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Sample records for rectal administration

  1. School Nurses' Experience with Administration of Rectal Diazepam Gel for Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Christine; O'Hara, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine school nurses' knowledge of state and school district policies, their experience regarding the administration of rectal diazepam gel in the school, and the perceived benefits and barriers of providing this treatment. Four hundred nineteen nurses responded to a survey conducted during the National

  2. Rectal and sublingual administration of tacrolimus: a single-dose pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Stifft, Frank; Vanmolkot, Floris; Scheffers, Ingrid; van Bortel, Luc; Neef, Cees; Christiaans, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Aims The immunosuppressant tacrolimus is usually administered orally. When this is not feasible, other routes of administration may be useful. Previous research suggested that tacrolimus may be applied sublingually or rectally. Pharmacokinetic data are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the pharmacokinetics of these alternative formulations with orally administered tacrolimus. Methods Three single, fixed-dose formulations of tacrolimus were administered in a random sequence in 18 healthy subjects, using a cross-over study design. For sublingual administration, 3 mg of powder obtained from oral capsules was applied under the tongue for a period of 15 min without swallowing, with mouth rinsing afterwards. For rectal administration, a suppository containing 15 mg of the oral powder was used. Oral administration consisted of 7 mg of instant-release tacrolimus capsules (Prograf). Main pharmacokinetic outcome parameters were compared by anova. Results Sublingual administration showed no clinically significant exposure, contrary to rectal administration, where all subjects had clinically relevant exposure, with a lower relative bioavailability (78%), a lower maximal blood concentration and a later time of maximal blood concentration compared with oral administration. Conclusions Sublingual administration of a single dose of tacrolimus does not result in systemic exposure if care is taken not to swallow saliva and to rinse the oral cavity afterwards. Rectal administration of tacrolimus results in clinically relevant systemic exposure and might represent an alternative formulation in case oral administration is not feasible. When used as a topical agent, systemic side-effects should be considered. PMID:24809233

  3. Ketamine and norketamine plasma concentrations after i.v., nasal and rectal administration in children.

    PubMed

    Malinovsky, J M; Servin, F; Cozian, A; Lepage, J Y; Pinaud, M

    1996-08-01

    It has been suggested that nasal administration of ketamine may be used to induce anaesthesia in paediatric patients. We have examined the pharmacokinetics of ketamine and norketamine after nasal administration compared with rectal and i.v. administration in young children. During halothane anaesthesia, 32 children, aged 2-9 yr, weight 10-30 kg, were allocated randomly to receive ketamine 3 mg kg-1 nasally (group IN3) or ketamine 9 mg kg-1 nasally (group IN9); ketamine 9 mg kg-1 rectally (group IR9); or ketamine 3 mg kg-1 i.v. (group IV3). Venous blood samples were obtained before and up to 360 min after administration of ketamine. Plasma concentrations of ketamine and norketamine were measured by gas liquid chromatography. Statistical comparisons were performed using ANOVA and the Kruskall-Wallis test, with P < 0.05 as significant. Mean plasma concentrations of ketamine peaked at 496 ng ml-1 in group IN3 within 20 min, 2104 ng ml-1 in group IN9 within 21 min, and 632 ng ml-1 in group IR9 within 42 min. Plasma concentrations of norketamine peaked at approximately 120 min after nasal ketamine, but appeared more rapidly after rectal administration of ketamine and were always higher than ketamine concentrations in the same situation. Calculated bioavailability was 0.50 in groups IN3 and IN9 and 0.25 in group IR9. We conclude that nasal administration of low doses of ketamine produced plasma concentrations associated with analgesia, but using high doses via the nasal route produced high plasma concentrations of ketamine similar to those that induce anaesthesia. However, the large volume of ketamine required was partly swallowed and led to an unacceptable variability of effect that precludes this route for induction of anaesthesia. PMID:8881626

  4. Evaluation of Epirubicin in Thermogelling and Bioadhesive Liquid and Solid Suppository Formulations for Rectal Administration

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yu-Li; Lin, Yijun; Lin, Hong-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensitive Pluronic (Plu) and pH-sensitive polyacrylic acid (PAA) were successfully mixed in different ratios to form in situ gelling formulations for colon cancer therapy. The major formulations were prepared as the liquid and solid suppository dosage forms. Epirubicin (Epi) was chosen as a model anticancer drug. In vitro characterization and in vivo pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of Epi in six Plu/PAA formulations were evaluated. Our in vitro data indicate that Epi in Plu 14%/PAA 0.75% of both solid and liquid suppositories possess significant cytotoxicity, strong bioadhesive force, long-term appropriate suppository base, sustained release, and high accumulation of Epi in rat rectums. These solid and liquid suppositories were retained in the upper rectum of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for at least 12 h. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study using SD rats showed that after rectal administration of solid and liquid suppositories, Epi had greater area under the curve and higher relative bioavailability than in a rectal solution. These solid and liquid suppositories exhibited remarkable inhibition on the tumor growth of CT26 bearing Balb/c mice in vivo. Our findings suggest that in situ thermogelling and mucoadhesive suppositories demonstrate a great potential as colon anticancer delivery systems for protracted release of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24384838

  5. [Changes in the afferent activity of the vagus nerve and the rectal temperature in rats following Escherichia coli endotoxin administration].

    PubMed

    Lapsha, V I; Lukashenko, T M; Utkina, L N; Gurin, V N

    2001-10-01

    In anaesthetised rats, i.p. administration of the Echerichia coli lipopolysaccharide in doses 5 mcg/kg (LPS) increased afferent activity of the cervical vagus, whereas 100 and 1000 mcg/kg doses inhibited the afferent discharges. Pyrogen-free saline (PFS) did not alter the activity. Rectal temperature (RT) was decreased by the PFS and by large doses of the LPS. Sodium salicylate administration prevented the effects. PMID:11767451

  6. Ketamine as an analgesic: parenteral, oral, rectal, subcutaneous, transdermal and intranasal administration.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Robert H

    2002-01-01

    Ketamine is a parenteral anesthetic agent that provides analgesic activity at sub-anesthetic doses. It is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with opioid receptor activity. Controlled studies and case reports on ketamine demonstrate efficacy in neuropathic and nociceptive pain. Because ketamine is a phencyclidine analogue, it has some of the psychological adverse effects found with that hallucinogen, especially in adults. Therefore, ketamine is not routinely used as an anesthetic in adult patients. It is a frequently used veterinary anesthetic, and is used more frequently in children than in adults. The psychotomimetic effects have prompted the DEA to classify ketamine as a Schedule III Controlled Substance. A review of the literature documents the analgesic use of ketamine by anesthesiologists and pain specialists in patients who have been refractory to standard analgesic medication regimens. Most reports demonstrate no or mild psychotomimetic effects when ketamine is dosed at sub-anesthetic doses. Patients who respond to ketamine tend to demonstrate dramatic pain relief that obviates the desire to stop treatment due to psychotomimetic effects (including hallucinations and extracorporeal experiences). Ketamine is approved by the FDA for intravenous and intramuscular administration. Use of this drug by the oral, intranasal, transdermal, rectal, and subcutaneous routes has been reported with analgesic efficacy in treating nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Ketamine also has been reported to produce opioid dose sparing and good patient acceptance. A transdermal formulation is currently under patent review in Brazil and an intranasal formulation is currently undergoing phase I/II clinical trials. PMID:14640353

  7. Thermosensitive and mucoadhesive in situ gel based on poloxamer as new carrier for rectal administration of nimesulide.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Cui, Ying; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Hui-Ping; Guo, Yi-Sha; Zhong, Bo; Hu, Xia; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Li

    2012-07-01

    Poloxamer 407 has excellent thermo-sensitive gelling properties. Nevertheless, these gels possess inadequate poor bioadhesiveness and high permeability to water, which limited its' application as a thermoresponsive matrix. The main aim of the present investigation was to develop thermosensitive and mucoadhesive rectal in situ gel of nimesulide (NM) by using mucoadhesive polymers such as sodium alginate (Alg-Na) and HPMC. These gels were prepared by addition of mucoadhesive polymers (0.5%) to the formulations of thermosensitive gelling solution containing poloxamer 407 (18%) and nimesulide (2.0%). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to modify gelation temperature and drug release properties. The gelation temperature and drug release rate of the prepared in situ gels were evaluated. Gelation temperature was significantly increased with incorporation of nimesulide (2.0%) in the poloxamer solution, while the addition of the mucoadhesive polymers played a reverse role on gelation temperature. The addition of PEG polymers increased the gelation temperature and the drug release rate. Among the formulations examined, the poloxamer 407/nimesulide/sodium alginate/PEG 4000 (18/2.0/0.5/1.2%) exhibited the appropriate gelation temperature, acceptable drug release rate and rectal retention at the administration site. Furthermore, the micrographic results showed that in situ gel, given at the dose of 20mg/kg, was safe for no mucosa irritation. In addition, it resulted in significantly higher initial serum concentrations, C(max) and AUC of NM compared to the solid suppository. PMID:22503953

  8. Rectal Prolapse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rectal Prolapse Rectal Prolapse Rectal Prolapse | ASCRS Jeffrey J. Morken, MD OVERVIEW This patient education piece is ... Beck, D. E., Roberts, P. L., Saclarides, T. J., Senagore, A. J., Stamos, M. J., Wexner, S. D., ...

  9. Development of Suppositories Containing Flutamide-Loaded Alginate-Tamarind Microparticles for Rectal Administration: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bharati Shivajirao; Mahajan, Hitendra Shaligram; Surana, Sanjay Javerilal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work the absorption of flutamide from suppositories containing hydrophilic tamarind alginate microparticles after rectal administration in rats was investigated with the purpose of enhancing bioavailability and to avoid hepatic toxicity. Microparticles were developed by ionic gelation method and optimized using one factorial design of response surface methodology. The optimized batch of microparticles had tamarind gum-sodium alginate (1?:?3) ratio and showed entrapment efficiency 94.969% and mucoadhesion strength 94.646% with desirability of 0.961. Suppositories loaded with microparticles were developed by fusion method using poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 in combination as suppository base. Kinetic analysis of the release data of microparticle-loaded suppositories showed time-independent release of drug. Higher values of 'n' (>0.89) represent Super Case II-type drug release. The pharmacokinetics of flutamide from flutamide tamarind alginate microparticle-loaded suppository were compared with oral suspension. Cmax of microparticle-loaded suppository was significantly larger than that of oral suspension (1.711 and 0.859?g/mL, respectively). PMID:26521849

  10. Morphine Rectal

    MedlinePLUS

    Rectal morphine is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Rectal morphine comes as a suppository to insert in the rectum. It is usually inserted every 4 hours. Use ...

  11. Clearance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in calves by rectal administration of bovine lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Kieckens, E; Rybarczyk, J; De Zutter, L; Duchateau, L; Vanrompay, D; Cox, E

    2015-03-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains, of which E. coli O157:H7 is the best-studied serotype, are an important group of foodborne pathogens causing severe illness in humans worldwide. The main reservoirs for EHEC are ruminants, mostly cattle, which harbor the bacteria in their intestinal tracts without showing clinical symptoms. In this study, we used bovine lactoferrin, a natural occurring bactericidal and immunomodulating protein, as an antibacterial agent against EHEC infection in cattle. Nine 3-month-old Holstein-Friesian calves were experimentally infected with EHEC (strain NCTC12900). Three animals received a daily rectal spray treatment with bovine lactoferrin, three animals received an oral treatment, and three animals served as a control group. Blood samples were collected weekly and fecal samples twice weekly to monitor antibody responses and fecal excretion, respectively. Animals in the rectal group ceased shedding within 26 days of the experimental treatment and remained negative. This beneficial effect of bovine lactoferrin was not observed in the oral group, where animals were still shedding at the time of euthanasia (day 61). All groups developed serum responses, but no clear differences could be observed between the groups. However, the results indicate that the use of bovine lactoferrin as a rectal treatment can be a useful strategy to preclude further transmission of EHEC infections from cattle to humans. PMID:25527551

  12. Rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Benson, Al B; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Chan, Emily; Chen, Yi-Jen; Choti, Michael A; Cooper, Harry S; Engstrom, Paul F; Enzinger, Peter C; Fakih, Marwan G; Fuchs, Charles S; Grem, Jean L; Hunt, Steven; Leong, Lucille A; Lin, Edward; Martin, Michael G; May, Kilian Salerno; Mulcahy, Mary F; Murphy, Kate; Rohren, Eric; Ryan, David P; Saltz, Leonard; Sharma, Sunil; Shibata, David; Skibber, John M; Small, William; Sofocleous, Constantinos T; Venook, Alan P; Willett, Christopher G; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A; Gregory, Kristina M

    2012-12-01

    These NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology provide recommendations for the management of rectal cancer, beginning with the clinical presentation of the patient to the primary care physician or gastroenterologist through diagnosis, pathologic staging, neoadjuvant treatment, surgical management, adjuvant treatment, surveillance, management of recurrent and metastatic disease, and survivorship. This discussion focuses on localized disease. The NCCN Rectal Cancer Panel believes that a multidisciplinary approach, including representation from gastroenterology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology, and radiology, is necessary for treating patients with rectal cancer. PMID:23221790

  13. Rectal Hyposensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Burgell, Rebecca E

    2012-01-01

    Impaired or blunted rectal sensation, termed rectal hyposensitivity (RH), which is defined clinically as elevated sensory thresholds to rectal balloon distension, is associated with disorders of hindgut function, characterised primarily by symptoms of constipation and fecal incontinence. However, its role in symptom generation and the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the sensory dysfunction remain incompletely understood, although there is evidence that RH may be due to 'primary' disruption of the afferent pathway, 'secondary' to abnormal rectal biomechanics, or to both. Nevertheless, correction of RH by various interventions (behavioural, neuromodulation, surgical) is associated with, and may be responsible for, symptomatic improvement. This review provides a contemporary overview of RH, focusing on diagnosis, clinical associations, pathophysiology, and treatment paradigms. PMID:23105997

  14. Immunoscore in Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-28

    Cancer of the Rectum; Neoplasms, Rectal; Rectal Cancer; Rectal Tumors; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Melanoma; Breast Cancer; Renal Cell Cancer; Lung Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Thyroid Cancer

  15. Rectal lymphoscintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, L.; Salfi, R.; Meraviglia, F.; Mazzeo, F.

    1984-06-01

    Regional lymph nodes of the rectum are not demonstrable by pedal lymphoscintigraphy. The authors have evaluated the technique of rectal lymphoscintigraphy, using a technique similar to that which has been used in the assessment of lymph nodes in breast and prostatic cancer. Thirty-five patients were studied: ten normal subjects and 25 patients with rectal cancer. In normal subjects, the lymph nodes accompanying the superior hemorrhoidal artery and the inferior mesenteric artery are demonstrable in succession; after three hours the aortic lymph nodes are demonstrable. The 25 patients with rectal cancer underwent resection of their primary tumor and the stage was defined according to Dukes (1932). In five patients (stage A) no alteration was demonstrable. In 11 patients (stage B) the demonstration of regional lymph nodes was delayed vs. the control group. In nine cases (stage C) the demonstration of regional lymph nodes was delayed and defective versus the control group.

  16. Diazepam Rectal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gel:Put the person having seizures on his/her side in a place where he/she cannot fall. Remove the protective cover from the syringe by pushing it up with your thumb and then pulling it off. Put lubricating jelly on the rectal tip. Turn the person on his/her side facing you, bend his/her upper leg ...

  17. [Rectal prolapse].

    PubMed

    Christen, D

    1997-04-01

    Rectal prolapse is the transposition of the entire rectal wall into the rectal lumen, the anal canal or through the anal canal out side. It differs from anal prolapse in thickness, circular plication of the mucosa and, if large, its extent. The cause is not clearly established, but disorders in bowel movement seem to be of importance. Symptoms reach from the feeling of incomplete evacuation to defecation block and irreducible prolapse. The diagnosis of outer prolapse is easy. The inner prolapse [intussusception] can be suspected by anamnesis and in the presence of solitary rectal ulcer. Defecography gives the conclusive examination. Conservative therapy is analogous to hemorrhoids: Fibres and sufficient liquid intake. Operative procedures can be divided in transabdominal and perineal procedures. From the latter Delorme's procedure gives good results with low stress for the patient. Of the transabdominal procedures we favor rectopexy with Ivalon-sponge, preservation of the lateral bands and sigmoid resection. This procedure can easily be done by laparoscopy. Postoperative constipation is observed above all if the lateral bands are dissected and no sigmoid resection is done. Preexistent constipation Improves in about 50% of the cases. Same does incontinence. PMID:9221542

  18. Bisacodyl Rectal

    MedlinePLUS

    Bisacodyl Uniserts ... Fleet Bisacodyl Enema ... Rectal bisacodyl is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation. It also is used to empty the bowels before surgery and certain medical procedures. Bisacodyl is in a class of medications called stimulant ...

  19. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  20. Digital rectal exam

    MedlinePLUS

    A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower rectum. The doctor uses a gloved, lubricated finger to ... or other changes of the prostate gland. A digital rectal exam may be done to collect stool ...

  1. Current Concepts in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fleshman, James W.; Smallwood, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The history of rectal cancer management informs current therapy and points us in the direction of future improvements. Multidisciplinary team management of rectal cancer will move us to personalized treatment for individuals with rectal cancer in all stages. PMID:25733968

  2. Effect of surface chemistry on nanoparticle interaction with gastrointestinal mucus and distribution in the gastrointestinal tract following oral and rectal administration in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Maisel, Katharina; Ensign, Laura; Reddy, Mihika; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2015-01-10

    It is believed that mucoadhesive surface properties on particles delivered to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract improve oral absorption or local targeting of various difficult-to-deliver drug classes. To test the effect of nanoparticle mucoadhesion on distribution of nanoparticles in the GI tract, we orally and rectally administered nano- and microparticles that we confirmed possessed surfaces that were either strongly mucoadhesive or non-mucoadhesive. We found that mucoadhesive particles (MAP) aggregated in mucus in the center of the GI lumen, far away from the absorptive epithelium, both in healthy mice and in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis (UC). In striking contrast, water absorption by the GI tract rapidly and uniformly transported non-mucoadhesive mucus-penetrating particles (MPP) to epithelial surfaces, including reaching the surfaces between villi in the small intestine. When using high gavage fluid volumes or injection into ligated intestinal loops, common methods for assessing oral drug and nanoparticle absorption, we found that both MAP and MPP became well-distributed throughout the intestine, indicating that the barrier properties of GI mucus were compromised. In the mouse colorectum, MPP penetrated into mucus in the deeply in-folded surfaces to evenly coat the entire epithelial surface. Moreover, in a mouse model of UC, MPP were transported preferentially into the disrupted, ulcerated tissue. Our results suggest that delivering drugs in non-mucoadhesive MPP is likely to provide enhanced particle distribution, and thus drug delivery, in the GI tract, including to ulcerated tissues. PMID:25449804

  3. Effect of surface chemistry on nanoparticle interaction with gastrointestinal mucus and distribution in the gastrointestinal tract following oral and rectal administration in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Maisel, Katharina; Ensign, Laura; Reddy, Mihika; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2014-01-01

    It is believed that mucoadhesive surface properties on particles delivered to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract improve oral absorption or local targeting of various difficult-to-deliver drug classes. To test the effect of nanoparticle mucoadhesion on distribution of nanoparticles in the GI tract, we orally and rectally administered nano- and microparticles that we confirmed possessed surfaces that were either strongly mucoadhesive or non-mucoadhesive. We found that mucoadhesive particles (MAP) aggregated in mucus in the center of the GI lumen, far away from the absorptive epithelium, both in healthy mice and in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis (UC). In striking contrast, water absorption by the GI tract rapidly and uniformly transported non-mucoadhesive mucus-penetrating particles (MPP) to epithelial surfaces, including reaching the surfaces between villi in the small intestine. When using high gavage fluid volumes or injection into ligated intestinal loops, common methods for assessing oral drug and nanoparticle absorption, we found that both MAP and MPP became well-distributed throughout the intestine, indicating that the barrier properties of GI mucus were compromised. In the mouse colorectum, MPP penetrated into mucus in the deeply in-folded surfaces to evenly coat the entire epithelial surface. Moreover, in a mouse model of UC, MPP were transported preferentially into the disrupted, ulcerated tissue. Our results suggest that delivering drugs in non-mucoadhesive MPP is likely to provide enhanced particle distribution, and thus drug delivery, in the GI tract, including to ulcerated tissues. PMID:25449804

  4. Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Program Screen4coloncancer.org About Colonoscopy Facts About Common Colon Cancer Screening Tests PATIENTS Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding What ... minor or not, can be a symptom of colon cancer, a type of cancer that can be cured ...

  5. Rectal culture (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

  6. Rectal cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Mohammad Sadegh; Keramati, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Rectal cancer is the second most common cancer in large intestine. The prevalence and the number of young patients diagnosed with rectal cancer have made it as one of the major health problems in the world. With regard to the improved access to and use of modern screening tools, a number of new cases are diagnosed each year. Considering the location of the rectum and its adjacent organs, management and treatment of rectal tumor is different from tumors located in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract or even the colon. In this article, we will review the current updates on rectal cancer including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, screening, and staging. Diagnostic methods and latest treatment modalities and approaches will also be discussed in detail. PMID:26034724

  7. Rectal diverticulitis mimicking rectal carcinoma with intestinal obstruction: case report.

    PubMed

    zelik, mit; Bircan, Hseyin Yce; Eren, Eryi?it; Demiralay, Ebru; I??klar, ?clal; Demira?, Alp; Moray, Gkhan

    2015-01-01

    Although diverticular disease of the colon is common, the occurrence of rectal diverticula is extremely rare with only sporadic reports in the literature since 1911. Symptomatic rectal diverticula are seen even less frequently, and surgical intervention is needed for only complicated cases. Here we report the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with rectal diverticulitis mimicking rectal carcinoma with intestinal obstruction. PMID:25698274

  8. Bioavailabilities of rectal and oral methadone in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ola; Sheffels, Pamela; Kharasch, Evan D

    2004-01-01

    Aims Rectal administration of methadone may be an alternative to intravenous and oral dosing in cancer pain, but the bioavailability of the rectal route is not known. The aim of this study was to compare the absolute rectal bioavailability of methadone with its oral bioavailability in healthy humans. Methods Seven healthy subjects (six males, one female, aged 2039 years) received 10 mg d5-methadone-HCl rectally (5 ml in 20% glycofurol) together with either d0-methadone intravenously (5 mg) or orally (10 mg) on two separate occasions. Blood samples for the LC-MS analyses of methadone and it's metabolite EDDP were drawn for up to 96 h. Noninvasive infrared pupillometry was peformed at the same time as blood sampling. Results The mean absolute rectal bioavalability of methadone was 0.76 (0.7, 0.81), compared to 0.86 (0.75, 0.97) for oral administration (mean (95% CI)). Rectal absorption of methadone was more rapid than after oral dosing with Tmax values of 1.4 (0.9, 1.8) vs. 2.8 (1.6, 4.0) h. The extent of formation of the metabolite EDDP did not differ between routes of administration. Single doses of methadone had a duration of action of at least 10 h and were well tolerated. Conclusions Rectal administration of methadone results in rapid absorption, a high bioavailability and long duration of action. No evidence of presystemic elimination was seen. Rectal methadone has characteristics that make it a potential alternative to intravenous and oral administration, particularly in cancer pain and palliative care. PMID:15255797

  9. Rectal Microbicide Development

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    The last few years have seen important progress in demonstrating the efficacy of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, vaginal microbicides, and treatment as prevention as effective strategies for reducing the risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV infection. There has also been significant progress in the development of rectal microbicides. Preclinical non-human primate studies have demonstrated that antiretroviral microbicides can provide significant protection from rectal challenge with SIV or SHIV. Recent Phase 1 rectal microbicide studies have characterized the safety, acceptability, compartmental pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmaco-dynamics (PD) of both UC781 and tenofovir gels. The tenofovir gel formulation used in vaginal studies was not well tolerated in the rectum and newer rectal-specific formulations have been developed and evaluated in Phase 1 studies. The PK/PD data generated in these Phase 1 studies may reduce the risk of advancing ineffective candidate rectal microbicides into late stage development. Tenofovir gel is currently poised to move into Phase 2 evaluation and it is possible that a Phase 2B/3 effectiveness study with this product could be initiated in the next 23 years. PMID:23612991

  10. Intramuscular and rectal therapies of acute seizures.

    PubMed

    Leppik, Ilo E; Patel, Sima I

    2015-08-01

    The intramuscular (IM) and rectal routes are alternative routes of delivery for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) when the intravenous route is not practical or possible. For treatment of acute seizures, the AED used should have a short time to maximum concentration (Tmax). Some AEDs have preparations that may be given intramuscularly. These include the benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam) and others (fosphenytoin, levetiracetam). Although phenytoin and valproate have parenteral preparations, these should not be given intramuscularly. A recent study of prehospital treatment of status epilepticus evaluated a midazolam (MDZ) autoinjector delivering IM drug compared to IV lorazepam (LZP). Seizures were absent on arrival to the emergency department in 73.4% of the IM MDZ compared to a 63.4% response in LZP-treated subjects (p < 0.001 for superiority). Almost all AEDs have been evaluated for rectal administration as solutions, gels, and suppositories. In a placebo-controlled study, diazepam (DZP) was administered at home by caregivers in doses that ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg. Diazepam was superior to placebo in reduced seizure frequency in children (p < 0.001) and in adults (p = 0.02) and time to recurrent seizures after an initial treatment (p < 0.001). Thus, at this time, only MZD given intramuscularly and DZP given rectally appear to have the properties required for rapid enough absorption to be useful when intravenous routes are not possible. Some drugs cannot be administered rectally owing to factors such as poor absorption or poor solubility in aqueous solutions. The relative rectal bioavailability of gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, and phenytoin is so low that the current formulations are not considered to be suitable for administration by this route. When administered as a solution, diazepam is rapidly absorbed rectally, reaching the Tmax within 5-20 min in children. By contrast, rectal administration of lorazepam is relatively slow, with a Tmax of 1-2h. The dependence of gabapentin on an active transport system, and the much-reduced surface area of the rectum compared with the small intestine, may be responsible for its lack of absorption from the rectum. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". PMID:26071998

  11. 75 FR 51080 - Determination That DIASTAT (Diazepam Rectal Gel), 5 Milligrams/Milliliter, 10 Milligrams/2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That DIASTAT (Diazepam Rectal Gel), 5... (diazepam rectal gel) (DIASTAT), 5 milligrams (mg)/milliliter (mL), 10 mg/2 mL, 15 mg/3 mL, and 20 mg/4 mL... to approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for diazepam rectal gel, 5 mg/mL, 10 mg/2 mL,...

  12. Administration

    Cancer.gov

    Overview The Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory (CGR) Administrative team is responsible for the support of all staff and operational requirements for the laboratory. With approximately 50 staff members to support this team covers a wide breadth of

  13. Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kowalski, Grzegorz; Łuczak, Jacek; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Sopata, Maciej; Główka, Franciszek

    2014-01-01

    Background Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III “pain ladder” drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient’s refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures), and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal) on the bupivacaine plasma concentration. Cases We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours). The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 mL every 4.5–11 hours). Methods Total bupivacaine plasma concentrations were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. Results Effective pain control was achieved with intrathecal bupivacaine (0.077–0.154 mg·kg−1) and bupivacaine in enema (1.820 mg·kg−1). Intrathecal bupivacaine (0.5%, 2 mL) caused a drop in blood pressure; other side effects were absent in both cases. Total plasma bupivacaine concentrations following intrathecal and rectal bupivacaine application did not exceed 317.2 ng·mL−1 and 235.7 ng·mL−1, respectively. Bupivacaine elimination was slower after rectal than after intrathecal administration (t½= 5.50 versus 2.02 hours, respectively). Limitations This study reports two cases only, and there could be inter-patient variation. Conclusion Bupivacaine in boluses administered intrathecally (0.25%, 2 mL) provided effective, safe analgesia in advanced cancer patients. Bupivacaine enema (100 mg·100 mL−1) was shown to be a valuable option for control of end-of-life tenesmoid cancer pain. PMID:25336967

  14. Rectal Diclofenac Versus Rectal Paracetamol: Comparison of Antipyretic Effectiveness in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Haji Rezaei, Mostafa; Aalinezhad, Marzieh; Sarami, Golbahareh; Rangraz, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is the most common complaint in pediatric medicine and its treatment is recommended in some situations. Paracetamol is the most common antipyretic drug, which has serious side effects such as toxicity along with its positive effects. Diclofenac is one of the strongest non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs, which has received little attention as an antipyretic drug. Objectives This study was designed to compare the antipyretic effectiveness of the rectal form of Paracetamol and Diclofenac. Patients and Methods This double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 80 children aged six months to six years old. One group was treated with rectal Paracetamol suppositories at 15 mg/kg dose and the other group received Diclofenac at 1 mg/kg by rectal administration (n = 40). Rectal temperature was measured before and one hour after the intervention. Temperature changes in the two groups were compared. Results The average rectal temperature in the Paracetamol group was 39.6 ± 1.13°C, and 39.82 ± 1.07°C in the Diclofenac group (P = 0.37). The average rectal temperature, one hour after the intervention, in the Paracetamol and the Diclofenac group was 38.39 ± 0.89°C and 38.95 ± 1.09°C, respectively (P = 0.02). Average temperature changes were 0.65 ± 0.17°C in the Paracetamol group and 1.73 ± 0.69°C in the Diclofenac group (P < 0.001). Conclusions In the first one hour, Diclofenac suppository is able to control the fever more efficient than Paracetamol suppositories. PMID:26889398

  15. Rectal prolapse in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Van Heest, R; Jones, S; Giacomantonio, M

    2004-04-01

    Rectal prolapse in children is not uncommon, but surgery is rarely indicated. In mentally challenged adults and children, rectal prolapse occurs more frequently than in the general population and often requires surgical intervention in the second to third decade of life. The authors describe 3 children with autism and mental retardation who presented with rectal prolapse at an earlier age than would be anticipated with mental retardation alone. All 3 children required surgical intervention. PMID:15065049

  16. Rectal fluconazole for tinea capitis

    PubMed Central

    Pernica, Jeffrey M; Dayneka, Natalie; Hui, Charles PS

    2009-01-01

    The present report describes a case of tinea capitis in a boy with autistic spectrum disorder and an aversion to oral medications. He refused weekly oral fluconazole and there was a poor response to daily rectal griseofulvin. He tolerated once-weekly rectal fluconazole (10 mg/kg) well and there was an excellent clinical outcome. PMID:21037831

  17. [Rectal hemorrhage in adults].

    PubMed

    Sirakov, P

    1983-01-01

    Two hundred thirty two patients, aged over 50, were examined, that were consulted with a view to rectal hemorrhage. After the analysis of the results obtained the author established that the causes of the rectal hemorrhage were: Tumours of colon--in 40,5 per cent, 64 per cent of them with cancer of colon. Diseases of sphincter region--in 44,9 per cent (anal fissure in 12,5 per cent; erosive and ulcerous sphincteritis--in 16,9 per cent; internal and external hemorrhoids--in 15,5 per cent). Ulcerous and erosive colitis--in 10,6 per cent, etc. The group of the sixth decade was underlined to be most affected--in 48,5 per cent. The localization of the tumours from the anorectal line up to 30 cm--is in 84 per cent and over 30 cm--in 16%. It is stressed that the presence of blood in feces, demands, without delay, the elucidation of the etiology of the hemorrhage. PMID:6608829

  18. Rectal Microbicide Development

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Individuals practicing unprotected receptive anal intercourse are at particularly high risk of HIV infection. Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the developed and developing world continue to have disproportionate and increasing levels of HIV infection. The last few years have seen important progress in demonstrating the efficacy of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), vaginal microbicides, and treatment as prevention but there has also been significant progress in the development of rectal microbicides (RM). The purpose of this review is to summarize the status of RM research and to identify opportunities, challenges, and future directions in this important field of HIV prevention. Recent findings Recent Phase 1 RM studies have characterized the safety, acceptability, compartmental pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of both UC781 and tenofovir gels. The tenofovir gel formulation used in vaginal studies was not well tolerated in the rectum and newer rectal specific formulations have been developed and evaluated in Phase 1 studies. Summary Complex Phase 1 studies have provided important data on candidate RMs. Tenofovir gel is poised to move into Phase 2 evaluation and it is possible that a Phase 2B/3 effectiveness study could be initiated in the next 23 years. PMID:23032732

  19. Proctoclysis: emergency rectal fluid infusion.

    PubMed

    Tremayne, Vincent

    This article describes the use and effectiveness of proctoclysis (rectal fluid infusion) in providing fluid resuscitation in the absence of intravenous access in rural and remote environments. PMID:19856644

  20. Locally aggressive colonic and rectal cancer--clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Radu, Victor; Ion, Daniel; Serban, Mihai Bogdan; Ciurea, Mircea

    2010-01-01

    This clinical trial studies local invasions from primary colonic and rectal cancers (urinary bladder, abdominal wall, small bowls, uterus, vagina, stomach, bile tract, spleen, duodenum, pancreas, ureters, kidneys), with or without undiscovered metastasis. Primary locally aggressive colonic and rectal cancers include tumors that are staged T4N1-2Mx on diagnosis, and are often associated with a lower prognosis than earlier cancers. Diagnosis is based on thorough clinical evaluation, imagistic support: abdominal XR with contrast (barium enema), colonoscopy, abdominal and pelvic ultrasound exam, endoscopic endolumenal ultrasound exam, abdominal and pelvic CT/IRM with contrast (administrated both orally and intravenously), PET Scan, and intra-operatory confirmation. The primary symptom was pain. Locally aggressive colonic and rectal cancers, primary or secondary, can extend to any visceral or parietal structure. The ability to perform a total resection is based upon anatomical localization and on the fixation of other organs to the lesion. Identifying the anatomical extension provides a better appreciation of the purpose of the tumoral resection. Radical nuanced surgery is the base of treatment of the locally aggressive colon-rectal cancer. The studies have shown that in certain localizations of the colon-rectal cancer, the locally aggressive forms can be better controlled by using multimodal therapy, including radiotherapy, either external or guided intraoperatory radiotherapy and chemotherapy with much better results. PMID:20945823

  1. Rectal hydrocortisone during stress in patients with adrenal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    De Vroede, M; Beukering, R; Spit, M; Jansen, M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVEPatients with glucocorticoid deficiency need lifelong glucocorticoid replacement treatment. During acute stressful events, steroid dosage must be increased several times, which is often problematical in children. This study investigated the reliability of rectal hydrocortisone administration as an alternative to the intramuscular route.?STUDY DESIGNSerum cortisol was assessed during stress in normal children to determine the concentration that should be achieved after rectal hydrocortisone. Subsequently, serum cortisol concentrations were measured three hours after administering a suppository containing hydrocortisone 100 mg/m2 to 57 patients with adrenocortical insufficiency. In eight patients, the time dependency of the cortisol rise after rectal administration was established.?RESULTSIn 51 previously healthy children admitted to hospital with an acute stressful condition, the mean serum cortisol concentration was 1092 nmol/l. Rectal hydrocortisone in patients with adrenocortical insufficiency resulted in a mean serum cortisol concentration of 1212 nmol/l three hours after insertion of the suppository containing hydrocortisone. In 14 of 57 children, serum cortisol was < 1000 nmol/l and in eight children it was below 600 nmol/l. One hour after administration, the mean cortisol concentration had reached 1000 nmol/l. This was sustained for more than four hours.?CONCLUSIONRectal hydrocortisone is a safe alternative to parenteral administration in the self management of Addisonian prone conditions. However, because eight of 57 children did not achieve concentrations > 600 nmol/l, its use is recommended only after previously documenting an adequate serum cortisol concentration three hours after receiving a test dose.?? PMID:9713011

  2. Chemoradiation of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Arrazubi, V; Suárez, J; Novas, P; Pérez-Hoyos, M T; Vera, R; Martínez Del Prado, P

    2013-02-01

    The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is a challenge. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy comprise the multimodal therapy that is administered in most cases. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is required. Because this cancer has a high rate of local recurrence, efforts have been made to improve clinical outcomes while minimizing toxicity and maintaining quality of life. Thus, total mesorectal excision technique was developed as the standard surgery, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been established as neoadjuvant treatment. Both approaches reduce locoregional relapse. Two neoadjuvant treatments have emerged as standards of care: short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiotherapy with fluoropyrimidines; however, long-course chemoradiotherapy might be more appropriate for low-lying neoplasias, bulky tumours or tumours with near-circumferential margins. If neoadjuvant treatment is not administered and locally advanced stage is demonstrated in surgical specimens, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is recommended. The addition of chemotherapy to the treatment regimen confers a significant benefit. Adjuvant chemotherapy is widely accepted despite scarce evidence of its benefit. The optimal time for surgery after neoadjuvant therapy, the treatment of low-risk T3N0 neoplasms, the convenience of avoiding radiotherapy in some cases and tailoring treatment to pathological response have been recurrent subjects of debate that warrant more extensive research. Adding new drugs, changing the treatment sequence and selecting the treatment based on prognostic or predictive factors other than stage remain experimental. PMID:23584263

  3. [Anterior rectal duplication. Value of ultrasonic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Trguier, C; Montagne, C; Gandon, Y; Langanay, T; Frmond, B; Babut, J M; Carsin, M

    1990-01-01

    A case of neonatal anterior rectal duplication is reported. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a prerectal cystic mass. The different types of rectal duplications and the main differential diagnosis are described. Mechanical obstruction and neoplastic risk make early surgery necessary. PMID:2181959

  4. Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-09

    Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  5. Rectal duplication with sciatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Nosek, Marzena; Golonka, Anna; Kali?ska-Lipert, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Rectal duplications represent 5% of all duplications in the alimentary tract, and they are very rarely diagnosed during the neonatal period. The authors present the method of investigation and the results of surgical treatment of a full-term neonate with a sciatic hernia containing a rectal duplication. The procedure started with three-port laparoscopy, but excision of the tubular duplication of the rectum was possible only by a transanal endorectal pull-through approach. The sciatic hernia was closed, and plastic sutures on the buttock finished the procedure. The coincidence of sciatic hernia with rectal duplication is extremely rare, and the method of treatment depends exclusively on the anatomical conditions. PMID:26240629

  6. Operative treatment of rectal endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Ruponen, S; Taina, E

    1978-01-01

    27 patients with rectal endometriosis were operated upon in Turku University Central Hospital in 1967-1976. The main symptom was defecation pain especially during menstruation. Eighteen patients had had previous surgery for endometriosis of the pelvic area. A palpable tumor was found on gynaecological examination in every patient. The tumors did not grow through the rectal wall. Three kinds of operative procedures were applied (a simple excision method, a so called "window" operation, and resection of rectum) and the results were good. PMID:665175

  7. [Solitary rectal ulcer: a case review].

    PubMed

    Salazar Ventura, Sonia; Ramos Barrientos, Milko

    2002-01-01

    A case of a 14-year-old male patient is reported, diagnosed with solitary rectal ulcer syndrome and showing rectal bleeding and pain, excessive straining and tenesmus as main symptoms. Rectal ulcerous lesion was detected through endoscopy and its definitive diagnosis was established by biopsy. Typical histology, clinical history and endoscopic appearance distinguish solitary rectal ulcer from other rectal ulcer-associated etiology. Because this is less frequent pathology and there are no national reports on the same, this case has been reported and a revision of literature made accordingly. PMID:12098747

  8. Overview of Radiation Therapy for Treating Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kye, Bong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    A major outcome of importance for rectal cancer is local control. Parallel to improvements in surgical technique, adjuvant therapy regimens have been tested in clinical trials in an effort to reduce the local recurrence rate. Nowadays, the local recurrence rate has been reduced because of both good surgical techniques and the addition of radiotherapy. Based on recent reports in the literature, preoperative chemoradiotherapy is now considered the standard of care for patients with stages II and III rectal cancer. Also, short-course radiotherapy appears to provide effective local control and the same overall survival as more long-course chemoradiotherapy schedules and, therefore, may be an appropriate choice in some situations. Capecitabine is an acceptable alternative to infusion fluorouracil in those patients who are able to manage the responsibilities inherent in self-administered, oral chemotherapy. However, concurrent administration of oxaliplatin and radiotherapy is not recommended at this time. Radiation therapy has long been considered an important adjunct in the treatment of rectal cancer. Although no prospective data exist for several issues, we hope that in the near future, patients with rectal cancer can be treated by using the best combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy in near future. PMID:25210685

  9. Rectal microbicides: clinically relevant approach to the design of rectal specific placebo formulations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to identify the critical formulation parameters controlling distribution and function for the rectal administration of microbicides in humans. Four placebo formulations were designed with a wide range of hydrophilic characteristics (aqueous to lipid) and rheological properties (Newtonian, shear thinning, thermal sensitive and thixotropic). Aqueous formulations using typical polymers to control viscosity were iso-osmotic and buffered to pH 7. Lipid formulations were developed from lipid solvent/lipid gelling agent binary mixtures. Testing included pharmaceutical function and stability as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Results The aqueous fluid placebo, based on poloxamer, was fluid at room temperature, thickened and became shear thinning at 37C. The aqueous gel placebo used carbopol as the gelling agent, was shear thinning at room temperature and showed a typical decrease in viscosity with an increase in temperature. The lipid fluid placebo, myristyl myristate in isopropyl myristate, was relatively thin and temperature independent. The lipid gel placebo, glyceryl stearate and PEG-75 stearate in caprylic/capric triglycerides, was also shear thinning at both room temperature and 37C but with significant time dependency or thixotropy. All formulations showed no rectal irritation in rabbits and were non-toxic using an ex vivo rectal explant model. Conclusions Four placebo formulations ranging from fluid to gel in aqueous and lipid formats with a range of rheological properties were developed, tested, scaled-up, manufactured under cGMP conditions and enrolled in a formal stability program. Clinical testing of these formulations as placebos will serve as the basis for further microbicide formulation development with drug-containing products. PMID:21385339

  10. Chemoradiotherapy response in recurrent rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Stanley K T; Bhangu, Aneel; Tait, Diana M; Tekkis, Paris; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Brown, Gina

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in recurrent versus primary rectal cancer has not been investigated. We compared radiological downsizing between primary and recurrent rectal cancers following CRT and determined the optimal size reduction threshold for response validated by survival outcomes. The proportional change in tumor length for primary and recurrent rectal cancers following CRT was compared using the independent sample t-test. Overall survival (OS) was calculated using the KaplanMeier product limit method and differences between survival for tumor size reduction thresholds of 30% (response evaluation criteria in solid tumors [RECIST]), 40%, and 50% after CRT in primary and recurrent rectal cancer groups. A total of 385 patients undergoing CRT were analyzed, 99 with recurrent rectal cancer and 286 with primary rectal cancer. The mean proportional reduction in maximum craniocaudal length was significantly higher for primary rectal tumors (33%) compared with recurrent rectal cancer (11%) (P?rectal cancer when ?30% or ?40% definitions were used. However, for both primary and recurrent tumors, significant differences in median 3-year OS were observed when a RECIST cut-off of 50% was used. OS was 99% versus 77% in primary and 100% versus 42% in recurrent rectal cancer (P?=?0.002 and P?=?0.03, respectively). Only patients that demonstrated >50% size reduction showed a survival benefit. Recurrent rectal cancer appears radioresistant compared with primary tumors for tumor size after CRT. Further investigation into improving/intensifying chemotherapy and radiotherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer is justified. PMID:24403010

  11. Oil Red O-positive lipid in peritoneal fluid from a horse with a rectal tear.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer S; Johnson, Mark C; Sims, Will P; Boone, Lindsey H; Swor, Tamara M; Weeks, Bradley R

    2011-06-01

    A 4-year-old Quarter Horse mare was presented to the Texas A&M University Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for evaluation of a rectal tear. On initial evaluation, rectal palpation and colonoscopy revealed a grade IIIb rectal tear. Analysis of peritoneal fluid revealed a modified transudate. Preliminary supportive care included fluid therapy and mineral oil administration via nasogastric tube. Approximately 48 hours after presentation, a second abdominocentesis was performed, and cytologic examination of the fluid revealed a marked suppurative exudate. Round clear nonrefractile material observed within neutrophils and macrophages and in the background stained bright pink to red with Oil Red O, confirming the material as lipid, likely from leakage of mineral oil through the rectal tear. The condition of the mare deteriorated and euthanasia was elected due to the poor prognosis. At necropsy, gross and histologic findings included peritoneal effusion and a full-thickness rectal tear with transmural necrotizing pyogranulomatous colitis and fibrinous peritonitis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of Oil Red O-positive lipid vacuoles in the peritoneal fluid of a horse from presumed leakage of mineral oil through a transmural rectal perforation. The frequency of this occurrence in horses is unknown, but it is important for cytopathologists to be familiar with the appearance and significance of lipid-type droplets in phagocytic cells in cytologic fluid analysis specimens. PMID:21554369

  12. Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin Calcium, and Oxaliplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-24

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  13. Fournier gangrene: rare complication of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ossibi, Pierlesky Elion; Souiki, Tarik; Ibn Majdoub, Karim; Toughrai, Imane; Laalim, Said Ait; Mazaz, Khalid; Tenkorang, Somuah; Farih, My Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's Gangrene is a rare complication of rectal cancer. Its discovery is often delayed. It's incidence is about 0.3/100,000 populations in Western countries. We report a patient with peritoneal perforation of rectal cancer revealed by scrotal and perineal necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:26161211

  14. Fournier gangrene: rare complication of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ossibi, Pierlesky Elion; Souiki, Tarik; Majdoub, Karim Ibn; Toughrai, Imane; Laalim, Said Ait; Mazaz, Khalid; Tenkorang, Somuah; Farih, My Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's Gangrene is a rare complication of rectal cancer. Its discovery is often delayed. It's incidence is about 0.3/100 000 populations in Western countries. We report a patient with peritoneal perforation of rectal cancer revealed by scrotal and perineal necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:26161211

  15. Seminal vesicle-rectal fistula secondary to anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection for rectal cancer: a case report and brief literature review.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Masato; Hiraguri, Manabu; Maeda, Chika; Yoshiki, Mizukami; Horigome, Naoto; Kaneko, Gengo

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with seminal vesicle-rectal fistula, an extremely rare complication of low anterior resection of the rectum. A 53-year-old man with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent low anterior resection in our hospital. The patient experienced diarrhea, pneumaturia, and low-grade fever on postoperative day 13. A computed tomography scan showed emphysema in the right seminal vesicle. We concluded that anastomotic leakage induced a seminal vesicle-rectal fistula. The patient underwent conservative therapy with total parenteral nutrition and oral intake of metronidazole. Diarrhea and pneumaturia rapidly improved after metronidazole administration and the patient was successfully cured without invasive therapy such as colostomy or surgical drainage. A seminal vesicle-rectal fistula is a rare complication of low anterior resection, and therapeutic strategies for this condition remain elusive. Our report provides valuable information on the successful conservative treatment of a secondary seminal vesicle-rectal fistula that developed after low anterior resection of the rectum in a patient. PMID:24444264

  16. Mllerian Adenosarcoma Arising From Rectal Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunseok; Oh, Hoon Kyu

    2014-01-01

    A Mllerian adenosarcoma is an extremely rare tumor characterized by a stromal component of usually low-grade malignancy and by a benign glandular epithelial component. A Mllerian adenosarcoma occurs mainly in the uterus, but also in extrauterine locations. Extrauterine Mllerian adenosarcomas are thought to arise from endometriotic deposits. A 36-year-old female presented to Daegu Catholic University Medical Center with a symptom of loose stool for several months. The imaging studies revealed a rectal mass, so she underwent a laparoscopic low anterior resection. Although extemporary pathology revealed an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, the final histologic diagnosis was a Mllerian adenosarcoma arising from rectal endometriosis. To our knowledge, except a concomitant rectal villotubular adenoma, cases of Mllerian adenosarcomas arising the rectal wall are rare. An adenosarcoma arising from endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass, even one appearing in rectal wall, because ectopic endometrial tissue exists everywhere. PMID:25360431

  17. The emerging role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fakih, Marwan

    2014-01-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancer remains a substantial public health problem. Historically, the disease has been plagued by high rates of both distant and local recurrences. The standardization of pre-operative chemoradiation and transmesorectal excision (TME) have greatly lowered the rates of local recurrence. Efforts to improve treatment through use of more effective radiosensitizing therapies have proven unsuccessful in rectal cancer. Presently, due to improved local therapies, distal recurrences represent the dominant problem in this disease. Adjuvant chemotherapy is currently of established benefit in colorectal cancer. As such, adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin, represent the standard of care for many patients. However, after pre-operative chemoradiotherapy and rectal surgery, the administration of highly effective chemotherapy regimens has proven difficult. For this reason, novel neoadjuvant approaches represent appealing avenues for investigation. Strategies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation and neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by chemotherapy are under investigation. Initial encouraging results have been noted, though definitive phase III data is lacking. PMID:25276409

  18. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy and pathological complete response in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Linda; Fichera, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The management of rectal cancer has evolved significantly in the last few decades. Significant improvements in local disease control were achieved in the 1990s, with the introduction of total mesorectal excision and neoadjuvant radiotherapy. Level 1 evidence has shown that, with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) the rates of local recurrence can be lower than 6% and, as a result, neoadjuvant CRT currently represents the accepted standard of care. This approach has led to reliable tumor down-staging, with 1527% patients with a pathological complete response (pCR)defined as no residual cancer found on histological examination of the specimen. Patients who achieve pCR after CRT have better long-term outcomes, less risk of developing local or distal recurrence and improved survival. For all these reasons, sphincter-preserving procedures or organ-preserving options have been suggested, such as local excision of residual tumor or the omission of surgery altogether. Although local recurrence rate has been stable at 56% with this multidisciplinary management method, distal recurrence rates for locally-advanced rectal cancers remain in excess of 25% and represent the main cause of death in these patients. For this reason, more recent trials have been looking at the administration of full-dose systemic chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting (in order to offer early treatment of disseminated micrometastases, thus improving control of systemic disease) and selective use of radiotherapy only in non-responders or for low rectal tumors smaller than 5?cm. PMID:26290512

  19. Nonoperative management of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Torok, Jordan A; Palta, Manisha; Willett, Christopher G; Czito, Brian G

    2016-01-01

    Surgery has long been the primary curative modality for localized rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation has significantly improved local control rates and, in a significant minority, eradicated all disease. Patients who achieve a pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant therapy have an excellent prognosis, although the combination treatment is associated with long-term morbidity. Because of this, a nonoperative management (NOM) strategy has been pursued to preserve sphincter function in select patients. Clinical and radiographic findings are used to identify patients achieving a clinical complete response to chemoradiation, and they are then followed with intensive surveillance. Incomplete, nonresponding and those demonstrating local progression are referred for salvage with standard surgery. Habr-Gama and colleagues have published extensively on this treatment strategy and have laid the groundwork for this approach. This watch-and-wait strategy has evolved over time, and several groups have now reported their results, including recent prospective experiences. Although initial results appear promising, several significant challenges remain for NOM of rectal cancer. Further study is warranted before routine implementation in the clinic. Cancer 2016;122:34-41. 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26599064

  20. Genetic Mutations in Blood and Tissue Samples in Predicting Response to Treatment in Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-03

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  1. Transanal endoscopic surgery in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Serra-Aracil, Xavier; Mora-Lopez, Laura; Alcantara-Moral, Manel; Caro-Tarrago, Aleidis; Gomez-Diaz, Carlos Javier; Navarro-Soto, Salvador

    2014-09-01

    Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard treatment for rectal cancer, but complications are frequent and rates of morbidity, mortality and genitourinary alterations are high. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows preservation of the anal sphincters and, via its vision system through a rectoscope, allows access to rectal tumors located as far as 20 cm from the anal verge. The capacity of local surgery to cure rectal cancer depends on the risk of lymph node invasion. This means that correct preoperative staging of the rectal tumor is necessary. Currently, local surgery is indicated for rectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas invading the submucosa, but not beyond (T1). Here we describe the standard technique for TEM, the different types of equipment used, and the technical limitations of this approach. TEM to remove rectal adenoma should be performed in the same way as if the lesion were an adenocarcinoma, due to the high percentage of infiltrating adenocarcinomas in these lesions. In spite of the generally good results with T1, some authors have published surprisingly high recurrence rates; this is due to the existence of two types of lesions, tumors with good and poor prognosis, divided according to histological and surgical factors. The standard treatment for rectal adenocarcinoma T2N0M0 is TME without adjuvant therapy. In this type of adenocarcinoma, local surgery obtains the best results when complete pathological response has been achieved with previous chemoradiotherapy. The results with chemoradiotherapy and TEM are encouraging, but the scientific evidence remains limited at present. PMID:25206260

  2. PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-25

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  3. MRI staging of low rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Shihab, Oliver C; Moran, Brendan J; Heald, Richard J; Quirke, Philip; Brown, Gina

    2009-03-01

    Low rectal tumours, especially those treated by abdominoperineal excision (APE), have a high rate of margin involvement when compared with tumours elsewhere in the rectum. Correct surgical management to minimise this rate of margin involvement is reliant on highly accurate imaging, which can be used to plan the planes of excision. In this article we describe the techniques for accurate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment and a novel staging system for low rectal tumours. Using this staging system it is possible for the radiologist to demonstrate accurately tumour-free planes for surgical excision of low rectal tumours. PMID:18810451

  4. Isolated rectal diverticulum complicating with rectal prolapse and outlet obstruction: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuang-Wei; Jao, Shu-Wen; Lai, Huang-Jen; Chiu, Ying-Chun; Kang, Jung-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of rectal diverticula is very rare, with only sporadic reports in the literature since 1911. Symptomatic rectal diverticula are encountered even less frequently. Treatments of these complicated events range from conservative treatments to major surgical interventions. We present a hitherto unreported occurrence of isolated rectal diverticulum complicated with rectal prolapse and outlet obstruction. Delormes procedure resulted in subsidence of symptoms and resolution of the diverticulum. It provides a minimal invasive surgical technique to successfully address the reported malady. PMID:16437704

  5. Screening paediatric rectal forms of azithromycin as an alternative to oral or injectable treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kauss, Tina; Gaudin, Karen; Gaubert, Alexandra; Ba, Boubakar; Tagliaferri, Serena; Fawaz, Fawaz; Fabre, Jean-Louis; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Lafarge, Xavier; White, Nicholas J.; Olliaro, Piero L.; Millet, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a candidate formulation for further development of a home or near-home administrable paediatric rectal form of a broad-spectrum antibiotic specially intended for (emergency) use in tropical rural settings, in particular for children who cannot take medications orally and far from health facilities where injectable treatments can be given. Azithromycin, a broad-spectrum macrolide used orally or intravenously for the treatment of respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue infections, was selected because of its pharmacokinetic and therapeutic properties. Azithromycin in vitro solubility and stability in physiologically relevant conditions were studied. Various pharmaceutical forms, i.e. rectal suspension, two different rectal gels, polyethylene glycol (PEG) suppository and hard gelatin capsule (HGC) were assessed for in vitro dissolution and in vivo bioavailability in the rabbit. Azithromycin PEG suppository appears to be a promising candidate. PMID:22868232

  6. Low Rectal Cancer Study (MERCURY II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-11

    Adenocarcinoma; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Colorectal Neoplasms; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases; Rectal Diseases

  7. Comparison between Preoperative Rectal Diclofenac Plus Paracetamol and Diclofenac Alone for PostoperativePain of Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Samimi Sede, Saghar; Davari Tanha, Fateme; Valadan, Mehrnaz; Modaressi, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To detect whether the preoperative combined administration of rectal diclofenac and paracetamol is superior to placebo or rectal diclofenac alone for pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Materials and methods: Ninety female patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II), scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were recruited to this double blind trial and were randomized to receive one of three modalities before surgery: rectal combination of diclofenac and paracetamol, rectal diclofenac alone or rectal placebo alone which were given as a suppository one hour prior to surgery. The primary outcomes were visual analogue pain scores measured at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours after surgery and the time of first administration and also total amount of morphine used in the first 24 hour after surgery. A 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS ) was used to assess pain intensity at rest. Results: In patients receiving the combination of diclofenac and paracetamol total dose of morphine used in the first 24 hour after surgery was significantly lower (13.9 2.7 mg) compared to diclofenac group (16.8 2.8 mg) and placebo group (20.1 3.6 mg) (p<0.05). VAS pain score was significantly lower in combination group compared to other groups all time during first 24 hours (p<0.05). There had been a significant difference between combination group and the two other groups in terms of the first request of morphine (p<0.05). Conclusion: According to our study Patients who receive the rectal diclofenac-paracetamol combination experience significantly a lower pain scale in the first 24 hour after surgery compared with patients receiving diclofenac or placebo alone. Their need to supplementary analgesic is significantly later and lower compared to placebo and diclofenac alone. PMID:25628716

  8. Management of rectal varices in portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Al Khalloufi, Kawtar; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O

    2015-01-01

    Rectal varices are portosystemic collaterals that form as a complication of portal hypertension, their prevalence has been reported as high as 94% in patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. The diagnosis is typically based on lower endoscopy (colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy). However, endoscopic ultrasonography has been shown to be superior to endoscopy in diagnosing rectal varices. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a better method because it allows the calculation of the velocity of blood flow in the varices and can be used to predict the bleeding risk in the varices. Although rare, bleeding from rectal varices can be life threatening. The management of patients with rectal variceal bleeding is not well established. It is important to ensure hemodynamic stability with blood transfusion and to correct any coagulopathy prior to treating the bleeding varices. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy has been reported to be more effective in the management of active bleeding from rectal varices with less rebleeding rate as compared to endoscopic band ligation. Transjugular intrahepatic portsystemic shunt alone or in combination with embolization is another method used successfully in control of bleeding. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is an emerging procedure for management of gastric varices that has also been successfully used to treat bleeding rectal varices. Surgical procedures including suture ligation and porto-caval shunts are considered when other methods have failed. PMID:26730278

  9. Rectal Thermometer Remains Gold Standard for Spotting Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_155741.html Rectal Thermometer Remains Gold Standard for Spotting Fever Better than temperatures taken ... study authors explained. Rectal thermometers are considered the gold standard, the researchers said. But the accuracy of ...

