoperineal resection in 1 patient. Extraperitoneal rectal perforations were closed in 21 patients and the rectum was irrigated free of feces in 46 patients. Transperineal, presacral drainage was used in 93 patients. Infectious complications potentially related to the management of the rectal wound occurred in 11 patients (11%) and included abdominal or pelvic abscesses (4 patients), wound infections (6 patients), rectocutaneous fistulas (3 patients), and missile tract infections (2 patients). Four patients (4%) died as a result of their injuries. Of the therapeutic options available, statistical analysis revealed that only the failure to drain the presacral space increased the likelihood of infectious complications (p = 0.03); however, as it could not be determined with certainty that the use of, or failure to use, any particular therapeutic option had an effect on the risk of death. It is concluded that colostomy and drainage are the foundations of the successful treatment of civilian injuries to the extraperitoneal rectum. The use of adjuncts such as diverting colostomies, repair of the rectal wound, and irrigation of the rectum has little effect on mortality and morbidity. PMID:2705824

Burch, J M; Feliciano, D V; Mattox, K L

1989-01-01

165

Rectal Dose and Source Strength of the High-Dose-Rate Iridium-192 Both Affect Late Rectal Bleeding After Intracavitary Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reconfirm our previous findings that the rectal dose and source strength both affect late rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT), by using a rectal dose calculated in accordance with the definitions of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 (ICRU{sub RP}) or of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters by the Groupe Europeen de Curietherapie of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. Methods and Materials: Sixty-two patients who underwent HDR-ICBT and were followed up for 1 year or more were studied. The rectal dose for ICBT was calculated by using the ICRP{sub RP} based on orthogonal radiographs or the DVH parameters based on computed tomography (CT). The total dose was calculated as the biologically equivalent dose expressed in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). The relationship between averaged source strength or the EQD{sub 2} and late rectal bleeding was then analyzed. Results: When patients were divided into four groups according to rectal EQD{sub 2} ({>=} or =} or <2.4 cGy.m{sup 2}.h{sup -1}), the group with both a high EQD{sub 2} and a high source strength showed a significantly greater probability of rectal bleeding for ICRU{sub RP}, D{sub 2cc}, and D{sub 1cc}. The patients with a median rectal dose above the threshold level did not show a greater frequency of rectal bleeding unless the source strength exceeded 2.4 cGy.m{sup 2}.h{sup -1}. Conclusions: Our results obtained with data based on ICRU{sub RP} and CT-based DVH parameters indicate that rectal dose and source strength both affect rectal bleeding after HDR-ICBT.

Isohashi, Fumiaki, E-mail: isohashi@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.j [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Division of Medical Physics, Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

2010-07-01

166

Rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: Impact of rectal dose in high-dose-rate brachytherapy on occurrence of grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT), with special emphasis on the relationship between the incidence of rectal bleeding and the rectal dose from HDR brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 100 patients who were treated by HDR brachytherapy combined with EBRT for {>=}12 months were analyzed. The fractionation schema for HDR brachytherapy was prospectively changed, and the total radiation dose for EBRT was fixed at 51 Gy. The distribution of the fractionation schema used in the patients was as follows: 5 Gy x 5 in 13 patients; 7 Gy x 3 in 19 patients; and 9 Gy x 2 in 68 patients. Results: Ten patients (10%) developed Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding. Regarding the correlation with dosimetric factors, no significant differences were found in the average percentage of the entire rectal volume receiving 30%, 50%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed radiation dose from EBRT between those with bleeding and those without. The average percentage of the entire rectal volume receiving 10%, 30%, 50%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed radiation dose from HDR brachytherapy in those who developed rectal bleeding was 77.9%, 28.6%, 9.0%, 1.5%, and 0.3%, respectively, and was 69.2%, 22.2%, 6.6%, 0.9%, and 0.4%, respectively, in those without bleeding. The differences in the percentages of the entire rectal volume receiving 10%, 30%, and 50% between those with and without bleeding were statistically significant. Conclusions: The rectal dose from HDR brachytherapy for patients with prostate cancer may have a significant impact on the incidence of Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding.

Akimoto, Tetsuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)]. E-mail: takimoto@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Kitamoto, Yoshizumi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Tamaki, Tomoaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Harada, Kosaku [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Shirai, Katsuyuki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

2006-06-01

167

STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Administration  

E-print Network

Scientific Journalism Regulatory Affairs Administration/Management Biotechnology industry Pharmaceutical Independent research foundations Industry laboratories: Pharmaceutical companies Biotechnology firms Food

Escher, Christine

168

Dose Constraint for Minimizing Grade 2 Rectal Bleeding Following Brachytherapy Combined With External Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Rectal Dose-Volume Histogram Analysis of 457 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the rectal tolerance to Grade 2 rectal bleeding after I-125 seed brachytherapy combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), based on the rectal dose-volume histogram. Methods and Materials: A total of 458 consecutive patients with stages T1 to T3 prostate cancer received combined modality treatment consisting of I-125 seed implantation followed by EBRT to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The prescribed doses of brachytherapy and EBRT were 100 Gy and 45 Gy in 25 fractions, respectively. The rectal dosimetric factors were analyzed for rectal volumes receiving >100 Gy and >150 Gy (R100 and R150) during brachytherapy and for rectal volumes receiving >30 Gy to 40 Gy (V30-V40) during EBRT therapy in 373 patients for whom datasets were available. The patients were followed from 21 to 72 months (median, 45 months) after the I-125 seed implantation. Results: Forty-four patients (9.7%) developed Grade 2 rectal bleeding. On multivariate analysis, age (p = 0.014), R100 (p = 0.002), and V30 (p = 0.001) were identified as risk factors for Grade 2 rectal bleeding. The rectal bleeding rate increased as the R100 increased: 5.0% (2/40 patients) for 0 ml; 7.5% (20/267 patients) for >0 to 0.5 ml; 11.0% (11/100 patients) for >0.5 to 1 ml; 17.9% (5/28 patients) for >1 to 1.5 ml; and 27.3% (6/22 patients) for >1.5 ml (p = 0.014). Grade 2 rectal bleeding developed in 6.4% (12/188) of patients with a V30 {<=}35% and in 14.1% (26/185) of patients with a V30 >35% (p = 0.02). When these dose-volume parameters were considered in combination, the Grade 2 rectal bleeding rate was 4.2% (5/120 patients) for a R100 {<=}0.5 ml and a V30 {<=}35%, whereas it was 22.4% (13/58 patients) for R100 of >0.5 ml and V30 of >35%. Conclusion: The risk of rectal bleeding was found to be significantly volume-dependent in patients with prostate cancer who received combined modality treatment. Rectal dose-volume analysis is a practical method for predicting the risk of development of Grade 2 rectal bleeding.

Shiraishi, Yutaka; Yorozu, Atsunori [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ohashi, Toshio, E-mail: ohashi@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Keio University, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Toya, Kazuhito [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Seki, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, Keio University, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, Kayo; Kaneda, Tomoya [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Shiro; Nishiyama, Toru [Department of Urology, Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Hanada, Takashi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki [Department of Radiology, Keio University, School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

2011-11-01

169

Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome: exploring possible management options.  

PubMed

Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a rare condition with various causes that results in ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical findings, diagnosis, and outcomes of treatment in patients with SRUS. Between 1992 and 2006, a retrospective review was undertaken for all patients diagnosed with SRUS. Fifty-eight patients were diagnosed with SRUS. Among patients with paradoxic rectal spasm (PRS), lesions disappeared in 1 of 3 given applied biofeedback treatment, and in 2 of 4 injected with Botulinum toxin (Botox). Twenty-three patients underwent appropriate surgical treatment. Overall, postoperative improvement was seen in 18 patients (78.2%). In conclusion, every patient with SRUS must be assessed for causative disease. Treatment should include conservative approaches such as Botox injection; in patients with pelvic floor disorders, surgical treatment should be considered. PMID:21675619

Bulut, Turker; Canbay, Emel; Yamaner, Sumer; Gulluoglu, Mine; Bugra, Dursun

2011-01-01

170

Clinical application of multimodality imaging in radiotherapy treatment planning for rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Abstract Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of rectal cancer. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy are mainstay techniques of radiotherapy for rectal cancer. However, the success of these techniques is heavily reliant on accurate target delineation and treatment planning. Computed tomography simulation is a cornerstone of rectal cancer radiotherapy, but there are limitations, such as poor soft-tissue contrast between pelvic structures and partial volume effects. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) can overcome these limitations and provide additional information for rectal cancer treatment planning. PET can also reduce the interobserver variation in the definition of rectal tumor volume. However, there is a long way to go before these image modalities are routinely used in the clinical setting. This review summarizes the most promising studies on clinical applications of multimodality imaging in target delineation and treatment planning for rectal cancer radiotherapy. PMID:24334539

Zhe, Hong

2013-01-01

171

Adjuvant versus Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The standard treatment for patients with clinically resectable rectal cancer is surgery. Postoperative radiochemotherapy is recommended for patients with advanced disease (pT3\\/4 or pN+). In recent years, encouraging results of preoperative radiotherapy have been reported. This prospective randomized phase-III trial (CAO\\/ARO\\/AIO-94) compares the efficacy of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy to standard postoperative radiochemotherapy. We report on the design of the study

Rolf Sauer; Rainer Fietkau; Christian Wittekind; Peter Martus; Claus Rödel; Werner Hohenberger; Gerhard Jatzko; Hubert Sabitzer; Johann-Hinrich Karstens; Heinz Becker; Clemens Hess; Rudolf Raab

2001-01-01

172

Complications of Loop Ileostomy Closure in Patients with Rectal Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Loop ileostomy is customary after very low rectal anastomosis to reduce the rate of pelvic sepsis that can result from anastomotic\\u000a leakage. To evaluate complications of stoma closure is important to maximize the benefit of making the defunctioning stoma.\\u000a The aim of this study was to examine possible risk factors associated with complications, especially wound infections, after\\u000a loop ileostomy closure

Takashi Akiyoshi; Yoshiya Fujimoto; Tsuyoshi Konishi; Hiroya Kuroyanagi; Masashi Ueno; Masatoshi Oya; Toshiharu Yamaguchi

2010-01-01

173

Three-Year Experience With Rectal Prolapse Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Rectal prolapse (RP) is a rare condition characterized by rectums protrusion through the anus with all of its layers. RP is a condition deteriorating the quality of life. Although more than 100 surgical procedures were described so far for the treatment of RP, the ideal treatment method still remains unclear. In this study, demographical data and clinical results of 13 patients who were treated at our clinic for RP for a period of 3 years were retrospectively studied, with the aim of comparing with the results of other repair methods mentioned in the literature. Methods Total of 13 patients admitted to the general surgery unit and the emergency units between January 2008 and December 2010 were included in the study. All of the cases were treated by modified Notoras technique using various synthetic materials. Results Of the patients, 8 were male, and 5 were female. Average age was 45.6 years (range: 23 - 79 years), and the average hospitalization time was 11.3 days (range: 3 - 19 days), with the symptom time being an average of 12 years (range: 1 - 30 years). All patients having complaints described mass prolapsing from the anal canal during defecation, rectal pain, and constipation. Six of our patients also had complaints of rectal bleeding. Average follow-up time was 24 months. No recurrence and mortality were monitored in patients who were followed. Conclusions The main purposes in the surgical treatment of RP were to control the prolapse, and to achieve continence and remedy constipation. We believe that the modified Notoras technique made using synthetic materials the most suitable one compared to other rectopexy methods in the treatment of RP because it is safe and easily applicable. Keywords Rectal prolapse; Rectopexy; Modified Notoras technique PMID:21629535

Ozgonul, Abdullah; Uzunkoy, Ali; Sogut, Ozgur; Yalcin, Metin

2010-01-01

174

Sphincter-Sparing Treatment for Distal Rectal Adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Studies suggest that the anal sphincter can be preserved in some patients with distal rectal adenocarcinoma (DRA), but this has not been validated in any prospective multi-institutional trial.Methods: To test the hypothesis that the anal sphincter can be preserved in some patients with DRA, the Cancer and Leukemia Group B and collaborators reviewed 177 patients who had T1\\/T2 adenocarcinomas

Glenn D. Steele; James E. Herndon; Ron Bleday; Anthony Russell; Al Benson III; Maha Hussain; Anne Burgess; Joel E. Tepper; Robert J. Mayer

1999-01-01

175

Current Options for the Management of Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Patients diagnosed with rectal cancer should undergo locoregional staging with transrectal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or\\u000a surface coil array MRI of the pelvis if that technique is available. Patients thought to have more than very early stage (T1\\u000a or T2) disease should undergo abdominal imaging as well by CT or MRI, and chest imaging with either CXR or preferably CT.

Bert H. O’Neil; Joel E. Tepper

2007-01-01

176

Management of oligometastatic rectal cancer: is liver first?  

PubMed Central

Twenty percent of patients with rectal cancer present with synchronous liver metastases at the time of initial diagnosis. These patients can be treated with a curative intent, although the choice and sequence of treatment modalities are not well established and are commonly debated in multi-disciplinary tumor boards. In this article we review clinical evidence for various treatment approaches and attempt to formulate a pathway for clinicians to use in evaluating and managing these patients.

Mitin, Timur; Enestvedt, C. Kristian

2015-01-01

177

Necrotizing soft-tissue infection from rectal abscess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectal abscess may result in necrotizing soft-tissue infection including fasciitis, myositis, and extraperitoneal dissection\\u000a of pus without muscle necrosis. The presentation and therapy of ten patients treated over the past six years are reviewed.\\u000a \\u000a Early recognition of rapidly spreading infection was imperative. The mortality rate of 40 per cent correlated with the degree\\u000a of sepsis present at admission. The high

Philip Huber; Alfred S. Kissack; C. Thomas Simonton

1983-01-01

178

Rapid Dissemination of SIV Follows Multisite Entry after Rectal Inoculation  

PubMed Central

Receptive ano-rectal intercourse is a major cause of HIV infection in men having sex with men and in heterosexuals. Current knowledge of the mechanisms of entry and dissemination during HIV rectal transmission is scarce and does not allow the development of preventive strategies. We investigated the early steps of rectal infection in rhesus macaques inoculated with the pathogenic isolate SIVmac251 and necropsied four hours to nine days later. All macaques were positive for SIV. Control macaques inoculated with heat-inactivated virus were consistently negative for SIV. SIV DNA was detected in the rectum as early as four hours post infection by nested PCR for gag in many laser-microdissected samples of lymphoid aggregates and lamina propria but never in follicle-associated epithelium. Scarce SIV antigen positive cells were observed by immunohistofluorescence in the rectum, among intraepithelial and lamina propria cells as well as in clusters in lymphoid aggregates, four hours post infection and onwards. These cells were T cells and non-T cells that were not epithelial cells, CD68+ macrophages, DC-SIGN+ cells or fascin+ dendritic cells. DC-SIGN+ cells carried infectious virus. Detection of Env singly spliced mRNA in the mucosa by nested RT-PCR indicated ongoing viral replication. Strikingly, four hours post infection colic lymph nodes were also infected in all macaques as either SIV DNA or infectious virus was recovered. Rapid SIV entry and dissemination is consistent with trans-epithelial transport. Virions appear to cross the follicle-associated epithelium, and also the digestive epithelium. Viral replication could however be more efficient in lymphoid aggregates. The initial sequence of events differs from both vaginal and oral infections, which implies that prevention strategies for rectal transmission will have to be specific. Microbicides will need to protect both digestive and follicle-associated epithelia. Vaccines will need to induce immunity in lymph nodes as well as in the rectum. PMID:21573012

Prétet, Jean-Luc; Michel-Salzat, Alice; Messent, Valérie; Bogdanova, Anna; Couëdel-Courteille, Anne; Souil, Evelyne; Cheynier, Rémi; Butor, Cécile

2011-01-01

179

Prediction of rectal temperature from ear canal temperature.  

PubMed

Personal heat strain monitoring provides the best means for maximizing worker safety and productivity in hot jobs. The present study compared methods for reducing the environmental effect on aural canal temperature in an attempt to reduce the predictive error of a personal heat stress monitor (QST) and a simple ear thermistor (EAR). Subjects underwent three exposures in impermeable protective clothing (PC) in an environment of 30.1 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) wearing either ear plugs (PLG), ear moulds (MLD) or ear moulds and earmuffs (MFS). Mean work time across all trials was 63.1 +/- 7.9 min, with a mean rectal temperature at 60 min of 38.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C and a sweat production rate of 29.7 +/- 8.6 g/min. Rectal temperature was used as the criterion measure of core temperature. Although group mean predictions were satisfactory, large SD of mean differences (+/- 0.36) meant that predictive ability of QST for individuals was greatly impaired. A simple well-insulated ear thermistor showed slightly better accuracy (+/- 0.28) as a predictor of rectal temperature across time, particularly at peak temperatures. Incorporating the predictive error of aural temperature still extended the duration of safe work times relative to ACGIH guidelines. Further investigation is still necessary to ensure that predictions based on aural temperature are accurate and safe for the worker population across varying conditions. PMID:11693247

Muir, I H; Bishop, P A; Lomax, R G; Green, J M

2001-09-15

180

Locally advanced rectal cancer: The importance of a multidisciplinary approach  

PubMed Central

Rectal cancer accounts for a relevant part of colorectal cancer cases, with a mortality of 4-10/100000 per year. The development of locoregional recurrences and the occurrence of distant metastases both influences the prognosis of these patients. In the last two decades, new multimodality strategies have improved the prognosis of locally advanced rectal cancer with a significant reduction of local relapse and an increase in terms of overall survival. Radical surgery still remains the principal curative treatment and the introduction of total mesorectal excision has significantly achieved a reduction in terms of local recurrence rates. The employment of neoadjuvant treatment, delivered before surgery, also achieved an improved local control and an increased sphincter preservation rate in low-lying tumors, with an acceptable acute and late toxicity. This review describes the multidisciplinary management of rectal cancer, focusing on the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and of post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy both in the standard combined modality treatment programs and in the ongoing research to improve these regimens. PMID:25516638

Berardi, Rossana; Maccaroni, Elena; Onofri, Azzurra; Morgese, Francesca; Torniai, Mariangela; Tiberi, Michela; Ferrini, Consuelo; Cascinu, Stefano

2014-01-01

181

Rectal cancer: primary staging and assessment after chemoradiotherapy.  

PubMed

Rectal cancer staging is based on 2 principles. The first is an anatomic definition of the tumor allowing for surgical planning. The second is prognostic stage grouping. A given prognostic stage carries different risks of both local and distant recurrence, a selective and tailored approach to preoperative therapy is appropriate. Increasingly, selective approaches enable an overall reduction in morbidity from overtreatment, while allowing aggressive treatment of high-risk patients. Therefore, the aim of preoperative staging is to accurately and reproducibly differentiate between good and poor prognosis tumors. In the preoperative setting, superficial and flat rectal cancers are probably best initially staged using endoscopic ultrasound, and where available magnetic resonance imaging is used for all other rectal cancers because of its proven high sensitivity and specificity in identifying poor-risk patients based on circumferential margin status, the depth of extramural spread, extramural venous invasion, and nodal status. Restaging after neoadjuvant therapy is a challenge to all modalities because of radiation-induced changes, namely fibrosis, edema, inflammation, and necrosis. However, emerging data suggest that reassessment using a combination of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanning may help to provide valuable prognostic information before definitive surgery. PMID:21645861

Evans, Jessica; Patel, Uday; Brown, Gina

2011-07-01

182

Pseudoaneurysm of the internal iliac artery resulting in massive per-rectal bleeding  

PubMed Central

Rectal bleeding is a common reason for presentation to hospital, with large bleeds most commonly caused by diverticular disease and angiodysplasia. Here we present an unusual aetiology of massive per-rectal bleeding attributable to pseudoaneurysm of the internal iliac artery leading to an arterial fistula to the distal large bowel. It is hoped the case will serve as a reminder that rectal bleeding can have a less common aetiology. PMID:24964318

Arthur, T.I.; Gillespie, C.J.; Butcher, W.; Lu, C.T.

2013-01-01

183

Pharmacokinetics of Tenofovir following Intravaginal and Intrarectal Administration of Tenofovir Gel to Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Tenofovir gel (1%) is being developed as a microbicide for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and has been shown to reduce transmission to women by 39%. The gel also prevents infection in macaques when applied intravaginally or intrarectally prior to challenge with simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), but very little pharmacokinetic information for macaques is available to help extrapolate the data to humans and thus inform future development activities. We have determined the pharmacokinetics of tenofovir in macaques following intravaginal and intrarectal administration of 0.2, 1, and 5% gels. Plasma and vaginal and rectal fluid samples were collected up to 24 h after dosing, and at 24 h postdosing biopsy specimens were taken from the vaginal wall, cervix, and rectum. Following vaginal and rectal administration, tenofovir rapidly distributed to the matrices distal to the site of administration. In all matrices, exposure increased with increasing dose, and with the 1% and 5% formulations, concentrations remained detectable in most animals 24 h after dosing. At all doses, concentrations at the dosing site were typically 1 to 2 log units higher than those in the opposite compartment and 4 to 5 log units higher than those in plasma. Exposure in vaginal fluid after vaginal dosing was 58 to 82% lower than that in rectal fluid after rectal dosing, but plasma exposure was 1- to 2-fold greater after vaginal dosing than after rectal dosing. These data suggest that a tenofovir-based microbicide may have the potential to protect when exposure is via vaginal or anal intercourse, regardless of whether the microbicide is applied vaginally or rectally. PMID:21986823

Kashuba, Angela; Wang, Ruili; White, Nicole; Allen, Philip; Roberts, Jeffrey; Romano, Joseph

2012-01-01

184

Successful treatment of endoscopically unmanageable rectal varices by balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy followed by microcoil embolization.  

PubMed

The present report describes two cases of endoscopically unmanageable rectal varices that were treated by balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy (BATS) followed by microcoil embolization. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed eradication of the rectal varices. Balloon-occluded rectal venography showed stasis of contrast material and sclerosing agent for 30 minutes in both cases of rectal varices, which indicated that the inflow vessel was a single dilated superior rectal vein without other minor inflow vessels. BATS appears to be a feasible therapeutic option for the treatment of rectal varices of this hemodynamic type. PMID:23973026

Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Ikoma, Akira; Sanda, Hiroki; Nakata, Kouhei; Tanaka, Takami; Nakai, Motoki; Sonomura, Tetsuo

2013-09-01

185

Rectal corticosteroids versus alternative treatments in ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Clear strategies to optimise the use of corticosteroids in ulcerative colitis are lacking. AIM: A meta-analysis was undertaken to examine critically the role of rectal corticosteroids in the management of active distal ulcerative colitis. METHODS: All reported randomised controlled trials were retrieved by searching the Medline and EMBASE databases and the bibliographies of relevant studies. Trials which met inclusion criteria were assessed for scientific rigour. Data were extracted by two independent observers according to predetermined criteria. RESULTS: Of 83 trials retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. Pooled odds ratios (POR) showed conventional rectal corticosteroids and rectal budesonide to be clearly superior to placebo. In seven trials, rectal 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was significantly better than conventional rectal corticosteroids for inducing remission of symptoms, endoscopy, and histology with POR of 2.42 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.72-3.41), 1.89 (95% CI 1.29-2.76), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.28-3.20), respectively. Rectal budesonide was of comparable efficacy to conventional corticosteroids but produced less endogenous cortisol suppression. Side effects, although inconsistently reported, were generally minor. A cost comparison of rectal preparations showed 5-ASA to be less expensive than corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Rectal 5-ASA is superior to rectal corticosteroids in the management of distal ulcerative colitis. PMID:9245932

Marshall, J K; Irvine, E J

1997-01-01

186

[Ways to improve the results of the staple suture use for the rectal anastomosis].  

PubMed

Treatment results of 311 patients with rectal cancer T1-4N0-2M0-1, who received the anterior rectal resection with mechanic circular colorectal anastomosis, were analyzed. The minimal frequency of the anastomotic insufficiency was registered among the "end-to-side" anastomosis (3.75%). Mechanical suturing of the rectal stump did not increase the risk of insufficiency. The use of the preventive colostoma allows the formation of the primary anastomosis even in conditions of partial intestinal obstruction. The laparoscopic anterior rectal resections did not influence the insufficiency rate, being preferable considering the postoperative rehabilitation terms. PMID:24362290

Kit, O I; Gevorkian, Iu A; Soldatkina, N V

2013-01-01

187

Which endoscopic treatment is the best for small rectal carcinoid tumors?  

PubMed Central

The incidence of rectal carcinoids is rising because of the widespread use of screening colonoscopy. Rectal carcinoids detected incidentally are usually in earlier stages at diagnosis. Rectal carcinoids estimated endoscopically as < 10 mm in diameter without atypical features and confined to the submucosal layer can be removed endoscopically. Here, we review the efficacy and safety of various endoscopic treatments for small rectal carcinoid tumors, including conventional polypectomy, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), cap-assisted EMR (or aspiration lumpectomy), endoscopic submucosal resection with ligating device, endoscopic submucosal dissection, and transanal endoscopic microsurgery. It is necessary to carefully choose an effective and safe primary resection method for complete histological resection. PMID:24147192

Choi, Hyun Ho; Kim, Jin Su; Cheung, Dae Young; Cho, Young-Seok

2013-01-01

188

Limited segmental rectal resection in the treatment of deeply infiltrating rectal endometriosis: 10 years’ experience from a tertiary referral unit  

PubMed Central

Background. The management of symptomatic rectal endometriosis is a challenging condition that may necessitate limited stripping or limited segmental anterior rectal resection (LSARR) depending upon the extent and severity of the disease. Objective. To report the efficacy of LSARR in terms of pain, quality of life and short- and long-term complications—in particular, those pertaining to bowel function. Methods. The case notes of all patients undergoing LSARR were reviewed. The analysed variables included surgical complications, overall symptomatic improvement rate, dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia, and dyschezia. Chronic pain was measured using a visual analogue scale. Quality of life was measured using the EQ-5D questionnaire. Bowel symptoms were assessed using the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC) questionnaire. Results. Seventy-four women who underwent LSARR by both open and laparoscopic approaches were included in this study. Sixty-nine (93.2%) women reported improvement in pain and the same percentage would recommend the similar procedure to a friend with the same problem. Approximately 42% of women who wished to conceive had at least one baby. The higher frequency of defecation was a problem in the early post-operative period but this settled in later stages without influencing the quality of life score. Post-operative complications were recorded in 14.9% of cases. Conclusions. LSARR for rectal endometriosis is associated with a high degree of symptomatic relief. Pain relief achieved following LSARR does not appear to degrade with time. As anticipated, some rectal symptoms persist in few patients after long-term follow-up but LSARR is nonetheless still associated with a very high degree of patient satisfaction. PMID:25146341

English, James; Sajid, Muhammad S.; Lo, Jenney; Hudelist, Guy; Baig, Mirza K.; Miles, William A.

2014-01-01

189

Correlation of Chromosomal Instability, Telomere Length and Telomere Maintenance in Microsatellite Stable Rectal Cancer: A Molecular Subclass of Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN) and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS) and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+). However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-). MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition. Experimental Design MSS rectal cancers from patients ?50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher) or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]). Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH. Results Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN-) and chromosomally instable (CIN+) by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6) had fewer copy number changes (<17% of their clones with DNA copy number changes) than CIN+ tumors (65%; n=13) which had high levels of copy number changes in 20% to 49% of clones. Telomere lengths were longer in CIN- compared to CIN+ tumors (p=0.0066) and in those in which telomerase was not activated (p=0.004). Tumors exhibiting activation of telomerase had shorter tumor telomeres (p=0.0040); and tended to be CIN+ (p=0.0949). Conclusions MSS rectal cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase. PMID:24278232

Boardman, Lisa A.; Johnson, Ruth A.; Viker, Kimberly B.; Hafner, Kari A.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Litzelman, Kristin; Seo, Songwon; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Rider, David N.; Vanderboom, Russell J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Skinner, Halcyon G.

2013-01-01

190

In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal near-infrared optical tomography of canine prostate bearing transmissible venereal tumor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography is conducted on a tumor-bearing canine prostate with the assistance of trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The canine prostate tumor model is made possible by a unique round cell neoplasm of dogs, transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) that can be transferred from dog to dog regardless of histocompatibility. A characterized TVT cell line was homogenized and passed twice in subcutaneous tissue of NOD/SCID mice. Following the second passage, the tumor was recovered, homogenized and then inoculated by ultrasound guidance into the prostate gland of a healthy dog. The dog was then imaged with a combined trans-rectal NIR and TRUS imager using an integrated trans-rectal NIR/US applicator. The image was taken by NIR and US modalities concurrently, both in sagittal view. The trans-rectal NIR imager is a continuous-wave system that illuminates 7 source channels sequentially by a fiber switch to deliver sufficient light power to the relatively more absorbing prostate tissue and samples 7 detection channels simultaneously by a gated intensified high-resolution CCD camera. This work tests the feasibility of detecting prostate tumor by trans-rectal NIR optical tomography and the benefit of augmenting TRUS with trans-rectal NIR imaging.

Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Piao, Daqing

2009-02-01

191

Various techniques of contouring the rectum and their impact on rectal dose-volume histograms  

SciTech Connect

Late rectal bleeding resulting from radiotherapy has been correlated with rectal dose-volume histograms (DVHs). The techniques of contouring the rectum have been inconsistent within the literature, making interpretations of DVHs difficult. This study was conducted to investigate the impact on rectal DVHs when using different ways of contouring. Ten prostate cancer patients were treated with a 4-field box-technique and received 70 Gy. Six different ways of contouring the rectum were implemented by using 3 different cross-sections and 2 different lengths. The 3 different cross sections were (1) anterior rectal wall (arw): only the anterior half of the rectal wall was contoured; (2) whole rectal wall (wrw): the entire rectal wall was contoured but excluding the rectal contents; and (3) the rectum (rec): including the rectal contents. Two different lengths were used for the above 3 volumes: (1) long (Lg): cranial border starting at where the rectum turned horizontally into the sigmoid and the caudal border 2 cm below the prostatic apex; (2) short (Sh): from 2 cm above to 2 cm below the prostate. Therefore, a total of 6 different volumes (Sh arw, Lg arw, Sh wrw, Lg wrw, Sh rec, and Lg rec) were generated. DVHs of all 6 volumes were compared with the y-axis being percentage volume as well as absolute volume (cc). When using percentage volume as the y-axis, Sh arw gave an impression that a large portion of rectum (median of 41.8%) received high dose (greater than 90% prescribed dose), while the Lg wrw and Lg rec revealed a smaller portion of rectum (median of 17.1% and 14.7%, respectively) received high dose. The other contours were somewhere in-between. When using absolute volume as the y-axis, the DVHs of the 4 rectal volumes, excluding the rectal content (Sh and Lg arw, Sh and Lg wrw), merged at doses greater than 80% to 85% prescription, therefore providing similar information within these high-dose regions. Configurations of rectal DVHs varied drastically with different techniques of contouring and may lead to different interpretations. By using absolute volume (cc) as the y-axis, the shape of the 4 rectal DVHs, excluding the rectal content, were similar in the high-dose region. Reporting rectal toxicities in relations to DVHs using absolute volume, as well as percentage volume, may eliminate inconsistencies secondary to different methods of contouring.

Liu, Mitchell; Berthelet, Eric; Patterson, Kelly; Dick, Ken; Kwan, Winkle

2003-09-30

192

¹H NMR-based metabolic profiling of human rectal cancer tissue  

PubMed Central

Background Rectal cancer is one of the most prevalent tumor types. Understanding the metabolic profile of rectal cancer is important for developing therapeutic approaches and molecular diagnosis. Methods Here, we report a metabonomics profiling of tissue samples on a large cohort of human rectal cancer subjects (n?=?127) and normal controls (n?=?43) using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) based metabonomics assay, which is a highly sensitive and non-destructive method for the biomarker identification in biological systems. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied to analyze the 1H-NMR profiling data to identify the distinguishing metabolites of rectal cancer. Results Excellent separation was obtained and distinguishing metabolites were observed among the different stages of rectal cancer tissues (stage I?=?35; stage II?=?37; stage III?=?37 and stage IV?=?18) and normal controls. A total of 38 differential metabolites were identified, 16 of which were closely correlated with the stage of rectal cancer. The up-regulation of 10 metabolites, including lactate, threonine, acetate, glutathione, uracil, succinate, serine, formate, lysine and tyrosine, were detected in the cancer tissues. On the other hand, 6 metabolites, including myo-inositol, taurine, phosphocreatine, creatine, betaine and dimethylglycine were decreased in cancer tissues. These modified metabolites revealed disturbance of energy, amino acids, ketone body and choline metabolism, which may be correlated with the progression of human rectal cancer. Conclusion Our findings firstly identify the distinguishing metabolites in different stages of rectal cancer tissues, indicating possibility of the attribution of metabolites disturbance to the progression of rectal cancer. The altered metabolites may be as potential biomarkers, which would provide a promising molecular diagnostic approach for clinical diagnosis of human rectal cancer. The role and underlying mechanism of metabolites in rectal cancer progression are worth being further investigated. PMID:24138801

2013-01-01

193

Administrative Ecology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

2007-01-01

194

25 mg versus 50?mg dose of rectal diclofenac for prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis in Japanese patients: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the appropriate administration dose of non-steroidal anti-inflammation drugs to prevent pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Importantly, the 100?mg dose of diclofenac recommended in Western countries has not been permitted in Japan. Design A retrospective study. Settings A single centre in Japan. Participants This study enrolled patients who underwent ERCP at the Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka Saiseikai Senri Hospital, from April 2011 through June 2013, and who received either a 25 or a 50?mg dose of rectal diclofenac after ERCP. Primary outcome measure The occurrence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). A multivariate regression model was used to assess the effect of the 50?mg dose (the 50?mg group) of rectal diclofenac and to compare it to the occurrence of PEP referring to the 25?mg group. Results A total of 155 eligible patients received either 25?mg (84 patients) or 50?mg (71 patients) doses of rectal diclofenac after ERCP to prevent PEP. The proportion of PEP was significantly lower in the 50?mg group than in the 25?mg group (15.5% (11/71) vs 33.3% (28/84), p=0.018). In a multivariate analysis, the occurrence of PEP was significantly lower in the 50?mg group than in the 25?mg group even after adjusting potential confounding factors (adjusted OR=0.27, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.70). Conclusions From this observation, the occurrence of PEP was significantly lower among ERCP patients with the 50?mg dose of rectal diclofenac than among those with the 25?mg dose. PMID:25795692

Yoshihara, Takeo; Horimoto, Masayoshi; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Osugi, Naoto; Ikezoe, Tatsuro; Kotani, Kaori; Sanada, Toru; Higashi, Churi; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Ota, Makiyo; Mizuno, Tatsunori; Gotoh, Yasukazu; Okuda, Yorihide; Suzuki, Kunio

2015-01-01

195

Rectal ulcer with an elusive diagnosis: all that ulcers is not Crohn disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A single rectal ulcer is an uncommon finding in children with gastrointestinal disease. Although inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is foremost among the differential diagnoses, a primary immunological defect should not be forgotten. Because of the paucity of literature on the association of rectal ul...