  10. Management of rectal foreign bodies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Entrapped anorectal foreign bodies are being encountered more frequently in clinical practice. Although entrapped foreign bodies are most often related to sexual behavior, they can also result from ingestion or sexual assault. Methods Between 1999 and 2009, 15 patients with foreign bodies in the rectum were diagnosed and treated, at Izmir Training and Research Hospital, in Izmir. Information regarding the foreign body, clinical presentation, treatment strategies, and outcomes were documented. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of these unusual patients. Results All patients were males, and their mean age was 48 years (range, 3368 years). The objects in the rectum of these 15 patients were an impulse body spray can (4 patients), a bottle (4 patients), a dildo (2 patient), an eggplant (1 patient), a brush (1 patient), a tea glass (1 patient), a ball point pen (1 patient) and a wishbone (1 patient, after oral ingestion). Twelve objects were removed transanally by anal dilatation under general anesthesia. Three patients required laparotomy. Routine rectosigmoidoscopic examination was performed after removal. One patient had perforation of the rectosigmoid and 4 had lacerations of the mucosa. None of the patients died. Conclusions Foreign bodies in the rectum should be managed in a well-organized manner. The diagnosis is confirmed by plain abdominal radiographs and rectal examination. Manual extraction without anaesthesia is only possible for very low-lying objects. Patients with high- lying foreign bodies generally require general anaesthesia to achieve complete relaxation of the anal sphincters to facilitate extraction. Open surgery should be reserved only for patients with perforation, peritonitis, or impaction of the foreign body. PMID:23497492

  11. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Neil; Brown, Gina

    2008-01-01

    Detailed preoperative staging using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the selection of patients that require preoperative therapy for tumour regression. This information can be used to instigate neoadjuvant therapy in those patients with poor prognostic features prior to disturbing the tumour bed and potentially disseminating disease. The design of trials incorporating MR assessment of prognostic factors prior to therapy has been found to be of value in assessing treatment modalities and outcomes that are targeted to these preoperative prognostic subgroups and in providing a quantifiable assessment of the efficacy of particular chemoradiation treatment protocols by comparing pre-treatment MR staging with post therapy histology assessment. At present, we are focused on achieving clear surgical margins of excision (CRM) to avoid local recurrence. We recommend that all patients with rectal cancer should undergo pre-operative MRI staging. Of these, about half will have good prognosis features (T1-T3b, N0, EMVI negative, CRM clear) and may safely undergo primary total mesorectal excision. Of the remainder, those with threatened or involved margins will certainly benefit from pre-operative chemoradiotherapy with the aim of downstaging to permit safe surgical excision. In the future, our ability to recognise features predicting distant failure, such as extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) may be used to stratify patients for neo-adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in an effort to prevent distant relapse. The optimal pre-operative treatment regimes for these patients (radiotherapy alone, systemic chemotherapy alone or combination chemo-radiotherapy) is the subject of current and future trials. PMID:17957502

  12. The Great Pretender: Rectal Syphilis Mimic a Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pisani Ceretti, Andrea; Virdis, Matteo; Maroni, Nirvana; Arena, Monica; Masci, Enzo; Magenta, Alberto; Opocher, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Rectal syphilis is a rare expression of the widely recognised sexual transmitted disease, also known as the great imitator for its peculiarity of being confused with mild anorectal diseases because of its vague symptoms or believed rectal malignancy, with the concrete risk of overtreatment. We present the case of a male patient with primary rectal syphilis, firstly diagnosed as rectal cancer; the medical, radiological, and endoscopic features are discussed below. PMID:26451271

  13. Ischemic fecal incontinence and rectal angina.

    PubMed

    Devroede, G; Vobecky, S; Mass, S; Arhan, P; Lger, C; Duguay, C; Hmond, M

    1982-11-01

    In 36 patients who consulted for fecal incontinence or rectal pain, or both, there was grossly visible scarring of the rectum and biopsy revealed mucosal atrophy and fibrosis. A steal from the hemorrhoidal arteries to the iliac vessels was demonstrated in 3 subjects. Maximum tolerable volumes within a rectal balloon were smaller than in control subjects, both in men (192 vs. 273 ml) and in women (142 vs. 217 ml) (p less than 0.01). The rectoanal inhibitory reflex was abnormal in all but 1 patient. Specific abnormalities were a decreased amplitude or a prolonged duration of the reflex. It was totally absent in 2 patients. This study is compatible with the hypothesis that chronic ischemia of the rectum may cause fecal incontinence or rectal pain. PMID:7117809

  14. Management and imaging of low rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Gisella; Daniels, Ian; Heald, R J; Brown, Gina; Moran, B J

    2004-01-01

    Large variations in recurrence rates have been reported with the best results following total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery for low and middle rectal cancers. However, the low rectal cancers still have higher rates of local recurrence (up to 30%) whether operated by low anterior resection or abdominoperineal excision (APE) due to high rates of circumferential margin involvement. The treatment of choice for low rectal cancers that encroach upon the potential circumferential resection margin is surgery combined with preoperative neoadjuvant treatment. Preoperative chemotherapy combined with long-term radiotherapy reduces recurrence rates and preoperative loco-regional staging can help to select the patients more likely to benefit from neo-adjuvant therapy. Surface coil MRI is the most promising modality for patient selection, which can provide good views of the circumferential resection margin especially the presence or absence of tumour encroaching the intersphincteric plane. PMID:15572087

  15. Novel radiation techniques for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The concepts for management of rectal cancer have changed drastically over the past few years. Through national bowel cancer screening programmes in the Western countries and the increasing use of endoscopic procedures as diagnostic tool, there is increase in detection of rectal cancer in early stages. There is increase in ageing population worldwide but more so in Western countries. In addition, there is realisation of harm from extirpative surgical procedures which are directed towards managing advanced rectal cancer in the past. Increase in cost of health care burden has also led the investigators to seek alternative treatment options which are effective, safe and cost effective. There are several modern radiation techniques which fits this bill and we need to be aware of newer novel radiation techniques to fulfil this gap. PMID:24982769

  16. Neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Keisuke; Nagino, Masato

    2016-02-01

    We reviewed the history and the current status of neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) in Western countries and Japan. The introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME) and preoperative radiotherapy (RT) were treatment revolutions that resulted in improved local control after curative resection for rectal cancer. However, local relapses still occur, even in the era of TME, and remain a cause of recurrence worldwide. The high rate of distant metastasis after curative resection remains a problem. Furthermore, the introduction of newly developed cytotoxic agents into the LARC treatment strategy continues to be an ongoing challenge. Shifting part of an adjuvant chemotherapy (CTx) regimen to the preoperative period is a promising strategy. Currently, various novel methods, such as induction CTx, consolidation CTx, concomitant administration with RT, and neoadjuvant CTx without RT, have been attempted worldwide. Although some strategies have shown favorable short-term outcomes, the long-term efficacy of the treatments needs be evaluated. At the same time, we must investigate clinical and/or molecular biomarkers to predict the therapeutic effects of each treatment, which is the fastest route to providing ideal personalized therapy for patients with LARC. PMID:26170102

  17. Silicone elastomer sling for rectal prolapse in cats

    PubMed Central

    Corgozinho, Katia Baro; Belchior, Cristiane; de Souza, Heloisa Justen Moreira; Ferreira, Ana Maria; Resende, Carolina; Damico, Brando; Cunha, Simone

    2010-01-01

    This study reports 2 cases of recurrent rectal prolapse secondary to anal abnormality in cats. In both cases the anus was wide, leading to a rectal mucosal prolapse during defecation. A silicone elastomer sling was introduced around the anus, and the rectal prolapse was definitively resolved. PMID:20676293

  18. Transanal Approach to Rectal Polyps and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vinay; Mishra, Nitin

    2016-03-01

    A transanal approach to rectal polyp and cancer excision is often an appropriate alternative to conventional rectal resection, and has a lower associated morbidity. There has been a steady evolution in the techniques of transanal surgery over the past 30 years. It started with traditional transanal excision and was revolutionized by introduction of transanal endoscopic microsurgery in early 1980s. Introduction of transanal minimally invasive surgery made it more accessible to surgeons around the world. Now robotic platforms are being tried in certain institutions. Concerns have been raised about recurrence rates of cancers with transanal approach and success of subsequent salvage operations. PMID:26929754

  19. Recognition of Anterior Peritoneal Reflections and Their Relationship With Rectal Tumors Using Rectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yiqun, Sun; Tong, Tong; Fangqi, Liu; Sanjun, Cai; Chao, Xin; Yajia, Gu; Ye, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our goal was to explore the factors influencing the visualization of anterior peritoneal reflections (APRs) using rectal MRI. We evaluated the usefulness of rectal MRI in measuring the distance from the anal verge to the APR and determining the relationship between the APR and the rectal tumor. Clinical and imaging data from 319 patients who underwent surgery after MRI examination between October 2010 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The distance from the anal verge to the APR and the relationship between the APR and the location of the rectal tumor was evaluated. analysis of variance, logistic regression, independent samples t tests, and Kappa tests were used for statistical analysis. The APR was visible in 283 of 319 cases using rectal MRI. The APR was more readily observed in patients who were older than 58 years (P = 0.046), in patients whose subcutaneous fat thicknesses were >22.2 mm (P = 0.004), in patients with nondistended bladders (P = 0.001), and in those with an anteversion of the uterus (P = 0.001). There was a significant difference between the distance from the anal verge to the APR between females (10.4 ± 1.1 cm) and males (10.0 ± 1.2 cm; P = 0.014). The accuracy in predicting tumor location with respect to the APR was 70%, 50%, 98.2%, respectively for patients with tumors located above, at, and below the APR (compared with the location determined during surgery). Most of the APRs were visible using rectal MRI, whereas certain internal factors influence visualization. Rectal MRI could be a useful tool for evaluating the distance from the anal verge to the APR and relationship between rectal tumors and the APR. PMID:26945377

  20. Recognition of Anterior Peritoneal Reflections and Their Relationship With Rectal Tumors Using Rectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yiqun, Sun; Tong, Tong; Fangqi, Liu; Sanjun, Cai; Chao, Xin; Yajia, Gu; Ye, Xu

    2016-03-01

    Our goal was to explore the factors influencing the visualization of anterior peritoneal reflections (APRs) using rectal MRI. We evaluated the usefulness of rectal MRI in measuring the distance from the anal verge to the APR and determining the relationship between the APR and the rectal tumor.Clinical and imaging data from 319 patients who underwent surgery after MRI examination between October 2010 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The distance from the anal verge to the APR and the relationship between the APR and the location of the rectal tumor was evaluated. analysis of variance, logistic regression, independent samples t tests, and Kappa tests were used for statistical analysis.The APR was visible in 283 of 319 cases using rectal MRI. The APR was more readily observed in patients who were older than 58 years (P = 0.046), in patients whose subcutaneous fat thicknesses were >22.2 mm (P = 0.004), in patients with nondistended bladders (P = 0.001), and in those with an anteversion of the uterus (P = 0.001). There was a significant difference between the distance from the anal verge to the APR between females (10.4 ± 1.1 cm) and males (10.0 ± 1.2 cm; P = 0.014). The accuracy in predicting tumor location with respect to the APR was 70%, 50%, 98.2%, respectively for patients with tumors located above, at, and below the APR (compared with the location determined during surgery).Most of the APRs were visible using rectal MRI, whereas certain internal factors influence visualization. Rectal MRI could be a useful tool for evaluating the distance from the anal verge to the APR and relationship between rectal tumors and the APR. PMID:26945377

  1. Does Gadolinium-Based Contrast Material Improve Diagnostic Accuracy of Local Invasion in Rectal Cancer MRI? A Multireader Study

    PubMed Central

    Gollub, Marc J.; Lakhman, Yulia; McGinty, Katrina; Weiser, Martin R.; Sohn, Michael; Zheng, Junting; Shia, Jinru

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare reader accuracy and agreement on rectal MRI with and without gadolinium administration in the detection of T4 rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, two radiologists and one fellow independently interpreted all posttreatment MRI studies for patients with locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer using unenhanced images alone or combined with contrast-enhanced images, with a minimum interval of 4 weeks. Readers evaluated involvement of surrounding structures on a 5-point scale and were blinded to pathology and disease stage. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and AUC were calculated and kappa statistics were used to describe interreader agreement. RESULTS Seventy-two patients (38 men and 34 women) with a mean age of 61 years (range, 32–86 years) were evaluated. Fifteen patients had 32 organs invaded. Global AUCs without and with gadolinium administration were 0.79 and 0.77, 0.91 and 0.86, and 0.83 and 0.78 for readers 1, 2, and 3, respectively. AUCs before and after gadolinium administration were similar. Kappa values before and after gadolinium administration for pairs of readers ranged from 0.5 to 0.7. CONCLUSION On the basis of pathology as a reference standard, the use of gadolinium during rectal MRI did not significantly improve radiologists’ agreement or ability to detect T4 disease. PMID:25615776

  2. [Combined treatment for rectal cancer using different radiomodification means].

    PubMed

    Barsukov, Iu A; Tkachev, S I; Oltarzhevskaia, N D; Korovina, M A; Iarmolenko, S P; Vaĭnson, A A; Perevoshchikov, A G; Nikolaev, A V; Gradiushko, A T; Kutateladze, T O; Vlasov, O A; Malikho, A G; Tamrazov, R I; Kuz'michev, D V; Aliev, V A; Mamedli, Z Z

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of the results of surgical and combined treatment received by 961 patients at the Center's Clinics within 28 years. The analysis was based on 3 protocols of prospective randomized study. It dealt with assessment of the end results of surgical and combined treatment for operable rectal cancer using one preoperative hyperfractonated STD of 5-25 Gy. That was combined with local microwave hyperthermia and two radio modifiers--local microwave hyperthermia+intrarectal administration of a preparation containing metronidazolum. Due to the latter factor, the rate of 3-year relapse-free survival rose considerably. Also, loco-regional and distant metastasis incidence was cut down due to superior ablasticity of surgery. PMID:18652242

  3. [Rectal cancer and adjuvant chemotherapy: which conclusions?].

    PubMed

    Bachet, J-B; Rougier, P; de Gramont, A; Andr, T

    2010-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the rectum represents about a third of cases of colorectal cancer, with an annual incidence of 12,000 cases in France. On the contrary of colon cancer, the benefice of adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer has not been definitively proved, more because this question was assessed in few recent studies than because negative results. Preoperative radiochemotherapy is now the reference treatment for mid and lower rectal cancers, and allow to increase the local control without improvement of progression free survival and overall survival. The data of the "historical studies" of adjuvant treatment in rectal cancer published before 1990, of the meta-analysis of adjuvant trials in rectal cancer and of the QUASAR study suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines (intravenous or oral), in absence of pre-operative treatment, decrease the risk of metastatic relapse after curative surgery for a rectal cancer of stage II or III. This benefice seems similar to the one observed in colon cancer. In the EORTC radiotherapy group trial 22921, an adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and low dose of leucovorin was not associated with a significantly improvement of overall survival but, despite the fact that only 42.9% of patients received all planed cycles, the progression free survival was increased (not significantly) in groups receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. The French recommendations are to discuss the indication of adjuvant chemotherapy by fluoropyrimidines in cases of stage III rectal cancer on histopathologic reports and no chemotherapy in case of stade II. Despite the fact that none study have assessed a combination of fluoropyrimidines and oxaliplatin in adjuvant setting in rectal cancer, like in colon cancer, the Folfox4, modified Folfox6 or Xelox regimens are valid options in stage III (experts opinion). In cases of pathologic complete remission or in absence of involved nodes, the benefice of adjuvant chemotherapy is not assessed. In all cases, the decision of adjuvant chemotherapy has to be taken during a multidisciplinary meeting. The interest of a combination of fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin is assessed in currently adjuvant trials (PETTAC-6 and CAO/ARO/AIO-04), and future trials will assess the interest of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:19965305

  4. Failed stapled rectal resection in a constipated patient with rectal aganglionosis

    PubMed Central

    Pescatori, Lorenzo C; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Pescatori, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A rare case of a severely constipated patient with rectal aganglionosis is herein reported. The patient, who had no megacolon/megarectum, underwent a STARR, i.e., stapled transanal rectal resection, for obstructed defecation, but her symptoms were not relieved. She started suffering from severe chronic proctalgia possibly due to peri-retained staples fibrosis. Intestinal transit times were normal and no megarectum/megacolon was found at barium enema. A diverting sigmoidostomy was then carried out, which was complicated by an early parastomal hernia, which affected stoma emptying. She also had a severe diverting proctitis, causing rectal bleeding, and still complained of both proctalgia and tenesmus. A deep rectal biopsy under anesthesia showed no ganglia in the rectum, whereas ganglia were present and normal in the sigmoid at the stoma site. As she refused a Duhamel procedure, an intersphincteric rectal resection and a refashioning of the stoma was scheduled. This case report shows that a complete assessment of the potential causes of constipation should be carried out prior to any surgical procedure. PMID:24764689

  5. RECTAL-SPECIFIC MICROBICIDE APPLICATOR: EVALUATION AND COMPARISON WITH A VAGINAL APPLICATOR USED RECTALLY

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Giguere, Rebecca; Dolezal, Curtis; Bauermeister, José; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Valladares, Juan; Rohan, Lisa C.; Anton, Peter A.; Cranston, Ross D.; Febo, Irma; Mayer, Kenneth; McGowan, Ian

    2014-01-01

    An applicator designed for rectal delivery of microbicides was tested for acceptability by 95 young men who have sex with men, who self-administered 4mL of placebo gel prior to receptive anal intercourse over 90 days. Subsequently, 24 of the participants self-administered rectally 4mL of tenofovir or placebo gel over 7 days using a vaginal applicator, and compared both applicators on a Likert scale of 1–10, with 10 the highest rating. Participants reported high likelihood to use either applicator in the future (mean scores 9.3 and 8.8 respectively, p= ns). Those who tested both liked the vaginal applicator significantly more than the rectal applicator (7.8 vs. 5.2, p=0.003). Improvements in portability, conspicuousness, aesthetics, tip comfort, product assembly and packaging were suggested for both. This rectal-specific applicator was not superior to a vaginal applicator. While likelihood of future use is reportedly high, factors that decrease acceptability may erode product use over time in clinical trials. Further attention is needed to develop user-friendly, quick-acting rectal microbicide delivery systems. PMID:24858481

  6. Intramedullary Spinal Cord Metastasis From Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kyung Ho; Yi, Seong Yoon; Jung, Joo Hyuk; Kang, Seung Hee; Choi, Pyong Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis (ISCM) is an uncommon condition of the central nervous system (CNS) cause by systemic malignant tumors. Most ISCM cases are known to occur in patients with lung cancer and breast cancer; however, ISCM also very rarely occurs in patients with colorectal cancer. For the first time in Korea, we experienced a case of ISCM arising from rectal cancer, where a 75-year-old man presented with an abruptly-developed left-foot drop and numbness in both legs. The patient had lung metastases from rectal cancer that had been treated with chemotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intramedullary nodular lesion at the T12 level. ISCM was diagnosed and treated with steroids and radiotherapy. The patient's neurological symptoms were relieved for a while after treatment, but his condition deteriorated progressively. He died 4 months after ISCM had been diagnosed. PMID:25360432

  7. Surgical Management of Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Niamh M.; Joyce, Myles R.

    2012-01-01

    Developments in chemotherapeutic strategies and surgical technique have led to improved loco regional control of rectal cancer and a decrease in recurrence rates over time. However, locally recurrent rectal cancer continues to present considerable technical challenges and results in significant morbidity and mortality. Surgery remains the only therapy with curative potential. Despite a hostile intra-operative environment, with meticulous pre-operative planning and judicious patient selection, safe surgery is feasible. The potential benefit of new techniques such as intra-operative radiotherapy and high intensity focussed ultrasonography has yet to be thoroughly investigated. The future lies in identification of predictors of recurrence, development of schematic clinical algorithms to allow standardised surgical technique and further research into genotyping platforms to allow individualisation of therapy. This review highlights important aspects of pre-operative planning, intra-operative tips and future strategies, focussing on a multimodal multidisciplinary approach. PMID:22701789

  8. Management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Laterza, Liboria; Cecinato, Paolo; Guido, Alessandra; Mussetto, Alessandro; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2013-11-01

    Pelvic radiation disease is one of the major complication after radiotherapy for pelvic cancers. The most commonly reported symptom is rectal bleeding which affects patients' quality of life. Therapeutic strategies for rectal bleeding are generally ignored and include medical, endoscopic, and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Most cases of radiation-induced bleeding are mild and self-limiting, and treatment is normally not indicated. In cases of clinically significant bleeding (i.e. anaemia), medical therapies, including stool softeners, sucralfate enemas, and metronidazole, should be considered as first-line treatment options. In cases of failure, endoscopic therapy, mainly represented by argon plasma coagulation and hyperbaric oxygen treatments, are valid and complementary second-line treatment strategies. Although current treatment options are not always supported by high-quality studies, patients should be reassured that treatment options exist and success is achieved in most cases if the patient is referred to a dedicated centre. PMID:24101202

  9. Transanal Evisceration Caused by Rectal Laceration

    PubMed Central

    Torres Snchez, Mara Teresa; Richart Aznar, Jose Manuel; Mart Martnez, Eva Mara; Martnez-Abad, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Transrectal evisceration caused by colorectal injury is an unusual entity. This pathology is more frequent in elderly patients and it is usually produced spontaneously. Rectal prolapse is the principal predisposing factor. An 81-year-old woman was taken to the hospital presenting exit of intestinal loops through the anus. After first reanimation measures, an urgent surgery was indicated. We observed the absence of almost every small intestine loop in the abdominal cavity; these had been moved to the pelvis. After doing the reduction, a 3 to 4 cm linear craniocaudal perforation in upper rectum was objectified, and Hartmann's procedure was performed. We investigated and knew that she frequently manipulate herself to extract her faeces. The fast preoperative management avoided a fatal conclusion or an extensive intestinal resection. Reasons that make us consider rectal self-injury as the etiologic factor are explained. PMID:24639971

  10. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Slater, A; Betts, M; Anderson, E M; Cunningham, C

    2016-02-01

    Since its introduction in the 1980s, total mesorectal excision (TME) has been the standard surgical technique for treating rectal cancer. This procedure involves removing the rectum and the surrounding envelope of fat along the plane of the mesorectal fascia. Resecting this embryological unit reduces the local recurrence rate by removing all local lymph nodes, including those with occult metastatic disease; however, this surgery is associated with mortality and morbidity. Complications include incontinence for patients given an anastomosis, long-term stoma formation, and sexual and bladder dysfunction. Local excision of rectal cancer using the transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) technique is associated with fewer complications, and therefore, is used as an alternative in specific circumstances. We outline the technique, its indications, imaging appearances and complications. PMID:26654131

  11. Career Options in Colon and Rectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Karim; Madoff, Robert D.; Rothenberger, David A.

    2011-01-01

    As Colon and Rectal Surgery has grown and diversified, the practice opportunities available have greatly expanded. The wealth of choices, may be daunting and even paralyzing for the new graduate or practitioner looking for a career change. Prior to making a decision, candidates must first make an honest assessment of their goals, abilities, and priorities. In this article, the authors briefly outline some of these challenges and help lay the groundwork for a successful decision process. PMID:22654567

  12. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Masquerading as a Spontaneous Rectal Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Poland, Emily; Abbass, Khurram; Markert, Ronald; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Akram, Salma

    2012-09-01

    A 78-year-old Caucasian male with a history of atrial fibrillation and anticoagulation with warfarin presented with a change in bowel habits and weight loss. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a 3.5 cm rectal mass. After biopsy with colonoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography, the rectal mass was highly suspicious for rectal hematoma. When the rectal mass did not resolve after 1 month of follow-up, surgery showed the patient to have a rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor. He is being treated with imatinib and follow-up CT scans. This case illustrates the importance of a high level of suspicion for a gastrointestinal stromal tumor when a rectal mass is found. PMID:21484078

  13. Current status of laparoscopy for the treatment of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shussman, Noam; Wexner, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Surgery for rectal cancer in complex and entails many challenges. While the laparoscopic approach in general and specific to colon cancer has been long proven to have short term benefits and to be oncologically safe, it is still a debatable topic for rectal cancer. The attempt to benefit rectal cancer patients with the known advantages of the laparoscopic approach while not compromising their oncologic outcome has led to the conduction of many studies during the past decade. Herein we describe our technique for laparoscopic proctectomy and assess the current literature dealing with short term outcomes, immediate oncologic measures (such as lymph node yield and specimen quality) and long term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. We also briefly evaluate the evolving issues of robotic assisted rectal cancer surgery and the current innovations and trends in the minimally invasive approach to rectal cancer surgery. PMID:25386061

  14. Clinical predictive circulating peptides in rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Crotti, Sara; Enzo, Maria Vittoria; Bedin, Chiara; Pucciarelli, Salvatore; Maretto, Isacco; Del Bianco, Paola; Traldi, Pietro; Tasciotti, Ennio; Ferrari, Mauro; Rizzolio, Flavio; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Giordano, Antonio; Nitti, Donato; Agostini, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy is worldwide accepted as a standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Current standard of treatment includes administration of ionizing radiation for 45-50.4?Gy in 25-28 fractions associated with 5-fluorouracil administration during radiation therapy. Unfortunately, 40% of patients have a poor or absent response and novel predictive biomarkers are demanding. For the first time, we apply a novel peptidomic methodology and analysis in rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Circulating peptides (Molecular Weight <3?kDa) have been harvested from patients' plasma (n?=?33) using nanoporous silica chip and analyzed by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometer. Peptides fingerprint has been compared between responders and non-responders. Random Forest classification selected three peptides at m/z 1082.552, 1098.537, and 1104.538 that were able to correctly discriminate between responders (n?=?16) and non-responders (n?=?17) before therapy (T0) providing an overall accuracy of 86% and an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.92. In conclusion, the nanoporous silica chip coupled to mass spectrometry method was found to be a realistic method for plasma-based peptide analysis and we provide the first list of predictive circulating biomarker peptides in rectal cancer patients underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. PMID:25522009

  15. Preinduction of anesthesia in children with rectally administered midazolam.

    PubMed

    Spear, R M; Yaster, M; Berkowitz, I D; Maxwell, L G; Bender, K S; Naclerio, R; Manolio, T A; Nichols, D G

    1991-04-01

    The authors evaluated the efficacy of rectally administered midazolam for preinduction (i.e., premedication/induction) of anesthesia in 67 pediatric patients, ASA physical status 1 or 2, undergoing a variety of elective surgical procedures. In phase 1, 41 children weighing 12 +/- 3 kg (range 7-20 kg) and 31 +/- 16 months (range 8-67 months) of age (mean +/- SD) received midazolam, 0.4-5.0 mg.kg-1, in an attempt to produce unconsciousness. Only one child lost consciousness (4.5 mg.kg-1). However, at all doses, inhalational induction of anesthesia was facilitated because children were tranquil and calmly separated from their parent(s). There were no clinically significant changes in arterial blood pressure, heart rate, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration, 10 min after drug administration. In phase 2, 26 children weighing 17 +/- 4 kg (range 10-26 kg) and 44 +/- 19 months (range 17-84 months) months of age undergoing tonsil and/or adenoid surgery were studied to determine the optimal sedative dose of rectally administered midazolam. Patients received 0.3, 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 mg.kg-1 of midazolam in a randomized, double-blind fashion. One third (3 of 9) of patients receiving 0.3 mg.kg-1 struggled during mask induction. All patients receiving greater than or equal to 1.0 mg.kg-1 were adequately sedated (P less than 0.008). Discharge from the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), however, was delayed (greater than 60 min) in children receiving greater than or equal to 2.0 mg.kg-1 (P less than 0.03).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2008948

  16. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Colon or Rectal Cancer That is Metastatic or Locally Advanced and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-23

    Colon Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Colon Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  17. Cytomegalovirus Colitis Mimicking Rectal Carcinoma in a Young Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Gaurang; Kalakonda, Aditya; Manocha, Divey; Rawlins, Sekou

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is often seen in immunocompromised patients. Rarely, immunocompetent patients may present with CMV as a self-limiting, flu-like illness, though a few cases of significant organ-specific complications have been reported in these patients. We report a case in which a previously healthy man presented with hematochezia and an obstructing rectal mass thought to be rectal adenocarcinoma. Biopsy was positive for CMV, which was treated with full resolution of rectal mass confirmed with colonoscopy and barium contrast enema. This is the first reported case of CMV colitis mimicking rectal adenocarcinoma in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:26157951

  18. Case report: Sigmoid strangulation from evisceration through a perforated rectal prolapse ulcer An unusual complication of rectal prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jennifer Z.; Kittmer, Tiffaney; Forbes, Shawn; Ruo, Leyo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rectal prolapse occurs particularly in elder females and presentation can sometimes lead to complications such as strangulation and evisceration of other organs through the necrotic mucosa. Presentation of case This is a case of a 61 year-old female with rectal prolapse complicated by rectal perforation through which a segment of sigmoid colon eviscerated and became strangulated. This patient initially presented with sepsis requiring ICU admission, but fully recovered following a Hartmanns procedure with a sacral rectopexy. Discussion Complications of rectal prolapse include incarceration, strangulation, and rarely, perforation with evisceration of other viscera requiring urgent operation. This report provides a brief overview of complications associated with rectal prolapse, reviews similar cases of transrectal evisceration, and discusses the management of chronic rectal prolapse. Conclusion Prompt surgical consult is warranted if any signs or symptoms suggestive of complications from prolapse are present. PMID:25680532

  19. [Rare complications in surgically treated rectal and anal atresia with submucous pull-through of the rectal mucosa].

    PubMed

    von Bodmann, J; Hecker, W C

    1988-02-01

    Two rare complications after Rehbein's pull-through operation are reported. The first case is a four-year-old child producing at two times a urethral-rectal-muscle cuff fistula, the rectal muscle cuff being filled with urine. The second case deals with a now fourteen-year-old boy in whom a mucosa-regenerated rectal muscle cuff led to an enterogenous cyst of double fist size. PMID:3376596

  20. Better Check Your Bowels: Screening for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Better Check Your Bowels Screening for Colon and Rectal Cancer Colorectal cancer is the second-leading cause of ... give me the results, and when? Gut Check Colon and Rectal Cancer NIHSeniorHealth: Colorectal Cance r Colonoscopy Virtual Colonoscopy Colorectal ...

  1. Rectal cancer and Fournier's gangrene - current knowledge and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Bruketa, Tomislav; Majerovic, Matea; Augustin, Goran

    2015-08-14

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a rapid progressive bacterial infection that involves the subcutaneous fascia and part of the deep fascia but spares the muscle in the scrotal, perianal and perineal region. The incidence has increased dramatically, while the reported incidence of rectal cancer-induced FG is unknown but is extremely low. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of rectal cancer-induced FG per se does not differ from the other causes. Only rectal cancer-specific symptoms before presentation can lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of rectal cancer-induced FG should be excluded in every patient with blood on digital rectal examination, when urogenital and dermatological causes are excluded and when fever or sepsis of unknown origin is present with perianal symptomatology. Therapeutic options are more complex than for other forms of FG. First, the causative rectal tumor should be removed. The survival of patients with rectal cancer resection is reported as 100%, while with colostomy it is 80%. The preferred method of rectal resection has not been defined. Second, oncological treatment should be administered but the timing should be adjusted to the resolution of the FG and sometimes for the healing of plastic reconstructive procedures that are commonly needed for the reconstruction of large perineal, scrotal and lower abdominal wall defects. PMID:26290629

  2. Why Rectal Douches May Be Acceptable Rectal-Microbicide Delivery Vehicles for MSM

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Bauermeister, José; Ventuneac, Ana; Dolezal, Curtis; Mayer, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Rationale To explore age of onset of rectal douching among men who have sex with men (MSM) and reasons leading to and maintaining douching behavior; and to consider whether rectal douches containing microbicidal agents might be acceptable for men at HIV risk. Methods In Stage 1, we used qualitative methods to explore douching behavior in a sample of 20 MSM. Subsequently, we developed a structured questionnaire that was administered in Stage 2 to 105 MSM. Results More than half of participants who completed Stage 1 douched during the trial despite having been advised not to do so. Of the 105 HIV uninfected participants in Stage 2, 51% reported using rectal douches in the prior six months; 47% douched before and 25% after anal intercourse. Most participants reported douching frequently or always. On average, men reported douching about two hours prior to or one hour following intercourse. Average age of onset was late 20s. Most men who douched wanted to be clean or were encouraged to douche by their partners. Some men thought douching after sex could prevent STIs. Conclusion Rectal douching appears to be a popular behavior among men who have RAI. It is necessary to identify harmless douches. If HIV/STI preventive douches can be developed, rectal douching prior to or following sexual intercourse could become an important additional prevention tool. To reshape an existing behavior to which some men strongly adhere, like douching, by suggesting use of one type of douche over another may be more successful than trying to convince MSM to engage in behaviors they never practiced before or those they resist (e.g., condom use). PMID:19959973

  3. Preprostate Biopsy Rectal Culture and Postbiopsy Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Aisha Khalali; Murphy, Adam Bryant

    2015-11-01

    Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUSP) remains the primary procedure for the accurate histologic diagnosis of prostate cancer. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are still recommended as the agents of choice for antimicrobial prophylaxis for TRUSP despite the alarming increasing incidence of FQ-resistant organisms among men undergoing TRUSP. This article reviews the current TRUSP antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines, antimicrobial resistance and its implications for these guidelines, the incidence of post-TRUSP infectious complications including urosepsis, the seminal data supporting pre-TRUSP rectal swab (RS), RS technique and protocol, and the current available literature surrounding the efficacy of RS in reducing post-TRUSP infectious complications. PMID:26475942

  4. Virus-Host Mucosal Interactions During Early SIV Rectal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wuxun; Ma, Fangrui; Churbanov, Alexander; Wan, Yanmin; Li, Yue; Kang, Guobin; Yuan, Zhe; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Jianqing; Lewis, Mark; Li, Qingsheng

    2016-01-01

    To deepen our understanding of early rectal transmission of HIV-1, we studied virus-host interactions in the rectal mucosa using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-Indian rhesus macaque model and mRNA deep sequencing. We found that rectal mucosa actively responded to SIV as early as 3 days post-rectal inoculation (dpi) and mobilized more robust responses at 6 and 10 dpi. Our results suggests that the failure of the host to contain virus replication at the portal of entry is attributable to both a high-level expression of lymphocyte chemoattractant, proinflammatory and immune activation genes, which can recruit and activate viral susceptible target cells into mucosa; and a high-level expression of SIV accessory genes, which are known to be able to counter and evade host restriction factors and innate immune responses. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of rectal transmission. PMID:25128762

  5. Predictive Biomarkers to Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Conde-Muíño, Raquel; Cuadros, Marta; Zambudio, Natalia; Segura-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Cano, Carlos; Palma, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    There has been a high local recurrence rate in rectal cancer. Besides improvements in surgical techniques, both neoadjuvant short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiation improve oncological results. Approximately 40–60% of rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation achieve some degree of pathologic response. However, there is no effective method of predicting which patients will respond to neoadjuvant treatment. Recent studies have evaluated the potential of genetic biomarkers to predict outcome in locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The articles produced by the PubMed search were reviewed for those specifically addressing a genetic profile's ability to predict response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer. Although tissue gene microarray profiling has led to promising data in cancer, to date, none of the identified signatures or molecular markers in locally advanced rectal cancer has been successfully validated as a diagnostic or prognostic tool applicable to routine clinical practice. PMID:26504848

  6. MRI in local staging of rectal cancer: an update

    PubMed Central

    Tapan, mit; zbayrak, Mustafa; Tatl?, Servet

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative imaging for staging of rectal cancer has become an important aspect of current approach to rectal cancer management, because it helps to select suitable patients for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and determine the appropriate surgical technique. Imaging modalities such as endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play an important role in assessing the depth of tumor penetration, lymph node involvement, mesorectal fascia and anal sphincter invasion, and presence of distant metastatic diseases. Currently, there is no consensus on a preferred imaging technique for preoperative staging of rectal cancer. However, high-resolution phased-array MRI is recommended as a standard imaging modality for preoperative local staging of rectal cancer, with excellent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capability, and absence of ionizing radiation. This review will mainly focus on the role of MRI in preoperative local staging of rectal cancer and discuss recent advancements in MRI technique such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. PMID:25010367

  7. Immunological Landscape and Clinical Management of Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ruiz, Elísabeth; Berraondo, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The clinical management of rectal cancer and colon cancer differs due to increased local relapses in rectal cancer. However, the current molecular classification does not differentiate rectal cancer and colon cancer as two different entities. In recent years, the impact of the specific immune microenvironment in cancer has attracted renewed interest and is currently recognized as one of the major determinants of clinical progression in a wide range of tumors. In colorectal cancer, the density of lymphocytic infiltration is associated with better overall survival. Due to the need for biomarkers of response to conventional treatment with chemoradiotherapy in rectal tumors, the immune status of rectal cancer emerges as a useful tool to improve the management of patients. PMID:26941741

  8. Exacerbation of Dermatomyositis with Recurrence of Rectal Cancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Yuka; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Shimura, Tadanobu; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Junichiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is a rare idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized by cutaneous and muscle manifestations. The association between DM and malignancy has been well recognized for many years. The clinical course of paraneoplastic DM may be affected by malignancies, although the cause and effect relationship between exacerbation of DM and cancer progression is uncertain. Herein, we report a 44-year-old woman who presented with progressive DM associated with rectal cancer. After curative resection of rectal cancer, DM symptoms resolved. Three months after surgery, blood test surveillance showed elevation of serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels, although the patient remained asymptomatic. One month later she had a DM flare-up, and multiple lung and liver metastases were found. She immediately underwent cancer chemotherapy with prednisolone therapy for DM. However, her condition deteriorated and she was unable to swallow. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was constructed, allowing alimentation and oral delivery, which made it possible to keep her on chemotherapy. She had remarkable response for unresectable metastases 8 weeks after the administration of chemotherapy. Seven months after onset of recurrence, her condition improved considerably and she had stable disease. Moreover, she can now eat food of soft consistency. Our case provides further support for the clinical importance of cancer chemotherapy for patients who have progressive DM and unresectable rectal cancer. PMID:26668568

  9. Pharmacokinetics and anti-hypertensive effect of metoprolol tartrate rectal delivery system.

    PubMed

    Abou El Ela, Amal El Sayeh F; Allam, Ayat A; Ibrahim, Ehsan H

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to develop rectal suppositories for better delivery of metoprolol tartrate (MT). The various bases used were fatty, water soluble and emulsion bases. The physical properties of the prepared suppositories were characterized such as weight variation, hardness, disintegration time, melting range and the drug content uniformity. The in vitro release of MT from the prepared suppositories was carried out. The evaluation of the pharmacological effects of MT on the blood pressure and heart rate of the healthy rabbits after the rectal administration compared to the oral tablets was studied. Moreover, the formulation with the highest in vitro release and the highest pharmacological effects would be selected for a further pharmacokinetics study compared to the oral tablets. The results revealed that the emulsion bases gave the highest rate of the drug release than the other bases used. The reduction effect of the emulsion MT suppository base on the blood pressure and heart rate was found to be faster and greater than that administered orally. The selected emulsion suppository base (F11) showed a significant increase in the AUC (1.88-fold) in rabbits as compared to the oral tablets. From the above results we can conclude that rectal route can serve as an efficient alternative route to the oral one for systemic delivery of MT which may be due to the avoidance of first-pass effect in the liver. PMID:24758140

  10. Exacerbation of Dermatomyositis with Recurrence of Rectal Cancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Yuka; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Shimura, Tadanobu; Fujikawa, Hiroyuki; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Hiro, Junichiro; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is a rare idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized by cutaneous and muscle manifestations. The association between DM and malignancy has been well recognized for many years. The clinical course of paraneoplastic DM may be affected by malignancies, although the cause and effect relationship between exacerbation of DM and cancer progression is uncertain. Herein, we report a 44-year-old woman who presented with progressive DM associated with rectal cancer. After curative resection of rectal cancer, DM symptoms resolved. Three months after surgery, blood test surveillance showed elevation of serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels, although the patient remained asymptomatic. One month later she had a DM flare-up, and multiple lung and liver metastases were found. She immediately underwent cancer chemotherapy with prednisolone therapy for DM. However, her condition deteriorated and she was unable to swallow. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was constructed, allowing alimentation and oral delivery, which made it possible to keep her on chemotherapy. She had remarkable response for unresectable metastases 8 weeks after the administration of chemotherapy. Seven months after onset of recurrence, her condition improved considerably and she had stable disease. Moreover, she can now eat food of soft consistency. Our case provides further support for the clinical importance of cancer chemotherapy for patients who have progressive DM and unresectable rectal cancer. PMID:26668568

  11. Temperament influences endotoxin-induced changes in rectal temperature, sickness behavior, and plasma epinephrine concentrations in bulls.

    PubMed

    Burdick, Nicole C; Carroll, Jeffery A; Hulbert, Lindsey E; Dailey, Jeffery W; Ballou, Michael A; Randel, Ronald D; Willard, Scott T; Vann, Rhonda C; Welsh, Thomas H

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the influence of temperament on endotoxin-induced changes in body temperature, sickness behavior, and stress hormone concentrations in cattle. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score measured 28 d prior to weaning. In dwelling recording devices were used to monitor rectal temperature, and jugular catheters were used to collect blood samples to determine cortisol and epinephrine concentrations before and after LPS administration (0.5 ?g/kg body weight). Temperamental bulls had the lowest peak rectal temperature and sickness behavior scores relative to the Calm and Intermediate bulls. Prior to the administration of LPS, Temperamental bulls had greater cortisol and epinephrine concentrations than Calm or Intermediate bulls. Cortisol concentrations increased following LPS administration but were not affected by temperament. Epinephrine concentrations peaked 1 h after LPS administration in Calm bulls. Temperamental bulls did not exhibit an epinephrine response to LPS challenge. These data demonstrate that the temperament of calves can modulate the physiological, behavioral, and endocrine responses of pre-pubertal Brahman bulls to endotoxin challenge. Specifically, temperament differentially affected the rectal temperature, sickness behavior and epinephrine, but not cortisol, responses to LPS challenge. PMID:20682590

  12. Effect of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral and rectal bromazepam: an application of electroencephalography as the pharmacodynamic method.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Yasukiyo; Kotegawa, Tsutomu; Tsutsumi, Kimiko; Morimoto, Takuya; Hirose, Yumiko; Nakano, Shigeyuki

    2002-02-01

    Quantitative analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) is used increasingly to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of benzodiazepines. The present study aimed to apply the EEG method as well as more traditional approaches to an interaction study of bromazepam and fluconazole. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, four-way crossover study. The subjects received single oral or rectal doses of bromazepam (3 mg) after 4-day pretreatment of oral fluconazole (100 mg daily) or its placebo. Plasma bromazepam concentrations were measured before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 22, 46, and 70 hours after bromazepam administration. Pharmacodynamic effects of bromazepam were assessed using self-rated drowsiness, continuous number addition test, and EEG. Fluconazole caused no significant changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral or rectal bromazepam. Rectal administration significantly increased AUC (1.7-fold, p < 0.0001) and Cmax (1.6-fold, p < 0.0001) of bromazepam. These changes following rectal dose may be due to avoidance of degradation occurring in the gastrointestinal tract. Rectal bromazepam also increased the area under the effect curves assessed by EEG (p < 0.05) and subjective drowsiness (p < 0.05). EEG effects were closely correlated with mean plasma bromazepam concentrations (r = 0.92, p < 0.001 for placebo; r = 0.89, p < 0.0001 for fluconazole). Thus, the EEG method provided pharmacodynamic data that clearly reflected the pharmacokinetics of bromazepam. PMID:11831541

  13. HIV, rectal chlamydia and rectal gonorrhea in men who have sex with men attending an STD clinic in a midwestern US city

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Abigail Norris; Reese, Patricia Carr; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A.; Fields, Karen S.; Bazan, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) who report receptive anal intercourse (RAI) are currently recommended to undergo annual screening for rectal C. trachomatis (CT) and N. gonorrhoeae (GC) infection. Methods Using standard culture methods, we assessed prevalence of rectal GC/CT among MSM who reported RAI in the last year (n=326) at an urban STD clinic in a midwestern US city. A subset (n=125) also underwent rectal GC/CT screening via nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). We examined associations between HIV status and prevalence of rectal GC and rectal CT using unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models. Results Prevalence of rectal GC, rectal CT and either rectal infection was 9%, 9% and 15% by culture and 24%, 23% and 38% by NAAT, respectively. HIV was not associated with rectal GC prevalence in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. HIV-positive status was significantly associated with increased rectal CT prevalence in unadjusted models (odds ratio (OR): 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.60); this association increased after multivariable adjustment (OR: 3.14, 95% CI: 1.37, 7.19). Conclusions MSM reporting RAI had high prevalence of rectal GC and rectal CT. HIV-positive status was significantly associated with prevalent rectal CT, but not with prevalent rectal GC. PMID:23677015

  14. An isolated vaginal metastasis from rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sadatomo, Ai; Koinuma, Koji; Horie, Hisanaga; Lefor, Alan K.; Sata, Naohiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Isolated vaginal metastases from colorectal cancer are extremely rare. There are only a few reported cases in the English literature, and the characteristics of such cases of metastasis remain relatively unknown. Presentation of case We present a case of isolated vaginal metastasis from rectal cancer in a 78-year-old female patient. The patient had no symptoms related to vaginal tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed thickening of the middle rectum and a vaginal tumor. Biopsy from the vaginal tumor showed adenocarcinoma, similar to the rectal lesion. Low anterior resection with ileostomy, hystero-oophorectomy, and transvaginal tumor resection was performed. After nineteen months, computed tomography scan revealed multiple lung metastases and recurrent tumor in the pelvis. The patient refused chemotherapy and is alive three months after developing recurrent disease. Discussion Most cases of primary vaginal carcinoma are squamous cell carcinoma. Other histologic types such as adenocarcinoma are usually metastatic lesions. Primary lesions associated with metastatic vaginal adenocarcinoma are most often the uterus, and are very rarely from the colon or rectum. We review previous case reports of isolated vaginal metastases from colorectal cancer and discuss their symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. Conclusion We should keep the vagina within the field of view of pelvic MRI, which is one of the preoperative diagnostic tools for colorectal cancer. If female patients show gynecological symptoms, gynecological examination should be recommended. Isolated vaginal metastases are an indication for surgical resection, and adjuvant chemotherapy is also recommended. PMID:26793313

  15. Aggressive multimodality treatment for advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Inada, Ryo; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Toshima, Toshiaki; Mori, Yoshiko; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Hiraki, Takao; Oshiro, Taihei; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    A case of advanced rectal cancer treated by aggressive local and systemic treatment who has survived more than 7 years from initial recurrence is presented. A 55-year-old woman was diagnosed with advanced lower rectal cancer and underwent a low anterior resection with complete removal of all regional lymph nodes and total mesorectal excision. The tumor was diagnosed as a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, pStage IIIB (T3, N2a, M0). Twenty-six months after the initial surgery, local recurrence in the pelvis was detected by computed tomography, and total pelvic exenteration with distal sacrectomy (TPES) was performed after systemic chemotherapy with a molecular-targeted drug. Six months after the TPES, multiple lung metastases were detected. Consequently, the patient underwent radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and chemotherapy. The disease has since been controlled for 38 months. As volume control is essential for cancer treatment, it may be important to combine appropriate local therapy with systemic therapy to metastatic or recurrent sites in order to achieve much longer disease control. PMID:25899633

  16. Rectal bleeding. Patient delay in presentation.

    PubMed

    Dent, O F; Goulston, K J; Tennant, C C; Langeluddecke, P; Mant, A; Chapuis, P H; Ward, M; Bokey, E L

    1990-10-01

    Patient delay in presentation of rectal bleeding has been identified as a factor in delayed diagnosis among patients with colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to identify demographic or psychological factors, or beliefs or behaviors related to delay in presentation of rectal bleeding. In 93 patients presenting with this symptom to their general practitioner, delay ranged from 0 to 249 days with a median of 7 days; 27 (29 percent) delayed more than 14 days. Delay was unrelated to age, sex, ethnic origin, competence in English, length of schooling, social status, availability of social support, measured psychologic traits, and to the belief that the cause might be cancer. The proportions delaying more than 14 days were statistically significantly elevated among those who were not worried by the bleeding (47 percent delayed); those who did not regularly look at their feces or the toilet paper after use (37 percent); and those who took some other action before presenting to their general practitioner (43 percent). PMID:2209274

  17. Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Rectal Cancer after Chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Boustani, J; Caubet, M; Bosset, J-F

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this overview was to investigate whether adjuvant chemotherapy has a favourable effect on the outcome of patients with rectal cancer who had preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy. A review of randomised clinical trials that allocated patients between fluorouracil-based and observation or between fluorouracil-based and oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy was carried out, including their corresponding meta-analyses. None of the five randomised trials has shown a significant benefit of fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy for overall survival or disease-free survival. Also, the three corresponding meta-analyses failed to show a benefit of adjuvant treatment. Of three randomised trials - two phase III and one phase II with a 3-year disease-free survival end point - two showed a small benefit of adding oxaliplatin to fluorouracil, one failed. The corresponding meta-analyses showed that the pooled difference was not significant. In conclusion, the use of postoperative 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy with or without oxaliplatin in patients with rectal cancer after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy is not scientifically proven. PMID:26698026

  18. Rectal HSV-2 Infection May Increase Rectal SIV Acquisition Even in the Context of SIVΔnef Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Pérez, Natalia; Aravantinou, Meropi; Veglia, Filippo; Goode, Diana; Truong, Rosaline; Derby, Nina; Blanchard, James; Grasperge, Brooke; Gettie, Agegnehu; Robbiani, Melissa; Martinelli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Prevalent HSV-2 infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition both in men and women even in asymptomatic subjects. Understanding the impact of HSV-2 on the mucosal microenvironment may help to identify determinants of susceptibility to HIV. Vaginal HSV-2 infection increases the frequency of cells highly susceptible to HIV in the vaginal tissue of women and macaques and this correlates with increased susceptibility to vaginal SHIV infection in macaques. However, the effect of rectal HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition remains understudied. We developed a model of rectal HSV-2 infection in macaques in combination with rectal SIVmac239Δnef (SIVΔnef) vaccination and our results suggest that rectal HSV-2 infection may increase the susceptibility of macaques to rectal SIVmac239 wild-type (wt) infection even in SIVΔnef-infected animals. Rectal SIVΔnef infection/vaccination protected 7 out of 7 SIVΔnef-infected macaques from SIVmac239wt rectal infection (vs 12 out of 16 SIVΔnef-negative macaques), while 1 out of 3 animals co-infected with SIVΔnef and HSV-2 acquired SIVmac239wt infection. HSV-2/SIVmac239wt co-infected animals had increased concentrations of inflammatory factors in their plasma and rectal fluids and a tendency toward higher acute SIVmac239wt plasma viral load. However, they had higher blood CD4 counts and reduced depletion of CCR5+ CD4+ T cells compared to SIVmac239wt-only infected animals. Thus, rectal HSV-2 infection generates a pro-inflammatory environment that may increase susceptibility to rectal SIV infection and may impact immunological and virological parameters during acute SIV infection. Studies with larger number of animals are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26886938

  19. Rectal HSV-2 Infection May Increase Rectal SIV Acquisition Even in the Context of SIVΔnef Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Veglia, Filippo; Goode, Diana; Truong, Rosaline; Derby, Nina; Blanchard, James; Grasperge, Brooke; Gettie, Agegnehu; Robbiani, Melissa; Martinelli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Prevalent HSV-2 infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition both in men and women even in asymptomatic subjects. Understanding the impact of HSV-2 on the mucosal microenvironment may help to identify determinants of susceptibility to HIV. Vaginal HSV-2 infection increases the frequency of cells highly susceptible to HIV in the vaginal tissue of women and macaques and this correlates with increased susceptibility to vaginal SHIV infection in macaques. However, the effect of rectal HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition remains understudied. We developed a model of rectal HSV-2 infection in macaques in combination with rectal SIVmac239Δnef (SIVΔnef) vaccination and our results suggest that rectal HSV-2 infection may increase the susceptibility of macaques to rectal SIVmac239 wild-type (wt) infection even in SIVΔnef-infected animals. Rectal SIVΔnef infection/vaccination protected 7 out of 7 SIVΔnef-infected macaques from SIVmac239wt rectal infection (vs 12 out of 16 SIVΔnef-negative macaques), while 1 out of 3 animals co-infected with SIVΔnef and HSV-2 acquired SIVmac239wt infection. HSV-2/SIVmac239wt co-infected animals had increased concentrations of inflammatory factors in their plasma and rectal fluids and a tendency toward higher acute SIVmac239wt plasma viral load. However, they had higher blood CD4 counts and reduced depletion of CCR5+ CD4+ T cells compared to SIVmac239wt-only infected animals. Thus, rectal HSV-2 infection generates a pro-inflammatory environment that may increase susceptibility to rectal SIV infection and may impact immunological and virological parameters during acute SIV infection. Studies with larger number of animals are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26886938

  20. Radioresistance-related proteins in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Allal, Abdelkarim S; Kähne, Thilo; Reverdin, Alexandra K; Lippert, Hans; Schlegel, Werner; Reymond, Marc-André

    2004-08-01

    Radiation therapy (RT), combined with chemotherapy, is currently the standard adjuvant approach for UICC-stage II and III rectal cancer patients. Individual rectal tumors display wide ranges of radiosensitivity (RS). The aim of the present study was to identify proteins associated with radioresistance (RR), with the final aim of predicting tumor response. Seventeen patients were recruited between July 1998 and November 2001. All patients suffered from a locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Tumor biopsies were taken before RT. All patients received preoperatively 50 Gray or a biologically equivalent total dose. Surgery was performed after 6 weeks, and response assessed histopathologically. Seven tumors showed complete response, seven a partial response, and in three patients only microscopic disease remained. Proteins were separated using narrow pH gradient two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. Automatic gel comparison allowed matching a mean number of 497 +/- 280 spots. Forty-four spots showing significant differential expression in RR tumors were localized on the pH 4.5-5.5 gels, 33 out of them being identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Twenty-two out of 37 spots of interest could be identified on the pH 5.5-6.7 gels. The expression of the following proteins correlates with RR: tropomodulin (p = 0.01), heat shock protein 42 (p = 0.03), beta-tubulin (p = 0.10), annexin V (p = 0.10), calsenilin (p = 0.10), or with radiosensitivity (RS): keratin type I (p = 0.03), notch 2 protein homolog (p = 0.05) and DNA repair protein RAD51L3 (p = 0.11). A further RR-related protein is so far only hypothetical: XP_030188 (NCBI Database accession number, p = 0.14). We consider the fact that several of these proteins of interest are known to be associated with RR as a valid proof of principle for this proteomics approach. These results will serve as a basis for developing an assay for testing rectal cancers for radioresistance. PMID:15274120

  1. The rational design and development of a dual chamber vaginal/rectal microbicide gel formulation for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Ham, Anthony S; Nugent, Sean T; Peters, Jennifer J; Katz, David F; Shelter, Cory M; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Boczar, Ashlee D; Buckheit, Karen W; Buckheit, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The DuoGel was developed for safe and effective dual chamber administration of antiretroviral drugs to reduce the high incidence of HIV transmission during receptive vaginal and anal intercourse. The DuoGels containing IQP-0528, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), were formulated from GRAS excipients approved for vaginal and rectal administration. The DuoGels were evaluated based upon quantitative physicochemical and biological evaluations defined by a Target Product Profile (TPP) acceptable for vaginal and rectal application. From the two primary TPP characteristics defined to accommodate safe rectal administration three DuoGel formulations (IQB3000, IQB3001, and IQB3002) were developed at pH 6.00 and osmolality ?400mmol/kg. The DuoGels displayed no in vitro cellular or bacterial toxicity and no loss in viability in ectocervical and colorectal tissue. IQB3000 was removed from consideration due to reduced NNRTI delivery (?65% reduction) and IQB3001 was removed due to increase spread resulting in leakage. IQB3002 containing IQP-0528 was defined as our lead DuoGel formulation, possessing potent activity against HIV-1 (EC50=10nM). Over 12month stability evaluations, IQB3002 maintained formulation stability. This study has identified a lead DuoGel formulation that will safely deliver IQP-0528 to prevent sexual HIV-1 transmission in the vagina and rectum. PMID:26093158

  2. The Rational Design and Development of A Dual Chamber Vaginal/Rectal Microbicide Gel Formulation for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Anthony S.; Nugent, Sean T.; Peters, Jennifer J.; Katz, David F.; Shelter, Cory M.; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Boczar, Ashlee D.; Buckheit, Karen W.; Buckheit, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The DuoGel was developed for safe and effective dual chamber administration of antiretroviral drugs to reduce the high incidence of HIV transmission during receptive vaginal and anal intercourse. The DuoGels containing IQP-0528, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), were formulated from GRAS excipients approved for vaginal and rectal administration. The DuoGels were evaluated based upon quantitative physicochemical and biological evaluations defined by a Target Product Profile (TPP) acceptable for vaginal and rectal application. From the two primary TPP characteristics defined to accommodate safe rectal administration three DuoGel formulations (IQB3000, IQB3001, and IQB3002) were developed at pH 6.00 and osmolality ? 400 mmol/kg. The DuoGels displayed no in vitro cellular or bacterial toxicity and no loss in viability in ectocervical and colorectal tissue. IQB3000 was removed from consideration due to reduced NNRTI delivery (~65% reduction) and IQB3001 was removed due to increase spread resulting in leakage. IQB3002 containing IQP-0528 was defined as our lead DuoGel formulation, possessing potent activity against HIV-1 (EC50 = 10 nM). Over 12 month stability evaluations, IQB3002 maintained formulation stability. This study has identified a lead DuoGel formulation that will safely deliver IQP-0528 to prevent sexual HIV-1 transmission in the vagina and rectum. PMID:26093158

  3. Penile metastasis from rectal cancer by PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Alzayed, Mohammed Fahad; Artho, Giovanni; Nahal, Ayoub; Hickeson, Marc

    2015-04-01

    It is extremely rare for rectal tumors to metastasize to the penis, and when it occurs, it is associated with poor prognosis. The appearance of penile metastasis from rectal primary tumor on PET imaging has not been widely reported. We report a case of a 70-year-old man with previous history of treated stage III adenocarcinoma of the rectum 26 months ago. The restaging 18F-FDG PET/CT scan demonstrated a hypermetabolic mass at the base of his penile shaft. This lesion was confirmed on core biopsy to be a metastatic adenocarcinoma of colorectal origin consistent with the known primary rectal tumor. PMID:25546188

  4. How to identify rectal sub-regions likely involved in rectal bleeding in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dréan, G.; Acosta, O.; Ospina, J. D.; Voisin, C.; Rigaud, B.; Simon, A.; Haigron, P.; de Crevoisier, R.

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, the de nition of patient-speci c constraints in prostate cancer radiotherapy planning are solely based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. Nevertheless those DVH models lack of spatial accuracy since they do not use the complete 3D information of the dose distribution. The goal of the study was to propose an automatic work ow to de ne patient-speci c rectal sub-regions (RSR) involved in rectal bleeding (RB) in case of prostate cancer radiotherapy. A multi-atlas database spanning the large rectal shape variability was built from a population of 116 individuals. Non-rigid registration followed by voxel-wise statistical analysis on those templates allowed nding RSR likely correlated with RB (from a learning cohort of 63 patients). To de ne patient-speci c RSR, weighted atlas-based segmentation with a vote was then applied to 30 test patients. Results show the potentiality of the method to be used for patient-speci c planning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).

  5. An unusual case of mesalazine intoxication: oral and rectal overloading of the rectal suppository form.

    PubMed

    Koseoglu, Zikret; Satar, Salim; Kara, Banu; Sebe, Ahmet; Kosenli, Ozgun

    2011-07-01

    Drugs containing 5-acetylsalicylic acid (5-ASA) have been commonly used for inflammatory bowel diseases for more than half a century, but no case about overdose of suppository form of mesalazine which was taken both orally and rectally has been reported in the related literature up to now. In the present case, a 20-year-old male patient who took 14.5 g of mesalazine rectally and orally for suicide purpose is discussed. He was an ulcerative colitis patient and depressed about his illness and routine life traffic. Although it was hard for him to take the suppository form orally because of its bad taste and structure, he took it with the help of water. In the patient's colonoscopy, diffuse hyperemia and edema extending from the anal channel to the proximal rectal mucosa and a 1.5 cm diameter ulcer expanding from anal channel through the rectum were identified. No pathology was found in the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Routine laboratory examination was performed and no abnormality was identified in the patient's total blood account, biochemical parameters and full-urine examination. In the control rectoscopy applied to the patient 15 days later, recovery of the ulcer was observed and he was discharged to be followed in the psychiatry clinic. PMID:20670990

  6. Approach of trans-rectal NIR optical tomography probing for the imaging of prostate with trans-rectal ultrasound correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Daqing; Jiang, Zhen; Xu, Guan; Musgrove, Cameron; Bunting, Charles F.

    2008-02-01

    The trans-rectal implementation of NIR optical tomography makes it possible to assess functional status like hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in prostate non-invasively. Trans-rectal NIR tomography may provide tissue-specific functional contrast that is potentially valuable for differentiation of cancerous lesions from normal tissues. Such information will help to determine if a prostate biopsy is needed or can be excluded for an otherwise ambiguous lesion. The relatively low spatial resolution due to the diffuse light detection in trans-rectal NIR tomography, however, limits the accuracy of localizing a suspicious tissue volume. Trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) is the clinical standard for guiding the positioning of biopsy needle owing to its resolution and convenience; nevertheless, TRUS lacks the pathognomic specificity to guide biopsy to only the suspicious lesions. The combination of trans-rectal NIR tomography with TRUS could potentially give better differentiation of cancerous tissue from normal background and to accurately localize the cancer-suspicious contrast obtained from NIR tomography. This paper will demonstrate the design and initial evaluation of a trans-rectal NIR tomography probe that can conveniently integrate with a commercial TRUS transducer. The transrectal NIR tomography obtained from this probe is concurrent with TRUS at matching sagittal imaging plane. This design provides the flexibility of simple correlation of trans-rectal NIR with TRUS, and using TRUS anatomic information as spatial prior for NIR image reconstruction.

  7. [Organ preserving strategies for rectal cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Vendrely, V; Denost, Q; Amestoy, F; Clrier, B; Smith, D; Rullier, A; Rullier,

    2015-10-01

    For rectal cancers, the current standard of care consists of chemoradiation followed by radical surgery with total mesorectal excision. Oncologic results are good, especially regarding local recurrence rates, but at the cost of high morbidity rates and poor anorectal, urinary and sexual function results. Since chemoradiation yields 15 to 25% pathological complete response, the role of radical surgery is questioned for patients presenting with good response after chemoradiation and two organ preservation strategies have been offered: watch and wait strategy and local excision strategy. The aim of this review is to give the results of organ preservation after chemoradiotherapy series and to highlight different questions regarding initial patient's selection, complete clinical response definition, risk of mesorectal nodal involvement, follow-up modalities as well as oncologic and functional results. PMID:26278990

  8. Proforma-based reporting in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, F.; Mangat, N.; Swift, I.R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The improvements in outcomes associate with the use of preoperative therapy rather than postoperative treatment means that clinical teams are increasingly reliant on imaging to identify high-risk features of disease to determine treatment plans. For many solid tumours, including rectal cancer, validated techniques have emerged in identifying prognostic factors pre-operatively. In the MERCURY study, a standardised scanning technique and the use of reporting proformas enabled consistently accurate assessment and documentation of the prognostic factors. This is now an essential tool to enable our clinical colleagues to make treatment decisions. In this review, we describe the proforma-based reporting tool that enables a systematic approach to the interpretation of the magnetic resonance images, thereby enabling all the clinically relevant features to be adequately assessed. PMID:20880773

  9. Proforma-based reporting in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Taylor, F; Mangat, N; Swift, I R; Brown, G

    2010-01-01

    The improvements in outcomes associate with the use of preoperative therapy rather than postoperative treatment means that clinical teams are increasingly reliant on imaging to identify high-risk features of disease to determine treatment plans. For many solid tumours, including rectal cancer, validated techniques have emerged in identifying prognostic factors pre-operatively. In the MERCURY study, a standardised scanning technique and the use of reporting proformas enabled consistently accurate assessment and documentation of the prognostic factors. This is now an essential tool to enable our clinical colleagues to make treatment decisions. In this review, we describe the proforma-based reporting tool that enables a systematic approach to the interpretation of the magnetic resonance images, thereby enabling all the clinically relevant features to be adequately assessed. PMID:20880773

  10. Efficiency of Non-Contrast-Enhanced Liver Imaging Sequences Added to Initial Rectal MRI in Rectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Gene-hyuk; Kim, Kyung Ah; Hwang, Seong Su; Park, Soo Youn; Kim, Hyun A.; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Ji Woong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to estimate the value of addition of liver imaging to initial rectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection of liver metastasis and evaluate imaging predictors of a high risk of liver metastasis on rectal MRI. Methods We enrolled 144 patients who from October 2010 to May 2013 underwent rectal MRI with T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) (b values = 50, 500, and 900 s/mm2) of the liver and abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT) for the initial staging of rectal cancer. Two reviewers scored the possibility of liver metastasis on different sets of liver images (T2WI, DWI, and combined T2WI and DWI) and APCT and reached a conclusion by consensus for different analytic results. Imaging features from rectal MRI were also analyzed. The diagnostic performances of CT and an additional liver scan to detect liver metastasis were compared. Multivariate logistic regression to determine independent predictors of liver metastasis among rectal MRI features and tumor markers was performed. This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Results All sets of liver images were more effective than APCT for detecting liver metastasis, and DWI was the most effective. Perivascular stranding and anal sphincter invasion were statistically significant for liver metastasis (p = 0.0077 and p = 0.0471), while extramural vascular invasion based on MRI (mrEMVI) was marginally significant (p = 0.0534). Conclusion The addition of non-contrast-enhanced liver imaging, particularly DWI, to initial rectal MRI in rectal cancer patients could facilitate detection of liver metastasis without APCT. Perivascular stranding, anal sphincter invasion, and mrEMVI detected on rectal MRI were important imaging predictors of liver metastasis. PMID:26348217

  11. Rectal Douching and Implications for Rectal Microbicides among Populations Vulnerable to HIV in South America: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Jerome T.; Kinsler, Janni J.; Imrie, John; Nureña, César R.; Sánchez, Jorge; Cunningham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective While gel-formulated Rectal Microbicides (RM) are the first to enter clinical trials, rectal douching in preparation for anal intercourse is a common practise, thus RMs formulated as douches may be a convenient alternative to gels. Nonetheless, little is known about potential users’ thoughts regarding douche-formulated RMs or rectal douching practises, data needed to inform the advancement of douche-based RMs. This qualitative study examined thoughts regarding douches, their use as a RM and current douching practises among men who have sex with men and transgender women. Methods Ten focus groups and 36 in-depth interviews were conducted (N=140) to examine the overall acceptability of RM, of which one component focused on rectal douching. Focus groups and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded; text relating to rectal douching was extracted and analysed. Sociodemographic information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results Support for a douche-formulated RM centred on the possibility of combined pre-coital hygiene and HIV protection, and it was believed that a deeply-penetrating liquid douche would confer greater HIV protection than a gel. Drawbacks included rectal dryness; impracticality and portability issues; and, potential side effects. Non-commercial douching apparatus use was common and liquids used included detergents, vinegar, bleach, lemon juice and alcohol. Conclusions A douche-formulated RM while desirable and perceived as more effective than a gel-formulated RM also generated questions regarding practicality and side-effects. Of immediate concern were the non-commercial liquids already being used which likely damage rectal epithelia, potentially increasing HIV infection risk. Pre-coital rectal douching is common and a RM formulated as such is desirable, but education on rectal douching practices is needed now. PMID:23966338

  12. The effect of rectal heterogeneity on wall dose in high dose rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Kwan, I S; Wilkinson, D; Cutajar, D; Lerch, M; Rosenfeld, A; Howie, A; Bucci, J; Chin, Y; Perevertaylo, V L

    2009-01-01

    When treating prostate cancer using high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, overdosing the rectal wall may lead to post-treatment rectal complications. An area of concern is related to how the rectal wall dose is calculated by treatment planning systems (TPSs). TPSs are used to calculate the dose delivered to the rectal wall, but they assume that the rectum is a water-equivalent homogeneous medium of infinite size and do not consider the effect that an air-filled "empty" rectal cavity would have on the dose absorbed along the rectal wall. The aim of this research is to quantify the effect that an air cavity has on the rectal wall dose, as its presence changes the backscatter conditions in the region. The MO Skin and RADFET dosimeters proved capable of measuring absolute dose with increasing distance from the HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy source. However, the anterior rectal wall doses measured by the MOSkin and RADFET in an empty rectal cavity were 14.7 +/- 0.2% and 13.7 +/- 0.6% lower than the dose measured in a homogeneous rectal phantom. Monte Carlo simulations corroborated the experimentally obtained results, reporting a -13.2 +/- 0.6% difference. The dose measured at the posterior wall of an empty rectal cavity was between 22% and 26% greater than the dose measured in a full rectal cavity. The heterogeneity of the rectal volume appears to have a significant effect on the rectal dose when compared to calculated rectal dose. PMID:19235390

  13. Rectal wall sparing by dosimetric effect of rectal balloon used during Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Teh, Bin S.

    2005-03-31

    The use of an air-filled rectal balloon has been shown to decrease prostate motion during prostate radiotherapy. However, the perturbation of radiation dose near the air-tissue interfaces has raised clinical concerns of underdosing the prostate gland. The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric effects of an air-filled rectal balloon on the rectal wall/mucosa and prostate gland. Clinical rectal toxicity and dose-volume histogram (DVH) were also assessed to evaluate for any correlation. A film phantom was constructed to simulate the 4-cm diameter air cavity created by a rectal balloon. Kodak XV2 films were utilized to measure and compare dose distribution with and without air cavity. To study the effect in a typical clinical situation, the phantom was computed tomography (CT) scanned on a Siemens DR CT scanner for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. A target object was drawn on the phantom CT images to simulate the treatment of prostate cancer. Because patients were treated in prone position, the air cavity was situated superiorly to the target. The treatment used a serial tomotherapy technique with the Multivane Intensity Modulating Collimator (MIMiC) in arc treatment mode. Rectal toxicity was assessed in 116 patients treated with IMRT to a mean dose of 76 Gy over 35 fractions (2.17-Gy fraction size). They were treated in the prone position, immobilized using a Vac-LokTM bag and carrier-box system. Rectal balloon inflated with 100 cc of air was used for prostate gland immobilization during daily treatment. Rectal toxicity was assessed using modifications of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and late effects Normal Tissue Task Force (LENT) scales systems. DVH of the rectum was also evaluated. From film dosimetry, there was a dose reduction at the distal air-tissue interface as much as 60% compared with the same geometry without the air cavity for 15-MV photon beam and 2 x 2-cm field size. The dose beyond the interface recovered quickly and the dose reductions due to air cavity were 50%, 28%, 11%, and 1% at 2, 5, 10, and 15 mm, respectively, from the distal air-tissue interface. Evaluating the dose profiles of the more clinically relevant situation revealed the dose at air-tissue interface was approximately 15% lower in comparison to that without an air cavity. The dose built up rapidly so that at 1 and 2 mm, there was only an 8% and 5% differential, respectively. The dosimetric coverage at the depth of the posterior prostate wall was essentially equal with or without the air cavity. The median follow-up was 31.3 months. Rectal toxicity profile was very favorable: 81% (94/116) patients had no rectal complaint while 10.3% (12/116), 6.9% (8/116), and 1.7% (2/116) had grade 1, 2, and 3 toxicity, respectively. There was no grade 4 rectal toxicity. DVH analysis revealed that none of the patients had more than 25% of the rectum receiving 70 Gy or greater. Rectal balloon has rendered anterior rectal wall sparing by its dosimetric effects. In addition, it has reduced rectal volume, especially posterior and lateral rectal wall receiving high-dose radiation by rectal wall distension. Both factors may have contributed to decreased rectal toxicity achieved by IMRT despite dose escalation and higher than conventional fraction size. The findings have clinical significance for future very high-dose escalation trials whereby radiation proctitis is a major limiting factor.

  14. Optimal time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy in preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Jong Hoon . E-mail: jhkim2@amc.seoul.kr; Choi, Won Sik; Kim, Hee Cheol; Chang, Heung Moon; Ryu, Min Hee; Jang, Se Jin; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: Capecitabine and its metabolites reach peak plasma concentrations 1 to 2 hours after a single oral administration, and concentrations rapidly decrease thereafter. We performed a retrospective analysis to find the optimal time interval between capecitabine administration and radiotherapy for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy was measured in patients who were treated with preoperative radiotherapy and concurrent capecitabine for rectal cancer. Patients were classified into the following groups. Group A1 included patients who took capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy, and Group B1 included all other patients. Group B1 was then subdivided into Group A2 (patients who took capecitabine 2 hours before radiotherapy) and Group B2. Group B2 was further divided into Group A3 and Group B3 with the same method. Total mesorectal excision was performed 6 weeks after completion of chemoradiation and the pathologic response was evaluated. Results: A total of 200 patients were enrolled in this study. Pathologic examination showed that Group A1 had higher rates of complete regression of primary tumors in the rectum (23.5% vs. 9.6%, p = 0.01), good response (44.7% vs. 25.2%, p = 0.006), and lower T stages (p = 0.021) compared with Group B1; however, Groups A2 and A3 did not show any improvement compared with Groups B2 and B3. Multivariate analysis showed that increases in primary tumors in the rectum and good response were only significant when capecitabine was administered 1 hour before radiotherapy. Conclusion: In preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer, the pathologic response could be improved by administering capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy.

  15. Role of laparoscopy in rectal cancer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, Ido; Mazeh, Haggi

    2014-01-01

    Despite established evidence on the advantages of laparoscopy in colon cancer resection, the use of laparoscopy for rectal cancer resection is still controversial. The initial concern was mainly regarding the feasibility of laparoscopy to achieve an adequate total mesorectal excision specimen. These concerns have been raised following early studies demonstrating higher rates of circumferential margins positivity following laparoscopic resection, as compared to open surgery. Similar to colon resection, patients undergoing laparoscopic rectal cancer resection are expected to benefit from a shorter length of hospital stay, less analgesic requirements, and a faster recovery of bowel function. In the past decade there have been an increasing number of large scale clinical trials investigating the oncological and perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic rectal cancer resection. In this review we summarize the current literature available on laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. PMID:24803801

  16. Simultaneous Laparoscopy-Assisted Resection for Rectal and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jiafeng; Chen, Tufeng; Zheng, Zongheng; Wei, Bo; Huang, Yong; Huang, Jianglong; Xu, Haozhong

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopy-assisted surgery for either rectal or gastric cancer has been increasingly performed. However, simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for synchronous rectal and gastric cancer is rarely reported in the literature. In our study, 3 cases of patients who received simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for synchronous rectal and gastric cancer were recorded. The results showed that all 3 patients recovered well, with only 253 minutes of mean operation time, 57 mL of intraoperative blood loss, 5 cm of assisted operation incision, 4 days to resume oral intake, 12 days' postoperative hospital stay, and no complication or mortality. No recurrence or metastasis was found within the follow-up period of 22 months. When performed by surgeons with plentiful experience in laparoscopic technology, simultaneous laparoscopy-assisted resection for synchronous rectal and gastric cancer is safe and feasible, with the benefits of minimal trauma, fast recovery, and better cosmetic results, compared with open surgery. PMID:24960501

  17. Rectal diverticulum in a terrier dog: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi Mehrjerdi, Hossein; Mirshahi, Ali; Afkhami, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Rectal diverticulum is a rare condition in dogs characterized by formation of a pouch or sac due to hernial protrusion of the mucous membranes through a defect in the muscular coat of the rectum. A 12-year-old male terrier dog was admitted with a history of a left perineal swelling, dyschezia and tenesmus during the last five months. Digital rectal examination identified a weakness in the left pelvic diaphragm and feces-filled sac within the lateral wall of the rectum. Positive contrast radiography showed a marked solitary diverticulum (3.5 4 4.5 cm) with wide-orifice neck arising from the left rectal wall. Using a lateral approach, a large rectal diverticulum was found and diverticulectomy following standard herniorrhaphy was performed. The dog recovered uneventfully with no signs of dyschezia during the next three years. Diverticulectomy by lateral approach and perineal herniorrhaphy produced excellent results. PMID:25593689

  18. Refining Preoperative Therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In the PROSPECT trial, patients with locally advanced, resectable rectal cancer will be randomly assigned to receive either standard neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy or neoadjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy, with chemoradiation reserved for nonresponders.

  19. Rectal Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haitao; Wang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Rectal pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) will be a critical component of HIV prevention products due to the prevalence of unprotected receptive anal intercourse among men who have sex with men and heterosexual couples. Given the biological considerations of this compartment and the complexity of HIV infection, design of a successful rectal microbicide product faces a number of challenges. Important information is being compiled to begin to address deficits in knowledge toward design of rectal PrEP products for men and women. Aspects of formulation development and preclinical and clinical evaluation of rectal products studied to date are summarized in this review. This article is based on a presentation at the "Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies," held in Arlington, Virginia on February 2122, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188705

  20. Study Pinpoints Best Timing for Rectal Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... release from the American College of Surgeons. "This kind of analysis is what we need in medicine and surgery. We need to have good population-based data," Mantyh added. Colon and rectal cancers ...

  1. Trans-anal endoscopic microsurgery for internal rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Bloemendaal, A L A; De Schepper, M; Mishra, A; Hompes, R; Jones, O M; Lindsey, I; Cunningham, C

    2016-02-01

    Internal rectal prolapse can lead to obstructed defecation, faecal incontinence and pain. In treatment of frail or technically difficult patients, a perineal approach is often used, such as a Delorme's or a STARR. However, in case of very high take-off prolapse, these procedures are challenging if not unsuitable. We present trans-anal endoscopic microsurgery as surgical option for management of this uncommon type of rectal prolapse in specific cases. PMID:26690927

  2. High Rate of Sexual Dysfunction Following Surgery for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Caglar; Tinay, Ilker; Yegen, Cumhur

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although rectal cancer is a very common malignancy and has an improved cure rate in response to oncological treatment, research on rectal-cancer survivors' sexual function remains limited. Sexual dysfunction (SD) after rectal cancer treatment was measured, and possible predisposing factors that may have an impact on the development of this disorder were identified. Methods Patients undergoing curative rectal cancer surgery from January 2012 to September 2013 were surveyed using questionnaires. The female sexual function index or the International Index of Erectile Function was recorded. A multiple logistic regression was used to test associations of clinical factors with outcomes. Results Fifty-six men (56%) and 28 women (44%) who completed the questionnaire were included in the study. A total of 76 patients of the 86 patients (90.5%) with the diagnosis of rectal cancer who were included in this study reported different levels of SD after radical surgery. A total of 64 patients (76%) from the whole cohort reported moderate to severe SD after treatment of rectal cancer. Gender (P = 0.011) was independently associated with SD. Female patients reported significantly higher rates of moderate to severe SD than male patients. Patients were rarely treated for dysfunction. Conclusion Sexual problems after surgery for rectal cancer are common, but patients are rarely treated for SD. Female patients reported higher rates of SD than males. These results point out the importance of sexual (dys)function in survivors of rectal cancer. More attention should be drawn to this topic for clinical and research purposes. PMID:25360427

  3. Laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery: Where do we stand?

    PubMed Central

    Krane, Mukta K; Fichera, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Large comparative studies and multiple prospective randomized control trials (RCTs) have reported equivalence in short and long-term outcomes between the open and laparoscopic approaches for the surgical treatment of colon cancer which has heralded widespread acceptance for laparoscopic resection of colon cancer. In contrast, laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) for the treatment of rectal cancer has been welcomed with significantly less enthusiasm. While it is likely that patients with rectal cancer will experience the same benefits of early recovery and decreased postoperative pain from the laparoscopic approach, whether the same oncologic clearance, specifically an adequate TME can be obtained is of concern. The aim of the current study is to review the current level of evidence in the literature on laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery with regard to short-term and long-term oncologic outcomes. The data from 8 RCTs, 3 meta-analyses, and 2 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was reviewed. Current data suggests that laparoscopic rectal cancer resection may benefit patients with reduced blood loss, earlier return of bowel function, and shorter hospital length of stay. Concerns that laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery compromises short-term oncologic outcomes including number of lymph nodes retrieved and circumferential resection margin and jeopardizes long-term oncologic outcomes has not conclusively been refuted by the available literature. Laparoscopic rectal cancer resection is feasible but whether or not it compromises short-term or long-term results still needs to be further studied. PMID:23239912

  4. Geometric modeling, functional parameter calculation, and visualization of the in-vivo distended rectal wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Clifton R.; Manduca, Armando; Camp, Jon J.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Robb, Richard A.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2006-03-01

    The rectum can distend to accommodate stool, and contracts in response to distention during defecation. Rectal motor dysfunctions are implicated in the pathophysiology of functional defecation disorders and fecal incontinence. These rectal motor functions can be studied by intra-luminal measurements of pressure by manometry, or combined with volume during rectal balloon distention. Pressure-volume (p-v) relationships provide a global index of rectal mechanical properties. However, balloon distention alone does not measure luminal radius or wall thickness, which are necessary to compute wall tension and stress respectively. It has been suggested that the elastic modulus, which is the linear slope of the stress-strain relationship, is a more accurate measure of wall stiffness. Also, measurements of compliance may not reflect differences in rectal diameter between subjects prior to inflation, and imaging is necessary to determine if, as has been suggested, rectal pressure-volume relationships are affected by extra-rectal structures. We have developed a technique to measure rectal stress:strain relationships in humans, by simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during rectal balloon distention. After a conditioning distention, a rectal balloon was distended with water from 0 to 400 ml in 50 ml steps, and imaged at each step with MRI. The fluid filled balloon was segmented from each volume, the phase-ordered binary volumes were transformed into a geometric characterization of the inflated rectal surface. Taken together with measurements of balloon pressure and of rectal wall thickness, this model of the rectal surface was used to calculate regional values of curvature, tension, strain, and stress for the rectum. In summary, this technique has the unique ability to non-invasively measure the rectal stress:strain relationship and also determine if rectal expansion is limited by extra-rectal structures. This functional information allows the direct clinical analysis of rectal motor function and offers the potential for characterizing abnormal mechanical properties of the rectal wall in disease.

  5. The accuracy of endorectal ultrasonography in rectal cancer staging

    PubMed Central

    COTE, ADRIAN; GRAUR, FLORIN; LEBOVICI, ANDREI; MOIS, EMIL; AL HAJJAR, NADIM; MARE, CODRUTA; BADEA, RADU; IANCU, CORNEL

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims The incidence of rectal cancer in the European Union is about 35% of the total colorectal cancer incidence. Staging rectal cancer is important for planning treatment. It is essential for the management of rectal cancer to have adequate preoperative imaging, because accurate staging can influence the therapeutic strategy, type of resection, and candidacy for neoadjuvant therapy. The aim of this work is to evaluate the accuracy of endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) in rectal cancer staging. Methods A retrospective study was performed to assess the accuracy of ERUS by analyzing patients discharged from Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (IRGH) Cluj-Napoca, Romania, diagnosed with rectal cancer between 01 January 2011 and 31 December 2013. Patients who were preoperatively staged by other imaging methods and those who had ERUS performed in another service were excluded from the analysis. As inclusion criteria remained ERUS performed for patients with rectal cancer in IRGH Cluj-Napoca where they were also operated. We analyzed preoperative T stage obtained by ERUS and it was compared with the histopathology findings. Results The number of patients discharged with a diagnosis of rectal cancer were 200 (operated 157) in 2011, 193 (operated 151) in 2012, and 198 (operated 142) in 2013. We analyzed a total of 51 cases diagnosed with rectal cancer who performed ERUS in IRGH Cluj-Napoca. The results according to the T stage obtained by ERUS and histopathology test were: Under-stage T2= 25.0%, T3=7.9% of cases; Over-stage T2=25.0%, T3=31.6% and T4=60.0% of cases. Less than 20% of patients underwent preoperative radio-chemotherapy. Conclusions ERUS is a method of staging rectal cancer which is human dependent. ERUS is less accurate for T staging of stenotic tumours, but the accuracy may still be within acceptable limits. Surgeons use ERUS to adopt a treatment protocol, knowing the risk of under-staging and over-staging of this method. The accuracy of ERUS is higher in diagnosing rectal cancer in stages T1, T2 and even in stage T3 with malignant tumor which is not occlusive. ERUS is less accurate for T staging of locally advanced and stenotic tumours. PMID:26609269

  6. [A Case of Rectal Cancer with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis Successfully Treated with First-Line Panitumumab Monotherapy].

    PubMed

    Takahara, Bunji; Mima, Atsushi; Sasaki, Kiyomi; Mima, Kazumasa

    2015-07-01

    The patient was a 66-year-old man with progressive rectal cancer and portal vein tumor thrombosis near the porta hepatis. A subileus further complicated the situation. Therefore, an abdominoperineal resection was performed. As the KRAS gene was the wild-type gene, we administered panitumumab monotherapy every 2 weeks after the operation. Two months after the operation, the tumor marker levels were normal and the tumor size was reduced. Hence, oral capecitabine, with 1-week administration followed by 1-week of rest, was added to the therapy. In the 12 months after the operation, panitumumab was stopped once, and treatment with capecitabine alone was continued in the same schedule. As of 26 months, the disease showed a partial response using capecitabine alone. We report our experience of a case of rectal cancer with portal vein tumor thrombosis that was successfully treated with panitumumab. PMID:26197754

  7. Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.

    PubMed

    Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

    1991-09-28

    Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards. PMID:1681170

  8. Reverse-Hybrid Robotic Mesorectal Excision for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ja; You, Y. Nancy; Schlette, Erika; Nguyen, Sa; Skibber, John M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Chang, George J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The robotic system offers potential technical advantages over laparoscopy for total mesorectal excision with radical lymphadenectomy for rectal cancer. However, the requirement for fixed docking limits its utility when the working volume is large or patient repositioning is required. The purpose of this study was to evaluate short-term outcomes associated with a novel setup to perform total mesorectal excision and radical lymphadenectomy for rectal cancer by the use of a reverse hybrid robotic-laparoscopic approach. Methods This is a prospective consecutive cohort observational study of patients who underwent robotic rectal cancer resection from January 2009 to March 2011. During the study period a technique of reverse-hybrid robotic-laparoscopic rectal resection with radical lymphadenectomy was developed. This technique involves reversal of the operative sequence with lymphovascular and rectal dissection to precede proximal colonic mobilization. This technique evolved from a conventional hybrid resection with laparoscopic vascular control, colonic mobilization, and robotic pelvic dissection. Perioperative, and short-term oncologic outcomes were analyzed. Results Thirty patients underwent reverse-hybrid resection. Median tumor location was 5 cm (interquartile range 3-9) from the anal verge. Median BMI was 27.6 (interquartile range 25.0-32.1 kg/m2). Twenty (66.7%) received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. There were no conversions. Median blood loss was 100 mL (interquartile range 75-200). Total operation time was a median 369 (interquartile range 306-410) minutes. Median docking time was 6 (interquartile range 5-8) minutes and console time was 98 (interquartile range 88-140) minutes. Resection was R0 in all patients with no patients had an incomplete mesorectal resection. Six patients (20%) underwent extended lymph node dissection or en bloc resection. Conclusions Reverse-hybrid robotic surgery for rectal cancer maximizes the therapeutic applicability of the robotic and conventional laparoscopic techniques for optimized application in minimally invasive rectal surgery. PMID:22228169

  9. Studies on sustained-release suppositories. III. Rectal absorption of morphine in rabbits and prolongation of its absorption by alginic acid addition.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, S; Inoue, Y; Shimeno, T; Fujiwara, H

    1990-02-01

    Rectal absorption of morphine from various kinds of suppository bases was investigated. The extent of bioavailability of morphine by rectal administration varied with the bases used (30.5-97.5%), but every value was higher than that in the case of oral administration (13.5%). Witepsol bases were preferable to macrogol base for the rectal absorption of morphine. In particular, Witepsol S-55 or W-35 gave a higher plasma peak level than H-15 or E-75, whereas the difference in the mean residence times obtained from these bases could not be regarded as significant. Sustained-release suppositories of morphine could be prepared simply by mixing alginic acid (Alg) with morphine in a suppository base. Further, prolonged rectal absorption could be obtained by using these sustained-release suppositories, and the absorption rate was controlled by the amount of Alg added. It seems likely that the sustained release was due to the binding of morphine to Alg from the results of partition coefficient and binding ratio measurements in aqueous solution. The rapid initial absorption and the subsequent prolonged absorption of morphine simultaneously obtained from the morphine-Alg suppository may be useful in the clinical context. PMID:2337965

  10. Quantitative Assessment of Altered Rectal Mucosal Permeability Due to Rectally Applied Nonoxynol-9, Biopsy, and Simulated Intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Edward J.; Grohskopf, Lisa A.; Lee, Linda A.; Bakshi, Rahul P.; Hendrix, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Microbicide toxicity may reduce the efficacy of topical preexposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Noninvasive quantitative measures of microbicide toxicity would usefully inform microbicide development. Methods. Ten subjects received 3 one-time interventions: 5 mL of Normosol-R fluid alone (negative control), 5 mL of 2% nonoxynol-9 (N-9) gel, and 5 mL of Normosol-R with coital simulation and sigmoidoscopic biopsy (CS + BX). Each dose of N-9 and Normosol-R contained 500 µCi of 99mtechnetium–diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid. Plasma and urine radioactivity was assessed over 24 hours. Results. The plasma radioisotope concentration peaked 1 hour after N-9 dosing. The mean maximum radioisotope concentration after N-9 receipt was 12.0 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.8–21.0) and 8.4 times (95% CI, 5.2–13.5) the mean concentration after Normosol-R control receipt and CS + BX receipt, respectively; paired differences persisted for 24 hours. After N-9 dosing, the urine isotope level was 3.6 times (95% CI, 1.1–11.4) the level observed 8 hours after Normosol-R control receipt and 4.0 times (95% CI, 1.4–11.4) the level observed 4 hours after CS + BX receipt. Permeability after CS + BX receipt was greater than that after Normosol-R control receipt in 0–2-hour urine specimens only (mean permeability, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0–5.8) but was not greater in blood. Conclusions. Plasma sampling after rectal radioisotope administration provided quantitative estimates of altered mucosal permeability after chemical and mechanical stresses. Permeability testing may provide a useful noninvasive adjunct to assess the mucosal effects of candidate microbicides. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00389311. PMID:23325915

  11. Rectal Cancer Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Imaging Beyond Morphology.

    PubMed

    Prezzi, D; Goh, V

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has in recent years progressively established itself as one of the most valuable modalities for the diagnosis, staging and response assessment of rectal cancer and its use has largely focused on accurate morphological assessment. The potential of MRI, however, extends beyond detailed anatomical depiction: aspects of tissue physiology, such as perfusion, oxygenation and water molecule diffusivity, can be assessed indirectly. Functional MRI is rapidly evolving as a promising non-invasive assessment tool for tumour phenotyping and assessment of response to new therapeutic agents. In spite of promising experimental data, the evidence base for the application of functional MRI techniques in rectal cancer remains modest, reflecting the relatively poor agreement on technical protocols, image processing techniques and quantitative methodology to date, hampering routine integration into clinical management. This overview outlines the established strengths and the critical limitations of anatomical MRI in rectal cancer; it then introduces some of the functional MRI techniques and quantitative analysis methods that are currently available, describing their applicability in rectal cancer and reviewing the relevant literature; finally, it introduces the concept of a multi-parametric quantitative approach to rectal cancer. PMID:26586163

  12. Recent advances in robotic surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Soichiro; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Junichiro; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-08-01

    Robotic technology, which has recently been introduced to the field of surgery, is expected to be useful, particularly in treating rectal cancer where precise manipulation is necessary in the confined pelvic cavity. Robotic surgery overcomes the technical drawbacks inherent to laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer through the use of multi-articulated flexible tools, three-dimensional stable camera platforms, tremor filtering and motion scaling functions, and greater ergonomic and intuitive device manipulation. Assessments of the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery for rectal cancer have reported similar operation times, blood loss during surgery, rates of postoperative morbidity, and circumferential resection margin involvement when compared with laparoscopic surgery. Furthermore, rates of conversion to open surgery are reportedly lower with increased urinary and male sexual functions in the early postoperative period compared with laparoscopic surgery, demonstrating the technical advantages of robotic surgery for rectal cancer. However, long-term outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of robotic surgery for rectal cancer have not been fully evaluated yet; therefore, large-scale clinical studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of this new technology. PMID:26059248

  13. Sexual Function in Males After Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bruheim, Kjersti; Guren, Marianne G.; Dahl, Alv A.; Skovlund, Eva; Balteskard, Lise; Carlsen, Erik; Fossa, Sophie D.; Tveit, Kjell Magne

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Knowledge of sexual problems after pre- or postoperative radiotherapy (RT) with 50 Gy for rectal cancer is limited. In this study, we aimed to compare self-rated sexual functioning in irradiated (RT+) and nonirradiated (RT-) male patients at least 2 years after surgery for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients diagnosed with rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Male patients without recurrence at the time of the study. The International Index of Erectile Function, a self-rated instrument, was used to assess sexual functioning, and serum levels of serum testosterone were measured. Results: Questionnaires were returned from 241 patients a median of 4.5 years after surgery. The median age was 67 years at survey. RT+ patients (n = 108) had significantly poorer scores for erectile function, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction with sex life compared with RT- patients (n = 133). In multiple age-adjusted analysis, the odds ratio for moderate-severe erectile dysfunction in RT+ patients was 7.3 compared with RT- patients (p <0.001). Furthermore, erectile dysfunction of this degree was associated with low serum testosterone (p = 0.01). Conclusion: RT for rectal cancer is associated with significant long-term effects on sexual function in males.

  14. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer: The debate continues

    PubMed Central

    De Felice, Francesca; Musio, Daniela; Izzo, Luciano; Tombolini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Rectal carcinoma represents the 30% of all colorectal cancers, with about 40000 new cases/years. In the past two decades, the management of rectal cancer has made important progress, highlighting the main role of a multimodality strategy approach, combining surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Nowadays, surgery remains the primary treatment and neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, based on fluoropyrimidine (5-FU) continuous infusion, is considered the standard in locally advanced rectal carcinoma. The aim is to reduce the incidence of local recurrence and to perform a conservative surgery. To improve these purposes different drugs combination have been tested in the neo-adjuvant setting. At American Society of Clinical Oncology 2014 an important abstract was presented focusing on the role of adding oxaliplatin to concomitant treatment, in patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma. Rodel et al reported on the CAO/ARO/AIO-04 randomized phase III trial that compared standard treatment with 5-FU and radiation therapy, to oxaliplatin plus 5-FU in association with radiation therapy. The addition of oxaliplatin to the neo-adjuvant treatment has been shown to improve disease-free survival from 71.2% to 75.9% (P = 0.03). This editorial was planned to clarify the optimal treatment in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, considering the results from CAO/ARO/AIO-04 study. PMID:25516776

  15. Endorectal ultrasound for control of preoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, F; Kuntz, C; Schlag, P; Herfarth, C

    1993-01-01

    Endorectal ultrasound (EUS) is known to be a reliable method for preoperative staging of rectal tumors. In this study, EUS was used to select patients with rectal cancer suitable for preoperative radiation therapy. By performing EUS before and after radiation, the aim of the study was to evaluate the role of EUS in monitoring the effects of preoperative radiation therapy. In 17 patients with large T3 or T4 rectal tumors, a complete staging by EUS was done before and after radiation therapy. Beside a shrinkage of the tumor, there was a change of echopattern to more hyperechoic gray levels to be observed in the irradiated tumor. The rectal wall lost its normal architecture, and lymph nodes disappeared or changed their echopattern from echopoor to echorich. There was no down-staging of a tumor seen by EUS. Complete preoperative staging was correct in 13 of 17 patients because of endosonographic examination before and after preoperative radiation therapy. New interpretation criteria are given for evaluation of patients with rectal cancer treated by radiation therapy. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8424703

  16. [The surgical anatomy of the rectal and anal blood vessels].

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Klosterhalfen, B

    1988-01-01

    The authors examined 40 rectum specimens by angiography, preparation and staining methods to show the exact arterial vessel supply of the rectum and tried to find out whether a reason could be found for the relatively high rate of suture leaks after low resection of the rectum or not. The insertion of the levator muscle is a sort of vessel divide: caudal to the levator muscle the inferior rectal artery is the main supplying vessel, cranially the superior rectal artery. Here a vessel deficient-area always remains in the dorso-caudal sector of the rectal ampulla which cannot be compensated by another rectum-supplying vessel. The middle rectal artery supplies the rectum accessorily. The results are able to explain why the suture leaks are constantly observed in the dorso-caudal ampulla after profound anterior resection of the rectum. Furthermore the results account for the good healing tendency of coloanal anastomoses: the inferior rectal artery amply supplies the anal canal; there is not the same vessel-deficient area as found cranial to the levator muscle. PMID:3268710

  17. Chemoembolization Using Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Liver Metastases From Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-10

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

  18. Less-Invasive Surgery May Not Be Best Option for Rectal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Invasive Surgery May Not Be Best Option for Rectal Cancer Two studies found standard surgery was slightly more ... not match standard surgery for the treatment of rectal cancer, new research indicates. The finding is based on ...

  19. Acute effects of intravenous and rectal acetate on glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, ghrelin, adiponectin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Freeland, Kristin R; Wolever, Thomas M S

    2010-02-01

    In animals, colonic infusion of SCFA does not affect glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release whereas intravenous infusion does and SCFA may directly stimulate peptide YY (PYY) release. It is unknown whether SCFA and their route of administration affect human blood concentrations of GLP-1 and PYY. Our aim was to conduct a pilot study to determine the effects of intravenous and rectal acetate on blood concentrations of GLP-1, PYY, ghrelin, adiponectin and TNF-alpha in hyperinsulinaemic human subjects. Six hyperinsulinaemic female subjects were given 20 mmol sodium acetate intravenously, 60 mmol acetate rectally, or normal saline rectally or intravenously on four separate occasions in randomised order, with blood samples collected at 0, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. Change in plasma PYY was significantly higher after acetate and rectal infusions (9.69 and 13.78 pg/ml) compared with saline and intravenous (0.60 and - 3.1 pg/ml; P < 0.01), respectively. Change in plasma GLP-1 was increased by rectal and acetate infusions (0.25 and 0.23 mmol/l) v. intravenous and saline ( - 0.26 and - 0.19 mmol/l; P < 0.01). Acetate decreased TNF-alpha v. saline ( - 0.8 and 0.15 pg/ml; P < 0.05). Rectal infusions increased TNF-alpha and ghrelin (0.2 and 98.27 pg/ml) v. intravenous ( - 0.9 and - 40 pg/ml; P < 0.01). There was no effect of treatment on plasma adiponectin. These preliminary results suggest that acetate raises plasma PYY and GLP-1, and suppresses TNF-alpha. Also, distending the rectum increases PYY, GLP-1, TNF-alpha and ghrelin in hyperinsulinaemic females. Increasing colonic fermentation products, particularly acetate, could yield a new mechanism for modifying weight gain. PMID:19818198

  20. [Perineo-ano-rectal injuries: clinical experience].

    PubMed

    La Greca, Gaetano; Gagliardo, Salvatrice; Sofia, Maria; Barbagallo, Francesco; Chisari, Andrea; Latteri, Saverio; Pontillo, Tindaro; Politi, Antonio; Russello, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic lesions involving the rectum, perineum and anus are infrequent but difficult to treat, requiring experience with trauma and colo-proctological surgery. The aim of the treatment is to repair the lesions and to minimise the early complications which are the main cause of failure and of late complications and disability. The most complicated lesions present problems concerning either the surgical strategy or the surgical timing, both of which are essential for a successful outcome. The Authors analyse their recent clinical experience with 7 patients with complex traumatic lesions involving the rectum, perineum and anus, excluding those of gynaecological/obstetric origin and those not involving the sphincter. They evaluated the clinical history, causes and types of lesions, as well as treatment, complications and outcomes. Five of the lesions were caused by impalement, one by an explosion and one by a motorboat propeller blade. Six of the patients (85.7%) were treated by direct primary repair and one (14.3%) by secondary repair after a previous colostomy. All 7 patients achieved complete recovery of the lesions. Only two cases (28.6%) of early complications and one case (14.3%) of persistent minimal sphincter dysfunction occurred. On the basis of these good results, the clinical experience and the literature, the Authors suggest that these perineo-ano-rectal lesions, though often complex, may often be cured by early surgery, confining colostomy only to particular cases. In addition to experience with trauma and the timing of colo-proctological surgery, a knowledge of all the available surgical options is mandatory to achieve the best results. PMID:18389752

  1. ACR Appropriateness CriteriaRecurrent Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suh, W. Warren; Herman, Joseph M.; Blackstock, A. William; Hong, Theodore S.; Poggi, Matthew M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel; Small, William; Thomas, Charles R.; Zook, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions. These Criteria are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The development and review of these guidelines includes an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Local recurrence of rectal cancer can result in devastating symptoms for patients, including intractable pain and discharge. Prior treatment can limit subsequent treatment options. Preoperative 5-FU based chemoradiotherapy is the treatment of choice for patients with a local recurrence who did not receive adjuvant therapy after initial resection or who might have received chemotherapy alone. Chemoradiotherapy followed by evaluation for surgery is the preferred treatment for patients who have undergone previous radiotherapy after surgery. The inclusion of surgery has resulted in the best outcomes in a majority of studies. Palliative chemoradiotherapy is appropriate for patients who have received previous radiotherapy whose recurrent disease is considered inoperable. Radiotherapy can be delivered on a standard or hyperfractionated treatment schedule. Newer systemic treatments have improved response rates and given physicians more options for treating patients in this difficult situation. The use of induction chemotherapy prior to radiotherapy is an evolving treatment option. Specialized treatment modalities should be used at institutions with experience in these techniques and preferably in patients enrolled in clinical trials. PMID:22574231

  2. Neo-adjuvant radiotherapy in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Glimelius, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    In rectal cancer treatment, attention has focused on the local primary tumour and the regional tumour cell deposits to diminish the risk of a loco-regional recurrence. Several large randomized trials have also shown that combinations of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have markedly reduced the risk of a loco-regional recurrence, but this has not yet had any major influence on overall survival. The best results have been achieved when the radiotherapy has been given preoperatively. Preoperative radiotherapy improves loco-regional control even when surgery has been optimized to improve lateral clearance, i.e., when a total mesorectal excision has been performed. The relative reduction is then 50%-70%. The value of radiotherapy has not been tested in combination with more extensive surgery including lateral lymph node clearance, as practised in some Asian countries. Many details about how the radiotherapy is performed are still open for discussion, and practice varies between countries. A highly fractionated radiation schedule (5 Gy 5), proven efficacious in many trials, has gained much popularity in some countries, whereas a conventionally fractionated regimen (1.8-2.0 Gy 25-28), often combined with chemotherapy, is used in other countries. The additional therapy adds morbidity to the morbidity that surgery causes, and should therefore be administered only when the risk of loco-regional recurrence is sufficiently high. The best integration of the weakest modality, to date the drugs (conventional cytotoxics and biologicals) is not known. A new generation of trials exploring the best sequence of treatments is required. Furthermore, there is a great need to develop predictors of response, so that treatment can be further individualized and not solely based upon clinical factors and anatomic imaging. PMID:24379566

  3. [Current MRI staging of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Wietek, B M; Kratt, T

    2012-11-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is the second most prevalent cause for cancer, and has very variable outcomes. Advancements in surgery, the change from adjuvant to neo-adjuvant radio-chemo-therapies as well as in clinical diagnostics have improved the prognosis for patients in a multi-modal therapy concept. An accurate primary staging including a reliable prediction of the circumferential resection margin (CRM) has established MR Imaging (MRI) beside intraluminal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). MRI facilitates the selection of patients likely to benefit from a preoperative therapy, especially in cases of unfavorable factors. Currently the relationship of the tumor to the mesorectal fascia has become a more important prognostic factor than the T-staging, particularly for surgical therapy. In addition further prognostic factors like the depth of infiltration into the perirectal fat and the extramural venous infiltration (EMVI) have important impact on therapy and prognosis. High resolution MRI has proved useful in clarifying the relationship between the tumor and the mesorectal fascia, which represents the CRM at the total mesorectal excision (TME) especially in the upper and middle third. Preoperative evaluation of the other prognostic factors as well as the nodal status is still difficult. It is used increasingly not only for primary staging but also progressively for the monitoring of neoadjuvant therapy. The addition of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is an interesting option for the improvement of response evaluation. The following overview provides an introduction of MRI diagnosis as well as its importance for the evaluation of the clinically relevant prognostic factors leading to an improvement of therapy and prognosis of patients with rectal carcinoma. PMID:22893486

  4. Quantification of Organ Motion During Chemoradiotherapy of Rectal Cancer Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Irene; Hawkins, Maria; Hansen, Vibeke; Thomas, Karen; McNair, Helen; O'Neill, Brian; Aitken, Alexandra; Tait, Diana

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: There has been no previously published data related to the quantification of rectal motion using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) during standard conformal long-course chemoradiotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the interfractional changes in rectal movement and dimensions and rectal and bladder volume using CBCT and to quantify the bony anatomy displacements to calculate the margins required to account for systematic ({Sigma}) and random ({sigma}) setup errors. Methods and Materials: CBCT images were acquired from 16 patients on the first 3 days of treatment and weekly thereafter. The rectum and bladder were outlined on all CBCT images. The interfraction movement was measured using fixed bony landmarks as references to define the rectal location (upper, mid, and low), The maximal rectal diameter at the three rectal locations was also measured. The bony anatomy displacements were quantified, allowing the calculation of systematic ({Sigma}) and random ({sigma}) setup errors. Results: A total of 123 CBCT data sets were analyzed. Analysis of variance for standard deviation from planning scans showed that rectal anterior and lateral wall movement differed significantly by rectal location. Anterior and lateral rectal wall movements were larger in the mid and upper rectum compared with the low rectum. The posterior rectal wall movement did not change significantly with the rectal location. The rectal diameter changed more in the mid and upper than in the low rectum. No consistent relationship was found between the rectal and bladder volume and time, nor was a significant relationship found between the rectal volume and bladder volume. Conclusions: In the present study, the anterior and lateral rectal movement and rectal diameter were found to change most in the upper rectum, followed by the mid rectum, with the smallest changes seen in the low rectum. Asymmetric margins are warranted to ensure phase 2 coverage.

  5. Assessment of pharmacokinetics and tolerability of intranasal diazepam relative to rectal gel in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Henney, Herbert R; Sperling, Michael R; Rabinowicz, Adrian L; Bream, Gary; Carrazana, Enrique J

    2014-09-01

    Diazepam rectal gel (RG) is currently the only approved rescue therapy for outpatient management of seizure clusters in the United States. There is an unmet medical need for an alternative rescue therapy for seizure clusters that is effective, and more convenient to administer with a socially acceptable method of delivery. An intranasal diazepam formulation has been developed, and this study evaluates the tolerability and bioavailability of diazepam nasal spray (NS) relative to an equivalent dose of diazepam-RG in healthy adults. Twenty-four healthy adults were enrolled in a phase 1, open-label, 3-period crossover study. Plasma diazepam and metabolite concentrations were measured by serial sampling. Dose proportionality for 5- and 20-mg intranasal doses and the bioavailability of 20mg diazepam-NS relative to 20mg diazepam-RG were assessed by maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and systemic exposure parameters (AUC0-? and AUC0-24). The mean Cmax values for 20mg diazepam-NS and 20mg diazepam-RG were 378 106 and 328 152 ng/mL, achieved at 1.0 and 1.5h, respectively. Subjects administered intranasal and rectal gel formulations experienced nasal and rectal leakage, respectively. Diazepam absorption following intranasal administration was consistent but 3 subjects with diazepam-RG had low plasma drug levels at the earliest assessment of 5 min, due to poor retention, and were excluded from analysis. Excluding them, the treatment ratios (20mg diazepam-NS:20mg diazepam-RG) and 90% confidence intervals for diazepam Cmax and AUC0-24 were 0.98 (0.85-1.14) and 0.89 (0.80-0.98), respectively, suggesting that the bioavailability was comparable between the two formulations. Dose proportionality was observed between the lowest and highest dose-strengths of intranasal formulation. Both intranasal and rectal treatments were well tolerated with mild to moderate adverse events. Results suggest that a single-dose of 20mg diazepam-NS is tolerable and comparable in bioavailability to that of diazepam-RG. The intranasal formulation may provide caregivers and patients with a more socially acceptable and convenient alternative rescue therapy in the acute treatment of seizure clusters. PMID:24934774

  6. [Prospect of transanal minimally invasive surgery for rectal neoplasm].

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhanlong; Ye, Yingjiang; Xie, Qiwei; Jiang, Kewei; Wang, Shan

    2015-05-01

    Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) is a kind of minimally invasive surgery that local resection or total mesorectal excision for rectal neoplasm is performed through the use of multichannel port(single port) transanally. Compared to transanal endoscopic microsurgery(TEM) approach, TAMIS offers an alternative to TEM for rectal neoplasm, and shows the advantage of lower cost and shorter learning curve. TAMIS approach has been used not only in the local resection of rectal neoplasm but also in transanal total mesorectal excision (transanal TME), which is also called TAMIS-TME, in recent four years. The safety and efficacy of TAMIS approach has been shown in the currently published literatures. However, TAMIS approach has to wait for more evidence-based data with larger-scale and longer follow-up to get its validation. PMID:26013854

  7. Emerging and Evolving Technology in Colon and Rectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bosio, Raul M; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2015-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has changed the way we manage many colon and rectal pathologies. Multiple techniques, from straight laparoscopic procedures, to hand-assisted and single-port techniques are available, requiring surgeons to go through various learning curves. Robotic surgery is a relatively novel technique in general surgery which appears to hold most promise for rectal resection. Laparoscopic rectal procedures are difficult, and even in experienced hands, conversion rates are around 17%. Robotic surgery may be a point of difference in these cases, despite a long learning curve and higher costs. This article will describe the role of robotics in colorectal surgery. Room set up, port placement, and docking strategies will be described for common procedures, with emphasis on a hybrid robotic low anterior resection. PMID:26491407

  8. Concurrent Occurrence of Uterovaginal and Rectal Prolapse: An Uncommon Presentation.

    PubMed

    Umeh, U A; Ugwu, E O; Obi, S N; Nnagbo, J E

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant uterovaginal and rectal prolapse is an uncommon occurrence. Where laparoscopic equipment and skills are lacking, sacrohysteropexy with synthetic mesh and rectopexy can be accomplished by laparotomy, especially in women who desire to retain their uterus for either biological or psychological reasons. A 40-year-old primipara with a history of concomitant mass protruding from both her vagina and anus following a spontaneous unsupervised delivery at home. Following pelvic examination, a diagnosis of uterovaginal and rectal prolapse was made. In view of her parity and desire to retain her reproductive function, she was offered abdominal sacrohysteropexy with synthetic mesh and rectopexy with satisfactory postoperative recovery. In resource-limited settings with concomitant uterine and rectal prolapse, open abdominal sacrohysteropexy with synthetic mesh and rectopexy is an effective and safe alternative to Manchester operation in the absence of laparoscopic equipment and skills. PMID:26500795

  9. Concurrent Occurrence of Uterovaginal and Rectal Prolapse: An Uncommon Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Umeh, UA; Ugwu, EO; Obi, SN; Nnagbo, JE

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant uterovaginal and rectal prolapse is an uncommon occurrence. Where laparoscopic equipment and skills are lacking, sacrohysteropexy with synthetic mesh and rectopexy can be accomplished by laparotomy, especially in women who desire to retain their uterus for either biological or psychological reasons. A 40-year-old primipara with a history of concomitant mass protruding from both her vagina and anus following a spontaneous unsupervised delivery at home. Following pelvic examination, a diagnosis of uterovaginal and rectal prolapse was made. In view of her parity and desire to retain her reproductive function, she was offered abdominal sacrohysteropexy with synthetic mesh and rectopexy with satisfactory postoperative recovery. In resource-limited settings with concomitant uterine and rectal prolapse, open abdominal sacrohysteropexy with synthetic mesh and rectopexy is an effective and safe alternative to Manchester operation in the absence of laparoscopic equipment and skills. PMID:26500795

  10. [A Case of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Curatively Resected Following Chemoradiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yohei; Terada, Itsuro; Terai, Shiro; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Kaji, Masahide; Maeda, Kiichi; Shimizu, Koichi

    2015-11-01

    A man in his 70s was referred to our hospital with anorexia, weight loss, and constipation. After examination by computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and colonoscopy, he was diagnosed as having a locally advanced rectal cancer with abscess formation. Because CT and MRI indicated that the tumor had invaded the seminal vesicle, prostate, and sacrum, we diagnosed it as an unresectable tumor. We treated the abscesses around the tumor by sigmoid colostomy with administration of antibiotics. After control of the infection, the patient received systemic chemotherapy with capecitabine/oxaliplatin (XELOX) plus bevacizumab (BV). After the 5th courses of XELOX plus BV, the primary tumor showed a tendency to shrink, but invasion to the neighboring organs was still seen. Therefore, we treated him with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using S-1. After completion of CRT with no significant adverse effects, the tumor invasion to the neighboring organs disappeared, and we performed a low anterior resection 9 weeks later. Pathological findings revealed that the tumor had shrunk remarkably and it was resected curatively, although a few tumor cells remained in the subserosal layer of the ulcerative scar caused by the CRT. His postoperative course was uneventful, and he underwent adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 for 3 months after discharge. To date, no disease recurrence has been detected. We report a case of locally advanced rectal cancer, which was curatively resected following chemoradiotherapy, along with a short literature review. PMID:26805354

  11. COX-2 verexpression in pretreatment biopsies predicts response of rectal cancers to neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Fraser M.; Reynolds, John V. . E-mail: reynoldsjv@stjames.ie; Kay, Elaine W.; Crotty, Paul; Murphy, James O.; Hollywood, Donal; Gaffney, Eoin F.; Stephens, Richard B.; Kennedy, M. John

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the utility of COX-2 expression as a response predictor for patients with rectal cancer who are undergoing neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment biopsies (PTB) from 49 patients who underwent RCT were included. COX-2 and proliferation in PTB were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL stain. Response to treatment was assessed by a 5-point tumor-regression grade (TRG) based on the ratio of residual tumor to fibrosis. Results: Good response (TRG 1 + 2), moderate response (TRG 3), and poor response (TRG 4 + 5) were seen in 21 patients (42%), 11 patients (22%), and 17 patients (34%), respectively. Patients with COX-2 overexpression in PTB were more likely to demonstrate moderate or poor response (TRG 3 + 4) to treatment than were those with normal COX-2 expression (p = 0.026, chi-square test). Similarly, poor response was more likely if patients had low levels of spontaneous apoptosis in PTBs (p = 0.0007, chi-square test). Conclusions: COX-2 overexpression and reduced apoptosis in PTB can predict poor response of rectal cancer to RCT. As COX-2 inhibitors are commercially available, their administration to patients who overexpress COX-2 warrants assessment in clinical trials in an attempt to increase overall response rates.