196

Incidentally found rectal duplication during surgery for rectovestibular fistula and its management  

PubMed Central

Association of rectal duplication with rectovestibular fistula is rare. A 3-month-old patient underwent primary posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) for rectovestibular fistula. During surgery the patient was found to have a rectal duplication (RD). We managed the case by excising the common wall and fenestrating the two lumens together and completed the PSARP. PMID:25552834

Balaji, Dhiraj K.; Basavaraju, Mamatha

2015-01-01

197

Altered rectal perception is a biological marker of patients with irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Lowered visceral perception thresholds have been suggested as a biological marker of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The current study sought to determine the prevalence of altered rectal visceral perception in patients with IBS and the correlation of altered perception thresholds with subjective symptoms. Methods: Anorectal manometry and rectal perception thresholds to balloon distention were determined in 100

Howard Mertz; Bruce Naliboff; Julie Munakata; Negar Niazi; Emeran A. Mayer

1995-01-01

198

Successful treatment of rectal cancer with perineal invasion: Three case reports  

PubMed Central

Rectal cancer occasionally invades adjacent organs. However, rectal cancer with perineal invasion is uncommon and difficult to treat. Locally advanced colorectal cancer may be clinically treated with neoadjuvant therapy, followed by en bloc resection. Skin invasion may lead to tumor dissemination via cutaneous blood flow and lymphatic routes. There is currently no firm evidence regarding the treatment of these significantly advanced rectal cancers. In this study, we report 3 cases of rectal cancer with perineal invasion, successfully managed by multimodality treatment. Case 1 is a 52-year-old man with rectal cancer that had invaded the perineum; case 2 is a 38-year-old man with rectal cancer infiltrating the perineal skin and liver metastasis; and case 3 is a 50-year-old woman with rectal cancer and perineal invasion. All the cases were treated with radical excision. No severe complications were observed in the perioperative period. Case 2, in particular, was confirmed to remain alive 5 years after the surgery. Our experience suggests that multimodality treatment, including extended radical surgery, may be a feasible approach to the treatment of rectal cancer with perineal skin invasion. PMID:24940483

KITAHARA, TOMOHIRO; UEMURA, MAMORU; HARAGUCHI, NAOTSUGU; NISHIMURA, JUNICHI; SHINGAI, TATSUSHI; HATA, TAISHI; TAKEMASA, ICHIRO; MIZUSHIMA, TSUNEKAZU; DOKI, YUICHIRO; MORI, MASAKI; YAMAMOTO, HIROFUMI

2014-01-01

199

Subtotal colectomy for ulcerative colitis: Complications related to the rectal remnant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complications related to the retained rectal remnant were reviewed in 136 patients undergoing subtotal colectomy for acute ulcerative colitis. Fifty-five patients (Group 1) had a closed rectal stump brought up into the subcutaneous tissue, and 30 (Group 2) had an open mucous fistula. These were compared with an intrapelvic Hartmann's pouch performed in 51 patients (Group 3). All patients eventually

Frank M. Carter; Robin S. McLeod; Zane Cohen

1991-01-01

200

Formulation and delivery of anti-HIV rectal microbicides: advances and challenges.  

PubMed

Men and women engaged in unprotected receptive anal intercourse (RAI) are at higher risk of acquiring HIV from infected partners. The implementation of preventive strategies is urgent and rectal microbicides may be a useful tool in reducing the sexual transmission of HIV. However, pre-clinical and first clinical trials have been able to identify limitations of candidate products, mostly related with safety issues, which can in turn enhance viral infection. Indeed, the development of suitable formulations for the rectal delivery of promising antiretroviral drugs is not an easy task, and has been mostly based on products specifically intended for vaginal delivery, but these have been shown to provide sub-optimal outcomes when administered rectally. Research and development in the rectal microbicide field are now charting their own path and important information is now available. In particular, specific formulation requirements of rectal microbicide products that need to be met have just recently been acknowledged despite additional work being still required. Desirable rectal microbicide product features regarding characteristics such as pH, osmolality, excipients, dosage forms, volume to be administered and the need for applicator use have been studied and defined in recent years, and specific guidance is now possible. This review provides a synopsis of the field of rectal microbicides, namely past and ongoing clinical studies, and details on formulation and drug delivery issues regarding the specific development of rectal microbicide products. Also, future work, as required for the advancement of the field, is discussed. PMID:25229988

Nunes, Rute; Sarmento, Bruno; das Neves, José

2014-11-28

201

Patient factors may predict anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Anastomotic complications following rectal cancer surgery occur with varying frequency. Preoperative radiation, BMI, and low anastomoses have been implicated as predictors in previous studies, but their definitive role is still under review. The objective of our study was to identify patient and operative factors that may be predictive of anastomotic complications. Methods A retrospective review was performed on patients who had sphincter-preservation surgery performed for rectal cancer at a tertiary medical center between 2005 and 2011. Results 123 patients were included in this study, mean age was 59 (26–86), 58% were male. There were 33 complications in 32 patients (27%). Stenosis was the most frequent complication (24 of 33). 11 patients required mechanical dilatation, and 4 had operative revision of the anastomosis. Leak or pelvic abscess were present in 9 patients (7.3%); 4 were explored, 2 were drained and 3 were managed conservatively. 4 patients had permanent colostomy created due to anastomotic complications. Laparoscopy approach, BMI, age, smoking and tumor distance from anal verge were not significantly associated with anastomotic complications. After a multivariate analysis chemoradiation was significantly associated with overall anastomotic complications (Wall = 0.35, p = 0.05), and hemoglobin levels were associated with anastomotic leak (Wald = 4.09, p = 0.04). Conclusion Our study identifies preoperative anemia as possible risk factor for anastomotic leak and neoadjuvant chemoradiation may lead to increased risk of complications overall. Further prospective studies will help to elucidate these findings as well as identify amenable factors that may decrease risk of anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery. PMID:25685338

Hayden, Dana M.; Mora Pinzon, Maria C.; Francescatti, Amanda B.; Saclarides, Theodore J.

2014-01-01

202

Palliative Treatment of Rectal Carcinoma Recurrence Using Radiofrequency Ablation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the palliative treatment of recurrent unresectable rectal tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation. Therapy was performed with the patient under conscious sedation with a seven- or a nine-array expandable RF electrode for 8-10 min at 80-110 Degree-Sign C and a power of 90-110 W. All patients went home under instructions the next day of the procedure. Brief Pain Inventory score was calculated before and after (1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months) treatment. Results: Complete tumor necrosis rate was 77.8% (21 of a total 27 procedures) despite lesion location. BPI score was dramatically decreased after the procedure. The mean preprocedure BPI score was 6.59, which decreased to 3.15, 1.15, and 0.11 at postprocedure day 1, week 1, and month 1, respectively, after the procedure. This decrease was significant (p < 0.01 for the first day and p < 0.001 for the rest of the follow-up intervals (paired Student t test; n - 1 = 26) for all periods during follow-up. Six patients had partial tumor necrosis, and we were attempted to them with a second procedure. Although the necrosis area showed a radiographic increase, no complete necrosis was achieved (secondary success rate 65.6%). No immediate or delayed complications were observed. Conclusion: CT-guided RF ablation is a minimally invasive, safe, and highly effective technique for treatment of malignant rectal recurrence. The method is well tolerated by patients, and pain relief is quickly achieved.

Mylona, Sophia, E-mail: mylonasophia@yahoo.com; Karagiannis, Georgios, E-mail: gekaragiannis@yahoo.gr; Patsoura, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.patsoura@yahoo.gr [Hellenic Red Cross Hospital 'Korgialenio-Benakio' (Greece); Galani, Panagiota, E-mail: gioulagalani@yahoo.com [Amalia Fleming Hospital (Greece); Pomoni, Maria, E-mail: marypomoni@gmail.com [Evgenidion Hospital (Greece); Thanos, Loukas, E-mail: loutharad@yahoo.com [Sotiria Hospital (Greece)

2012-08-15

203

Generic Planning Target Margin for Rectal Cancer Treatment Setup Variation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To calculate the generic planning target margin (GPTM) for patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) for rectal cancer placed in a prone position with a customized cradle for small-bowel exclusion. Methods and Materials: A total of 25 consecutive rectal cancer patients were treated for 25 or 28 fractions in a prone position using a cradle to maximize small bowel exclusion. Treatment planning computed tomography (CT) scans were used to create orthogonally digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) for portal image registration, which were compared with daily portal images from an electronic portal-imaging device (EPID). Translation values needed to align the DRRs and EPIDs were recorded for the superior to inferior (SI), right to left (RL), and anterior to posterior (AP) directions, and used to calculate the GPTM using the four-parameter model. Age, weight, and body mass index were tested compared with the setup variation using a Pearson correlation and a t test for significance. Gender versus setup variation was compared with a t test. Results: A total of 1,723 EPID images were reviewed. The GPTM was 10 mm superior, 8 mm inferior, 7 mm RL and 10 mm AP. Age and gender were unrelated to setup variation. Weight was significantly associated with systematic AP variation (p < 0.05). BMI was significantly associated with systematic SI (p < 0.05) and AP (p < 0.01) variation and random RL variation (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The GPTM for rectal cancer is asymmetric with a maximum of 10 mm in the superior, anterior and posterior dimensions. Body mass index may effect setup variation. Research using advanced treatment planning should include these margins in the planning target volume definition.

Robertson, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)], E-mail: jrobertson@beaumont.edu; Campbell, Jonathon P.; Yan Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

2009-08-01

204

Irinotecan-Eluting Beads in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer That Has Spread to the Liver  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

2014-04-09

205

Identification and genotyping of bacteria from paired vaginal and rectal samples from pregnant women indicates similarity between vaginal and rectal microflora  

PubMed Central

Background The vaginal microflora is important for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections of the reproductive tract. The rectum has been suggested as the major source for the colonisation of the vaginal econiche. Methods To establish whether the rectum can serve as a possible bacterial reservoir for colonisation of the vaginal econiche, we cultured vaginal and rectal specimens from pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, identified the isolates to the species level with tRNA intergenic length polymorphism analysis (tDNA-PCR) and genotyped the isolates for those subjects from which the same species was isolated simultaneously vaginally and rectally, by RAPD-analysis. One vaginal and one rectal swab were collected from a total of each of 132 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Swabs were cultured on Columbia CNA agar and MRS agar. For each subject 4 colonies were selected for each of both sites, i.e. 8 colonies in total. Results Among the 844 isolates that could be identified by tDNA-PCR, a total of 63 bacterial species were present, 9 (14%) only vaginally, 26 (41%) only rectally, and 28 (44%) in both vagina and rectum. A total of 121 (91.6%) of 132 vaginal samples and 51 (38.6%) of 132 rectal samples were positive for lactobacilli. L. crispatus was the most frequently isolated Lactobacillus species from the vagina (40% of the subjects were positive), followed by L. jensenii (32%), L. gasseri (30%) and L. iners (11%). L. gasseri was the most frequently isolated Lactobacillus species from the rectum (15%), followed by L. jensenii (12%), L. crispatus (11%) and L. iners (2%). A total of 47 pregnant women carried the same species vaginally and rectally. This resulted in 50 vaginal/rectal pairs of the same species, for a total of eight different species. For 34 of the 50 species pairs (68%), isolates with the same genotype were present vaginally and rectally and a high level of genotypic diversity within species per subject was also established. Conclusion It can be concluded that there is a certain degree of correspondence between the vaginal and rectal microflora, not only with regard to species composition but also with regard to strain identity between vaginal and rectal isolates. These results support the hypothesis that the rectal microflora serves as a reservoir for colonisation of the vaginal econiche. PMID:19828036

2009-01-01

206

Colonic obstruction due to rectal endometriosis: report of a case.  

PubMed

Although endometriosis is a common disease in women of childbearing age, intestinal endometriosis is unusual and may cause clinically significant complications. We report a 46-year-old woman with rectal endometriosis who presented with intestinal obstruction. She was operated on with a preoperative diagnosis of malignancy. The diagnosis of endometriosis was made only after histological examination of the resected specimen. Intestinal endometriosis has a diverse clinical spectrum, with nonspecific features in many patients. In female patients who have unexplained digestive complaints, endometriosis should also be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:16252190

Yildirim, Sedat; Nursal, Tarik Z; Tarim, Akin; Torer, Nurkan; Bal, Nebil; Yildirim, Tülin

2005-03-01

207

Limited Survival in the Treatment of Carcinomatosis From Rectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a PURPOSE  Carcinomatosis from colon and rectal cancer has always been regarded as a lethal condition. Recently, numerous reports suggest\\u000a that long-term survival is possible in selected patients if a definitive management strategy is used. An important task involves\\u000a the clear description of the clinical features that influence prognosis in these patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a METHODS  From June 1981 to November 2004, 156 patients with peritoneal

Rodrigo Gomes da Silva; Jacobo Cabanas; Paul H. Sugarbaker

2005-01-01

208

Giant Rectal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Giant gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the rectum are rare and often difficult to remove surgically. At the time metastases are found, GISTs are considered to be incurable and until recently no adequate therapy was of any value for these patients. Recently, imatinib was introduced: a signal transducing inhibitor acting specifically on the KIT-tyrosine kinase, which can be used to downsize giant GIST (neo-adjuvant) before surgery or induce stable disease in case of metastases with few minor side-effects. Two patients with giant rectal GIST are presented, one of which was treated before the imatinib era, the other when imatinib was available. PMID:21490839

Dickhoff, C.; Leguit, R.J.; Slors, J.F.M.; Vervenne, W.L.; Bemelman, W.A.

2008-01-01

209

Primary hepatic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with rectal cancer: A case report  

PubMed Central

Primary hepatic non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is an extremely rare disease that is commonly neglected as a possible diagnosis. The present study reports the case of a middle-aged male with chronic hepatitis B in which primary hepatic NHL and rectal cancer occurred simultaneously. A large solitary tumor in the left lobe of the liver was incidentally detected on routine examination prior to the laparoscopic resection of the rectal cancer. Laparoscopic resection of the rectal cancer and a liver biopsy were performed simultaneously. The pathology revealed that the hepatic tumor was NHL and that the rectal cancer was adenocarcinoma. Systemic staging revealed no evidence of nodal or bone marrow involvement, therefore, primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) was diagnosed. PHL associated with rectal adenocarcinoma is extremely rare and to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported. At present, the cause and most effective therapy for the condition remain unclear. PMID:25435985

WU, GUO-BIN; HUANG, CHAO-YUAN; HUANG, SHAN; RU, HAI-MING; XIANG, BANG-DE; YUAN, WEI-PING; WU, FEI-XIANG; LIU, JIAN-YONG; ZHANG, ZHI-MING; MA, LIANG; CHEN, ZU-SHUN; ZHAO, YIN-NONG; LI, LE-QUN

2015-01-01

210

Topical application of WR-2721 achieves high concentrations in the rectal wall.  

PubMed

Rectal wall injury is an important treatment-related morbidity in patients treated with radiation for prostate cancer. We have undertaken this study to investigate the merits of topical intrarectal application of the radioprotective compound WR-2721. Male Copenhagen rats were injected intrarectally with 2% WR-2721 gel. At 10, 20, 30 and 40 min after application, a laparotomy was performed, and the rectum and prostate were removed. Concentrations of total WR-1065 (the active metabolite of WR-2721) were determined in these samples by an HPLC assay. While the concentration in the rectal wall tended to increase with time, it did not change substantially in the prostate. The concentration in the rectal wall was found to be significantly higher at all times. We conclude that preferential accumulation of WR-2721 in the rectal wall can be achieved by topical application. This is a promising approach to modifying rectal wall tolerance that deserves more study. PMID:7597137

Ben-Josef, E; Mesina, J; Shaw, L M; Bonner, H S; Shamsa, F; Porter, A T

1995-07-01

211

Dynamic study of rectally absorbed ammonia in liver cirrhosis using (13N)ammonia and a positron camera  

SciTech Connect

(13N)Ammonia produced by the cyclotron was instilled intrarectally in patients with cirrhosis and other liver diseases to study the turnover of rectally absorbed (12N)ammonia. In the control, (13N)ammonia was absorbed quickly and visualized the liver, whereas in patients with cirrhosis, the lungs and heart were first visualized, and 13N activity over the head was also higher. It was suggested that a large proportion of absorbed (13N)ammonia bypassed hepatocytes and reached peripheral tissues in cirrhosis. The heart/liver ratio of 13N and 13N over the head were correlated with various indices of portal hypertension. The relative proportion of nonammonia 13N metabolites in blood was lower at 5 and 15 min after administration in cirrhosis, suggesting a reduced capacity of the liver to remove and metabolize ammonia.

Koen, H.; Okuda, K.; Musha, H.; Tateno, Y.; Fukuda, N.; Matsumoto, T.; Shisido, F.; Rikitake, T,; Iinuma, T.; Kurisu, A.; Arimizu, N.

1980-11-01

212

Tetraethylammonium enhances the rectal and colonic motility in rats and human in vitro.  

PubMed

Hirschsprung's disease is the congenital absence of generating the peristaltic contractions transmitting from the proximal colon to rectum. We previously have found that tetraethylammonium (TEA), the nonselective Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocker, increases the maximal contractile force and the amplitude of the contraction in rat duodenum. The present study is to test the effect of TEA on motility of colon and rectum from rats and Hirschsprung's disease patients in vitro, in order to find an alternative method to improve the syndrome of Hirschsprung's disease. The rectal and colonic motility was recorded by a tension transducer connected to a biology function experiment system. Histology was analyzed with standard hematoxylin and eosin staining. TEA (1, 3, and 5 mM) significantly increased the amplitude and frequency of contractility of colon and rectum from rats in longitudinal and circular direction. TEA at 5 and 15 mM concentrations showed no effect on histology of colon and rectum from rats that were administered locally with TEA into colon lumen from anus for 10 days. TEA at 15 mM increased the amplitude and frequency of contractions of the colon and rectum from Hirschsprung's disease patients. Our data showed that TEA increased the contractility of colon and rectum from rats and Hirschsprung's disease patients in vitro, suggesting that local administration of TEA in colon or rectum lumen might be an alternative method to ameliorate the syndrome of Hirschsprung's disease patients who are not cured completely by surgery or not suitable for surgery. PMID:21630039

Li, Zhe; Xu, Zhi-Lin; Liang, Jing; Wu, Ji-Chao; Hu, Chao-Wei; Xie, Hui; Ma, Wen-Chao; Jiang, Hong-Chi; Yang, Bao-Feng; Dong, De-Li

2011-08-01

213

Lymph node harvest in colon and rectal cancer: Current considerations  

PubMed Central

The prognostic significance of identifying lymph node (LN) metastases following surgical resection for colon and rectal cancer is well recognized and is reflected in accurate staging of the disease. An established body of evidence exists, demonstrating an association between a higher total LN count and improved survival, particularly for node negative colon cancer. In node positive disease, however, the lymph node ratios may represent a better prognostic indicator, although the impact of this on clinical treatment has yet to be universally established. By extension, strategies to increase surgical node harvest and/or laboratory methods to increase LN yield seem logical and might improve cancer staging. However, debate prevails as to whether or not these extrapolations are clinically relevant, particularly when very high LN counts are sought. Current guidelines recommend a minimum of 12 nodes harvested as the standard of care, yet the evidence for such is questionable as it is unclear whether an increasing the LN count results in improved survival. Findings from modern treatments, including down-staging in rectal cancer using pre-operative chemoradiotherapy, paradoxically suggest that lower LN count, or indeed complete absence of LNs, are associated with improved survival; implying that using a specific number of LNs harvested as a measure of surgical quality is not always appropriate. The pursuit of a sufficient LN harvest represents good clinical practice; however, recent evidence shows that the exhaustive searching for very high LN yields may be unnecessary and has little influence on modern approaches to treatment. PMID:22347537

McDonald, James R; Renehan, Andrew G; O’Dwyer, Sarah T; Haboubi, Najib Y

2012-01-01

214

Early and late toxicity of radiotherapy for rectal cancer.  

PubMed

With the implementation of total mesorectal excision surgery and neoadjuvant (chemo) radiotherapy, the outcome of rectal cancer patients has improved and a substantial proportion of them have become long-term survivors. These advances come at the expense of radiation- and chemotherapy-related toxicity which remains an underestimated problem. Radiation-induced early toxicity in rectal cancer treatment mainly includes diarrhea, cystitis, and perineal dermatitis, while bowel dysfunction, fecal incontinence, bleeding, and perforation, genitourinary dysfunction, and pelvic fractures constitute the majority of late toxicity. It is now generally accepted that short-course radiotherapy (SCRT) and immediate surgery is associated with less early toxicity compared to conventionally fractionated chemoradiotherapy with delayed surgery. There are no significant differences in late toxicity between both treatment regimens. While there is hardly an increase in early toxicity after preoperative SCRT with immediate surgery, late toxicity is substantial compared to surgery alone. Early toxicity is more frequent when a longer interval between SCRT and surgery is used and is comparable to the toxicity observed with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy except that it occurs after the end of the radiotherapy. So far, randomized phase III trials failed to demonstrate a substantial gain in tumoural response when oxaliplatin or molecular agents are added to the multimodality treatment. Moreover, the addition of these drugs increases toxicity and remains therefore experimental. PMID:25103006

Joye, Ines; Haustermans, Karin

2014-01-01

215

Distant metastasis of rectal adenocarcinoma in a temporary tracheostoma  

PubMed Central

Background The temporary tracheostoma’s metastases of head and neck cancer had already been reported in the literature. So far, they had been considered as regional dissemination of the malignant disease. We report a case of temporary tracheostoma’s metastasis of carcinoma from non-head-and-neck primary site, what has not been reported in the literature, yet. Therefore, it is the first reported case of the systemic dissemination of malignant tumour into temporary tracheostoma. Case report. Fifty-four-year-old female patient, previously treated for a rectal adenocarcinoma, reported in our office with exophytic pink tissue masses around the temporary tracheostoma. The biopsy and immunohistochemistry findings were consistent with temporary tracheostoma’s metastasis of the rectal adenocarcinoma. The patient received palliative radiotherapy and died of systemic progression of the disease. Conclusions The patients with history of primary cancer of any origin and exophytic proliferating changes around the tracheostoma require an appropriate diagnostic work-up including a biopsy. The type of treatment depends on the extent of the disease, previous therapy and general condition of the patient. PMID:25435853

Sifrer, Robert; Strojan, Primoz; Zidar, Nina; Zargi, Miha; Groselj, Ales; Krajinovic, Milena

2014-01-01

216

The need for future surgical low rectal cancer studies.  

PubMed

Optimal surgery remains the mainstay of best outcome for rectal cancer. The demonstration, during the 3rd Annual Pelican Surgical Workshop Symposium, of an abdomino-perineal excision (APE) performed in the 'Berlin position', further added to the debate on optimal surgical technique. Much interest was created at the 1st Pelican symposium with the demonstration, by the Swedish surgeon Dr Torbjorn Holm, of a prone APE and the delivery of a 'cylindrical' specimen and the potential to reduce local recurrence using this approach. The high rates of local recurrence following APE and the discussions as to optimal technique have led to the development of a proposed MERCURY Study Group study to assess the benefit of a radical APE, with careful assessment of the impact that this operation may have on morbidity. A German study has also been proposed adopting the UK's multidisciplinary team approach. It aims at targeting preoperative chemoradiotherapy at those patients in whom a radical APE or total mesorectal excision is likely to result in an involved surgical resection margin. In this article we review the evidence for improving the surgical technique for low rectal cancer. We believe improvements may be best achieved through continued European prospective, multi-centre, multidisciplinary studies. PMID:16813589

Daniels, I R; Strassburg, J; Moran, B J

2006-09-01

217

Longitudinal plication - a surgical strategy for complete rectal prolapse management  

PubMed Central

Background Rectal prolapse is a known problem since antiquity and the cause is not fully understood. Despite the presence of more than 100 lines of treatment, none of them is ideal. Methods Between the years of (2005–2011), thirty patients with full-thickness rectal prolapse were operated upon. Age ranged between (2–65 years) with a mean of 21.5 year. Male to female ratio was (2:1). Each prolapsed rectum was repaired with longitudinal plication (LP) at two or three points accordingly using braded polyglycolic acid – absorbable 1.0 suture material. Plications started by inserting a stitch at the most proximal part of the prolapse, followed by successive similar transverse stiches continuing in a spiral fashion till the mucocutaneous junction. We used three LP in adults and two in children. All of the patients where operated upon as a day-case procedure and discharged 6 hours after the operation. Results In this series of patients, twenty-nine of them had complete recovery from the prolapse. Only one patient had recurrence 2 years after the operation, and the same procedure was applied successfully with uneventful post-operative period. Although twenty-three patients had fecal Incontinence, twenty-one of them regained continence after operation. Conclusions This method is an easy perineal procedure, with fewer complications. It can be performed for all age groups, in an ordinary surgical unit, by an expert anorectal surgeon. We found that our procedure is simple, safe and less invasive. PMID:24655367

2014-01-01

218

Differences in telomerase activity between colon and rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers and the third leading cause of cancer death in both sexes. The disease progresses as a multistep process and is associated with genetic alterations. One of the characteristic features of cancer is telomerase activation. We sought to evaluate the differences in telomerase activity between colon cancer and adjacent normal tissue and to correlate the differences in telomerase activity between different locations with clinicopathological factors and survival. Methods Matched colon tumour samples and adjacent normal mucosa samples 10 cm away from the tumour were collected during colectomy. We assessed telomerase activity using real time polymerase chain reaction. Several pathological characteristics of tumours, including p53, Ki-67, p21, bcl2 and MLH1 expression were also studied. Results We collected samples from 49 patients. There was a significantly higher telomerase activity in colon cancer tissue than normal tissue. Adenocarcinomas of the right colon express significantly higher telomerase than left-side cancers. Colon cancers and their adjacent normal tissue had significantly more telomerase and were more positive to MLH1 than rectal cancers. The expression of p53 negatively correlated to telomerase activity and was linked to better patient survival. Conclusion Colon and rectal cancers seem to have different telomerase and MLH1 profiles, and this could be another factor for their different biologic and clinical behaviour and progression. These results support the idea that the large bowel cannot be considered a uniform organ, at least in the biology of cancer. PMID:24869613

Ayiomamitis, Georgios D.; Notas, George; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Zizi-Sermpetzoglou, Adamantia; Georgiadou, Maria; Sfakianaki, Ourania; Kouroumallis, Elias

2014-01-01

219

Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Dose constraints for the anterior rectal wall to minimize rectal toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Rectal adverse events (AEs) are a major concern with definitive radiotherapy (RT) treatment for prostate cancer. The anterior rectal wall is at the greatest risk of injury as it lies closest to the target volume and receives the highest dose of RT. This study evaluated the absolute volume of anterior rectal wall receiving a high dose to identify potential ideal dose constraints that can minimize rectal AEs. A total of 111 consecutive patients with Stage T1c to T3a N0 M0 prostate cancer who underwent image-guided intensity-modulated RT at our institution were included. AEs were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The volume of anterior rectal wall receiving 5 to 80 Gy in 2.5-Gy increments was determined. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to identify cut points in these volumes that led to an increased risk of early and late rectal AEs. Early AEs occurred in most patients (88%); however, relatively few of them (13%) were grade ?2. At 5 years, the cumulative incidence of late rectal AEs was 37%, with only 5% being grade ?2. For almost all RT doses, we identified a threshold of irradiated absolute volume of anterior rectal wall above which there was at least a trend toward a significantly higher rate of AEs. Most strikingly, patients with more than 1.29, 0.73, or 0.45 cm{sup 3} of anterior rectal wall exposed to radiation doses of 67.5, 70, or 72.5 Gy, respectively, had a significantly increased risk of late AEs (relative risks [RR]: 2.18 to 2.72; p ? 0.041) and of grade ? 2 early AEs (RR: 6.36 to 6.48; p = 0.004). Our study provides evidence that definitive image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for prostate cancer is well tolerated and also identifies dose thresholds for the absolute volume of anterior rectal wall above which patients are at greater risk of early and late complications.

Peterson, Jennifer L., E-mail: peterson.jennifer2@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Buskirk, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Heckman, Michael G.; Diehl, Nancy N. [Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Bernard, Johnny R. [Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Southern Ohio Medical Center, Portsmouth, OH (United States); Tzou, Katherine S.; Casale, Henry E.; Bellefontaine, Louis P.; Serago, Christopher; Kim, Siyong; Vallow, Laura A.; Daugherty, Larry C.; Ko, Stephen J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2014-04-01

220

Penetrating Bladder Trauma: A High Risk Factor for Associated Rectal Injury  

PubMed Central

Demographics and mechanisms were analyzed in prospectively maintained level one trauma center database 1990–2012. Among 2,693 trauma laparotomies, 113 (4.1%) presented bladder lesions; 51.3% with penetrating injuries (n = 58); 41.3% (n = 24) with rectal injuries, males corresponding to 95.8%, mean age 29.8 years; 79.1% with gunshot wounds and 20.9% with impalement; 91.6% arriving the emergence room awake (Glasgow 14-15), hemodynamically stable (average systolic blood pressure 119.5?mmHg); 95.8% with macroscopic hematuria; and 100% with penetrating stigmata. Physical exam was not sensitive for rectal injuries, showing only 25% positivity in patients. While 60% of intraperitoneal bladder injuries were surgically repaired, extraperitoneal ones were mainly repaired using Foley catheter alone (87.6%). Rectal injuries, intraperitoneal in 66.6% of the cases and AAST-OIS grade II in 45.8%, were treated with primary suture plus protective colostomy; 8.3% were sigmoid injuries, and 70.8% of all injuries had a minimum stool spillage. Mean injury severity score was 19; mean length of stay 10 days; 20% of complications with no death. Concomitant rectal injuries were not a determinant prognosis factor. Penetrating bladder injuries are highly associated with rectal injuries (41.3%). Heme-negative rectal examination should not preclude proctoscopy and eventually rectal surgical exploration (only 25% sensitivity). PMID:24527030

Pereira, B. M.; Reis, L. O.; Calderan, T. R.; de Campos, C. C.; Fraga, G. P.

2014-01-01

221

Self-reported practice patterns and knowledge of rectal cancer care among Canadian general surgeons  

PubMed Central

Background Our objective was to examine the knowledge and treatment decision practice patterns of Canadian surgeons who treat patients with rectal cancer. Methods A mail survey with 6 questions on staging investigations, management of low rectal cancer, lymph node harvest, surgical margins and use of adjuvant therapies was sent to all general surgeons in Canada. Appropriate responses to survey questions were defined a priori. We compared survey responses according to surgeon training (colorectal/surgical oncology v. others) and geographic region (Atlantic, Central, West). Results The survey was sent to 2143 general surgeons; of the 1312 respondents, 703 treat patients with rectal cancer. Most surgeons responded appropriately to the questions regarding staging investigations (88%) and management of low rectal cancer (88%). Only 55% of surgeons correctly identified the recommended lymph node harvest as 12 or more nodes, 45% identified 5 cm as the recommended distal margin for upper rectal cancer, and 70% appropriately identified which patients should be referred for adjuvant therapy. Surgeons with subspecialty training were significantly more likely to provide correct responses to all of the survey questions than other surgeons. There was limited variation in responses according to geographic region. Subspecialty-trained surgeons and recent graduates were more likely to answer all of the survey questions correctly than other surgeons. Conclusion Initiatives are needed to ensure that all surgeons who treat patients with rectal cancer, regardless of training, maintain a thorough and accurate knowledge of rectal cancer treatment issues. PMID:25421080

Richardson, Devon P.; Porter, Geoff A.; Johnson, Paul M.

2014-01-01

222

Pre-slaughter rectal temperature as an indicator of pork meat quality.  

PubMed

This study investigates whether rectal temperature of pigs, prior to slaughter, can give an indication of the risk of developing pork with PSE characteristics. A total of 1203 pigs were examined, measuring the rectal temperature just before stunning, of which 794 rectal temperatures were measured immediately after stunning. pH30LT (M. Longissimus thoracis) and temperature of the ham (Temp30Ham) were collected from about 530 carcasses, 30min after sticking. The results present a significant positive linear correlation between rectal temperature just before and after slaughter, and Temp30Ham. Moreover, pH30LT is negatively correlated with rectal temperature and Temp30Ham. Finally, a linear mixed model for pH30LT was established with the rectal temperature of the pigs just before stunning and the lairage time. This model defines that measuring rectal temperature of pigs just before slaughter allows discovery of pork with PSE traits, taking into account pre-slaughter conditions. PMID:25805321

Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Geers, R

2015-07-01

223

PrPCWD in rectal lymphoid tissue of deer (Odocoileus spp.).  

PubMed

The utility of rectal lymphoid tissue sampling for the diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (CWD) infections in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was evaluated. CWD-associated prion protein (PrP(CWD)) deposits were observed in the rectal mucosa from 19 orally inoculated mule deer by 381 days post-inoculation (p.i.); similarly, 45 out of 50 naturally infected mule deer had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa. In orally inoculated white-tailed deer, the presence of glycine (G) or serine (S) at codon 96 of the native PrP (denoted 96GG, 96GS or 96SS) appeared to influence the temporal patterns of PrP(CWD) deposition: nine out of 11 infected 96GG individuals had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa by 342 days p.i., whereas only three out of seven infected 96GS individuals had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa by 381 days p.i. and none of three 96SS individuals had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa by 751 days p.i. These findings support further evaluation of rectal mucosa sampling in CWD surveillance. PMID:17554043

Wolfe, Lisa L; Spraker, Terry R; González, Lorenzo; Dagleish, Mark P; Sirochman, Tracey M; Brown, Jeremy C; Jeffrey, Martin; Miller, Michael W

2007-07-01

224

Factors influencing clinical cancer stage in women patients with rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Rectal cancer is the most frequent cancer in Korea. Until effective systemic therapy is available for rectal cancer, development of new treatment strategies depends on knowledge of the end results achieved for carefully staged groups of patients in the rectal cancer population. This study was performed to identify the factors influencing on clinical cancer stage in women patients with rectal cancer. The subjects of this study were 227 patients who had been visited a general hospital which located in the area of Metropolitan. Data collect was surveyed using questionnaires from January 21, 2013 to February 21, 2013. Major findings are as followings. First, according to this result, a strong positive correlation was shown between women's age at first marriage and education (r=0.45, p< 0.01). Second, in multiple regression, women's age, previous cancer screening, stress, and age of menopause were significant predictors of rectal cancer stage. The explanatory of R^{2} on rectal cancer stage accounted for 36.2% of these correlation. Based on the results obtained by the study, it needs to develop more systemical program and consistent policies of individual and organization for rectal cancer prevention. PMID:24763204

Lee, Seong-Ran

2014-01-01

225

Surgical Correction Is Ineffective for Improvement of Dyssynergic Defecation in Patients With Rectal Prolapse  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The patients with rectal prolapse suffer from not only a prolapse rectum but also associated dysfunction. However, most surgical techniques are successful regarding the prolapse, but either do not solve or even worsen defecation dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional and physiological results after surgical correction in patients with rectal prolapse. Methods This study is a retrospective review of a single-institution experience. Patients with rectal prolapse who underwent anorectal manometry before and after Delorme's procedure were included. The primary outcomes measured were improvement of clinical symptoms and physiologic study. Results Consecutive 19 patients with rectal prolapse (17 females, mean age of 68.1 ± 10.8 years) underwent anorectal manometry before and after Delorme's procedure. The two most prevalent symptoms before operation were rectal tenesmus (15/19, 78.9%) and excessive straining (13/19, 68.4%). The two most prevalent symptoms after operation were rectal tenesmus (14/19, 73.6%) and excessive straining (13/19, 68.4%). No significant differences in resting anal pressure, squeezing anal pressure, defecation index, and rectal sense were found postoperatively. However, vector asymmetry index before surgery was higher than that after surgery (35.0 vs. 32.0, P = 0.018). Ten patients (52.5%) had type I dyssynergic defecation before surgery. No improvement of dyssynergic pattern occurred after surgery. Conclusions In conclusion, dyssynergic defecation was not improved after reduction of rectal prolapse in patients with rectal prolapse. Further study about combination treatment with biofeedback therapy in these subgroups may be necessary. PMID:23350052

Park, Seon-Young; Cho, Sung-Bum; Park, Chang-Hwan; Joo, Jae-Kyun; Joo, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu

2013-01-01

226

Rectal-wall dose dependence on postplan timing after permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Dose to rectal wall after permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy is dependent on distance between posterior prostatic seeds and anterior rectal wall and is influenced by postimplant periprostatic edema. We analyzed the effect of postplan timing on anterior rectal-wall dose. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients received permanent seed {sup 125}I brachytherapy as monotherapy (145 Gy). Implants were preplanned by use of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and carried out by use of preloaded needles. Postimplant dosimetry was calculated by use of magnetic resonance imaging-computed tomography fusion on Days 1, 8, and 30. The anterior rectal-wall dose is reported as the isodose enclosing 1.0 or 2.0 cc of rectal wall and as the RV100 in cc. Results: The dose to rectal wall increased progressively over time. The median increase in dose to 1.0 cc of rectal wall (RD [1 cc]) from Day 1 to 30 was 39.2 Gy (p < 0.001). RV100 increased from a median of 0.07 cc on Day 1 to 0.67 cc on Day 30. The most significant predictor of rectal-wall dose (RD [1 cc], RD [2 cc], or RV100) was the time of evaluation (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Although periprostatic edema cannot be quantified by postimplant imaging, the dose to the anterior rectal wall increases significantly over time as prostatic and periprostatic edema resolve. Critical-organ dose reporting and guidelines for minimizing toxicity must take into account the time of the assessment.