  12. Variability of Marker-Based Rectal Dose Evaluation in HDR Cervical Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhou; Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Malhotra, Harish K.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2010-01-01

    In film-based intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer, position of the rectal markers may not accurately represent the anterior rectal wall. This study was aimed at analyzing the variability of rectal dose estimation as a result of interfractional variation of marker placement. A cohort of five patients treated with multiple-fraction tandem and ovoid high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy was studied. The cervical os point and the orientation of the applicators were matched among all fractional plans for each patient. Rectal points obtained from all fractions were then input into each clinical treated plan. New fractional rectal doses were obtained and a new cumulative rectal dose for each patient was calculated. The maximum interfractional variation of distances between rectal dose points and the closest source positions was 1.1 cm. The corresponding maximum variability of fractional rectal dose was 65.5%. The percentage difference in cumulative rectal dose estimation for each patient was 5.4%, 19.6%, 34.6%, 23.4%, and 13.9%, respectively. In conclusion, care should be taken when using rectal markers as reference points for estimating rectal dose in HDR cervical brachytherapy. The best estimate of true rectal dose for each fraction should be determined by the most anterior point among all fractions.

  13. Human Collagen Injections to Reduce Rectal Dose During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, William R.; Hosford, Charles C.; Schultz, Steven E.

    2012-04-01

    Objectives: The continuing search for interventions, which address the incidence and grade of rectal toxicities associated with radiation treatment of prostate cancer, is a major concern. We are reporting an investigational trial using human collagen to increase the distance between the prostate and anterior rectal wall, thereby decreasing the radiation dose to the rectum. Methods: This is a pilot study evaluating the use of human collagen as a displacing agent for the rectal wall injected before starting a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Using a transperineal approach, 20 mL of human collagen was injected into the perirectal space in an outpatient setting. Computerized IMRT plans were performed pre- and postcollagen injection, and after a patient completed their radiotherapy, to determine radiation dose reduction to the rectum associated with the collagen injection. Computed tomography scans were performed 6 months and 12 months after completing their radiotherapy to evaluate absorption rate of the collagen. All patients were treated with IMRT to a dose of 75.6 Gy to the prostate. Results: Eleven patients were enrolled into the study. The injection of human collagen in the outpatient setting was well tolerated. The mean separation between the prostate and anterior rectum was 12.7 mm. The mean reduction in dose to the anterior rectal wall was 50%. All men denied any rectal symptoms during the study. Conclusions: The transperineal injection of human collagen for the purpose of tissue displacement is well tolerated in the outpatient setting. The increased separation between the prostate and rectum resulted in a significant decrease in radiation dose to the rectum while receiving IMRT and was associated with no rectal toxicities.

  14. Rectal foreign bodies: imaging assessment and medicolegal aspects.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio; Miele, Vittorio; Pinto, Fabio; Mizio, Veronica Di; Panico, Maria Rita; Muzj, Carlo; Romano, Luigia

    2015-02-01

    The amount of patients presenting at the emergency hospitals with retained rectal foreign bodies appears recently to have increased. Foreign objects retained in the rectum may result from direct introduction through the anus (more common) or from ingestion. Affected individuals often make ineffective attempts to extract the object themselves, resulting in additional delay of medical care and potentially increasing the risk of complications. The goals of radiological patient assessment are to identify the type of object retained, its location, and the presence of associated complications. Plain film radiographs still play an important role in the assessment of retained rectal foreign bodies. PMID:25639182

  15. Rectal tonsil: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Joung Boom; Kim, Hyung Wook; Kang, Dae Hwan; Choi, Cheol Woong; Park, Su Bum; Kim, Dong Jun; Ji, Byoung Hoon; Koh, Kyung Won

    2015-01-01

    The rectal tonsil, a reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue located in the rectum, is rare. Histologically, benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the rectum is usually characterized by large lymphoid follicles with active germinal centers and a narrow surrounding mantle zone and marginal zone. This lesion is benign, but must be differentiated from the polypoid type of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. In the current paper, we present a case of rectal tonsil in a 59-year-old woman. We describe the endoscopic ultrasound imaging findings with literature review. PMID:25741169

  16. Rectal irrigation for patients with functional bowel disorders.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Dawn

    Functional bowel disorders encompass a number of symptoms including abdominal, pelvic and/or anal pain, bloating, nausea, disturbed bowel function, faecal urgency or incontinence, straining to evacuate bowels, incomplete emptying and constipation. This article examines the causes and effects of functional bowel problems on patients' quality of life. It provides an overview of the treatment options and clinical management of these conditions, focusing on biofeedback and rectal irrigation. The author reports results from a small scale audit at her hospital and concludes that rectal irrigation is a valuable treatment option for patients with functional bowel disorders. PMID:20373612

  17. Surgical aspect of colo-rectal cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, A.

    1982-10-01

    With the exception of endocavitary irradiation therapy for a small rectal tumor, the only radical treatment for large bowel cancer is surgery. Improvements in the surgical techniques seem to have reached the highest possibility of efficacy in the control of this malignant disease. New surgical procedures introduced recently improved only the quality of life of the patients undergoing surgery. On the other hand, the addition of adjuvant radiotherapy pre- or postoperatively, compels the surgeon to modify the surgical aspect of the treatment of rectal cancer.

  18. [SIDE-TO-END ANASTOMOSIS IN LOW ANTERIOR RECTAL RESECTION].

    PubMed

    Shelygin, Iu A; Budtuev, A S; Pikunov, D Iu; Rybakov, E G; Fomenko, O Iu; Sevost'ianov, S I

    2015-01-01

    The authors have launched a prospective randomized study aimed to make a comparison of functional results of formation of straight coloanal (control group) and side-to end (main group) anastomosis in case of low anterior rectal resection since 2012. Each group consisted of 40 patients undergoing operation concerning uncomplicated rectal cancer of medium-ampullar section of rectum. It was noted that patients of the main group had lower stool frequency in postoperative period. A function of the interior sphincter was less damaged and the rate of compliance of rectum was high. PMID:26234063

  19. Orbital metastasis as the inaugural presentation of occult rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cherif, Eya; Ben Hassine, Lamia; Azzabi, Samira; Khalfallah, Narjess

    2014-01-01

    Orbital metastasis is uncommon and occurs in 2–3% of patients with cancer. It is rarely the initial manifestation of a systemic malignancy. It usually indicates extensive haematogenous dissemination of a primary cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Breast, lungs and prostate cancers are the most common primary cancers leading to orbital metastasis. However, orbital tumour revealing a rectal adenocarcinoma is exceptional. We describe a case of orbital tumour in a 67-year-old man with no history of systemic cancer while presenting with ophthalmic symptoms. Investigations revealed rectal adenocarcinoma as the primary malignant tumour. PMID:24481014

  20. Syphilitic proctitis mimicking rectal cancer: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wen-Tao; Liu, Jing; Li, Yu-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Syphilitic proctitis is a rare disease. It usually presents as proctitis, ulcer and neoplasm but lacks pathognomonic clinical symptoms. It is, therefore, difficult to diagnose and is occasionally treated inappropriately. We report the case of a 51-year-old man who had a hard, ulcerated mass, which occupied the circumference of the rectal wall and which mimicked a rectal tumor. Fortunately, positive finding from routine toluidine red unheated serum test and treponema pallidum particle agglutination tests made us reevaluate the patient and led us to suspect syphilitic proctitis. This diagnosis was finally confirmed after successful penicillin G benzathine therapy which made surgery unnecessary. PMID:21607150

  1. Management of stage IV rectal cancer: Palliative options

    PubMed Central

    Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Sean M; Kennedy, Gregory D

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 30% of patients with rectal cancer present with metastatic disease. Many of these patients have symptoms of bleeding or obstruction. Several treatment options are available to deal with the various complications that may afflict these patients. Endorectal stenting, laser ablation, and operative resection are a few of the options available to the patient with a malignant large bowel obstruction. A thorough understanding of treatment options will ensure the patient is offered the most effective therapy with the least amount of associated morbidity. In this review, we describe various options for palliation of symptoms in patients with metastatic rectal cancer. Additionally, we briefly discuss treatment for asymptomatic patients with metastatic disease. PMID:21412493

  2. Rectal fist insertion. An unusual form of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Shook, L L; Whittle, R; Rose, E F

    1985-12-01

    Rectal fist insertion (fist fucking) is an uncommon and potentially dangerous sexual practice. This is usually a homosexual activity, but can also be a heterosexual or an autoerotic practice. One known death has been reported associated with rectal fist insertion, in which the complications of anal and colonic tears and bleeding had occurred (see Editor's note). The possibility of drug overdose is also probable, as drugs and alcohol are commonly introduced into the rectum to promote sphincter relaxation and to ease the discomfort of anal dilatation. PMID:4072987

  3. Microstructure imaging of human rectal mucosa using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N. R.; Chen, G.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.; Zhuo, S. M.; Zheng, L. Q.; Jiang, X. S.

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has high resolution and sensitivity. In this study, MPM was used to image microstructure of human rectal mucosa. The morphology and distribution of the main components in mucosa layer, absorptive cells and goblet cells in the epithelium, abundant intestinal glands in the lamina propria and smooth muscle fibers in the muscularis mucosa were clearly monitored. The variations of these components were tightly relevant to the pathology in gastrointestine system, especially early rectal cancer. The obtained images will be helpful for the diagnosis of early colorectal cancer.

  4. [Use of water-soluble beta-cyclodextrin derivatives as carriers of anti-inflammatory drug biphenylylacetic acid in rectal delivery].

    PubMed

    Arima, H; Kondo, T; Irie, T; Hirayama, F; Uekama, K; Miyaji, T; Inoue, Y

    1992-01-01

    To improve the rectal delivery of an anti-inflammatory drug, biphenylylacetic acid (BPAA), the use of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CyD) and heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (DM-beta-CyD) was investigated. Inclusion complex formations of BPAA with both beta-CyDs in a molar ratio of 1:1 in water were ascertained, and their stability constants were determined. The dissolution of BPAA in water and the release of BPAA from an oleaginous suppository (Witepsol H-5) were significantly increased by beta-CyDs, depending on the magnitude of the stability constants of the water-soluble complexes. However, the serum levels of BPAA after rectal administration of the suppositories containing BPAA or its beta-CyDs complexes in rats increased in the order of BPAA alone much less than DM-beta-CyD less than or equal to HP-beta-CyD complex. The in situ recirculation study revealed that the greater the stability constant of the complex, the lesser was the absorption of BPAA from the rectal lumen of rats under the solution state. Both in vivo and in situ studies demonstrated that rather high amount of HP-beta-CyD (about 20% of dose) was absorbable from the rat's rectum, compared with DM-beta-CyD (less than 5% of dose), suggesting the possibility of the permeation of BPAA through the rectal membrane in the form of HP-beta-CyD complex. Furthermore, DM-beta-CyD and HP-beta-CyD significantly reduced the irritation of the rectal mucosa caused by BPAA after the administration of the suppositories to rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1578346

  5. Pre-referral rectal artesunate for severe malaria

    PubMed Central

    Okebe, Joseph; Eisenhut, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe or complicated malaria is a medical emergency and people die as a result of delays in starting treatment. Most patients need parenteral treatment, and in primary healthcare facilities, where intravenous therapy is not available but intramuscular injections can be given, intramuscular quinine, artesunate, and artemether have been used before transporting patients to hospital. However, in rural settings with limited access to health care, intramuscular injections may also be unavailable. In these situations, rectal artesunate given prior to transfer to hospital by volunteers with little medical training, may be a feasible option. Objectives To evaluate the effects of pre-referral treatment with rectal artesunate on mortality and morbidity in people with severe malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE and LILACS up to 21 May 2014. We also searched the WHO clinical trial registry platform and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) for ongoing trials. Selection criteria Individual or cluster-randomized controlled trials comparing pre-referral rectal artesunate with placebo or injectable antimalarials in children and children with severe malaria. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts for potentially eligible trials, and extracted data from the included trials. Dichotomous outcomes were summarized using risk ratios (RR) and presented with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Where data allowed, we conducted subgroup analyses by age, trial region and whether participants were included in the trial analysis. We assessed the quality of evidence for the most important outcomes using the GRADE approach. Main results One trial met the inclusion criteria; a placebo-controlled trial of 17,826 children and adults living in rural villages in Ghana and Tanzania (Africa) and Bangladesh (Asia). Villagers with no previous medical training were trained to recognize the symptoms of severe malaria, administer rectal artesunate and refer patients to hospital. The trained villagers were supervised during the trial period. In the African sites only children aged 6 to 72 months were enrolled, whereas in Bangladesh, older children and adults were also enrolled. In young children (aged 6 to 72 months) there were fewer deaths following rectal artesunate than with placebo (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.93; one trial; 8050 participants; moderate quality evidence), while in older children and adults there were more deaths in those given rectal artesunate (RR 2.21; 95% CI 1.18 to 4.15; one trial; 4018 participants; low quality evidence). In Africa, only 56% of participants reached a secondary healthcare facility within six hours compared to over 90% in Asia. There were no differences between the intervention and control groups in the proportion of participants reaching a healthcare facility within six hours (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.01; 12,068 participants), or in the proportion with parasitaemia (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.02; 17,826 participants), or with coma or convulsions on arrival (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.14; 12,068 participants). There are no existing trials that compare rectal versus intramuscular artesunate. Authors' conclusions In rural areas without access to injectable antimalarials rectal artesunate provided before transfer to a referral facility probably reduces mortality in severely ill young children compared to referral without treatment. However, the unexpected finding of possible higher mortality in older children and adults has to be taken into account in forming any national or local policies about pre-referral rectal artesunate. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Rectal artesunate for treating people with suspected severe malaria before transfer to hospital Cochrane Collaboration researchers conducted a review of the effects of pre-referral rectal artesunate for people with suspected severe malaria, living in rural areas without healthcare services. After searching for all relevant trials up to May 2014 they included only one randomized controlled trial. This trial was conducted at various sites across Ghana, Tanzania and Bangladesh, and enrolled 17,826 children and adults. What is severe malaria and how might pre-referral rectal artesunate reduce deaths? Severe malaria is a serious medical condition caused by infection with the Plasmodium parasite which typically causes vomiting, anaemia, fitting, coma, and death. It is treated by giving injections of antimalarial drugs, which need to be started as quickly as possible to reduce the risk of death and brain damage. In some rural areas where malaria is common, people have to travel for several hours to reach healthcare clinics and hospitals, and many die on the way. In these settings, people without formal healthcare education could be trained to give artesunate rectally to start treating malaria before transporting the patient to hospital. What the research says Only one trial evaluated rectal artesunate as pre-referral treatment. In the African sites only, children aged 6 to 72 months were included in the trial; while in the Asian trial site, older children and adults were included. Young children in the African and Asian trial sites (aged 6 to 72 months) had fewer deaths with rectal artesunate than with placebo (moderate quality evidence). However, in Asia among older children and adults, there were more deaths in those that received rectal artesunate (low quality evidence). In the African sites, 56% of children took longer than six hours to reach hospital whereas over 90% of people in the Asian site reached hospital within six hours. The unexpected finding of more deaths with rectal artesunate in older children and adults should be taken into account when forming national and local policies about pre-referral treatment. PMID:24869943

  6. The Expression Level and Prognostic Value of Y-Box Binding Protein-1 in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Ping-Wu; Feng, Gang; Xie, Gang; Wang, An-Qun; Yang, Yong-Hong; Wang, Dong; Du, Xiao-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to simultaneously evaluate the expression of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) in non-neoplastic rectal tissue and rectal cancer tissue, and to collect clinical follow-up data for individual patients. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the developmental functions and prognostic value of YB-1 in rectal cancer. We performed immunohistochemical studies to examine YB-1 expression in tissue samples from 80 patients with rectal cancer, 30 patients with rectal tubular adenoma, and 30 patients with rectitis. The mean YB-1 histological scores for rectal cancer, rectal tubular adenoma, and rectitis tissue specimens were 205.5, 164.3, and 137.7, respectively. Shorter disease-free and overall survival times were found in patients with rectal cancer who had higher YB-1 expression than in those with lower expression (38.2 months vs. 52.4 months, P = 0.013; and 44.4 months vs. 57.3 months, P = 0.008, respectively). Our results indicate that YB-1 expression is higher in rectal cancer tissue than in rectal tubular adenoma and rectitis tissue and that it may be an independent prognostic factor for rectal cancer. PMID:25790262

  7. [Fecal incontinence and rectal prolapse. Clinico-functional assessment].

    PubMed

    Santini, L; Pezzullo, L; Caracò, C; Candela, G; Esposito, B

    1995-09-01

    Rectal Prolapse is a rare and distressing condition, with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Often, this pathology is associated with fecal incontinence. The recommended approach to the patient with rectal prolapse and fecal incontinence is to repair the prolapse first, then deal particularly with fecal incontinence at a second operation. A retrospective, clinical and manometric study has varying degrees of fecal incontinence. Clinically five of their operation, and a further three patients improved, in two patients the degree of fecal incontinence remained invariable. One patient was worsened after surgery. Manometrically resting and pressure (RAP) was significantly higher in continent patients than in voluntary contraction pressure (MVCP) (p < 0.05) in preoperative testing. Postoperatively, there was a significant increase in the resting anal pressure as well as in maximum voluntary contraction pressure. Patients who remained incontinent had a significantly lower RAP and MVCP than patients who improved our regained continence. In conclusion this study shows an alteration of internal and external sphincteric function in patients with rectal prolapse. The surgical treatment of this disease improves sphincteric function. Incontinent patients with RAP < 10 mmHg and MCVP < 20 mmHg, probably they would be better treated simultaneously either for rectal prolapsus and incontinence. In this kind of patients the perianal proctectomy with total sphincteroplasty could be the elective treatment. PMID:8587707

  8. Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Srikumar, T; Markow, M; Centeno, B; Hoffe, S; Tao, J; Fernandez, H; Strosberg, J; Shibata, D

    2016-02-01

    Synchronous cancers of different primary origin are rare. Here, we describe the case of a patient with concomitant diagnoses of rectal adenocarcinoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma (smzl). A 57-year-old woman initially presented with abdominal pain. Physical examination and computed tomography demonstrated massive splenomegaly, and a complete blood count revealed microcytic anemia and lymphopenia. During the subsequent evaluation, she presented with hematochezia, melena, and constipation, which prompted gastroenterology referral. Subsequent endoscopic rectal ultrasonography revealed a T3N1 moderately differentiated rectal adenocarcinoma, with computed tomography imaging of chest, abdomen, and pelvis confirming no metastasis. Thus, the cancer was classified as clinical stage T3N1M0, stage iii. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed co-existing marginal zone lymphoma, and with the clinical presentation of massive splenomegaly, a diagnosis of smzl was made. The patient's management was individually tailored for simultaneous optimal treatment of both conditions. Concurrent treatment with neoadjuvant rituximab and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy, with external-beam radiation therapy to the pelvis, was administered, followed by surgery consisting of en bloc splenectomy and distal pancreatectomy, and low anterior resection. The patient completed a standard course of adjuvant folfox (fluorouracil-leucovorin-oxaliplatin) chemotherapy and has remained disease-free for 7 years. To our knowledge, this report is the first to specifically describe simultaneous diagnoses of locally advanced rectal cancer and smzl. We also describe the successful combined neoadjuvant treatment combination of 5-fluorouracil, rituximab, and pelvic radiation. PMID:26966416

  9. Rectal Foreign Bodies: What Is the Current Standard?

    PubMed Central

    Cologne, Kyle G.; Ault, Glenn T.

    2012-01-01

    Rectal foreign bodies represent a challenging and unique field of colorectal trauma. The approach includes a careful history and physical examination, a high index of suspicion for any evidence of perforation, a creative approach to nonoperative removal, and appropriate short-term follow-up to detect any delayed perforation. PMID:24294123

  10. Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

  11. Retrospective review of rectal cancer surgery in northern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Jean-Sbastien; DeGara, Christopher; Porter, Geoff; Ghosh, Sunita; Schiller, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies, including research published more than 10 years ago in Northern Alberta, have demonstrated improved outcomes with increased surgical volume and subspecialisation in the treatment of rectal cancer. We sought to examine contemporary rectal cancer care in the same region to determine whether practice patterns have changed and whether outcomes have improved. Methods We reviewed the charts of all patients with rectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 1998 and 2003 who had a potentially curative resection. The main outcomes examined were 5-year local recurrence (LR) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Surgeons were classified into 3 groups according to training and volume, and we compared outcome measures among them. We also compared our results to those of the previous study from our region. Results We included 433 cases in the study. Subspecialty-trained colorectal surgeons performed 35% of all surgeries in our study compared to 16% in the previous study. The overall 5-year LR rate and DSS in our study were improved compared to the previous study. On multivariate analysis, the only factor associated with increased 5-year LR was presence of obstruction, and the factors associated with decreased 5-year DSS were high-volume noncolorectal surgeons, presence of obstruction and increased stage. Conclusion Over the past 10 years, the long-term outcomes of treatment for rectal cancer have improved. We found that surgical subspecialization was associated with improved DSS but not LR. Increased surgical volume was not associated with LR or DSS. PMID:23883504

  12. Total pelvic exenteration for rectal cancer: outcomes and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Domes, Trustin S.; Colquhoun, Patrick H.D.; Taylor, Brian; Izawa, Jonathan I.; House, Andrew A.; Luke, Patrick P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background To perform complete resection of locally advanced and recurrent rectal carcinoma, total pelvic exenteration (TPE) may be attempted. We identified disease-related outcomes and prognostic factors. Methods We conducted a single-centre review of patients who underwent TPE for rectal carcinoma over a 10-year period. Results We included 28 patients in our study. After a median follow-up of 35 months, 53.6% of patients were alive with no evidence of disease. The 3-year actuarial disease-free and overall survival rates were 52.2% and 75.1%, respectively. On univariate analysis, recurrent disease, preoperative body mass index greater than 30 and lymphatic invasion were poor prognostic factors for disease-free survival, and only lymphatic invasion predicted overall survival. Additionally, multivariate analysis identified lymphatic invasion as an independent poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival in this patient population with locally advanced and recurrent rectal carcinoma. Conclusion Despite the significant morbidity, TPE can provide long-term survival in patients with rectal carcinoma. Additionally, lymphatic invasion on final pathology was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival. PMID:21939606

  13. Surgical Correction of Rectal Prolapse in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    Uchihashi, Mayu; Wilding, Laura A; Nowland, Megan H

    2015-01-01

    Rectal prolapse is a common clinical problem in laboratory mice. This condition may occur spontaneously, develop after genetic manipulations, result from infections with pathogens such as Citrobacter species, or arise secondary to experimental design such as colitis models. The current standard of care at our institution is limited to monitoring mice until tissue becomes ulcerated or necrotic; this strategy often leads to premature euthanasia of valuable animals prior to the study endpoint. Surgical correction of rectal prolapse is performed routinely and with minimal complications in larger species by using manual reduction with placement of a pursestring suture. In this report, we investigated whether the use of a pursestring suture was an effective treatment for mice with rectal prolapse. The procedure includes anesthetizing mice with isoflurane, manually reducing prolapsed tissue, and placing a pursestring suture of 4-0 polydioxanone. We have performed this procedure successfully in 12 mice. Complications included self-trauma, fecal impaction due to lack of defecation, and mutilation of the surgical site by cage mates. Singly housing mice for 7 d postoperatively, applying multimodal analgesia, and releasing the pursestring when indicated eliminated these complications. The surgical repair of rectal prolapses in mice is a minimally invasive procedure that resolves the clinical symptoms of affected animals and reduces the number of mice that are euthanized prematurely prior to the study endpoint. PMID:26442289

  14. Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD. PMID:25552833

  15. Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD. PMID:25552833

  16. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in children: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; Haghighat, Mahmood

    2012-12-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a benign and chronic disorder well known in young adults and less in children. It is often related to prolonged excessive straining or abnormal defecation and clinically presents as rectal bleeding, copious mucus discharge, feeling of incomplete defecation, and rarely rectal prolapse. SRUS is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histological findings. The current treatments are suboptimal, and despite correct diagnosis, outcomes can be unsatisfactory. Some treatment protocols for SRUS include conservative management such as family reassurance, regulation of toilet habits, avoidance of straining, encouragement of a high-fiber diet, topical treatments with salicylate, sulfasalazine, steroids and sucralfate, and surgery. In children, SRUS is relatively uncommon but troublesome and easily misdiagnosed with other common diseases, however, it is being reported more than in the past. This condition in children is benign; however, morbidity is an important problem as reflected by persistence of symptoms, especially rectal bleeding. In this review, we discuss current diagnosis and treatment for SRUS. PMID:23236227

  17. Surgical Correction of Rectal Prolapse in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Uchihashi, Mayu; Wilding, Laura A; Nowland, Megan H

    2015-07-01

    Rectal prolapse is a common clinical problem in laboratory mice. This condition may occur spontaneously, develop after genetic manipulations, result from infections with pathogens such as Citrobacter species, or arise secondary to experimental design such as colitis models. The current standard of care at our institution is limited to monitoring mice until tissue becomes ulcerated or necrotic; this strategy often leads to premature euthanasia of valuable animals prior to the study endpoint. Surgical correction of rectal prolapse is performed routinely and with minimal complications in larger species by using manual reduction with placement of a pursestring suture. In this report, we investigated whether the use of a pursestring suture was an effective treatment for mice with rectal prolapse. The procedure includes anesthetizing mice with isoflurane, manually reducing prolapsed tissue, and placing a pursestring suture of 4-0 polydioxanone. We have performed this procedure successfully in 12 mice. Complications included self-trauma, fecal impaction due to lack of defecation, and mutilation of the surgical site by cage mates. Singly housing mice for 7 d postoperatively, applying multimodal analgesia, and releasing the pursestring when indicated eliminated these complications. The surgical repair of rectal prolapses in mice is a minimally invasive procedure that resolves the clinical symptoms of affected animals and reduces the number of mice that are euthanized prematurely prior to the study endpoint. PMID:26442289

  18. Synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Srikumar, T.; Markow, M.; Centeno, B.; Hoffe, S.; Tao, J.; Fernandez, H.; Strosberg, J.; Shibata, D.

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous cancers of different primary origin are rare. Here, we describe the case of a patient with concomitant diagnoses of rectal adenocarcinoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma (smzl). A 57-year-old woman initially presented with abdominal pain. Physical examination and computed tomography demonstrated massive splenomegaly, and a complete blood count revealed microcytic anemia and lymphopenia. During the subsequent evaluation, she presented with hematochezia, melena, and constipation, which prompted gastroenterology referral. Subsequent endoscopic rectal ultrasonography revealed a T3N1 moderately differentiated rectal adenocarcinoma, with computed tomography imaging of chest, abdomen, and pelvis confirming no metastasis. Thus, the cancer was classified as clinical stage T3N1M0, stage iii. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed co-existing marginal zone lymphoma, and with the clinical presentation of massive splenomegaly, a diagnosis of smzl was made. The patient’s management was individually tailored for simultaneous optimal treatment of both conditions. Concurrent treatment with neoadjuvant rituximab and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy, with external-beam radiation therapy to the pelvis, was administered, followed by surgery consisting of en bloc splenectomy and distal pancreatectomy, and low anterior resection. The patient completed a standard course of adjuvant folfox (fluorouracil–leucovorin–oxaliplatin) chemotherapy and has remained disease-free for 7 years. To our knowledge, this report is the first to specifically describe simultaneous diagnoses of locally advanced rectal cancer and smzl. We also describe the successful combined neoadjuvant treatment combination of 5-fluorouracil, rituximab, and pelvic radiation. PMID:26966416

  19. [Stevens-Johnson syndrome induced by regorafenib in a patient with progressive recurrent rectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mihara, Yutaro; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Nakama, Takekuni; Nakayama, Goichi; Kamei, Hideki; Ishibashi, Nobuya; Uchida, Shinji; Akagi, Yoshito; Ogata, Yutaka

    2015-02-01

    A 55-year-old man with rectal carcinoma underwent lower anterior resection. Eight years after surgery, multiple metastases were detected in the liver, lung, and abdominal lymph nodes. The metastatic cancers were resistant to standard chemotherapy. Thus, regorafenib was administered to the patient. The patient presented symptoms of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) nine days after regorafenib administration, and hence, treatment was terminated. To treat SJS, he received oral and topical steroid therapies. SJS is an important adverse event that hinders the continuation of regorafenib treatment. Thus, it is necessary to continually check the patient's skin condition carefully, especially at early stages of treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SJS arising during the course of regorafenib treatment. PMID:25743146

  20. Three-dimensional endosonography for staging of rectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hünerbein, M; Schlag, P M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This prospective study was conducted to investigate the value of three-dimensional (3D) endosonography for staging of rectal cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Transrectal ultrasound is the most sensitive technique for peroperative staging and follow-up of rectal cancer. Major limitations of this technique include the complexity of image interpretation and the inability to examine stenotic tumors or to identify recurrent rectal cancer. METHODS: Three-dimensional endosonography was performed in 100 patients with rectal tumors. Transrectal volume scans were obtained using a 3D multiplane transducer (7.5/10.0 MHz). Stenotic tumors were examined with a 3D frontfire transducer (5.0/7.5 MHz). The volume scans were processed and analyzed on a Combison 530 workstation (Kretztechnik, Zipf, Austria). RESULTS: The 3D endosonography and conventional endosonography were performed in 49 patients with nonstenotic rectal cancer. Display of volume data in three perpendicular planes or as 3D view facilitated the interpretation of ultrasound images and enhanced the diagnostic information of the data. The accuracy of 3D endosonography in the assessment of infiltration depth was 88% compared to 82% with the conventional technique. In the determination of lymph node involvement, 3D and two-dimensional endosonography provided accuracy rates of 79% and 74%, respectively. The 3D scanning allowed the visualization of obstructing tumors using reconstructed planes in front of the transducer. Correct assessment of the infiltration depth was possible in 15 of 21 patients with obstructing tumors (accuracy, 76%). Three-dimensional endosonography displayed suspicious pararectal lesions in 30 patients. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy was extremely precise (accuracy, 98%) and showed malignancy in 10 of 30 patients. Histologic analysis changed the endosonographic diagnosis in 8 (27%) of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: The 3D endosonography permits examination of rectal cancer using previously unattainable planes and 3D views. The 3D imaging and ultrasound-guided biopsy seem capable to improve staging of rectal cancer and should be evaluated in further studies. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9114803

  1. [Radiological diagnostics and follow-up of rectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Vogl, T J; Pegios, W; Bechstein, W O; Floeter, J

    2006-10-01

    Rectal carcinoma is one of the most frequent malignant tumors in adulthood. Not only after total resection but also after partial resection of the tumor with postoperative radiochemotherapy a sufficient follow-up is necessary to diagnose recurrent rectal cancer as early as possible. Various guidelines suggest different intervals for physical examinations and diagnostic methods depending on the initial tumor stage. In addition to routine examinations, the physician can choose between CT, MRI, endosonography and functional imaging techniques such as PET and immunoscintigraphy for further evaluation if a recurrent rectal cancer is suspected. Multiple studies and meta-analyses show the differences in the specificity and sensitivity of the diagnostic methods in the detection of lymph nodes, metastases, and local tumor infiltration. Endosonography and endorectal MRI show very good results in staging local tumor infiltration. However, obstructive lesions can inhibit an adequate examination. CT provides prompt and convincing results in the evaluation of the metastases. Most of the time the tumor can be identified but the lack of detailed imaging makes it hard to perform sufficient staging. Additionally image-guided biopsy can be performed. Immunoscintigraphy and PET have a high specificity because they take advantage of the tumor's metabolism. The introduction of the PET-CT has eliminated the disadvantage of low image resolution. In addition to the detection of small nodular pulmonary metastases, MRI with its "phased-array" coils is another excellent tool for the diagnosis of recurrent rectal cancer and search for metastases. This review shows the advantages and disadvantages of each diagnostic method in the visualization of recurrent rectal cancer. PMID:17021976

  2. Preliminary report of a new treatment strategy for advanced pelvic malignancy: surgical resection and radiation therapy using afterloading catheters plus an inflatable displacement prosthesis in the treatment of advanced primary and recurrent rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Edington, H.D.; Hancock, S.; Coe, F.L.; Sugarbaker, P.H.

    1986-09-01

    An unsolved problem in colon and rectal surgery involves the treatment of locally invasive primary and recurrent rectal cancer. An approach is described that uses intracavitary iridium-192 sources in combination with a pelvic displacement prosthesis to augment external beam radiation doses to sites of residual disease identified at surgery. This approach should permit administration of tumoricidal doses of radiation to positive surgical margins minimizing radiation toxicity to the small bowel. The radiation source and all prosthetic materials are removed at the bedside within 2 weeks of surgery, ensuring accurate radiation dosimetry, minimizing infectious complications, and sparing the patient the need for full high-dose pelvic irradiation.

  3. Rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: Impact of rectal dose in high-dose-rate brachytherapy on occurrence of grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Akimoto, Tetsuo . E-mail: takimoto@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Kitamoto, Yoshizumi; Tamaki, Tomoaki; Harada, Kosaku; Shirai, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Takashi

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT), with special emphasis on the relationship between the incidence of rectal bleeding and the rectal dose from HDR brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 100 patients who were treated by HDR brachytherapy combined with EBRT for {>=}12 months were analyzed. The fractionation schema for HDR brachytherapy was prospectively changed, and the total radiation dose for EBRT was fixed at 51 Gy. The distribution of the fractionation schema used in the patients was as follows: 5 Gy x 5 in 13 patients; 7 Gy x 3 in 19 patients; and 9 Gy x 2 in 68 patients. Results: Ten patients (10%) developed Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding. Regarding the correlation with dosimetric factors, no significant differences were found in the average percentage of the entire rectal volume receiving 30%, 50%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed radiation dose from EBRT between those with bleeding and those without. The average percentage of the entire rectal volume receiving 10%, 30%, 50%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed radiation dose from HDR brachytherapy in those who developed rectal bleeding was 77.9%, 28.6%, 9.0%, 1.5%, and 0.3%, respectively, and was 69.2%, 22.2%, 6.6%, 0.9%, and 0.4%, respectively, in those without bleeding. The differences in the percentages of the entire rectal volume receiving 10%, 30%, and 50% between those with and without bleeding were statistically significant. Conclusions: The rectal dose from HDR brachytherapy for patients with prostate cancer may have a significant impact on the incidence of Grade 2 or worse rectal bleeding.

  4. Female users of internet-based screening for rectal STIs: descriptive statistics and correlates of positivity

    PubMed Central

    Ladd, Jessica; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Barnes, Mathilda; Quinn, Nicole; Jett-Goheen, Mary; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet-based screening for vaginal sexually transmitted infections (STI) has been shown to reach high-risk populations. Published studies of internet-based screening for rectal STIs in women are needed. Our objectives were to describe the female users of a rectal internet-based screening intervention and assess what factors correlated with rectal positivity for STIs. Methods The website http://www.iwantthekit.org offers free STI testing via home self-sampling kits. Women could order vaginal and rectal kits, both containing questionnaires. Rectal and vaginal swabs were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis using nucleic acid amplification tests. Data were analysed from 205 rectal kits from January 2009 through February 2011. Self-reported characteristics of participants were examined, and correlates of rectal STI positivity were analysed. Results Of the 205 rectal samples returned and eligible for testing, 38 (18.5%) were positive for at least one STI. The women were young (mean age 25.8 years), mostly AfricanAmerican (50.0%), and only 14.0% always used condoms. After adjusting for age and race, Black race (AOR=3.06) and vaginal STI positivity (AOR=40.6) were significantly correlated with rectal STI positivity. Of women testing positive for rectal STIs who also submitted vaginal swabs, 29.4% were negative in the vaginal sample. Conclusions Internet-based rectal screening can reach populations that appear to be at high risk for rectal STIs (18.5% prevalence) and led to the diagnosis of STIs in women who would not have been diagnosed vaginally. Black race and vaginal STI positivity were highly correlated with rectal STI positivity. PMID:24604333

  5. Dose Constraint for Minimizing Grade 2 Rectal Bleeding Following Brachytherapy Combined With External Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Rectal Dose-Volume Histogram Analysis of 457 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Yutaka; Yorozu, Atsunori; Ohashi, Toshio; Toya, Kazuhito; Seki, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kayo; Kaneda, Tomoya; Saito, Shiro; Nishiyama, Toru; Hanada, Takashi; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the rectal tolerance to Grade 2 rectal bleeding after I-125 seed brachytherapy combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), based on the rectal dose-volume histogram. Methods and Materials: A total of 458 consecutive patients with stages T1 to T3 prostate cancer received combined modality treatment consisting of I-125 seed implantation followed by EBRT to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The prescribed doses of brachytherapy and EBRT were 100 Gy and 45 Gy in 25 fractions, respectively. The rectal dosimetric factors were analyzed for rectal volumes receiving >100 Gy and >150 Gy (R100 and R150) during brachytherapy and for rectal volumes receiving >30 Gy to 40 Gy (V30-V40) during EBRT therapy in 373 patients for whom datasets were available. The patients were followed from 21 to 72 months (median, 45 months) after the I-125 seed implantation. Results: Forty-four patients (9.7%) developed Grade 2 rectal bleeding. On multivariate analysis, age (p = 0.014), R100 (p = 0.002), and V30 (p = 0.001) were identified as risk factors for Grade 2 rectal bleeding. The rectal bleeding rate increased as the R100 increased: 5.0% (2/40 patients) for 0 ml; 7.5% (20/267 patients) for >0 to 0.5 ml; 11.0% (11/100 patients) for >0.5 to 1 ml; 17.9% (5/28 patients) for >1 to 1.5 ml; and 27.3% (6/22 patients) for >1.5 ml (p = 0.014). Grade 2 rectal bleeding developed in 6.4% (12/188) of patients with a V30 {<=}35% and in 14.1% (26/185) of patients with a V30 >35% (p = 0.02). When these dose-volume parameters were considered in combination, the Grade 2 rectal bleeding rate was 4.2% (5/120 patients) for a R100 {<=}0.5 ml and a V30 {<=}35%, whereas it was 22.4% (13/58 patients) for R100 of >0.5 ml and V30 of >35%. Conclusion: The risk of rectal bleeding was found to be significantly volume-dependent in patients with prostate cancer who received combined modality treatment. Rectal dose-volume analysis is a practical method for predicting the risk of development of Grade 2 rectal bleeding.

  6. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  7. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC

  8. [The treatment of rectal cancer--the optimizing possibilities].

    PubMed

    Chifan, M; D?nil?, N; Niculescu, D; Trcoveanu, E; Georgescu, S; Epure, O; Andronic, D; G?le?anu, M R; Carasevici, E

    1996-01-01

    The authors studies 280 rectal cancers treated in the first surgical clinic of Ia?i in the period 1981-1994. Although surgery is the main treatment of these tumors, it cannot be and it must be not used alone. Surgery must be associated with radio- and chemotherapy, because is the only way possible to increase the number of resections for rectal tumors and the survival rate. For the 263 tumors operated the resectability was 73, 5%: Milles's operation 101 (36, 7%), Dixon's operation 81 (30, 79%), other operation 91 (33, 11%). We consider that Dixon's operation is the best choice for the tumors in the stages A and B of Dukes classifications. Preoperative radiotherapy can influence the tumor volume (downstaging) and decrease local recurrences to about 10-15%. Surgery alone must be practiced only in emergencies. Postoperative chemotherapy is mandatory and it reduces local recurrences and delays metastasis evolution. PMID:9455405

  9. Therapeutic approaches in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Combined-modality therapy, using radiotherapy and chemotherapy with surgery, has been the traditional therapeutic algorithm for locally advanced rectal cancer. Standard of care in the United States has evolved to include neoadjuvant concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed by surgical excision and adjuvant chemotherapy. This approach has led to a significant improvement in local recurrences (LR), to the point where distant sites are the more common site of failure. Further improvements in local control have failed to improve overall survival. This article reviews historical trials that shifted the treatment paradigm to the current standard of care, as well as recent research trials, which have sought to incorporate new treatment methodologies, and treatment agents to improve outcomes. Finally this article describes ongoing studies and their potential impact on the future of therapeutic management of locally-advanced rectal cancer. PMID:25276408

  10. Robotic technology: Optimizing the outcomes in rectal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Buchs, Nicolas C

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive rectal resection remains a challenging procedure, even in experienced hands. Technical limitations explain at least in part the reasons of a relatively poor adoption of laparoscopy for rectal resection, in particular for low tumors in a deep and narrow pelvis. Robotics is intended to overcome these limitations. Potentially better short-term outcomes have been published: reduced conversion rates, better functional outcomes, shorter learning curve, reduction of positive margins, better specimen However, robotic surgery has not yet taken over as the gold standard approach for low anterior resection. Several drawbacks might indeed discourage the most fervent surgeon: the size of the robot, the lack of tactile feedback, the risk and difficulties during multiquadrant surgery, and, of course, costs. Whilst new systems might overcome most of these drawbacks, it seems obvious that the development of robotic surgery is underway. Robotics is not just another interesting technical tool, but more a new concept, which should play a role in the future. PMID:26078918

  11. Prognostic Factors Affecting Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer and Clinical Significance of Hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Kuhn, Hildegard; Schultze, Juergen; Homann, Nils; Brandenburg, Bernd; Schulte, Rainer; Krull, Andreas; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate potential prognostic factors, including hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy, for associations with survival and local control in patients with unirradiated locally recurrent rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: Ten potential prognostic factors were investigated in 94 patients receiving radiotherapy for recurrent rectal cancer: age ({<=}68 vs. {>=}69 years), gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0-1 vs. 2-3), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage ({<=}II vs. III vs. IV), grading (G1-2 vs. G3), surgery, administration of chemotherapy, radiation dose (equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions: {<=}50 vs. >50 Gy), and hemoglobin levels before (<12 vs. {>=}12 g/dL) and during (majority of levels: <12 vs. {>=}12 g/dL) radiotherapy. Multivariate analyses were performed, including hemoglobin levels, either before or during radiotherapy (not both) because these are confounding variables. Results: Improved survival was associated with better performance status (p < 0.001), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.023), surgery (p = 0.011), chemotherapy (p = 0.003), and hemoglobin levels {>=}12 g/dL both before (p = 0.031) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, performance status, AJCC stage, and hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy maintained significance. Improved local control was associated with better performance status (p = 0.040), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.010), lower grading (p = 0.012), surgery (p < 0.001), chemotherapy (p < 0.001), and hemoglobin levels {>=}12 g/dL before (p < 0.001) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, chemotherapy, grading, and hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy remained significant. Subgroup analyses of the patients having surgery demonstrated the extent of resection to be significantly associated with local control (p = 0.011) but not with survival (p = 0.45). Conclusion: Predictors for outcome in patients who received radiotherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer were performance status, AJCC stage, chemotherapy, surgery, extent of resection, histologic grading, and hemoglobin levels both before and during radiotherapy.

  12. Colon and Rectal Surgery Without Mechanical Bowel Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Zmora, Oded; Mahajna, Ahmad; Bar-Zakai, Barak; Rosin, Danny; Hershko, Dan; Shabtai, Moshe; Krausz, Michael M.; Ayalon, Amram

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess whether elective colon and rectal surgery can be safely performed without preoperative mechanical bowel preparation. Summary Background Data Mechanical bowel preparation is routinely done before colon and rectal surgery, aimed at reducing the risk of postoperative infectious complications. However, in cases of penetrating colon trauma, primary colonic anastomosis has proven to be safe even though the bowel is not prepared. Methods Patients undergoing elective colon and rectal resections with primary anastomosis were prospectively randomized into two groups. Group A had mechanical bowel preparation with polyethylene glycol before surgery, and group B had their surgery without preoperative mechanical bowel preparation. Patients were followed up for 30 days for wound, anastomotic, and intra-abdominal infectious complications. Results Three hundred eighty patients were included in the study, 187 in group A and 193 in group B. Demographic characteristics, indications for surgery, and type of surgical procedure did not significantly differ between the two groups. Colo-colonic or colorectal anastomosis was performed in 63% of the patients in group A and 66% in group B. There was no difference in the rate of surgical infectious complications between the two groups. The overall infectious complications rate was 10.2% in group A and 8.8% in group B. Wound infection, anastomotic leak, and intra-abdominal abscess occurred in 6.4%, 3.7%, and 1.1% versus 5.7%, 2.1%, and 1%, respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that elective colon and rectal surgery may be safely performed without mechanical preparation. PMID:12616120

  13. Intensified neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy for rectal cancer enhances surgical complications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy has proven superior to adjuvant treatment in reducing the rate of local recurrence without impairing cancer related survival or the incidence of distant metastases. The present study aimed at addressing the effects of an intensified protocol of neoadjuvant treatment on the development of postoperative complications. Methods A total of 387 patients underwent oncological resection for rectal cancer in our institution between January 2000 and December 2009. 106 patients received an intensified radiochemotherapy. Perioperative morbidity and mortality were analyzed retrospectively with special attention on complication rates after intensified radio-chemotherapy. Therefore, for each patient subjected to neoadjuvant treatment a patient without neoadjuvant treatment was matched in the following order for tumor height, discontinuous resection/exstirpation, T-category of the TNM-system, dividing stoma and UICC stage. Results Of all patients operated for rectal cancer, 27.4% received an intensified neoadjuvant treatment. Tumor location in the matched patients were in the lower third (55.2%), middle third (41.0%) and upper third (3.8%) of the rectum. Postoperatively, surgical morbidity was higher after intensified neoadjuvant treatment. In the subgroup with low anterior resection (LAR) the anastomosis leakage rate was higher (26.6% vs. 9.7%) and in the subgroup of patients with rectal exstirpations the perineal wound infection rate was increased (42.2% vs. 18.8%) after intensified radiochemotherapy. Conclusions In rectal cancer the decision for an intensified neoadjuvant treatment comes along with an increase of anastomotic leakage and perineal wound infection. Quality of life is often reduced considerably and has to be balanced against the potential benefit of intensifying neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. PMID:24073705

  14. Systemic contact dermatitis due to amethocaine following digital rectal examination.

    PubMed

    Caro-Gutirrez, Dolores; Gmez-de la Fuente, Enrique; Pampn-Franco, Ana; Ascanio-Armada, Luca; Lpez-Estebaranz, Jos Luis

    2015-05-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis is a dermatitis that may occur in previously sensitized individuals when they are re-exposed to the allergen. Although many drugs have been implicated as a cause of systemic contact dermatitis, local anesthetics derived from caines have been rarely reported. We present a case of systemic contact dermatitis after a digital rectal examination with a urological lubricant containing amethocaine. PMID:26295864

  15. Rectal Carcinoma on 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Tung Tom; Fong, William; Thomas, Paul

    2016-03-01

    We report on a case of biopsy-proven and MRI-staged rectal carcinoma with avid prostate-specific membrane antigen (prostate-specific membrane antigen) uptake on Ga PET/CT as part of the workup for synchronous prostate cancer. This case adds to the growing number of observational reports on the presence of significant nonprostatic prostate-specific membrane antigen activity in malignant tumors and highlights the need for careful interpretation of unsuspected sites. PMID:26571447

  16. A case of rectal adenocarcinoma presented with palatine tonsil metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tonyali, Onder; Sumbul, Ahmet Taner; Ozturk, Mehmet Akif; Koyuncuer, Ali; Ekiz, Fuat

    2016-04-01

    The most common metastatic sites of colorectal cancer are liver, lung, peritoneum and lymph nodes. Metastasis of colorectal carcinoma to palatine tonsil is rarely seen. To our knowledge, only 11 patients were documented in English literature. Atypical metastases can sometimes lead to misdiagnosis. Precise diagnosis of atypical metastases requires a careful physical examination, good imaging method and comprehensive pathological evaluation. Here, we report a case of rectal adenocarcinoma presented with palatine tonsil metastasis. PMID:25538162

  17. Palpable Penile Metastases: A Bizarre Presentation of Rectal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cholin, Liza; Perz, Sarah; Mahmood, Furman; Zafar, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis to the penis is an uncommon occurrence, with only about 370 cases reported in the literature to date. The majority of the primary tumors are genitourinary in origin. We report on a patient with undiagnosed disseminated rectal adenocarcinoma, who first presented with lesions of the corporal bodies. A review of the literature indicates that corporeal metastasis as an initial presentation of malignancy is an extremely rare occurrence and carries a very poor prognosis. PMID:26435874

  18. Transvaginal resection of a rectal leiomyoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    MATSUHASHI, NOBUHISA; TAKAHASHI, TAKAO; ICHIKAWA, KENGO; TANAHASHI, TOSHIYUKI; SASAKI, YOSHIYUKI; TANAKA, YOSHIHIRO; OKUMURA, NAOKI; YAMAGUCHI, KAZUYA; OSADA, SHINJI; YOSHIDA, KAZUHIRO

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports the case of a patient with a rectal submucosal tumor (leiomyoma) that was resected transvaginally. A 51-year-old female presented with a rectal submucosal tumor on the anterior wall of the lower rectum, located within 3 cm of the anal verge. This location would normally require intersphincteric or abdominal perineal resection. However, in order to minimize the invasiveness of the treatment and reduce post-operative morbidity, transvaginal resection and laparoscopic diverting ileostomy were performed instead. With the patient under general anesthesia, the posterior vaginal mucosa was incised vertically. The tumor was then excised en bloc with the overlying rectovaginal septum and rectal submucosal tumor. A primary repair of the defect and a diverting stoma were performed. The procedure did not present any complications, and the patient was discharged on day 10 post-surgery. The diverting stoma was closed 3 months later, and the sphincter function of the patient following surgery was monitored by manometry. The results of the manometric tests indicated that the patient did not suffer from fecal incontinence. In addition, the patient did not experience anal dysfunction or discomfort following the surgical procedure. PMID:26788208

  19. Laparoscopic Resection for Rectal Cancer: What Is the Evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Dedrick Kok-Hong; Chong, Choon-Seng; Lieske, Bettina; Tan, Ker-Kan

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer is a well-established procedure supported by several well-conducted large-scale randomised controlled trials. Patients could now be conferred the benefits of the minimally invasive approach while retaining comparable oncologic outcomes to the open approach. However, the benefits of laparoscopic proctectomy for rectal cancer remained controversial. While the laparoscopic approach is more technically demanding, results from randomised controlled trials regarding long term oncologic outcomes are only beginning to be reported. The impacts of bladder and sexual functions following proctectomy are considerable and are important contributing factors to the patients' quality of life in the long-term. These issues present a delicate dilemma to the surgeon in his choice of operative approach in tackling rectal cancer. This is compounded further by the rapid proliferation of various laparoscopic techniques including the hand assisted, robotic assisted, and single port laparoscopy. This review article aims to draw on the significant studies which have been conducted to highlight the short- and long-term outcomes and evidence for laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer. PMID:24822196

  20. Extended resection and pelvic exenteration in distal third rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Garca-Granero, Eduardo; Frasson, Matteo; Trallero, Marta

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 10% of all low rectal cancer needs surgical resection extended to other pelvic structures. Indication for extended resection should be given according to a precise systemic and local preoperative staging. Magnetic Resonance Imaging is the most important instrument utilized by the Multidisciplinary Team to decide therapeutic strategy according to the surgical risk. The status of the pathological circumferential resection margin is the most important prognostic factor determining local recurrence risk and oncological outcome and for this reason it should be considered pivotal in the decision of the strategy of treatment. When extended resection is performed, the presence of an expert colorectal surgeon is mandatory, often coordinating a group of specialists including urologist, plastic surgeon, vascular surgeon and orthopaedist when sacrectomy is necessary. The most frequent extended resection in women with low rectal cancer is the partial resection of vagina. In men, the infiltration of the prostate could be treated with partial prostatectomy, total prostatectomy with bladder preservation or pelvic exenteration, total or posterior, when the bladder is infiltrated. Rectal cancer infiltration of the pelvic sidewalls or of the sacrum is less frequent and obliges to perform a total pelvic exenteration including sometimes the hypogastric vessel or extended to the sacrum. PMID:24842690

  1. HOSPITAL VARIATION IN SPHINCTER PRESERVATION FOR ELDERLY RECTAL CANCER PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Dodgion, Christopher M.; Neville, Bridget A; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Schrag, Deborah; Breen, Elizabeth; Zinner, Michael J.; Greenberg, Caprice C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate hospital variation in the use of low anterior resection (LAR), local excision (LE) and abdominoperineal resection (APR) in the treatment of rectal cancer in elderly patients. Methods Using SEER-Medicare linked data, we identified 4,959 stage IIII rectal cancer patients over age 65 diagnosed from 20002005 who underwent operative intervention at one of 370 hospitals. We evaluated the distribution of hospital-specific procedure rates and used generalized mixed models with random hospital effects to examine the influence of patient characteristics and hospital on operation type, using APR as a reference. Results The median hospital performed APR on 33% of elderly rectal cancer patients. Hospital was a stronger predictor of LAR receipt than any patient characteristic, explaining 32% of procedure choice, but not a strong predictor of LE, explaining only 3.8%. Receipt of LE was primarily related to tumor size and tumor stage, which, combined, explained 31% of procedure variation. Conclusions Receipt of local excision is primarily determined by patient characteristics. In contrast, the hospital where surgery is performed significantly influences whether a patient undergoes an LAR or APR. Understanding the factors that cause this institutional variation is crucial to ensuring equitable availability of sphincter preservation. PMID:24750983

  2. Laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Chan, Dedrick Kok-Hong; Chong, Choon-Seng; Lieske, Bettina; Tan, Ker-Kan

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer is a well-established procedure supported by several well-conducted large-scale randomised controlled trials. Patients could now be conferred the benefits of the minimally invasive approach while retaining comparable oncologic outcomes to the open approach. However, the benefits of laparoscopic proctectomy for rectal cancer remained controversial. While the laparoscopic approach is more technically demanding, results from randomised controlled trials regarding long term oncologic outcomes are only beginning to be reported. The impacts of bladder and sexual functions following proctectomy are considerable and are important contributing factors to the patients' quality of life in the long-term. These issues present a delicate dilemma to the surgeon in his choice of operative approach in tackling rectal cancer. This is compounded further by the rapid proliferation of various laparoscopic techniques including the hand assisted, robotic assisted, and single port laparoscopy. This review article aims to draw on the significant studies which have been conducted to highlight the short- and long-term outcomes and evidence for laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer. PMID:24822196

  3. Rectal Swabs for Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Budding, Andries E.; Grasman, Matthijs E.; Eck, Anat; Bogaards, Johannes A.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota is associated with various disease states, most notably inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and malnutrition. This underlines that analysis of intestinal microbiota is potentially an interesting target for clinical diagnostics. Currently, the most commonly used sample types are feces and mucosal biopsy specimens. Because sampling method, storage and processing of samples impact microbiota analysis, each sample type has its own limitations. An ideal sample type for use in routine diagnostics should be easy to obtain in a standardized fashion without perturbation of the microbiota. Rectal swabs may satisfy these criteria, but little is known about microbiota analysis on these sample types. In this study we investigated the characteristics and applicability of rectal swabs for gut microbiota profiling in a clinical routine setting in patients presenting with various gastro-intestinal disorders. We found that rectal swabs appeared to be a convenient means of sampling the human gut microbiota. Swabs can be performed on demand, whenever a patient presents; swab-derived microbiota profiles are reproducible, whether they are gathered at home by patients or by medical professionals in an outpatient setting and may be ideally suited for clinical diagnostics and large-scale studies. PMID:25020051

  4. [Emergency management of convulsions and prevention of status epilepticus with rectal diazepam administered by parents].

    PubMed

    Caldern Gonzlez, R

    1991-07-01

    The parents of 17 children with a history of convulsions, were shown how to administer liquid diazepam through the rectum using a 1 mL insulin syringe, in order to alleviate a convulsion at home or any where ever this may occur. Eight of the children had suffered from repetitive and/or prolonged non-temperature related convulsions, four had epileptic status and five had suffered from simple fever related convulsions, complicated in four and in a convulsive status in 1; the number of fever-related convulsions ranged between 1 and 6 per child and those non temperature related ranged from one daily to once a month. The observation of the children was done in an 88 month period (between 1 and nine months per child, averaging 5.2 months). In seven of the children, it was required of the parents to administer rectal diazepam a total of 90 times (fluctuating between 2 and 25 doses per child), with no complications, a dose of 0.5 mg/kg was administered in those patients whose convulsions lasted over 5 minutes or more. In 75 occasions, the convulsion stopped within a period of 2 to 5 minutes, in 12 other times there was a need for repeated dosages and in 2 occasions, a third doses was needed. Only in one occasion was hospital management needed. Therefore, we conclude that the administration of rectal diazepam by parents--at home--is a useful and secure method to prevent prolonged convulsions and the epileptic status; it gives parents security and tranquility using an instrument which can be used in any circumstance therefore reducing anguish and the cost of hospital care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1930715

  5. Which endoscopic treatment is the best for small rectal carcinoid tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun Ho; Kim, Jin Su; Cheung, Dae Young; Cho, Young-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of rectal carcinoids is rising because of the widespread use of screening colonoscopy. Rectal carcinoids detected incidentally are usually in earlier stages at diagnosis. Rectal carcinoids estimated endoscopically as < 10 mm in diameter without atypical features and confined to the submucosal layer can be removed endoscopically. Here, we review the efficacy and safety of various endoscopic treatments for small rectal carcinoid tumors, including conventional polypectomy, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), cap-assisted EMR (or aspiration lumpectomy), endoscopic submucosal resection with ligating device, endoscopic submucosal dissection, and transanal endoscopic microsurgery. It is necessary to carefully choose an effective and safe primary resection method for complete histological resection. PMID:24147192

  6. Laparoscopic Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (taTME) for Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Maykel, Justin A

    2015-10-01

    Proper treatment of adenocarcinoma of the rectum demands a systematic, multidisciplinary approach where surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment. An evolving shift toward minimally invasive surgical approaches for rectal cancer continues to be hampered by the challenges of reliable pelvic exposure and adequate instrumentation for rectal dissection, distal rectal division, and low pelvic anastomosis. The laparoscopic transanal total mesorectal excision surgery has been developed as a novel alternative that provides solutions to many of the limitations of conventional open, laparoscopic and robotic proctectomy. This manuscript will describe the procedure in detail and attempt to define its role as the optimal surgical approach for rectal resection. PMID:26129653

  7. Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding associated with solitary rectal ulcer in a patient with Behet's disease.

    PubMed

    Bes, C; Da?l?, ; Y?lmaz, F; Soy, M

    2015-01-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a rare benign disorder that has a wide range of clinical presentations and variable endoscopic findings which makes it difficult to diagnose and treat. The clinical and endoscopic picture in this condition can also mimic malign ulceration, malignancy or Crohn's disease. Behet's disease can affect the gastrointestinal tract. However to the best of our knowledge, no case with solitary rectal ulceration has been reported so far in literature. We herein present a patient diagnosed with Behet's disease admitted to our clinic with rectal bleeding due to solitary rectal ulceration. PMID:26492967

  8. Correlation of Chromosomal Instability, Telomere Length and Telomere Maintenance in Microsatellite Stable Rectal Cancer: A Molecular Subclass of Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Lisa A.; Johnson, Ruth A.; Viker, Kimberly B.; Hafner, Kari A.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Litzelman, Kristin; Seo, Songwon; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Rider, David N.; Vanderboom, Russell J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Skinner, Halcyon G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer (CRC) tumor DNA is characterized by chromosomal damage termed chromosomal instability (CIN) and excessively shortened telomeres. Up to 80% of CRC is microsatellite stable (MSS) and is historically considered to be chromosomally unstable (CIN+). However, tumor phenotyping depicts some MSS CRC with little or no genetic changes, thus being chromosomally stable (CIN-). MSS CIN- tumors have not been assessed for telomere attrition. Experimental Design MSS rectal cancers from patients ≤50 years old with Stage II (B2 or higher) or Stage III disease were assessed for CIN, telomere length and telomere maintenance mechanism (telomerase activation [TA]; alternative lengthening of telomeres [ALT]). Relative telomere length was measured by qPCR in somatic epithelial and cancer DNA. TA was measured with the TRAPeze assay, and tumors were evaluated for the presence of C-circles indicative of ALT. p53 mutation status was assessed in all available samples. DNA copy number changes were evaluated with Spectral Genomics aCGH. Results Tumors were classified as chromosomally stable (CIN-) and chromosomally instable (CIN+) by degree of DNA copy number changes. CIN- tumors (35%; n=6) had fewer copy number changes (<17% of their clones with DNA copy number changes) than CIN+ tumors (65%; n=13) which had high levels of copy number changes in 20% to 49% of clones. Telomere lengths were longer in CIN- compared to CIN+ tumors (p=0.0066) and in those in which telomerase was not activated (p=0.004). Tumors exhibiting activation of telomerase had shorter tumor telomeres (p=0.0040); and tended to be CIN+ (p=0.0949). Conclusions MSS rectal cancer appears to represent a heterogeneous group of tumors that may be categorized both on the basis of CIN status and telomere maintenance mechanism. MSS CIN- rectal cancers appear to have longer telomeres than those of MSS CIN+ rectal cancers and to utilize ALT rather than activation of telomerase. PMID:24278232

  9. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal near-infrared optical tomography of canine prostate bearing transmissible venereal tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Piao, Daqing

    2009-02-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography is conducted on a tumor-bearing canine prostate with the assistance of trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The canine prostate tumor model is made possible by a unique round cell neoplasm of dogs, transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) that can be transferred from dog to dog regardless of histocompatibility. A characterized TVT cell line was homogenized and passed twice in subcutaneous tissue of NOD/SCID mice. Following the second passage, the tumor was recovered, homogenized and then inoculated by ultrasound guidance into the prostate gland of a healthy dog. The dog was then imaged with a combined trans-rectal NIR and TRUS imager using an integrated trans-rectal NIR/US applicator. The image was taken by NIR and US modalities concurrently, both in sagittal view. The trans-rectal NIR imager is a continuous-wave system that illuminates 7 source channels sequentially by a fiber switch to deliver sufficient light power to the relatively more absorbing prostate tissue and samples 7 detection channels simultaneously by a gated intensified high-resolution CCD camera. This work tests the feasibility of detecting prostate tumor by trans-rectal NIR optical tomography and the benefit of augmenting TRUS with trans-rectal NIR imaging.

  10. SU-E-T-280: Reconstructed Rectal Wall Dose Map-Based Verification of Rectal Dose Sparing Effect According to Rectum Definition Methods and Dose Perturbation by Air Cavity in Endo-Rectal Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Park, H; Lee, J; Kang, S; Lee, M; Suh, T; Lee, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric effect and discrepancy according to the rectum definition methods and dose perturbation by air cavity in an endo-rectal balloon (ERB) were verified using rectal-wall (Rwall) dose maps considering systematic errors in dose optimization and calculation accuracy in intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) for prostate cancer patients. Methods: When the inflated ERB having average diameter of 4.5 cm and air volume of 100 cc is used for patient, Rwall doses were predicted by pencil-beam convolution (PBC), anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA), and AcurosXB (AXB) with material assignment function. The errors of dose optimization and calculation by separating air cavity from the whole rectum (Rwhole) were verified with measured rectal doses. The Rwall doses affected by the dose perturbation of air cavity were evaluated using a featured rectal phantom allowing insert of rolled-up gafchromic films and glass rod detectors placed along the rectum perimeter. Inner and outer Rwall doses were verified with reconstructed predicted rectal wall dose maps. Dose errors and extent at dose levels were evaluated with estimated rectal toxicity. Results: While AXB showed insignificant difference of target dose coverage, Rwall doses underestimated by up to 20% in dose optimization for the Rwhole than Rwall at all dose range except for the maximum dose. As dose optimization for Rwall was applied, the Rwall doses presented dose error less than 3% between dose calculation algorithm except for overestimation of maximum rectal dose up to 5% in PBC. Dose optimization for Rwhole caused dose difference of Rwall especially at intermediate doses. Conclusion: Dose optimization for Rwall could be suggested for more accurate prediction of rectal wall dose prediction and dose perturbation effect by air cavity in IMRT for prostate cancer. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) (Grant No. 200900420)

  11. Theatre Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Patti P., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The theme of this special journal issue is theatre administration. The journal is divided into four parts: a short introduction and three major sections on the role of the theatre chair, theatre administration in the 1980's, and evaluating creative work. Among others, topics covered in the issue's 13 articles include (1) the changing nature of the

  12. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of

  13. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  14. High Prevalence of Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Infection in Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Patricia Carr; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A.; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). Methods: This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Results: Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women <26 years of age (p=0.06) and those reporting sex while intoxicated/high on alcohol or drugs (p=0.05). For rectal CT, only age <26 years was associated with prevalent infection in unadjusted models; this association strengthened after multivariable adjustment (prevalence ratio: 6.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.2915.90). Conclusion: Nearly one in five women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have missed 14% of rectal infections. Standardized guidelines would increase rectal GC/CT testing in women and help detect missed infections. PMID:25692800

  15. H NMR-based metabolic profiling of human rectal cancer tissue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rectal cancer is one of the most prevalent tumor types. Understanding the metabolic profile of rectal cancer is important for developing therapeutic approaches and molecular diagnosis. Methods Here, we report a metabonomics profiling of tissue samples on a large cohort of human rectal cancer subjects (n?=?127) and normal controls (n?=?43) using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) based metabonomics assay, which is a highly sensitive and non-destructive method for the biomarker identification in biological systems. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal projection to latent structure with discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied to analyze the 1H-NMR profiling data to identify the distinguishing metabolites of rectal cancer. Results Excellent separation was obtained and distinguishing metabolites were observed among the different stages of rectal cancer tissues (stage I?=?35; stage II?=?37; stage III?=?37 and stage IV?=?18) and normal controls. A total of 38 differential metabolites were identified, 16 of which were closely correlated with the stage of rectal cancer. The up-regulation of 10 metabolites, including lactate, threonine, acetate, glutathione, uracil, succinate, serine, formate, lysine and tyrosine, were detected in the cancer tissues. On the other hand, 6 metabolites, including myo-inositol, taurine, phosphocreatine, creatine, betaine and dimethylglycine were decreased in cancer tissues. These modified metabolites revealed disturbance of energy, amino acids, ketone body and choline metabolism, which may be correlated with the progression of human rectal cancer. Conclusion Our findings firstly identify the distinguishing metabolites in different stages of rectal cancer tissues, indicating possibility of the attribution of metabolites disturbance to the progression of rectal cancer. The altered metabolites may be as potential biomarkers, which would provide a promising molecular diagnostic approach for clinical diagnosis of human rectal cancer. The role and underlying mechanism of metabolites in rectal cancer progression are worth being further investigated. PMID:24138801

  16. Rectal water absorption in seawater-adapted Japanese eel Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Ideuchi, Hiroki; Watanabe, Soichi; Park, Su Il; Huh, Min do; Kaneko, Toyoji

    2008-12-01

    Marine teleosts drink large amounts of seawater to compensate for continuous osmotic water loss. We investigated a possible significant role of the rectum in water absorption in seawater-adapted eel. In rectal sacs filled with balanced salt solution (BSS) and incubated in isotonic BSS, water absorption was greater in seawater-adapted eel than in freshwater eel. Since rectal fluid osmolality was slightly lower than plasma osmolality in seawater-adapted eel, effects of rectal fluid osmolality on water absorption were examined in rectal sacs filled with artificial rectal fluid with different osmolality. Rectal water absorption was greater at lower rectal fluid osmolality, suggesting that an osmotic gradient between the blood and rectal fluid drives the water movement. Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na+/K(+)-ATPase, inhibited water absorption in rectal sacs, indicating that an osmotic gradient favorable to rectal water absorption was created by ion uptake driven by Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Expression levels of aquaporin 1 (AQP1), a water-selective channel, were significantly higher in the rectum than in the anterior and posterior intestines. Immunoreaction for Na+/K(+)-ATPase was detected in the mucosal epithelial cells in the rectum with more intense staining in the basal half than in the apical half, whereas AQP1 was located in the apical membrane of Na+/K(+)-ATPase-immunoreactive epithelial cells. The rectum is spatially separated from the posterior intestine by a valve structure and from the anus by a sphincter. Such structures allow the rectum to swell as intestinal fluid flows into it, and a concomitant increase in hydrostatic pressure may provide an additional force for rectal water absorption. Our findings indicate that the rectum contributes greatly to high efficiency of intestinal water absorption by simultaneous absorption of ions and water. PMID:18687408

  17. Secondary Cancers After Radiation Therapy for Primary Prostate or Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yen-Chien; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Li, Chung-Yi; Chuang, Jen-Pin; Lee, Jenq-Chang

    2016-04-01

    Literature about the risk of secondary cancer after radiation therapy (RT) of prostate and rectal cancer reveals contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine whether the RT induces secondary rectal or prostate cancer in patients, respectively, with prostate or rectal cancer. All studies published in Medline or Pubmed up to March 3, 2015, containing RT of primary rectal or prostate cancer, and providing risk estimates of secondary prostate or rectal cancer were considered as eligible. Relative risk (RR) and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated using the random-effects model. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. 12 of them were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. For prostate cancer patients, pooled adjusted RRs or SIRs did not show an effect on the risk of secondary rectal cancer. However, notwithstanding the limitations of SEER-based studies, the subgroup of prostate cancer patients receiving external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) showed an increased risk of rectal cancer. For rectal cancer patients, pooled adjusted RR of prostate cancer was 1.12 (95 % CI, 0.44-2.8) and SIR was 0.40 (95 % CI, 0.29-0.55). All studies included in the SIR analysis of rectal cancer were derived from the SEER data source. Based on current evidence, RT for prostate cancer patients had no effect on rectal cancer incidence, except for patients who received EBRT therapy. However, compared with the general population, RT for rectal cancer is associated with a decreased prostate cancer risk as found in SEER-based studies. PMID:26711638

  18. Palliative Treatment of Rectal Carcinoma Recurrence Using Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Mylona, Sophia Karagiannis, Georgios Patsoura, Sofia; Galani, Panagiota; Pomoni, Maria; Thanos, Loukas

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the palliative treatment of recurrent unresectable rectal tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation. Therapy was performed with the patient under conscious sedation with a seven- or a nine-array expandable RF electrode for 8-10 min at 80-110 Degree-Sign C and a power of 90-110 W. All patients went home under instructions the next day of the procedure. Brief Pain Inventory score was calculated before and after (1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months) treatment. Results: Complete tumor necrosis rate was 77.8% (21 of a total 27 procedures) despite lesion location. BPI score was dramatically decreased after the procedure. The mean preprocedure BPI score was 6.59, which decreased to 3.15, 1.15, and 0.11 at postprocedure day 1, week 1, and month 1, respectively, after the procedure. This decrease was significant (p < 0.01 for the first day and p < 0.001 for the rest of the follow-up intervals (paired Student t test; n - 1 = 26) for all periods during follow-up. Six patients had partial tumor necrosis, and we were attempted to them with a second procedure. Although the necrosis area showed a radiographic increase, no complete necrosis was achieved (secondary success rate 65.6%). No immediate or delayed complications were observed. Conclusion: CT-guided RF ablation is a minimally invasive, safe, and highly effective technique for treatment of malignant rectal recurrence. The method is well tolerated by patients, and pain relief is quickly achieved.

  19. Phase II Study of Preoperative Helical Tomotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ridder, Mark de Tournel, Koen M.S.; Nieuwenhove, Yves van; Engels, Benedikt; Hoorens, Anne; Everaert, Hendrik; Beeck, Bart op de; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; De Greve, Jacques; Delvaux, Georges; Verellen, Dirk; Storme, Guy A.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To explore the efficacy and toxicity profile of helical tomotherapy in the preoperative treatment of patients with rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: Twenty-four patients with T3/T4 rectal cancer were included in this nonrandomized noncontrolled study. A dose of 46 Gy in daily fractions of 2 Gy was delivered to the presacral space and perineum if an abdominoperineal resection was deemed necessary. This dose was increased by a simultaneous integrated boost to 55.2 Gy when the circumferential resection margin was less than 2 mm on magnetic resonance imaging. Acute toxicity was evaluated weekly. Metabolic response was determined in the fifth week after the end of radiotherapy by means of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scan. A metabolic response was defined as a decrease in maximal standardized uptake value of more than 36%. Results: The mean volume of small bowel receiving more than 15 Gy and mean bladder dose were 227 ml and 20.8 Gy in the no-boost group and 141 ml and 21.5 Gy in the boost group. Only 1 patient developed Grade 3 enteritis. No other Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed. Two patients developed an anastomotic leak within 30 days after surgery. The metabolic response rate was 45% in the no-boost group compared with 77% in the boost group. All except 1 patient underwent an R0 resection. Conclusions: Helical tomotherapy may decrease gastrointestinal toxicity in the preoperative radiotherapy of patients with rectal cancer. A simultaneous integrated radiation boost seems to result in a high metabolic response rate without excessive toxicity.

  20. Preoperative infusional chemoradiation therapy for stage T3 rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, T.A.; Skibber, J.M.; Ajani, J.A.

    1995-07-15

    To evaluate preoperative infusional chemoradiation for patients with operable rectal cancer. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy using infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), (300 mg/m{sup 2}/day) together with daily irradiation (45 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks) was administered to 77 patients with clinically Stage T3 rectal cancer. Endoscopic ultrasound confirmed the digital rectal exam in 63 patients. Surgery was performed approximately 6 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation therapy and included 25 abdominoperineal resections and 52 anal-sphincter-preserving procedures. Posttreatment tumor stages were T1-2, N0 in 35%, T3, N0 in 25%, and T1-3, N1 in 11%; 29% had no evidence of tumor. Local tumor control after chemoradiation was seen in 96% (74 out of 77); 2 patients had recurrent disease at the anastomosis site and were treated successfully with abdominoperineal resection. Overall, pelvic control was obtained in 99% (76 out of 77). The survival after chemoradiation was higher in patients without node involvement than in those having node involvement (p = n.s.). More patients with pathologic complete responses or only microscopic foci survived than did patients who had gross residual tumor (p = 0.07). The actuarial survival rate was 83% at 3 years; the median follow-up was 27 months, with a range of 3 to 68 months. Acute, perioperative, and late complications were not more numerous or more severe with chemoradiation therapy than with traditional radiation therapy (XRT) alone. Excellent treatment response allowed two-thirds of the patients to have an anal-sphincter-sparing procedure. Gross residual disease in the resected specimen indicates a poor prognosis, and therapies specifically targeting these patients may improve survival further. 22 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Adjuvant therapy for rectal cancer--the transatlantic view.

    PubMed

    Minsky, B D

    2003-09-01

    In North America there are two conventional treatments for clinically resectable rectal cancer. First is surgery and, if the tumour is T3 and/or N1-2, this is followed by postoperative combined modality therapy. The second, for patients with ultrasound T3 or clinical T4 disease, is pre-operative combined modality therapy followed by surgery and postoperative chemotherapy. Pre-operative therapy (most commonly combined modality therapy) has gained acceptance as a standard adjuvant therapy. The potential advantages of this approach compared with postoperative therapy include less acute toxicity and enhanced sphincter preservation. Recently completed randomized trials in the US and Germany will provide a definitive answer to this theory. In contrast to the combined modality approach to pre-operative therapy a number of European centres advocate an intensive short course of radiation (5 Gy x 5 followed one week later by surgery). The only randomized trial which has revealed a significant advantage in survival is the Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial. The Dutch CKVO 95-04 TME trial did not confirm a survival advantage and two metanalyses report conflicting results. Due to selection bias, it is not possible accurately to compare the local recurrence and survival results of intensive short course radiation with conventional pre-operative combined modality therapy. The intensive short course radiation approach is not used in North America due to its higher toxicity and lack of sphincter preservation. In the Dutch trial the 5-year local recurrence was 12% with TME and was significantly decreased to 6% with pre-operative radiation. The 5-year local recurrence rate in the 324 patients with stage III disease who underwent a TME alone with negative margins was 20%. Therefore, despite TME surgery, radiation therapy is still a necessary component in the adjuvant management of rectal cancer. PMID:12925072

  2. Generic Planning Target Margin for Rectal Cancer Treatment Setup Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, John M. Campbell, Jonathon P.; Yan Di

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To calculate the generic planning target margin (GPTM) for patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) for rectal cancer placed in a prone position with a customized cradle for small-bowel exclusion. Methods and Materials: A total of 25 consecutive rectal cancer patients were treated for 25 or 28 fractions in a prone position using a cradle to maximize small bowel exclusion. Treatment planning computed tomography (CT) scans were used to create orthogonally digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) for portal image registration, which were compared with daily portal images from an electronic portal-imaging device (EPID). Translation values needed to align the DRRs and EPIDs were recorded for the superior to inferior (SI), right to left (RL), and anterior to posterior (AP) directions, and used to calculate the GPTM using the four-parameter model. Age, weight, and body mass index were tested compared with the setup variation using a Pearson correlation and a t test for significance. Gender versus setup variation was compared with a t test. Results: A total of 1,723 EPID images were reviewed. The GPTM was 10 mm superior, 8 mm inferior, 7 mm RL and 10 mm AP. Age and gender were unrelated to setup variation. Weight was significantly associated with systematic AP variation (p < 0.05). BMI was significantly associated with systematic SI (p < 0.05) and AP (p < 0.01) variation and random RL variation (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The GPTM for rectal cancer is asymmetric with a maximum of 10 mm in the superior, anterior and posterior dimensions. Body mass index may effect setup variation. Research using advanced treatment planning should include these margins in the planning target volume definition.

  3. Development of a Self-contained, Indwelling Rectal Temperature Probe for Cattle Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A device was developed to automatically monitor rectal temperature (RT) of cattle for application in research settings. Compared with manual measurement of rectal temperature, this device decreases labor and time requirements, and allows data collection without the influence of animal handling or re...

  4. Comparison of rectal swabs and stool cultures in detecting Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, R L; Goodman, L J; Barrett, J E; Trenholme, G M; Landau, W

    1982-01-01

    Rectal swabs and stool specimens were compared for the detection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni in marmosets. Rectal swabs were superior to stool specimens for detection of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni (P = 0.016). Preliminary human data are also presented. PMID:7047561

  5. Clarifying margins in the multidisciplinary management of rectal cancer: the MERCURY experience.

    PubMed

    Salerno, G; Daniels, I R; Moran, B J; Wotherspoon, A; Brown, G

    2006-11-01

    The Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Rectal Cancer European Equivalence Study (MERCURY) was an observational prospective study involving 11 European centres, to evaluate equivalence between magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology in measuring depth of tumour invasion beyond the bowel and involvement of the circumferential resection margin in rectal cancer specimens. PMID:17018303

  6. Circadian variation of rectal sensitivity and gastrointestinal peptides in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Enck, P; Kaiser, C; Felber, M; Riepl, R L; Klauser, A; Klosterhalfen, S; Otto, B

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to identify diurnal variation of perception of rectal distension and the release of gastroenteropancreatic hormones. In 12 healthy male volunteers (25 years, range 22-32), a rectal balloon distension was performed. Rectal perception thresholds (minimal, urge and pain) and rectal compliance were double-measured with a computer-controlled barostat at seven standardized time points during the day (from 16.00 to 14.00 hours the following day). Blood samples were taken 30 min before and after each rectal distension procedure to determine plasma levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and motilin. Sensory thresholds for urge and pain varied significantly with the time of day, with higher threshold levels in the evening than in the morning hours. Bowel wall compliance showed as well-significant variance at pain threshold and was higher during daytime than in the evening or at night. In contrast to motilin, release of CCK and PP also showed a significant variation depending on daytime. Perception of rectal distension stimuli as well as compliance was independent of intake of food and peptide hormone levels, but CCK and PP levels increased with food, and PP levels decreased with rectal distension. Significant differences in the perception of rectal distension stimuli for urge and pain depending on daytime were found, but the release of gastrointestinal peptides seemed not to be involved. This circadian variation needs to be taken into account in patients and volunteer studies. PMID:18761628

  7. Incidentally found rectal duplication during surgery for rectovestibular fistula and its management

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Dhiraj K.; Basavaraju, Mamatha

    2015-01-01

    Association of rectal duplication with rectovestibular fistula is rare. A 3-month-old patient underwent primary posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) for rectovestibular fistula. During surgery the patient was found to have a rectal duplication (RD). We managed the case by excising the common wall and fenestrating the two lumens together and completed the PSARP. PMID:25552834

  8. Rectal cancer and Fournier’s gangrene - current knowledge and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Bruketa, Tomislav; Majerovic, Matea; Augustin, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a rapid progressive bacterial infection that involves the subcutaneous fascia and part of the deep fascia but spares the muscle in the scrotal, perianal and perineal region. The incidence has increased dramatically, while the reported incidence of rectal cancer-induced FG is unknown but is extremely low. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of rectal cancer-induced FG per se does not differ from the other causes. Only rectal cancer-specific symptoms before presentation can lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of rectal cancer-induced FG should be excluded in every patient with blood on digital rectal examination, when urogenital and dermatological causes are excluded and when fever or sepsis of unknown origin is present with perianal symptomatology. Therapeutic options are more complex than for other forms of FG. First, the causative rectal tumor should be removed. The survival of patients with rectal cancer resection is reported as 100%, while with colostomy it is 80%. The preferred method of rectal resection has not been defined. Second, oncological treatment should be administered but the timing should be adjusted to the resolution of the FG and sometimes for the healing of plastic reconstructive procedures that are commonly needed for the reconstruction of large perineal, scrotal and lower abdominal wall defects. PMID:26290629

  9. Rectal ulcer with an elusive diagnosis: all that ulcers is not Crohn disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single rectal ulcer is an uncommon finding in children with gastrointestinal disease. Although inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is foremost among the differential diagnoses, a primary immunological defect should not be forgotten. Because of the paucity of literature on the association of rectal ul...

  10. Successful resection of metachronous para-aortic, Virchow lymph node and liver metastatic recurrence of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Fukunaga, Toru; Kimura, Masayuki; Sugamoto, Yuji; Tasaki, Kentaro; Hoshino, Isamu; Ota, Takumi; Maruyama, Tetsuro; Tamachi, Tomohide; Hosokawa, Takashi; Asai, Yo; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old female presented with the main complaint of defecation trouble and abdominal distention. With diagnosis of rectal cancer, cSS, cN0, cH0, cP0, cM0 cStage II, Hartmanns operation with D3 lymph node dissection was performed and a para-aortic lymph node and a disseminated node near the primary tumor were resected. Histological examination showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, pSS, pN3, pH0, pP1, pM1 (para-aortic lymph node, dissemination) fStage IV. After the operation, the patient received chemotherapy with FOLFIRI regimen. After 12 cycles of FOLFIRI regimen, computed tomography (CT) detected an 11 mm of liver metastasis in the postero-inferior segment of right hepatic lobe. With diagnosis of liver metastatic recurrence, we performed partial hepatectomy. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as a metastatic rectal cancer with cut end microscopically positive. After the second operation, the patient received chemotherapy with TS1 alone for 2 years. Ten months after the break, CT detected a 20 mm of para-aortic lymph node metastasis and a 10 mm of lymph node metastasis at the hepato-duodenal ligament. With diagnosis of lymph node metastatic recurrences, we performed lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as metastatic rectal cancer in para-aortic and hepato-duodenal ligament areas. After the third operation, we started chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX6 regimen. After 2 cycles of modified FOLFOX6 regimen, due to the onset of neutropenia and liver dysfunction, we switched to capecitabine alone and continued it for 6 mo and then stopped. Eleven months after the break, CT detected two swelling 12 mm of lymph nodes at the left supraclavicular region. With diagnosis of Virchow lymph node metastatic recurrence, we started chemotherapy with capecitabine plus bevacizumab regimen. Due to the onset of neutropenia and hand foot syndrome (Grade 3), we managed to continue capecitabine administration with extension of interval period and dose reduction. After 2 years and 2 mo from starting capecitabine plus bevacizumab regimen, Virchow lymph nodes had slowly grown up to 17 mm. Because no recurrence had been detected besides Virchow lymph nodes for this follow up period, considering the side effects and quality of life, surgical resection was selected. We performed left supraclavicular lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as a metastatic rectal cancer. After the fourth operation, the patient selected follow up without chemotherapy. Now we follow up her without recurrence and keep her quality of life high. PMID:26640350

  11. A case of rectal Dieulafoy's ulcer and successful endoscopic sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, J; Taniai, K; Kojima, K; Kenmotsu, M; Takai, K; Okabe, T; Tanaka, N

    2000-12-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented a massive hematochezia 7 days after sigmoidectomy. Repeated colonoscopy and angiography failed to locate the site of bleeding and Hartman's operation was performed. Rebleeding from the rectum on the day of operation occurred and pulsate arterial bleeding with minimal surrounding ulcer 1 cm above the pectinate line was observed. Screlotherapy with ethanol and electro coagulation was successfully performed to achieve permanent hemostasis. The importance of detailed rectal examination and an awareness of this clinical entity in life-threatening lower intestinal bleeding is discussed. PMID:11132922

  12. Ano-Rectal Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Disease

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ralph E.

    1987-01-01

    Diseases of the anus and rectum are frequently the outcome of proctogenital and oral-anal sexual activities. These sexually transmitted diseases are more common among homosexual and bisexual men than among heterosexuals. A variety of infectious agents are responsible including viruses, bacteria, spirochetes, helminths, and protozoa. Anal warts, herpetic ulcers, and syphilitic chancres are common anal STDs. Gonorrhea, herpes, and chlamydial organisms are common causes of venereal acute proctitis. Enteric infections such as shigellosis, amebiasis, giardiasis and pinworms can be transmitted by oral-anal contact. Aggressive sexual attempts at auto-eroticism using rectally inserted foreign bodies may cause traumatic proctitis complicated by bacterial peritonitis or perirectal abscesses. PMID:21263807

  13. Combination of Novel Agents with Radiotherapy to Treat Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, T A; Dearman, C; Sharma, R A

    2016-02-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with fluoropyrimidines is an established treatment in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer. There has been a great deal of research into improving patient outcomes by modifying this regimen by the addition of further radiosensitising agents. One of the difficulties in advancing new combination therapies has been lack of consensus on which surrogate measures best reflect clinically important outcomes. Here we review combinations of the cytotoxic, biological and other agents currently under scrutiny to improve clinical outcomes for patients with colorectal cancer. We also discuss advances in biomarkers that may ultimately result in an ability to tailor neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy regimens to the somatic gene profile of individual patients. PMID:26719097

  14. Staging rectal cancer: endoscopic ultrasound and pelvic MRI

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The success of pre-operative therapy over post-operative treatments means that a technique identifying prognostic factors pre-operatively is of potential benefit in modifying the intensity of pre-operative therapy according to risk of local or distant failure. Clinical trials incorporating robust and accurate assessment of prognostic factors and appropriate stratification of patients prior to therapy will enable objective comparison of treatment modalities and outcomes. Careful staging of rectal tumours results in selective pre-operative treatment strategies aimed at reducing local failure and distant failure in high risk patients. PMID:18852080

  15. Tumeur stromale rectale: à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Rejab, Haitham; Kridis, Wala Ben; Ben Ameur, Hazem; Feki, Jihene; Frikha, Mounir; Beyrouti, Mohamed Issam

    2014-01-01

    Les tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales sont des tumeurs mésenchymateuses peu fréquentes. Elles sont localisées préférentiellement eu niveau de l'estomac. La localisation rectale reste rare. A un nouveau cas de tumeur stromale du rectum ainsi qu'une bref revue de la littérature, on se propose d’étudier les particularités cliniques, radiologiques et thérapeutiques de cette entité rare. PMID:25120863

  16. Identification and genotyping of bacteria from paired vaginal and rectal samples from pregnant women indicates similarity between vaginal and rectal microflora

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The vaginal microflora is important for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections of the reproductive tract. The rectum has been suggested as the major source for the colonisation of the vaginal econiche. Methods To establish whether the rectum can serve as a possible bacterial reservoir for colonisation of the vaginal econiche, we cultured vaginal and rectal specimens from pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, identified the isolates to the species level with tRNA intergenic length polymorphism analysis (tDNA-PCR) and genotyped the isolates for those subjects from which the same species was isolated simultaneously vaginally and rectally, by RAPD-analysis. One vaginal and one rectal swab were collected from a total of each of 132 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Swabs were cultured on Columbia CNA agar and MRS agar. For each subject 4 colonies were selected for each of both sites, i.e. 8 colonies in total. Results Among the 844 isolates that could be identified by tDNA-PCR, a total of 63 bacterial species were present, 9 (14%) only vaginally, 26 (41%) only rectally, and 28 (44%) in both vagina and rectum. A total of 121 (91.6%) of 132 vaginal samples and 51 (38.6%) of 132 rectal samples were positive for lactobacilli. L. crispatus was the most frequently isolated Lactobacillus species from the vagina (40% of the subjects were positive), followed by L. jensenii (32%), L. gasseri (30%) and L. iners (11%). L. gasseri was the most frequently isolated Lactobacillus species from the rectum (15%), followed by L. jensenii (12%), L. crispatus (11%) and L. iners (2%). A total of 47 pregnant women carried the same species vaginally and rectally. This resulted in 50 vaginal/rectal pairs of the same species, for a total of eight different species. For 34 of the 50 species pairs (68%), isolates with the same genotype were present vaginally and rectally and a high level of genotypic diversity within species per subject was also established. Conclusion It can be concluded that there is a certain degree of correspondence between the vaginal and rectal microflora, not only with regard to species composition but also with regard to strain identity between vaginal and rectal isolates. These results support the hypothesis that the rectal microflora serves as a reservoir for colonisation of the vaginal econiche. PMID:19828036

  17. Irinotecan-Eluting Beads in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer That Has Spread to the Liver

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-22

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  18. Rectal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Hospitalized Patients: Selective Preenrichment Increases Yield of Screening

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, C.; Willemsen, L. E.; Verkade, E.; Bonten, M. J. M.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the added value of selective preenrichment for the detection of rectal carriage of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E). ESBL-E rectal carriage was identified in 4.8% of hospitalized patients, and 25.9% of ESBL-E rectal carriers were identified with selective preenrichment only. PMID:25994164

  19. Local excision for early rectal cancer: transanal endoscopic microsurgery and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Althumairi, Azah A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of treatment for early stage rectal cancer is to optimize oncologic control while minimizing the long-term impact of treatment on quality of life. The standard of care treatment for most stage I and II rectal cancers is radical surgery alone, specifically total mesorectal excision (TME). For early rectal cancers, this procedure is usually curative but can have a substantial impact on quality of life, including the possibility of permanent colostomy and the potential for short and long-term bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction. Given the morbidity associated with radical surgery, alternative approaches to management of early rectal cancer have been explored, including local excision (LE) via transanal excision (TAE) or transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) and transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS). Compared to the gold standard of radical surgery, local procedures for strictly selected early rectal cancers should lead to identical oncological results and even better outcomes regarding morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. PMID:26029457

  20. High-dose-rate pre-operative endorectal brachytherapy for patients with rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Vuong, T; Devic, Slobodan

    2015-04-01

    High-dose-rate endorectal brachytherapy (HDREBT) is an image guided brachytherapy treatment for patients with rectal cancer. It is based on tumor imaging with magnetic resonance in particular, which is used to choose eligible patients and improve tumor visualization. Treatment planning is performed using 3D CT simulation and treatment planning. The treatment is given on an outpatient basis and requires minimal local anesthesia. The validation of the technique was carried out through a preoperative study and is now explored as part of a radical treatment for early rectal cancer or as a boost modality. We describe technical aspects of the HDREBT and we discuss the ongoing institutional review board approved studies exploring the clinical applications of this treatment modality for patients with rectal cancer: 1) as a neoadjuvant treatment for patients with operable rectal tumor; 2) as a option to improve local control in patients with newly diagnosed rectal cancer but with previous pelvic radiation. PMID:26034500

  1. High-dose-rate pre-operative endorectal brachytherapy for patients with rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Devic, Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    High-dose-rate endorectal brachytherapy (HDREBT) is an image guided brachytherapy treatment for patients with rectal cancer. It is based on tumor imaging with magnetic resonance in particular, which is used to choose eligible patients and improve tumor visualization. Treatment planning is performed using 3D CT simulation and treatment planning. The treatment is given on an outpatient basis and requires minimal local anesthesia. The validation of the technique was carried out through a preoperative study and is now explored as part of a radical treatment for early rectal cancer or as a boost modality. We describe technical aspects of the HDREBT and we discuss the ongoing institutional review board approved studies exploring the clinical applications of this treatment modality for patients with rectal cancer: 1) as a neoadjuvant treatment for patients with operable rectal tumor; 2) as a option to improve local control in patients with newly diagnosed rectal cancer but with previous pelvic radiation. PMID:26034500

  2. Primary hepatic non-Hodgkins lymphoma with rectal cancer: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WU, GUO-BIN; HUANG, CHAO-YUAN; HUANG, SHAN; RU, HAI-MING; XIANG, BANG-DE; YUAN, WEI-PING; WU, FEI-XIANG; LIU, JIAN-YONG; ZHANG, ZHI-MING; MA, LIANG; CHEN, ZU-SHUN; ZHAO, YIN-NONG; LI, LE-QUN

    2015-01-01

    Primary hepatic non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) is an extremely rare disease that is commonly neglected as a possible diagnosis. The present study reports the case of a middle-aged male with chronic hepatitis B in which primary hepatic NHL and rectal cancer occurred simultaneously. A large solitary tumor in the left lobe of the liver was incidentally detected on routine examination prior to the laparoscopic resection of the rectal cancer. Laparoscopic resection of the rectal cancer and a liver biopsy were performed simultaneously. The pathology revealed that the hepatic tumor was NHL and that the rectal cancer was adenocarcinoma. Systemic staging revealed no evidence of nodal or bone marrow involvement, therefore, primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) was diagnosed. PHL associated with rectal adenocarcinoma is extremely rare and to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported. At present, the cause and most effective therapy for the condition remain unclear. PMID:25435985

  3. Cutaneous Metastasis of Rectal Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Dehal, Ahmed; Patel, Sunal; Kim, Sean; Shapera, Emanuel; Hussain, Farabi

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous metastasis of rectal cancer is rare. It typically indicates widespread disease and poor prognosis. We report an exceedingly rare case of rectal cancer with metastasis to the skin and review the literature on cutaneous metastasis of rectal cancer. A 47-year-old man presented with stage IV unresectable adenocarcinoma of the rectum and received palliative chemoradiation for local pain control. About a year later he developed extensive skin lesions involving the genital area, bilateral groin, and perineum. Biopsy specimen showed mucinous adenocarcinoma compatible with rectal origin. Palliative treatment with radiation therapy was initiated. The patient responded well to treatment and is still alive more than a year after diagnosis of cutaneous metastasis. Surgeons should maintain strong suspicion of cutaneous metastases when patients with rectal cancer have new or evolving skin lesions. PMID:26824966

  4. Laparoscopic low anterior resection with total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zaharie, Florin; Mocan, Lucian; Tomus, Claudiu; Zaharie, Roxana; Iancu, Cornel

    2012-01-01

    Rectal resections are the only treatment with curative intent currently accepted world wide. When performed in elective circumstances, laparoscopic rectal excision is technically feasible in surgical approach of mid-rectal cancer in a considerable number of patients. There are many benefits of the laparoscopic approach to rectal resection such as short hospitalization, less pain, less postoperative complications and improved quality of life. However, one mandatory condition in laparoscopic resection of rectum includes complete excision of the rectum and mesorectum, generally ensuring a minimal distal margin of 2cm and circumferential radial clearance before performing a coloanal anastomosis. Here, we present a laparoscopic approach for rectal cancer treatment consisting in a wide resection of the rectum, including the entire fascia with the enclosed mesentery of the rectum. PMID:22024035

  5. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in children: a report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Urganc?, Nafiye; Kalyoncu, Derya; Eken, Kamile Gulcin

    2013-11-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a rare, benign disorder in children that usually presents with rectal bleeding, constipation, mucous discharge, prolonged straining, tenesmus, lower abdominal pain, and localized pain in the perineal area. The underlying etiology is not well understood, but it is secondary to ischemic changes and trauma in the rectum associated with paradoxical contraction of the pelvic floor and the external anal sphincter muscles; rectal prolapse has also been implicated in the pathogenesis. This syndrome is diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and endoscopic and histological findings, but SRUS often goes unrecognized or is easily confused with other diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, amoebiasis, malignancy, and other causes of rectal bleeding such as a juvenile polyps. SRUS should be suspected in patients experiencing rectal discharge of blood and mucus in addition to previous disorders of evacuation. We herein report six pediatric cases with SRUS. PMID:24312719

  6. Effects of a single rectal dose of Misoprostol prior to abdominal hysterectomy in women with symptomatic leiomyoma: a randomized double blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Afsarosadat; Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Meibodi, Bahare; Vaghefi, Marzie; Yazdian, Pouria; Zeidabadi, Mahbube; Dehghani, Atefe; Teimoori, Soraya; Jamali, Azadeh; Akhondi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibroma, the most common benign pelvic tumor in women, affects 25 to 30% of women of reproductive age. Primary treatment for patients with symptomatic or large fibroma is surgery. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single rectal dose of Misoprostol on bleeding during abdominal hysterectomy. Methods This double blind randomized clinical trial was conducted with 80 candidates for abdominal hysterectomy, due to uterine myoma, in the Shahid Sadoughi hospital of Yazd in 2012. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of single rectal dose of Misoprostol on peri-operational abdominal hysterectomy bleeding. Following administration of 400 micrograms of Misoprostol in the case group (n=40), predetermined criteria were compared with control group (n=40). Results Volume of bleeding during the operation was significantly lower in cases where Misoprostol was used. (268.71 156.85 vs. 350.38 152.61 cc in the case and control groups, respectively). Our findings also showed that Hemoglobin (Hb) levels before, 8, and 30 hours following the operation differed significantly (p=0.001), but these changes were similar in both groups. Pre-operative Hb levels were 11.90 1.7 and 11.90 2.0 in the case and control groups, respectively. Conclusion A single rectal dose of Misoprostol has positive effect on reducing peri-operational bleeding in women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy due to symptomatic leiomyoma. PMID:26516444

  7. YpT1-2N0 rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation has lower survival compared with pT1-2N0 rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jue-feng; Zhu, Ji; Li, Gui-chao; Sun, Wen-jie; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic T1-2N0 rectal cancer shows an excellent prognosis without preoperative or postoperative chemoradiation. However, oncologic outcome of ypT1-2N0 remains unclear and undetermined. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the survival of ypT1-2 and pT1-2 rectal cancer patients after radical resection and identify risk factors of ypT1-2 rectal cancer in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER)-registered rectal cancer patients. The results showed that ypT1-2N0 rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation has lower survival compared with pT1-2N0 rectal cancer and mucinous/signet-ring cancer and less than 12 lymph nodes retrieval were two risk factors in ypT1-2 patients. These results suggest that ypT1-2 patients with one or two risk factors may benefit from postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26517674

  8. Acetaminophen for analgesia following pyloromyotomy: does the route of administration make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Arvid; Thung, Arlyne; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    Background During the perioperative care of infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, an opioid-sparing technique is often advocated due to concerns such as postoperative hypoventilation and apnea. Although the rectal administration of acetaminophen is commonly employed, an intravenous (IV) preparation is also currently available, but only limited data are available regarding IV acetaminophen use for infants undergoing pyloromyotomy. The objective of the current study was to compare the efficacy of IV and rectal acetaminophen for postoperative analgesia in infants undergoing laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. Methods A retrospective review of the use of IV and rectal acetaminophen in infants undergoing laparoscopic pyloromyotomy was performed. The efficacy was assessed by evaluating the perioperative need for supplemental analgesic agents, postoperative pain scores, tracheal extubation time, time in the postanesthesia care unit, time to oral feeding, and time to hospital discharge. Results The study cohort included 68 patients, of whom 34 patients received IV acetaminophen and 34 received rectal acetaminophen. All patients also received local infiltration of the surgical site with 0.25% bupivacaine. No intraoperative opioids were administered. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to postoperative pain scores, need for supplemental analgesic agents, time in the postanesthesia care unit, or time in the hospital. There was no difference in the number of children who tolerated oral feeds on the day of surgery or in postoperative complications. Conclusion Our preliminary data suggest that there is no clinical difference or advantage with the use of IV versus rectal acetaminophen in infants undergoing laparoscopic pyloromyotomy.

  9. Role of radiation in intermediate-risk rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, Marco; Fichera, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of rectal cancer has greatly evolved during the last several decades as a result of the understanding of the pathways of cancer spread, natural history of the disease, stages prognosis and prognostic markers. The tendency is clearly to move toward a more personalized approach to these patients based on preoperative staging and response to therapy. Although in the past we have been adding more treatment modalities to surgery to the point that every stage II/III cancer was treated with neoadjuvant chemo and radiotherapy followed by radical surgery by total mesorectal excision with or without sphincter preservation and more chemotherapy to follow, more recently this algorithm has been under discussion and scrutiny. Two of the major topics of controversy are: the use of local excision or even a watch-and-wait approach after a clinical complete response and the need for radiotherapy in the intermediate risk group. In this manuscript we will present the historical perspective that has brought the treatment of rectal cancer to the current standard of care and present the evidence supporting further investigation in the intermediate risk group. PMID:21701926

  10. Lymph node harvest in colon and rectal cancer: Current considerations

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, James R; Renehan, Andrew G; O’Dwyer, Sarah T; Haboubi, Najib Y

    2012-01-01

    The prognostic significance of identifying lymph node (LN) metastases following surgical resection for colon and rectal cancer is well recognized and is reflected in accurate staging of the disease. An established body of evidence exists, demonstrating an association between a higher total LN count and improved survival, particularly for node negative colon cancer. In node positive disease, however, the lymph node ratios may represent a better prognostic indicator, although the impact of this on clinical treatment has yet to be universally established. By extension, strategies to increase surgical node harvest and/or laboratory methods to increase LN yield seem logical and might improve cancer staging. However, debate prevails as to whether or not these extrapolations are clinically relevant, particularly when very high LN counts are sought. Current guidelines recommend a minimum of 12 nodes harvested as the standard of care, yet the evidence for such is questionable as it is unclear whether an increasing the LN count results in improved survival. Findings from modern treatments, including down-staging in rectal cancer using pre-operative chemoradiotherapy, paradoxically suggest that lower LN count, or indeed complete absence of LNs, are associated with improved survival; implying that using a specific number of LNs harvested as a measure of surgical quality is not always appropriate. The pursuit of a sufficient LN harvest represents good clinical practice; however, recent evidence shows that the exhaustive searching for very high LN yields may be unnecessary and has little influence on modern approaches to treatment. PMID:22347537

  11. Current treatment of rectal cancer adapted to the individual patient

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo, Laura; Ciria, Juan Pablo; Arbea, Leire; Lin, Olga; Cafiero, Sergio; Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative radiochemotherapy and total mesorectal excision surgery is a recommended standard therapy for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. However, some subgroups of patients benefit more than others from this approach. In order to avoid long-term complications of radiation and chemotherapy, efforts are being made to subdivide T3N0 stage using advanced imaging techniques, and to analyze prognostic factors that help to define subgroup risk patients. Long-course radiochemotherapy has the potential of downsizing the tumor before surgery and may increase the chance of sphincter preservation in some patients. Short-course radiotherapy (SCRT), on the other hand, is a practical schedule that better suits patients with intermediated risk tumors, located far from the anal margin. SCRT is also increasingly being used among patients with disseminated disease, before resection of the rectal tumor. Improvements in radiation technique, such as keeping the irradiation target below S2/S3 junction, and the use of IMRT, can reduce the toxicity associated with radiation, specially long-term small bowel toxicity. PMID:24416579

  12. Distant metastasis of rectal adenocarcinoma in a temporary tracheostoma

    PubMed Central

    Sifrer, Robert; Strojan, Primoz; Zidar, Nina; Zargi, Miha; Groselj, Ales; Krajinovic, Milena

    2014-01-01

    Background The temporary tracheostoma’s metastases of head and neck cancer had already been reported in the literature. So far, they had been considered as regional dissemination of the malignant disease. We report a case of temporary tracheostoma’s metastasis of carcinoma from non-head-and-neck primary site, what has not been reported in the literature, yet. Therefore, it is the first reported case of the systemic dissemination of malignant tumour into temporary tracheostoma. Case report. Fifty-four-year-old female patient, previously treated for a rectal adenocarcinoma, reported in our office with exophytic pink tissue masses around the temporary tracheostoma. The biopsy and immunohistochemistry findings were consistent with temporary tracheostoma’s metastasis of the rectal adenocarcinoma. The patient received palliative radiotherapy and died of systemic progression of the disease. Conclusions The patients with history of primary cancer of any origin and exophytic proliferating changes around the tracheostoma require an appropriate diagnostic work-up including a biopsy. The type of treatment depends on the extent of the disease, previous therapy and general condition of the patient. PMID:25435853

  13. Watch and wait approach to rectal cancer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Pozo, Marcos E; Fang, Sandy H

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, there were an estimated 136800 new cases of colorectal cancer, making it the most common gastrointestinal malignancy. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States and over one-third of newly diagnosed patients have stage III (node-positive) disease. For stage II and III colorectal cancer patients, the mainstay of curative therapy is neoadjuvant therapy, followed by radical surgical resection of the rectum. However, the consequences of a proctectomy, either by low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection, can lead to very extensive comorbidities, such as the need for a permanent colostomy, fecal incontinence, sexual and urinary dysfunction, and even mortality. Recently, trends of complete regression of the rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy have been confirmed by clinical and radiographic evaluation-this is known as complete clinical response (cCR). The “watch and wait” approach was first proposed by Dr. Angelita Habr-Gama in Brazil in 2009. Those patients with cCR are followed with close surveillance physical examinations, endoscopy, and imaging. Here, we review management of rectal cancer, the development of the “watch and wait” approach and its outcomes. PMID:26649153

  14. Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy in Elderly Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Musio, Daniela; Izzo, Luciano; Pugliese, Federico; Izzo, Paolo; Bolognese, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the treatment tolerance and clinical outcomes in patients aged 70 and older with locally advanced rectal carcinoma treated with multimodality approach. Methods and Materials. We retrospectively analysed 20 consecutive elderly patients, with histologically proven rectal adenocarcinoma, staged T3-4, and/or node-positive tumour, who received chemoradiotherapy and proceeded to surgical approach. Performance status score and adult comorbidity evaluation-27 score were calculated, and their influence on treatment tolerance and clinical outcomes was analysed. Results. All patients completed programmed chemoradiotherapy treatment. Gastrointestinal toxicity was the most common acute side effects: proctitis in 70% of patients and diarrhoea in 55%, classified as Grade 3 in 3 patients only. Radiation dermatitis was reported in 7 patients (35%) and it was graded G3 in one patient. There was no haematological toxicity. Eighteen patients out of 20 underwent surgery. Sphincter preservation was assured in 13 patients. Comorbidity index was related to higher severe acute toxicity (P = 0.015) but no influenced treatment outcomes. Conclusion. Treatment tolerance with combined modality is good in elderly patients. Due to age, no dose reduction for radiation therapy and chemotherapy should be considered. PMID:24392453

  15. Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Dose constraints for the anterior rectal wall to minimize rectal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Jennifer L.; Buskirk, Steven J.; Heckman, Michael G.; Diehl, Nancy N.; Bernard, Johnny R.; Tzou, Katherine S.; Casale, Henry E.; Bellefontaine, Louis P.; Serago, Christopher; Kim, Siyong; Vallow, Laura A.; Daugherty, Larry C.; Ko, Stephen J.

    2014-04-01

    Rectal adverse events (AEs) are a major concern with definitive radiotherapy (RT) treatment for prostate cancer. The anterior rectal wall is at the greatest risk of injury as it lies closest to the target volume and receives the highest dose of RT. This study evaluated the absolute volume of anterior rectal wall receiving a high dose to identify potential ideal dose constraints that can minimize rectal AEs. A total of 111 consecutive patients with Stage T1c to T3a N0 M0 prostate cancer who underwent image-guided intensity-modulated RT at our institution were included. AEs were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The volume of anterior rectal wall receiving 5 to 80 Gy in 2.5-Gy increments was determined. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to identify cut points in these volumes that led to an increased risk of early and late rectal AEs. Early AEs occurred in most patients (88%); however, relatively few of them (13%) were grade ?2. At 5 years, the cumulative incidence of late rectal AEs was 37%, with only 5% being grade ?2. For almost all RT doses, we identified a threshold of irradiated absolute volume of anterior rectal wall above which there was at least a trend toward a significantly higher rate of AEs. Most strikingly, patients with more than 1.29, 0.73, or 0.45 cm{sup 3} of anterior rectal wall exposed to radiation doses of 67.5, 70, or 72.5 Gy, respectively, had a significantly increased risk of late AEs (relative risks [RR]: 2.18 to 2.72; p ? 0.041) and of grade ? 2 early AEs (RR: 6.36 to 6.48; p = 0.004). Our study provides evidence that definitive image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for prostate cancer is well tolerated and also identifies dose thresholds for the absolute volume of anterior rectal wall above which patients are at greater risk of early and late complications.

  16. Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Dose constraints for the anterior rectal wall to minimize rectal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jennifer L; Buskirk, Steven J; Heckman, Michael G; Diehl, Nancy N; Bernard, Johnny R; Tzou, Katherine S; Casale, Henry E; Bellefontaine, Louis P; Serago, Christopher; Kim, Siyong; Vallow, Laura A; Daugherty, Larry C; Ko, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Rectal adverse events (AEs) are a major concern with definitive radiotherapy (RT) treatment for prostate cancer. The anterior rectal wall is at the greatest risk of injury as it lies closest to the target volume and receives the highest dose of RT. This study evaluated the absolute volume of anterior rectal wall receiving a high dose to identify potential ideal dose constraints that can minimize rectal AEs. A total of 111 consecutive patients with Stage T1c to T3a N0 M0 prostate cancer who underwent image-guided intensity-modulated RT at our institution were included. AEs were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The volume of anterior rectal wall receiving 5 to 80Gy in 2.5-Gy increments was determined. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to identify cut points in these volumes that led to an increased risk of early and late rectal AEs. Early AEs occurred in most patients (88%); however, relatively few of them (13%) were grade ?2. At 5 years, the cumulative incidence of late rectal AEs was 37%, with only 5% being grade ?2. For almost all RT doses, we identified a threshold of irradiated absolute volume of anterior rectal wall above which there was at least a trend toward a significantly higher rate of AEs. Most strikingly, patients with more than 1.29, 0.73, or 0.45cm(3) of anterior rectal wall exposed to radiation doses of 67.5, 70, or 72.5Gy, respectively, had a significantly increased risk of late AEs (relative risks [RR]: 2.18 to 2.72; p ? 0.041) and of grade ? 2 early AEs (RR: 6.36 to 6.48; p = 0.004). Our study provides evidence that definitive image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for prostate cancer is well tolerated and also identifies dose thresholds for the absolute volume of anterior rectal wall above which patients are at greater risk of early and late complications. PMID:24099966

  17. Radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis. Prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of oral sulfasalazine plus rectal steroids versus rectal sucralfate

    SciTech Connect

    Kochhar, R.; Patel, F.; Dhar, A.; Sharma, S.C.; Ayyagari, S.; Aggarwal, R.; Goenka, M.K.; Gupta, B.D.; Mehta, S.K. )

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective study, 37 consecutive patients with radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis were randomized to receive a four-week course of either 3.0 g oral sulfasalazine plus 20 mg twice daily rectal prednisolone enemas (group I, N = 18) or 2.0 g twice daily rectal sucralfate enemas plus oral placebo (group II, N = 19). The two groups were comparable with respect to demographic features, duration of symptoms, and clinical and endoscopic staging of the disease. Fifteen patients in group I and 17 in group II completed the trial. At four weeks, both groups showed significant clinical improvement (P less than 0.01 for group I and P less than 0.001 for group II) and endoscopic healing (P less than 0.01 for group I and P less than 0.001 for group II). When the two groups were compared, sucralfate enemas showed a significantly better response as assessed clinically (P less than 0.05), although endoscopically the response was not statistically different (P greater than 0.05). We conclude that both treatment regimens are effective in the management of radiation proctitis. Sucralfate enemas give a better clinical response, are tolerated better, and because of the lower cost should be the preferred mode of short-term treatment.