Taussky, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Yeung, Ivan [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Williams, Theresa [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Pearson, Shannon [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); McLean, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Pond, Gregory [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada)]. E-mail: Juanita.crook@rmp.uhn.on.ca

2006-06-01

227

Predictive Factors and Management of Rectal Bleeding Side Effects Following Prostate Cancer Brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report on the incidence, nature, and management of rectal toxicities following individual or combination brachytherapy following treatment for prostate cancer over a 17-year period. We also report the patient and treatment factors predisposing to acute ?grade 2 proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 2752 patients were treated for prostate cancer between October 1990 and April 2007 with either low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with androgen depletion therapy (ADT) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and were followed for a median of 5.86 years (minimum 1.0 years; maximum 19.19 years). We investigated the 10-year incidence, nature, and treatment of acute and chronic rectal toxicities following BT. Using univariate, and multivariate analyses, we determined the treatment and comorbidity factors predisposing to rectal toxicities. We also outline the most common and effective management for these toxicities. Results: Actuarial risk of ?grade 2 rectal bleeding was 6.4%, though notably only 0.9% of all patients required medical intervention to manage this toxicity. The majority of rectal bleeding episodes (72%) occurred within the first 3 years following placement of BT seeds. Of the 27 patients requiring management for their rectal bleeding, 18 underwent formalin treatment and nine underwent cauterization. Post-hoc univariate statistical analysis revealed that coronary artery disease (CAD), biologically effective dose, rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (RV100), and treatment modality predict the likelihood of grade ?2 rectal bleeding. Only CAD, treatment type, and RV100 fit a Cox regression multivariate model. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy is very well tolerated and rectal bleeding toxicities are either self-resolving or effectively managed by medical intervention. Treatment planning incorporating adjuvant ADT while minimizing RV100 has yielded the best toxicity-free survival following BT.

Price, Jeremy G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.Stock@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States)

2013-08-01

228

Prevalence and types of rectal douches used for anal intercourse: results from an international survey  

PubMed Central

Background Rectal products used with anal intercourse (AI) may facilitate transmission of STIs/HIV. However, there is limited data on rectal douching behavior in populations practicing AI. We examined the content, types of products, rectal douching practices and risk behaviors among those reporting AI. Methods From August 2011 to May 2012, 1,725 women and men reporting receptive AI in the past 3 months completed an internet-based survey on rectal douching practices. The survey was available in English, French, German, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Thai and included questions on sexual behaviors associated with AI including rectal douching. Differences by rectal douching practices were evaluated using chi-square methods and associations between reported douching practices and other factors including age and reported STI history were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Results Respondents represented 112 countries, were mostly male (88%), and from North America (55%) or Europe (22%). Among the 1,339 respondents (66%) who reported rectal douching, most (83%) reported always/almost always douching before receptive AI. The majority of rectal douchers reported using non-commercial/homemade products (93%), with water being the most commonly used product (82%). Commercial products were used by 31%, with the most common product being saline-based (56%). Rectal douching varied by demographic and risk behaviors. The prevalence of rectal douching was higher among men (70% vs. 32%; p-value?rectal douching before receptive AI is common and because rectal douching was associated with other sexual risk behaviors the contribution of this practice to the transmission and acquisition of STIs including HIV may be important. PMID:24555695

2014-01-01

229

Correlation of SATB1 overexpression with the progression of human rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  To date, the association between special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) and colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been\\u000a reported. This study was aimed at investigating the expression and potential role of SATB1 in human rectal cancers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Ninety-three paired samples of rectal cancer and distant normal rectal tissue were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR\\u000a (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and

Wen-Jian Meng; Hui Yan; Bin Zhou; Wei Zhang; Xiang-Heng Kong; Rong Wang; Lan Zhan; Yuan Li; Zong-Guang Zhou; Xiao-Feng Sun

230

A new technique for suture rectopexy without resection for rectal prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  We surmised that if rectopexy was performed without dissection of the lateral rectal stalks in patients with full-thickness\\u000a rectal prolapse and normal preoperative transit, sigmoid resection may not be required. This study evaluated a new approach\\u000a to abdominal suture rectopexy for rectal prolapse.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 81 patients (57 male, 24 female; median age 37 years, range 5–82 years) with

C. A. H. Liyanage; G. Rathnayake; K. I. Deen

2009-01-01

231

Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: The first attempt in treatment of rectal amyloidoma  

PubMed Central

Localized amyloidosis is characterized by amyloid protein deposition restricted to one organ or tissue without systemic involvement. Gastrointestinal manifestations of localized amyloidoma are unusual, which makes amyloidoma restricted to the rectum a very rare diagnosis requiring a high index of suspicion. We present a rare account for rectal amyloidoma with an unusual presentation of obstructive symptoms and its treatment using a sophisticated surgical modality, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), which resulted in complete excision of the lesion without hospitalization and complications. The successful treatment for this rectal amyloidoma using TEM emphasizes the need to broaden its application in the treatment of various rectal lesions while preserving organ function and decreasing recurrence. PMID:25632208

Sharma, Richa; George, Virgilio V

2015-01-01

232

Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer: oncological results and clinical outcome of 225 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The efficacy and feasibility of laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer has been proved, but the results of prospective,\\u000a randomized studies are not yet available. Here we present a prospective observational study evaluating oncological and clinical\\u000a outcome after laparoscopic surgery in patients with rectal cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods  Between January 1998 and March 2005, 225 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent laparoscopic surgery

Ayman Agha; Alois Fürst; Johanna Hierl; Igors Iesalnieks; Gabriel Glockzin; Matthias Anthuber; Karl-Walter Jauch; Hans J. Schlitt

2008-01-01

233

Administrative IT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

2006-01-01

234

Database Administrator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

Moore, Pam

2010-01-01

235

Administrative Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's administrator must realize that being a leader, not a manager, is the norm for successful organizations. Leadership at all organizational levels is imperative to achieving organizational objectives. Managers exercise leadership by establishing a vision, accepting responsibility, taking initiative, and empowering others. Empowerment is the…

Terry, Paul M.

1995-01-01

236

ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

237

Engineering Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

238

The Use of Rectal Douches among HIV-uninfected and Infected Men who Have Unprotected Receptive Anal Intercourse: Implications for Rectal Microbicides  

PubMed Central

Although some rectal douches result in surface epithelium loss and potential increase of HIV transmission, men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to use them. We describe the prevalence of this practice among MSM engaging in unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) in risky circumstances. A multiethnic sample with overrepresentation of HIV-negative MSM who had URAI in the previous year was recruited exclusively through the Internet. Participants were 105 MSM (78 HIV-negative, 27 HIV-positive). 53% of HIV-negative and 96% of HIV-positive men douched in preparation for sex, most of them frequently or always, mainly for hygienic purposes. 27% of HIV-negative and 44% of HIV-positive douched after sex, partly believing douching protected from infections. Douching practices started around age 25. Regression analyses found the association between HIV status and douching occasions persisted after controlling for demographic characteristics and number of URAI occasions. Rectal douching in preparation for sex is common among men who practice URAI. This population could benefit from alternatives to condoms, such as rectal microbicides. Given the popularity of pre-coital douching and its frequency, a harmless rectal douche that could deliver a rectal microbicide could have great acceptability. PMID:17705033

Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Bauermeister, José A.; Ventuneac, Ana; Dolezal, Curtis; Balan, Ivan; Remien, Robert H.

2010-01-01

239

Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed proteomes of colon and rectal tumors previously characterized by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and performed integrated proteogenomic analyses. Protein sequence variants encoded by somatic genomic variations displayed reduced expression compared to protein variants encoded by germline variations. mRNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein expression differences between tumors. Proteomics identified five protein expression subtypes, two of which were associated with the TCGA "MSI/CIMP" transcriptional subtype, but had distinct mutation and methylation patterns and associated with different clinical outcomes. Although CNAs showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA expression, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of candidate driver genes. Our analyses identified HNF4A, a novel candidate driver gene in tumors with chromosome 20q amplifications. Integrated proteogenomic analysis provides functional context to interpret genomic abnormalities and affords novel insights into cancer biology.

Zhang, Bing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Qi; Shi, Zhiao; Chambers, Matthew C.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Shaddox, Kent F.; Kim, Sangtae; Davies, Sherri; Wang, Sean; Wang, Pei; Kinsinger, Christopher; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Townsend, Reid; Ellis, Matthew; Carr, Steven A.; Tabb, David L.; Coffey, Robert J.; Slebos, Robbert; Liebler, Daniel

2014-09-18

240

Use of robotics in colon and rectal surgery.  

PubMed

The pace of innovation in the field of surgery continues to accelerate. As new technologies are developed in combination with industry and clinicians, specialized patient care improves. In the field of colon and rectal surgery, robotic systems offer clinicians many alternative ways to care for patients. From having the ability to round remotely to improved visualization and dissection in the operating room, robotic assistance can greatly benefit clinical outcomes. Although the field of robotics in surgery is still in its infancy, many groups are actively investigating technologies that will assist clinicians in caring for their patients. As these technologies evolve, surgeons will continue to find new and innovative ways to utilize the systems for improved patient care and comfort. PMID:24436647

Pucci, Michael J; Beekley, Alec C

2013-03-01

241

Use of Robotics in Colon and Rectal Surgery  

PubMed Central

The pace of innovation in the field of surgery continues to accelerate. As new technologies are developed in combination with industry and clinicians, specialized patient care improves. In the field of colon and rectal surgery, robotic systems offer clinicians many alternative ways to care for patients. From having the ability to round remotely to improved visualization and dissection in the operating room, robotic assistance can greatly benefit clinical outcomes. Although the field of robotics in surgery is still in its infancy, many groups are actively investigating technologies that will assist clinicians in caring for their patients. As these technologies evolve, surgeons will continue to find new and innovative ways to utilize the systems for improved patient care and comfort. PMID:24436647

Pucci, Michael J.; Beekley, Alec C.

2013-01-01

242

Establishment and characterization of a bovine rectal myxoma cell line.  

PubMed

A new bovine cell line was developed from tumor biopsy material of rectum obtained from clinical case of 7 years old cattle with tumor mass obliterating the rectal opening. Histopathology of tumor revealed scattered stellate cells arranged singly or in clusters in loose mucinous ground substance, simulating myxoma. The cells obtained from tumor mass have been cultured for more than 36 months in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The population doubling time of this cell line was about 20.64h. The cytogenetic analysis revealed several chromosomal abnormalities with bizarre karyotype. The origin of the cell line was confirmed by PCR amplification of 1086bp fragment of 16s rRNA using bovine species specific primers. The new cell line would act as in vitro model to study many aspect of cancer biology such as tumor development, differentiation and therapeutics regimen to combat cancer. PMID:25441618

Sahoo, Aditya P; Tiwari, Ashok K; Ravi Kumar, G; Chaturvedi, U; Veer Singh, Lakshya; Saxena, Shikha; Palia, S K; Jadon, N S; Singh, R; Singh, K P; Brahmaprakash, B S; Maiti, S K; Das, A K

2015-02-01

243

pANCA-vasculitis associated with rectal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 69-year-old male patient who was admitted for fever, dry cough, recurrent sinusitis with epistaxis, anorexia with weight loss of 20 kg over a 3-month period, myalgia, and mononeuritis multiplex. He was diagnosed with pANCA/anti-MPO associated vasculitis and rectal adenocarcinoma. The tumor was treated by surgical resection. Recurrence of vasculitis occurred during steroid tapering which prompted us to add Mycophenolate mofetyl. A complete remission was achieved. We conclude that in the present case the vasculitis was an independent disease, not a paraneoplastic phenomenon. We discuss the value of different ANCA serologies for diagnostics and follow-up, the epidemiology of vasculitis associated with malignancy, and the concept of vasculitis as a paraneoplastic syndrome. PMID:25113856

Hommel, C; Rihova, Z; Mokaddem, F; Libotte, B

2014-12-01

244

Solitary Rectal Ulcer Syndrome in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the presenting symptoms, endoscopic and histologic findings, and clinical courses of pediatric patients diagnosed with solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS). Methods We describe 15 cases of SRUS diagnosed at our institution over a 13-year period. Cases were identified by review of a pathology database and chart review and confirmed by review of biopsies. Data were collected by retrospective chart review. Results Presenting symptoms were consistent but non-specific, most commonly including blood in stools, diarrhea alternating with constipation, and abdominal/perianal pain. Fourteen of 15 patients had normal hemoglobin/hematocrit, ESR, and albumin at diagnosis. Endoscopic findings, all limited to the distal rectum, ranged from erythema to ulceration and polypoid lesions. Histology revealed characteristic findings. Stool softeners and mesalamine suppositories improved symptoms, but relapse was common. Conclusions SRUS in children presents with non-specific symptoms and endoscopic findings. Clinical suspicion is required, and diagnosis requires histologic confirmation. Response to current treatments is variable. PMID:22094902

Perito, Emily Rothbaum; Mileti, Elizabeth; Dalal, Deepal H.; Cho, Soo-Jin; Ferrell, Linda D.; McCracken, Marjorie; Heyman, Melvin B

2013-01-01

245

Rectal bleeding in a 4-month-old boy  

SciTech Connect

A case of bleeding Meckel's diverticulum is described in an infant. A 4-month-old boy was seen initially with a 24-hour history of painless hematochezia. His parents had noted two episodes of maroon-colored stool that did not appear to be associated with any abdominal distress. His medical history was unremarkable, with normal growth and development. Physical examination revealed a well-nourished, well-hydrated infant in no apparent distress. Vital signs were normal. Rectal examination revealed no masses, but bright-red blood was noted on the examining finger. Findings from the remainder of the examination were normal. An upright roentgenogram of the abdomen was obtained and demonstrated no abnormalities. The abdominal technetium scan was abnormal. An exploratory laparotomy was performed later on the day of admission.

Dutro, J.A.; Santanello, S.A.; Unger, F.; Goodwin, C.D.

1986-10-24

246

Endoscopic Management of Rectal Dieulafoy's Lesion: A Case Series and Optimal Treatment  

PubMed Central

Rectal Dieulafoy's lesion (DL) is rare cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Because of its rarity, there is no consensus on the optimal endoscopic hemostasis technique for rectal DL. We analyzed six patients who underwent endoscopic management for rectal DL after presenting with hematochezia at a single institute over 10 years. Of the six patients, three underwent endoscopic band ligation (EBL) and three underwent endoscopic hemoclip placement (EHP). Only one patient was treated with thermocoagulation. There were no immediate complications in any of the patients. None of the patients required a procedure or surgery for the treatment of rebleeding. Mean procedure times of EBL and EHP were 5.25 minutes and 7 minutes, respectively. Both EHP and EBL are shown to be effective in the treatment of bleeding rectal DL. We suggest that EBL may have potential as the preferred therapy owing to its superiority in technical and economic aspects, especially in elderly and high-risk patients. PMID:25133127

Park, Jung Gil; Park, Jung Chul; Kwon, Yong Hwan; Ahn, Sun Young

2014-01-01

247

78 FR 46965 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Mesalamine Rectal Suppositories...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Suppository BE Recommendations of 2013). CANASA (Mesalamine, USP) Rectal Suppositories, new drug application 021252, 500 milligram...Assistant Commissioner for Policy. [FR Doc. 2013-18629 Filed 8-1-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE...

2013-08-02

248

75 FR 51080 - Determination That DIASTAT (Diazepam Rectal Gel), 5 Milligrams/Milliliter, 10 Milligrams/2...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...diazepam rectal gel) is an anticonvulsant agent indicated for use in the management of selected, refractory patients with epilepsy, on stable regimens of antiepileptic drugs, who require intermittent use of diazepam to control bouts of increased...

2010-08-18

249

Evolution of imaging in rectal cancer: multimodality imaging with MDCT, MRI, and PET  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and positron emission tomography (PET) are complementary imaging modalities in the preoperative staging of patients with rectal cancer, and each offers their own individual strengths and weaknesses. MRI is the best available radiologic modality for the local staging of rectal cancers, and can play an important role in accurately distinguishing which patients should receive preoperative chemoradiation prior to total mesorectal excision. Alternatively, both MDCT and PET are considered primary modalities when performing preoperative distant staging, but are limited in their ability to locally stage rectal malignancies. This review details the role of each of these three modalities in rectal cancer staging, and how the three imaging modalities can be used in conjunction.

Chen, Yifei; Fishman, Elliot K.

2015-01-01

250

Graciloplasty for internal and external sphincteric resection of lower rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Anal sphincteric resection for rectal cancer is most commonly followed by colostomy in the lower abdominal wall, which enforces quite a poor quality of life due to a permanent stoma. For surgeons treating lower rectal cancer, the goal is to achieve defecation via the anus without placing a stoma. Internal sphincteric resection, partial external sphincteric resection and coloanal anastomosis have been reported for the treatment of lower rectal cancer with avoiding a colostoma. Extended resection of the external sphincter, however, limits patient's daily activities because of poor functional results and necessitates reconstruction of damaged anal function. This paper describes a case of graciloplasty for postoperative anal dysfunction that yielded a good clinical outcome in a 65-year-old female who had undergone very low anterior resection with complete internal and partial external sphincteric resection for lower rectal cancer. PMID:15682837

Araki, Yasumi; Momosaki, Kazuya; Nozoe, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Katsumi; Yamada, Katsuhiro; Kanazawa, Masamitsu; Inoue, Akemi; Noake, Toshihiro; Takano, Masahiro; Shirouzu, Kazuo

2004-01-01

251

Necrotising fasciitis secondary to perforated rectal adenocarcinoma presenting as a thigh swelling.  

PubMed

A 62-year-old man was admitted to the medical admissions ward with right thigh pain presumed to be a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Subsequent duplex ultrasonography excluded a DVT but noted the presence of a significant amount of subcutaneous gas. A plain film radiograph was performed with the same finding raising the possibility of necrotising fasciitis (NF). Only at this point was digital rectal examination performed revealing a large rectal mass oozing pus and blood. CT imaging showed thickening of the rectum consistent with a tumour with gas and fluid in the perirectal space extending to the anterolateral right femur. Despite aggressive debridement and treatment, the patient deteriorated and died 6?weeks later. This case should serve as a reminder to consider digital rectal examination and the occurrence of a rectal perforation in all patients who present with suspicious thigh swellings. PMID:25824287

Evans, William David George; Winters, Conchubhair; Amin, Eshan

2015-01-01

252

The influence of LED rectal irradiation on IL-1? and IL-4 of experimental ulcerative colitis in rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory destructive disease of the large intestine occurred usually in the rectum and lower part of the colon as well as the entire colon. In this paper, the influence of IL-1? and IL-4 on the experimental ulcerative colitis by light emitting diode ( LED ) (?: 632.8nm; power: 4.0mw) applied to colon directly were studied. Making 30 rats into 3 groups: LED curative group, model group, normal control group. There were 10 rats of each group. We used glacial acetic acid (5%) and trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) (1%) intra-anally to replicate the rat model of ulcerative colitis. After a week treatment with administrating LED rectal irradiation to curative group, 30mm each time, once per day, the histopathological studies in colonic tissue were performed, and the expression and distribution of IL-l? and IL-4 in colonic tissues were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. The extent of the Colonic tissue injury in LED curative group was not as significant as that in the model group. Compared with model group, the content of MDA in LED curative group was reductived and the activity of SOD was increased significantly, and the expression and distribution of IL-l? in LED curative group was depressed significantly, however the expression and distribution of IL-4 in LED curative group was increased obviously. This results show that the LED rectal irradiation can protect colonic mucosa from the experimental ulcerative colitis in rats, and suggest that the effects may be related to the photobiomodulation and immunomodulation of LED.

Zeng, Chang-Chun; Wang, Xian-Ju; Liu, Han-Ping; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Liu, Song-Hao

2006-09-01

253

Late Rectal Toxicity on RTOG 94-06: Analysis Using a Mixture Lyman Model  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the parameters of the Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model using censored time-to-event data for Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity among patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-06, a dose-escalation trial designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: The Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model was fitted to data from 1,010 of the 1,084 patients accrued on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-06 using an approach that accounts for censored observations. Separate fits were obtained using dose-volume histograms for whole rectum and dose-wall histograms for rectal wall. Results: With a median follow-up of 7.2 years, the crude incidence of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity was 15% (n = 148). The parameters of the Lyman model fitted to dose-volume histograms data, with 95% profile-likelihood confidence intervals, were TD{sub 50} = 79.1 Gy (75.3 Gy, 84.3 Gy), m = 0.146 (0.107, 0.225), and n = 0.077 (0.041, 0.156). The fit based on dose-wall histogram data was not significantly different. Patients with cardiovascular disease had a significantly higher incidence of late rectal toxicity (p = 0.015), corresponding to a dose-modifying factor of 5.3%. No significant association with late rectal toxicity was found for diabetes, hypertension, rectal volume, rectal length, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, or prescribed dose per fraction (1.8 Gy vs. 2 Gy). Conclusions: These results, based on a large cohort of patients from a multi-institutional trial, are expected to be widely representative of the ability of the Lyman model to describe the long-term risk of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.or [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Image-Guided Therapy QA Center, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Winter, Kathryn [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Kuban, Deborah; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, M. Rex [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Thames, Howard D. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2010-11-15

254

Evaluation of echographic diagnosis of rectal cancer using intrarectal ultrasonic examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic examinations conducted in order to diagnose the depth of invasion and local lymph node metastases of rectal cancer.\\u000a The intrarectal approach was performed preoperatively in 99 patients with rectal cancer, using either an Olympus-Aloka ultrasonic\\u000a endoscopeTM (7.5 MHz) or other probes (Aloka, 7.5 MHz, 5 MHz). Through this method, intrapelvic organs were detected clearly, and hypoechoic\\u000a findings due to

Norio Saitoh; Katsuji Okui; Hiromi Sarashina; Masaru Suzuki; Tatsuo Arai; Masao Nunomura

1986-01-01

255

Properties and function of KCNQ1 K + channels isolated from the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias  

Microsoft Academic Search

KCNQ1 (KVLQT1) K+ channels play an important role during electrolyte secretion in airways and colon. KCNQ1 was cloned recently from NaCl-secreting shark rectal glands. Here we study the properties and regulation of the cloned sKVLQT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and compare the results with those obtained from in vitro perfused rectal gland tubules (RGT).

Gunter Kerst; Ulrich Beschorner; Bernhard Unsöld; Thomas von Hahn; Rainer Schreiber; Rainer Greger; Uwe Gerlach; Hans Lang; Karl Kunzelmann; Markus Bleich

2001-01-01

256

Recovery of nosocomial fecal flora from frozen stool specimens and rectal swabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant aerobic Gram-negative bacilli from stool specimens and from mock rectal swabs after freezing (?20°C) for as long as 4 weeks was studied using three preservatives: Cary-Blair (CB) transport medium, buffered glycerol saline (BGS), and Para Pak C&S solution (CS). In addition, the recovery of enterococci from rectal swabs was investigated after storage of swabs

Marc J. M. Bonten; Catherine Nathan; Robert A. Weinstein

1997-01-01

257

Disparities in Evaluation of Patients With Rectal Bleeding 40 Years and Older  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND & AIMS Rectal bleeding is associated with colorectal cancer. We characterized the evaluation of patients aged 40 years and older with rectal bleeding and identified characteristics associated with inadequate evaluation. METHODS We conducted a retrospective review of records of outpatient visits that contained reports of rectal bleeding for patients aged 40 years and older (N = 480). We studied whether patient characteristics affected whether or not they received a colonoscopy examination within 90 days of presentation with rectal bleeding. Patient characteristics included demographics; family history of colon cancer and polyps; and histories of screening colonoscopies, physical examinations, referrals to specialists at the index visit, and communication of laboratory results. Data were collected from medical records, and patient income levels were estimated based on Zip codes. RESULTS Nearly half of the patients presenting with rectal bleeding received colonoscopies (48.1%); 81.7% received the procedure within 90 days. A history of a colonoscopy examination was more likely to be reported in white patients compared with Hispanic or Asian patients (P = .012 and P = .006, respectively), and in high-income compared with low-income patients (P = .022). A family history was more likely to be documented among patients with private insurance than those with Medicaid or Medicare (P = .004). A rectal examination was performed more often for patients who were white or Asian, male, and with high or middle incomes, compared with those who were black, Hispanic, female, or with low incomes (P = .027). White patients were more likely to have their laboratory results communicated to them than black patients (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS Sex, race, ethnicity, patient income, and insurance status were associated with disparities in evaluation of rectal bleeding. There is a need to standardize the evaluation of patients with rectal bleeding. PMID:23891918

SHIELDS, HELEN M.; STOFFEL, ELENA M.; CHUNG, DANIEL C.; SEQUIST, THOMAS D.; LI, JUSTIN W.; PELLETIER, STEPHEN R.; SPENCER, JUSTIN; SILK, JEAN M.; AUSTIN, BONITA L.; DIGUETTE, SUSAN; FURBISH, JEAN E.; LEDERMAN, RUTH; WEINGART, SAUL N.

2015-01-01

258

Rectal tone and compliance affected in patients with fecal incontinence after fistulotomy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the anal sphincter and rectal factors that may be involved in fecal incontinence that develops following fistulotomy (FIAF). METHODS: Eleven patients with FIAF were compared with 11 patients with idiopathic fecal incontinence and with 11 asymptomatic healthy subjects (HS). All of the study participants underwent anorectal manometry and a barostat study (rectal sensitivity, tone, compliance and capacity). The mean time since surgery was 28 ± 26 mo. The postoperative continence score was 14 ± 2.5 (95%CI: 12.4-15.5, St Mark’s fecal incontinence grading system). RESULTS: Compared with the HS, the FIAF patients showed increased rectal tone (42.63 ± 27.69 vs 103.5 ± 51.13, P = 0.002) and less rectal compliance (4.95 ± 3.43 vs 11.77 ± 6.9, P = 0.009). No significant differences were found between the FIAF patients and the HS with respect to the rectal capacity; thresholds for the non-noxious stimuli of first sensation, gas sensation and urge-to-defecate sensation or the noxious stimulus of pain; anal resting pressure or squeeze pressure; or the frequency or percentage of relaxation of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex. No significant differences were found between the FIAF patients and the patients with idiopathic fecal incontinence. CONCLUSION: In patients with FIAF, normal motor anal sphincter function and rectal sensitivity are preserved, but rectal tone and compliance are impaired. The results suggest that FIAF is not due to alterations in rectal sensitivity and that the rectum is more involved than the anal sphincters in the genesis of FIAF. PMID:25852287

Awad, Richard Alexander; Camacho, Santiago; Flores, Francisco; Altamirano, Evelyn; García, Mario Antonio

2015-01-01

259

Presence of a sodium-potassium chloride cotransport system in the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In order to investigate whether the loop diuretic sensitive, sodium-chloride cotransport system described previously in shark rectal gland is in fact a sodium-potassium chloride cotransport system, plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from rectal glands ofSqualus acanthias and sodium and rubidium uptake were measured by a rapid filtration technique. In addition, the binding of N-methylfurosemide to the membranes was investigated.

J. Hannafin; E. Kinne-Saffran; D. Friedman; R. Kinne

1983-01-01

260

Ureterorectal diversion with rectal augmentation. Morphological and manometric study in the dog.  

PubMed

Uretersigmoidostomy in the adult has progressively been abandoned because of its high complication rate (both metabolic and functional). We have studied the feasibility of a new model of ureterorectal diversion in 12 Beagle dogs, with the aim of increasing rectal capacity and decreasing rectal pressure. A segment of the ileum was isolated and opened along its antimesenteric border to obtain a patch into which the right ureter was implanted, the left ureter being left intact to allow comparison of the kidneys postoperatively. The patch was then sutured to the edges of a large anterior rectotomy. Modifications of rectal physiology were studied by recording the rectal pressure after distension by a latex balloon both preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively, so that it was possible to evaluate the elasticity of the rectal wall. Radiographic studies and examination of autopsy specimens after 3 months yielded the impression of a reservoir added to the rectal space. Intrarectal pressure was significantly decreased (50% of the preoperative value) for a given distension volume following rectal augmentation (P less than 0.01). The elasticity of the rectal wall was not modified but the capacity of the reservoir was increased. The ureteroileal implantation was patent in two of the five evaluable dogs out of seven implantations performed. In these cases, signs of pyelonephritis were found in the right kidneys. In the remaining cases the implantation became obstructed for reasons mainly related to canine anatomy and experimental conditions. These technical difficulties in the dog make it impossible to assess the quality of this reimplantation technique in this model.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1615588

Baron, J C; Arhan, P; Boccon-Gibod, L; Boccon-Gibod, L

1992-01-01

261

Metachronous Bilateral Isolated Adrenal Metastasis from Rectal Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report a case of adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer in a 54-year-old woman. Nine months after resection for advanced rectal carcinoma, a computed tomography scan revealed bilateral adrenal metastasis. The level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen was normal. A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed after chemotherapy. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma, compatible with metastasis from the rectal cancer. Adrenal metastasis should be considered in the patients' follow-up for colorectal cancer. PMID:24860684

Jabir, H.; Tawfiq, N.; Moukhlissi, M.; Akssim, M.; Guensi, A.; Kadiri, B.; Bouchbika, Z.; Taleb, A.; Benchekroun, N.; Jouhadi, H.; Sahraoui, S.; Zamiati, S.; Benider, A.

2014-01-01

262

Metachronous bilateral isolated adrenal metastasis from rectal adenocarcinoma: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer in a 54-year-old woman. Nine months after resection for advanced rectal carcinoma, a computed tomography scan revealed bilateral adrenal metastasis. The level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen was normal. A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed after chemotherapy. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma, compatible with metastasis from the rectal cancer. Adrenal metastasis should be considered in the patients' follow-up for colorectal cancer. PMID:24860684

Jabir, H; Tawfiq, N; Moukhlissi, M; Akssim, M; Guensi, A; Kadiri, B; Bouchbika, Z; Taleb, A; Benchekroun, N; Jouhadi, H; Sahraoui, S; Zamiati, S; Benider, A

2014-01-01

263

Rectal tone in response to bisacodyl in women with obstructed defecation.  

PubMed

This study investigated the tonic response of the rectum to topical application of bisacodyl in women with obstructed defecation. Forty-five women with obstructed defecation, and 15 female controls were studied. Total colonic transit time was normal in 35 patients, and prolonged in 10. For the purpose of this study an "infinitely compliant" polyethylene bag was inserted into the rectum. Rectal tone was assessed by measuring variations in bag volume with a computerized electromechanical "barostat" system. After an adaptation period of 30 min, a suppository containing 10 mg bisacodyl was inserted into the rectum. Recording was continued for 90 min. In a second recording session rectal tone in response to an evoked urge to defecate was assessed. In a third session we investigated rectal sensory perception. After a mean time interval of 30 +/- 15 min following intrarectal application of bisacodyl, all controls showed a significant increase in rectal tone (mean value: 68.2 +/- 12%). In patients with a normal transit time, a similar increase was observed. In patients with prolonged transit time, the tonic response of the rectum to bisacodyl was significantly lower (mean 21.1 +/- 11%; P < 0.001). Five of these patients showed no response at all. In the second recording session, all controls showed an increase in rectal tone during an evoked urge to defecate (mean 36.3 +/- 7%). In both patient groups this tonic response was absent or significantly blunted (mean 19.2 +/- 6%) (P < 0.001). In both patient groups rectal sensory perception was impaired significantly. In conclusion, rectal tone increases significantly after topical application of bisacodyl in controls as well as in patients with obstructed defecation in whom transit time is normal. This tonic response is absent or significantly blunted in patients with a prolonged transit time. Both the tonic response of the rectum to an evoked urge to defecate and rectal sensory perception are significantly impaired in patients with a normal and those with a prolonged transit time. PMID:11151433

Gosselink, M J; Hop, W C; Schouten, W R

2000-11-01

264

Ultrasonic measurement of rectal diameter and area in neurogenic bowel with spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Objective The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of measuring the diameter and area of the rectum using ultrasonography as an additional parameter for the evaluation of neurogenic bowel in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Participants In total, 32 patients with SCI (16 patients with upper motor neuron neurogenic bowel (UMNB) and 16 patients with lower motor neuron neurogenic bowel (LMNB)) participated in this study. We divided the patients by the type of neurogenic bowel: UMNB, patients with supraconal lesions and recovery state of spinal shock or LMNB, patients with infraconal/caudal lesions or spinal shock state). Intervention Ultrasound was applied on the abdomen and measured the diameter and area of the rectum were measured twice each before and after defecation, respectively. Outcome measure We compared rectal diameter and area before/after defecation between the two groups, and significant differences were found in both rectal diameter and area before/after defecation in each group. Results After defecation, those in the UMNB group had smaller rectal diameters and areas than those in the LMNB group. Significant reduction of rectal diameter and area was observed after defecation as well. The LMNB group showed slightly increased rectal area after defecation, but the increase was not statistically significant. Conclusion Using ultrasound to measure rectal diameter and area seems helpful for classifying neurogenic bowel types and for understanding the neurogenic bowel among SCI patients with symptoms of neurogenic bowel. PMID:25432419

Kim, Gi-Wook; Won, Yu-Hui; Ko, Myoung-Hwan; Park, Sung-Hee; Seo, Jeong-Hwan

2014-11-28

265

Complexities of abdominoperineal surgery: synchronous resection of an ano-rectal adenocarcinoma and pelvic schwannoma  

PubMed Central

Abdominoperineal resection (APR) is indicated for low rectal/ano-rectal cancers. It necessitates fastidious pelvic dissection posing certain operative difficulties. We present the surgical challenges in a unique case of a patient presenting with a low rectal adenocarcinoma and a synchronous pelvic schwannomas, both requiring resection. A 71-year-old gentleman presented for surveillance colonoscopy following previous excision of colonic polyps. This investigation revealed a polypoid mass at the ano-rectal junction which was histologically proven as an adenocarcinoma with high-grade dysplasia. A staging computed tomography scan revealed an incidental 10 × 15 cm homogeneous, pre-sacral mass. After meticulous operative planning, the patient underwent successful open resection of this mass and concurrent APR for his low rectal lesion. This case demonstrates a rare presentation of a low rectal adenocarcinoma and concurrent pelvic schwannoma. We discuss the technical difficulties encountered in the management of such complex pelvic tumours and highlight the successful outcomes of the synchronous resection. PMID:24876323

Higgin, Ryan P.C.; Glaysher, Michael A.; Zeidan, Bashir A.; Miles, Andrew J.G.