  18. A comparison between intrarectal ultrasound and CT scanning in staging of experimental rectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Senagore, A; Milsom, J W; Senagore, P; Mazier, W P; Scholten, D J; Zydbel, P

    1988-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of preoperative staging of experimental rectal tumors by digital rectal exam, intrarectal ultrasound (IRUS), and CT scanning with pathologic exam. Rectal tumor masses were induced in 10 mongrel dogs by submucosal injection of 2-3 cc of Freund's complete adjuvant. One week later, the animals underwent digital rectal exam, IRUS, and pelvic CT scans. Pelvic exenteration specimens were submitted for pathologic evaluation. Evaluations and interpretations were done in blinded fashion by independent examiners. The rectal "tumor" was detected in 9 of 10 digital exams, 10 of 10 IRUS exams, and 1 of 10 CT scans. Correct Duke's staging occurred in 70% of digital exams, 90% of IRUS exams, and 10% of CT exams compared to pathological staging. Lymph nodes were detected on pathologic exam in all animals (8.7/animal, range 3-16), on IRUS in all animals (6.4/animal, range 5-13), and in none of the digital or CT examinations. IRUS was significantly more accurate in detecting (P less than 0.0001) and locally staging tumors (P less than 0.0001), and in detecting and localizing lymphadenopathy compared to CT scan. Intrarectal ultrasound is a simple, highly accurate device for assessing depth of wall penetration of rectal tumors and in detecting pararectal lymph nodes and should be considered the preoperative staging procedure of choice for rectal cancer. PMID:3287004

  19. Penetrating Bladder Trauma: A High Risk Factor for Associated Rectal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, B. M.; Reis, L. O.; Calderan, T. R.; de Campos, C. C.; Fraga, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    Demographics and mechanisms were analyzed in prospectively maintained level one trauma center database 19902012. Among 2,693 trauma laparotomies, 113 (4.1%) presented bladder lesions; 51.3% with penetrating injuries (n = 58); 41.3% (n = 24) with rectal injuries, males corresponding to 95.8%, mean age 29.8 years; 79.1% with gunshot wounds and 20.9% with impalement; 91.6% arriving the emergence room awake (Glasgow 14-15), hemodynamically stable (average systolic blood pressure 119.5?mmHg); 95.8% with macroscopic hematuria; and 100% with penetrating stigmata. Physical exam was not sensitive for rectal injuries, showing only 25% positivity in patients. While 60% of intraperitoneal bladder injuries were surgically repaired, extraperitoneal ones were mainly repaired using Foley catheter alone (87.6%). Rectal injuries, intraperitoneal in 66.6% of the cases and AAST-OIS grade II in 45.8%, were treated with primary suture plus protective colostomy; 8.3% were sigmoid injuries, and 70.8% of all injuries had a minimum stool spillage. Mean injury severity score was 19; mean length of stay 10 days; 20% of complications with no death. Concomitant rectal injuries were not a determinant prognosis factor. Penetrating bladder injuries are highly associated with rectal injuries (41.3%). Heme-negative rectal examination should not preclude proctoscopy and eventually rectal surgical exploration (only 25% sensitivity). PMID:24527030

  20. Positional Reproducibility and Effects of a Rectal Balloon in Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Ho; Lee, Chang-Geol; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Jooho; Lee, Sangkyu; Suh, Chang-Ok; Seong, Jinsil; Suh, Yang Gun; Lee, Ikjae

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of the rectal balloon in prostate cancer radiotherapy, many issues still remain to be verified objectively including its positional reproducibility and relevance to treatment morbidity. We have developed a custom rectal balloon that has a scale indicating the depth of insertion and dilates symmetrically ensuring positional reproducibility. Fifty patients with prostate cancer treated by definitive 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with rectal balloon were analyzed. Each of first five patients undergone computed tomography (CT) three times with a rectal balloon. The positional reproducibility was tested by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) from the CT-to-CT fusion images. Planning variables and clinical acute toxicities were compared between when or not applying balloon. An ICC of greater than 0.9 in all directions revealed an excellent reproducibility of the balloon. Rectal balloon improved considerably the mean dose and V45Gy-V65Gy in plan comparison, and especially in 3D-CRT the rectal volume exposed to more than 60 Gy dropped from 41.3% to 19.5%. Clinically, the balloon lowered acute toxicity, which was lowest when both the balloon and IMRT were applied simultaneously. The rectal balloon carries excellent reproducibility and reduces acute toxicity in 3D-CRT and IMRT for prostate cancer. PMID:19794990

  1. Hirschsprungs disease: Role of rectal suction biopsy - data on 216 specimens

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Zillur; Hannan, Jafrul; Islam, Saiful

    2010-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of Hirschsprungs disease (HD) is dependent on the histological study of rectal ganglion cells, and an open rectal biopsy was the mainstay that required general anaesthesia (GA) and carried risk of postoperative rectal bleeding. Suction rectal biopsy later gained wide acceptance and became the choice as there is no requirement of GA and virtual absence of any complications. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the histological findings of 216 rectal suction biopsies studied from 2005 to 2009. Results: There were 143 male and 73 female children. 196 (90.7%) children were within 1 year of age. Among 216 rectal suction biopsies 181 (83.80%) were aganglionic, 27 (12.5%) were ganglionic and 8 (3.7%) were inadequate. Majority of patients were of less than 1 year of age (94.47%). Conclusions: The rectal suction biopsy is a bed side procedure, safe, cheap and time saving. There is high degree of accuracy, simplicity and absence of complications. PMID:20975783

  2. Rectal cancer: An evidence-based update for primary care providers

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Wolfgang B; Kwaan, Mary R; Madoff, Robert D; Melton, Genevieve B

    2015-01-01

    Rectal adenocarcinoma is an important cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and key anatomic differences between the rectum and the colon have significant implications for management of rectal cancer. Many advances have been made in the diagnosis and management of rectal cancer. These include clinical staging with imaging studies such as endorectal ultrasound and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, operative approaches such as transanal endoscopic microsurgery and laparoscopic and robotic assisted proctectomy, as well as refined neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies. For stage II and III rectal cancers, combined chemoradiotherapy offers the lowest rates of local and distant relapse, and is delivered neoadjuvantly to improve tolerability and optimize surgical outcomes, particularly when sphincter-sparing surgery is an endpoint. The goal in rectal cancer treatment is to optimize disease-free and overall survival while minimizing the risk of local recurrence and toxicity from both radiation and systemic therapy. Optimal patient outcomes depend on multidisciplinary involvement for tailored therapy. The successful management of rectal cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach, with the involvement of enterostomal nurses, gastroenterologists, medical and radiation oncologists, radiologists, pathologists and surgeons. The identification of patients who are candidates for combined modality treatment is particularly useful to optimize outcomes. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging and multimodal therapy of patients with rectal cancer for primary care providers. PMID:26167068

  3. Pre-slaughter rectal temperature as an indicator of pork meat quality.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Geers, R

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates whether rectal temperature of pigs, prior to slaughter, can give an indication of the risk of developing pork with PSE characteristics. A total of 1203 pigs were examined, measuring the rectal temperature just before stunning, of which 794 rectal temperatures were measured immediately after stunning. pH30LT (M. Longissimus thoracis) and temperature of the ham (Temp30Ham) were collected from about 530 carcasses, 30 min after sticking. The results present a significant positive linear correlation between rectal temperature just before and after slaughter, and Temp30Ham. Moreover, pH30LT is negatively correlated with rectal temperature and Temp30Ham. Finally, a linear mixed model for pH30LT was established with the rectal temperature of the pigs just before stunning and the lairage time. This model defines that measuring rectal temperature of pigs just before slaughter allows discovery of pork with PSE traits, taking into account pre-slaughter conditions. PMID:25805321

  4. Dynamic study of rectally absorbed ammonia in liver cirrhosis using (13N)ammonia and a positron camera

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, H.; Okuda, K.; Musha, H.; Tateno, Y.; Fukuda, N.; Matsumoto, T.; Shisido, F.; Rikitake, T,; Iinuma, T.; Kurisu, A.; Arimizu, N.

    1980-11-01

    (13N)Ammonia produced by the cyclotron was instilled intrarectally in patients with cirrhosis and other liver diseases to study the turnover of rectally absorbed (12N)ammonia. In the control, (13N)ammonia was absorbed quickly and visualized the liver, whereas in patients with cirrhosis, the lungs and heart were first visualized, and 13N activity over the head was also higher. It was suggested that a large proportion of absorbed (13N)ammonia bypassed hepatocytes and reached peripheral tissues in cirrhosis. The heart/liver ratio of 13N and 13N over the head were correlated with various indices of portal hypertension. The relative proportion of nonammonia 13N metabolites in blood was lower at 5 and 15 min after administration in cirrhosis, suggesting a reduced capacity of the liver to remove and metabolize ammonia.

  5. Rectal carbamazepine as effective long-acting treatment after cluster seizures and status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vishal; Cordato, Dennis J; Malkan, Ashish; Beran, Roy G

    2014-02-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is the gold standard antiepileptic drug (AED) for focal onset seizures. Despite CBZ being the benchmark AED, with readily available therapeutic drug monitoring, patients presenting with recurrent secondarily generalized tonic-clonic (or cluster) seizures or generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus (SE) are primarily treated with other long-acting agents. The aim of the study was to examine the potential use of rectal (PR) CBZ as alternative long-acting treatment to parenteral AEDs following the termination of cluster seizures or SE with acute intravenous therapies. Oral CBZ syrup was given PR using 400-mg equivalent aliquots. Serum CBZ levels were requested after administration to confirm achievement of minimum therapeutic levels (total CBZ>20?molL(-1)). Where levels were subtherapeutic, the procedure was repeated using 400-mg CBZ bolus aliquots until therapeutic levels were achieved. Seven patients received PR CBZ to manage cluster seizures or SE following the initial termination of acute seizures with IV therapies including benzodiazepines. Six patients had no prior history of seizures, and 1 patient with a prior history was not taking AED therapy at the time of presentation. All patients subsequently remained seizure-free, and therapeutic CBZ levels were achieved in 6 of the 7 subjects within 5-10h of initial CBZ dosing. In conclusion, the present study reports 7 patients who were safely and effectively treated with PR CBZ, which proved to be a viable and safe alternative to parenteral AEDs for maintenance of seizure freedom. PMID:24333499

  6. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,

  7. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  8. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training

  9. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,

  10. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the

  11. Surgical Correction Is Ineffective for Improvement of Dyssynergic Defecation in Patients With Rectal Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Young; Cho, Sung-Bum; Park, Chang-Hwan; Joo, Jae-Kyun; Joo, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The patients with rectal prolapse suffer from not only a prolapse rectum but also associated dysfunction. However, most surgical techniques are successful regarding the prolapse, but either do not solve or even worsen defecation dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional and physiological results after surgical correction in patients with rectal prolapse. Methods This study is a retrospective review of a single-institution experience. Patients with rectal prolapse who underwent anorectal manometry before and after Delorme's procedure were included. The primary outcomes measured were improvement of clinical symptoms and physiologic study. Results Consecutive 19 patients with rectal prolapse (17 females, mean age of 68.1 ± 10.8 years) underwent anorectal manometry before and after Delorme's procedure. The two most prevalent symptoms before operation were rectal tenesmus (15/19, 78.9%) and excessive straining (13/19, 68.4%). The two most prevalent symptoms after operation were rectal tenesmus (14/19, 73.6%) and excessive straining (13/19, 68.4%). No significant differences in resting anal pressure, squeezing anal pressure, defecation index, and rectal sense were found postoperatively. However, vector asymmetry index before surgery was higher than that after surgery (35.0 vs. 32.0, P = 0.018). Ten patients (52.5%) had type I dyssynergic defecation before surgery. No improvement of dyssynergic pattern occurred after surgery. Conclusions In conclusion, dyssynergic defecation was not improved after reduction of rectal prolapse in patients with rectal prolapse. Further study about combination treatment with biofeedback therapy in these subgroups may be necessary. PMID:23350052

  12. Rectal-wall dose dependence on postplan timing after permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Taussky, Daniel; Yeung, Ivan; Williams, Theresa; Pearson, Shannon; McLean, Michael; Pond, Gregory; Crook, Juanita . E-mail: Juanita.crook@rmp.uhn.on.ca

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: Dose to rectal wall after permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy is dependent on distance between posterior prostatic seeds and anterior rectal wall and is influenced by postimplant periprostatic edema. We analyzed the effect of postplan timing on anterior rectal-wall dose. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients received permanent seed {sup 125}I brachytherapy as monotherapy (145 Gy). Implants were preplanned by use of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and carried out by use of preloaded needles. Postimplant dosimetry was calculated by use of magnetic resonance imaging-computed tomography fusion on Days 1, 8, and 30. The anterior rectal-wall dose is reported as the isodose enclosing 1.0 or 2.0 cc of rectal wall and as the RV100 in cc. Results: The dose to rectal wall increased progressively over time. The median increase in dose to 1.0 cc of rectal wall (RD [1 cc]) from Day 1 to 30 was 39.2 Gy (p < 0.001). RV100 increased from a median of 0.07 cc on Day 1 to 0.67 cc on Day 30. The most significant predictor of rectal-wall dose (RD [1 cc], RD [2 cc], or RV100) was the time of evaluation (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Although periprostatic edema cannot be quantified by postimplant imaging, the dose to the anterior rectal wall increases significantly over time as prostatic and periprostatic edema resolve. Critical-organ dose reporting and guidelines for minimizing toxicity must take into account the time of the assessment.

  13. Predictive Factors and Management of Rectal Bleeding Side Effects Following Prostate Cancer Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Jeremy G.; Stone, Nelson N.; Stock, Richard G.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To report on the incidence, nature, and management of rectal toxicities following individual or combination brachytherapy following treatment for prostate cancer over a 17-year period. We also report the patient and treatment factors predisposing to acute ?grade 2 proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 2752 patients were treated for prostate cancer between October 1990 and April 2007 with either low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with androgen depletion therapy (ADT) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and were followed for a median of 5.86 years (minimum 1.0 years; maximum 19.19 years). We investigated the 10-year incidence, nature, and treatment of acute and chronic rectal toxicities following BT. Using univariate, and multivariate analyses, we determined the treatment and comorbidity factors predisposing to rectal toxicities. We also outline the most common and effective management for these toxicities. Results: Actuarial risk of ?grade 2 rectal bleeding was 6.4%, though notably only 0.9% of all patients required medical intervention to manage this toxicity. The majority of rectal bleeding episodes (72%) occurred within the first 3 years following placement of BT seeds. Of the 27 patients requiring management for their rectal bleeding, 18 underwent formalin treatment and nine underwent cauterization. Post-hoc univariate statistical analysis revealed that coronary artery disease (CAD), biologically effective dose, rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (RV100), and treatment modality predict the likelihood of grade ?2 rectal bleeding. Only CAD, treatment type, and RV100 fit a Cox regression multivariate model. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy is very well tolerated and rectal bleeding toxicities are either self-resolving or effectively managed by medical intervention. Treatment planning incorporating adjuvant ADT while minimizing RV100 has yielded the best toxicity-free survival following BT.

  14. Proteomic analysis of colon and rectal carcinoma using standard and customized databases

    PubMed Central

    Slebos, Robbert J.C.; Wang, Xia; Wang, Xaojing; Zhang, Bing; Tabb, David L.; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding proteomic differences underlying the different phenotypic classes of colon and rectal carcinoma is important and may eventually lead to a better assessment of clinical behavior of these cancers. We here present a comprehensive description of the proteomic data obtained from 90 colon and rectal carcinomas previously subjected to genomic analysis by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Here, the primary instrument files and derived secondary data files are compiled and presented in forms that will allow further analyses of the biology of colon and rectal carcinoma. We also discuss new challenges in processing these large proteomic datasets for relevant proteins and protein variants. PMID:26110064

  15. Rectal neuroendocrine tumor with uncommon metastatic spread: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Tsoukalas, Nikolaos; Galanopoulos, Michail; Tolia, Maria; Kiakou, Maria; Nakos, Georgios; Papakostidi, Aristoula; Koumakis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are rare neoplasms. Rectal neuroendocrine tumors consist approximately the 5%-14% of all neuroendocrine neoplasms in Europe. These tumors are diagnosed in relatively young patients, with a mean age at diagnosis of 56 years. Distant metastases from rectal neuroendocrine tumors are not very common. Herein we describe a case of a rectal neuroendocrine tumor which metastasized to the lung, mediastinum and orbit. This case underscores the importance of early identification and optimal management to improve patients prognosis. Therefore, the clinical significance of this case is the necessity of physicians awareness and education regarding neuroendocrine tumors diagnosis and management. PMID:26909138

  16. Rectal diazepam solution in the treatment of convulsions in the children's emergency room.

    PubMed

    Sykes, R M; Okonofua, J A

    1988-12-01

    Rectal diazepam solution was administered to 55 convulsing children in the Children's Emergency Room. In 71%, the convulsion ceased within 5 min, and in 7%, between 5 and 10 min. In 16%, rectal diazepam was ineffective but there was a rapid response to intravenous diazepam. Convulsions that had lasted less than 15 min before treatment responded more often (81%) than those that had lasted more than 15 min (46%). Four children had transient respiratory depression. Though intravenous diazepam is superior, rectal diazepam solution is adequate for controlling most acute convulsions in children, and has the advantage that it can be administered by paramedical workers. PMID:2467615

  17. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: The first attempt in treatment of rectal amyloidoma

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Richa; George, Virgilio V

    2015-01-01

    Localized amyloidosis is characterized by amyloid protein deposition restricted to one organ or tissue without systemic involvement. Gastrointestinal manifestations of localized amyloidoma are unusual, which makes amyloidoma restricted to the rectum a very rare diagnosis requiring a high index of suspicion. We present a rare account for rectal amyloidoma with an unusual presentation of obstructive symptoms and its treatment using a sophisticated surgical modality, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), which resulted in complete excision of the lesion without hospitalization and complications. The successful treatment for this rectal amyloidoma using TEM emphasizes the need to broaden its application in the treatment of various rectal lesions while preserving organ function and decreasing recurrence. PMID:25632208

  18. Laparoscopic vs open abdominoperineal resection in the multimodality management of low rectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Wei; Huang, Li-Yong; Song, Cheng-Li; Zhuo, Chang-Hua; Shi, De-Bing; Cai, Guo-Xiang; Xu, Ye; Cai, San-Jun; Li, Xin-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection compared with the open procedure in multimodality management of rectal cancer. METHODS: A total of 106 rectal cancer patients who underwent open abdominoperineal resection (OAPR) were matched with 106 patients who underwent laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (LAPR) in a 1 to 1 fashion, between 2009 and 2013 at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Propensity score matching was carried out based on age, gender, pathological staging of the disease and administration of neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Data regarding preoperative staging, surgical technique, pathological results, postoperative recovery and complications were reviewed and compared between the LAPR and OAPR groups. Perineal closure around the stoma and pelvic floor reconstruction were performed only in OAPR, not in LAPR. Therefore, abdominoperineal resection procedure-specific surgical complications including parastomal hernia and perineal wound complications were compared between the open and laparoscopic procedure. Regular surveillance of the two cohorts was carried out to gather prognostic data. Disease-free survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier estimate and log-rank test. Subgroup analysis was performed in patients with locally advanced disease treated with preoperative chemoradiation followed by surgical resection. RESULTS: No significant difference was found between the LAPR group and the OAPR group in terms of clinicopathological features. The operation time (180.8 47.8 min vs 172.1 49.2 min, P = 0.190), operative blood loss (93.9 60.0 mL vs 88.4 55.2 mL, P = 0.494), total number of retrieved lymph nodes (12.9 6.9 vs 12.9 5.4, P = 0.974), surgical complications (12.3% vs 15.1%, P = 0.549) and pathological characteristics were comparable between the LAPR and OAPR group, respectively. Compared with OAPR patients, LAPR patients showed significantly shorter postoperative analgesia (2.4 0.7 d vs 2.7 0.6 d, P < 0.001), earlier first flatus (57.3 7.9 h vs 63.5 9.2 h, P < 0.001), shorter urinary drainage time (6.5 3.4 d vs 7.8 1.3 d, P < 0.001), and shorter postoperative admission (11.2 4.7 d vs 12.6 4.0 d, P = 0.014). With regard to APR-specific complications (perineal wound complications and parastomal hernia), there were no significant differences between the two groups. Similar results were found in the 26 pairs of patients administered neoadjuvant chemoradiation in subgroup analysis. During the follow-up period, no port site recurrences were observed. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for multidisciplinary management of rectal cancer is safe, and is associated with earlier recovery and shorter admission time in combination with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. PMID:26401082

  19. Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Qi; Shi, Zhiao; Chambers, Matthew C.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Shaddox, Kent F.; Kim, Sangtae; Davies, Sherri; Wang, Sean; Wang, Pei; Kinsinger, Christopher; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Townsend, Reid; Ellis, Matthew; Carr, Steven A.; Tabb, David L.; Coffey, Robert J.; Slebos, Robbert; Liebler, Daniel

    2014-09-18

    We analyzed proteomes of colon and rectal tumors previously characterized by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and performed integrated proteogenomic analyses. Protein sequence variants encoded by somatic genomic variations displayed reduced expression compared to protein variants encoded by germline variations. mRNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein expression differences between tumors. Proteomics identified five protein expression subtypes, two of which were associated with the TCGA "MSI/CIMP" transcriptional subtype, but had distinct mutation and methylation patterns and associated with different clinical outcomes. Although CNAs showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA expression, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of candidate driver genes. Our analyses identified HNF4A, a novel candidate driver gene in tumors with chromosome 20q amplifications. Integrated proteogenomic analysis provides functional context to interpret genomic abnormalities and affords novel insights into cancer biology.

  20. [Transrectal and transvaginal ultrasonic diagnosis of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Berdov, B A; Slesarev, V I; Fedlaev, J B

    1990-01-01

    In 48 patients with rectal carcinoma diagnostic means for ultrasound investigation USU were tested. The high quality of transrectal and transvaginal ultrasound scanning (US) facilitated a detailed evaluation. The stage of the malign tumor was correctly evaluated in 95.8% of the cases. In one case a false negative evaluation of the function of the muscular layer was given and in another inflammatory infiltration was seen as a tumour. Changes of the pararectal lymph nodes were found in 62% of the patients, of the regional lymph nodes in 5 patients (10.3%). Their metastatic status was proven with fine needle puncture aspiration biopsy (FNPAB) under sonographic and lymphographic control. In 10 patients with US-scanning the found focuses in the liver parenchyma. In 90% of the cases by aspiration biopsy the malignity was cytologically and histologically proven. PMID:2277847

  1. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer: Is it needed?

    PubMed Central

    Milinis, Kristijonas; Thornton, Michael; Montazeri, Amir; Rooney, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy has become a standard treatment of advanced rectal cancer in the West. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery alone have been well established. However, controversy surrounds the use adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy, despite it being recommended by a number of international guidelines. Results of recent multicentre randomised control trials showed no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in terms of survival and rates of distant metastases. However, concerns exist regarding the quality of the studies including inadequate staging modalities, out-dated chemotherapeutic regimens and surgical approaches and small sample sizes. It has become evident that not all the patients respond to adjuvant chemotherapy and more personalised approach should be employed when considering the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy. The present review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the current evidence-base and suggests improvements for future studies. PMID:26677436

  2. Clinical Decision Support for Colon and Rectal Surgery: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Allison B.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) has been shown to improve clinical processes, promote patient safety, and reduce costs in healthcare settings, and it is now a requirement for clinicians as part of the Meaningful Use Regulation. However, most evidence for CDS has been evaluated primarily in internal medicine care settings, and colon and rectal surgery (CRS) has unique needs with CDS that are not frequently described in the literature. The authors reviewed published literature in informatics and medical journals, combined with expert opinion to define CDS, describe the evidence for CDS, outline the implementation process for CDS, and present applications of CDS in CRS.CDS functionalities such as order sets, documentation templates, and order facilitation aids are most often described in the literature and most likely to be beneficial in CRS. Further research is necessary to identify and better evaluate additional CDS systems in the setting of CRS. PMID:24436644

  3. Use of Robotics in Colon and Rectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Michael J.; Beekley, Alec C.

    2013-01-01

    The pace of innovation in the field of surgery continues to accelerate. As new technologies are developed in combination with industry and clinicians, specialized patient care improves. In the field of colon and rectal surgery, robotic systems offer clinicians many alternative ways to care for patients. From having the ability to round remotely to improved visualization and dissection in the operating room, robotic assistance can greatly benefit clinical outcomes. Although the field of robotics in surgery is still in its infancy, many groups are actively investigating technologies that will assist clinicians in caring for their patients. As these technologies evolve, surgeons will continue to find new and innovative ways to utilize the systems for improved patient care and comfort. PMID:24436647

  4. Management of the perineal wound after rectal excision for carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maria, G; Mattana, C; Bonatti, P; Pescatori, M

    1984-01-01

    Two methods of treating the perineal wound after proctectomy are compared. One hundred and eleven patients had a Miles operation for rectal cancer: in 81 the perineal wound was left open, in 30, primary suture and suction were performed. A significant (p less than 0.001) decrease in the mean (+/- s.d.) duration of the postoperative period was observed after primary suture: 22 +/- 1.7 days, as compared with 44 +/- 2.2 days after healing by second intention. The occurrence of wound infection was similar in the two groups, whereas in 15 per cent of the patients treated without direct closure, a perineal sinus persisted. According to these data, primary closure seems to be very satisfactory in the management of the perineal wound after excision of the rectum. PMID:6500884

  5. Rectal bleeding in a 4-month-old boy

    SciTech Connect

    Dutro, J.A.; Santanello, S.A.; Unger, F.; Goodwin, C.D.

    1986-10-24

    A case of bleeding Meckel's diverticulum is described in an infant. A 4-month-old boy was seen initially with a 24-hour history of painless hematochezia. His parents had noted two episodes of maroon-colored stool that did not appear to be associated with any abdominal distress. His medical history was unremarkable, with normal growth and development. Physical examination revealed a well-nourished, well-hydrated infant in no apparent distress. Vital signs were normal. Rectal examination revealed no masses, but bright-red blood was noted on the examining finger. Findings from the remainder of the examination were normal. An upright roentgenogram of the abdomen was obtained and demonstrated no abnormalities. The abdominal technetium scan was abnormal. An exploratory laparotomy was performed later on the day of admission.

  6. Is total pelvic exenteration reasonable primary treatment for rectal carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, L F; Huddleston, C B; Sawyers, J L; Potts, J R; Sharp, K W; McDougal, S W

    1988-01-01

    Total pelvic exeneration (TPE) is reasonable primary surgical therapy in select patients with large bulky locally invasive rectal cancers that can be removed en bloc. Many do not have either nodal or distant metastasis. Furthermore, TPE can be curative and often is palliative for similar lesions that are recurrent or nonresponsive to radiation therapy. Operative mortality rates should be under 10% and can be under 5% for primary cases. Although improvement in preoperative management and operative technique, especially with urinary conduits and postoperative care is clear, both early and late complications are significant. Unfortunately, preoperative identification of those patients requiring TPE rather than abdominoperineal or low anterior resection remains poor. Furthermore, recent improvements in techniques for pelvic slings to prevent small bowel entrapment and protection from irradiation or myocutaneous flaps to obliterate the massive dead space are not yet clearly established as preventors of either early or later complications. PMID:3291792

  7. Total mesorectal excision for the treatment of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zedan, Ali; Salah, Tareq

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In the surgical treatment of rectal cancer, a clear circumferential resection margin and distal resection margin should be obtained. The aim of this study was to determine the morbidity, mortality, survival outcome, and local failure after total mesorectal excision (TME) in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer. Methods This retrospective study was conducted on 101 patients treated for rectal cancer using low anterior resection (LAR), abdominoperinial resection (APR), or Hartmaan’s technique. In all operative procedures, total mesorectal excisions (TMEs) were done. The patients were treated from November 2000 to April 2011 in the South Egypt Cancer Institute (SECI) of Assuit University (Egypt). Neo-adjuvant therapy was given to those patients with serosalin filtration, lymph node involvement, and sexual and urinary function impairment. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS version 21, and survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results One hundred one patients were evaluable (61 males, 40 females). Regarding the operative procedure used, it was: (APR), LAR, Hartmaan’s technique in 15.8%, 71.3%, and 12.9% of patients, respectively. Operation-related mortality during the 30 days after surgery was 3%. The operations resulted in morbidity in 25% of the patients, anastomotic site leak in 5.9% of the patients, urinary dysfynction in 9.9% of the patients, and erectile dysfunction in 15.8% of the male patients. Regarding safety margin, the median distances were distal/radial margin, 23/12 mm, distal limit 7 cm. Median lymph nodes harvest 19 nodes. Primary tumor locations were anteriorly 23.8%, laterally 13.9%, posteriorly 38.6%, and circumferential 23.8%. Protective stoma 16.8%. Primary Tumor TNM classification (T1, T2, T3, and T4; 3, 28.7, 55.4, and 12.9%, respectively). Nodes Metastases (N0, N1, and N2; 57.4, 31.7, and 10.9%, respectively). TNM staging (I, II, III, and IV; 15.8, 29.7, 46.5, and 7.9%, respectively). Chemotherapy was administered to 67.3% of the patients. Radiotherapy (short course neoadjuvant, long course neoadjuvant, and adjuvant postoperative used in 33.7, 20.8, and 19.8% of patients, respectively). Survival 5-years CSS was 73% and 5-years RFS 71%. Mean operative time was 213 minutes. The average amount of intraoperative blood loss was 344 mL. Conclusion Total mesorectal excision (TME) represents the gold-standard technique in rectal cancer surgery. It is safe with neoadjuvent chemoradiotherapy and provides both maximal oncological efficiency (local control and long-term survival and maintenance of a good quality of life). PMID:26816592

  8. Ossification of a rectal tumor: an uncommon finding.

    PubMed

    Smajda, Stanislas; Danse, Etienne; Mertens de Wilmars, Maud; Humblet, Yves; Kartheuser, Alex; Jouret-Mourin, Anne

    2015-12-01

    The authors report the case of a 29-year-old woman with partially calcified stage cT4N2M0 mucoid adenocarcinoma of the mid-rectum. Concomitant neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was administered. Preoperative CT scan and MRI demonstrated stable disease with a marked increase of its mineralized component. Histology confirmed a mucoid adenocarcinoma with ossified matrix. Osteocytes were identified in the tumor. TNM (5th edition) staging was ypT3N2M1. This case illustrates heterotopic ossification of a rectal tumor, a fairly uncommon finding. The mechanism of heterotopic bone formation within gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma has not been fully elucidated. The impact of this particular feature on patient outcome is unknown. PMID:26712056

  9. Rectal metastasis from Breast cancer: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Cho Ee; Wright, Lucie; Pieri, Andrew; Belhasan, Anas; Fasih, Tarannum

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer metastases occurs in around 50% of all presentation. It is the second most common type of cancer to metastasise to the GI tract but this only occurs in less than 1% of cases. Presentation of case We report a case that underwent treatment for invasive lobular cancer (ILC) of the breast and 5 years later was found to have rectal and peritoneal metastasis. She is currently receiving palliative management including chemotherapy in the form of weekly Paclitaxel (Taxol) and stenting to relieve obstruction. Conclusion There should be high clinical suspicion of bowel metastasis in patients presenting with positive faecal occult blood with or without bowel symptoms even if the incidence is less <1% of metastases, particularly in cases where the initial breast tumour was large, with positive axillary nodes. PMID:26188979

  10. Rectal Radiotherapy - Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy Delivery, Delineation and Doses.

    PubMed

    Teoh, S; Muirhead, R

    2016-02-01

    The use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy in rectal cancer is attractive in that it may reduce acute and late toxicities and potentially facilitate dose escalation. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy probably has a role in selected patients, but further investigation is required to identify the parameters for selection. Delineation of specific nodal groups allows maximal sparing of bladder and small bowel. In locally advanced tumours a simultaneous integrated boost allows dose escalation incorporating hypofractionation and a shorter overall treatment time. However, due to a sparsity of data on late toxicity in doses ?60Gy, doses at this level should be used with caution, ideally within prospective trials. Future studies investigating dose escalation must ascertain late toxicity as well as local control, as both can significantly affect quality of life and without both, the risk-benefit ratio cannot be calculated. PMID:26643092

  11. Rectal injury during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: detection and management.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tomoko; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Nishida, Sachiyo; Kawa, Gen; Kawakita, Mutsushi; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2010-05-01

    Among 294 patients who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), five (1.7%) developed complications such as rectal injury (RI) and rectourethral fistula (RUF). In four patients, the RI was immediately repaired by placing two layers of uninterrupted sutures without fecal diversion. The RI in two of these four patients were diagnosed using a transrectally inserted Hegar uterine dilator (26 mm). The remaining patients, who presented with RUF as the primary manifestation, were conservatively managed, and the fistulas closed spontaneously. Most of the RI detected during the operation were managed with primary fistula closure without fecal diversion. In some cases of postoperative RUF, spontaneous closure may occur while the patient is waiting for surgical repair. PMID:20415710

  12. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer: Is it needed?

    PubMed

    Milinis, Kristijonas; Thornton, Michael; Montazeri, Amir; Rooney, Paul S

    2015-12-10

    Adjuvant chemotherapy has become a standard treatment of advanced rectal cancer in the West. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery alone have been well established. However, controversy surrounds the use adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy, despite it being recommended by a number of international guidelines. Results of recent multicentre randomised control trials showed no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in terms of survival and rates of distant metastases. However, concerns exist regarding the quality of the studies including inadequate staging modalities, out-dated chemotherapeutic regimens and surgical approaches and small sample sizes. It has become evident that not all the patients respond to adjuvant chemotherapy and more personalised approach should be employed when considering the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy. The present review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the current evidence-base and suggests improvements for future studies. PMID:26677436

  13. Position Verification for the Prostate: Effect on Rectal Wall Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Haverkort, Marie A.D.; Kamer, Jeroen B. van de; Pieters, Bradley R.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Assendelft, Esther; Lensing, Andrea L.; Herk, Marcel van; Reijke, Theo M. de; Stoker, Jaap; Koning, Caro C.E.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of gold marker (GM)-based position correction on the cumulative dose in the anorectal wall compared with traditional bony anatomy (BA)-based correction, taking into account changes in anorectal shape and position. Methods and Materials: A total of 20 consecutive prostate cancer patients, treated with curative external beam radiotherapy, were included. Four fiducial GMs were implanted in the prostate. Positioning was verified according to the shift in BA and GMs on daily electronic portal images. Position corrections were determined using on- and off-line position verification protocols according to the position of the GMs (GM-on and GM-off) and BA (BA-off). For all patients, intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were made for the GM (8-mm planning target volume margin) and BA (10-mm planning target volume margin) protocols. The dose distribution was recomputed on 11 repeat computed tomography scans to estimate the accumulated dose to the prostate and anorectal wall while considering internal organ motion. Results: The dose that is at least received by 99% of the prostate was, on average, acceptable for all protocols. The individual patient data showed the best coverage for both GM protocols, with >95% of the prescribed dose for all patients. The anorectal wall dose was significantly lower for the GM protocols. The dose that is at least received by 30% of the rectal wall was, on average, 54.6 Gy for GM-on, 54.1 Gy for GM-off, and 58.9 Gy for BA-off (p <.001). Conclusion: Position verification with GM and reduced planning target volume margins yielded adequate treatment of the prostate and a lower rectal wall dose, even when accounting for independent movement of the prostate and anorectal wall.

  14. Rectal temperature as an indicator for heat tolerance in chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing Y; Wei, Pei P; Xu, Shen Y; Geng, Zhao Y; Jiang, Run S

    2013-11-01

    High environmental temperature is perhaps the most important inhibiting factor to poultry production in hot regions. The objective of this study was to test adaptive responses of chickens to high ambient temperatures and identify suitable indicators for selection of heat-tolerant individuals. Full-sib or half-sib Anak-40 pullets (n?=?55) with similar body weights were raised in a room with a temperature ranging from 24C to 28C, and relative humidity of 50% from 61 to 65 days of age. On day 66, the ambient temperature was increased within 60?min to 35??1C which was defined as the initial of heat stress (0?h). Rectal temperature (RT) was measured on each pullet at 0, 6, 18, 30, 42, 54 and 66?h. After 66?h the ambient temperature was increased within 30?min to 41??1C and survival time (HSST) as well as lethal rectal temperatures (LRT) were recorded for each individual. The gap between the RT and initial RT was calculated as ?Tn (?T6, ?T18, ?T30, ?T42, ?T54 and ?T66), and the interval between LRT and initial RT as ?TT, respectively. A negative correlation was found between HSST and ?Tn as well as ?TT (r? T 18 ?=?-0.28 and r? TT ?=?-0.31, respectively, P?

  15. Neoadjuvant Treatment Strategies for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gollins, S; Sebag-Montefiore, D

    2016-02-01

    Improved surgical technique plus selective preoperative radiotherapy have decreased rectal cancer pelvic local recurrence from, historically, 25% down to about 5-10%. However, this improvement has not reduced distant metastatic relapse, which is the main cause of death and a key issue in rectal cancer management. The current standard is local pelvic treatment (surgerypreoperative radiotherapy) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, depending on resection histology. For circumferential resection margin (CRM)-threatened cancer on baseline magnetic resonance imaging, downstaging long-course preoperative chemoradiation (LCPCRT) is generally used. However, for non-CRM-threatened disease, varying approaches are currently adopted in the UK, including straight to surgery, short-course preoperative radiotherapy and LCPCRT. Clinical trials are investigating intensification of concurrent chemoradiation. There is also increasing interest in investigating preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) as a way of exposing micro-metastatic disease to full-dose systemic chemotherapy as early as possible and potentially reducing metastatic relapse. Phase II trials suggest that this strategy is feasible, with promising histological response and low rates of tumour progression during NAC. Phase III trials are needed to determine the benefit of NAC when added to standard therapy and also to determine if it can be used instead of neoadjuvant radiotherapy-based schedules. Although several measures of neoadjuvant treatment response assessment based on imaging or pathology are promising predictive biomarkers for long-term survival, none has been validated in prospective phase III studies. The phase III setting will enable this, also providing translational opportunities to examine molecular predictors of response and survival. PMID:26645661

  16. A Pilot Study of the Effect of Daikenchuto on Rectal Sensation in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael; Linker-Nord, Sara; Busciglio, Irene; Iturrino, Johanna; Szarka, Lawrence A; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Daikenchuto (TU 100), a botanical agent that modulates gastrointestinal nerves, is used in the treatment of motility and functional disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of TU-100 on rectal compliance and sensation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods In 20 patients per treatment arm, we conducted a single-center, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose pharmacodynamics study evaluating the effects of TU-100, 15 g (5 g t.i.d. [means 3 times a day]), for 14–16 consecutive days on rectal compliance and rectal sensation (thresholds and sensation ratings), all measured at baseline and on the last day of medication treatment. The primary endpoint was rectal sensation thresholds and sensation ratings in response to balloon distension at 32 mmHg. Secondary endpoints were rectal compliance, sensation thresholds, ratings and tone (fasting and postprandial), bowel pattern, abdominal pain (average and worst severity) and bloating scores, IBS quality of life and safety profile. Results Rectal sensation ratings post-treatment were significantly associated with baseline (pre-treatment) ratings and with level of anxiety or stress recorded at the time of the sensation testing. There were no effects of TU-100 treatment on rectal sensation ratings, sensation thresholds, rectal fasting or postprandial tone, rectal compliance, bowel function, abdominal pain or bloating scores, or IBS quality of life. Conclusions TU-100 did not significantly affect rectal compliance and sensation in patients with IBS in this study. PMID:26486374

  17. Enhanced rectal absorption and reduced local irritation of the anti-inflammatory drug ethyl 4-biphenylylacetate in rats by complexation with water-soluble beta-cyclodextrin derivatives and formulation as oleaginous suppository.

    PubMed

    Arima, H; Kondo, T; Irie, T; Uekama, K

    1992-11-01

    To improve the rectal delivery of ethyl 4-biphenylylacetate (EBA), a prodrug of the anti-inflammatory drug 4-biphenylylacetic acid (BPAA), the use of highly water-soluble 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CyD) and heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (DM-beta-CyD) was investigated and compared with the use of the parent beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CyD). Among the three beta-CyDs, HP-beta-CyD was best at improving the rectal bioavailability of EBA in rats after single and multiple administrations of oleaginous suppositories (Witepsol H-5) containing the complexes. To gain insight into the enhancing effect of beta-CyDs, the absorption behaviors of EBA (observed by monitoring BPAA as an active metabolite of EBA) and beta-CyDs themselves were examined in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. The in situ recirculation study revealed that the complexed form of EBA was less absorbable from the rectal lumen in the solution state, but this disadvantageous effect of beta-CyDs was compensated in part by the inhibition of the bioconversion of EBA to BPAA. When beta-CyDs were coadministered with EBA in vivo, however, rather high amounts of HP-beta-CyD (approximately 26% of dose) and DM-beta-CyD (approximately 21% of dose), compared with beta-CyD (approximately 5% of dose), were absorbed from the rat rectum. Thus, the enhancement of rectal absorption of EBA in vivo can be explained by the facts that the hydrophilic beta-CyDs increased the release rate of EBA from the vehicle and stabilized EBA in the rectal lumen and that the drug was partly absorbed in the form of the complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1447717

  18. Laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer and cholecystectomy for patient with situs inversus totalis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jia-Feng; Zheng, Zong-Heng; Wei, Bo; Chen, Tu-Feng; Lei, Pu-Run; Huang, Jiang-Long; Huang, Li-Jun; Wei, Hong-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare congenital anomaly presenting with complete transposition of thoracic and abdominal viscera. Laparoscopic surgery for either rectal cancer or gallbladder diseases with SIT is rarely reported in the literature. A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital owing to rectal cancer. She was diagnosed with SIT by performing radiography and abdominal computed tomography scan as a routine preoperative investigation. We performed laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer successfully in spite of technical difficulties caused by abnormal anatomy. One year later, she was diagnosed with cholecysticpolyp, and we performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for her uneventfully. With this case, we believe that performance by an experienced laparoscopic surgeon, either laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer or cholecystectomy with SIT is safe and feasible. PMID:26195883

  19. MR imaging for rectal cancer: the role in staging the primary and response to neoadjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Nick J; Moran, Brendan; Yu, Stanley; Tekkis, Paris; Brown, Gina

    2014-08-01

    Pre-operative staging is an essential aspect of modern rectal cancer management and radiological assessment is central to this process. An ideal radiological assessment should provide sufficient information to reliably guide pre-operative decision-making. Technical advances allow high-resolution imaging to not only provide prognostic information but to define the anatomy, helping the surgeon to anticipate potential pitfalls during the operation. The main imaging modality for local staging of rectal cancer is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), as it defines the tumour and relevant anatomy providing the most detail on the important prognostic factors that influence treatment choice. In addition, there is an emerging role for MRI in the assessment of the response to neoadjuvant therapy. This article is an evidence-based review of rectal cancer staging focusing on post-treatment assessment of response using MRI. The discussion extends into the implications for reliably assessing response and how this may influence future rectal cancer management. PMID:24954622

  20. Total Mesorectal Excision, an erroneous anatomical term for the gold standard in rectal cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Luna, Mara Rita; Guarneros-Zrate, Joaqun E; Tueme-Izaguirre, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    In 1986 Professor R J Heald published in The Lancet his new technique which he called Total Mesorectal Excision; today this is the gold standard for the surgical management of rectal cancer. In Total Mesorectal Excision (TME), the mesorectum is the term used to describe all the peri-rectal connective tissue including the posterior sheath of the endopelvic fascia containing the peri-rectal neurovascular structures. However, the mesenterium is a defined structure composed of a double layer of peritoneum which does not include the endopelvic fascia and the lateral rectal stalks, so these should not be included in the term 'mesorectum'. In our globalized medical culture it is important to use anatomic terms approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, as contained in the Terminologia Anatomica produced by the Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology (FIPAT). The term mesorectum is not listed in the Terminologia Anatomica. PMID:26409653

  1. The role of the robotic technique in minimally invasive surgery in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Luca, Fabrizio; Petz, Wanda; Valvo, Manuela; Cenciarelli, Sabine; Zuccaro, Massimiliano; Biffi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery is feasible, oncologically safe, and offers better short-term outcomes than traditional open procedures in terms of pain control, recovery of bowel function, length of hospital stay, and time until return to working activity. Nevertheless, laparoscopic techniques are not widely used in rectal surgery, mainly because they require a prolonged and demanding learning curve that is available only in high-volume and rectal cancer surgery centres experienced in minimally invasive surgery. Robotic surgery is a new technology that enables the surgeon to perform minimally invasive operations with better vision and more intuitive and precise control of the operating instruments, promising to overcome some of the technical difficulties associated with standard laparoscopy. The aim of this review is to summarise the current data on clinical and oncological outcomes of minimally invasive surgery in rectal cancer, focusing on robotic surgery, and providing original data from the authors centre. PMID:24101946

  2. Evolution of imaging in rectal cancer: multimodality imaging with MDCT, MRI, and PET

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yifei; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and positron emission tomography (PET) are complementary imaging modalities in the preoperative staging of patients with rectal cancer, and each offers their own individual strengths and weaknesses. MRI is the best available radiologic modality for the local staging of rectal cancers, and can play an important role in accurately distinguishing which patients should receive preoperative chemoradiation prior to total mesorectal excision. Alternatively, both MDCT and PET are considered primary modalities when performing preoperative distant staging, but are limited in their ability to locally stage rectal malignancies. This review details the role of each of these three modalities in rectal cancer staging, and how the three imaging modalities can be used in conjunction. PMID:25830037

  3. Necrotising fasciitis secondary to perforated rectal adenocarcinoma presenting as a thigh swelling.

    PubMed

    Evans, William David George; Winters, Conchubhair; Amin, Eshan

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was admitted to the medical admissions ward with right thigh pain presumed to be a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Subsequent duplex ultrasonography excluded a DVT but noted the presence of a significant amount of subcutaneous gas. A plain film radiograph was performed with the same finding raising the possibility of necrotising fasciitis (NF). Only at this point was digital rectal examination performed revealing a large rectal mass oozing pus and blood. CT imaging showed thickening of the rectum consistent with a tumour with gas and fluid in the perirectal space extending to the anterolateral right femur. Despite aggressive debridement and treatment, the patient deteriorated and died 6?weeks later. This case should serve as a reminder to consider digital rectal examination and the occurrence of a rectal perforation in all patients who present with suspicious thigh swellings. PMID:25824287

  4. Selection Criteria for the Radical Treatment of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Mansel Leigh; Harris, Dean; Davies, Mark; Lucas, Malcolm; Drew, Peter; Beynon, John

    2011-01-01

    There are over 14,000 newly diagnosed rectal cancers per year in the United Kingdom of which between 50 and 64 percent are locally advanced (T3/T4) at presentation. Pelvic exenterative surgery was first described by Brunschwig in 1948 for advanced cervical cancer, but early series reported high morbidity and mortality. This approach was later applied to advanced primary rectal carcinomas with contemporary series reporting 5-year survival rates between 32 and 66 percent and to recurrent rectal carcinoma with survival rates of 2242%. The Swansea Pelvic Oncology Group was established in 1999 and is involved in the assessment and management of advanced pelvic malignancies referred both regionally and UK wide. This paper will set out the selection, assessment, preparation, surgery, and outcomes from pelvic exenterative surgery for locally advanced primary rectal carcinomas. PMID:22312517

  5. Treatment of rectal prolapse in children with cow milk injection sclerotherapy: 30-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Zganjer, Mirko; Cizmic, Ante; Cigit, Irenej; Zupancic, Bozidar; Bumci, Igor; Popovic, Ljiljana; Kljenak, Antun

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role and our experience of injection sclerotherapy with cow milk in the treatment of rectal prolapse in children. METHODS: In the last 30 years (1976-2006) we made 100 injections of sclerotherapy with cow milk in 86 children. In this study we included children who failed to respond to conservative treatment and we perform operative treatment. RESULTS: In our study we included 86 children and in all of the patients we perform cow milk injection sclerotherapy. In 95.3% (82 children) of patients sclerotherapy was successful. In 4 (4.7%) patients we had recurrent rectal prolapse where we performed operative treatment. Below 4 years we had 62 children (72%) and 24 older children (28%). In children who needed operative treatment we performed Thiersch operation and without any complications. CONCLUSION: Injection sclerotherapy with cow milk for treatment rectal prolapse in children is a simple and effective treatment for rectal prolapse with minimal complications. PMID:18205264

  6. Management of primary rectal cancer by surgeons in Atlantic Canada: results of a regional survey

    PubMed Central

    Chuah, Teong Kuan; Lee, Tracy; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Pollett, William

    2010-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the current practice patterns of general surgeons in Atlantic Canada in the management of primary rectal cancer in relation to surgeon-specific variables. Methods We sent mail-out surveys to all practising general surgeons (n =183) in Atlantic Canada to determine screening preferences, preoperative assessment, the use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy, surgical therapy for rectal cancer and surgeon demographics. We analyzed the responses using ?2 tests. Results The response rate was 98 (54%) after 2 mail-outs; there were 82 (49%) eligible responses. Surgeons in practice for 21 years or more were more likely than those with fewer than 21 years of practice to order preoperative ultrasonography of the liver and were less likely to order preoperative computed tomography. Endorectal ultrasonography was ordered routinely by 23% of surgeons, whereas 71% of surgeons would order it if time and resources were available. Surgeons who were not certified by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada were significantly more likely than those who were certified to use neoadjuvant therapy in all patients with rectal cancer (43% v. 12%; p = 0.031). Surgeons who performed more than 10 rectal cancer surgeries per year were significantly more likely than those who performed 10 or fewer surgeries per year to use neoadjuvant treatment for T3 tumours (94% v. 61%; p = 0.007). Surgeons with medical or radiation oncology services in their communities were significantly more likely than those without such services to recommend neoadjuvant treatment in T3 rectal tumours and rectal tumours with pathologic lymph nodes. Conclusion We found significant variation in the management of rectal cancer depending on surgeon-specific variables. The implications of these differences on the outcomes of patients with rectal cancer are unknown. PMID:21092432

  7. MicroRNA-144 inhibits migration and proliferation in rectal cancer by downregulating ROCK-1

    PubMed Central

    CAI, SHANG-DANG; CHEN, JIAN-SHE; XI, ZUO-WU; ZHANG, LONG-JIANG; NIU, MING-LIAO; GAO, ZONG-YUE

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the colon and rectum are two distinct entities, which require different treatment strategies and separate treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as critical regulators of genes involved in several biological processes. Aberrant alterations of miRNAs have been found in several types of cancer, including colon cancer and rectal cancer. Extensive catalogues of downregulated miRNAs have been identified for colon cancer, whereas only limited data are available for rectal cancer. An example of miRNA profiling in a previous study found that miRNA (miR)-144 showed aberrant expression and appeared to be rectal cancer-specific, its expression not being reported in colon cancer. In the present study, the role of miR-144 in rectal cancer was investigated. SW837 and SW1463 cell lines were selected as rectal cell carcinoma cells. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot, BrdU, cell migration and cell viability assays, it was found that the expression levels of miR-144 were significantly reduced in the SW837 and SW1463 cell lines, and the overexpression of miR-144 suppressed rectal cancer cell viability, migration and proliferation. In addition, Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) was identified as a target of miR-144 in the rectal cancer cells. The supplementation of ROCK1 markedly restored the cell migration and proliferation, which was inhibited by miR-144. Together, the data of the present study demonstrated that miR-144 acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting ROCK1, and indicates the potential of miR-144 as a novel biomarker and target in the treatment of rectal cancer. PMID:26458302

  8. EFFECTS OF PROSTATE-RECTUM SEPARATION ON RECTAL DOSE FROM EXTERNAL BEAM RADIOTHERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Susil, Robert C.; McNutt, Todd R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Song, Danny

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In radiotherapy for prostate cancer, the rectum is the major dose-limiting structure. Physically separating the rectum from the prostate (e.g., by injecting a spacer) can reduce the rectal radiation dose. Despite pilot clinical studies, no careful analysis has been done of the risks, benefits, and dosimetric effects of this practice. Methods and Materials Using cadaveric specimens, 20 mL of a hydrogel was injected between the prostate and rectum using a transperineal approach. Imaging was performed before and after spacer placement, and the cadavers were subsequently dissected. Ten intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were generated (five before and five after separation), allowing for characterization of the rectal dose reduction. To quantify the amount of prostate-rectum separation needed for effective rectal dose reduction, simulations were performed using nine clinically generated intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans. Results In the cadaveric studies, an average of 12.5 mm of prostate-rectum separation was generated with the 20-mL hydrogel injections (the seminal vesicles were also separated from the rectum). The average rectal volume receiving 70 Gy decreased from 19.9% to 4.5% (p < .05). In the simulation studies, a prostate-rectum separation of 10 mm was sufficient to reduce the mean rectal volume receiving 70 Gy by 83.1% (p < .05). No additional reduction in the average rectal volume receiving 70 Gy was noted after 15 mm of separation. In addition, spacer placement allowed for increased planning target volume margins without exceeding the rectal dose tolerance. Conclusion Prostate-rectum spacers can allow for reduced rectal toxicity rates, treatment intensification, and/or reduced dependence on complex planning and treatment delivery techniques. PMID:19939577

  9. Lack of Prophylactic Efficacy of Oral Maraviroc in Macaques despite High Drug Concentrations in Rectal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Massud, Ivana; Aung, Wutyi; Martin, Amy; Bachman, Shanon; Mitchell, James; Aubert, Rachael; Solomon Tsegaye, Theodros; Kersh, Ellen; Pau, Chou-Pong; Heneine, Walid

    2013-01-01

    Maraviroc (MVC) is a potent CCR5 coreceptor antagonist that is in clinical testing for daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. We used a macaque model consisting of weekly SHIV162p3 exposures to evaluate the efficacy of oral MVC in preventing rectal SHIV transmission. MVC dosing was informed by the pharmacokinetic profile seen in blood and rectal tissues and consisted of a human-equivalent dose given 24 h before virus exposure, followed by a booster postexposure dose. In rectal secretions, MVC peaked at 24 h (10,242 ng/ml) with concentrations at 48 h that were about 40 times those required to block SHIV infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. Median MVC concentrations in rectal tissues at 24 h (1,404 ng/g) were 30 and 10 times those achieved in vaginal or lymphoid tissues, respectively. MVC significantly reduced macrophage inflammatory protein 1β-induced CCR5 internalization in rectal mononuclear cells, an indication of efficient binding to CCR5 in rectal lymphocytes. The half-life of CCR5-bound MVC in PBMCs was 2.6 days. Despite this favorable profile, 5/6 treated macaques were infected during five rectal SHIV exposures as were 3/4 controls. MVC treatment was associated with a significant increase in the percentage of CD3+/CCR5+ cells in blood. We show that high and durable MVC concentrations in rectal tissues are not sufficient to prevent SHIV infection in macaques. The increases in CD3+/CCR5+ cells seen during MVC treatment point to unique immunological effects of CCR5 inhibition by MVC. The implications of these immunological effects on PrEP with MVC require further evaluation. PMID:23740994

  10. Dilemmas in Endoscopic Management of Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Case-Based Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Rajca, Brian P.; Wagh, Mihir S.

    2015-01-01

    Rectal neuroendocrine tumors are uncommon neoplasms that historically were regarded as having an indolent course. Due to the widespread use of screening colonoscopy neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum are identified with increasing frequency. More recent literature has suggested that rectal neuroendocrine tumors may progress in a more malignant fashion than previously believed. In this case-based discussion we present management dilemmas, analyze current guidelines, and highlight the role of endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic resection, and surgery. PMID:26346026

  11. Late Rectal Toxicity on RTOG 94-06: Analysis Using a Mixture Lyman Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Susan L.; Dong Lei; Bosch, Walter R.; Michalski, Jeff; Winter, Kathryn; Mohan, Radhe; Purdy, James A.; Kuban, Deborah; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, M. Rex; Thames, Howard D.; Cox, James D.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To estimate the parameters of the Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model using censored time-to-event data for Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity among patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-06, a dose-escalation trial designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: The Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model was fitted to data from 1,010 of the 1,084 patients accrued on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-06 using an approach that accounts for censored observations. Separate fits were obtained using dose-volume histograms for whole rectum and dose-wall histograms for rectal wall. Results: With a median follow-up of 7.2 years, the crude incidence of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity was 15% (n = 148). The parameters of the Lyman model fitted to dose-volume histograms data, with 95% profile-likelihood confidence intervals, were TD{sub 50} = 79.1 Gy (75.3 Gy, 84.3 Gy), m = 0.146 (0.107, 0.225), and n = 0.077 (0.041, 0.156). The fit based on dose-wall histogram data was not significantly different. Patients with cardiovascular disease had a significantly higher incidence of late rectal toxicity (p = 0.015), corresponding to a dose-modifying factor of 5.3%. No significant association with late rectal toxicity was found for diabetes, hypertension, rectal volume, rectal length, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, or prescribed dose per fraction (1.8 Gy vs. 2 Gy). Conclusions: These results, based on a large cohort of patients from a multi-institutional trial, are expected to be widely representative of the ability of the Lyman model to describe the long-term risk of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

  12. Development of a Clinically-Precise Mouse Model of Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Momiyama, Masashi; Aki, Ryoichi; Kimura, Hiroaki; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Currently-used rodent tumor models, including transgenic tumor models, or subcutaneously growing tumors in mice, do not sufficiently represent clinical cancer. We report here development of methods to obtain a highly clinically-accurate rectal cancer model. This model was established by intrarectal transplantation of mouse rectal cancer cells, stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), followed by disrupting the epithelial cell layer of the rectal mucosa by instilling an acetic acid solution. Early-stage tumor was detected in the rectal mucosa by 6 days after transplantation. The tumor then became invasive into the submucosal tissue. The tumor incidence was 100% and mean volume (SD) was 1232.4 994.7 mm3 at 4 weeks after transplantation detected by fluorescence imaging. Spontaneous lymph node metastasis and lung metastasis were also found approximately 4 weeks after transplantation in over 90% of mice. This rectal tumor model precisely mimics the natural history of rectal cancer and can be used to study early tumor development, metastasis, and discovery and evaluation of novel therapeutics for this treatment-resistant disease. PMID:24265772

  13. Early Proctoscopy is a Surrogate Endpoint of Late Rectal Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ippolito, Edy; Massaccesi, Mariangela; Digesu, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco; Macchia, Gabriella; Pirozzi, Giuseppe Antonio; Cilla, Savino; Cuscuna, Daniele; Di Lallo, Alessandra; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Mantini, Giovanna; Pacelli, Fabio; Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Numa; Ingrosso, Marcello; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To predict the grade and incidence of late clinical rectal toxicity through short-term (1 year) mucosal alterations. Methods and Materials: Patients with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with curative or adjuvant radiotherapy underwent proctoscopy a year after the course of radiotherapy. Mucosal changes were classified by the Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS). Late toxicity data were analyzed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison between prognosis groups was performed by log-rank analysis. Results: After a median follow-up time of 45 months (range, 18-99), the 3-year incidence of grade {>=}2 rectal late toxicity according to the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group was 24%, with all patients (24/24; 100%) experiencing rectal bleeding. The occurrence of grade {>=}2 clinical rectal late toxicity was higher in patients with grade {>=}2 (32% vs. 15 %, p = 0.02) or grade {>=}3 VRS telangiectasia (47% vs. 17%, p {<=} 0.01) and an overall VRS score of {>=}2 (31% vs. 16 %, p = 0.04) or {>=}3 (48% vs. 17%, p = 0.01) at the 1-year proctoscopy. Conclusions: Early proctoscopy (1 year) predicts late rectal bleeding and therefore can be used as a surrogate endpoint for late rectal toxicity in studies aimed at reducing this frequent complication.