2014-01-01

266

Hand-assisted laparoscopic suture rectopexy for complete rectal prolapse complicated by a solitary ulcer and obstructed defecation: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Introduction Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a condition in which an ulcer occurs in the rectum. There is evidence that solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is associated with rectal prolapse either overt or occult and that stopping complete rectal prolapse may lead to rapid healing of the solitary rectal ulcer. A huge variety of operative techniques have been described in the literature to correct this condition. We present the case of a patient who underwent hand-assisted laparoscopic suture rectopexy for complete rectal prolapse complicated by a solitary ulcer and obstructed defecation. Case presentation A 32-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our institute complaining of having had difficulty with her bowel movements, a rectal prolapse and pain in the anal area for one and a half years. She was checked in hospital for suspected rectal carcinoma, however, the examination revealed rectal ulceration. A diagnosis of complete rectal prolapse complicated by a solitary ulcer and obstructed defecation was established. The symptoms persisted so a hand-assisted laparoscopic suture rectopexy was performed. After six months of follow-up, her bowel movements had improved, she was experiencing no pain and the rectal ulcer had healed. Conclusion A hand-assisted laparoscopic suture rectopexy is a feasible and safe surgical treatment of rectal prolapse with solitary rectal ulcer syndrome, providing complete recovery for patients with solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. PMID:23718282

2013-01-01

267

Development of HIV-1 Rectal-Specific Microbicides and Colonic Tissue Evaluation  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal tract is structurally and functionally different from the vagina. Thus, the paradigm of topical microbicide development and evaluation has evolved to include rectal microbicides (RMs). Our interest was to create unique RM formulations to safely and effectively deliver antiretroviral drugs to mucosal tissue. RMs were designed to include those that spread and coat all surfaces of the rectum and distal colon rapidly (liquid) and those that create a deformable, erodible barrier and remain localized at the administration site (gel). Tenofovir (TFV) (1%) was formulated as an aqueous thermoreversible fluid and a carbopol-based aqueous hydrogel. Lipid-based liquid and gel formulations were prepared for UC781 (0.1%) using isopropyl myristate and GTCC (Caprylic/Capric Triglycerides), respectively. Formulations were characterized for pH, viscosity, osmolality, and drug content. Pre-clinical testing incorporated ex vivo colonic tissue obtained through surgical resections and flexible sigmoidoscopy (flex sig). As this was the first time using tissue from both sources side-by-side, the ability to replicate HIV-1 was compared. Efficacy of the RM formulations was tested by applying the products with HIV-1 directly to polarized colonic tissue and following viral replication. Safety of the formulations was determined by MTT assay and histology. All products had a neutral pH and were isoosmolar. While HIV-1BaL and HIV-1JR-CSF alone and in the presence of semen had similar replication trends between surgically resected and flex sig tissues, the magnitude of viral replication was significantly better in flex sig tissues. Both TFV and UC781 formulations protected the colonic tissue, regardless of tissue source, from HIV-1 and retained tissue viability and architecture. Our in vitro and ex vivo results show successful formulation of unique RMs. Moreover, the results of flex sig and surgically resected tissues were comparable suggesting the incorporation of both in pre-clinical testing algorithms. PMID:25025306

Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Russo, Julie; Wang, Lin; Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Li, Jie; Friend, David R.; McGowan, Ian M.; Rohan, Lisa C.

2014-01-01

268

Panitumumab as a radiosensitizing agent in KRAS wild-type locally advanced rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Our goal was to optimize the radiosensitizing potential of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies, when given concomitantly with preoperative radiotherapy in KRAS wild-type locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Based on pre-clinical studies conducted by our group, we designed a phase II trial in which panitumumab (6 mg/kg/q2 weeks) was combined with preoperative radiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions) to treat cT3-4/N?+?KRAS wild-type LARC. The primary endpoint was complete pathologic response (pCR) (H0?=?5 %, H1?=?17 %, ??=?0.05, ??=?0.2). From 19 enrolled patients, 17 (89 %) were evaluable for pathology assessment. Although no pCR was observed, seven patients (41 %) had grade 3 Dworak pathological tumor regression. The regimen was safe and was associated with 95 % of sphincter-preservation rate. No NRAS, BRAF, or PI3KCA mutation was found in this study, but one patient (5 %) showed loss of PTEN expression. The quantification of plasma EGFR ligands during treatment showed significant upregulation of plasma TGF-? and EGF following panitumumab administration (p?

Mardjuadi, Feby Ingriani; Carrasco, Javier; Coche, Jean-Charles; Sempoux, Christine; Jouret-Mourin, Anne; Scalliet, Pierre; Goeminne, Jean-Charles; Daisne, Jean-François; Delaunoit, Thierry; Vuylsteke, Peter; Humblet, Yves; Meert, Nicolas; van den Eynde, Marc; Moxhon, Anne; Haustermans, Karin; Canon, Jean-Luc; Machiels, Jean-Pascal

2014-10-11

269

Carcinoembryonic Antigen as a Predictor of Pathologic Response and a Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy and Surgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the role of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a predictor of response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and prognostic factor for rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: The study retrospectively evaluated 352 locally advanced rectal cancer patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by surgery. Serum CEA levels were determined before CRT administration (pre-CRT CEA) and before surgery (post-CRT CEA). Correlations between pre-CRT CEA levels and rates of good response (Tumor regression grade 3/4) were explored. Patients were categorized into three CEA groups according to their pre-/post-CRT CEA levels (ng/mL) (Group A: pre-CRT CEA {<=} 3; B: pre-CRT CEA >3, post-CRT CEA {<=}3; C: pre- and post-CRT CEA >3 ng/mL), and their oncologic outcomes were compared. Results: Of 352 patients, good responses were achieved in 94 patients (26.7%). The rates of good response decreased significantly as the pre-CRT CEA levels became more elevated (CEA [ng/mL]: {<=}3, 36.4%; 3-6, 23.6%; 6-9, 15.6%; >9, 7.8%; p < 0.001). The rates of good response were significantly higher in Group A than in Groups B and C (36.4% vs. 17.3% and 14.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The 3-year disease-free survival rate was significantly better in Groups A and B than in Group C (82% and 79% vs. 57%, respectively; p = 0.005); the CEA grouping was identified as an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.025). Conclusions: In locally advanced rectal cancer patients, CEA levels could be of clinical value as a predictor of response to preoperative CRT and as an independent prognostic factor after preoperative CRT and curative surgery.

Park, Ji Won [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Seok-Byung [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sblim@amc.seoul.kr; Kim, Dae Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung Hae [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Department of Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong Sang; Chang, Hee Jin; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of)

2009-07-01

270

Neoadjuvant-intensified treatment for rectal cancer: Time to change?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether neoadjuvant-intensified radiochemotherapy improved overall and disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS: Between January 2007 and December 2011, 80 patients with histologically confirmed rectal adenocarcinoma were enrolled. Tumors were clinically classified as either T3 or T4 and by the N stage based on the presence or absence of positive regional lymph nodes. Patients received intensified combined modality treatment, consisting of neoadjuvant radiation therapy (50.4-54.0 Gy) and infusional chemotherapy (oxaliplatin 50 mg/m2) on the first day of each week, plus five daily continuous infusions of fluorouracil (200 mg/m2 per die) from the first day of radiation therapy until radiotherapy completion. Patients received five or six cycles of oxaliplatin based on performance status, clinical lymph node involvement, and potential risk of a non-sphincter-conserving surgical procedure. Surgery was planned 7 to 9 wk after the end of radiochemotherapy treatment; adjuvant chemotherapy treatment was left to the oncologist’s discretion and was recommended in patients with positive lymph nodes. After treatment, all patients were monitored every three months for the first year and every six months for the subsequent years. RESULTS: Of the 80 patients enrolled, 75 patients completed the programmed neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy treatment. All patients received the radiotherapy prescribed total dose; five patients suspended chemotherapy indefinitely because of chemotherapy-related toxicity. At least five cycles of oxaliplatin were administered to 73 patients. Treatment was well tolerated with high compliance and a good level of toxicity. Most of the acute toxic effects observed were classified as grades 1-2. Proctitis grade 2 was the most common symptom (63.75%) and the earliest manifestation of acute toxicity. Acute toxicity grades 3-4 was reported in 30% of patients and grade 3 or 4 diarrhoea reported in just three patients (3.75%). Seventy-seven patients underwent surgery; low anterior resection was performed in 52 patients, Miles’ surgery in 11 patients and total mesorectal excision in nine patients. Fifty patients showed tumor downsizing ? 50% pathological downstaging in 88.00% of tumors. Out of 75 patients surviving surgery, 67 patients (89.33%) had some form of downstaging after preoperative treatment. A pathological complete response was achieved in 23.75% of patients and a nearly pathologic complete response (stage ypT1ypN0) in six patients. An involvement of the radial margin was never present. During surgery, intra-abdominal metastases were found in only one patient (1.25%). Initially, 45 patients required an abdominoperineal resection due to a tumor distal margin ? 5 cm from the anal verge. Of these patients, only seven of them underwent Miles’ surgery and sphincter preservation was guaranteed in 84.50% of patients in this subgroup. Fourteen patients received postoperative chemotherapy. In the full analysis of enrolled cohort, eight of the 80 patients died, with seven deaths related to rectal cancer and one to unrelated causes. Local recurrences were observed in seven patients (8.75%) and distant metastases in 17 cases (21.25%). The five-year rate of overall survival rate was 90.91%. Using a median follow-up time of 28.5 mo, the cumulative incidence of local recurrences was 8.75%, and the overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 90.00% and 70.00%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest oxaliplatin chemotherapy has a beneficial effect on overall survival, likely due to an increase in local tumor control. PMID:23716984

Musio, Daniela; De Felice, Francesca; Bulzonetti, Nadia; Guarnaccia, Roberta; Caiazzo, Rossella; Bangrazi, Caterina; Raffetto, Nicola; Tombolini, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

271

Correlation of CD133, OCT4, and SOX2 in Rectal Cancer and Their Association with Distant Recurrence After Chemoradiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Cancer stem cells are associated with metastatic potential, treatment resistance, and poor patient prognosis. Distant recurrence\\u000a remains the major cause of mortality in rectal cancer patients with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). We investigated\\u000a the role of three stem cell markers (CD133, OCT4, and SOX2) in rectal cancer and evaluated the association between these gene levels and clinical outcome in rectal cancer

Susumu Saigusa; Koji Tanaka; Yuji Toiyama; Takeshi Yokoe; Yoshinaga Okugawa; Yasuhiro Ioue; Chikao Miki; Masato Kusunoki

2009-01-01

272

Late rectal bleeding after conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer (II): volume effects and dose–volume histograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose and Objective: Late rectal bleeding is a potentially dose limiting complication of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. The frequency of late rectal bleeding has been shown to increase as the prescription dose rises above 70 Gy. The purpose of this study is to identify features of the cumulative dose–volume histogram (DVH) for the rectal wall that correlate

Andrew Jackson; Mark W Skwarchuk; Michael J Zelefsky; Didier M Cowen; Ennapadam S Venkatraman; Sabine Levegrun; Chandra M Burman; Gerald J Kutcher; Zvi Fuks; Steven A Liebel; C. Clifton Ling

2001-01-01

273

LATE RECTAL BLEEDING AFTER CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY OF PROSTATE CANCER (II): VOLUME EFFECTS AND DOSE-VOLUME HISTOGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose and Objective: Late rectal bleeding is a potentially dose limiting complication of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. The frequency of late rectal bleeding has been shown to increase as the prescription dose rises above 70 Gy. The purpose of this study is to identify features of the cumulative dose-volume histogram (DVH) for the rectal wall that correlate

ANDREW JACKSON; MARK W. SKWARCHUK; MICHAEL J. ZELEFSKY; DIDIER M. COWEN; ENNAPADAM S. VENKATRAMAN; SABINE LEVEGRUN; CHANDRA M. BURMAN; GERALD J. KUTCHER; ZVI FUKS; STEVEN A. LIEBEL; C. CLIFTON LING

274

Successful treatment of giant rectal varices by modified percutaneous transhepatic obliteration with sclerosant: Report of a case  

PubMed Central

We present a female patient with continuous melena, diagnosed with rectal variceal bleeding. She had a history of esophageal varices, which were treated with endoscopic therapy. Five years after the treatment of esophageal varices, continuous melena occurred. Since colonoscopy showed that the melena was caused by giant rectal varices, we thought that they were not suitable to receive endoscopic treatment. We chose the modified percutaneous transhepatic obliteration with sclerosant, which is one of the interventional radiology techniques but a new clinical procedure for rectal varices. After the patient received this therapy, her condition of rectal varices was markedly improved. PMID:16981280

Okazaki, Hirotoshi; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Shiba, Masatsugu; Nakamura, Shirou; Wada, Tomoko; Yamamori, Kazuki; Machida, Ai; Kadouchi, Kaori; Tamori, Akihiro; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kenji; Arakawa, Tetsuo

2006-01-01

275

Rectal Self-Sampling in Non-Clinical Venues for Detection of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) among Behaviorally Bisexual Men  

PubMed Central

Rectal sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a common health concern for men who have sex with men (MSM) but little is known about these infections among men who had sex with both men and women (MSMW). Self-obtained rectal specimens were collected from a diverse sample of behaviorally bisexual men. From a total sample of 75 bisexual men, 58 collected specimens. A relatively high prevalence of rectal C. trachomatis infection was found. Participants who collected specimens reported overall acceptability and comfort with self-sampling. Future efforts are needed focusing on increasing awareness of and options for rectal STI testing among bisexual men. PMID:22498165

Dodge, Brian; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Reece, Michael; Malebranche, David; Martinez, Omar; Goncalves, Gabriel; Schnarrs, Phillip; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

2012-01-01

276

Rectal self-sampling in non-clinical venues for detection of sexually transmissible infections among behaviourally bisexual men.  

PubMed

Rectal sexually transmissible infections are a common health concern for men who have sex with men but little is known about these infections among men who have sex with both men and women. Self-obtained rectal specimens were collected from a diverse sample of behaviourally bisexual men. From a total sample of 75 bisexual men, 58 collected specimens. A relatively high prevalence of rectal Chlamydia trachomatis infection was found. Participants who collected specimens reported overall acceptability and comfort with self-sampling. Future efforts are needed focusing on increasing awareness of and options for rectal sexually transmissible infection testing among bisexual men. PMID:22498165

Dodge, Brian; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Reece, Michael; Malebranche, David; Martinez, Omar; Goncalves, Gabriel; Schnarrs, Phillip; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J Dennis

2012-05-01

277

Complete reversion and prevention of rectal adenomas in colectomized patients with familial adenomatous polyposis by rectal low-dose sulindac maintenance treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This nonrandomized, controlled Phase II pilot study aims at the lowest effective dose of rectally applied sulindac to achieve and maintain adenoma reversion in colectomized patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). METHODS: The study group (n = 15) underwent proctoscopic and laboratory follow-up for polyp reversion every 6 to 12 weeks. Polyp reversion was followed by dose reduction in

G. Winde; K. W. Schmid; W. Schlegel; R. Fischer; H. Osswald; H. Bünte

1995-01-01

278

Anorectal contractility under basal conditions and during rectal infusion of saline in ulcerative colitis.  

PubMed Central

Pressure activity in the rectum and anal canal was measured with a multilumen probe in 29 patients with ulcerative colitis (12 active, 11 quiescent, six studied during both phases) and 18 normal controls under resting conditions and during rectal infusion of saline. Resting motor activity was significantly decreased in patients with active colitis compared with quiescent colitis (p less than 0.005) and normal controls (p less than 0.001). Forty per cent of active colitics showed a featureless record compared with only one patient with quiescent colitis and one normal subject. The volume of saline infused before leakage occurred, and the total volume retained were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) in patients with active and quiescent colitis compared with normal controls. Rectal infusion of saline provoked regular rectal contractions, of significantly higher (p less than 0.05) amplitude in patients with active colitis, than in quiescent colitis or controls. These rectal contractions were associated with simultaneous anal relaxations. During saline infusion, peak and pressures were lower in patients with ulcerative colitis than in normal subjects, but there were no significant differences in relaxation pressures. In normal subjects, the rectal pressures remained below the anal pressures throughout the saline infusion. Peak rectal pressures exceeded the anal relaxation pressures during the last five minutes of saline infusion in patients with ulcerative colitis and throughout the infusion in those patients who complained of incontinence. Results suggest that although the resting rectal motor activity is diminished in patients with ulcerative colitis, luminal distension causes the inflamed rectum to generate abnormally strong contractions that may threaten continence. PMID:3384361

Rao, S S; Read, N W; Stobart, J A; Haynes, W G; Benjamin, S; Holdsworth, C D

1988-01-01

279

Changes in rectal leucocytes after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed Central

Using immunohistological techniques the number of leucocytes present in the epithelium and lamina propria of the rectal mucosa were assessed in 16 allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients, with and without evidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and compared with a non-transplant group of patients. Samples were obtained between 15 and 198 days after transplant. In marrow recipients without GVHD, compared with non-transplant cases, there was a decrease in T lymphocytes in the lamina propria due to a reduction in the helper-inducer (T4+) subset with no change in suppressor-cytotoxic (T8+) cells or epithelial leucocytes. In GVHD, the number of T lymphocytes increased both in the lamina propria and epithelium due to an increase in T8+ cells with no change in T4+ cells. Lymphocytes did not express the activation markers detected by Tac, OKT10 or HLA-DR. Macrophages and natural killer cells were not changed after transplant or in GVHD. Epithelial HLA-DR expression was detected in seven out of eight in the GVHD group, three out of eight in the non-GVHD transplant group and two out of eight in the non-transplant cases. These findings show several differences from those we have observed in cutaneous and hepatic GVHD. Although elevated numbers of T8+ cells are common to GVHD in all three sites, the precise role of these cells in producing epithelial damage is not clear. PMID:3304737

Dilly, S A; Sloane, J P

1987-01-01

280

Sacrococcygeal chordoma presenting as a retro rectal tumour  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Chordomas are rare, slow growing, locally destructive bone tumours arising from the notochord. PRESENTATION OF CASE Presenting a case of a 65 year old man, who presented with complaints of swelling on the right lower back for 1 year associated with pain. On, physical examination, a swelling measuring 5 cm × 4 cm was noted in the lower back with posterior wall indentation on per rectal examination. MRI revealed a mass lesion involving the sacrum (s3–s4) and coccyx. FNAC showed features of a chroma. At surgery, we excised a mass from the retrorectal space and biopsy proved it to be a chondroid chordoma, a variant of chordoma. DISCUSSION Chordomas are solid malignant tumours that arise from vestiges of the foetal notochord. Common locations are the clivus and the sacrococcygeus region. Annual incidence of these tumours is 1 in one million. MRI is the imaging modality of choice. Prognosis improves based on the age, resected margins and postoperative treatment. CONCLUSION Here, we shall discuss the literature, variants, treatment and prognosis of this rare tumour. PMID:25201478

Chigurupati, Pragnya; Venkatesan, Vishnukumar; Thiyagarajan, Manuneethimaran; Vikram, A.; Kiran, Kaundinya

2014-01-01

281

Biomarkers for Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is currently treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Although approximately 45% of patients respond to neoadjuvant therapy with T-level downstaging, there is no effective method of predicting which patients will respond. Molecular biomarkers have been investigated for their ability to predict outcome in LARC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. A literature search using PubMed resulted in the initial assessment of 1,204 articles. Articles addressing the ability of a biomarker to predict outcome for LARC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation were included. Six biomarkers met the criteria for review: p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), thymidylate synthase, Ki-67, p21, and bcl-2/bax. On the basis of composite data, p53 is unlikely to have utility as a predictor of response. Epidermal growth factor receptor has shown promise as a predictor when quantitatively evaluated in pretreatment biopsies or when EGFR polymorphisms are evaluated in germline DNA. Thymidylate synthase, when evaluated for polymorphisms in germline DNA, is promising as a predictive biomarker. Ki-67 and bcl-2 are not useful in predicting outcome. p21 needs to be further evaluated to determine its usefulness in predicting outcome. Bax requires more investigation to determine its usefulness. Epidermal growth factor receptor, thymidylate synthase, and p21 should be evaluated in larger prospective clinical trials for their ability to guide preoperative therapy choices in LARC.

Kuremsky, Jeffrey G. [University of North Carolina (UNC) Institute for Pharmacogenomics and Individualized Therapy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); UNC Doris Duke Clinical Research Fellowship Program, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tepper, Joel E. [UNC Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); McLeod, Howard L. Phar [University of North Carolina (UNC) Institute for Pharmacogenomics and Individualized Therapy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); UNC Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)], E-mail: hmcleod@unc.edu

2009-07-01

282

[Definition, classification and combined treatment of locally invasive rectal neoplasms].  

PubMed

From analysis of 490 case records of patients with stage IV A rectal carcinoma, 3 groups of patients were distinguished according to the size of the tumor and the degree of its fixation to the surrounding tissues and growth into the adjacent organs. Such locally spread tumors of the rectum must be subjected to combined treatment: preoperative large-fractional radiotherapy in concurrent local SHF-hyperthermia followed by operation 24-48 hours later. If resectability of the tumor is doubtful, a relieving colostoma is formed in the first stage and distance gammatherapy is applied in a dose of 4 Gy twice a week to a total dose of 32 Gy auring medication with metronidazole and local SHF-therapy. Concurrent intraarterial chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (15 mg/kg body weight) has been lately introduced into practice in the treatment of such patients. The results of this complex treatment are evaluated 3-4 weeks after the course is completed. PMID:7723258

Knysh, V I; Kim, F P; Goldobenko, G V; Tsariuk, V F; Barsukov, Iu A

1994-10-01

283

Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary We analyzed proteomes of colon and rectal tumors previously characterized by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and performed integrated proteogenomic analyses. Somatic variants displayed reduced protein abundance compared to germline variants. mRNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein abundance differences between tumors. Proteomics identified five proteomic subtypes in the TCGA cohort, two of which overlapped with the TCGA “MSI/CIMP” transcriptomic subtype, but had distinct mutation, methylation, and protein expression patterns associated with different clinical outcomes. Although copy number alterations showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA abundance, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of candidate driver genes. The chromosome 20q amplicon was associated with the largest global changes at both mRNA and protein levels; proteomics data highlighted potential 20q candidates including HNF4A, TOMM34 and SRC. Integrated proteogenomic analysis provides functional context to interpret genomic abnormalities and affords a new paradigm for understanding cancer biology. PMID:25043054

Zhang, Bing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Qi; Shi, Zhiao; Chambers, Matthew C.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Shaddox, Kent F.; Kim, Sangtae; Davies, Sherri R.; Wang, Sean; Wang, Pei; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Rivers, Robert C.; Rodriguez, Henry; Townsend, R. Reid; Ellis, Matthew J.C.; Carr, Steven A.; Tabb, David L.; Coffey, Robert J.; Slebos, Robbert J.C.; Liebler, Daniel C.

2014-01-01

284

Computer Systems Administrator  

E-print Network

Computer Systems Administrator Fort Collins, CO POSITION A Computer Systems Administrator (Non activities. RESPONSIBILITIES The System Administrator will provide Unix/Linux, Windows computer system or computer science, and three years computer systems administration experience. DURATION The work is planned

285

Endoscopic findings of rectal mucosal damage after pelvic radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma: correlation of rectal mucosal damage with radiation dose and clinical symptoms  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe chronic rectal mucosal damage after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for cervical cancer and correlate these findings with clinical symptoms and radiation dose. Materials and Methods Thirty-two patients who underwent pelvic RT were diagnosed with radiation-induced proctitis based on endoscopy findings. The median follow-up period was 35 months after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and intracavitary radiotherapy (ICR). The Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS) was used to describe the endoscopic findings and compared to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) morbidity score and the dosimetric parameters of RT (the ratio of rectal dose calculated at the rectal point [RP] to the prescribed dose, biologically effective dose [BED] at the RP in the ICR and EBRT plans, ?/? = 3). Results Rectal symptoms were noted in 28 patients (rectal bleeding in 21 patients, bowel habit changes in 6, mucosal stools in 1), and 4 patients had no symptoms. Endoscopic findings included telangiectasia in 18 patients, congested mucosa in 20, ulceration in 5, and stricture in 1. The RP ratio, BEDICR, BEDICR+EBRT was significantly associated with the VRS (RP ratio, median 76.5%; BEDICR, median 37.1 Gy3; BEDICR+EBRT, median 102.5 Gy3; p < 0.001). The VRS was significantly associated with the EORTC/RTOG score (p = 0.038). Conclusion The most prevalent endoscopic findings of RT-induced proctitis were telangiectasia and congested mucosa. The VRS was significantly associated with the EORTC/RTOG score and RP radiation dose. PMID:23865004

Kim, Tae Gyu; Park, Won

2013-01-01

286

Noninvasive temporal artery thermometry as an alternative to rectal thermometry in research macaques ( Macaca spp.).  

PubMed

Obtaining an animal's body temperature is essential for the assessment of its clinical status. For many species, rectal thermometry is the technique used most often; however, this method in macaques typically requires sedation or considerable physical restraint. A noninvasive and inexpensive temporal artery (TA) thermometer was evaluated as an alternative method for collecting body temperature measurements from macaques used in neuroscience research. Rectal and arterial temperatures were obtained from 86 macaques (mean age, 10.2 y) that had received ketamine (10 mg/kg IM) or Telazol (5 mg/kg IM); the arterial measurements were taken from behind the right ear. In addition, arterial temperatures were measured behind both ears in a cohort of awake, chaired macaques with cephalic restraint pedestals only (n = 8) or with cephalic restraint pedestals and recording chambers (n = 14). Within-subject repeatability for TA thermometry and agreement between rectal and arterial temperature measurements were assessed by using the Bland-Altman method. Temperature measurements indicated that values from TA thermometry were lower than those from rectal thermometry by 1.57 °C with a 95% agreement limit of ± 1.27 °C. Results show satisfactory repeatability with TA thermometry and agreement between arterial and rectal temperatures, demonstrating that TA thermometry can be a valuable tool in conscious, chaired macaques with restrained heads. PMID:23849413

Woods, Stephanie E; Marini, Robert P; Patterson, Mary M

2013-01-01

287

Anterior-only Partial Sacrectomy for en bloc Resection of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.  

PubMed

Study Design?Case report. Objective?The usual procedure for partial sacrectomies in locally advanced rectal cancer combines a transabdominal and a posterior sacral route. The posterior approach is flawed with a high rate of complications, especially infections and wound-healing problems. Anterior-only approaches have indirectly been mentioned within long series of rectal cancer surgery. We describe a case of partial sacrectomy for en bloc resection of a locally advanced rectal cancer with invasion of the low sacrum through a combined transabdominal and perineal approach without any posterior incision. Methods?Through a midline laparotomy, the tumor was dissected and the sacral osteotomy was performed. Once the sacrum was mobile, the muscular attachments to its posterior wall were cut through the perineal approach. This latter route was also used to remove the whole specimen. Results?The postoperative period was uneventful in terms of infection and wound healing, but the patient developed right foot dorsiflexion paresis that completely disappeared in 1 month. Resection margins were negative. After a follow-up of 18 months, the patient has no local recurrence but presented lung and liver metastases. Conclusion?In cases of rectal cancer involving the low sacrum, the combination of a transabdominal and a perineal route to carry out the partial sacrectomy is a feasible approach that avoids changes of surgical positioning and the morbidity related to posterior incisions. This strategy should be considered when deciding on undertaking partial sacrectomy in locally advanced rectal cancer. PMID:25396109

Roldan, Hector; Perez-Orribo, Luis F; Plata-Bello, Julio M; Martin-Malagon, Antonio I; Garcia-Marin, Victor M

2014-12-01

288

Nitrates in drinking water and risk of death from rectal cancer in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The relationship between nitrate levels in drinking water and rectal cancer development has been inconclusive. A matched case-control and nitrate ecology study was used to investigate the association between mortality attributed to rectal cancer and drinking-water nitrate exposure in Taiwan. All deaths due to rectal cancer of Taiwan residents from 1999 through 2003 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Data on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) levels in drinking water throughout Taiwan were collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was assumed to be the source of the subject's nitrate exposure via drinking water. The adjusted odds ratios for rectal cancer death for those with high nitrate levels in their drinking water, as compared to the lowest tertile, were 1.22 (0.98-1.52) and 1.36 (1.08-1.70), respectively. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of nitrates in drinking water in the etiology of rectal cancer in Taiwan. PMID:17885928

Kuo, Hsin-Wei; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

2007-10-01

289

Fournier gangrene presenting in a patient with undiagnosed rectal adenocarcinoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Fournier gangrene is a rare necrotising fascitis of the perineum and genitals caused by a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. The first case was described by Baurienne in 1764 but the condition was named by Fournier in 1883 who reported the cases of five men with the condition with no apparent etiology. Infection most commonly arises from the skin, urethra, or rectal regions. Despite appropriate therapy, mortality in this disease is still high. We report a case of a low rectal malignancy presenting as Fournier gangrene. This case report serves to highlight an extremely unusual presentation of rectal cancer, a common surgical pathology. Case presentation The patient is a 48 years old Afghanian male that admitted with Fournier gangrene. In the course of medical and surgical treatment the presence of extensive rectal adenocarcinoma was discovered. After partial recovery, standard loop colostomy was inserted. Skin grafting of necrotic areas was performed and systemic rectal cancer chemotherapy initiated after full stabilization. Conclusion Fournier gangrene is an uncommon but life threatening condition with high associated mortality and morbidity. Usually there is an underlying cause for the development of Fournier gangrene, that if addressed correctly, can lead to a good outcome. Early diagnosis and treatment decrease the morbidity and mortality of this life threatening condition. Good management is based on aggressive debridement, broad spectrum antibiotics and intensive supportive care. PMID:20062653

2009-01-01

290

Combined radical prostatectomy and abdominoperineal resection for locally invasive rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION An infiltration of urological organs is found in 5–10% of patients with colorectal carcinoma. Total pelvic exenteration is the standard procedure for locally advanced rectal cancer. In selected patients with rectal cancer involving the prostate or seminal vesicles, the bladder can be preserved and en bloc radical prostatectomy with abdominoperineal rectal resection can be performed. We report two patients who treated with this combined approach. PRESENTATION OF CASE Two patients with symptoms of rectal bleeding and pelvic pain were investigated. Colonoscopy demonstrated a tumor in the lower rectum. Biopsies revealed adenocarcinoma. Both pelvic MRI and endorectal ultrasound showed tumors that invaded the prostate and the seminal vesicles directly but without invasion of the bladder. After neoadjuvant chemoradiation, combined radical prostatectomy and abdominoperineal amputation was performed. None has developed local recurrence, but one of them was operated on for a single lung metastasis. After a follow-up of 28 and 20 months, respectively, the patients are alive without evidence of local recurrence or distant disease. DISCUSSION This procedure obviates the need for urinary diversion without compromising the local tumor control. Intraoperative and postoperative diagnostic difficulties, and clinical aspects in relation to postoperative anastomotic leak and survival of patients are discussed. CONCLUSION En bloc radical prostatectomy and proctosigmoidectomy is feasible in selected patients with rectal cancer and invasion limited to the prostate or seminal vesicles because it provides good local tumor control and significantly improves the patient's quality of life in comparison to total pelvic exenteration. PMID:25105771

Fernández-Martínez, Daniel; Rodríguez-Infante, Antonio; Castelo-Álvarez, Elsa; Fernández-Vega, Iván; Suárez-Hevia, Miguel; Truán-Alonso, Nuria; Baldonedo-Cernuda, Ricardo F.; Álvarez-Pérez, José A.; Sánchez-Farpón, Herminio

2014-01-01

291

Magnetic resonance imaging in rectal cancer: A surgeon’s perspective  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in rectal cancer was first investigated in 1999 and has become almost mandatory in planning rectal cancer treatment. MRI has a high accuracy in predicting circumferential resection margin involvement and is used to plan neoadjuvant therapy. The accuracy of MRI in assessing mesorectal lymph nodes remains moderate, as there are no reliable criteria to assess nodal involvement. MRI seems to be good in assessing peritoneal involvement in upper rectal cancer; this however has been assessed in only a few studies and needs further research. For low rectal cancers, mesorectum is thin at the level of levator ani especially in relation to prostate; so predicting circumferential resection margin involvement is not easy. However high spatial resolution coronal imaging shows levator muscles, sphincter complex and intersphincteric plane accurately. This is used to stage low rectal tumors and plan plane of surgery (standard surgery, intersphincteric resection, Extralevator abdominoperineal resection). While most centres perform MRI post chemoradiotherapy, its role in accurate staging post neoadjuvant therapy remains debatable. THe role of Diffusion weighted MRI post neoadjuvant therapy is being evaluated in research settings. PMID:24616572

Saklani, Avanish P; Bae, Sung Uk; Clayton, Amy; Kim, Nam Kyu

2014-01-01

292

Rectal cancer: future directions and priorities for treatment, research and policy in New Zealand.  

PubMed

New Zealand has one of the highest incidences of rectal cancer in the world, and its optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach. A National Rectal Cancer Summit was convened in August 2013 to discuss management of rectal cancer in the New Zealand context, to highlight controversies and discuss domestic priorities for the future. This paper summarises the priorities for treatment, research and policy for rectal cancer services in New Zealand identified as part of the Summit in August. The following priorities were identified: - Access to high-quality information for service planning, review of outcomes, identification of inequities and gaps in provision, and quality improvement; - Engagement with the entire sector, including private providers; - Focus on equity; - Emerging technologies; - Harmonisation of best practice; - Importance of multidisciplinary team meetings. In conclusion, improvements in outcomes for patients with rectal cancer in New Zealand will require significant engagement between policy makers, providers, researchers, and patients in order to ensure equitable access to high quality treatment, and strategic incorporation of emerging technologies into clinical practice. A robust clinical information framework is required in order to facilitate monitoring of quality improvements and to ensure that equitable care is delivered. PMID:24929694

Jackson, Christopher; Ehrenberg, Nieves; Frizelle, Frank; Sarfati, Diana; Balasingam, Adrian; Pearse, Maria; Parry, Susan; Print, Cristin; Findlay, Michael; Bissett, Ian

2014-06-01

293

Accuracy of endosonography in the staging of rectal cancer treated by radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Endosonography is the best available method for the pretherapeutic staging of rectal cancer. The present prospective study was to determine the influence of previous radiotherapy, widely used in the management of this tumour, on the accuracy of endosonography. A complete endosonographic examination was performed just before surgery in 40 patients with rectal cancer. Endosonographic and pathological staging were compared in group A, 21 patients without previous radiotherapy, and group B, 19 patients with preoperative radiotherapy. While the endosonographic accuracy for lymph node involvement was similar in the two groups (85 per cent compared with 84 per cent), wall invasion was correctly ascertained in 86 per cent in group A but in only 47 per cent in group B (P less than 0.05). After irradiation, the thickening of the rectal wall and the poor visualization of the hyperechoic layers hampered interpretation. Post-radiotherapy inflammation and/or fibrosis probably explained the echographic changes. Radiotherapy therefore altered endosonographic staging of rectal cancer. New interpretation criteria are needed for evaluation and follow-up of rectal cancer treated by radiotherapy. PMID:1873701

Napoleon, B; Pujol, B; Berger, F; Valette, P J; Gerard, J P; Souquet, J C

1991-07-01

294

Effect of rectal distention and feeding on cecal tone in pigs.  

PubMed

The effects of eating and rectal distention on cecal tone were evaluated. Cecal tone was measured using a computer-controlled barostat in four female 30 to 40 kg Yucatan Micropigs fitted with cecal fistulas. Each pig underwent two separate trials of pre and postprandial measurements of cecal tone, either with or without continuous rectal distention with a 30 ml water-filled balloon. Cecal tone was measured 10 min prior to, during, and 10 min following a high-fat (60%) liquid meal (473 ml). Cecal tone significantly increased (intrabag volume decreased) after feeding (119.6 +/- 9.1 ml vs. 81.2 +/- 7.9 ml; p = 0.008). Rectal distention tended to reduce the postprandial change in cecal tone (142.8 +/- 11.5 vs. 130.9 +/- 12.6 ml; p = 0.196). There was also a strong tendency for cecal volumes to be higher (decreased tone) with rectal distention preprandially (142.8 +/- 11.5 ml vs. 119.6 +/- 9.1 ml; p = 0.024). Nutrient ingestion significantly increased cecal tone and rectal distention abolished this effect. These findings may indicate a regulatory pathway that allows additional storage of fecal material in the event that the output of the system is disturbed. PMID:8190775

Musial, F; Crowell, M D

1994-03-01

295

Delayed endoluminal vacuum therapy for rectal anastomotic leaks after rectal resection in a swine model: a new treatment option.  

PubMed

Anastomotic leaks are a dreaded surgical complication following colorectal operations. Creation of a temporary proximal diverting ileostomy is used in high-risk anastomoses, however, additional surgical risk is accumulated with its creation and reversal. Endoluminal vacuum therapy has been shown to seal anastomotic defects in the prophylactic setting in a pig model and we hypothesized it could be utilized in a delayed fashion to rescue subjects with an active anastomotic leak. Yorkshire pigs underwent rectal resection, intentional leak confirmed by fluoroscopy, and endoluminal vacuum therapy device placement to low continuous suction. Following treatment, a contrast enema and necropsy was performed for gross and histopathology. Pigs underwent 2 (or 5) days of free intraperitoneal leak prior to device placement and 5 (or 7) subsequent days of endoluminal vacuum therapy. Six of seven early-treated pigs sealed their anastomotic defect, while two of the four treated pigs in this extended group sealed the defect. Endoluminal vacuum therapy is feasible and well tolerated in a pig model, and it has been shown to seal a significant number of freely leaking anastomoses in the early period (86%). This technology warrants further study as it may provide a noninvasive means to treatment of anastomotic leaks. PMID:24456480

Rosenberger, Laura H; Shada, Amber; Ritter, Lane A; Mauro, David M; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Feldman, Sanford H; Kleiner, Daniel E

2014-04-01

296

Prevention of SIV Rectal Transmission and Priming of T Cell Responses in Macaques after Local Pre-exposure Application of Tenofovir Gel  

PubMed Central

Background The rectum is particularly vulnerable to HIV transmission having only a single protective layer of columnar epithelium overlying tissue rich in activated lymphoid cells; thus, unprotected anal intercourse in both women and men carries a higher risk of infection than other sexual routes. In the absence of effective prophylactic vaccines, increasing attention is being given to the use of microbicides and preventative antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. To prevent mucosal transmission of HIV, a microbicide/ARV should ideally act locally at and near the virus portal of entry. As part of an integrated rectal microbicide development programme, we have evaluated rectal application of the nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor tenofovir (PMPA, 9-[(R)-2-(phosphonomethoxy) propyl] adenine monohydrate), a drug licensed for therapeutic use, for protective efficacy against rectal challenge with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in a well-established and standardised macaque model. Methods and Findings A total of 20 purpose-bred Indian rhesus macaques were used to evaluate the protective efficacy of topical tenofovir. Nine animals received 1% tenofovir gel per rectum up to 2 h prior to virus challenge, four macaques received placebo gel, and four macaques remained untreated. In addition, three macaques were given tenofovir gel 2 h after virus challenge. Following intrarectal instillation of 20 median rectal infectious doses (MID50) of a noncloned, virulent stock of SIVmac251/32H, all animals were analysed for virus infection, by virus isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), quantitative proviral DNA load in PBMC, plasma viral RNA (vRNA) load by sensitive quantitative competitive (qc) RT-PCR, and presence of SIV-specific serum antibodies by ELISA. We report here a significant protective effect (p = 0.003; Fisher exact probability test) wherein eight of nine macaques given tenofovir per rectum up to 2 h prior to virus challenge were protected from infection (n = 6) or had modified virus outcomes (n = 2), while all untreated macaques and three of four macaques given placebo gel were infected, as were two of three animals receiving tenofovir gel after challenge. Moreover, analysis of lymphoid tissues post mortem failed to reveal sequestration of SIV in the protected animals. We found a strong positive association between the concentration of tenofovir in the plasma 15 min after rectal application of gel and the degree of protection in the six animals challenged with virus at this time point. Moreover, colorectal explants from non-SIV challenged tenofovir-treated macaques were resistant to infection ex vivo, whereas no inhibition was seen in explants from the small intestine. Tissue-specific inhibition of infection was associated with the intracellular detection of tenofovir. Intriguingly, in the absence of seroconversion, Gag-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?)-secreting T cells were detected in the blood of four of seven protected animals tested, with frequencies ranging from 144 spot forming cells (SFC)/106 PBMC to 261 spot forming cells (SFC)/106 PBMC. Conclusions These results indicate that colorectal pretreatment with ARV drugs, such as tenofovir, has potential as a clinically relevant strategy for the prevention of HIV transmission. We conclude that plasma tenofovir concentration measured 15 min after rectal administration may serve as a surrogate indicator of protective efficacy. This may prove to be useful in the design of clinical studies. Furthermore, in vitro intestinal explants served as a model for drug distribution in vivo and susceptibility to virus infection. The finding of T cell priming following exposure to virus in the absence of overt infection is provocative. Further studies would reveal if a combined modality microbicide and vaccination strategy is feasible by determining the full extent of local immune responses induced and their protective potential. PMID:18684007

Cranage, Martin; Sharpe, Sally; Herrera, Carolina; Cope, Alethea; Dennis, Mike; Berry, Neil; Ham, Claire; Heeney, Jonathan; Rezk, Naser; Kashuba, Angela; Anton, Peter; McGowan, Ian; Shattock, Robin

2008-01-01

297

The association of rectal equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) to late rectal toxicity in locally advanced cervical cancer patients who were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate association between equivalent dose in 2 Gy (EQD2) to rectal point dose and gastrointestinal toxicity from whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) and intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) in cervical cancer patients who were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy in Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University. Materials and Methods Retrospective study was designed for the patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, treated by radical radiotherapy from 2004 to 2009 and were evaluated by rectosigmoidoscopy. The cumulative doses of WPRT and ICBT to the maximally rectal point were calculated to the EQD2 and evaluated the association of toxicities. Results Thirty-nine patients were evaluated for late rectal toxicity. The mean cumulative dose in term of EQD2 to rectum was 64.2 Gy. Grade 1 toxicities were the most common findings. According to endoscopic exam, the most common toxicities were congested mucosa (36 patients) and telangiectasia (32 patients). In evaluation between rectal dose in EQD2 and toxicities, no association of cumulative rectal dose to rectal toxicity, except the association of cumulative rectal dose in EQD2 >65 Gy to late effects of normal tissue (LENT-SOMA) scale ? grade 2 (p = 0.022; odds ratio, 5.312; 95% confidence interval, 1.269-22.244). Conclusion The cumulative rectal dose in EQD2 >65 Gy have association with ? grade 2 LENT-SOMA scale. PMID:25061573

Meungwong, Pooriwat; Chitapanarux, Taned; Chakrabandhu, Somvilai; Klunklin, Pitchayaponne; Onchan, Wimrak; Wanwilairat, Somsak; Traisathit, Patrinee; Galalae, Razvan; Chitapanarux, Imjai

2014-01-01

298

Study shows colon and rectal tumors constitute a single type of cancer; The Cancer Genome Atlas generates genomic data for colon and rectal cancers that point to potential targets for treatment  

Cancer.gov

The pattern of genomic alterations in colon and rectal tissues is the same regardless of anatomic location or origin within the colon or the rectum, leading researchers to conclude that these two cancer types can be grouped as one, according to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project's large-scale study of colon and rectal cancer tissue specimens.

299

Nitrates in Drinking Water and the Risk of Death from Rectal Cancer: Does Hardness in Drinking Water Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between nitrate levels in public water supplies and increased risk of death from rectal cancer and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the effects of nitrate on development of rectal cancer. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship

Chih-Ching Chang; Chih-Cheng Chen; Deng-Chuang Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang

2010-01-01

300

Late radiation damage in prostate cancer patients treated by high dose external radiotherapy in relation to rectal dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis of the incidence of radiation proctitis was performed in 154 patients with carcinoma of the prostate treated with external radiotherapy assisted by CT-scan planning from 1983 to 1985. An attempt was made to assess a dose-response relationship for proctitis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that previous bowel disease or surgery, anterior rectal dose, and average rectal dose

W. G. J. M. Smit; P. A. Helle; W. L. J. Van Putten; A. J. Wijnmaalen; J. J. Seldenrath; B. H. P. Van Der Werf-Messing

1990-01-01

301

Rectally administered misoprostol for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage unresponsive to oxytocin and ergometrine: a descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate whether rectally administered misoprostol is an effective treatment for postpartum hemorrhage unresponsive to conventional first-line management.Methods: We studied 14 women with postpartum hemorrhage unresponsive to oxytocin and ergometrine (n = 10) or, when ergometrine was contraindicated, oxytocin alone (n = 4). While awaiting carboprost, misoprostol 1000 ?g (five tablets) was administered rectally.Results: In all 14 women, the

Patrick O’Brien; Hazem El-Refaey; Alasdair Gordon; Michael Geary; Charles H. Rodeck

1998-01-01

302

The prediction of late rectal complications in patients treated with high dose-rate brachytherapy for carcinoma of the cervix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this work is to invetigate an unusually high rate of late rectal complications in a group of 43 patients treated with concomitant irradiation and chemotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix between December 1988 and April 1991, with a view to identifying predictive factors.Methods and Materials: The biologically effective dose received by each patient to the rectal

Brenda G. Clark; Luis Souhami; Ted N. Roman; Rick Chappell; Michael D. C. Evans; Jack F. Fowler

1997-01-01

303

Rectal Transmission of Transmitted/Founder HIV-1 Is Efficiently Prevented by Topical 1% Tenofovir in BLT Humanized Mice  

PubMed Central

Rectal microbicides are being developed to prevent new HIV infections in both men and women. We focused our in vivo preclinical efficacy study on rectally-applied tenofovir. BLT humanized mice (n?=?43) were rectally inoculated with either the primary isolate HIV-1JRCSF or the MSM-derived transmitted/founder (T/F) virus HIV-1THRO within 30 minutes following treatment with topical 1% tenofovir or vehicle. Under our experimental conditions, in the absence of drug treatment we observed 50% and 60% rectal transmission by HIV-1JRCSF and HIV-1THRO, respectively. Topical tenofovir reduced rectal transmission to 8% (1/12; log rank p?=?0.03) for HIV-1JRCSF and 0% (0/6; log rank p?=?0.02) for HIV-1THRO. This is the first demonstration that any human T/F HIV-1 rectally infects humanized mice and that transmission of the T/F virus can be efficiently blocked by rectally applied 1% tenofovir. These results obtained in BLT mice, along with recent ex vivo, Phase 1 trial and non-human primate reports, provide a critically important step forward in the development of tenofovir-based rectal microbicides. PMID:23527295

Chateau, Morgan L.; Denton, Paul W.; Swanson, Michael D.; McGowan, Ian; Garcia, J. Victor

2013-01-01

304

Neoadjuvant Bevacizumab, Oxaliplatin, 5-Fluorouracil, and Radiation for Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and pathologic complete response rate of induction bevacizumab + modified infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) 6 regimen followed by concurrent bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and radiation for patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients received 1 month of induction bevacizumab and mFOLFOX6. Patients then received 50.4 Gy of radiation and concurrent bevacizumab (5 mg/kg on Days 1, 15, and 29), oxaliplatin (50 mg/m{sup 2}/week for 6 weeks), and continuous infusion 5-FU (200 mg/m{sup 2}/day). Because of gastrointestinal toxicity, the oxaliplatin dose was reduced to 40 mg/m{sup 2}/week. Resection was performed 4-8 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. Results: The trial was terminated early because of toxicity after 26 eligible patients were treated. Only 1 patient had significant toxicity (arrhythmia) during induction treatment and was removed from the study. During chemoradiation, Grade 3/4 toxicity was experienced by 19 of 25 patients (76%). The most common Grade 3/4 toxicities were diarrhea, neutropenia, and pain. Five of 25 patients (20%) had a complete pathologic response. Nine of 25 patients (36%) developed postoperative complications including infection (n = 4), delayed healing (n = 3), leak/abscess (n = 2), sterile fluid collection (n = 2), ischemic colonic reservoir (n = 1), and fistula (n = 1). Conclusions: Concurrent oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, continuous infusion 5-FU, and radiation causes significant gastrointestinal toxicity. The pathologic complete response rate of this regimen was similar to other fluorouracil chemoradiation regimens. The high incidence of postoperative wound complications is concerning and consistent with other reports utilizing bevacizumab with chemoradiation before major surgical resections.

Dipetrillo, Tom; Pricolo, Victor; Lagares-Garcia, Jorge; Vrees, Matt; Klipfel, Adam; Cataldo, Tom; Sikov, William; McNulty, Brendan; Shipley, Joshua; Anderson, Elliot; Khurshid, Humera; Oconnor, Brigid; Oldenburg, Nicklas B.E.; Radie-Keane, Kathy; Husain, Syed [Brown University Oncology Group, Providence, RI (United States); Safran, Howard, E-mail: hsafran@lifespan.org [Brown University Oncology Group, Providence, RI (United States)

2012-01-01

305

Solitary rectal cap polyp: Case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Rectal bleeding combined with the presence of a rectal mass has been traditionally associated with the presence of malignant disease. Cap polyposis is a relatively young and still undefined rare entity which mainly involves the rectosigmoid. It is characterized by the presence of inflammatory polyps. In this case report, we present a patient who was diagnosed with a solitary cap polyp of the rectum during the investigation of a bleeding rectal mass. The patient’s age and the absence of family history were not in favor of malignancy, despite the strong initial clinical impression. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the patient underwent a snare excision and remains asymptomatic. Cap polyposis, although rare, should be suspected and, when diagnosed, should be treated according to location, number of polyps and severity of symptoms. PMID:22816031

Papaconstantinou, Ioannis; Karakatsanis, Andreas; Benia, Xanthi; Polymeneas, George; Kostopoulou, Evanthia

2012-01-01

306

New technique of transanal proctectomy with completely robotic total mesorrectal excision for rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Anterior resection with total mesorectal excision is the standard method of rectal cancer resection. However, this procedure remains technically difficult in mid and low rectal cancer. A robotic transanal proctectomy with total mesorectal excision and laparoscopic assistance is reported in a 57 year old male with BMI 32 kg/m2 and rectal adenocarcinoma T2N1M0 at 5 cm from the dentate line. Operating time was 420 min. Postoperative hospital stay was 6 days and no complications were observed. Pathological report showed a 33 cm specimen with ypT2N0 adenocarcinoma at 2 cm from the distal margin, complete TME and non affected circumferential resection margin. Robotic technology might reduce some technical difficulties associated with TEM/TEO or SILS platforms in transanal total mesorectal excision. Further clinical trials will be necessary to assess this technique. PMID:24589418

Gómez Ruiz, Marcos; Palazuelos, Carlos Manuel; Martín Parra, José Ignacio; Alonso Martín, Joaquín; Cagigas Fernández, Carmen; del Castillo Diego, Julio; Gómez Fleitas, Manuel

2014-05-01

307

Rectal cancer with disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow: report of a case.  

PubMed

Abstract We report a rare case of disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from rectal cancer with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A 65-year-old man was admitted with melena and low back pain at rest. X-ray examination showed rectal cancer with multiple bone metastases. Laboratory examination showed severe anemia and DIC. Histologic examination showed disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow. The DIC was considered to be caused by disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from rectal cancer, and we immediately started treatment with anti-DIC therapy and anticancer chemotherapy with the modified FOLFOX6 regimen (mFOLFOX6). After some response to therapy, the patient's general condition deteriorated, and he died 128 days after admission. This is the first English report showing disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from colorectal cancer treated with mFOLFOX6. PMID:25216414

Nakashima, Yuichiro; Takeishi, Kazuki; Guntani, Atsushi; Tsujita, Eiji; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Matsuyama, Ayumi; Hamatake, Motoharu; Maeda, Takashi; Tsutsui, Shinichi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Fujihara, Megumu; Ishida, Teruyoshi

2014-01-01

308

[A case of laparoscopic surgery for a rectal carcinoid after ALTA therapy for an internal hemorrhoid].  

PubMed

We report a case of laparoscopic surgery for a rectal carcinoid after aluminum potassium and tannic acid (ALTA) therapy for an internal hemorrhoid. A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of bleeding during defecation. He was diagnosed via anoscopy with Goligher grade II internal hemorrhoids. Examination via colonoscopy revealed 2 yellowish submucosal tumors in the lower rectum that were 5mm and 10mm in diameter. A rectal carcinoid tumor was diagnosed based on histopathology. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated no metastases to the liver or lymph nodes. First, we performed ALTA therapy for the internal hemorrhoids. Two weeks later, we performed laparoscopic-assisted low anterior resection (D2) for the rectal carcinoid. The patient was discharged without complications and has not experienced recurrence during the 2 years of follow-up care. PMID:25731340

Aomatsu, Naoki; Nakamura, Masanori; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Nakao, Shigetomi; Uchima, Yasutake; Aomatsu, Keiho

2014-11-01

309

A tensor-based population value decomposition to explain rectal toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

In prostate cancer radiotherapy the association between the dose distribution and the occurrence of undesirable side-effects is yet to be revealed. In this work a method to perform population analysis by comparing the dose distributions is proposed. The method is a tensor-based approach that generalises an existing method for 2D images and allows for the highlighting of over irradiated zones correlated with rectal bleeding after prostate cancer radiotherapy. Thus, the aim is to contribute to the elucidation of the dose patterns correlated with rectal toxicity. The method was applied to a cohort of 63 patients and it was able to build up a dose pattern characterizing the difference between patients presenting rectal bleeding after prostate cancer radiotherapy and those who did not. PMID:24579164

Ospina, Juan David; Commandeur, Frédéric; Ríos, Richard; Dréan, Gaël; Correa, Juan Carlos; Simon, Antoine; Haigron, Pascal; De Crevoisier, Renaud; Acosta, Oscar

2013-01-01

310

Regional Brain Activation in Response to Rectal Distension in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and the Effect of a History of Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated alterations in brain response to rectal distension in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) compared to controls. Our aim was to compare regional brain activity in response to rectal balloon distension in patients with IBS and healthy controls. We studied six patients with IBS and six healthy controls. Positron emission tomography scans were obtained during rectal

Yehuda Ringel; Douglas A. Drossman; Timothy G. Turkington; Barbara Bradshaw; Thomas C. Hawk; Shrikant Bangdiwala; R. Edward Coleman; William E. Whitehead

2003-01-01

311

Prevalence of Rectal, Urethral, and Pharyngeal Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Detected in 2 Clinical Settings among Men Who Have Sex with Men: San Francisco, California, 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed screening and diagnostic testing guidelines for chlamydia and gonorrhea at urethral, rectal, and pharyngeal sites for men who have sex with men (MSM). However, in most clinical settings, rectal chlamydial testing is not performed for MSM, and primarily sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics alone perform routine rectal and pharyngeal gonorrhea screening

Charlotte K. Kent; Janice K. Chaw; William Wong; Sally Liska; Steven Gibson; Gregory Hubbard; Jeffrey D. Klausner

2005-01-01

312

Reduction of prostate intrafraction motion using gas-release rectal balloons  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze prostate intrafraction motion using both non-gas-release (NGR) and gas-release (GR) rectal balloons and to evaluate the ability of GR rectal balloons to reduce prostate intrafraction motion. Methods: Twenty-nine patients with NGR rectal balloons and 29 patients with GR balloons were randomly selected from prostate patients treated with proton therapy at University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute (Jacksonville, FL). Their pretreatment and post-treatment orthogonal radiographs were analyzed, and both pretreatment setup residual error and intrafraction-motion data were obtained. Population histograms of intrafraction motion were plotted for both types of balloons. Population planning target-volume (PTV) margins were calculated with the van Herk formula of 2.5{Sigma}+ 0.7{sigma} to account for setup residual errors and intrafraction motion errors. Results: Pretreatment and post-treatment radiographs indicated that the use of gas-release rectal balloons reduced prostate intrafraction motion along superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Similar patient setup residual errors were exhibited for both types of balloons. Gas-release rectal balloons resulted in PTV margin reductions from 3.9 to 2.8 mm in the SI direction, 3.1 to 1.8 mm in the AP direction, and an increase from 1.9 to 2.1 mm in the left-right direction. Conclusions: Prostate intrafraction motion is an important uncertainty source in radiotherapy after image-guided patient setup with online corrections. Compared to non-gas-release rectal balloons, gas-release balloons can reduce prostate intrafraction motion in the SI and AP directions caused by gas buildup.

Su Zhong; Zhao Tianyu; Li Zuofeng; Hoppe, Brad; Henderson, Randy; Mendenhall, William; Nichols, R. Charles; Marcus, Robert; Mendenhall, Nancy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida 32206 (United States)

2012-10-15

313

DNA methylation of apoptosis genes in rectal cancer predicts patient survival and tumor recurrence.  

PubMed

Deregulation of the apoptotic pathway, one of the hallmarks of tumor growth and -progression, has been shown to have prognostic value for tumor recurrence in rectal cancer. In order to develop clinically relevant biomarkers, we studied the methylation status of promoter regions of key apoptosis genes in rectal cancer patients, using methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. DNA was extracted from fresh-frozen tumor tissues of 49 stage I-III rectal cancer patients and 10 normal rectal tissues. The results of this pilot study were validated in 88 stage III tumor tissues and 18 normal rectal tissues. We found that methylation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway genes Apaf1, Bcl2 and p53 correlated with the apoptotic status (M30) of the tumor. Combined survival analyses of these three genes, based on the number of genes showing high methylation (all low, 1 high, 2 high or all high), showed shorter patient survival and recurrence-free periods with an increasing number of methylated markers. Multivariate analyses showed significant differences for overall survival (p = 0.01; HR = 0.28 (0.09-0.83)), cancer-specific survival (p = 0.004; HR = 0.13 (0.03-0.67)) and distant recurrence-free survival (p = 0.001; HR = 0.22(0.05-0.94)). The shortest survival was observed for patients showing low methylation of all markers, which-as was expected-correlated with high apoptosis (M30), but also with high proliferation (Ki-67). The study of epigenetic regulation of apoptosis genes provides more insight in the tumorigenic process in rectal cancer and might be helpful in further refining treatment regimens for individual patients. PMID:25064172

Benard, Anne; Zeestraten, Eliane C M; Goossens-Beumer, Inès J; Putter, Hein; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Hoon, Dave S B; Kuppen, Peter J K

2014-11-01

314

Practice Patterns and Long-Term Survival for Early-Stage Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Standard of care treatment for most stage I rectal cancers is total mesorectal excision (TME). Given the morbidity associated with TME, local excision (LE) for early-stage rectal cancer has been explored. This study examines practice patterns and overall survival (OS) for early-stage rectal cancer. Methods All patients in the National Cancer Data Base diagnosed with rectal cancer from 1998 to 2010 were initially included. Use of LE versus proctectomy and use of adjuvant radiation therapy were compared over time. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare OS based on treatment. Results LE was used to treat 46.5% of patients with T1 and 16.8% with T2 tumors. Use of LE increased steadily over time (P < .001). LE was most commonly used for women, black patients, very old patients, those without private health insurance, those with well-differentiated tumors, and those with T1 tumors. Proctectomy was associated with higher rates of tumor-free surgical margins compared with LE (95% v 76%; P < .001). Adjuvant radiation therapy use decreased over time independent of surgical procedure or T stage. For T2N0 disease, patients treated with LE alone had significantly poorer adjusted OS than those treated with proctectomy alone or multimodality therapy. Conclusion Guideline-concordant adoption of LE for treatment of low-risk stage I rectal cancer is increasing. However, use of LE is also increasing for higher-risk rectal cancers that do not meet guideline criteria for LE. Treatment with LE alone is associated with poorer long-term OS. Additional studies are warranted to understand the factors driving increased use of LE. PMID:24166526

Stitzenberg, Karyn B.; Sanoff, Hanna K.; Penn, Dolly C.; Meyers, Michael O.; Tepper, Joel E.

2013-01-01

315

Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: Current immediate clinical and oncological outcomes  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic rectal surgery continues to be a challenging operation associated to a steep learning curve. Robotic surgical systems have dramatically changed minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional, magnified and stable view, articulated instruments, and reduction of physiologic tremors leading to superior dexterity and ergonomics. Therefore, robotic platforms could potentially address limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery. It was aimed at reviewing current literature on short-term clinical and oncological (pathological) outcomes after robotic rectal cancer surgery in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was performed for the period 2002 to 2014. A total of 1776 patients with rectal cancer underwent minimally invasive robotic treatment in 32 studies. After robotic and laparoscopic approach to oncologic rectal surgery, respectively, mean operating time varied from 192-385 min, and from 158-297 min; mean estimated blood loss was between 33 and 283 mL, and between 127 and 300 mL; mean length of stay varied from 4-10 d; and from 6-15 d. Conversion after robotic rectal surgery varied from 0% to 9.4%, and from 0 to 22% after laparoscopy. There was no difference between robotic (0%-41.3%) and laparoscopic (5.5%-29.3%) surgery regarding morbidity and anastomotic complications (respectively, 0%-13.5%, and 0%-11.1%). Regarding immediate oncologic outcomes, respectively among robotic and laparoscopic cases, positive circumferential margins varied from 0% to 7.5%, and from 0% to 8.8%; the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was between 10 and 20, and between 11 and 21; and the mean distal resection margin was from 0.8 to 4.7 cm, and from 1.9 to 4.5 cm. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is being undertaken by experienced surgeons. However, the quality of the assembled evidence does not support definite conclusions about most studies variables. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is associated to increased costs and operating time. It also seems to be associated to reduced conversion rates. Other short-term outcomes are comparable to conventional laparoscopy techniques, if not better. Ultimately, pathological data evaluation suggests that oncologic safety may be preserved after robotic total mesorectal excision. However, further studies are required to evaluate oncologic safety and functional results. PMID:25339823

Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney

2014-01-01

316

Stapled transanal rectal resection for symptomatic intussusception: morphological and functional outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) was developed to correct intussusception causing obstructed defecation. Some patients,\\u000a however, do not profit from this operation as anticipated. We aimed to study the relationship between functional outcome and\\u000a rectal morphology after STARR.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Fifteen consecutive female patients with median age of 64 years [interquartile range (IQR) 58–71 years] were studied before\\u000a and after STARR. All patients had

Reinhold A. Lang; Sonja Buhmann; Christine Lautenschlager; Mario H. Müller; Andreas Lienemann; Karl-Walter Jauch; Martin E. Kreis

2010-01-01

317

[A case of metastatic rectal cancer with fulminant hepatitis caused by XELOX therapy].  

PubMed

We report a case of fulminant hepatitis that was caused by XELOX therapy administered for metastatic rectal cancer. A 69- year-old man with metastatic rectal cancer received 4 courses XELOX therapy. He was subsequently admitted to our hospital with general fatigue. Shenzhen flapping and altered consciousness were noticed on the fifth day of hospitalization. A liver biopsy was subsequently performed. The patient was diagnosed with liver failure due to sinusoidal obstruction syndrome caused by oxaliplatin. This case provides valuable information as there are only a few reports of fulminant hepatitis caused by oxaliplatin. PMID:25731347

Kemmochi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yuta; Yoneda, Masataka; Ito, Yasuhiro; Ohkubo, Yusuke; Egawa, Tomohisa; Nagashima, Atsushi; Shimokawa, Reiko; Makino, Hiroyuki; Yamamuro, Wataru

2014-11-01

318

Influence of image slice thickness on rectal dose-response relationships following radiotherapy of prostate cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When pooling retrospective data from different cohorts, slice thicknesses of acquired computed tomography (CT) images used for treatment planning may vary between cohorts. It is, however, not known if varying slice thickness influences derived dose-response relationships. We investigated this for rectal bleeding using dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the rectum and rectal wall for dose distributions superimposed on images with varying CT slice thicknesses. We used dose and endpoint data from two prostate cancer cohorts treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to either 74 Gy (N = 159) or 78 Gy (N = 159) at 2 Gy per fraction. The rectum was defined as the whole organ with content, and the morbidity cut-off was Grade ?2 late rectal bleeding. Rectal walls were defined as 3 mm inner margins added to the rectum. DVHs for simulated slice thicknesses from 3 to 13 mm were compared to DVHs for the originally acquired slice thicknesses at 3 and 5 mm. Volumes, mean, and maximum doses were assessed from the DVHs, and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) values were calculated. For each organ and each of the simulated slice thicknesses, we performed predictive modeling of late rectal bleeding using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. For the most coarse slice thickness, rectal volumes increased (?18%), whereas maximum and mean doses decreased (?0.8 and ?4.2 Gy, respectively). For all a values, the gEUD for the simulated DVHs were ?1.9 Gy different than the gEUD for the original DVHs. The best-fitting LKB model parameter values with 95% CIs were consistent between all DVHs. In conclusion, we found that the investigated slice thickness variations had minimal impact on rectal dose-response estimations. From the perspective of predictive modeling, our results suggest that variations within 10 mm in slice thickness between cohorts are unlikely to be a limiting factor when pooling multi-institutional rectal dose data that include slice thickness variations within this range. Presented in part at the European Society for Therapeutic Radiotherapy and Oncology Annual Meeting, April 5-8, 2014, Vienna, Austria.

Olsson, C.; Thor, M.; Liu, M.; Moissenko, V.; Petersen, S. E.; Høyer, M.; Apte, A.; Deasy, J. O.

2014-07-01

319

Endo-rectal balloon cavity dosimetry in a phantom: Performance under IMRT and helical tomotherapy beams  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose The use of endo-rectal balloons as immobilisation devices in external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer has lead to improved target position reproducibility and a decrease in rectal toxicity. The air cavity created by an endo-rectal balloon in photon radiotherapy perturbs the dose distribution. In this study, the effect of the balloon cavity on the dose distribution and the accuracy to which two treatment planning systems calculate the dose distribution was investigated. Materials and Methods Single beams as well as 3D conformal, conventional IMRT and helical tomotherapy treatment plans were investigated using a specifically constructed phantom. Radiochromic film was used to measure the cavity wall doses and cavity wall DVHs. Results For a 70Gy prescription dose both the Pinnacle and TomoTherapy TPSs over-predicted the anterior cavity wall dose by 1.43Gy, 3.92Gy and 2.67Gy for 3D conformal, conventional IMRT and helical tomotherapy respectively. The posterior cavity wall dose was under-predicted by 2.62Gy, 2.01Gy and 4.79Gy for 3D conformal, conventional IMRT and helical tomotherapy respectively. An over-prediction by the Pinnacle RTPS of the V50, V60, V65 and V70 values for the cavity wall DVH was measured for the 3D conformal and conventional IMRT cases. These reductions may lead to a less than expected rectal toxicity. The TomoTherapy RTPS under-predicted the V50, V60, V65 and V70 values which may lead to higher rectal toxicity than predicted. Conclusion Calculation of dose around an air cavity created by an endo-rectal balloon provides a challenge for radiotherapy planning systems. Various electronic disequilibrium situations exist due to the cavity, which can lead to a lower anterior rectal wall and higher posterior rectal wall dose than calculated by planning systems. This has consequences for comparisons of dose volume constraints between different modalities. PMID:19339071

Hardcastle, Nicholas; Metcalfe, Peter E.; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

2009-01-01

320

Rectal prolapse associated with anorexia nervosa: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Anorexia nervosa is one of a few mental health diagnoses that affects every organ system. Patients with AN often present with multiple secondary effects of starvation at the time of first assessment, including gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. In extreme cases, severe GI complications such as rectal prolapse may be encountered as a consequence of the illness although formal studies investigating the frequency of such occurrences are lacking. We present the case of a 16 year old female previously diagnosed with anorexia nervosa that developed a rectal prolapse as a consequence of her disease as well as a detailed literature review investigating the frequency and prevalence of such occurrences in this population. PMID:24999417

2013-01-01

321

Estimation of Rectal Dose Using Daily Megavoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Deformable Image Registration  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The actual dose delivered to critical organs will differ from the simulated dose because of interfractional organ motion and deformation. Here, we developed a method to estimate the rectal dose in prostate intensity modulated radiation therapy with consideration to interfractional organ motion using daily megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MVCBCT). Methods and Materials: Under exemption status from our institutional review board, we retrospectively reviewed 231 series of MVCBCT of 8 patients with prostate cancer. On both planning CT (pCT) and MVCBCT images, the rectal contours were delineated and the CT value within the contours was replaced by the mean CT value within the pelvis, with the addition of 100 Hounsfield units. MVCBCT images were rigidly registered to pCT and then nonrigidly registered using B-Spline deformable image registration (DIR) with Velocity AI software. The concordance between the rectal contours on MVCBCT and pCT was evaluated using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The dose distributions normalized for 1 fraction were also deformed and summed to estimate the actual total dose. Results: The DSC of all treatment fractions of 8 patients was improved from 0.75±0.04 (mean ±SD) to 0.90 ±0.02 by DIR. Six patients showed a decrease of the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) from total dose compared with treatment plans. Although the rectal volume of each treatment fraction did not show any correlation with the change in gEUD (R{sup 2}=0.18±0.13), the displacement of the center of gravity of rectal contours in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction showed an intermediate relationship (R{sup 2}=0.61±0.16). Conclusion: We developed a method for evaluation of rectal dose using DIR and MVCBCT images and showed the necessity of DIR for the evaluation of total dose. Displacement of the rectum in the AP direction showed a greater effect on the change in rectal dose compared with the rectal volume.