  14. Ozone Therapy in the Management of Persistent Radiation-Induced Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Clavo, Bernardino; Santana-Rodriguez, Norberto; Llontop, Pedro; Gutierrez, Dominga; Ceballos, Daniel; Mndez, Charlin; Rovira, Gloria; Suarez, Gerardo; Rey-Baltar, Dolores; Garcia-Cabrera, Laura; Martnez-Snchez, Gregorio; Fiuza, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Persistent radiation-induced proctitis and rectal bleeding are debilitating complications with limited therapeutic options. We present our experience with ozone therapy in the management of such refractory rectal bleeding. Methods. Patients (n = 12) previously irradiated for prostate cancer with persistent or severe rectal bleeding without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive ozone therapy via rectal insufflations and/or topical application of ozonized-oil. Ten (83%) patients had Grade 3 or Grade 4 toxicity. Median follow-up after ozone therapy was 104 months (range: 52-119). Results. Following ozone therapy, the median grade of toxicity improved from 3 to 1 (p < 0.001) and the number of endoscopy treatments from 37 to 4 (p = 0.032). Hemoglobin levels changed from 11.1 (7-14)?g/dL to 13 (10-15)?g/dL, before and after ozone therapy, respectively (p = 0.008). Ozone therapy was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted, except soft and temporary flatulence for some hours after each session. Conclusions. Ozone therapy was effective in radiation-induced rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients without serious adverse events. It proved useful in the management of rectal bleeding and merits further evaluation. PMID:26357522

  15. Potential Pitfalls in Transjugular Portosystemic Shunt Placement for Bleeding Rectal Varices

    PubMed Central

    Sakib, S M Nazmus; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Jawed, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    In patients with portal hypertension, bleeding from rectal varices is rare. However, it can be life-threatening. We report a case of massive bleeding from large rectal varices in a 59-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis. Emergent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement was performed following failed local endoscopic therapy. Despite normalization of the portosystemic pressure gradient, the patient had another episode of massive bleeding on the following day. Embolization of the rectal varices via TIPS successfully stopped the bleeding. After the procedure, rapid decompensation of the cirrhosis led to severe encephalopathy, and death was observed. Although TIPSs have been reported to be useful in controlling bleeding from rectal varices, our case illustrates the potential pitfalls in using this technique in the treatment of rectal variceal bleeding. TIPSs may not be always successful in controlling massive bleeding from large rectal varices, even after normalization of portal hypertension. TIPSs can also be associated with life-threatening complications that may lead to early mortality. PMID:26464566

  16. Implementation of a Hospital-Based Quality Assessment Program for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, Samantha; McKeown, Ellen; Morris, Arden M.; Wong, Sandra L.; Oerline, Mary; Poe, Lyndia; Campbell, Darrell A.; Birkmeyer, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Quality improvement programs in Europe have had a markedly beneficial effect on the processes and outcomes of rectal cancer care. The quality of rectal cancer care in the United States is not as well understood, and scalable quality improvement programs have not been developed. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of a hospital-based quality assessment program for rectal cancer, targeting both community and academic hospitals. Methods: We recruited 10 hospitals from a surgical quality improvement organization. Nurse reviewers were trained to abstract rectal cancer data from hospital medical records, and abstracts were assessed for accuracy. We conducted two surveys to assess the training program and limitations of the data abstraction. We validated data completeness and accuracy by comparing hospital medical record and tumor registry data. Results: Nine of 10 hospitals successfully performed abstractions with ≥ 90% accuracy. Experienced nurse reviewers were challenged by the technical details in operative and pathology reports. Although most variables had less than 10% missing data, outpatient testing information was lacking from some hospitals' inpatient records. This implementation project yielded a final quality assessment program consisting of 20 medical records variables and 11 tumor registry variables. Conclusion: An innovative program linking tumor registry data to quality-improvement data for rectal cancer quality assessment was successfully implemented in 10 hospitals. This data platform and training program can serve as a template for other organizations that are interested in assessing and improving the quality of rectal cancer care. PMID:24839288

  17. Ozone Therapy in the Management of Persistent Radiation-Induced Rectal Bleeding in Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Clavo, Bernardino; Santana-Rodriguez, Norberto; Llontop, Pedro; Gutierrez, Dominga; Ceballos, Daniel; Méndez, Charlin; Rovira, Gloria; Suarez, Gerardo; Rey-Baltar, Dolores; Garcia-Cabrera, Laura; Martínez-Sánchez, Gregorio; Fiuza, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Persistent radiation-induced proctitis and rectal bleeding are debilitating complications with limited therapeutic options. We present our experience with ozone therapy in the management of such refractory rectal bleeding. Methods. Patients (n = 12) previously irradiated for prostate cancer with persistent or severe rectal bleeding without response to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive ozone therapy via rectal insufflations and/or topical application of ozonized-oil. Ten (83%) patients had Grade 3 or Grade 4 toxicity. Median follow-up after ozone therapy was 104 months (range: 52–119). Results. Following ozone therapy, the median grade of toxicity improved from 3 to 1 (p < 0.001) and the number of endoscopy treatments from 37 to 4 (p = 0.032). Hemoglobin levels changed from 11.1 (7–14) g/dL to 13 (10–15) g/dL, before and after ozone therapy, respectively (p = 0.008). Ozone therapy was well tolerated and no adverse effects were noted, except soft and temporary flatulence for some hours after each session. Conclusions. Ozone therapy was effective in radiation-induced rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients without serious adverse events. It proved useful in the management of rectal bleeding and merits further evaluation. PMID:26357522

  18. Semi-automatic staging system for rectal cancer using spatially oriented unwrapped endorectal ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warmath, John R.; Cao, Zhujiang; Bao, Philip; Herline, Alan J.; Galloway, Robert L., Jr.

    2005-04-01

    Endorectal ultrasound is currently the gold standard for the staging of rectal cancer; however, the accurate staging of the disease requires extensive training and is difficult, especially for those clinicians who do not see a large number of patients per year. Therefore, there is a need for a semi-automatic staging system to assist the clinicians in the accurate staging of rectal cancer. We believe that the unwrapping of the circular ERUS images captured by a spatially tracked ERUS system is a step in this direction. The steps by which a 2D image can be unwrapped are described thereby allowing the circular layers of the rectal wall to be displayed as flat layers stacked on top of each other. We test the unwrapping process using images from a cylindrical rectal phantom and a human rectum. The process of unwrapping endorectal ultrasound images qualitatively provides good visualization of the layers of the rectal wall and rectal tumors and supports the continual study of this novel staging system.

  19. The influence of LED rectal irradiation on IL-1? and IL-4 of experimental ulcerative colitis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-Chun; Wang, Xian-Ju; Liu, Han-Ping; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory destructive disease of the large intestine occurred usually in the rectum and lower part of the colon as well as the entire colon. In this paper, the influence of IL-1? and IL-4 on the experimental ulcerative colitis by light emitting diode ( LED ) (?: 632.8nm; power: 4.0mw) applied to colon directly were studied. Making 30 rats into 3 groups: LED curative group, model group, normal control group. There were 10 rats of each group. We used glacial acetic acid (5%) and trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) (1%) intra-anally to replicate the rat model of ulcerative colitis. After a week treatment with administrating LED rectal irradiation to curative group, 30mm each time, once per day, the histopathological studies in colonic tissue were performed, and the expression and distribution of IL-l? and IL-4 in colonic tissues were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. The extent of the Colonic tissue injury in LED curative group was not as significant as that in the model group. Compared with model group, the content of MDA in LED curative group was reductived and the activity of SOD was increased significantly, and the expression and distribution of IL-l? in LED curative group was depressed significantly, however the expression and distribution of IL-4 in LED curative group was increased obviously. This results show that the LED rectal irradiation can protect colonic mucosa from the experimental ulcerative colitis in rats, and suggest that the effects may be related to the photobiomodulation and immunomodulation of LED.

  20. Pre-referral rectal artesunate in severe malaria: flawed trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Immediate injectable treatment is essential for severe malaria. Otherwise, the afflicted risk lifelong impairment or death. In rural areas of Africa and Asia, appropriate care is often miles away. In 2009, Melba Gomes and her colleagues published the findings of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rectal artesunate for suspected severe malaria in such remote areas. Enrolling nearly 18,000 cases, the aim was to evaluate whether, as patients were in transit to a health facility, a pre-referral artesunate suppository blocked disease progression sufficiently to reduce these risks. The affirmative findings of this, the only trial on the issue thus far, have led the WHO to endorse rectal artesunate as a pre-referral treatment for severe malaria. In the light of its public health importance and because its scientific quality has not been assessed for a systematic review, our paper provides a detailed evaluation of the design, conduct, analysis, reporting, and practical features of this trial. Results We performed a checklist-based and an in-depth evaluation of the trial. The evaluation criteria were based on the CONSORT statement for reporting clinical trials, the clinical trial methodology literature, and practice in malaria research. Our main findings are: The inclusion and exclusion criteria and the sample size justification are not stated. Many clearly ineligible subjects were enrolled. The training of the recruiters does not appear to have been satisfactory. There was excessive between center heterogeneity in design and conduct. Outcome evaluation schedule was not defined, and in practice, became too wide. Large gaps in the collection of key data were evident. Primary endpoints were inconsistently utilized and reported; an overall analysis of the outcomes was not done; analyses of time to event data had major flaws; the stated intent-to-treat analysis excluded a third of the randomized subjects; the design-indicated stratified or multi-variate analysis was not done; many improper subgroups were analyzed in a post-hoc fashion; the analysis and reporting metric was deficient. There are concerns relating to patient welfare at some centers. Exclusion of many cases from data analysis compromised external validity. A bias-controlled reanalysis of available data does not lend support to the conclusions drawn by the authors. Conclusions This trial has numerous serious deficiencies in design, implementation, and methods of data analysis. Interpretation and manner of reporting are wanting, and the applicability of the findings is unclear. The trial conduct could have been improved to better protect patient welfare. The totality of these problems make it a flawed study whose conclusions remain subject to appreciable doubt. PMID:21824389

  1. Genetic mutations in human rectal cancers detected by targeted sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jun; Gao, Jinglong; Mao, Zhijun; Wang, Jianhua; Li, Jianhui; Li, Wensheng; Lei, Yu; Li, Shuaishuai; Wu, Zhuo; Tang, Chuanning; Jones, Lindsey; Ye, Hua; Lou, Feng; Liu, Zhiyuan; Dong, Zhishou; Guo, Baishuai; Huang, Xue F; Chen, Si-Yi; Zhang, Enke

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is widespread with significant mortality. Both inherited and sporadic mutations in various signaling pathways influence the development and progression of the cancer. Identifying genetic mutations in CRC is important for optimal patient treatment and many approaches currently exist to uncover these mutations, including next-generation sequencing (NGS) and commercially available kits. In the present study, we used a semiconductor-based targeted DNA-sequencing approach to sequence and identify genetic mutations in 91 human rectal cancer samples. Analysis revealed frequent mutations in KRAS (58.2%), TP53 (28.6%), APC (16.5%), FBXW7 (9.9%) and PIK3CA (9.9%), and additional mutations in BRAF, CTNNB1, ERBB2 and SMAD4 were also detected at lesser frequencies. Thirty-eight samples (41.8%) also contained two or more mutations, with common combination mutations occurring between KRAS and TP53 (42.1%), and KRAS and APC (31.6%). DNA sequencing for individual cancers is of clinical importance for targeted drug therapy and the advantages of such targeted gene sequencing over other NGS platforms or commercially available kits in sensitivity, cost and time effectiveness may aid clinicians in treating CRC patients in the near future. PMID:26134512

  2. Pharmacological characteristics of endothelin receptors on sheep rectal blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Lohsiriwat, Varut; Scholefield, John H; Dashwood, Michael R; Wilson, Vincent G

    2011-06-01

    Haemorrhoids is associated with high blood flow of the anorectal region. The question of whether pharmacological manipulation of vascular supply can relieve the symptoms of haemorrhoids has been raised. In order to undertake this type of clinical investigation, it is first essential to gain a better understanding of the properties of vascular receptors that may regulate blood flow into anal cushions and haemorrhoids. Due to the limited availability of human anorectal specimens and the good reliability of sheep tissue as an experimental model of human anorectal diseases, we studied the properties of endothelin receptors in sheep rectal artery (SRA) and vein (SRV), the vessels contributing to the blood flow of haemorrhoidal plexus, using isometric tension recordings. We found that endothelin-1 and sarafotoxin 6a were very potent constrictor agents in both SRA and SRV. The selective ET(A) receptor antagonist PD156707 (100 nM) produced a parallel rightward displacement of ET-1-induced contractions in both vessels and abolished sarafotoxin 6a-induced contractions in the SRA. PD156707 (3 ?M) practically abolished contractions to ET-1 in the SRA, suggesting that the response is entirely mediated by ET(A) receptors. While, the selective ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ788 (100 nM) caused no significant change in ET-1-induced contractions in both vessels, a minor role for ET(B) receptor subtype to responses to sarafotoxin 6a in the artery was suggested. PMID:21382493

  3. Initially unresectable rectal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative irradiation and surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, W M; Million, R R; Bland, K I; Pfaff, W W; Copeland, E M

    1987-01-01

    This is an analysis of 23 patients with clinically and/or surgically unresectable adenocarcinoma of the rectum on initial evaluation who were treated with preoperative irradiation and surgery between March 1970 and April 1981. All patients have had follow-up for at least 5 years. Five patients (22%) had exploratory laparotomy and diverting colostomy before irradiation. All patients were irradiated with megavoltage equipment to the pelvis at 180 rad/fraction, continuous-course technique. Total doses ranged from 3500 to 6000 rad with a mean of 4800 rad and a median of 5000 rad. All patients had surgery 2-11 weeks (mean: 4.9 weeks; median: 4 weeks) after radiation therapy. Twelve patients (52%) had lesions that were incompletely resected because of positive margins (7 patients), distant metastasis (1 patient), or both (4 patients). All of these patients died of cancer within 5 years of treatment. Eleven patients had an apparent complete excision of their rectal cancer; six patients (55%) subsequently had a local recurrence. The 5-year absolute survival rate for patients who had complete resection was 18% (2 of 11 patients). The 5-year absolute and determinate survival rates for the entire study were 9% (2 of 23 patients) and 9% (2 of 22 patients), respectively. One patient (in the incomplete resection group) died after operation secondary to sepsis and diffuse intravascular coagulation. PMID:3800461

  4. Biomarkers for Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kuremsky, Jeffrey G.; Tepper, Joel E.; McLeod, Howard L. Phar

    2009-07-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is currently treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Although approximately 45% of patients respond to neoadjuvant therapy with T-level downstaging, there is no effective method of predicting which patients will respond. Molecular biomarkers have been investigated for their ability to predict outcome in LARC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. A literature search using PubMed resulted in the initial assessment of 1,204 articles. Articles addressing the ability of a biomarker to predict outcome for LARC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation were included. Six biomarkers met the criteria for review: p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), thymidylate synthase, Ki-67, p21, and bcl-2/bax. On the basis of composite data, p53 is unlikely to have utility as a predictor of response. Epidermal growth factor receptor has shown promise as a predictor when quantitatively evaluated in pretreatment biopsies or when EGFR polymorphisms are evaluated in germline DNA. Thymidylate synthase, when evaluated for polymorphisms in germline DNA, is promising as a predictive biomarker. Ki-67 and bcl-2 are not useful in predicting outcome. p21 needs to be further evaluated to determine its usefulness in predicting outcome. Bax requires more investigation to determine its usefulness. Epidermal growth factor receptor, thymidylate synthase, and p21 should be evaluated in larger prospective clinical trials for their ability to guide preoperative therapy choices in LARC.

  5. Sacrococcygeal chordoma presenting as a retro rectal tumour

    PubMed Central

    Chigurupati, Pragnya; Venkatesan, Vishnukumar; Thiyagarajan, Manuneethimaran; Vikram, A.; Kiran, Kaundinya

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Chordomas are rare, slow growing, locally destructive bone tumours arising from the notochord. PRESENTATION OF CASE Presenting a case of a 65 year old man, who presented with complaints of swelling on the right lower back for 1 year associated with pain. On, physical examination, a swelling measuring 5cmנ4cm was noted in the lower back with posterior wall indentation on per rectal examination. MRI revealed a mass lesion involving the sacrum (s3s4) and coccyx. FNAC showed features of a chroma. At surgery, we excised a mass from the retrorectal space and biopsy proved it to be a chondroid chordoma, a variant of chordoma. DISCUSSION Chordomas are solid malignant tumours that arise from vestiges of the foetal notochord. Common locations are the clivus and the sacrococcygeus region. Annual incidence of these tumours is 1 in one million. MRI is the imaging modality of choice. Prognosis improves based on the age, resected margins and postoperative treatment. CONCLUSION Here, we shall discuss the literature, variants, treatment and prognosis of this rare tumour. PMID:25201478

  6. Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Qi; Shi, Zhiao; Chambers, Matthew C; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Shaddox, Kent F; Kim, Sangtae; Davies, Sherri R; Wang, Sean; Wang, Pei; Kinsinger, Christopher R; Rivers, Robert C; Rodriguez, Henry; Townsend, R Reid; Ellis, Matthew J C; Carr, Steven A; Tabb, David L; Coffey, Robert J; Slebos, Robbert J C; Liebler, Daniel C

    2014-09-18

    Extensive genomic characterization of human cancers presents the problem of inference from genomic abnormalities to cancer phenotypes. To address this problem, we analysed proteomes of colon and rectal tumours characterized previously by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and perform integrated proteogenomic analyses. Somatic variants displayed reduced protein abundance compared to germline variants. Messenger RNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein abundance differences between tumours. Proteomics identified five proteomic subtypes in the TCGA cohort, two of which overlapped with the TCGA 'microsatellite instability/CpG island methylation phenotype' transcriptomic subtype, but had distinct mutation, methylation and protein expression patterns associated with different clinical outcomes. Although copy number alterations showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA abundance, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of candidate driver genes. The chromosome 20q amplicon was associated with the largest global changes at both mRNA and protein levels; proteomics data highlighted potential 20q candidates, including HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha), TOMM34 (translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 34) and SRC (SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase). Integrated proteogenomic analysis provides functional context to interpret genomic abnormalities and affords a new paradigm for understanding cancer biology. PMID:25043054

  7. Oral and rectal immunization of adult female volunteers with a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhi vaccine strain.

    PubMed Central

    Nardelli-Haefliger, D; Kraehenbuhl, J P; Curtiss, R; Schodel, F; Potts, A; Kelly, S; De Grandi, P

    1996-01-01

    An attenuated strain of Salmonella typhi delta(cya) delta(crp-cdt) delta(asd) expressing a gene encoding a hepatitis B virus core-pre-S protein was tested in female adult volunteers for its ability to elicit a systemic and a mucosal immune response. Specifically, our purpose was to evaluate the potential of such a vaccine strain to induce specific secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) at genital and rectal surfaces. Oral and rectal routes of immunization were compared: oral immunization induced seroconversion against the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in six out of seven volunteers, while after rectal immunization only one out of six volunteers seroconverted against LPS. To our disappointment, the latter volunteer was also the only one who seroconverted against the carried antigen (pre-S1), demonstrating the poor ability of this live vaccine to induce an immune response against the carried antigen. Anti-LPS sIgA was found in both the vaginal and cervical secretions of a volunteer who presented a strong seroconversion after oral immunization (16-fold increase in anti-LPS IgG). Smaller amounts of anti-LPS sIgA were found in the rectal secretions of one orally and one rectally immunized volunteer and in the saliva of three orally and one rectally immunized woman. Our data show for the first time that it is possible to induce specific sIgA in the genital and rectal tracts of women by using an S. typhi vaccine strain. PMID:8945569

  8. Automatically-generated rectal dose constraints in intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Taejin; Kim, Yong Nam; Kim, Soo Kon; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Park, Soah; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Han, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Meyeon; Kim, Kyoung-Joo; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2015-06-01

    The dose constraint during prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization should be patient-specific for better rectum sparing. The aims of this study are to suggest a novel method for automatically generating a patient-specific dose constraint by using an experience-based dose volume histogram (DVH) of the rectum and to evaluate the potential of such a dose constraint qualitatively. The normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) of the rectum with respect to V %ratio in our study were divided into three groups, where V %ratio was defined as the percent ratio of the rectal volume overlapping the planning target volume (PTV) to the rectal volume: (1) the rectal NTCPs in the previous study (clinical data), (2) those statistically generated by using the standard normal distribution (calculated data), and (3) those generated by combining the calculated data and the clinical data (mixed data). In the calculated data, a random number whose mean value was on the fitted curve described in the clinical data and whose standard deviation was 1% was generated by using the `randn' function in the MATLAB program and was used. For each group, we validated whether the probability density function (PDF) of the rectal NTCP could be automatically generated with the density estimation method by using a Gaussian kernel. The results revealed that the rectal NTCP probability increased in proportion to V %ratio , that the predictive rectal NTCP was patient-specific, and that the starting point of IMRT optimization for the given patient might be different. The PDF of the rectal NTCP was obtained automatically for each group except that the smoothness of the probability distribution increased with increasing number of data and with increasing window width. We showed that during the prostate IMRT optimization, the patient-specific dose constraints could be automatically generated and that our method could reduce the IMRT optimization time as well as maintain the IMRT plan quality.

  9. Development of HIV-1 Rectal-Specific Microbicides and Colonic Tissue Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Russo, Julie; Wang, Lin; Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Li, Jie; Friend, David R.; McGowan, Ian M.; Rohan, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is structurally and functionally different from the vagina. Thus, the paradigm of topical microbicide development and evaluation has evolved to include rectal microbicides (RMs). Our interest was to create unique RM formulations to safely and effectively deliver antiretroviral drugs to mucosal tissue. RMs were designed to include those that spread and coat all surfaces of the rectum and distal colon rapidly (liquid) and those that create a deformable, erodible barrier and remain localized at the administration site (gel). Tenofovir (TFV) (1%) was formulated as an aqueous thermoreversible fluid and a carbopol-based aqueous hydrogel. Lipid-based liquid and gel formulations were prepared for UC781 (0.1%) using isopropyl myristate and GTCC (Caprylic/Capric Triglycerides), respectively. Formulations were characterized for pH, viscosity, osmolality, and drug content. Pre-clinical testing incorporated ex vivo colonic tissue obtained through surgical resections and flexible sigmoidoscopy (flex sig). As this was the first time using tissue from both sources side-by-side, the ability to replicate HIV-1 was compared. Efficacy of the RM formulations was tested by applying the products with HIV-1 directly to polarized colonic tissue and following viral replication. Safety of the formulations was determined by MTT assay and histology. All products had a neutral pH and were isoosmolar. While HIV-1BaL and HIV-1JR-CSF alone and in the presence of semen had similar replication trends between surgically resected and flex sig tissues, the magnitude of viral replication was significantly better in flex sig tissues. Both TFV and UC781 formulations protected the colonic tissue, regardless of tissue source, from HIV-1 and retained tissue viability and architecture. Our in vitro and ex vivo results show successful formulation of unique RMs. Moreover, the results of flex sig and surgically resected tissues were comparable suggesting the incorporation of both in pre-clinical testing algorithms. PMID:25025306

  10. Electrical neuromodulation at acupoint ST36 normalizes impaired colonic motility induced by rectal distension in dogs.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haifeng; Liu, Jiemin; Foreman, Robert D; Chen, Jiande D Z; Yin, Jieyun

    2015-09-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has been shown to improve impaired gastric motility and slow waves in both humans and animals. However, its effects on colonic motility have rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of EA on impaired colonic motility induced by rectal distension (RD)in dogs. Colon contractions and transit were measured in various sessions with and without EA in hound dogs chronically placed with a colonic cannula. Colonic contractile activity was assessed by motility index (MI). Autonomic functions were determined by the spectral analysis of the heart rate variability derived from the electrocardiogram. It was found 1) RD suppressed colonic motility by 40.5% (10.8 0.9 with RD vs. 6.4 0.8 at baseline, P < 0.002). EA at ST36 normalized colonic contractions suppressed by RD (12.9 2.8, P < 0.002 vs. RD and P = 0.1 vs. control). 2) Administration of atropine blocked the ameliorating effect of EA on colon motility. 3) RD also delayed colonic transit (65.0 2.0% with RD vs. 86.0 1.9% without RD, P < 0.001) that was restored with EA (84.0 1.9%, P = 0.178 vs. control). 4) EA increased vagal activity suppressed by RD (0.37 0.07 with RD + EA vs. 0.09 0.03 with RD without EA, P < 0.001). In conclusion, RD inhibits colonic contractions and delays colonic transit in dogs; EA at ST36 restores the RD-induced impairment in both colonic contraction and transit by enhancing vagal activity and mediated via the cholinergic pathway. PMID:26113299

  11. Carcinoembryonic Antigen as a Predictor of Pathologic Response and a Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy and Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ji Won; Lim, Seok-Byung Kim, Dae Yong; Jung, Kyung Hae; Hong, Yong Sang; Chang, Hee Jin; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a predictor of response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and prognostic factor for rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: The study retrospectively evaluated 352 locally advanced rectal cancer patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by surgery. Serum CEA levels were determined before CRT administration (pre-CRT CEA) and before surgery (post-CRT CEA). Correlations between pre-CRT CEA levels and rates of good response (Tumor regression grade 3/4) were explored. Patients were categorized into three CEA groups according to their pre-/post-CRT CEA levels (ng/mL) (Group A: pre-CRT CEA {<=} 3; B: pre-CRT CEA >3, post-CRT CEA {<=}3; C: pre- and post-CRT CEA >3 ng/mL), and their oncologic outcomes were compared. Results: Of 352 patients, good responses were achieved in 94 patients (26.7%). The rates of good response decreased significantly as the pre-CRT CEA levels became more elevated (CEA [ng/mL]: {<=}3, 36.4%; 3-6, 23.6%; 6-9, 15.6%; >9, 7.8%; p < 0.001). The rates of good response were significantly higher in Group A than in Groups B and C (36.4% vs. 17.3% and 14.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The 3-year disease-free survival rate was significantly better in Groups A and B than in Group C (82% and 79% vs. 57%, respectively; p = 0.005); the CEA grouping was identified as an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.025). Conclusions: In locally advanced rectal cancer patients, CEA levels could be of clinical value as a predictor of response to preoperative CRT and as an independent prognostic factor after preoperative CRT and curative surgery.

  12. Rectal and Intranasal Immunizations with Recombinant Urease Induce Distinct Local and Serum Immune Responses in Mice and Protect against Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kleanthous, Harry; Myers, Gwendolyn A.; Georgakopoulos, Kathleen M.; Tibbitts, Timothy J.; Ingrassia, Jennifer W.; Gray, Heather L.; Ding, Ru; Zhang, Zhen-Zi; Lei, Wende; Nichols, Richard; Lee, Cynthia K.; Ermak, Thomas H.; Monath, Thomas P.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the optimal inductive sites for immunization against Helicobacter pylori infection, the protective efficacy of recombinant urease (rUre) was assessed for mice given the vaccine by either the oral (p.o.), intranasal (i.n.), or rectal route. When mice were immunized with rUre (25 ?g p.o. or rectally or 10 ?g i.n.) plus heat-labile toxin from Escherichia coli as the mucosal adjuvant, all routes afforded protection against challenge with H. pylori, as indicated by a significant reduction in gastric urease activity (P < 0.0005) compared to that of sham-immunized controls. Quantitative H. pylori culture of stomach tissue demonstrated a >97% reduction in bacterial burden in mice immunized by all routes (P < 0.05). Induction of antiurease immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in gastric luminal secretions after p.o. immunization was greater than after i.n. administration (means, 6.0 and 1.02 ng/ml, respectively) and was dependent upon challenge with H. pylori. However, immunization by the rectal route resulted in the generation of the highest levels of gastric antiurease IgA (mean, 40.89 ng/ml), which was detectable prior to challenge with H. pylori. Immunohistochemical staining of stomach tissue for cells secreting urease-specific antibody and CD4+ T cells showed levels of recruitment to be dependent upon challenge with H. pylori and equivalent for all routes. These results identify both the rectum and nasal passages as suitable inductive sites for urease immunization. PMID:9596763

  13. Rectal and intranasal immunizations with recombinant urease induce distinct local and serum immune responses in mice and protect against Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Kleanthous, H; Myers, G A; Georgakopoulos, K M; Tibbitts, T J; Ingrassia, J W; Gray, H L; Ding, R; Zhang, Z Z; Lei, W; Nichols, R; Lee, C K; Ermak, T H; Monath, T P

    1998-06-01

    To determine the optimal inductive sites for immunization against Helicobacter pylori infection, the protective efficacy of recombinant urease (rUre) was assessed for mice given the vaccine by either the oral (p.o.), intranasal (i.n.), or rectal route. When mice were immunized with rUre (25 microg p.o. or rectally or 10 microg i.n.) plus heat-labile toxin from Escherichia coli as the mucosal adjuvant, all routes afforded protection against challenge with H. pylori, as indicated by a significant reduction in gastric urease activity (P < 0.0005) compared to that of sham-immunized controls. Quantitative H. pylori culture of stomach tissue demonstrated a >97% reduction in bacterial burden in mice immunized by all routes (P < 0.05). Induction of antiurease immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in gastric luminal secretions after p.o. immunization was greater than after i.n. administration (means, 6.0 and 1.02 ng/ml, respectively) and was dependent upon challenge with H. pylori. However, immunization by the rectal route resulted in the generation of the highest levels of gastric antiurease IgA (mean, 40. 89 ng/ml), which was detectable prior to challenge with H. pylori. Immunohistochemical staining of stomach tissue for cells secreting urease-specific antibody and CD4(+) T cells showed levels of recruitment to be dependent upon challenge with H. pylori and equivalent for all routes. These results identify both the rectum and nasal passages as suitable inductive sites for urease immunization. PMID:9596763

  14. Comparison of the Occurrence of Transportation-associated Fever in 2 Years Old Thoroughbreds before and after Introduction of Prophylactic Marbofloxacin Administration

    PubMed Central

    ENDO, Yoshiro; TSUCHIYA, Takeru; AKIYAMA, Kentaro; TAKEBE, Naoya; NAKAI, Kenji; KOROSUE, Kenji; ISHIMARU, Mutsuki; TSUZUKI, Nao; HOBO, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to reveal the preventive effect of marbofloxacin (MRFX) administration just before transportation, we compared the occurrence of transportation-associated fever before and after introduction of MRFX administration. After the introduction of prophylactic MRFX administration, the rectal temperatures of horses after transportation were significantly lower than before the introduction of MRFX administration (P<0.01) and the number of febrile horses was significantly lower than before the introduction of MRFX administration (P<0.01). In conclusion, these results show that prophylactic MRFX administration just before transportation is clinically effective at preventing transportation-associated fever. PMID:25558181

  15. Delayed endoluminal vacuum therapy for rectal anastomotic leaks after rectal resection in a swine model: a new treatment option.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Laura H; Shada, Amber; Ritter, Lane A; Mauro, David M; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Feldman, Sanford H; Kleiner, Daniel E

    2014-04-01

    Anastomotic leaks are a dreaded surgical complication following colorectal operations. Creation of a temporary proximal diverting ileostomy is used in high-risk anastomoses, however, additional surgical risk is accumulated with its creation and reversal. Endoluminal vacuum therapy has been shown to seal anastomotic defects in the prophylactic setting in a pig model and we hypothesized it could be utilized in a delayed fashion to rescue subjects with an active anastomotic leak. Yorkshire pigs underwent rectal resection, intentional leak confirmed by fluoroscopy, and endoluminal vacuum therapy device placement to low continuous suction. Following treatment, a contrast enema and necropsy was performed for gross and histopathology. Pigs underwent 2 (or 5) days of free intraperitoneal leak prior to device placement and 5 (or 7) subsequent days of endoluminal vacuum therapy. Six of seven early-treated pigs sealed their anastomotic defect, while two of the four treated pigs in this extended group sealed the defect. Endoluminal vacuum therapy is feasible and well tolerated in a pig model, and it has been shown to seal a significant number of freely leaking anastomoses in the early period (86%). This technology warrants further study as it may provide a noninvasive means to treatment of anastomotic leaks. PMID:24456480

  16. Fournier gangrene presenting in a patient with undiagnosed rectal adenocarcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Fournier gangrene is a rare necrotising fascitis of the perineum and genitals caused by a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. The first case was described by Baurienne in 1764 but the condition was named by Fournier in 1883 who reported the cases of five men with the condition with no apparent etiology. Infection most commonly arises from the skin, urethra, or rectal regions. Despite appropriate therapy, mortality in this disease is still high. We report a case of a low rectal malignancy presenting as Fournier gangrene. This case report serves to highlight an extremely unusual presentation of rectal cancer, a common surgical pathology. Case presentation The patient is a 48 years old Afghanian male that admitted with Fournier gangrene. In the course of medical and surgical treatment the presence of extensive rectal adenocarcinoma was discovered. After partial recovery, standard loop colostomy was inserted. Skin grafting of necrotic areas was performed and systemic rectal cancer chemotherapy initiated after full stabilization. Conclusion Fournier gangrene is an uncommon but life threatening condition with high associated mortality and morbidity. Usually there is an underlying cause for the development of Fournier gangrene, that if addressed correctly, can lead to a good outcome. Early diagnosis and treatment decrease the morbidity and mortality of this life threatening condition. Good management is based on aggressive debridement, broad spectrum antibiotics and intensive supportive care. PMID:20062653

  17. Feature-based rectal contour propagation from planning CT to cone beam CT.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yaoqin; Chao, Ming; Lee, Percy; Xing, Lei

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a novel feature-based registration strategy to automatically map the rectal contours from planning computed tomography (CT) (pCT) to cone beam CT (CBCT). The rectal contours were manually outlined on the pCT. A narrow band with the outlined contour as its interior surface was then constructed, so that we can exclude the volume inside the rectum in the registration process. The corresponding contour in the CBCT was found by using a feature-based registration algorithm, which consists of two steps: (1) automatically searching for control points in the pCT and CBCT based on the features of the surrounding tissue and matching the homologous control points using the scale invariance feature transformation; and (2) using the control points for a thin plate spline transformation to warp the narrow band and mapping the corresponding contours from pCT to CBCT. The proposed contour propagation technique is applied to digital phantoms and clinical cases and, in all cases, the contour mapping results are found to be clinically acceptable. For clinical cases, the method yielded satisfactory results even when there were significant rectal content changes between the pCT and CBCT scans. As a consequence, the accordance between the rectal volumes after deformable registration and the manually segmented rectum was found to be more than 90%. The proposed technique provides a powerful tool for adaptive radiotherapy of prostate, rectal, and gynecological cancers in the future. PMID:18975692

  18. Rectal biopsy in patients presenting to an infectious disease unit with diarrhoeal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, R J; Gilmour, H M; McClelland, D B

    1979-01-01

    The role of sigmoidoscopy and rectal biopsy was investigated in patients referred to an infectious diseases unit with diarrhoea. Seventy-four patients were studied. Nine patients (12%) had inflammatory bowel disease, either ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Thirty-six patients (48%) had infective diarrhoea. A wide variety of conditions accounted for the diarrhoea in the remaining patients. Sigmoidoscopy was abnormal in 25 patients and rectal biopsy in 56. The abnormalities in rectal mucosal histology were classified into six grades. Some patients with infective diarrhoea showed rather characteristic histological changes which may be of diagnostic value. Eight showed features which suggested a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. However, repeat rectal biopsy in the convalescent period showed a striking improvement in the patients with infective diarrhoea. In contrast, the histological changes persisted in the patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Repeat rectal biopsy may be essential before making a firm diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease in some patients who present with diarrhoea and apparently typical histological changes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:428826

  19. Chloride secretagogues stimulate inositol phosphate formation in shark rectal gland tubules cultured in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Ecay, T.W.; Valentich, J.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Neuroendocrine activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland cells is associated with increases in cellular cAMP, cGMP, and free calcium concentrations. We report here on the effects of several chloride secretagogues on inositol phosphate formation in cultured rectal gland tubules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), atriopeptin (AP), and ionomycin increase the total inositol phosphate levels of cultured tubules, as measured by ion exchange chromatography. Forskolin, a potent chloride secretagogue, has no effect on inositol phosphate formation. The uptake of {sup 3}H-myo-inositol into phospholipids is very slow, preventing the detection of increased levels of inositol trisphosphate. However, significant increases in inositol monophosphate (IP1) and inositol biphosphate (IP2) were measured. The time course of VIP- and AP-stimulated IP1 and IP2 formation is similar to the effects of these agents on the short-circuit current responses of rectal gland monolayer cultures. In addition, aluminum fluoride, an artificial activator of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, stimulates IP1 and IP2 formation. We conclude that rectal gland cells contain VIP and AP receptors coupled to the activation of phospholipase C. Coupling may be mediated by G-proteins. Receptor-stimulated increases in inositol phospholipid metabolism is one mechanism leading to increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, an important regulatory event in the activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland epithelial cells.

  20. Laparoscopic lower anterior rectal resection using a curved stapler: original technique and preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Brescia, Antonio; Mari, Francesco Saverio; Favi, Francesco; Milillo, Andrea; Nigri, Giuseppe; Dall'oglio, Anna; Pancaldi, Alessandra; Masoni, Luigi

    2013-03-01

    Laparoscopic low anterior rectal resection (LLAR), allowing better visualization and rectal mobilization, can reduce postoperative pain and recovery. A contour curved stapler (CCS) is a very helpful device because of its curved profile that consents better access into the pelvic cavity and allows to perform rectal closure and section in one shot, especially in the presence of a narrow pelvis, complex anatomy, or large tumors. We developed an original technique of laparoscopic rectal resection using CCS. Between 2005 and 2009, in 36 cases, we performed LLAR with a three-trocar technique, starting with mobilization of left colonic flexure followed by the section of inferior mesenteric vessels. The rectum was prepared up to the levator ani with total mesorectal excision. The Lapdisc was inserted trough a suprapubic midline incision, allowing the CCS stapler placement into the pelvic cavity. After the rectal section, the anastomosis was then performed with a circular stapler. Ileostomy was performed if neoadjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been carried out or if the anastomosis was below 4 cm from the anal verge. Mean operative time was 135 minutes and no intra- or postoperative bleeding occurred. In 27 patients we performed temporary ileostomy. In two cases we observed anastomotic leakage; one of these patients already had ileostomy. No anastomotic stenosis occurred after one-year follow-up. This procedure simplifies the section of the lower rectum, reduces leaking rate resulting from technical difficulties, and does not nullify the benefits of laparoscopy. PMID:23461949

  1. Noninvasive Temporal Artery Thermometry as an Alternative to Rectal Thermometry in Research Macaques (Macaca spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephanie E; Marini, Robert P; Patterson, Mary M

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining an animal's body temperature is essential for the assessment of its clinical status. For many species, rectal thermometry is the technique used most often; however, this method in macaques typically requires sedation or considerable physical restraint. A noninvasive and inexpensive temporal artery (TA) thermometer was evaluated as an alternative method for collecting body temperature measurements from macaques used in neuroscience research. Rectal and arterial temperatures were obtained from 86 macaques (mean age, 10.2 y) that had received ketamine (10 mg/kg IM) or Telazol (5 mg/kg IM); the arterial measurements were taken from behind the right ear. In addition, arterial temperatures were measured behind both ears in a cohort of awake, chaired macaques with cephalic restraint pedestals only (n = 8) or with cephalic restraint pedestals and recording chambers (n = 14). Within-subject repeatability for TA thermometry and agreement between rectal and arterial temperature measurements were assessed by using the BlandAltman method. Temperature measurements indicated that values from TA thermometry were lower than those from rectal thermometry by 1.57 C with a 95% agreement limit of 1.27 C. Results show satisfactory repeatability with TA thermometry and agreement between arterial and rectal temperatures, demonstrating that TA thermometry can be a valuable tool in conscious, chaired macaques with restrained heads. PMID:23849413

  2. Prognostic value of rectal temperature at hospital admission in client-owned rabbits.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Toth, Giulia; Selleri, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether rectal temperature at hospital admission, independently or in conjunction with other parameters, was associated with all-cause mortality in client-owned rabbits. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. ANIMALS 316 client-owned rabbits consecutively hospitalized in an exotics-only animal hospital. PROCEDURES Rectal temperature of each hospitalized rabbit was measured at admission. Individual variables, including survival up to 1 week after hospital discharge, were recorded. Univariate, multivariate, and sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS Rabbits with hypothermia at admission had a risk of death before or within 1 week after hospital discharge 3 times that of rabbits without hypothermia (relative risk, 3.09; 95% confidence interval, 2.17 to 4.39). For each 1C (1.8F) decrease in admission rectal temperature, the odds of death were doubled (OR, 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.69 to 2.64). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the finding. Older age, suspected presence of a systemic disease, and presence of gastrointestinal stasis were also significantly associated with an increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Rectal temperature was easily measured in rabbits and was a major predictor of death in the present patient cohort. Because of its association with death in both healthy and diseased rabbits in this study, rectal temperature should always be measured during physical examination of rabbits. Treatment of hypothermia in client-owned rabbits requires further research. PMID:26799108

  3. Ovarian cycle approach by rectal temperature and fecal progesterone in a female killer whale, Orcinus orca.

    PubMed

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Kakizoe, Yuka; Kanda, Koji; Sengoku, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yohei; Adachi, Itsuki; Watanabe, Yoko; Doi, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the measurements of body temperature and fecal progesterone concentrations as minimally invasive techniques for assessing ovarian cycle in a single sexually mature female killer whale. Rectal temperature data, fecal and blood samples were collected in the dorsal position using routine husbandry training on a voluntary basis. The correlations between rectal temperature and plasma progesterone concentration and between fecal and plasma progesterone concentrations were investigated. Fecal progesterone metabolites were identified by a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme immunoassay. Plasma progesterone concentrations (range: 0.2-18.6 ng/ml) and rectal temperature (range: 35.3-35.9C) changed cyclically, and cycle lengths were an average (SD) of 44.94.0 days (nine cycles) and 44.65.9 days (nine cycles), respectively. Rectal temperature positively correlated with the plasma progesterone concentrations (r=0.641, P<0.01). There was a visual trend for fecal progesterone profiles to be similar to circulating plasma progesterone profiles. Fecal immunoreactive progestagen analysis resulted in a marked immunoreactive peak of progesterone. The data from the single killer whale indicate that the measurement of rectal temperature is suitable for minimally invasive assessment of the estrous cycle and monitoring the fecal progesterone concentration is useful to assess ovarian luteal activity. PMID:20648568

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in rectal cancer: A surgeon’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    Saklani, Avanish P; Bae, Sung Uk; Clayton, Amy; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in rectal cancer was first investigated in 1999 and has become almost mandatory in planning rectal cancer treatment. MRI has a high accuracy in predicting circumferential resection margin involvement and is used to plan neoadjuvant therapy. The accuracy of MRI in assessing mesorectal lymph nodes remains moderate, as there are no reliable criteria to assess nodal involvement. MRI seems to be good in assessing peritoneal involvement in upper rectal cancer; this however has been assessed in only a few studies and needs further research. For low rectal cancers, mesorectum is thin at the level of levator ani especially in relation to prostate; so predicting circumferential resection margin involvement is not easy. However high spatial resolution coronal imaging shows levator muscles, sphincter complex and intersphincteric plane accurately. This is used to stage low rectal tumors and plan plane of surgery (standard surgery, intersphincteric resection, Extralevator abdominoperineal resection). While most centres perform MRI post chemoradiotherapy, its role in accurate staging post neoadjuvant therapy remains debatable. THe role of Diffusion weighted MRI post neoadjuvant therapy is being evaluated in research settings. PMID:24616572

  5. Anterior-only Partial Sacrectomy for en bloc Resection of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roldan, Hector; Perez-Orribo, Luis F.; Plata-Bello, Julio M.; Martin-Malagon, Antonio I.; Garcia-Marin, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?The usual procedure for partial sacrectomies in locally advanced rectal cancer combines a transabdominal and a posterior sacral route. The posterior approach is flawed with a high rate of complications, especially infections and wound-healing problems. Anterior-only approaches have indirectly been mentioned within long series of rectal cancer surgery. We describe a case of partial sacrectomy for en bloc resection of a locally advanced rectal cancer with invasion of the low sacrum through a combined transabdominal and perineal approach without any posterior incision. Methods?Through a midline laparotomy, the tumor was dissected and the sacral osteotomy was performed. Once the sacrum was mobile, the muscular attachments to its posterior wall were cut through the perineal approach. This latter route was also used to remove the whole specimen. Results?The postoperative period was uneventful in terms of infection and wound healing, but the patient developed right foot dorsiflexion paresis that completely disappeared in 1 month. Resection margins were negative. After a follow-up of 18 months, the patient has no local recurrence but presented lung and liver metastases. Conclusion?In cases of rectal cancer involving the low sacrum, the combination of a transabdominal and a perineal route to carry out the partial sacrectomy is a feasible approach that avoids changes of surgical positioning and the morbidity related to posterior incisions. This strategy should be considered when deciding on undertaking partial sacrectomy in locally advanced rectal cancer. PMID:25396109

  6. Rectal cancer: future directions and priorities for treatment, research and policy in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Christopher; Ehrenberg, Nieves; Frizelle, Frank; Sarfati, Diana; Balasingam, Adrian; Pearse, Maria; Parry, Susan; Print, Cristin; Findlay, Michael; Bissett, Ian

    2014-06-01

    New Zealand has one of the highest incidences of rectal cancer in the world, and its optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach. A National Rectal Cancer Summit was convened in August 2013 to discuss management of rectal cancer in the New Zealand context, to highlight controversies and discuss domestic priorities for the future. This paper summarises the priorities for treatment, research and policy for rectal cancer services in New Zealand identified as part of the Summit in August. The following priorities were identified: - Access to high-quality information for service planning, review of outcomes, identification of inequities and gaps in provision, and quality improvement; - Engagement with the entire sector, including private providers; - Focus on equity; - Emerging technologies; - Harmonisation of best practice; - Importance of multidisciplinary team meetings. In conclusion, improvements in outcomes for patients with rectal cancer in New Zealand will require significant engagement between policy makers, providers, researchers, and patients in order to ensure equitable access to high quality treatment, and strategic incorporation of emerging technologies into clinical practice. A robust clinical information framework is required in order to facilitate monitoring of quality improvements and to ensure that equitable care is delivered. PMID:24929694

  7. Technical feasibility of laparoscopic extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision for primary or recurrent rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Akiyoshi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the oncologic safety of laparoscopic surgery for advanced rectal cancer. Recently, large randomized clinical trials showed that laparoscopic surgery was not inferior to open surgery, as evidenced by survival and local control rates. However, patients with T4 tumors were excluded from these trials. Technological advances in the instrumentation and techniques used by laparoscopic surgery have increased the use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced rectal cancer. High-definition, illuminated, and magnified images obtained by laparoscopy may enable more precise laparoscopic surgery than open techniques, even during extended surgery for T4 or locally recurrent rectal cancer. To date, the quality of evidence regarding the usefulness of laparoscopy for extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision has been low because most studies have been uncontrolled series, with small sample sizes, and long-term data are lacking. Nevertheless, laparoscopic extended surgery for rectal cancer, when performed by specialized laparoscopic colorectal surgeons, has been reported safe in selected patients, with significant advantages, including a clear visual field and less blood loss. This review summarizes current knowledge on laparoscopic extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision for primary or locally recurrent rectal cancer. PMID:26811619

  8. Novel association of rectal evacuation disorder and rumination syndrome: Diagnosis, comorbidities, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vijayvargiya, Priya; Iturrino, Johanna; Shin, Andrea; Vazquez-Roque, Maria; Katzka, David A; Snuggerud, Jill R; Seime, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with disorders of gastrointestinal function may undergo unnecessary treatment if misdiagnosed as motility disorders. Objective To report on clinical features, medical, surgical, and psychiatric comorbidities, and prior treatments of a patient cohort diagnosed concurrently with nonpsychogenic rumination syndrome and pelvic floor dysfunction (also termed rectal evacuation disorder). Methods From a consecutive series (1994–2013) of 438 outpatients with rectal evacuation disorders in the practice of a single gastroenterologist at a tertiary care centre, 57 adolescents or adults were diagnosed with concomitant rumination syndrome. All underwent formal psychological assessment or completed validated questionnaires. Results All 57 patients (95% female) fulfilled Rome III criteria for rumination syndrome; rectal evacuation disorder was confirmed by testing of anal sphincter pressures and rectal balloon evacuation. Prior to diagnosis, most patients underwent multiple medical and surgical treatments (gastrostomy, gastric fundoplication, other gastric surgery, ileostomy, colectomy) for their symptoms. Psychological comorbidity was identified in 93% of patients. Patients were managed predominantly with psychological and behavioural approaches: diaphragmatic breathing for rumination and biofeedback retraining for pelvic floor dysfunction. Conclusions Awareness of concomitant rectal evacuation disorder and rumination syndrome and prompt identification of psychological comorbidity are keys to instituting behavioural and psychological methods to avoid unnecessary treatment. PMID:24724013

  9. An Interactive Tool for Individualized Estimation of Conditional Survival in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Samuel J; Wissel, Amanda R.; Luh, Join Y; Fuller, C David; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Thomas, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Background For rectal cancer patients who have already survived a period of time after diagnosis, survival probability changes and is more accurately depicted by conditional survival. The specific aim of this study was to develop an interactive tool for individualized estimation of changing prognosis for rectal cancer patients. Methods A multivariate Cox proportional hazards (CPH) survival model was constructed using data from rectal cancer patients diagnosed from 1994 to 2003 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Age, race, sex, and stage were used as covariates in the survival prediction model. The primary outcome variable was overall survival conditional on having survived up to 5 years from diagnosis. Results Data from 42,830 rectal cancer patients met the inclusion criteria. The multivariate CPH model showed age, race, sex, and stage as significant independent predictors of survival. The survival prediction model demonstrated good calibration and discrimination, with a bootstrap-corrected concordance index of 0.75. A web-based prediction tool was built from this regression model that can compute individualized estimates of changing prognosis over time. Conclusions An interactive prediction modeling tool can estimate prognosis for rectal cancer patients who have already survived a period of time after diagnosis and treatment. Having more accurate prognostic information can empower both patients and clinicians to be able to make more appropriate decisions regarding follow-up, surveillance testing, and future treatment. PMID:21207162

  10. Quantitative analysis of rectal cancer by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. Q.; Wu, X. J.; Tang, T.; Zhu, S. W.; Yao, Q.; Gao, Bruce Z.; Yuan, X. C.

    2012-08-01

    To quantify OCT images of rectal tissue for clinic diagnosis, the scattering coefficient of the tissue is extracted by curve fitting the OCT signals to a confocal single model. A total of 1000 measurements (half and half of normal and malignant tissues) were obtained from 16 recta. The normal rectal tissue has a larger scattering coefficient ranging from 1.09 to 5.41 mm-1 with a mean value of 2.29 mm-1 (std:0.32), while the malignant group shows lower scattering property and the values ranging from 0.25 to 2.69 mm-1 with a mean value of 1.41 mm-1 (std:0.18). The peri-cancer of recta has also been investigated to distinguish the difference between normal and malignant rectal tissue. The results demonstrate that the quantitative analysis of the rectal tissue can be used as a promising diagnostic criterion of early rectal cancer, which has great value for clinical medical applications.

  11. [Single and multifactorial prognostic study of 400 operated rectal adenocarcinomas].

    PubMed

    Lasser, P; Mankarios, H; Elias, D; Bognel, C; Eschwege, F; Wibault, P; Kac, J; Crespon, B; Rougier, P

    1993-02-01

    From 1976 to 1988, 496 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma have been treated at Gustave-Roussy Institute. There were 258 men (52%) and 238 women (48) with a median age of 61 years. Sixty pts (12%) had local treatment (contact-therapy or electro-resection). Thirty six pts (8.25%) had a simple exploration with colostomy. Four hundred pts had a resection: 202 abdomino-perineal resection, 7 perineal resection, 167 anterior resection, and 24 Hartmann's technique. Post-operative mortality was 1% (4 pts). Among these 400 pts, 208 had no complementary treatment, 134 had pre +/- post-operative radiotherapy and 58 had post-operative radiotherapy. Sixty one pts had palliative resection. The actuarial survival of the 400 pts at 3, 5 and 10 years are respectively 65%, 51% and 37.5%. The number of lost to follow-up patients was 11 (2.5%) at 5 years and 24 (5.5%) at 10 years. A retrospective uni and multifactorial analysis of the clinical, biological and histopathological data of the 400 pts was done, 18 factors were studied. Our judgement criterion was 5 year survival. The uni-factorial analysis showed 7 variables which had great influence on survival: age > 60 (p = 0.001), signs of severe illness (p < 0.0001), curative or palliative criterion of the surgery (p = 0.0001), depth of invasion (p = 0.0001), lymph node invasion (p = 0.0001), neural invasion (p = 0.0001) and positive emboli (p = 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8514828

  12. Neoadjuvant Bevacizumab, Oxaliplatin, 5-Fluorouracil, and Radiation for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dipetrillo, Tom; Pricolo, Victor; Lagares-Garcia, Jorge; Vrees, Matt; Klipfel, Adam; Cataldo, Tom; Sikov, William; McNulty, Brendan; Shipley, Joshua; Anderson, Elliot; Khurshid, Humera; Oconnor, Brigid; Oldenburg, Nicklas B.E.; Radie-Keane, Kathy; Husain, Syed; Safran, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and pathologic complete response rate of induction bevacizumab + modified infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) 6 regimen followed by concurrent bevacizumab, oxaliplatin, continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and radiation for patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients received 1 month of induction bevacizumab and mFOLFOX6. Patients then received 50.4 Gy of radiation and concurrent bevacizumab (5 mg/kg on Days 1, 15, and 29), oxaliplatin (50 mg/m{sup 2}/week for 6 weeks), and continuous infusion 5-FU (200 mg/m{sup 2}/day). Because of gastrointestinal toxicity, the oxaliplatin dose was reduced to 40 mg/m{sup 2}/week. Resection was performed 4-8 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. Results: The trial was terminated early because of toxicity after 26 eligible patients were treated. Only 1 patient had significant toxicity (arrhythmia) during induction treatment and was removed from the study. During chemoradiation, Grade 3/4 toxicity was experienced by 19 of 25 patients (76%). The most common Grade 3/4 toxicities were diarrhea, neutropenia, and pain. Five of 25 patients (20%) had a complete pathologic response. Nine of 25 patients (36%) developed postoperative complications including infection (n = 4), delayed healing (n = 3), leak/abscess (n = 2), sterile fluid collection (n = 2), ischemic colonic reservoir (n = 1), and fistula (n = 1). Conclusions: Concurrent oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, continuous infusion 5-FU, and radiation causes significant gastrointestinal toxicity. The pathologic complete response rate of this regimen was similar to other fluorouracil chemoradiation regimens. The high incidence of postoperative wound complications is concerning and consistent with other reports utilizing bevacizumab with chemoradiation before major surgical resections.

  13. New devices for stapled rectal mucosectomy: a multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Regadas, F S Pinheiro; Regadas, S M Murad; Rodrigues, L V; Misici, R; Tramujas, I; Barreto, J B; Lins, M Alvaro; Silva, F Roberto; Filho, F S P Regadas

    2005-12-01

    Stapled mucosectomy is widely performed, but in patients with deep gluteal cleft and small distance between the ischial tuberosities, it is difficult to insert the PPH dilator. We report the results achieved with a new device, the EEA 34-mm circular stapler (Auto-Suture, New Haven, USA). Eighty-five patients (45 men) were submitted to stapled mucosectomy for treatment of third- (n=70) or fourth-degree (n=10) hemorrhoids or mucosal prolapse (n=5) by surgeons at four different centers. The patients' mean age was 53.9 years (range, 45-70 years). ASA Kit (Advanced Surgical Anoscope, Tecplast Company, Fortaleza, Brazil) consists of four devices: a circular anal dilator (CAD) with anterior and posterior wings, an accessory device for insertion of CAD into the anal canal, a circular surgical anoscope (CSA) with proximal and distal openings for placing the rectal mucosal purse-string sutures, and a CSA insertion device. The middle part of the CSA is fully circular in order to avoid that the piles or the prolapsed mucosa fall into the anoscope. The mean excised mucosal band width was 4.7 cm. The mean operative time was 16 min (range, 12-25 min). Bleeding from the stapled suture was observed in 10 patients (11.7%). There were 5 postoperative complications (5.9%): 3 perianal hematomas and 2 stapled suture strictures. Anopexy was considered excellent by the surgeons in 50 patients (58.8%), good in 25 (29.4%) and poor in 10 (11.7%). At a mean follow-up of 12 months, proctoscopy demonstrated residual asymptomatic small internal prolapses in 15 patients (17.6%). Full pile prolapses recurred in 2 (2.3%) and required diathermy excision. ASA Kit made stapled mucosectomy easier to perform, but it's necessary to improve the circular staplers to adequately treat all sizes of mucosal and hemorrhoidal prolapses in order to reduce the recurrence rates. PMID:16328119

  14. Trans-rectal interventional MRI: initial prostate biopsy experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Bernadette M.; Behluli, Meliha R.; Feller, John F.; May, Stuart T.; Princenthal, Robert; Winkel, Alex; Kaminsky, David B.

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate gland when evaluated along with T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and their corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps can yield valuable information in patients with rising or elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels1. In some cases, patients present with multiple negative trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies, often placing the patient into a cycle of active surveillance. Recently, more patients are undergoing TRIM for targeted biopsy of suspicious findings with a cancer yield of ~59% compared to 15% for second TRUS biopsy2 to solve this diagnostic dilemma and plan treatment. Patients were imaged in two separate sessions on a 1.5T magnet using a cardiac phased array parallel imaging coil. Automated CAD software was used to identify areas of wash-out. If a suspicious finding was identified on all sequences it was followed by a second imaging session. Under MRI-guidance, cores were acquired from each target region3. In one case the microscopic diagnosis was prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in the other it was invasive adenocarcinoma. Patient 1 had two negative TRUS biopsies and a PSA level of 9ng/mL. Patient 2 had a PSA of 7.2ng/mL. He underwent TRUS biopsy which was negative for malignancy. He was able to go on to treatment for his prostate carcinoma (PCa)4. MRI may have an important role in a subset of patients with multiple negative TRUS biopsies and elevated or rising PSA.