Akino, Yuichi, E-mail: akino@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, Shoichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka General Medical Center, Osaka (Japan); Maruoka, Shintaroh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Takahashi, Yutaka [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Yagi, Masashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Mizuno, Hirokazu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Isohashi, Fumiaki [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

2013-11-01

322

Major rectal complications following interstitial implantation of SVI for carcinoma of the prostate  

SciTech Connect

From April 1975 through April 1983, 152 patients were treated for localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate with interstitial implantation of SVI seeds. In each case bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection was performed at implantation. Five rectal complications developed: 2 rectal ulcers and 3 prostatic urethrorectal fistulas. Our method to treat these problems is presented together with our technique of reconstruction in patients with persistent fistulas despite fecal diversion. While urethrorectal fistulas represent potentially devastating complications of the SVI implantation procedure, reconstructive techniques can minimize and have reduced their long-term effects.

Jordan, G.H.; Lynch, D.F.; Warden, S.S.; McCraw, J.D.; Hoffman, G.C.; Schellhammer, P.F.

1985-12-01

323

Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

Posner, Gary J.

1987-01-01

324

Factors affecting health related quality of life of rectal cancer patients undergoing surgery.  

PubMed

Maintaining quality of life (QOL) is one of the important aims of cancer treatment. Quality of life of a cancer patient is affected by various factors, which may be disease related, patient related, or treatment related. To study changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) brought about by treatment of rectal cancer and factors affecting the changes using Malayalam translation of FACT-C (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal) Questionnaire. Also to detect the minimally important clinical changes (MICC) in health-related quality of life of patients with carcinoma rectum, who have undergone surgery. Forty-five patients diagnosed with carcinoma rectum, who have undergone curative surgery, were studied. HRQOL was assessed at baseline 2 weeks after surgery and 3 months after surgery. The changes in scores were correlated with various demographic factors like age, sex, marital status, number of children, number of married children, and education and occupation of the patient and spouse. Also the treatment-related factors like presence of stoma, presence of morbidity, previous treatment, stage of disease, and administration of chemotherapy before and after surgery were correlated. All the subscales of FACT-C tool, except emotional well-being, were significantly reduced 2 weeks after surgery and increased slightly above pre-treatment level 3 months after surgery. The Chronbach ? values were 0.88, 0.89 and 0.86 on three occasions, respectively, establishing internal validity of the test. Baseline HRQOL scores were better in males compared to females. Among the various subscales, the drops in SWB, FWB, FACT-G, total Score and TOI were significant (P?

Nair, C Krishnan; George, P S; Rethnamma, K S; Bhargavan, R; Abdul Rahman, S; Mathew, A P; Muralee, M; Cherian, K; Augustine, P; Ahamed, M I

2014-12-01

325

Altered rectal sensory response induced by balloon distention in patients with functional abdominal pain syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) has chronic unexplained abdominal pain and is similar to the psychiatric diagnosis of somatoform pain disorder. A patient with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) also has chronic unexplained abdominal pain, and rectal hypersensitivity is observed in a majority of the patients. However, no reports have evaluated the visceral sensory function of FAPS precisely. We aimed

Tsukasa Nozu; Miwako Kudaira

2009-01-01

326

Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: A systematic review of current practice  

PubMed Central

AIM: To give a comprehensive review of current literature on robotic rectal cancer surgery. METHODS: A systematic review of current literature via PubMed and Embase search engines was performed to identify relevant articles from january 2007 to november 2013. The keywords used were: “robotic surgery”, “surgical robotics”, “laparoscopic computer-assisted surgery”, “colectomy” and “rectal resection”. RESULTS: After the initial screen of 380 articles, 20 papers were selected for review. A total of 1062 patients (male 64.0%) with a mean age of 61.1 years and body mass index of 24.9 kg/m2 were included in the review. Out of 1062 robotic-assisted operations, 831 (78.2%) anterior and low anterior resections, 132 (12.4%) intersphincteric resection with coloanal anastomosis, 98 (9.3%) abdominoperineal resections and 1 (0.1%) Hartmann’s operation were included in the review. Robotic rectal surgery was associated with longer operative time but with comparable oncological results and anastomotic leak rate when compared with laparoscopic rectal surgery. CONCLUSION: Robotic colorectal surgery has continued to evolve to its current state with promising results; feasible surgical option with low conversion rate and comparable short-term oncological results. The challenges faced with robotic surgery are for more high quality studies to justify its cost. PMID:24936229

Mak, Tony Wing Chung; Lee, Janet Fung Yee; Futaba, Kaori; Hon, Sophie Sok Fei; Ngo, Dennis Kwok Yu; Ng, Simon Siu Man

2014-01-01

327

Robot-assisted one-stage resection of rectal cancer with liver and lung metastases.  

PubMed

The Da Vinci Surgical System may help to overcome some of the difficulties of laparoscopy for complicated abdominal surgery. The authors of this article present a case of robot-assisted, one-stage radical resection of three tumors, including robotic anterior resection for rectal cancer, segmental hepatectomy for liver metastasis, and wedge-shaped excision for lung metastasis. A 59-year-old man with primary rectal cancer and liver and lung metastases was operated upon with a one-stage radical resection approach using the Da Vinci Surgical System. Resection and anastomosis of rectal cancer were performed extracorporeally after undocking the robot. The procedure was successfully completed in 500 min. No surgical complications occurred during the intervention and postoperative period, and no conversion to laparotomy or additional trocars were required. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of simultaneous resection for rectal cancer with liver and lung metastases using the Da Vinci Surgery System to be reported. The procedure is feasible and safe and its main advantages for patient are avoiding repeated operation, reducing surgical trauma, shortening recovery time, and early implementation of postoperative adjuvant therapy. PMID:25759560

Xu, Jian-Min; Wei, Ye; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Fan, Hong; Chang, Wen-Ju; Ren, Li; Jiang, Wei; Fan, Jia; Qin, Xin-Yu

2015-03-01

328

Laparoscopic-assisted approach in rectal cancer patients: lessons learned from >200 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The applicability of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of colorectal diseases is still controversial. Early reports on laparoscopic-assisted colectomy in patients with colon cancer suggested that it minimizes surgical trauma, decreases perioperative complications, and leads to a more rapid recovery. To our knowledge, no previous studies have compared the laparoscopic vs the open approach in rectal cancer. The aim

S. Delgado; D. Momblán; L. Salvador; R. Bravo; A. Castells; A. Ibarzabal; J. M. Piqué; A. M. Lacy

2004-01-01

329

Use of Malone Antegrade Continence Enema in Patients With Perineal Colostomy After Rectal Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE  Abdominoperineal resection, with iliac colostomy, remains the gold standard treatment for very low-lying rectal cancer, but it alters patients quality of life. Alternatives to iliac colostomy need to be experimented. Antegrade enemas via a cecal access (Malone operation) obtains a colonic emptying and improves continence for incontinent patients. Continence and quality of life after abdominoperineal resection and perineal colostomy associated

Guillaume Portier; Nicolas Bonhomme; Ivan Platonoff; Frank Lazorthes

2005-01-01

330

Rectal ulcers and massive bleeding after hemorrhoidal band ligation while on aspirin  

PubMed Central

Endoscopic hemorrhoidal band ligation is a well-established nonoperative method for treatment of bleeding internal hemorrhoids (grade 1 to 3). It is a safe and effective technique with a high success rate. Complications with this procedure are uncommon. Although rectal ulceration due to band ligation is a rare complication, it can cause life-threatening hemorrhage especially when patients are on medications which impair hemostasis like aspirin or non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We present 2 cases of massive lower gastro-intestinal bleeding in patients who had a band ligation procedure performed 2 wk prior to the presentation and were on aspirin at home. Both the patients were hemodynamically unstable requiring resuscitation. They required platelet and blood transfusions and were found to have rectal ulcers on colonoscopy done subsequently. The rectal ulcers corresponded to the site of band ligation. The use of aspirin by these patients would have caused defects in the hemostasis and may have predisposed them to massive bleeding in the presence of rectal ulcers occurring after the band ligation procedure. Managing aspirin before and after the ligation may be difficult especially since adequate guidelines are unavailable. Stopping aspirin in all the cases might not be safe and the decision should be individualized. PMID:24749117

Patel, Shruti; Shahzad, Ghulamullah; Rizvon, Kaleem; Subramani, Krishnaiyer; Viswanathan, Prakash; Mustacchia, Paul

2014-01-01

331

EURECCA consensus conference highlights about colon & rectal cancer multidisciplinary management: the radiology experts review.  

PubMed

Some interesting shifts have taken place in the diagnostic approach for detection of colorectal lesions over the past decade. This article accompanies the recent EURECCA consensus group reccomendations for optimal management of colon and rectal cancers. In summary, imaging has a crucial role to play in the diagnosis, staging assessment and follow up of patients with colon and rectal cancer. Recent advances include the use of CT colonography instead of Barium Enema in the diagnosis of colonoic cancer and as an alternative to colonoscopy. Modern mutlidetector CT scanning techniques have also shown improvements in prognostic stratification of patients with colonic cancer and clinical trials are underway testing the selective use of neoadjuvant therapy for imaging identified high risk colon cancers. In rectal cancer, high resolution MRI with a voxel size less or equal to 3 × 1 × 1 mm3 on T2-weighted images has a proven ability to accurately stage patients with rectal cancer. Moreover, preoperative identification of prognostic features allows stratification of patients into different prognostic groups based on assessment of depth of extramural spread, relationship of the tumour edge to the mesorectal fascia (MRF) and extramural venous invasion (EMVI). These poor prognostic features predict an increased risk of local recurrence and/or metastatic disease and should form the basis for preoperative local staging and multidisciplinary preoperative discussion of patient treatment options. PMID:24439446

Tudyka, V; Blomqvist, L; Beets-Tan, R G H; Boelens, P G; Valentini, V; van de Velde, C J; Dieguez, A; Brown, G

2014-04-01

332

Effect of Sphincter-Sacrificing Surgery for Rectal Carcinoma on Quality of Life in Muslim Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Living with a permanent colostomy significantly diminishes a patient’s quality of life. However, little is known about its influence on worship patterns in Muslims. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of life in Muslim patients after surgery for rectal carcinoma, especially with respect to religious worship. METHODS: We studied 178 patients who had undergone

Mehmet Ayhan Kuzu; Ömer Topçu; Keriman Uçar; Suat Ulukent; Ekrem Ünal; Nezih Erverdi; Atilla Elhan; Salim Demirci

2002-01-01

333

Identification of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer with Low Risk of Local Recurrence  

PubMed Central

Background The routine application of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for T3N0 rectal cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to use clinical, Magnetic resonance imaging, and pathological parameters to identify a subgroup of patients with low risk of local recurrence who might be precluded from neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively maintained database of consecutive rectal cancer patients who underwent curative resection. 166 pathologic confirmed T3N0 rectal cancer patients with tumor located 5–12cm above the anal verge and preoperative circumferential resection margin>1mm were included in analysis. The primary outcomes measured were3- and 5-year local recurrence rates. Results Local recurrence was demonstrated during follow-up in 5 patients; the actuarial overall 3- and 5-year local recurrence rates were 2.5% and 3.4%, respectively. Inadequate sampling of lymph nodes (?12) was associated with higher local recurrence (P = 0.03) in this group of patients. Conclusion For upper and middle T3N0 rectal cancer with preoperative circumferential resection margin>1mm, local recurrence rate after total mesorectal excision is low and surgery alone may be enough for this group of patients. PMID:25629521

Wang, Qiao-Xuan; Li, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Xu; Xie, Lan; Cai, Pei-Qiang; An, Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

2015-01-01

334

In Situ Characterization of Inflammatory Responses in the Rectal Mucosae of Patients with Shigellosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shigella species cause bacillary dysentery in humans by invading epithelial cells of the colonic mucosa leading to colonic epithelial cell destruction and inflammation. For further analysis of local gut inflammation, morphological changes and the potential involvement of mediators in regulatory mechanisms of cell activation and cell proliferation were studied immunohistochemically in rectal mucosal biopsies taken from patients during the acute

DILARA ISLAM; BELA VERESS; PRADIP KUMAR BARDHAN; ALF A. LINDBERG; ANDBIRGER CHRISTENSSON

1997-01-01

335

Laparoscopic treatment of rectal prolapse: experience gained in a prospective multicenter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We report the findings of a prospective multicenter observational study carried out by the Study Group for Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery on patients undergoing laparoscopic or laparoscopic-assisted surgery for rectal prolapse. The study investigated the safety of various laparoscopic techniques in terms of perioperative and postoperative general and technique-specific complications and compared the results with those reported for open surgery

J. Rose; C. Schneider; H. Scheidbach; C. Yildirim; H. Bruch; J. Konradt; E. Bärlehner; F. Köckerling

2002-01-01

336

[External phased-array MR imaging preoperative assessment of rectal cancer].  

PubMed

The main problem associated with rectal cancer treatment is tumor recurrence. Randomized controlled studies have shown that adjuvant preoperative radiation therapy is effective for reducing local recurrence. These studies have also demonstrated that there are groups of rectal cancer patients with differing degrees of risk for local recurrence. At one end of the spectrum is the low-risk group: patients with superficial rectal cancer, who can be treated with surgery alone. At the other end is the high-risk group: patients with a close or involved resection margin at total mesorectal excision, the very advanced tumors that require a longer course of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and extensive surgery. Paramount for this selection and differentiated treatment is a reliable preoperative test that can be used to distinguish these groups of patients. In this review article, we will discuss the role of high-resolution phased array MRI among the other imaging modalities such as endorectal MRI, endorectal US, and CT. We will also discuss and illustrate MR imaging results in terms of T stage, circumferential resection margin, locally advanced rectal cancer, and N stage. PMID:17213766

Hoeffel, C; Marra, M D; Azizi, L; Tran Van, K; Crema, M D; Lewin, M; Arrivé, L; Tubiana, J M

2006-12-01

337

Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic selection for body temperature regulation during heat stress might be a useful approach to reduce the magnitude of heat stress effects on production and reproduction. Present objectives were to estimate the genetic parameters of rectal temperature in dairy cows reared in free stall barns und...

338

The influence of bovine temperament on rectal temperature and stress hormones in response to transportation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was designed to determine the influence of bovine temperament on rectal temperature (RT), cortisol (CS), and epinephrine (EPI) secretion in response to transportation. Brahman bulls (10 months of age) were selected from the spring 2007 calf crop based on temperament score which was an ave...

339

Factors affecting sexual function: A comparison between women with gynecological or rectal cancer and healthy controls.  

PubMed

This study had two purposes: (i) to explore differences in sexual function between women with gynecological or rectal cancer after related pelvic-area treatments and women without cancer; and (ii) to investigate the relationships among body image, anxiety and depression, sexual relationship power, sexual self-schema, and female sexual function. The participants (n?=?139) were recruited through Internet cancer support groups and women's health organizations in the USA. Six structured questionnaires were mailed, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that women with gynecological or rectal cancer had significantly worse sexual function than women without cancer. Having gynecological/rectal cancer and a negative sexual self-schema were significantly related to poor sexual function. Furthermore, sexual self-schema moderated the relationship between sexual relationship power and female sexual function. Healthcare providers could give more attention to sexual issues in women who have undergone treatment for gynecological or rectal cancer, especially for those with a negative sexual self-schema and high sexual relationship power, which might improve these women's quality of life. PMID:25417724

Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Chen, Lynn

2014-11-23

340

Radiation therapy quality control in a clinical trial of adjuvant postoperative treatment for rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Deviations from protocol can detract from the reliability of results obtained in prospective clinical trials. In an effort to decrease the number of deviations in a prospective trial of adjuvant treatment for rectal cancer, we undertook pretreatment review of the irradiated fields.Methods and Materials: Before initiation of radiation therapy, patients' radiation therapy fields were simulated by their radiation oncologists

James A. Martenson; Rodolfo Urias; Stephen R. Smalley; Lawrence R. Coia; Joel E. Tepper; Marvin Rotman; Tyvin A. Rich; Michael J. O'Connell

1995-01-01

341

Mechanism of NaCl secretion in rectal gland tubules of spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Segments of rectal gland tubules (RGT) the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were perfused in vitro to study the cellular mechanism by which NaCl secretion is stimulated. Transepithelial PD (PDte), transepithelial resistance (Rte), the PD across the basolateral membrane (PDbl), the fractional resistance of the lumen membrane (FR1), and the cellular activities for Cl-, Na+, and K+ (axcell) were measured. In

Rainer Greger; Eberhard Schlatter; Fong Wang; John N. Forrest Jr

1984-01-01

342

Patterns and signal intensity characteristics of pelvic recurrence of rectal cancer at MR imaging.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is becoming the cross-sectional imaging modality of choice for follow-up of patients with previous rectal cancer to diagnose pelvic recurrence and plan for surgery. The authors conducted a retrospective review of MR imaging examinations performed at their institution for evaluation of local recurrence of rectal cancer in 42 patients. Twenty-six patients had undergone rectal anastomosis and 16 had undergone abdominoperineal resection. The mean interval between initial surgery and recurrence was 2.5 years. Recurrence sites were axial (involving the anastomosis) (n = 19); lateral (sidewall) (n = 6); anterior (prostate or seminal vesicle [n = 2], bladder [n = 4], ureter [n = 3], vagina or uterus [n = 5]); or posterior (presacral fascia [n = 11], sacrum [n = 2]). Other recurrence sites included the pelvic floor (n = 7), sciatic nerve (n = 2), obturator nerve (n = 1), perineum (n = 1), abdominal wall (n = 1), or adnexa (n = 1). Recurrence was confirmed at surgery or by evidence of tumor growth at follow-up imaging. Recurrence patterns, signal intensity characteristics, findings of unresectability, potential MR imaging pitfalls, and the role of MR imaging versus other modalities in evaluating recurrent rectal carcinoma are discussed. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/rg335115170/-/DC1. PMID:24025941

Sinaei, Mehrdad; Swallow, Carol; Milot, Laurent; Moghaddam, Parnian Ahmadi; Smith, Andrew; Atri, Mostafa

2013-01-01

343

Analysis of local recurrence rates after surgery alone for rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local recurrence (LR) continues to be a major problem following surgical treatment for rectal cancer, and proposed ways of reducing this remain controversial. The aim of this study was to review results from published surgical series in which adjuvant therapies were not used. A Medline search identified series published between January 1982 and December 1992 with follow-up on at least

J. L. McCall; M. R. Cox; D. A. Wattchow

1995-01-01

344

Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy: Injection of Hyaluronic Acid to Better Preserve The Rectal Wall  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) between the rectum and the prostate for reducing the dose to the rectal wall in a hypofractionated irradiation for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In a phase 2 study, 10 cc of HA was injected between the rectum and prostate. For 16 patients, the same intensity modulated radiation therapy plan (62 Gy in 20 fractions) was optimized on 2 computed tomography scans: CT1 (before injection) and CT2 (after injection). Rectal parameters were compared: dose to 2.5 cc (D2.5), 5 cc (D5), 10 cc (D10), 15 cc (D15), and 20 cc (D20) of rectal wall and volume of rectum covered by the 90% isodose line (V90), 80% (V80), 70% (V70), 60% (V60), and 50% (V50). Results: The mean V90, V80, V70, V60, and V50 values were reduced by 73.8% (P<.0001), 55.7% (P=.0003), 43.0% (P=.007), 34% (P=.002), and 25% (P=.036), respectively. The average values of D2.5, D5, D10, D15, and D20 were reduced by 8.5 Gy (P<.0001), 12.3 Gy (P<.0001), 8.4 Gy (P=.005), 3.7 Gy (P=.026), and 1.2 Gy (P=.25), respectively. Conclusions: The injection of HA significantly limited radiation doses to the rectal wall.

Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Udrescu, Corina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Devonec, Marian [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Tanguy, Ronan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Sotton, Marie-Pierre [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Colombel, Marc [Department of Urology, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France)] [Department of Urology, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Ruffion, Alain [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)

2013-05-01

345

Electrophysiological properties of different cell types in the shark rectal gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophysiological properties of different cell types were studied in single rectal gland cells of Squalus acanthias by the whole-cell voltage clamp technique. Based on electrophysiological characteristics and primary morphological observations (light microscope, X400), three cell types (named as I, II, and III) were found in isolated fresh cells and two cell types (I and II) in primary cultured cells of

Yong-Fu Xiao

1997-01-01

346

Anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer with mesorectal excision: incidence, risk factors, and management.  

PubMed

We investigated risk factors and prognostic implications of symptomatic anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer, and the influence of a diverting stoma. Our retrospective review of prospective collected data analyzed 475 patients who underwent anterior resection for rectal cancer. Uni- and multivariate analysis was made between anastomotic leakage and patient, tumor, and treatment variables, either for the overall group (n = 475) and in the midlow rectal cancer subgroup (n = 291). Overall rate of symptomatic leakage was 9 per cent (43 of 475) with no related postoperative mortality. At univariate analysis, significant factors for leak were a tumor less than 6 cm from the anal verge (13.7 vs 6.6%; P = 0.011) and intraoperative transfusions (16.9 vs 4.3%; P = 0.001). Similar results were observed in the midlow rectal cancer subgroup. At multivariate analysis, no parameter resulted in being an independent prognostic factor for risk of leakage. In patients with a leakage, a temporary enterostomy considerably reduced the need for reoperation (12.5 vs 77.8%; P < 0.0001) and the risk of a permanent stoma (18.7 vs 28.5%; P = 0.49). The incidence of anastomotic failure increases for lower tumors, whereas it is not influenced by radiotherapy. Defunctioning enterostomy does not influence the leak rate, but it mitigates clinical consequences. PMID:25569064

Tortorelli, Antonio Pio; Alfieri, Sergio; Sanchez, Alejandro Martin; Rosa, Fausto; Papa, Valerio; Di Miceli, Dario; Bellantone, Chiara; Doglietto, Giovanni Battista

2015-01-01

347

Fox Chase study finds age tied to spread of rectal cancer to lymph nodes  

Cancer.gov

Rectal cancer is more likely to spread to the lymph nodes in younger patients, according to new findings that Fox Chase Cancer Center researchers presented on October 29 at the American Society for Radiation Oncology’s 54th Annual Meeting. The results—which are the first of their kind—suggest that doctors should search for spreading more aggressively in these patients.

348

Glucose Infusion into Exercising Dogs after Confinement: Rectal and Active Muscle Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intravenous glucose infusion into ambulatory dogs results in attenuation of exercise-induced increase of both rectal and thigh muscle temperatures. That glucose (Glu) infusion attenuates excessive increase in body temperature from restricted activity during confinement deconditioning. Intravenous glucose infusion attenuates the rise in exercise core temperature in deconditioned dogs by a yet undefined mechanism.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Falecka-Wieczorek, I.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

1995-01-01

349

Role of radiation therapy in neoadjuvant era in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Surgery remains the primary determinant of cure in patients with localized rectal cancer, and total mesorectal excision is now widely accepted as standard of care. The widespread implementation of neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy (RT) or long-course chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has reduced local recurrence rates from 25% to 40% to less than 10%; Preoperative RT in resectable rectal cancer has a number of potential advantages, most importantly reducing local recurrence, and down-staging effect. In this article making a comprehensive literature review searching the reliable medical data bases of PubMed and Cochrane we present all available information on the role of radiation therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy in preoperative setting of rectal cancer. Data reported show that in locally advanced rectal cancer the addition of radiation therapy or CRT pre surgically has significantly improved sphincter prevention surgery. Moreover, the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy in preoperative setting has significantly improved pathologic complete response rate and loco-regional control rate without improvement in sphincter preserving surgery. Finally, the results of recently published randomized trials have shown a significant improvement of pre- vs postoperative CRT on local control; however, there was no effect on overall survival. PMID:23443049

Koukourakis, Georgios V

2012-01-01

350

Robot-assisted one-stage resection of rectal cancer with liver and lung metastases  

PubMed Central

The Da Vinci Surgical System may help to overcome some of the difficulties of laparoscopy for complicated abdominal surgery. The authors of this article present a case of robot-assisted, one-stage radical resection of three tumors, including robotic anterior resection for rectal cancer, segmental hepatectomy for liver metastasis, and wedge-shaped excision for lung metastasis. A 59-year-old man with primary rectal cancer and liver and lung metastases was operated upon with a one-stage radical resection approach using the Da Vinci Surgical System. Resection and anastomosis of rectal cancer were performed extracorporeally after undocking the robot. The procedure was successfully completed in 500 min. No surgical complications occurred during the intervention and postoperative period, and no conversion to laparotomy or additional trocars were required. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of simultaneous resection for rectal cancer with liver and lung metastases using the Da Vinci Surgery System to be reported. The procedure is feasible and safe and its main advantages for patient are avoiding repeated operation, reducing surgical trauma, shortening recovery time, and early implementation of postoperative adjuvant therapy.

Xu, Jian-Min; Wei, Ye; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Fan, Hong; Chang, Wen-Ju; Ren, Li; Jiang, Wei; Fan, Jia; Qin, Xin-Yu

2015-01-01

351

Bioresorbable Hyaluronate-Carboxymethylcellulose Membrane (Seprafilm) in Surgery for Rectal Carcinoma: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness of Seprafilm in preventing abdominal adhesions after radical resection of rectal carcinoma, and to observe whether Seprafilm had any adverse effects in patients treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Methods. A total of 62 patients participated in this prospective randomized clinical study, which was conducted to compare the outcomes of patients operated on with Seprafilm (SEPRA+)

Masato Kusunoki; Hiroki Ikeuchi; Hidenori Yanagi; Masafumi Noda; Hitoshi Tonouchi; Yasuhiko Mohri; Keiichi Uchida; Yasuhiro Inoue; Minako Kobayashi; Chikao Miki; Takehira Yamamura

2005-01-01

352

Evaluation and treatment of chronic intractable rectal pain—A frustrating endeavor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to assess the evaluation and treatment of chronic intractable rectal pain. Sixty consecutive patients, 23 males and 37 females with a mean age of 69 (range, 29–87) years and a mean length of symptoms of 4.5 years, were evaluated by questionnaire, office examination, anal manometry, electromyography, cinedefecography, and pudendal nerve study. In all cases, organic abdominopelvic

Gow Ching Ger; Steven D. Wexner; J. Marcio N. Jorge; Eleanor Lee; L. Amar Amaranath; Steve Heymen; Juan J. Nogueras; David G. Jagelman

1993-01-01

353

Review of systemic therapies for locally advanced and metastatic rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Rectal cancer, along with colon cancer, is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S. Up to a quarter of patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis and 40% will develop metastatic disease. The past 10 years have been extremely exciting in the treatment of both locally advanced and metastatic rectal cancer (mRC). With the advent of neoadjuvant chemoradiation, increased numbers of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) are surviving longer and some are seeing their tumors shrink to sizes that allow for resection. The advent of biologics and monoclonal antibodies has propelled the treatment of mRC further than many could have hoped. Combined with regimens such as FOLFOX or FOLFIRI, median survival rates have been increased to an average of 23 months. However, the combinations of chemotherapy regimens seem endless for rectal cancer. We will review the major chemotherapies available for locally advanced and mRC as well as regimens currently under investigation such as FOLFOXIRI. We will also review vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors as single agents and in combination with traditional chemotherapy regimens. PMID:25830038

Osipov, Arsen; Tan, Carlyn; Tuli, Richard; Hendifar, Andrew

2015-01-01

354

Tympanic, Infrared Skin, and Temporal Artery Scan Thermometers Compared with Rectal Measurement in Children: A Real-Life Assessment  

PubMed Central

Introduction Body temperature measurement in children is of clinical relevance. Although rectal measurement is the gold standard, less invasive tools have become available. We aimed to describe the accuracy of tympanic, infrared skin, or temporal artery scan thermometers compared with rectal measurement to reflect core temperature. Methods Rectal (Filac 3000; Covidien, Mechelen, Belgium), tympanic (AccuSystem Genius2 Typmanic Infrared Ear Thermometer, Covidien, Mechelen, Belgium), temporal artery scan (Exergen, Exergen Corp, Watertown, Massachusetts), and infrared (ThermoFlash Contactless Medical Electronic Thermometer, Visiomedlab, Paris, France) body temperature measurements were randomly performed and readings were collected once. Temperature readings were described as median and range, and observations were compared with rectal temperature readings (using Wilcoxon, Bland-Altman, sensitivity, and specificity tests). The child’s comfort was assessed by the child, parent, and nurse (using Likert scales) and ease of use was assessed by nurses (using visual analog scale). Results Based on observations in 294 (median age = 3.2 years, range = 0.02–17 years) children, the mean difference was 0.49°C (tympanic scan; P < 0.0001), 0.34°C (infrared skin scan; P < 0.0001), and 0°C (temporal artery scan; P = 0.9288), respectively, when compared with rectal temperature readings. Based on visual inspection of Bland-Altman plots, all tools overestimated the temperature at lower body temperature and underestimated the temperature at higher body temperature, resulting in a sensitivity of 22% to 41% and a specificity of 98% to 100% for rectal temperatures above 38°C. The Likert scale scores and the visual analog scale scores for rectal measurement were only slightly higher when compared with the other methods. Conclusions All noninvasive techniques underperformed compared with rectal measurement. The temporal artery scan deviations were smallest, but all noninvasive techniques overestimate lower temperatures and underestimate higher temperatures compared with rectal measurement. In our hands, temporal artery scan measurement seems to be second best, but not yet ideal. PMID:25067984

Allegaert, Karel; Casteels, Kristina; van Gorp, Ilse; Bogaert, Guy

2014-01-01

355

Rectal Motion in Patients Receiving Preoperative Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Rectum  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the movement of rectum, mesorectum, and rectal primary during a course of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with Stage II or III rectal cancer had a planning CT scan with rectal contrast before commencement of preoperative chemoradiation. The scan was repeated during Weeks 1, 3, and 5 of chemoradiation. The rectal primary (gross tumor volume), rectum, mesorectum, and bladder were contoured on all four scans. An in-house biomechanical model-based deformable image registration technique, Morfeus, was used to measure the three-dimensional spatial change in these structures after bony alignment. The required planning target volume margin for this spatial change, after bone alignment, was also calculated. Results: Rectal contrast was found to introduce a systematic error in the position of all organs compared with the noncontrast state. The largest change in structures during radiotherapy was in the anterior and posterior directions for the mesorectum and rectum and in the superior and inferior directions for the gross tumor volume. The planning target volume margins required for internal movement for the mesorectum based on the three scans acquired during treatment are 4 mm right, 5 mm left, 7 mm anterior, and 6 mm posterior. For the rectum, values were 8 mm right, 8 mm left, 8 mm anterior, and 9 mm posterior. The greatest movement of the rectum occurred in the upper third. Conclusions: Contrast is no longer used in CT simulation. Assuming bony alignment, a nonuniform margin of 8 mm anteriorly, 9 mm posteriorly, and 8 mm left and right is recommended.

Brierley, James D., E-mail: james.brierley@rmp.uhn.on.c [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sampson, Elliott [Department of Medical Science, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Bayley, Andrew [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Scott, Sandra; Moseley, Joanne L. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Craig, Timothy; Cummings, Bernard; Dinniwell, Robert; Kim, John J.; Ringash, Jolie; Wong, Rebecca; Brock, Kristy K. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2011-05-01

356

Comparing azithromycin and doxycycline for the treatment of rectal chlamydial infection: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines recommend azithromycin or doxycycline for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection. Methods We created a retrospective cohort of male patients diagnosed with rectal chlamydia 1993-2012 at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Seattle, Washington. Men were included in the analysis if they were treated with azithromycin (1g single dose) or doxycycline (100mg BID x 7 days) within 60 days of chlamydia diagnosis and returned for repeat testing 14-180 days post-treatment. We compared the risk of persistent/recurrent rectal chlamydial infection among recipients of the two drug regimens using four follow-up testing time intervals (14 to 30, 60, 90, and 180 days). Results Of 1,835 cases of rectal chlamydia diagnosed in the study period, 1,480 (81%) were treated with azithromycin or doxycycline without a second drug active against C. trachomatis. Of these, 407 (33%) of 1231 azithromycin-treated men and 95 (38%) of 249 doxycycline-treated men were re-tested 14-180 days after treatment (P=0.12); 88 (22%) and 8 (8%), respectively, had persistent/recurrent infection (P=0.002). Persistent/recurrent infection was higher among men treated with azithromycin compared to doxycycline at 14-30 days (4/53 (8%) vs. 0/20 (0%)), 14-60 days (23/136 (17%) vs. 0/36 (0%)), and 14-90 days (50/230 (22%) vs. 2/56 (4%)). In multivariate analysis, azithromycin-treated men had a significantly higher risk of persistent/recurrent infection in the 14-90 days (aRR=5.2, 95% CI=1.3-21.0) and 14-180 days (aRR=2.4, 95% CI=1.2-4.8) after treatment. Conclusions These data suggest that doxycycline may be more effective than azithromycin in the treatment of rectal chlamydial infections. PMID:24413484

Khosropour, Christine M.; Dombrowski, Julia C.; Barbee, Lindley A.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Golden, Matthew R.

2015-01-01

357

Tumor deposits in rectal adenocarcinoma after neoadjuvant chemoradiation are associated with poor prognosis.  

PubMed

Although tumor deposits have been associated with poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma, the prevalence and clinical significance of tumor deposits in rectal adenocarcinoma following neoadjuvant chemoradiation are relatively unexplored. The aims of this study are to assess the clinical significance of tumor deposits in rectal adenocarcinoma patients, including those receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Pathology slides and medical records from 205 consecutive patients who underwent resection for rectal adenocarcinoma between 1990 and 2010 at a single tertiary care center were reviewed. Patients with tumor deposits had higher tumor grade (P=0.006) and worse tumor stage (P<0.001) at presentation than patients without tumor deposits. Among 110 patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation, tumor deposits were associated with higher rates of lymph node involvement (P=0.035) and distant metastases (P=0.006), and decreased survival (P=0.027). These patients had a trend toward lower treatment response scores (P=0.285) and higher local recurrence (P=0.092). Of 52 patients with tumor deposits, those who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation had significantly worse pretreatment stage by endoscopic ultrasound (P<0.001) but interestingly had significantly lower rates of lymphovascular invasion on resection (P<0.001) compared with those who had not received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Despite treatment with neoadjuvant chemoradiation, tumor deposits were present in over one-fifth of rectal adenocarcinoma patients. Overall, the outcome of patients with tumor deposits in treated and untreated patients were similar, however the association of tumor deposits with deeply invasive tumors and less tumor regression when comparing with treated patients without tumor deposits raises the possibility that these tumors could have a more aggressive biology, possibly explaining the association of tumor deposits with higher rates of recurrence and lower survival after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Overall, tumor deposits appear to be a poor prognostic marker among rectal adenocarcinoma patients following neoadjuvant chemoradiation and may identify a subset of patients who require aggressive adjuvant therapy to prevent recurrence. PMID:24434897

Gopal, Purva; Lu, Pengcheng; Ayers, Gregory D; Herline, Alan J; Washington, Mary K

2014-09-01

358

Postoperative analgesic efficacy of single high dose and low dose rectal acetaminophen in pediatric ophthalmic surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Analgesic efficacy of rectal acetaminophen is variable in different surgical procedures. Little data is available on its efficacy in ophthalmic surgeries. We conducted this prospective, randomized, double blind study to evaluate and compare the efficacy of single high dose and low dose rectal acetaminophen in pediatric ophthalmic surgery over a 24 hour period. Materials and Methods: 135 children scheduled for elective ophthalmic surgery were randomly allocated to one of the three groups, high, low, or control (H, L, or N) and received rectal acetaminophen 40 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg or no rectal drug respectively after induction of general anesthesia. Postoperative observations included recovery score, hourly observational pain score (OPS) up to 8 hours, time to first analgesic demand, and requirement of rescue analgesics and antiemetics over a 24 hour period. Results: Nineteen of 30 (63%) of children in group N required postoperative rescue analgesic versus 5/48 (10%) of group H (P <0.0001) and 10/47 (23%) of group L (P =0.0005) during 24 hour period. Mean time to requirement of first analgesic was 206±185 min in group H, 189±203min in group L, and 196 ±170 min in group N (P=0.985). OPS was significantly lower in group H and L compared to group N during first 8 hours. Requirement of rescue antiemetic was 18.7% in group H as compared to 23% each in group L and group N (P >0.5). Conclusions: Single dose rectal acetaminophen can provide effective postoperative analgesia for pediatric ophthalmic surgery at both high dose (40 mg/kg) and low dose (20 mg/kg) both in early postoperative and over a 24 hour period. PMID:23225924

Gandhi, Ranju; Sunder, Rani

2012-01-01

359

Oncologic impact of pathologic response on clinical outcome after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Downstaging after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer usually occurs. The present study aimed to evaluate pathologic y-stage (yp-stage) and its influence on local recurrence and systemic recurrence in rectal cancer patients treated with CRT followed by surgical resection. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 261 patients underwent preoperative CRT and radical resection for rectal cancer between August 2004 and December 2010. Patients received preoperative CRT consisting of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin delivered with concurrent pelvic radiation of 45.0-50.4 Gy, followed by radical surgery at 6-8 weeks after CRT. Results Of the 261 patients, 24 (9.2%) had yp-stage 0, 83 (31.8%) had yp-stage I, 86 (32.9%) had yp-stage II, and 68 (26.1%) had yp-stage III. Patients with yp-stage III had a greater prevalence of preoperative CEA, poorly differentiated tumor, lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and perineural invasion (PNI) than patients with lower yp-stages. We found that yp-stage, preoperative CEA, LVI, PNI and tumor regression grade were significant prognostic factors for both local and systemic recurrence. In multivariate analysis, yp-stage, LVI and PNI were significant factors for local and systemic recurrence. During the median follow-up of 37.5 months, the five-year local recurrence-free survival rate was 100.0%, 95.0%, 89.3%, and 80.6% of yp-stage 0-III, respectively. The five-year systemic recurrence-free survival was 95.8%, 75.3%, 71.4%, and 48.8% of yp-stages 0-III, respectively. Conclusion The yp-stage after preoperative CRT for rectal cancer is closely correlated with local and systemic recurrence-free survival. Therefore, yp-stage should be considered as a prognostic factor for rectal cancer patients having a course of preoperative CRT. PMID:25553320

Yoon, Wook Hyeon; Kim, Hun Jin; Kim, Chang Hyun; Joo, Jae Kyoon; Kim, Young Jin

2015-01-01

360

Dose mapping of the rectal wall during brachytherapy with an array of scintillation dosimeters  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In pelvic brachytherapy treatments, the rectum is an organ at risk. The authors have developed an array of scintillation dosimeters suitable for in vivo use that enables quality assurance of the treatment delivery and provides an alert to potential radiation accidents. Ultimately, this will provide evidence to direct treatment planning and dose escalation and correlate dose with the rectal response. Methods: An array of 16 scintillation dosimeters in an insertable applicator has been developed. The dosimeters were calibrated simultaneously in a custom designed circular jig before use. Each dosimeter is optically interfaced to a set of pixels on a CCD camera located outside the treatment bunker. A customized software converts pixel values into dose rate and accumulates dose for presentation during treatment delivery. The performance of the array is tested by simulating brachytherapy treatments in a water phantom. The treatment plans were designed to deliver a known dose distribution on the surface of the rectal applicator, assumed to represent the dose to the rectal wall. Results: The measured doses were compared to those predicted by the treatment plan and found to be in agreement to within the uncertainty in measurement, usually within 3%. The array was also used to track the progression of the source as it moved along the catheter. The measured position was found to agree with the position reported by the afterloader to within the measurement uncertainty, usually within 2 mm. Conclusions: This array is capable of measuring the actual dose received by each region of the rectal wall during brachytherapy treatments. It will provide real time monitoring of treatment delivery and raise an alert to a potential radiation accident. Real time dose mapping in the clinical environment will give the clinician additional confidence to carry out dose escalation to the tumor volume while avoiding rectal side effects.

Cartwright, L. E.; Suchowerska, N.; Yin, Y.; Lambert, J.; Haque, M.; McKenzie, D. R. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales 2050 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales 2050 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales 2050 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

2010-05-15

361

Late rectal and bladder toxicity following radiation therapy for prostate cancer: Predictive factors and treatment results  

PubMed Central

Aim This study aimed at investigating factors associated to late rectal and bladder toxicity following radiation therapy and the effectiveness of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) when toxicity is grade ?2. Background Radiation is frequently used for prostate cancer, but a 5–20% incidence of late radiation proctitis and cystitis exists. Some clinical and dosimetric factors have been defined without a full agreement. For patients diagnosed of late chronic proctitis and/or cystitis grade ?2 treatment is not well defined. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) has been used, but its effectiveness is not well known. Materials and methods 257 patients were treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Clinical, pharmacological and dosimetric parameters were collected. Patients having a grade ?2 toxicity were treated with HBOT. Results of the intervention were measured by monitoring toxicity by Common Toxicity Criteria v3 (CTCv3). Results Late rectal toxicity was related to the volume irradiated, i.e. V50 > 53.64 (p = 0.013); V60 > 38.59% (p = 0.005); V65 > 31.09% (p = 0.002) and V70 > 22.81% (p = 0.012). We could not correlate the volume for bladder. A total of 24 (9.3%) patients experienced a grade ?2. Only the use of dicumarinic treatment was significant for late rectal toxicity (p = 0.014). A total of 14 patients needed HBOT. Final percentage of patients with a persistent toxicity grade ?2 was 4.5%. Conclusion Rectal volume irradiated and dicumarinic treatment were associated to late rectal/bladder toxicity. When toxicity grade ?2 is diagnosed, HBOT significantly ameliorate symptoms. PMID:24416567

Fuentes-Raspall, Rafael; Inoriza, José Maria; Rosello-Serrano, Alvaro; Auñón-Sanz, Carmen; Garcia-Martin, Pilar; Oliu-Isern, Gemma

2013-01-01

362

Role of Peroxiredoxin I in Rectal Cancer and Related to p53 Status  

SciTech Connect

Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is widely accepted for the treatment of localized rectal cancer. Although peroxiredoxin I (PrxI) and p53 have been implicated in carcinogenesis and cancer treatment, the role of PrxI and its interaction with p53 in the prognosis and treatment response of rectal cancer remain relatively unstudied. Methods and Materials: In the present study, we examined the levels of PrxI and p53 in rectal cancer patients using membrane arrays and compared them with normal population samples. To demonstrate the biologic changes after manipulation of PrxI expression, we established stable transfectants of HCT-116 (wild-type p53) and HT-29 (mutant p53) cells with a PrxI silencing vector. The predictive capacities of PrxI and p53 were also assessed by relating the immunohistochemical staining of a retrospective series of rectal cancer cases to the clinical outcome. Results: The membrane array and immunochemical staining data showed that PrxI, but not p53, was significantly associated with the tumor burden. Our immunochemistry findings further indicated that PrxI positivity was linked to a poor response to neoadjuvant therapy and worse survival. In cellular and animal experiments, the inhibition of PrxI significantly decreased tumor growth and sensitized the tumor to irradiation, as indicated by a lower capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species and more extensive DNA damage. The p53 status might have contributed to the difference between HCT-116 and HT-29 after knockdown of PrxI. Conclusion: According to our data, the level of PrxI combined with the p53 status is relevant to the prognosis and the treatment response. We suggested that PrxI might be a new biomarker for rectal cancer.

Chen, Miao-Fen [Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Lee, Kuan-Der [Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China); Department of Hematology and Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Chung-Hung [Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Cheng [Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Huang, Wen-Shih; Chin, Chih-Chien [Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China); Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Lin, Paul- Yang [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jeng-Yi, E-mail: wangcgmh@gmail.co [Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Chang Gung Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China); Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (China)

2010-11-01

363

Magnetic resonance imaging based rectal cancer classification: Landmarks and technical standardization  

PubMed Central

Rectal cancer classification is important to determine the preoperative chemoradiation therapy and to select appropriate surgical technique. We reviewed the Western and Japanese rectal cancer classification and we propose our new classification based of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We determine the relation of the tumor to fixed parameters in MRI, which are peritoneal reflection and levator ani muscle. Then, we classify the rectal cancer into four levels based on tumor distal margin and invasion to MRI parameters. We applied all three classifications to 60 retrospectively collected patients of different rectal cancer distance and we compared our classifications to the others. Based on each level we standardize our surgical approach. For stages?I-III, We found that level?I?where tumor distal margin is located above the peritoneal reflection and all of them were received low anterior resection (LAR) without chemoradiation. Level II where tumor distal margin is located from the peritoneal reflection and above the levator ani insertion on the rectum. 90% of them were received LAR ± chemoradiation. Level III where tumor distal margin is located at the level of levator ani insertion or invading any part of the levator ani. 60% of them had ULAR + coloanal anastomosis ± chemoradiation. Level IV where the tumor distal margin is located below the levator ani insertion; 77% were received APR ± chemoradiation. The overall kappa for all levels between surgeons and radiologist was 0.93 (95%CI: 0.87-0.99), which is indicating almost perfect agreement. We concluded that the management of rectal tumors differed among each tumor level and our new MRI based classification might facilitate the prediction of surgical and chemoradiation management with better communication among a multidisciplinary team comparing to other classifications. PMID:25593457

Alasari, Sami; Lim, Daero; Kim, Nam Kyu

2015-01-01

364

Circulating APRIL levels are correlated with advanced disease and prognosis in rectal cancer patients.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that the tumor necrosis factor family member a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) enhances intestinal tumor growth in various preclinical tumor models. Here, we have investigated whether APRIL serum levels at time of surgery predict survival in a large cohort of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We measured circulating APRIL levels in a cohort of CRC patients (n=432) using a novel validated monoclonal APRIL antibody (hAPRIL.133) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) setup. APRIL levels were correlated with clinicopathological features and outcome. Overall survival was examined with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazards ratios were calculated. We observed that circulating APRIL levels were normally distributed among CRC patients. High APRIL expression correlated significantly with poor outcome measures, such as higher stage at presentation and development of lymphatic and distant metastases. Within the group of rectal cancer patients, higher circulating APRIL levels at time of surgery were correlated with poor survival (log-rank analysis P-value 0.008). Univariate Cox regression analysis for overall survival in rectal cancer patients showed that patients with elevated circulating APRIL levels had an increased risk of poor outcome (hazard ratio (HR) 1.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-2.76; P-value 0.009). Multivariate analysis in rectal cancer patients showed that APRIL as a prognostic factor was dependent on stage of disease (HR 1.25; 95% CI 0.79-1.99; P-value 0.340), which was related to the fact that stage IV rectal cancer patients had significantly higher levels of APRIL. Our results revealed that APRIL serum levels at time of surgery were associated with features of advanced disease and prognosis in rectal cancer patients, which strengthens the previously reported preclinical observation of increased APRIL levels correlating with disease progression. PMID:25622308

Lascano, V; Hahne, M; Papon, L; Cameron, K; Röeder, C; Schafmayer, C; Driessen, L; van Eenennaam, H; Kalthoff, H; Medema, J P

2015-01-01

365

KRAS Mutation Status and Clinical Outcome of Preoperative Chemoradiation With Cetuximab in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 2 Phase II Trials  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Cetuximab-containing chemotherapy is known to be effective for KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer; however, it is not clear whether cetuximab-based preoperative chemoradiation confers an additional benefit compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: We analyzed EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutation status with direct sequencing and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression status with immunohistochemistry in tumor samples of 82 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were enrolled in the IRIX trial (preoperative chemoradiation with irinotecan and capecitabine; n=44) or the ERBIRIX trial (preoperative chemoradiation with irinotecan and capecitabine plus cetuximab; n=38). Both trials were similarly designed except for the administration of cetuximab; radiation therapy was administered at a dose of 50.4 Gy/28 fractions and irinotecan and capecitabine were given at doses of 40 mg/m{sup 2} weekly and 1650 mg/m{sup 2}/day, respectively, for 5 days per week. In the ERBIRIX trial, cetuximab was additionally given with a loading dose of 400 mg/m{sup 2} on 1 week before radiation, and 250 mg/m{sup 2} weekly thereafter. Results: Baseline characteristics before chemoradiation were similar between the 2 trial cohorts. A KRAS mutation in codon 12, 13, and 61 was noted in 15 (34%) patients in the IRIX cohort and 5 (13%) in the ERBIRIX cohort (P=.028). Among 62 KRAS wild-type cancer patients, major pathologic response rate, disease-free survival and pathologic stage did not differ significantly between the 2 cohorts. No mutations were detected in BRAF exon 11 and 15, PIK3CA exon 9 and 20, or EGFR exon 18-24 in any of the 82 patients, and PTEN and EGFR expression were not predictive of clinical outcome. Conclusions: In patients with KRAS wild-type locally advanced rectal cancer, the addition of cetuximab to the chemoradiation with irinotecan plus capecitabine regimen was not associated with improved clinical outcome compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab.

Kim, Sun Young; Shim, Eun Kyung [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Hyun Yang [Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Ji Yeon [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong Sang [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of) [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Won [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Hyun [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seock-Ah [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung Hae [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hee Jin, E-mail: heejincmd@yahoo.com [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-01

366

Treatment of a Recurrent Rectourethral Fistula by Using Transanal Rectal Flap Advancement and Fibrin Glue: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Rectourethral fistulas (RUFs) in adults are rare and could result from complicated trauma, and prostatic or rectal surgery. RUFs have been treated initially by using primary repair and omental interposition with or without a colostomy during surgery. Recurrent RUFs require complex surgery, such as a low rectal resection and coloanal anastomosis, an interposition flap of the datos muscle or gracilis muscle, and others. Recently, transanal rectal flap advancement and fibrin glue injection have provided an effective occlusion of RUFs. However, no reports about this technique exist for cases of recurrent RUFs. We report a case of a recurrent RUF successfully repaired by using transanal rectal flap advancement combined with fibrin glue injection into the fistula tract. The postoperative course was uneventful without complications. At the 1-year follow-up, no complications such as urethral stricture or recurrence existed, and voiding was normal without anal incontinence. PMID:22816061

Lee, Taek-Gu; Park, Sung-Su

2012-01-01

367

Rectal morbidity after permanent prostate brachytherapy with dose escalation to biologic target volumes identified by SPECT\\/CT fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo evaluate rectal morbidity after dose escalation to biologic target volumes identified by capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) single-photon emission tomography images coregistered with computed tomography (SPECT\\/CT).

Rodney J. Ellis; Hang Zhou; Deborah A. Kaminsky; Pingfu Fu; Edward Y. Kim; D. Bruce Sodee; Valdir Colussi; John P. Spirnak; Christopher C. Whalen; Martin I. Resnick

2007-01-01

368

Molecular, Pathologic and MRI Investigation of the Prognostic and Redictive Importance of Extramural Venous Invasion in Rectal Cancer (MARVEL) Trial  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Diseases; Colorectal Neoplasms; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases

2013-11-26

369

Treatment of a recurrent rectourethral fistula by using transanal rectal flap advancement and fibrin glue: a case report.  

PubMed

Rectourethral fistulas (RUFs) in adults are rare and could result from complicated trauma, and prostatic or rectal surgery. RUFs have been treated initially by using primary repair and omental interposition with or without a colostomy during surgery. Recurrent RUFs require complex surgery, such as a low rectal resection and coloanal anastomosis, an interposition flap of the datos muscle or gracilis muscle, and others. Recently, transanal rectal flap advancement and fibrin glue injection have provided an effective occlusion of RUFs. However, no reports about this technique exist for cases of recurrent RUFs. We report a case of a recurrent RUF successfully repaired by using transanal rectal flap advancement combined with fibrin glue injection into the fistula tract. The postoperative course was uneventful without complications. At the 1-year follow-up, no complications such as urethral stricture or recurrence existed, and voiding was normal without anal incontinence. PMID:22816061

Lee, Taek-Gu; Park, Sung-Su; Lee, Sang-Jeon

2012-06-01

370

The elasmobranch rectal gland secretes a plasma-hypertonic solution that is generally considered to play a major role in  

E-print Network

transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR; Marshall, 1991). Secretion of fluid from the shark rectal gland+/K+-ATPase on the same membrane; Forrest, 1996) and an apical Cl- channel homologous to the mammalian cystic fibrosis

Evans, David H.

371

Estimation of {alpha}/{beta} for Late Rectal Toxicity Based on RTOG 94-06  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate {alpha}/{beta}, the parameter ratio from the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, for Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity among patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 94-06; and to determine whether correcting the rectal dose-volume histogram (DVH) for differences in dose per fraction, based on the LQ model, significantly improves the fit to these data of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. Methods and Materials: The generalized LKB model was fitted to the Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity data in two ways: by using DVHs representing physical dose to rectum, and by using a modified approach in which dose bins in the rectal DVH were corrected for differences in dose per fraction using the LQ model, with {alpha}/{beta} estimated as an additional unknown parameter. The analysis included only patients treated with the same treatment plan throughout radiotherapy, so that the dose per fraction to each voxel of rectum could be determined from the DVH. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess whether the fit of the LQ-corrected model was significantly better than the fit of the LKB model based on physical doses to rectum. Results: The analysis included 509 of the 1,084 patients enrolled on RTOG 94-06. The estimate of {alpha}/{beta} from the LQ-corrected LKB model was 4.8 Gy, with 68% confidence interval 0.6 Gy to 46 Gy. The fit was not significantly different from the fit of the LKB model based on physical dose to rectum (p = 0.236). Conclusions: The estimated fractionation sensitivity for Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity is consistent with values of {alpha}/{beta} for rectum found previously in human beings and in rodents. However, the confidence interval is large, and there is no evidence that LQ correction of the rectal DVH significantly changes the fit or predictions of the LKB model for this endpoint.

Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.org [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Thames, Howard D. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Image-Guided Therapy QA Center, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Winter, Kathryn [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2011-10-01

372

Interferon-signaling pathway: associations with colon and rectal cancer risk and subsequent survival.  

PubMed

Interferons (IFNs) are proteins involved in many functions including antiviral and antimicrobial response, apoptosis, cell cycle control and mediating other cytokines. IFN gamma (IFNG) is a proinflammatory cytokine that modulates many immune-related genes. In this study we examine genetic variation in IFNG, IFNGR1, IFNGR2 and interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) to determine associations with colon and rectal cancer and survival after diagnosis. We include data from two population-based incident studies of colon cancer (1555 cases and 1956 controls) and rectal cancer (754 cases and 959 controls). Five tagSNPs in IFNG, IRF2 and IRF3 were associated with colon cancer and eight tagSNPs in IFNGR1, IFNGR2, IRF2, IRF4, IRF6 and IRF8 were associated with rectal cancer. IRF3 rs2304204 was associated with the strongest direct association and IRF2 3775554 with the strongest inverse association for colon cancer [odds ratios (ORs) 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.82 for recessive model and 0.52, 95% CI 0.28-0.97 for unrestricted model]. For rectal cancer, IFNGR1 rs3799488 was directly associated with risk (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.04-5.09 for recessive model), whereas IRF6 rs861020 was inversely associated with risk (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.95). Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms interacted significant with both NF-?B1 and IL6 and with aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cigarette smoking. Using a summary score to estimate mutational load, we observed a hazard rate ratio (HRR) close to 5.00 (95% CI 2.73-8.99) for both colon and rectal (HRR 4.83, 95% CI 2.34-10.05) cancer for those in the category having the most at-risk genotypes. These data suggest the importance of IFN-signaling pathway on colon and rectal cancer risk and survival after diagnosis. PMID:21859832

Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Bondurant, Kristina L; Wolff, Roger K

2011-11-01

373

Association of statin use with a pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess whether 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, might enhance the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiation in rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2001, 358 patients with clinically resectable, nonmetastatic rectal cancer underwent surgery at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for either locally advanced tumors or low-lying tumors that would require abdominoperineal resection. We excluded 9 patients for radiation therapy dose <45 Gy or if statin use was unknown, leaving 349 evaluable patients. Median radiation therapy dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45-55.8 Gy), and 308 patients (88%) received 5-flurouracil-based chemotherapy. Medication use, comorbid illnesses, clinical stage as assessed by digital rectal examination and ultrasound, and type of chemotherapy were analyzed for associations with pathologic complete response (pCR), defined as no microscopic evidence of tumor. Fisher's exact test was used for categoric variables, Mantel-Haenszel test for ordered categoric variables, and logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results: Thirty-three patients (9%) used a statin, with no differences in clinical stage according to digital rectal examination or ultrasound compared with the other 324 patients. At the time of surgery, 23 nonstatin patients (7%) were found to have metastatic disease, compared with 0% for statin patients. The unadjusted pCR rates with and without statin use were 30% and 17%, respectively (p = 0.10). Variables significant univariately at the p = 0.15 level were entered into a multivariate model, as were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which were strongly associated with statin use. The odds ratio for statin use on pCR was 4.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-12.1; p = 0.003) after adjusting for NSAID use, clinical stage, and type of chemotherapy. Conclusion: In multivariate analysis, statin use is associated with an improved pCR rate after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer. The low prevalence of statin use limits the power to detect a significant difference at a type I error threshold of p = 0.05 in this analysis. Although no definitive conclusions can be drawn on the basis of this retrospective study, the unusually high incidence of pCR after chemoradiation suggests that the use of statins in the treatment of rectal cancer warrants further evaluation.

Katz, Matthew S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Minsky, Bruce D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: minskyb@mskcc.org; Saltz, Leonard B. [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Riedel, Elyn [Department of Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Chessin, David B. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Guillem, Jose G. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

2005-08-01

374

Induction FOLFOX followed by preoperative hyperfractionated radiotherapy plus bolus 5-fluorouracil in locally advanced rectal carcinoma: single arm phase I-II study.  

PubMed

Induction chemotherapy has many benefits of in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC); one of these is the better control of distant failure. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) is new approach still on evaluation in preoperative setting of rectal cancer. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of induction FOLFOX followed by HFRT in LARC. From September 2011 to December 2013, 27 patients with LARC were enrolled in this prospective, phase I-II study. Induction FOLFOX bolus was given for two cycles followed by HFRT (1.5 Gy twice day for 30 fractions over 3 weeks for a total of 45 Gy). 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) bolus was administrated during first and last 3 days of radiotherapy. Surgical resection was performed in 4-5 weeks further and followed by adjuvant FOLFOX bolus regimen. Twenty-one (77.8 %) patients were males and 22. 2 % of patients were females, and the median age at diagnosis was 46 years. Low sited tumor was the most presenting site (55.6 %). Clinically positive lymph nodes were presented in 70.4 % of patients. Twenty patients (74.1 %) underwent sphincter sparing procedure. Pathological complete response (pCR) was achieved in seven patients (25.9 %). Tumor and nodal downstaging were recorded in (70.3 %) and (42.1 %) of patients, respectively. Acute and late toxicities were in acceptable range. Two-year disease-free survival was 70.2 %, and overall survival was 87.5 %. Induction FOLFOX followed by HFRT and concurrent 5-FU improves pCR in LARC, and this combination was feasible with acceptable toxicity. Further evaluations are mandatory for this new approach. PMID:25750042

Aboelnaga, Engy M; Daoud, Mohamed A; Eladl, Entesar I; Zaid, Amir M

2015-04-01

375

Robotic sacrocolpoperineopexy with ventral rectopexy for the combined treatment of rectal and pelvic organ prolapse: initial report and technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of our study is to describe the peri-operative and early postoperative surgical outcomes following robotic sacrocolpoperineopexy\\u000a with ventral rectopexy for the combined treatment of rectal and pelvic organ prolapse. This was a retrospective cohort study\\u000a of ten women with symptomatic Stage 2 or greater pelvic organ prolapse and concomitant rectal prolapse who desired combined\\u000a robotic surgery, at a

Jhansi Reddy; Beri Ridgeway; Brooke Gurland; Marie Fidela R. Paraiso

376

Lateral lymph node dissection with preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced lower rectal cancer through a laparoscopic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Lateral lymph node (LLN) dissection contributes to a decrease in local recurrence and prolongs survival in locally advanced\\u000a lower rectal cancer patients as compared with total mesorectal excision (TME) alone [1, 2]. However, this procedure is also accompanied by increased bleeding and postoperative complications [3, 4]. Recently, laparoscopic TME has become a safe and feasible approach for lower rectal cancer

Tsuyoshi KonishiHiroya; Hiroya Kuroyanagi; Masatoshi Oya; Masashi Ueno; Yoshiya Fujimoto; Takashi Akiyoshi; Hidehiko Yoshimatsu; Toshiaki Watanabe; Toshiharu Yamaguchi; Tetsuichiro Muto

2011-01-01

377

Rectal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in an infliximab treated patient with ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 20-year old man with ulcerative colitis (UC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) was diagnosed with a rectal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) at surveillance endoscopy while being in remission on infliximab therapy. Further staging identified a diffuse large B-cell NHL, EBV negative restricted to the rectal submucosa (stage IA). Until now, there has not been any evidence of an increased risk

Valérie Van Hauwaert; Stef Meers; Gregor Verhoef; Séverine Vermeire; Paul Rutgeerts; Gert Van Assche

2010-01-01

378

Performing a Digital Rectal Examination on Trauma Patients Does Not Increase the Likelihood of Detecting a Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines recommend a digital rectal examination (DRE) as part of the initial evaluation of all trauma patients. The finding of decreased or absent anal sphincter tone during the DRE is suggestive of spinal cord injury.\\u000aHypothesis: The primary goal of this paper was to evaluate whether or not performing a digital rectal exam

Jennifer Byrne

2009-01-01

379

Argon Plasma Coagulation Therapy Versus Topical Formalin for Intractable Rectal Bleeding and Anorectal Dysfunction After Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction associated with chronic radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Thirty men (median age, 72 years; range, 49-87 years) with intractable rectal bleeding (defined as ?1× per week and/or requiring blood transfusions) after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma were randomized to treatment with APC (n=17) or topical formalin (n=13). Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) anorectal symptoms (validated questionnaires, including modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic and visual analogue scales for rectal bleeding); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded rectal balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and after the treatment endpoint (defined as reduction in rectal bleeding to 1× per month or better, reduction in visual analogue scales to ?25 mm, and no longer needing blood transfusions). Results: The treatment endpoint was achieved in 94% of the APC group and 100% of the topical formalin group after a median (range) of 2 (1-5) sessions of either treatment. After a follow-up duration of 111 (29-170) months, only 1 patient in each group needed further treatment. Reductions in rectal compliance and volumes of sensory perception occurred after APC, but no effect on anorectal symptoms other than rectal bleeding was observed. There were no differences between APC and topical formalin for anorectal symptoms and function, nor for anal sphincteric morphology. Conclusions: Argon plasma coagulation and topical formalin had comparable efficacy in the durable control of rectal bleeding associated with chronic radiation proctitis but had no beneficial effect on anorectal dysfunction.

Yeoh, Eric, E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Tam, William; Schoeman, Mark [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Moore, James; Thomas, Michelle [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Colorectal Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

2013-12-01

380

Accumulation ofDendrobium superbum (orchidaceae) fragrance in the rectal glands by males of the melon fly,Dacus cucurbitae.  

PubMed

4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone was characterized from flowers of the orchidDendrobium superbum as a specific attractant factor for the male melon fly,Dacus cucurbitae. The male flies compulsively licked the flower surface and sequestered the compound in significant quantities in their rectal glands. The compound was detected within 6 hr after ingestion and was retained for more than six days in the rectal gland sacs. PMID:24249012

Nishida, R; Iwahashi, O; Tan, K H

1993-04-01

381

Protective Effect of IntraRectal Administration of Rebamipide on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Rat Colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Rebamipide, an anti-ulcer drug, has various actions including radical scavenging and mucus-stimulating as well as anti-inflammatory effects, and exhibits both mucosal protective and healing promoting actions in the stomach. In the present study, we examined the effect of rebamipide on an animal model of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Methods: Experimental colitis was induced in rats by

Mitsuaki Okayama; Ryoichi Tsubouchi; Hikaru Nishio; Shinichi Kato; Koji Takeuchi

2004-01-01

382

Novel Parameter Predicting Grade 2 Rectal Bleeding After Iodine-125 Prostate Brachytherapy Combined With External Beam Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose a novel parameter predicting rectal bleeding on the basis of generalized equivalent uniform doses (gEUD) after {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation therapy and to assess the predictive value of this parameter. Methods and Materials: To account for differences among radiation treatment modalities and fractionation schedules, rectal dose–volume histograms (DVHs) of 369 patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing combined therapy retrieved from corresponding treatment planning systems were converted to equivalent dose-based DVHs. The gEUDs for the rectum were calculated from these converted DVHs. The total gEUD (gEUD{sub sum}) was determined by a summation of the brachytherapy and external-beam radiation therapy components. Results: Thirty-eight patients (10.3%) developed grade 2+ rectal bleeding. The grade 2+ rectal bleeding rate increased as the gEUD{sub sum} increased: 2.0% (2 of 102 patients) for <70 Gy, 10.3% (15 of 145 patients) for 70-80 Gy, 15.8% (12 of 76 patients) for 80-90 Gy, and 19.6% (9 of 46 patients) for >90 Gy (P=.002). Multivariate analysis identified age (P=.024) and gEUD{sub sum} (P=.000) as risk factors for grade 2+ rectal bleeding. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate gEUD to be a potential predictive factor for grade 2+ late rectal bleeding after combined therapy for prostate cancer.

Shiraishi, Yutaka, E-mail: shiraishi@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hanada, Takashi; Ohashi, Toshio [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yorozu, Atsunori; Toya, Kazuhito [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Shiro [Department of Urology, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Shigematsu, Naoyuki [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

2013-09-01

383

Rectovaginal fistula following low circular stapled anastomosis in women with rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Low anastomosis using a circular stapling instrument has become standard for performing a colorectal reconstruction following resection of a rectal cancer. Often these anastomoses are performed deep in the pelvis using a circular stapling instrument without clear visualization of the anastomotic site. In the female patient, unless an adequate stump of rectum is left above the circular staple line, there is danger that the side wall of the posterior aspect of the vagina can be included in the tissue rings (donuts) that are resected by the circular stapling instrument. This leaves the patient at high risk for late development of a rectovaginal fistula by vaginal mucosa being incorporated into the rectal wall. Maintenance of an adequate mucosa beyond the linear staple linen and a vaginal examination prior to firing the circular stapler will prevent this problem. A patient is presented and the technical details for a safe low-low colorectal anastomosis are reviewed. PMID:8606549

Sugarbaker, P H

1996-02-01

384

Hypothalamic, rectal, and muscle temperatures in exercising dogs - Effect of cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the mechanisms of performance prolongation during exercise is presented. Measurements were obtained of the rectal, muscle, and hypothalamic temperature of dogs during treadmill exercise at an ambient temperature of 22 + or - 1 C, with and without cooling by use of ice packs. In comparison with exercise without cooling, exercise with cooling was found to: (1) increase exercise duration from 90 + or - 14 to 145 + or - 15 min; (2) attenuate increases in hypothalamic, rectal and muscle temperature; (3) decrease respiratory and heart rates; and (4) lower blood lactic acid content. It is shown that although significant differences were found between the brain, core, and muscle temperatures during exercise with and without cooling, an inverse relation was observed between muscle temperature and the total duration of exercise. It is suggested that sustained muscle hyperthermia may have contributed to the limitation of working ability in exercise with and without cooling.

Kruk, B.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.

1985-01-01

385

Incidence and Mortality of Anastomotic Dehiscence Requiring Reoperation After Rectal Carcinoma Resection  

PubMed Central

Anastomotic dehiscence (AD) requiring reoperation is the most severe complication following anterior rectal resection. We performed a systematic review on studies that describe AD requiring reoperation and its subsequent mortality after anterior resection for rectal carcinoma. A systematic search was performed on published literature. Data on the definition and rate of AD, the number of ADs requiring reoperation, the mortality caused by AD, and the overall postoperative mortality were pooled and analyzed. A total of 39 studies with 24,232 patients were analyzed. The studies varied in incidence and definition of AD. Systematic review of the data showed that the overall rate of AD was 8.6%, and the rate of AD requiring reoperation was 5.4%. The postoperative mortality caused by AD was 0.4%, and the overall postoperative mortality was 1.3%. We found considerable risk and mortality for AD requiring reoperation, which largely contributed to the overall postoperative mortality. PMID:24670019

Cong, Zhi-jie; Hu, Liang-hao; Xing, Jun-jie; Bian, Zheng-qian; Fu, Chuan-gang; Yu, En-da; Li, Zhao-shen; Zhong, Ming

2014-01-01

386

Spontaneous rupture of the renal pelvis presenting as an urinoma in locally advanced rectal cancer.  

PubMed

A 29-year-old gentleman underwent a transverse colostomy for intestinal obstruction caused by advanced rectal carcinoma. On the 5(th) postoperative day, the patient developed a painful swelling on the right side of the abdomen. The contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a right sided hydronephrosis, a large rent in the renal pelvis, and a large retroperitoneal fluid collection on the right side. Percutaneous nephrostomy and pigtail catheter drainage of the urinoma led to resolution of abdominal swelling. Development of a urinoma as a consequence of rectal carcinoma is highly unusual. Prompt imaging for confirmation of diagnosis, decompression of the renal pelvicalyceal system, and drainage of the urinoma limits morbidity. PMID:24749123

Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Mohanty, Debajyoti; Rathi, Vinita; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar

2014-04-16

387

Genotypic characteristics of resistant tumors to pre-operative ionizing radiation in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

Due to a wide range of clinical response in patients undergoing neo-adjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer it is essential to understand molecular factors that lead to the broad response observed in patients receiving the same form of treatment. Despite extensive research in this field, the exact mechanisms still remain elusive. Data raging from DNA-repair to specific molecules leading to cell survival as well as resistance to apoptosis have been investigated. Individually, or in combination, there is no single pathway that has become clinically applicable to date. In the following review, we describe the current status of various pathways that might lead to resistance to the therapeutic applications of ionizing radiation in rectal cancer. PMID:25024812

Ramzan, Zeeshan; Nassri, Ammar B; Huerta, Sergio

2014-01-01

388

Rectal ulcer: Due to ketoprofen, argon plasma coagulation and prostatic brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Prostatic brachytherapy with permanent seed implants is a recent and safe radiation therapy technique associated with radiation-induced digestive disease. Argon plasma coagulation procedure is a validated modality in the management of haemorrhagic radiation proctitis, which is known to occasionally induce chronic rectal ulcers. We report here an original case report of an acute painful rectal ulcer as a consequence of the combination of short-term therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs therapy, prostatic brachytherapy with malposition of seed implants and argon plasma coagulation procedure in a patient with haemorrhagic radiation proctitis. The description of this clinical observation is essential to recommend the discontinuation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs therapy and the control of the position of seed implants in case of prostatic brachytherapy before argon plasma coagulation for radiation-induced proctitis. PMID:25493041

Koessler, Thibaud; Servois, Vincent; Mariani, Pascale; Aubert, Emilie; Cacheux, Wulfran

2014-01-01

389

Spontaneous rupture of the renal pelvis presenting as an urinoma in locally advanced rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

A 29-year-old gentleman underwent a transverse colostomy for intestinal obstruction caused by advanced rectal carcinoma. On the 5th postoperative day, the patient developed a painful swelling on the right side of the abdomen. The contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a right sided hydronephrosis, a large rent in the renal pelvis, and a large retroperitoneal fluid collection on the right side. Percutaneous nephrostomy and pigtail catheter drainage of the urinoma led to resolution of abdominal swelling. Development of a urinoma as a consequence of rectal carcinoma is highly unusual. Prompt imaging for confirmation of diagnosis, decompression of the renal pelvicalyceal system, and drainage of the urinoma limits morbidity. PMID:24749123

Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Mohanty, Debajyoti; Rathi, Vinita; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar

2014-01-01

390

Severe rectal bleeding following PPH-stapler procedure for haemorroidal disease  

PubMed Central

PPH-stapler procedure for treatment of haemorrhoidal prolapse classified P4E4 is an important improvement, but may be followed by severe postoperative complications of which haemorrhage is one of the most serious early events. We report a case of double severe rectal bleeding following PPH-stapler procedure for haemorrhoidal disease classified P4E4 according to PATE 2000 (circumferential prolapse). A 48 years old female patient was presented to our attention. She was affected by haemorrhoidal prolapse P4E4, constipation and rectal bleeding. PPH-procedure is a technique for management of the haemorrhoidal disease. Postoperative complications may be serious and haemorrhage is the most important early complication. PMID:25644731

AMMENDOLA, M.; SAMMARCO, G.; CARPINO, A.; FERRARI, F.; VESCIO, G.; SACCO, R.

2014-01-01

391

Graciloplasty for the rectovaginal fistula after chemoradiation followed by total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is one of the intractable complications following chemoradiation and total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer. It is supposed that there is a strong possibility of this complication occurring in patients after radiation therapy and having underlying sepsis. We describe herein two female patients (73 and 40 years old) who developed RVF after chemoradiation and TME for rectal cancer, who were successfully managed by gracilis muscle transposition. Fecal diversion was done as a preliminary step to the fistula repair. Success was defined as healed fistula after stoma closure. The strategy in the present report is a useful option for RVF management in such patients as other successful modalities are very limited. PMID:23273238

Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar

2013-01-01

392

[Fiction and facts about multi-modal therapy in rectal cancer].  

PubMed

The prognosis of patients with rectal cancer has been improved significantly after introduction of the total mesorectal excision (TME). Just by performing TME, the local recurrence rates could be decreased to less than 10 %, independent of multi-modal therapeutic concepts. In contrast, the local recurrence rate reached 4 to 55 % (median 20 %) in a German multicenter study in 1995 prior to the nationwide introduction of TME. The goal of this overview is to compare the different concepts in the multi-modal therapy of rectal cancer with their advantages and disadvantages based on the current literature. Mentioned will be local recurrence rates and survival, but also toxicity, costs and acceptance of patients. Furthermore, a preview is given about future developments. PMID:16612780

Ulrich, A; Weitz, J; Friess, H; Büchler, M

2006-04-01

393

[Organization of colon-rectal cancer screening in the Provincial Health Agency of Ragusa].  

PubMed

Cancer screening is a secondary prevention program that permits early diagnosis of neoplasias and precancerous lesions are in order to diminish mortality and morbidity for certain types of tumors (breast, colon-rectal, and cervical). In 2010, the Ragusa Provincial Health Agency began screening for colon-rectal cancer in an experimental phase that initially involved only the municipality of Ragusa but that was then extended to other municipalities of the province. Although the organizing model suffered from many managerial problems including lack of human resources and tools, there was good collaboration and involvement of the public health/hygiene offices and the general practitioners and volunteer associations. This type of networking was useful in that adhesion to screening was well above that expected. Another winning aspect of the project resulted in clear and pertinent communication to the population. PMID:22880386

Blangiardi, F; Ferrera, G; Cilia, S; Aprile, E

2012-01-01

394

[Application of durable regional intraarterial chemotherapy in complex of treatment of unresectable locally spread rectal cancer].  

PubMed

There in the clinic the method of treatment of inoperable locally spread cancer recti was elaborated, which consists of durable catheterization of superior rectal artery, securing possibility of conduction of several courses of chemotherapy. Using the method of treatment elaborated 33 patients suffering cancer recti were treated in 1996-2006 period. In 29 of them catheterization of superior rectal artery was done during formation of colostoma in conditions of progressing ileus. Partial regression and stabilization of the cancer recti tumor, confirmed by data of roentgenoscopy, colonofibroscopy, computer tomography, were noted in 28 patients. In 2 patients significant tumoral regression was achieved, what have permitted to perform radical operative intervention in some time. Complications, connected with the method application, were absent. PMID:16821369

Bondar, H V; Borota, O V; Kiiashko, O Iu

2006-03-01

395

Severe rectal bleeding following PPH-stapler procedure for haemorroidal disease.  

PubMed

PPH-stapler procedure for treatment of haemorrhoidal prolapse classified P4E4 is an important improvement, but may be followed by severe postoperative complications of which haemorrhage is one of the most serious early events. We report a case of double severe rectal bleeding following PPH-stapler procedure for haemorrhoidal disease classified P4E4 according to PATE 2000 (circumferential prolapse). A 48 years old female patient was presented to our attention. She was affected by haemorrhoidal prolapse P4E4, constipation and rectal bleeding. PPH-procedure is a technique for management of the haemorrhoidal disease. Postoperative complications may be serious and haemorrhage is the most important early complication. PMID:25644731

Ammendola, M; Sammarco, Giulio; Carpino, A; Ferrari, F; Vescio, G; Sacco, R

2014-01-01

396

Design of a rectal probe for diffuse optical spectroscopy imaging for chemotherapy and radiotherapy monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse optical spectroscopy imaging (DOSI) has shown great potential for the early detection of non-responding tumors during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer, already one day after therapy starts. Patients with rectal cancer receive similar chemotherapy treatment. The rectum geometry and tissue properties of healthy and tumor tissue in the rectum and the requirement of surface contact impose constraints on the probe design. In this work we present the design of a DOSI probe with the aim of early chemotherapy/radiotherapy effectiveness detection in rectal tumors. We show using Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements that the colon tissue can be characterized reliably using a source-detector separation in the order of 10 mm. We present a design and rapid prototype of a probe for DOSI measurements that can be mounted on a standard laparoscope and that fits through a standard rectoscope. Using predominantly clinically approved components we aim at fast clinical translation.

van de Giessen, Martijn; Santoro, Ylenia; Mirzaei Zarandi, Soroush; Pigazzi, Alessio; Cerussi, Albert E.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

2014-03-01

397

Cyclic AMP-dependent stimulation of Na,K-ATPase in shark rectal gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Scatchard analysis of3H ouabain bound to isolated rectal gland cells as a function of increasing ouabain concentrations produced a concave curvilinear plot that was resolved into two specific sites with either a high (I) or low (II) affinity for ouabain. Cyclic cAMP\\/theophylline (±furosemide, 10-4m) increased the amount of3H ouabain bound to the high-affinity site I. Vanadate, a phosphate congener

D. Marver; S. Lear; L. T. Marver; P. Silva; F. H. Epstein

1986-01-01

398

The modified delorme operation: Its place in surgical treatment for massive rectal prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The modified Delorme operation represents an effective perineal approach for the treatment of massive rectal prolapse, giving\\u000a low morbidity and mortality; it is especially suitable for the elderly, the infirm, and most poor-risk patients- and for the\\u000a surgeon accustomed to an anorectal approach.\\u000a \\u000a Our modifications of the procedure include the following: operation in the prone-flexed position,in situ plication of the

Bennett E. Ehlig; Eugene S. Sullivan

1979-01-01

399

Munchausen's syndrome presenting as rectal foreign body insertion: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background This case report shows that Munchausen's syndrome can present as rectal foreign body insertion. Although the presentation of rectal foreign bodies has frequently been described in the medical literature, the insertion of foreign bodies into the rectum for reasons other than sexual gratification has rarely been considered. Case presentation A 30 year old, unmarried Caucasian male presented with a history of having been sexually assaulted five days earlier in a nearby city by a group of unknown males. He reported that during the assault a glass bottle was forcibly inserted into his rectum and the bottle neck broke. On examination, there was no evidence of external injury to the patient. Further assessment lead to a diagnosis of Munchausen's syndrome. The rationale for this is explained. A description and summary of current knowledge about the condition is also provided, including appropriate treatment approaches. Conclusion This case report is important because assumptions regarding the motivation for insertion of foreign bodies into the rectum may lead to the diagnosis of Munchausen's syndrome being missed. This would result in the appropriate course of action, with regard to treatment, not being followed. It is suggested that clinicians consider the specific motivation for the behaviour in all cases of rectal foreign body insertion, including the possibility of factitious disorder such as Munchausen's syndrome, and avoid any assumption that it has been carried out for the purpose of sexual gratification. Early involvement of psychiatrists is recommended. Cases of Munchausen's syndrome presenting as rectal foreign body insertion may be identified and addressed more effectively using the approach described. PMID:18925957

Khan, Shakeeb A; Davey, Christine A; Khan, Shamsul A; Trigwell, Peter J; Chintapatla, Srinivas

2008-01-01

400

Transanal single-port laparoscopic total mesorectal excision in the treatment of rectal cancer.  

PubMed

Our objective was to report of our first experience with transanal total mesorectal excision (TME) of rectal cancer using single-port equipment, a pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedure, and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the technique. A patient with rectal cancer was selected according to preoperative evaluation criteria. Purse-string sutures were placed into the rectum distal to the tumor using the procedure of prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH) anoscope. A full-thickness incision of the rectal wall was made circumferentially below the purse string and a three-channel cannula was inserted. The artificial orifice was insufflated. The entire mesorectum was dissected upward according to the principles of TME. Pneumoperitoneum was created by opening the rectouterine pouch. The sigmoid colon and its mesentery were dissected, and the inferior mesenteric vessels were ligated and divided. After dissection of a sufficient length of sigmoid colon, the PPH anoscope and the three-channel cannula were removed. The rectum and sigmoid colon were brought out through the anus. The tumor was resected. After removal of the specimens, a stapled end-to-end anastomosis was fashioned between the rectum and the sigmoid colon. Operative time was 300 min. The mesorectum was completely removed with negative distal and circumferential margin. The final pathological stage was pT3N1M0, with one positive lymph node (1/12). The patient recovered uneventfully after surgery. Pure-NOTES performed as transanal single-port laparoscopic TME for rectal cancer appears to be feasible and safe. PMID:22936590

Zhang, H; Zhang, Y-S; Jin, X-W; Li, M-Z; Fan, J-S; Yang, Z-H

2013-02-01

401

Giant Presacral Tailgut Cyst Mimicking Rectal Duplication in a Girl: Report of a Pediatric Case  

PubMed Central

Tailgut cyst, or retrorectal cystic hamartoma, is a rare congenital lesion found in the presacral space. The lession has been infrequently reported in medical literature. It is most common in middle-aged women and is rare in children. We report a case of a tailgut cyst mimicking a rectal duplication in an 8-year-old child. Excision and histological examination of the mass confirmed the tailgut cyst.

Garcia-Palacios, Maria; Méndez, Roberto; Rodriguez-Barca, Pablo; Estevez-Martinez, Elina; Pérez-Becerra, Eugenio; Bautista-Casasnovas, Adolfo

2013-01-01

402

Consolidating Risk Estimates for Radiation-Induced Complications in Individual Patient: Late Rectal Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To test the feasibility of a new approach to synthesize published normal tissue complication data using late rectal toxicity in prostate cancer as an example. Methods and Materials: A data survey was performed to identify the published reports on the dose-response relationships for late rectal toxicity. The risk estimates for Grade 1 or greater, Grade 2 or greater, and Grade 3 or greater toxicity were obtained for a test cohort of patients treated at our institution. The influence of the potential factors that might have affected the reported toxicity levels was investigated. The studies that did not conform to the general data trends were excluded, and single, combined risk estimates were derived for each patient and toxicity level. Results: A total of 21 studies of nonoverlapping patient populations were identified. Three studies provided dose-response models for more than one level of toxicity. Of these 21 studies, 6, 14, and 5 were used to derive the initial risk estimates for Grade 1, 2, and 3 or greater toxicity, respectively. A comparison of risk estimates between the studies reporting rectal bleeding and rectal toxicity (bleeding plus other symptoms) or between studies with follow-up <36 months and {>=}36 months did not reveal significant differences (p {>=} .29 for all comparisons). After excluding three reports that did not conform to the general data trends, the combined risk estimates were derived from 5 reports (647 patients), 11 reports (3,369 patients), and 5 reports (1,330 patients) for Grade 1, 2, and 3 or greater toxicity, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed approach is feasible and allows for more systematic use of published dose-response data to estimate the complication risks for the individual patient.

Prior, Phillip; Devisetty, Kiran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Tarima, Sergey S. [Division of Biostatistics, Institute for Health and Society, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lawton, Colleen A.F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Semenenko, Vladimir A., E-mail: vsemenenko@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2012-05-01

403

Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer Is Associated With Reduced Serum Testosterone and Increased FSH and LH  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: It is known that scattered radiation to the testes during pelvic radiotherapy can affect fertility, but there is little knowledge on its effects on male sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine whether radiotherapy for rectal cancer affects testosterone production. Methods and Materials: All male patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Patients treated with surgery alone were randomly selected from the same registry as control subjects. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were analyzed, and free testosterone was calculated (N = 290). Information about the radiotherapy treatment was collected from the patient hospital charts. Results: Serum FSH was 3 times higher in the radiotherapy group than in the control group (median, 18.8 vs. 6.3 IU/L, p <0.001), and serum LH was 1.7 times higher (median, 7.5 vs. 4.5 IU/l, p <0.001). In the radiotherapy group, 27% of patients had testosterone levels below the reference range (8-35 nmol/L), compared with 10% of the nonirradiated patients (p <0.001). Irradiated patients had lower serum testosterone (mean, 11.1 vs. 13.4 nmol/L, p <0.001) and lower calculated free testosterone (mean, 214 vs. 235 pmol/L, p <0.05) than control subjects. Total testosterone, calculated free testosterone, and gonadotropins were related to the distance from the bony pelvic structures to the caudal field edge. Conclusions: Increased serum levels of gonadotropins and subnormal serum levels of testosterone indicate that curative radiotherapy for rectal cancer can result in permanent testicular dysfunction.

Bruheim, Kjersti [Cancer Center, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: Kjersti.Bruheim@medisin.uio.no; Svartberg, Johan [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso (Norway); Department of Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso (Norway); Carlsen, Erik [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Dueland, Svein [Department of Oncology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Haug, Egil [Hormone Laboratory, Aker University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skovlund, Eva [School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Tveit, Kjell Magne; Guren, Marianne G. [Cancer Center, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

2008-03-01

404

Resistance in the Rectal Carriage of Men in an Active Surveillance Cohort: Longitudinal Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Rectal swabs can identify men with fluoroquinolone resistant bacteria and decrease the infection rate after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy by targeted antimicrobial prophylaxis. We evaluated the rate of fluoroquinolone resistance in an active surveillance cohort with attention to factors associated with resistance and changes in resistance with time. Materials and Methods We evaluated 416 men with prostate cancer on active surveillance who underwent rectal swabs to assess the rate of fluoroquinolone resistance compared to that in men undergoing diagnostic transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. The chi-square test and Student t-test were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Poisson regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results On the initial swab fluoroquinolone resistance was found in 95 of 416 men (22.8%) on active surveillance compared to 54 of 221 (24.4%) in the diagnostic biopsy cohort (p = 0.675). Diabetes was found in 4.0% of the fluoroquinolone sensitive group vs 14.7% of the resistant group (p <0.001). Biopsy history was not associated with resistance. Of those with a resistant first swab 62.9% had a resistant second swab and 88.9% of those with 2 resistant swabs showed resistance on the third swab. Of men with a sensitive first swab 10.6% showed resistance on the second swab and 10.6% of those with 2 sensitive swabs had resistant third swabs. Conclusions One of 4 men who present for surveillance and diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy have rectal flora resistant to fluooquinolone. Resistance is significantly associated with diabetes but the number of prior biopsies is not. Men with fluoroquinolone resistant flora tend to remain resistant with time. PMID:25111911

Cohen, Jason E.; Landis, Patricia; Trock, Bruce J.; Patel, Hiten D.; Ball, Mark W.; Auwaerter, Paul G.; Schaeffer, Edward; Carter, H. Ballentine

2015-01-01

405

Intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy for recurrent locally advanced rectal or rectosigmoid carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multimodality approach of moderate-dose to high-dose preoperative radiation therapy, surgical resection, and intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IORT) has been used for patients with locally recurrent rectal or rectosigmoid carcinoma. The 5-year actuarial local control and disease-free survival for 30 patients undergoing this treatment program were 26% and 19%, respectively. The most important factor predicting a favorable outcome was

Christopher G. Willett; Paul C. Shellito; Joel E. Tepper; Roseann Eliseo; Karen Convery; William C. Wood

1991-01-01

406

Postoperative Irradiation for Rectal Cancer Increases the Risk of Small Bowel Obstruction After Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the risk of small bowel obstruction (SBO) after irradiation (RT) for rectal cancer Background: SBO is a frequent complication after standard resection of rectal cancer. Although the use of RT is increasing, the effect of RT on risk of SBO is unknown. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry data linked to Medicare claims data to determine the effect of RT on risk of SBO. Patients 65 years of age and older diagnosed with nonmetastatic invasive rectal cancer treated with standard resection from 1986 through 1999 were included. We determined whether patients had undergone RT and evaluated the effect of RT and timing of RT on the incidence of admission to hospital for SBO, adjusting for potential confounders using a proportional hazards model. Results: We identified a total of 5606 patients who met our selection criteria: 1994 (36%) underwent RT, 74% postoperatively. Patients were followed for a mean of 3.8 years. A total of 614 patients were admitted for SBO over the study period; 15% of patients in the RT group and 9% of patients in the nonirradiated group (P < 0.001). After controlling for age, sex, race, diagnosis year, type of surgery, and stage, we found that patients who underwent postoperative RT were at higher risk of SBO, hazard ratio 1.69 (95% CI, 1.3–2.1). However, the long-term risk associated with preoperative irradiation was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.55–1.46). Conclusions: Postoperative but not preoperative RT after standard resection of rectal cancer results in an increased risk of SBO over time. PMID:17414603

Baxter, Nancy N.; Hartman, Lacey K.; Tepper, Joel E.; Ricciardi, Rocco; Durham, Sara B.; Virnig, Beth A.

2007-01-01

407

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CB association with preoperative radiotherapy response in rectal adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the correlation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3) CB expression with preoperative radiotherapy response in patients with stage II/III rectal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: PIK3CB immunoexpression was retrospectively assessed in pretreatment biopsies from 208 patients with clinical stage II/III rectal adenocarcinoma, who underwent radical surgery after 30-Gy/10-fraction preoperative radiotherapy. The relation between PIK3CB expression and tumor regression grade, clinicopathological characteristics, and survival time was statistically analyzed. Western blotting and in vitro clonogenic formation assay were used to detect PIK3CB expression in four colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116, HT29, LoVo, and LS174T) treated with 6-Gy ionizing radiation. Pharmacological assays were used to evaluate the therapeutic relevance of TGX-221 (a PIK3CB-specific inhibitor) in the four colorectal cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining indicated that PIK3CB was more abundant in rectal adenocarcinoma tissues with poor response to preoperative radiotherapy. High expression of PIK3CB was closely correlated with tumor height (P < 0.05), ypT stage (P < 0.05), and high-degree tumor regression grade (P < 0.001). High expression of PIK3CB was a potential prognostic factor for local recurrence-free survival (P < 0.05) and metastasis-free survival (P < 0.05). High expression of PIK3CB was also associated with poor therapeutic response and adverse outcomes in rectal adenocarcinoma patients treated with 30-Gy/10-fraction preoperative radiotherapy. In vitro, PIK3CB expression was upregulated in all four colorectal cancer cell lines concurrently treated with 6-Gy ionizing radiation, and the PIK3CB-specific inhibitor TGX-221 effectively inhibited the clonogenic formation of these four colorectal cancer cell lines. CONCLUSION: PIK3CB is critically involved in response to preoperative radiotherapy and may serve as a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25473181

Yu, Wei-Dong; Peng, Yi-Fan; Pan, Hong-Da; Wang, Lin; Li, Kun; Gu, Jin

2014-01-01

408

Evaluation of CHROMagar™ KPC for the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in rectal surveillance cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the performance of the chromogenic medium CHROMagar™ KPC was evaluated and was compared with in-house-daily prepared McConkey agar plates supplemented with imipenem (1mg\\/L) for the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. In this surveillance study, rectal swabs were cultured on both media and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for blaKPC and blaVIM was used to confirm the genotype of growing

Theofano Panagea; Irene Galani; Maria Souli; Panagiota Adamou; Anastasia Antoniadou; Helen Giamarellou

2011-01-01

409

Mechanism of NaCl secretion in rectal gland tubules of spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectal gland tubule (RGT) segements of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were perfused in vitro. The effects of inhibitors of known mode of action on transepithelial PD (PDte resistance (Rte), the PD across the basolateral membrane (PDbl), the fractional resistance of this membrane (FRbl), and intracellular activities of Na+, Cl-, K+ (acell) were examined. Furosemide (5·10-4 mol·l-1) reduced PDte from

Rainer Greger; Eberhard Schlatter

1984-01-01

410

Mechanism of NaCl secretion in the rectal gland of spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rectal gland tubules (RGT) of spiny dogfish were dissected and perfused in vitro. Transepithelial PD (PDte), resistance (Rte), the PD across the basolateral membrane (PDbl) and intracellular chloride and potassium activities (aCl-cell,aK+cell) were measured. In a first series, 67 RGT segments were perfused with symmetric shark “Ringers” solution. The bath perfusate contained in addition db-cAMP 10-4, forskolin 10-6, and adenosine

Rainer Greger; Eberhard Schlatter

1984-01-01

411

The reflex effects of rectal distension on heart rate, arterial blood pressure and electrocardiogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effect of rectal distension on the heart rate, arterial blood pressure and electrocardiogram, 50 volunteers\\u000a (25 test and 25 controls) were studied. Test volunteers comprised 15 men and 10 women who had a mean age of 38.7 years. Two\\u000a catheters: balloon-tipped and manometric, were introduced into the rectum. The balloon was filled with saline in increments\\u000a of

Ahmed Shafik

1998-01-01

412

Efficacy and Safety of Endoscopic Resection Therapies for Rectal Carcinoid Tumors: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose Several endoscopic resection therapies have been applied for the treatment of rectal carcinoid tumors. However, there is currently no consensus regarding the optimal strategy. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or modified EMR (m-EMR) versus endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for the treatment of rectal carcinoid tumors. Materials and Methods PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Embase and CNKI were searched up to the end of January 2014 in order to identify all studies on the effects of EMR (or m-EMR) and ESD on rectal carcinoid tumors. Results A total of fourteen studies involving 782 patients were included. The pooled data suggested a significantly higher rate of pathological complete resection among patients treated with ESD or m-EMR than those treated with EMR [odds ratio (OR)=0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.71; OR=0.10, 95% CI: 0.03-0.33, respectively], while there was no significant difference between the m-EMR group and ESD group (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 0.49-2.86); The procedure time of ESD was longer than EMR or m-EMR groups [mean differences (MD)=-11.29, 95% CI: -14.19 - -8.38, MD= -10.90, 95% CI: -18.69 - -3.11, respectively], but it was insignificance between the EMR and m-EMR groups. No significant differences were detected among the treatment groups with regard to complications or recurrence. Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis suggest that treatment of rectal carcinoid tumors with ESD or m-EMR is superior to EMR, and the efficacy of m-EMR is equivalence to ESD treatment. However, more well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25510749

He, Lei; Luo, Hesheng

2015-01-01

413

Maternal rectal temperature and fetal heart rate responses to upright cycling in late pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To assess maternal rectal temperature and fetal heart rate responses to dynamic exercise. METHODS--11 healthy women with low risk pregnancies completed three separate upright cycling tests at 34 to 37 weeks gestation: 15 min at 62.5 W (mean maternal heart rate [MHR] 138 beats.min-1 (test A); 15 min at 87.5 W (MHR 156 beats.min-1) (test B); and 30 min at

M E ONeill

1996-01-01

414

A long and distant journey: a case of rectal cancer with metastasis to the orbit  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 33-year-old man with acute onset of eye pain and diplopia as the presenting symptoms of rectal cancer with orbital metastasis. Colorectal cancer with orbital metastasis is exceedingly rare with only 7 cases worldwide despite the prevalence of colorectal cancer. The rarity of this presentation may be related to the long path through multiple vascular beds that tumor emboli from the rectum must travel in order to reach the orbit. PMID:25608827

Pearlman, Michelle; Kwong, Wilson T.

2015-01-01

415

Immobilization stress in rats: Effect on rectal temperature and possible role of brain monoamines in hypothermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immobilization of albino rats for 2 h showed ambient temperature-dependent changes in rectal temperature, hypothermia at temperatures below 30° C, and hyperthermia at 35° C and above. Adrenalectomized (Adre) rats showed more hypothermia compared to sham operated controls at 25±2° C. The increased hypothermia in adrenalectomized rats was reversed by 10 mg\\/kg IP or 100 µg\\/rat ICV of hydrocortisone. Groups

Alka Amar; A. K. Sanyal

1981-01-01

416

Ionic strength and the polyvalent cation receptor of shark rectal gland and artery.  

PubMed

The dogfish shark Squalus acanthias regulates plasma osmolality and extracellular volume by secreting a fluid from its rectal gland which has a higher NaCl and lower urea concentration than plasma. We have previously identified the presence of a calcium-sensing receptor or polyvalent cation sensing receptor (CaSR) on vascular smooth muscle of the rectal gland artery (RGA) and rectal gland tubules (RGT). Activity of the CaSR is influenced by changes in ionic strength. This led us to speculate that the ingestion of invertebrate sea animals increased plasma ionic strength, resulting in inhibition of the receptor, relaxation of RGA, and reversal of inhibition of chloride secretion by the RGT. In contrast, ingestion of fish could diminish ionic strength and have the opposite effect. To study the effect of changes in extracellular ionic strength, shark Ringers solutions were adjusted to three different ionic strengths with NaCl, but the osmolarities were kept constant by varying the concentration of urea. High ionic strength inhibited and low ionic strength enhanced the response to increasing external Ca2+ from 2.5 to 4.7 mM in RGT. The increase in cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) of cells in low, normal, and high ionic strength Ringers solution was 344 +/- 60, 201 +/- 26, and 114 +/- 15 nmol/L, respectively. The [Ca2+]i responses of RGA to external Ca2+ in Ringers of three different ionic strengths were 323 +/- 43, 231 +/- 14, and 56 +/- 11 nmol/L, respectively. Activation of the CaSR by spermine was reduced by more than 50% by high ionic strength in both RGT and RGA. Whether the small changes in shark plasma ionic strength that occur after a shark ingests marine animals with lower and higher ionic strength modulates salt secretion by the rectal gland is not yet known. PMID:14981782

Fellner, Susan K; Parker, Laurel

2004-03-01

417

[Sexually transmitted infections as a cause for solid rectal pseudo tumors].  

PubMed

Two cases of symptomatic proctitis with rectal tumors suspicious for malignancy are presented. A florid regenerative proctitis was shown in the histological examination. In both cases a sexually transmitted infection (STI) was causing the symptoms. In rare cases STIs present as pseudo tumors mimicking malignancy in clinical examination and endoscopic/radiological analysis. A close collaboration between gastroenterologist and pathologist is necessary for a correct diagnosis and to prevent unnecessary surgical treatment. PMID:25474280

Hofmann, B; Gaiser, T; Wantia, N; Renner, W; Veeser, M; Ebert, M; Vogelmann, R

2014-12-01

418

Rectal cancer and exposure to metalworking fluids in the automobile manufacturing industry  

PubMed Central

Background Rectal cancer has been previously associated with exposure to metalworking fluids in a cohort mortality study of autoworkers. Objective To better specify the exposure–response relationship with straight metalworking fluids (mineral oils) by applying non?parametric regression methods that avoid linearity constraints and arbitrary exposure cut points and by lagging exposure to account for cancer latency, in a nested case–control analysis. Methods In addition to the classical Poisson regression with categorical exposure, survival models with penalised splines were used to estimate the exposure–response relationship between cumulative exposure to straight metalworking fluid and mortality from rectal cancer. Exposures to water?based metalworking fluids were treated as potential confounders, and all exposures were lagged by 5, 10, 15 and 20?years to account for cancer latency. The influence of the highest exposures was dealt with by a log transformation and outlier removal. The sensitivity of the penalised splines to alternative criteria for model selection and to the placement of knots was also examined. Results The hazard ratio for mortality from rectal cancer increased essentially linearly with cumulative exposure to straight metalworking fluid (with narrow confidence bands) up to a maximum of 2.2 at the 99th centile of exposure and then decreased (with wide confidence bands). Lagging exposure up to 15?years increased the initial steepness of the curve and raised the maximum hazard ratio to 3.2. Conclusions Non?parametric smoothing of lagged exposures has shown stronger evidence for a causal association between straight metalworking fluid and rectal cancer than was previously described using standard analytical methods. This analysis suggests an exposure–response trend that is close to linear and statistically significant over most of the exposure range and that increases further with lagged exposures. Smoothing should be regularly applied to environmental studies with quantitative exposure estimates to refine characterisation of the dose–response relationship. PMID:16912088

Malloy, Elizabeth J; Miller, Katie L; Eisen, Ellen A

2007-01-01

419

Rectal irrigation with short-chain fatty acids for distal ulcerative colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colon cells from patients with ulcerative colitis utilize short-chain fatty acids inefficiently and may be exposed to decreased concentrations of these compounds. To test whether irrigation of the inflamed mucosa with short-chain fatty acids is useful, we conducted a six-week preliminary trial in 12 patients with distal colitis. Each patient used twice daily rectal irrigations with 100 ml of a

Richard I. Breuer; Stephen K. Buto; Miriam L. Christ; Judy Bean; Piero Vernia; P. Paoluzi; M. C. Di Paolo; Renzo Caprilli

1991-01-01

420

Expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor in rectal cancer  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR) expression before preoperative irradiation can predict the radiosensitivity of rectal cancer. METHODS: The expression of G-CSFR was examined, using immunohistochemistry, in biopsy specimens from 126 patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma before preoperative irradiation. Radiosensitivity was then evaluated according to the Rectal Cancer Regression Grading. Endoscopic inspection was used to detect the tumor area in each patient. General patient information, such as age, gender, lymph node status, tumor size and degree of differentiation was recorded. A statistical analysis was then performed to evaluate the correlation between clinical or pathological parameters and G-CSFR expression in tumors. RESULTS: According to endoscopic inspection, the tumor area ranged from 4 to 48 cm2 (median, 15 cm2). Positive G-CSFR immunoreactions (G-CSFR+) were observed in 85 specimens, and negative (G-CSFR-) in 41. No significant differences were found in age, gender, tumor invasion, lymph node status and tumor size between G-CSFR+ and G-CSFR- patients. G-CSFR expression was positively correlated with poor radiotherapy response (58.8% vs 75.6%, P = 0.014, r = 0.219). The proportion of well-differentiated tumors in G-CSFR+ and G-CSFR- patients was 24.7% and 36.6%, respectively. Sphincter preservation was observed in 57.6% of G-CSFR+ patients and 78.5% of G-CSFR- patients. Significant correlations were found between G-CSFR expression and tumor differentiation (24.7% vs 36.6%, P = 0.019, r = 0.210), as well as sphincter preservation (57.6% vs 78.5%, P = 0.044, r = 0.180). CONCLUSION: The expression of G-CSFR before preoperative irradiation may predict the radiosensitivity of rectal cancer. PMID:24574781

Yang, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Ping; Wang, Feng; Xu, Ze-Kuan

2014-01-01

421

Comparison of abdominal and perineal procedures for complete rectal prolapse: an analysis of 104 patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose Selecting the best surgical approach for treating complete rectal prolapse involves comparing the operative and functional outcomes of the procedures. The aims of this study were to evaluate and compare the operative and functional outcomes of abdominal and perineal surgical procedures for patients with complete rectal prolapse. Methods A retrospective study of patients with complete rectal prolapse who had operations at a tertiary referral hospital and a university hospital between March 1990 and May 2011 was conducted. Patients were classified according to the type of operation: abdominal procedure (AP) (n = 64) or perineal procedure (PP) (n = 40). The operative outcomes and functional results were assessed. Results The AP group had the younger and more men than the PP group. The AP group had longer operation times than the PP group (165 minutes vs. 70 minutes; P = 0.001) and longer hospital stays (10 days vs. 7 days; P = 0.001), but a lower overall recurrence rate (6.3% vs. 15.0%; P = 0.14). The overall rate of the major complication was similar in the both groups (10.9% vs. 6.8%; P = 0.47). The patients in the AP group complained more frequently of constipation than of incontinence, conversely, in the PP group of incontinence than of constipation. Conclusion The two approaches for treating complete rectal prolapse did not differ with regard to postoperative morbidity, but the overall recurrence tended to occur frequently among patients in the PP group. Functional results after each surgical approach need to be considered for the selection of procedure. PMID:24851226

Lee, Jong Lyul; Yang, Sung Soo; Park, In Ja; Yu, Chang Sik

2014-01-01

422

Rubber band ligation of hemorrhoids and rectal mucosal prolapse in constipated patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubber band ligation was used in 160 patients with internal hemorrhoids; 43 of them also had rectal anterior mucosal prolapse;\\u000a 13 had prolapse alone. Two thirds of the patients underwent a single rubber band ligation and one third a double rubber band\\u000a ligation in one session without anesthesia. Ninety-four required repeated ligations. A follow-up of 25±16 months (mean ± SD)

C. Mattana; G. Maria; M. Pescatori

1989-01-01

423

Preoperative Treatment Combining Capecitabine with Radiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer: A GERCOR Phase II Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective(s): To assess efficacy and tolerability of preoperative capecitabine chemoradiation in rectal cancer. Methods: Patients received radiotherapy 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks and capecitabine 825 mg\\/m2 twice daily throughout radiotherapy. Surgery was performed 5–7 weeks after radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was pathological complete response, secondary endpoints were downstaging and tolerability. Results: Fifty-one patients were enrolled in a

Olivier Dupuis; Brigitte Vie; Gérard Lledo; Christophe Hennequin; Monique Noirclerc; Mohamed Bennamoun; Jacques H. Jacob

2007-01-01

424