  15. DuraSeal as a spacer to reduce rectal doses in low-dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Vesa-Pekka; Kärnä, Aarno; Vaarala, Markku H

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of off-label use of DuraSeal polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel in low-dose rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy seed implantation to reduce rectal doses. Diluted DuraSeal was easy to use and, in spite of a clearance effect, useful in decreasing D₂cc rectal doses. PMID:25201125

  16. Rectal mucosal prostaglandin E2 release and its relation to disease activity, electrical potential difference, and treatment in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Rampton, D S; Sladen, G E; Youlten, L J

    1980-01-01

    In vivo rectal dialysis was used to study rectal mucosal release of immunoreactive prostaglandin E2-like material and its relation to disease activity, rectal electrical potential difference (PD), and treatment in 24 patients with ulcerative colitis. In untreated colitics in remission and in relapse, median values for apparent mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release were increased three-fold (P < 0.05) and 13-fold (P < 0.002) respectively over that found in control subjects. In patients in remission during treatment with sulphasalazine and/or corticosteroids, median apparent PGE2 release was similar to that of controls, but in colitics in relapse, despite treatment, it was greatly increased (P< 0.002). Ulcerative colitis in relapse was associated with a significant reduction in rectal PD(P < 0.002); in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis, a smaller reduction was found (P < 0.05). In nine patients studied serially before and during treatment, there were associations between changes in disease activity assessed sigmoidoscopically, in PD and in apparent mucosal PGE2 release. Furthermore, rectal mucosal PGE2 release and PD were linearly correlated (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that mucosal PGE2 release is markedly enhanced in active ulcerative colitis, and they confirm the value of rectal PD as a guide to disease activity. In addition, they suggest that rectal dialysis may be a useful way of studying rectal prostaglandin metabolism in man. PMID:7429322

  17. Patient Descriptions of Rectal Effluents May Help to Predict the Quality of Bowel Preparation With Photographic Examples

    PubMed Central

    So, Hoonsub; Boo, Sun-Jin; Seo, Hyungil; Lee, Ho-Su; Lee, Hyojeong; Park, Sang Hyoung; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Previous studies have suggested a weak correlation between self-reported rectal effluent status and bowel preparation quality. We aim to evaluate whether photographic examples of rectal effluents could improve the correlation between patient descriptions of rectal effluents and bowel preparation quality. Methods Before colonoscopy, patients were asked to describe the nature of their last three rectal effluents. Photographic examples of rectal effluents were provided as a reference for scoring. Bowel preparation was subsequently assessed by a single endoscopist using a global preparation assessment scale. Preparation outcomes were grouped into two levels (excellent to good vs. fair to inadequate). Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to find any association between bowel preparation quality and patient characteristics. Results A total of 138 patients completed the questionnaires. The mean age was 56.510.4 years. The mean sum of the last three rectal effluent scores was 5.92.0. Higher rectal effluent scores (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; P=0.043) and the presence of diverticula (OR, 0.16; P<0.001) were risk factors for suboptimal preparation. Conclusions Photographic example-guided patient descriptions of rectal effluents showed a statistically significant association with bowel preparation quality. However, clinical significance seemed to be low. The presence of diverticula was an independent predictive factor for suboptimal bowel preparation quality. PMID:25932000

  18. Penile metastases treated with partial glansectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy 5?years after an initial diagnosis of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGuinness, Luke Aidan; Floyd, M S; Lucky, M; Parr, N J

    2013-01-01

    A 61-year-old man with recurrent rectal carcinoma was referred to the urology clinic with two penile lesions. These had negatively affected his quality of life and he underwent a radical circumcision and proximal glansectomy with reconstruction. This case report examines the clinical presentation and surgical treatment of rectal carcinoma metastasising to the penis. PMID:24311411

  19. Effects of gastrointestinal parasites on parasite burden, rectal temperature, and antibody titer responses to vaccination and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Schutz, J S; Carroll, J A; Gasbarre, L C; Shelton, T A; Nordstrom, S T; Hutcheson, J P; Van Campen, H; Engle, T E

    2012-06-01

    Thirty-three colostrum-deprived Holstein bull calves (initial BW of 131 4 kg) were used to determine the effect of timing of anthelmintic administration relative to vaccination on antibody titer response to vaccine component antigens. When calves were at least 3 mo of age, they were sorted randomly into individual pens and assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups, treatments consisted of 1) dewormed 2 wk before vaccination (DPV), 2) dewormed at the time of vaccination (DV), or 3) control, vaccinated but not dewormed (CONT). All calves were inoculated with infective larvae of brown stomach worms (Ostertagia ostertagi) and intestinal worms (Cooperia spp.) on d 1, 7, 10, 14, and 18 for a total dose of 235,710 infective larvae per calf. Calves (DPV and DV) were dewormed on d 21 or 35 with a 10% fenbendazole suspension at 5 mg/kg of BW. On d 35, all calves were vaccinated with a modified-live virus respiratory vaccine containing IBRV (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus), BVDV-1 (bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype 1), BVDV-2 (BVDV genotype 2), PI-3 (parainfluenza-3), and BRSV (bovine respiratory syncytial virus). During the 103-d experiment, weekly fecal egg counts, blood, and rectal temperatures were collected and health status was recorded daily. Blood samples were obtained weekly to determine serum neutralizing (SN) antibody titers to IBRV, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, and PI-3 and cytokine levels for IL-4, IL-6, TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor-?), and IFN-? (interferon-gamma). There was a tendency (P < 0.09) for CONT calves to have greater IL-4 concentrations. By design, control calves had greater (P < 0.01) fecal egg counts during the experiment. All calves developed antibody titers to IBRV, BVDV-1, BVDV-2, and PI-3 by d 15 postvaccination. On d 88, all calves were challenged with IBRV and blood samples were obtained on d 88, 89, 90, 93, 95, 98, 99, and 103. All calves had increased rectal temperatures during the final 7 d of the IBRV challenge. However, the CONT group had greater (P < 0.01) rectal temperatures on each sampling day except d 90 compared with the DPV and DV treatments. Therefore, deworming before or at vaccination reduced parasite burden and decreased rectal temperature increase after an IBRV challenge. Deworming strategy had no effect on antibody response to vaccination or IBRV challenge. PMID:22648753

  20. Dissemination of SIV after rectal infection preferentially involves paracolic germinal centers.

    PubMed

    Couëdel-Courteille, A; Butor, C; Juillard, V; Guillet, J G; Venet, A

    1999-08-01

    Homosexual transmission remains a major mode of contamination in developed countries. Early virological and immunological events in lymphoid tissues are known to be important for the outcome of HIV infections. Little data are available, however, on viral dissemination during primary rectal infection. We therefore studied this aspect of rectal infection in rhesus macaques inoculated with the biological isolate SIVmac251. We show that infection is established initially in lymph nodes draining the rectum. Infected cells and virions are localized mainly in germinal centers at that stage. With increasing viral burden, infected cells are found throughout the lymph node parenchyma. In addition the difference in viral load between lymph nodes draining the rectum and other lymph nodes is attenuated or abolished. We discuss this pattern of viral dissemination with respect to the physiology of the mucosal immune system. The pattern and kinetics of viral dissemination after rectal infection have important implications for the development of efficient mucosal vaccines. PMID:10417263

  1. Discrimination of rectal cancer through human serum using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Yang, Tianyue; Li, Siqi; Zhang, Su; Jin, Lili

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used to detect the changes in blood serum components that accompany rectal cancer. The differences in serum SERS data between rectal cancer patients and healthy controls were examined. Postoperative rectal cancer patients also participated in the comparison to monitor the effects of cancer treatments. The results show that there are significant variations at certain wavenumbers which indicates alteration of corresponding biological substances. Principal component analysis (PCA) and parameters of intensity ratios were used on the original SERS spectra for the extraction of featured variables. These featured variables then underwent linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and classification and regression tree (CART) for the discrimination analysis. Accuracies of 93.5 and 92.4 % were obtained for PCA-LDA and parameter-CART, respectively.

  2. [Current status and novel approach of robotic surgery for rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaohui

    2015-08-01

    With the development of minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic technique is now widely used in rectal surgery because of its advantages in terms of pain control, recovery of bowel function, length of hospital stay, short- and long-term outcomes. Total mesorectal excision(TME) is recommended as the standard procedure for rectal cancer. Laparoscopic TME, however, can be challenging due to its two-dimensional vision, restricted instrument movements, and a prolonged learning curve. Robotic surgery overcomes these intrinsic limitations by superior three-dimensional magnified optics, stable retraction platform, and 7 degrees of freedom of instrument movements, and offers an easier operation and shorter learning curve. This review summarizes the advantages as well as the current status of robotic rectal surgery, and explores the novel approach and new techniques with the related literature and the author's own experience. PMID:26303685

  3. A tensor-based population value decomposition to explain rectal toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Juan David; Commandeur, Frdric; Ros, Richard; Dran, Gal; Correa, Juan Carlos; Simon, Antoine; Haigron, Pascal; De Crevoisier, Renaud; Acosta, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    In prostate cancer radiotherapy the association between the dose distribution and the occurrence of undesirable side-effects is yet to be revealed. In this work a method to perform population analysis by comparing the dose distributions is proposed. The method is a tensor-based approach that generalises an existing method for 2D images and allows for the highlighting of over irradiated zones correlated with rectal bleeding after prostate cancer radiotherapy. Thus, the aim is to contribute to the elucidation of the dose patterns correlated with rectal toxicity. The method was applied to a cohort of 63 patients and it was able to build up a dose pattern characterizing the difference between patients presenting rectal bleeding after prostate cancer radiotherapy and those who did not. PMID:24579164

  4. New technique of transanal proctectomy with completely robotic total mesorrectal excision for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Gómez Ruiz, Marcos; Palazuelos, Carlos Manuel; Martín Parra, José Ignacio; Alonso Martín, Joaquín; Cagigas Fernández, Carmen; del Castillo Diego, Julio; Gómez Fleitas, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Anterior resection with total mesorectal excision is the standard method of rectal cancer resection. However, this procedure remains technically difficult in mid and low rectal cancer. A robotic transanal proctectomy with total mesorectal excision and laparoscopic assistance is reported in a 57 year old male with BMI 32 kg/m2 and rectal adenocarcinoma T2N1M0 at 5 cm from the dentate line. Operating time was 420 min. Postoperative hospital stay was 6 days and no complications were observed. Pathological report showed a 33 cm specimen with ypT2N0 adenocarcinoma at 2 cm from the distal margin, complete TME and non affected circumferential resection margin. Robotic technology might reduce some technical difficulties associated with TEM/TEO or SILS platforms in transanal total mesorectal excision. Further clinical trials will be necessary to assess this technique. PMID:24589418

  5. The role of endoscopic ultrasound in the evaluation of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Ali A; Fayiga, Yomi; Huerta, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Accurate staging of rectal cancer is essential for selecting patients who can undergo sphincter-preserving surgery. It may also identify patients who could benefit from neoadjuvant therapy. Clinical staging is usually accomplished using a combination of physical examination, CT scanning, MRI and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Transrectal EUS is increasingly being used for locoregional staging of rectal cancer. The accuracy of EUS for the T staging of rectal carcinoma ranges from 80-95% compared with CT (65-75%) and MR imaging (75-85%). In comparison to CT, EUS can potentially upstage patients, making them eligible for neoadjuvant treatment. The accuracy to determine metastatic nodal involvement by EUS is approximately 70-75% compared with CT (55-65%) and MR imaging (60-70%). EUS guided FNA may be beneficial in patients who appear to have early T stage disease and suspicious peri-iliac lymphadenopathy to exclude metastatic disease. PMID:17049086

  6. Rectal perforation, rectocutaneous fistula formation, and enterocutaneous fistula formation after pelvic trauma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Tobias, K M

    1994-11-01

    This report describes the management of rectal perforation, incision infection, implant failure, sepsis, osteonecrosis, and enterocutaneous fistula formation in a 3-year-old Yorkshire Terrier that was hit by a car. Rectal perforation from displaced pelvic fractures was suspected because of drainage from the incision, and clinical signs, and blood test results indicative of sepsis. Ilial and acetabular osteonecrosis from wound infection were treated with hemipelvectomy without pelvic limb amputation, and full limb function was regained. Primary repair of the rectal perforation and use of a muscle flap were unsuccessful, and a rectocutaneous fistula developed, but the rectum healed after colostomy for fecal diversion. An enterocutaneous fistula subsequently developed at the rectocutaneous fistula site, resulting in weight loss and continued drainage from the incision. Primary closure of the jejunal stoma, appropriate wound management, and nutritional support by enteral feeding resulted in eventual second-intention healing of the fistula and incision. PMID:7698940

  7. CT pelvimetry and clinicopathological parameters in evaluation of the technical difficulties in performing open rectal surgery for mid-low rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, XIAO-CONG; SU, MENG; HU, KE-QIONG; SU, YIN-FA; YE, YING-HAI; HUANG, CHONG-QUAN; YU, ZHEN-LEI; LI, XIAO-YANG; ZHOU, HONG; NI, YAO-ZHONG; JIANG, YI; LOU, ZHENG

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of pelvic anatomical and clinicopathological parameters for use in the estimation of the likely technical difficulties that may be encountered when performing open rectal surgery for mid-low rectal cancer. Sixty consecutive patients, undergoing open rectal surgery for mid-low rectal cancer were recruited between June 2009 and April 2014. All of the surgical procedures conducted, were low anterior resection (LAR) or abdominoperineal resection (APR). The operations were performed by the same surgeon and surgical team. Pelvic dimensions and angles were measured using three-dimensional reconstruction of spiral computerized tomography (CT) images. Operative time and intraoperative blood loss were used as indicators of operative difficulty. The independent variables were pelvic anatomical and clinicopathological parameters, and the dependent variables were operative time and intraoperative blood loss. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in order to determine the predictive significance of these variables. The pelvis width was significantly wider in females than in males (P<0.05), while the sacrococcygeal bending degree was significantly greater in males than in females (P<0.05). No significant difference were detected between the pelvis depth of females and males (P>0.05). Multivariate analyses showed that body mass index (BMI), tumor height, lymph node metastasis, anteroposterior diameter of the pelvic inlet, anteroposterior diameter of the pelvic outlet, height of the pubic symphysis, the sacrococcygeal distance, sacrococcygeal-pubic angle and diameter of the upper pubis to the coccyx were the main factors affecting the operative time (all P<0.05), while the maximum diameter of the tumor was the primary factor affecting intraoperative blood loss (P<0.05). Between the two procedures, the clinicopathological parameters appeared to be more valuable for predicting difficulty in LAR, in which operative time was associated with tumor height and tumor staging (RC2=0.312; P<0.001). By contrast, the pelvic anatomical parameters appeared to be more valuable predictors of variation in APR, in which intraoperative blood loss was associated with the anteroposterior diameter of the mid-pelvis, the anteroposterior diameter of the pelvic outlet, the interspinous diameter, the depth of the sacral curvature and the sacropubic distance (RC2=0.608; P=0.002). BMI, tumor height and the maximum diameter of the tumor may be used to predict the operative difficulty in performing open rectal surgery for mid-low rectal cancer. In addition to the associated clinicopathological parameters, wider, shallower and less curved pelvises may make the greatest contribution to reducing operative time and intraoperative blood loss. Operative difficulty is likely to be increased in deeper and narrower pelvises, or in those with greater sacrococcygeal curvature. PMID:26870163

  8. Quality of life estimate in stomach, colon, and rectal cancer patients in a hospital in China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Muhong; Lan, Yanhong; Luo, Shali

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the outcome and coping patterns of patients with stomach, colon, and rectal cancer in a hospital in China. Health-related quality of life was assessed in 118 stomach, colon, and rectal cancer patients in Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China, using the generic version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (QOL) Questionnaire Core 30 Items, Self-rated Anxiety Scores (SAS), Self-rated Depression Scores (SDS), Medical Coping Modes of Questionnaire (MCMQ), and Social Support Requirement Scale (SSRS) questionnaires. The overall QOL was 50.7 6.5, 48.1 7.7, and 47.6 6.4, respectively, for stomach, colon, and rectal cancer groups. Correlations between QOL and SAS and SDS in stomach cancer patients were significantly higher than observed in the cohort of colon or rectal cancer patients (Spearman coefficient of 0.366 and 0.129, respectively). Cluster analysis of MCMQ data revealed four identifiable patterns (resign, confront, avoid-confront, and avoid-resign) of coping in the study group. Subjective support was significantly higher than objective support (p < 0.05); however, extent of using the support was significantly lower than either objective (p < 0.05) or subjective support (p < 0.01). SAS and SDS were negatively correlated to SSRS scores (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Stomach, colon, and rectal cancer patients had anxiety and depression stemming from their cancer diagnosis and postdiagnosis treatment, and sex dependency was prevalent in SSRS response. Coping patterns were reliable indicators of psychosocial side effects in patients with stomach, colon, and rectal cancers. PMID:23681801

  9. Random Forests to Predict Rectal Toxicity Following Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ospina, Juan D.; Zhu, Jian; Chira, Ciprian; Bossi, Alberto; Delobel, Jean B.; Beckendorf, Véronique; Dubray, Bernard; Lagrange, Jean-Léon; Correa, Juan C.; and others

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: To propose a random forest normal tissue complication probability (RF-NTCP) model to predict late rectal toxicity following prostate cancer radiation therapy, and to compare its performance to that of classic NTCP models. Methods and Materials: Clinical data and dose-volume histograms (DVH) were collected from 261 patients who received 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer with at least 5 years of follow-up. The series was split 1000 times into training and validation cohorts. A RF was trained to predict the risk of 5-year overall rectal toxicity and bleeding. Parameters of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model were identified and a logistic regression model was fit. The performance of all the models was assessed by computing the area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: The 5-year grade ≥2 overall rectal toxicity and grade ≥1 and grade ≥2 rectal bleeding rates were 16%, 25%, and 10%, respectively. Predictive capabilities were obtained using the RF-NTCP model for all 3 toxicity endpoints, including both the training and validation cohorts. The age and use of anticoagulants were found to be predictors of rectal bleeding. The AUC for RF-NTCP ranged from 0.66 to 0.76, depending on the toxicity endpoint. The AUC values for the LKB-NTCP were statistically significantly inferior, ranging from 0.62 to 0.69. Conclusions: The RF-NTCP model may be a useful new tool in predicting late rectal toxicity, including variables other than DVH, and thus appears as a strong competitor to classic NTCP models.

  10. Variation in treatment modalities, costs and outcomes of rectal cancer patients in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Krzysztof J.; Wysocki, Wojciech M.; Tabor, Jacek; Herman, Roman M.; ?liwczy?ski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To evaluate outcome, costs and treatment differences in rectal cancer patients between various regions in Poland. Material and methods Data from the Polish National Health Fund of all patients with rectal cancer diagnosed and treated between 2005 and 2007 were analyzed. Overall, relative 5-year survival and the percentage of patients receiving chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery were analyzed. The possible influence of cost of treatment per patient and mean number of rectal cancer patients per surgical oncologist were analyzed as well. Results In total 15,281 patients with rectal cancer were diagnosed and treated in Poland in 20052007 within the services of the National Health Fund. The overall, relative 5-year survival rate was 51.6%. Curative surgery was performed in 64.1% of patients. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were used in 47.5% and 60.7% of patients, respectively. The mean cost of treatment of one rectal cancer patient was 32,800 PLN and there were 49.8 rectal cancer patients per specialist in surgical oncology. Important differences between regions were found in all these factors, but without a significant influence on survival. A correlation between numbers of patients per specialist in different voivodeships and survival rates was observed, as well as a correlation between percentage of surgical resection in voivodeships and survival rates (p = 0.07). Conclusions Results of treatment of colorectal cancer in Poland improved significantly during the last decade. There exist however, important disparities between regions in terms of method of treatment, costs and outcomes. PMID:26793026

  11. International Preoperative Rectal Cancer Management: Staging, Neoadjuvant Treatment, and Impact of Multidisciplinary Teams

    PubMed Central

    Augestad, Knut M.; Lindsetmo, Rolv-Ole; Stulberg, Jonah; Reynolds, Harry; Senagore, Anthony; Champagne, Brad; Heriot, Alexander G.; Leblanc, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding variations in preoperative treatment and practice for rectal cancer (RC) on an international level, yet practice variation may result in differences in recurrence and survival rates. Methods One hundred seventy-three international colorectal centers were invited to participate in a survey of preoperative management of rectal cancer. Results One hundred twenty-three (71%) responded, with a majority of respondents from North America, Europe, and Asia. Ninety-three percent have more than 5years experience with rectal cancer surgery. Fifty-five percent use CT scan, 35% MRI, 29% ERUS, 12% digital rectal examination and 1% PET scan in all RC cases. Seventy-four percent consider threatened circumferential margin (CRM) an indication for neoadjuvant treatment. Ninety-two percent prefer 5-FU-based long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT). A significant difference in practice exists between the US and non-US surgeons: poor histological differentiation as an indication for CRT (25% vs. 7.0%, p=0.008), CRT for stage II and III rectal cancer (92% vs. 43%, p=0.0001), MRI for all RC patients (20% vs. 42%, p=0.03), and ERUS for all RC patients (43% vs. 21%, p=0.01). Multidisciplinary team meetings significantly influence decisions for MRI (RR=3.62), neoadjuvant treatment (threatened CRM, RR=5.67, stage II+III RR=2.98), quality of pathology report (RR=4.85), and sphincter-saving surgery (RR=3.81). Conclusions There was little consensus on staging, neoadjuvant treatment, and preoperative management of rectal cancer. Regular multidisciplinary team meetings influence decisions about neoadjuvant treatment and staging methods. PMID:20703471

  12. Toll-like receptor genes and their association with colon and rectal cancer development and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Martha L.; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Bondurant, Kristina L.; Wolff, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are mediators of inflammation in the gut and potentially important modulators of colon and rectal cancer risk. We use data from a population-based study of incident colon cancer cases (n=1,555) and controls (n=1,956) and rectal cancer cases (n=754) and controls (n=959). We evaluate genetic variation in TLR2 (6 SNPs), TLR3 (4 SNPs), and TLR4 (8 SNPs) with risk of developing colon or rectal cancer and survival after diagnosis. TLR3 rs11721827 was associated with rectal cancer (OR 1.27 95% CI 1.02,1.58 for AC/CC vs AA genotype Wald p 0.035; adjusted p 0.126); TLR3 rs3775292 and TLR4 rs11536898 were associated with colon cancer (OR 0.68 95% CI 0.49,0.95 for GG vs CC/CG and OR 0.50 95% CI 0.29,0.87 for AA vs. CA/CC respectively; Wald p=0.023 and 0.015; adjusted p=0.085 and 0.101 respectively). TLR2 rs7656411 and rs3804099 respectively interacted with NSAID use and cigarette smoking to alter risk of colon cancer (adjusted p=0.034 and 0.077); TLR3 rs11721827 interacted with NSAID use to alter risk of colon cancer (adjusted p=0.071). TLR3 rs3775292 interacted with dietary carbohydrates to alter colon cancer risk and with dietary carbohydrates and saturated fat to alter rectal cancer risk (adjusted p=0.064, 0.0035, and 0.025 respectively). Multiple SNPs in TLR2 and TLR4 were associated with colon cancer survival. Although few independent associations with TLR genes were observed, we observed significant interaction with TLR2 and TLR3 with hypothesized lifestyle factors. Interaction with dietary factors remained significant for rectal cancer after adjustment for multiple comparisons. PMID:21792899

  13. Low thrombospondin 2 expression is predictive of low tumor regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Yi; Lin, Ching-Yih; Chang, I-Wei; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Li, Chien-Feng; Lee, Sung-Wei; Lin, Li-Ching; Lee, Ying-En; He, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by surgery is the mainstay of treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Several heparin-binding associated proteins have been reported to play a critical role in cancer progression. However, the clinical relevancies of such proteins and their associations with CCRT response in rectal cancer have not yet to be fully elucidated. Methods: The analysis of a public transcriptome of rectal cancer indicated that thrombospondin 2 (THBS2) is a predictive factor for CCRT response. Immunohistochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate the expression of THBS2 in pretreatment biopsy specimens from rectal cancer patients without distant metastasis. Furthermore, the relationships between THBS2 expression and various clinicopathological factors or survival were analyzed. Results: Low expression of THBS2 was significantly associated with advanced pretreatment tumor (P<0.001) and nodal status (P=0.004), post-treatment tumor (P<0.001) and nodal status (P<0.001), increased vascular invasion (P=0.003), increased perineural invasion (P=0.023) and inferior tumor regression grade (P=0.015). In univariate analysis, low THBS2 expression predicted worse outcomes for disease-free survival, local recurrence-free survival and metastasis-free survival (all P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, low expression of THBS2 still served as a negative prognostic factor for disease-free survival (Hazard ratio=3.057, P=0.002) and metastasis-free survival (Hazard ratio=3.362, P=0.012). Conclusion: Low THBS2 expression was correlated with advanced disease status and low tumor regression after preoperative CCRT and that it acted as an independent negative prognostic factor in rectal cancer. THBS2 may represent a predictive biomarker for CCRT response in rectal cancer. PMID:26807188

  14. Sexual and physical abuse are not associated with rectal hypersensitivity in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Y; Whitehead, W E; Toner, B B; Diamant, N E; Hu, Y; Jia, H; Bangdiwala, S I; Drossman, D A

    2004-01-01

    Background: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have reduced pain thresholds for rectal distension. In addition, the prevalence of sexual/physical abuse in referred IBS patients is high and is associated with greater pain reporting, poorer health status, and poorer outcome. This lead to a hypothesis that abuse history may sensitise patients to report pain at a lower threshold. Aim: To compare rectal pain thresholds in women with IBS who had a history of severe abuse to IBS women with no history of abuse. Methods: We studied 74 IBS patients with a history of severe physical and/or sexual abuse and 85 patients with no history of abuse. Abuse history was assessed by a previously validated self-report abuse screening questionnaire. Rectal sensory thresholds were assessed using an electronic barostat and determined by the ascending method of limit (AML) and by the tracking technique. Results: IBS patients with a history of severe abuse had significantly higher rectal pain thresholds, as measured by AML (F (1, 111)?=?6.06; p?=?0.015) and the tracking technique (F (1, 109)?=?5.21; p?=?0.024). Patients with a history of severe abuse also reported a significantly higher threshold for urgency to defecate (F (1, 113)?=?11.23; p?=?.001). Conclusion: Severe sexual/physical abuse is associated with higher urge and pain thresholds for rectal distension in IBS patients. This suggests that the greater pain reporting and poorer health status in IBS patients with abuse history are not related to increased rectal pain sensitivity. Further studies are needed to determine the causes of these findings. PMID:15138210

  15. Reduction of prostate intrafraction motion using gas-release rectal balloons

    SciTech Connect

    Su Zhong; Zhao Tianyu; Li Zuofeng; Hoppe, Brad; Henderson, Randy; Mendenhall, William; Nichols, R. Charles; Marcus, Robert; Mendenhall, Nancy

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To analyze prostate intrafraction motion using both non-gas-release (NGR) and gas-release (GR) rectal balloons and to evaluate the ability of GR rectal balloons to reduce prostate intrafraction motion. Methods: Twenty-nine patients with NGR rectal balloons and 29 patients with GR balloons were randomly selected from prostate patients treated with proton therapy at University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute (Jacksonville, FL). Their pretreatment and post-treatment orthogonal radiographs were analyzed, and both pretreatment setup residual error and intrafraction-motion data were obtained. Population histograms of intrafraction motion were plotted for both types of balloons. Population planning target-volume (PTV) margins were calculated with the van Herk formula of 2.5{Sigma}+ 0.7{sigma} to account for setup residual errors and intrafraction motion errors. Results: Pretreatment and post-treatment radiographs indicated that the use of gas-release rectal balloons reduced prostate intrafraction motion along superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Similar patient setup residual errors were exhibited for both types of balloons. Gas-release rectal balloons resulted in PTV margin reductions from 3.9 to 2.8 mm in the SI direction, 3.1 to 1.8 mm in the AP direction, and an increase from 1.9 to 2.1 mm in the left-right direction. Conclusions: Prostate intrafraction motion is an important uncertainty source in radiotherapy after image-guided patient setup with online corrections. Compared to non-gas-release rectal balloons, gas-release balloons can reduce prostate intrafraction motion in the SI and AP directions caused by gas buildup.

  16. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: Current immediate clinical and oncological outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery continues to be a challenging operation associated to a steep learning curve. Robotic surgical systems have dramatically changed minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional, magnified and stable view, articulated instruments, and reduction of physiologic tremors leading to superior dexterity and ergonomics. Therefore, robotic platforms could potentially address limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery. It was aimed at reviewing current literature on short-term clinical and oncological (pathological) outcomes after robotic rectal cancer surgery in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was performed for the period 2002 to 2014. A total of 1776 patients with rectal cancer underwent minimally invasive robotic treatment in 32 studies. After robotic and laparoscopic approach to oncologic rectal surgery, respectively, mean operating time varied from 192-385 min, and from 158-297 min; mean estimated blood loss was between 33 and 283 mL, and between 127 and 300 mL; mean length of stay varied from 4-10 d; and from 6-15 d. Conversion after robotic rectal surgery varied from 0% to 9.4%, and from 0 to 22% after laparoscopy. There was no difference between robotic (0%-41.3%) and laparoscopic (5.5%-29.3%) surgery regarding morbidity and anastomotic complications (respectively, 0%-13.5%, and 0%-11.1%). Regarding immediate oncologic outcomes, respectively among robotic and laparoscopic cases, positive circumferential margins varied from 0% to 7.5%, and from 0% to 8.8%; the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was between 10 and 20, and between 11 and 21; and the mean distal resection margin was from 0.8 to 4.7 cm, and from 1.9 to 4.5 cm. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is being undertaken by experienced surgeons. However, the quality of the assembled evidence does not support definite conclusions about most studies variables. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is associated to increased costs and operating time. It also seems to be associated to reduced conversion rates. Other short-term outcomes are comparable to conventional laparoscopy techniques, if not better. Ultimately, pathological data evaluation suggests that oncologic safety may be preserved after robotic total mesorectal excision. However, further studies are required to evaluate oncologic safety and functional results. PMID:25339823

  17. Risk factors for local recurrence of middle and lower rectal carcinoma after curative resection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ze-Yu; Wan, Jin; Zhao, Gang; Peng, Lin; Du, Jia-Lin; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Quan-Fang; Lin, Hua-Huan

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the risk factors for local recurrence of middle and lower rectal carcinoma after curative resection. METHODS: Specimens of middle and lower rectal carcinoma from 56 patients who received curative resection at the Department of General Surgery of Guangdong Provincial Peoples Hospital were studied. A large slice technique was used to detect mesorectal metastasis and evaluate circumferential resection margin status. The relations between clinicopathologic characteristics, mesorectal metastasis and circumferential resection margin status were identified in patients with local recurrence of middle and lower rectal carcinoma. RESULTS: Local recurrence of middle and lower rectal carcinoma after curative resection occurred in 7 of the 56 patients (12.5%), and was significantly associated with family history (?2 = 3.929, P = 0.047), high CEA level (?2 = 4.964, P = 0.026), cancerous perforation (?2 = 8.503, P = 0.004), tumor differentiation (?2 = 9.315, P = 0.009) and vessel cancerous emboli (?2 = 11.879, P = 0.001). In contrast, no significant correlation was found between local recurrence of rectal carcinoma and other variables such as age (?2 = 0.506, P = 0.477), gender (?2 = 0.102, ?2 = 0.749), tumor diameter (?2 = 0.421, P = 0.516), tumor infiltration (?2 = 5.052, P = 0.168), depth of tumor invasion (?2 = 4.588, P = 0.101), lymph node metastases (?2 = 3.688, P = 0.055) and TNM staging system (?2 = 3.765, P = 0.152). The local recurrence rate of middle and lower rectal carcinoma was 33.3% (4/12) in patients with positive circumferential resection margin and 6.8% (3/44) in those with negative circumferential resection margin. There was a significant difference between the two groups (?2 = 6.061, P = 0.014). Local recurrence of rectal carcinoma occurred in 6 of 36 patients (16.7%) with mesorectal metastasis, and in 1 of 20 patients (5.0%) without mesorectal metastasis. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (?2 = 1.600, P = 0.206). CONCLUSION: Family history, high CEA level, cancerous perforation, tumor differentiation, vessel cancerous emboli and circumferential resection margin status are the significant risk factors for local recurrence of middle and lower rectal carcinoma after curative resection. Local recurrence may be more frequent in patients with mesorectal metastasis than in patients without mesorectal metastasis. PMID:18720544

  18. Influence of image slice thickness on rectal dose-response relationships following radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, C.; Thor, M.; Liu, M.; Moissenko, V.; Petersen, S. E.; Høyer, M.; Apte, A.; Deasy, J. O.

    2014-07-01

    When pooling retrospective data from different cohorts, slice thicknesses of acquired computed tomography (CT) images used for treatment planning may vary between cohorts. It is, however, not known if varying slice thickness influences derived dose-response relationships. We investigated this for rectal bleeding using dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the rectum and rectal wall for dose distributions superimposed on images with varying CT slice thicknesses. We used dose and endpoint data from two prostate cancer cohorts treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to either 74 Gy (N = 159) or 78 Gy (N = 159) at 2 Gy per fraction. The rectum was defined as the whole organ with content, and the morbidity cut-off was Grade ≥2 late rectal bleeding. Rectal walls were defined as 3 mm inner margins added to the rectum. DVHs for simulated slice thicknesses from 3 to 13 mm were compared to DVHs for the originally acquired slice thicknesses at 3 and 5 mm. Volumes, mean, and maximum doses were assessed from the DVHs, and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) values were calculated. For each organ and each of the simulated slice thicknesses, we performed predictive modeling of late rectal bleeding using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. For the most coarse slice thickness, rectal volumes increased (≤18%), whereas maximum and mean doses decreased (≤0.8 and ≤4.2 Gy, respectively). For all a values, the gEUD for the simulated DVHs were ≤1.9 Gy different than the gEUD for the original DVHs. The best-fitting LKB model parameter values with 95% CIs were consistent between all DVHs. In conclusion, we found that the investigated slice thickness variations had minimal impact on rectal dose-response estimations. From the perspective of predictive modeling, our results suggest that variations within 10 mm in slice thickness between cohorts are unlikely to be a limiting factor when pooling multi-institutional rectal dose data that include slice thickness variations within this range. Presented in part at the European Society for Therapeutic Radiotherapy and Oncology Annual Meeting, April 5-8, 2014, Vienna, Austria.

  19. Acute diarrhea and metabolic acidosis caused by tuberculous vesico-rectal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiu-Qing; Zou, Yan; Wu, Zhi-E; Abassa, Kodjo-Kunale; Mao, Wei; Tao, Jin; Kang, Zhuang; Wen, Zhuo-Fu; Wu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Acquired vesico-rectal fistula is an uncommon complication of pelvic malignant tumors, surgical injury, inflammatory disorders such as tuberculosis infection, radiotherapy and less commonly diverticulum of the urinary tract. The fistula is often identified by urinary tract abnormalities such as dysuria, recurrent urinary tract infection, pneumaturia, and fecaluria. Here, we report an unusual case of a patient with a vesico-rectal fistula of tuberculous origin, presenting with severe acute diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, hyperchloremia and hypokalemia while with only mild urinary tract symptoms. The patient was cured by tuberculostatic therapy. PMID:25386096

  20. Influence of image slice thickness on rectal dose-response relationships following radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, C.; Thor, M.; Liu, M.; Moissenko, V.; Petersen, S.E.; Høyer, M; Apte, A.; Deasy, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    When pooling retrospective data from different cohorts, slice thicknesses of acquired computed tomography (CT) images used for treatment planning may vary between cohorts. It is, however, not known if varying slice thickness influences derived dose-response relationships. We investigated this for rectal bleeding using dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the rectum and rectal wall for dose distributions superimposed on images with varying CT slice thicknesses. We used dose and endpoint data from two prostate cancer cohorts treated with 3D-CRT to either 74 Gy (N=159) or 78 Gy (N=159) @ 2 Gy per fraction. The rectum was defined as the whole organ with content, and the morbidity cut-off was Grade ≥2 late rectal bleeding. Rectal walls were defined as 3-mm inner margins added to the rectum. DVHs for simulated slice thicknesses from 3 to 13 mm were compared to DVHs for the originally acquired slice thicknesses at 3 and 5 mm. Volumes, mean, and maximum doses were assessed from the DVHs, and gEUD values were calculated. For each organ and each of the simulated slice thicknesses, we performed predictive modeling of late rectal bleeding using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. For the most coarse slice thickness, rectal volumes increased (≤18%), whereas maximum and mean doses decreased (≤0.8 Gy and ≤4.2 Gy, respectively). For all a values, the gEUD for the simulated DVHs were ≤1.9 Gy different than the gEUD for the original DVHs. The best-fitting LKB model parameter values with 95% CIs were consistent between all DVHs. In conclusion, we found that the investigated slice thickness variations had minimal impact on rectal dose-response estimations. From the perspective of predictive modeling, our results suggest that variations within 10 mm in slice thickness between cohorts are unlikely to be a limiting factor when pooling multi-institutional rectal dose data that include slice thickness variations within this range. PMID:24936956

  1. Estimation of Rectal Dose Using Daily Megavoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Deformable Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Akino, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Fukuda, Shoichi; Maruoka, Shintaroh; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: The actual dose delivered to critical organs will differ from the simulated dose because of interfractional organ motion and deformation. Here, we developed a method to estimate the rectal dose in prostate intensity modulated radiation therapy with consideration to interfractional organ motion using daily megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MVCBCT). Methods and Materials: Under exemption status from our institutional review board, we retrospectively reviewed 231 series of MVCBCT of 8 patients with prostate cancer. On both planning CT (pCT) and MVCBCT images, the rectal contours were delineated and the CT value within the contours was replaced by the mean CT value within the pelvis, with the addition of 100 Hounsfield units. MVCBCT images were rigidly registered to pCT and then nonrigidly registered using B-Spline deformable image registration (DIR) with Velocity AI software. The concordance between the rectal contours on MVCBCT and pCT was evaluated using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The dose distributions normalized for 1 fraction were also deformed and summed to estimate the actual total dose. Results: The DSC of all treatment fractions of 8 patients was improved from 0.750.04 (mean SD) to 0.90 0.02 by DIR. Six patients showed a decrease of the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) from total dose compared with treatment plans. Although the rectal volume of each treatment fraction did not show any correlation with the change in gEUD (R{sup 2}=0.180.13), the displacement of the center of gravity of rectal contours in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction showed an intermediate relationship (R{sup 2}=0.610.16). Conclusion: We developed a method for evaluation of rectal dose using DIR and MVCBCT images and showed the necessity of DIR for the evaluation of total dose. Displacement of the rectum in the AP direction showed a greater effect on the change in rectal dose compared with the rectal volume.

  2. [Local imaging of rectal cancer--update 2015: MRI as imaging biomarker].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A-O

    2015-11-01

    The significance of state of the art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for rectal cancer goes far beyond the detection and diagnostics of local dispersion and is increasingly focusing on patient prognosis. The identification of prognostic factors, such as tumor (T) and nodal (N) status, involvement of the circumferential resection margin, presence of extramural vascular invasion, tumor response prediction following neoadjuvant therapy, therapy-related changes in microcirculation, permeability and tissue cellularity and structured reporting are important elements of advanced rectal cancer imaging. In this context, multiparametric MRI is progressively evolving into a powerful imaging biomarker. PMID:26538136

  3. Magnetic Resonance (MR) rectography in diagnostics of small-size rectal neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usova, AV; Frolova, IG; Trukhacheva, NG; Cheremisina, OV; Afanas'ev, SG

    2016-02-01

    Purpose was the assessment of diagnostic efficiency of MR-rectography in diagnostics of small-size rectal neoplasms. 12 patients with polyps and small tumors of a rectum are examined, the size of detected neoplasms varied in the range 3-18 mm. Native MRI and MRI with retrograde contrasting by ultrasonic gel was carried out. Results of MRI are compared with results of videocolonoscopy. Sensitivity of native MRT was 24%, MR- rectography was 88%. MR-rectography can be used in diagnostics of small-size rectal neoplasms.

  4. Intersphincteric resection and coloanal anastomosis in treatment of distal rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cipe, Gokhan; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yardimci, Erkan; Memmi, Naim; Aysan, Erhan

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of distal rectal cancer, abdominoperineal resection is traditionally performed. However, the recognition of shorter safe distal resection line, intersphincteric resection technique has given a chance of sphincter-saving surgery for patients with distal rectal cancer during last two decades and still is being performed as an alternative choice of abdominoperineal resection. The first aim of this study is to assess the morbidity, mortality, oncological, and functional outcomes of intersphincteric resection. The second aim is to compare outcomes of patients who underwent intersphincteric resection with the outcomes of patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection. PMID:22690335

  5. Intersphincteric Resection and Coloanal Anastomosis in Treatment of Distal Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cipe, Gokhan; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yardimci, Erkan; Memmi, Naim; Aysan, Erhan

    2012-01-01

    In the treatment of distal rectal cancer, abdominoperineal resection is traditionally performed. However, the recognition of shorter safe distal resection line, intersphincteric resection technique has given a chance of sphincter-saving surgery for patients with distal rectal cancer during last two decades and still is being performed as an alternative choice of abdominoperineal resection. The first aim of this study is to assess the morbidity, mortality, oncological, and functional outcomes of intersphincteric resection. The second aim is to compare outcomes of patients who underwent intersphincteric resection with the outcomes of patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection. PMID:22690335

  6. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  7. Novice Administrators: Personality and Administrative Style Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda J.; Kosmoski, Georgia J.; Pollack, Dennis R.

    Since the advent of effective-schools research findings, educational administration experts have advocated a democratic and collegial leadership style for school administrators. This paper provides the findings of a study that examined 43 beginning administrators (25 females, 32 Caucasians, 9 African-Americans, 2 Hispanics) to determine what

  8. Study shows colon and rectal tumors constitute a single type of cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The pattern of genomic alterations in colon and rectal tissues is the same regardless of anatomic location or origin within the colon or the rectum, leading researchers to conclude that these two cancer types can be grouped as one, according to The Cancer

  9. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: A systematic review of current practice

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Tony Wing Chung; Lee, Janet Fung Yee; Futaba, Kaori; Hon, Sophie Sok Fei; Ngo, Dennis Kwok Yu; Ng, Simon Siu Man

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To give a comprehensive review of current literature on robotic rectal cancer surgery. METHODS: A systematic review of current literature via PubMed and Embase search engines was performed to identify relevant articles from january 2007 to november 2013. The keywords used were: robotic surgery, surgical robotics, laparoscopic computer-assisted surgery, colectomy and rectal resection. RESULTS: After the initial screen of 380 articles, 20 papers were selected for review. A total of 1062 patients (male 64.0%) with a mean age of 61.1 years and body mass index of 24.9 kg/m2 were included in the review. Out of 1062 robotic-assisted operations, 831 (78.2%) anterior and low anterior resections, 132 (12.4%) intersphincteric resection with coloanal anastomosis, 98 (9.3%) abdominoperineal resections and 1 (0.1%) Hartmanns operation were included in the review. Robotic rectal surgery was associated with longer operative time but with comparable oncological results and anastomotic leak rate when compared with laparoscopic rectal surgery. CONCLUSION: Robotic colorectal surgery has continued to evolve to its current state with promising results; feasible surgical option with low conversion rate and comparable short-term oncological results. The challenges faced with robotic surgery are for more high quality studies to justify its cost. PMID:24936229

  10. Rectal perforations and fistulae secondary to a glycerin enema: Closure by over-the-scope-clip

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Masaki, Tsutomu; Izuishi, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Rectal perforations due to glycerin enemas (GE) typically occur when the patient is in a seated or lordotic standing position. Once the perforation occurs and peritonitis results, death is usually inevitable. We describe two cases of rectal perforation and fistula caused by a GE. An 88-year-old woman presented with a large rectal perforation and a fistula just after receiving a GE. Her case was further complicated by an abscess in the right rectal wall. The second patient was a 78-year-old woman who suffered from a rectovesical fistula after a GE. In both cases, we performed direct endoscopic abscess lavage with a saline solution and closed the fistula using an over-the-scope-clip (OTSC) procedure. These procedures resulted in dramatic improvement in both patients. Direct endoscopic lavage and OTSC closure are very useful for pararectal abscess lavage and fistula closure, respectively, in elderly patients who are in poor general condition. Our two cases are the first reports of the successful endoscopic closure of fistulae using double OTSCs after endoscopic lavage of the debris and an abscess of the rectum secondary to a GE. PMID:22791955

  11. Chromoendoscopy with a Standard-Resolution Colonoscope for Evaluation of Rectal Aberrant Crypt Foci

    PubMed Central

    Orłowski, Marcin; Zinkiewicz, Krzysztof; Kurpiewski, Waldemar; Kowalczyk, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of death worldwide. According to the theory by Vogelstein, colorectal carcinogenesis involves a series of successive changes in the normal colonic mucosa, starting with excessive proliferation and focal disorders of intestinal crypts, followed by adenoma and its subsequent malignant transformation. The first identifiable changes in CRC carcinogenesis are aberrant crypt foci (ACF). ACF are invisible during routine colonoscopy yet are well identifiable in chromoendoscopy using methylene blue or indigo carmine. High-resolution colonoscopes are used for assessment of ACF. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of standard-resolution colonoscopy for identification of rectal ACF. The following parameters were evaluated: duration of chromoendoscopy of a given rectal segment, type of ACF, sensitivity and specificity of endoscopy combined with histopathological evaluation. The mean duration of colonoscopy and chromoendoscopy was 26.8 min. In the study population, typical ACF were found in 73 patients (p = 0.489), hyperplastic ACF in 49 (p = 0.328), and dysplastic ACF in 16 patients (p = 0.107). Mixed ACF were observed in 11 individuals (p = 0.073). The sensitivity of the method was found to be 0.96 whereas its specificity 0.99. Identification of rectal ACF using standard-resolution colonoscopy combined with rectal mucosa staining with 0.25% methylene blue is characterised by high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26886097

  12. Significance of Cox-2 expression in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachkoria, Ketevan; Zhang Hong; Adell, Gunnar; Jarlsfelt, Ingvar; Sun Xiaofeng . E-mail: xiao-feng.sun@ibk.liu.se

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. Our aims were to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression to radiotherapy, and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers with or without radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cox-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distal normal mucosa (n = 28), in adjacent normal mucosa (n = 107), in primary cancer (n = 138), lymph node metastasis (n = 30), and biopsy (n = 85). The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Results: Cox-2 expression was increased in primary tumor compared with normal mucosa (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant change between primary tumor and metastasis. Cox-2 positivity was or tended to be related to more p53 and Ki-67 expression, and less apoptosis (p {<=} 0.05). In Cox-2-negative cases of either biopsy (p = 0.01) or surgical samples (p = 0.02), radiotherapy was related to less frequency of local recurrence, but this was not the case in Cox-2-positive cases. Conclusion: Cox-2 expression seemed to be an early event involved in rectal cancer development. Radiotherapy might reduce a rate of local recurrence in the patients with Cox-2 weakly stained tumors, but not in those with Cox-2 strongly stained tumors.

  13. Identification of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer with Low Risk of Local Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiao-Xuan; Li, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Xu; Xie, Lan; Cai, Pei-Qiang; An, Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background The routine application of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for T3N0 rectal cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to use clinical, Magnetic resonance imaging, and pathological parameters to identify a subgroup of patients with low risk of local recurrence who might be precluded from neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively maintained database of consecutive rectal cancer patients who underwent curative resection. 166 pathologic confirmed T3N0 rectal cancer patients with tumor located 512cm above the anal verge and preoperative circumferential resection margin>1mm were included in analysis. The primary outcomes measured were3- and 5-year local recurrence rates. Results Local recurrence was demonstrated during follow-up in 5 patients; the actuarial overall 3- and 5-year local recurrence rates were 2.5% and 3.4%, respectively. Inadequate sampling of lymph nodes (?12) was associated with higher local recurrence (P = 0.03) in this group of patients. Conclusion For upper and middle T3N0 rectal cancer with preoperative circumferential resection margin>1mm, local recurrence rate after total mesorectal excision is low and surgery alone may be enough for this group of patients. PMID:25629521

  14. Development of an automatic, indwelling rectal temperature probe for cattle research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A device to continuously monitor rectal temperature of beef cattle in research settings was developed with the objective of obtaining frequent measurements on several animals simultaneously, while minimizing labor and handling. The device consists of a modified polyvinylchloride pipe coupling that ...

  15. Review of systemic therapies for locally advanced and metastatic rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Osipov, Arsen; Tan, Carlyn; Tuli, Richard; Hendifar, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Rectal cancer, along with colon cancer, is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S. Up to a quarter of patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis and 40% will develop metastatic disease. The past 10 years have been extremely exciting in the treatment of both locally advanced and metastatic rectal cancer (mRC). With the advent of neoadjuvant chemoradiation, increased numbers of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) are surviving longer and some are seeing their tumors shrink to sizes that allow for resection. The advent of biologics and monoclonal antibodies has propelled the treatment of mRC further than many could have hoped. Combined with regimens such as FOLFOX or FOLFIRI, median survival rates have been increased to an average of 23 months. However, the combinations of chemotherapy regimens seem endless for rectal cancer. We will review the major chemotherapies available for locally advanced and mRC as well as regimens currently under investigation such as FOLFOXIRI. We will also review vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors as single agents and in combination with traditional chemotherapy regimens. PMID:25830038

  16. Factors affecting sexual function: A comparison between women with gynecological or rectal cancer and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Chen, Lynn

    2014-11-23

    This study had two purposes: (i) to explore differences in sexual function between women with gynecological or rectal cancer after related pelvic-area treatments and women without cancer; and (ii) to investigate the relationships among body image, anxiety and depression, sexual relationship power, sexual self-schema, and female sexual function. The participants (n = 139) were recruited through Internet cancer support groups and women's health organizations in the USA. Six structured questionnaires were mailed, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that women with gynecological or rectal cancer had significantly worse sexual function than women without cancer. Having gynecological/rectal cancer and a negative sexual self-schema were significantly related to poor sexual function. Furthermore, sexual self-schema moderated the relationship between sexual relationship power and female sexual function. Healthcare providers could give more attention to sexual issues in women who have undergone treatment for gynecological or rectal cancer, especially for those with a negative sexual self-schema and high sexual relationship power, which might improve these women's quality of life. PMID:25417724

  17. Glucose Infusion into Exercising Dogs after Confinement: Rectal and Active Muscle Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Falecka-Wieczorek, I.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1995-01-01

    Intravenous glucose infusion into ambulatory dogs results in attenuation of exercise-induced increase of both rectal and thigh muscle temperatures. That glucose (Glu) infusion attenuates excessive increase in body temperature from restricted activity during confinement deconditioning. Intravenous glucose infusion attenuates the rise in exercise core temperature in deconditioned dogs by a yet undefined mechanism.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Radiosensitizers for K-RAS Mutant Rectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Stephen Y.; Hong, Theodore S.; Haigis, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 40% of rectal cancers harbor activating K-RAS mutations, and these mutations are associated with poor clinical response to chemoradiotherapy. We aimed to identify small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) that synergize with ionizing radiation (IR) (radiosensitizers) that could be incorporated into current treatment strategies for locally advanced rectal cancers (LARCs) expressing mutant K-RAS. We first optimized a high-throughput assay for measuring individual and combined effects of SMIs and IR that produces similar results to the gold standard colony formation assay. Using this screening platform and K-RAS mutant rectal cancer cell lines, we tested SMIs targeting diverse signaling pathways for radiosensitizing activity and then evaluated our top hits in follow-up experiments. The two most potent radiosensitizers were the Chk1/2 inhibitor AZD7762 and the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235. The chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which is used to treat LARC, synergized with AZD7762 and enhanced radiosensitization by AZD7762. This study is the first to compare different SMIs in combination with IR for the treatment of K-RAS mutant rectal cancer, and our findings suggest that Chk1/2 inhibitors should be evaluated in new clinical trials for LARC. PMID:24349411

  19. Review of systemic therapies for locally advanced and metastatic rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yaffee, Patrick; Osipov, Arsen; Tan, Carlyn; Tuli, Richard; Hendifar, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Rectal cancer, along with colon cancer, is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S. Up to a quarter of patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis and 40% will develop metastatic disease. The past 10 years have been extremely exciting in the treatment of both locally advanced and metastatic rectal cancer (mRC). With the advent of neoadjuvant chemoradiation, increased numbers of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) are surviving longer and some are seeing their tumors shrink to sizes that allow for resection. The advent of biologics and monoclonal antibodies has propelled the treatment of mRC further than many could have hoped. Combined with regimens such as FOLFOX or FOLFIRI, median survival rates have been increased to an average of 23 months. However, the combinations of chemotherapy regimens seem endless for rectal cancer. We will review the major chemotherapies available for locally advanced and mRC as well as regimens currently under investigation such as FOLFOXIRI. We will also review vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors as single agents and in combination with traditional chemotherapy regimens. PMID:25830038

  20. The rectal microbiota of cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus infection and uninfected controls.

    PubMed

    Weese, J S; Nichols, J; Jalali, M; Litster, A

    2015-10-22

    Rectal swabs were collected from 31 cats, 16 with FIV infection and 15 uninfected controls, to evaluate and compare the rectal bacterial microbiota in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection and uninfected controls. The rectal microbiota was characterized via next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene (V4 region) polymerase chain reaction products. Eighteen different phyla were identified. Firmicutes dominated in both groups, followed by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, but there were no significant differences between groups. When predominant orders are compared, FIV-infected cats had significant higher median relative abundances of Bifidobacteriales (P=0.022), Lactobacillales (P=0.022) and Aeromonadales (P=0.043). No differences were identified in the 50 most common genera when adjusted for false discovery rate. There were significant differences in community membership (Jaccard index, unifrac P=0.008, AMOVA P<0.001) and community structure (Yue&Clayton index, unifrac P=0.03, AMOVA P=0.005) between groups. However, only one metacommunity (enterotype) was identified. The rectal microbiota differed between cats with FIV infection and uninfected controls. Some of the changes that were noted have been associated with 'dysbiosis' and proinflammatory states in other species, so it is possible that subclinical alteration in the intestinal microbiota could influence the health of FIV-infected cats. Evaluation of the reasons for microbiota alteration and the potential impact on cat health is required. PMID:26315773

  1. Analysis of anastomotic leakage after rectal surgery: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Kazama, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of anastomotic leakage in rectal surgery is around 10 percent. Poor blood supply to the anastomosis, high anastomotic pressure and tension, increased operative blood loss, long operative time, and male sex are risk factors of anastomotic leakage. In the present study, we examined anastomotic leakage cases in rectal surgery at our institute and tried to ascertain the risk factors. Methods Three hundred fifty-seven consecutive patients who underwent rectal resection with anastomosis between January 2008 and October 2013 were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the existence of anastomotic leakage. Clinicopathological features, operative procedures, and intraoperative outcomes were compared between the two groups. Regarding intraoperative procedure, we focused on the ligation level of the inferior mesenteric artery, installing a transanal drainage tube in the rectum, and constructing a diverting stoma. Results Anastomotic leakage occurred in eight patients. All of them were male (p = 0.0284). There were no statistical differences in other characteristics of the patients or tumors, in operative procedures, or in intraoperative outcomes. Conclusions In the present study, no statistically significant risk factors for anastomotic leakage in rectal surgery were detected, except for male sex. However, the rate of anastomotic leakage at our institute was revealed to be rather low. Our exertion to preserve good blood flow and to prevent high tension and pressure on the anastomosis in operation may have led to this result. PMID:26042185

  2. Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men Screened for Pharyngeal and Rectal Infection, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dudareva-Vizule, Sandra; Wisplinghoff, Hilmar; Wisplinghoff, Fabian; Sailer, Andrea; Jansen, Klaus; Henrich, Birgit; Marcus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    To determine prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men in Germany, we conducted a multicenter study during 20092010 and found high rates of rectal and pharyngeal infection in men positive for the causative agent, Chlamydia trachomatis. Many infections were asymptomatic. An adjusted C. trachomatis screening policy is justified in Germany. PMID:23621949

  3. Evaluation of disinfection techniques for, and their effects on, rectal thermocouple catheters.

    PubMed

    MAHER, J T; ROGERS, M R; PETERSON, D W

    1961-07-01

    The antibacterial activities of an iodophor (Wescodyne G), a quaternary ammonium compound (Roccal), and an iodine tincture as agents for the cold disinfection of rectal catheters contaminated in vitro were determined. Following thorough cleaning with an alcoholic solution of soft soap, each of the three disinfectants tested showed satisfactory results (100% kill) in 5 min against the enteric test bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhosa) as well as a test species of the genus Pseudomonas, among the bacteria most resistant to surface-active agents. An aqueous solution of Wescodyne G containing 75 ppm available iodine was used both as a wiping solution and for subsequent disinfection of rectal catheters contaminated in vivo. Total bacterial destruction was found to follow a 60-min soak preceded by the wiping procedure. Rectal catheters subjected to prolonged immersion in each of the test disinfectants were found to be essentially unaffected, retaining their initial calibrations within a permissible tolerance. Neither Roccal nor Wescodyne G solutions were found to measurably attack bare thermocouples. Alcoholic iodine 0.5% did, however, exert a deteriorating effect on bare thermocouples in a short time, as measured by change in resistance characteristics. The results of this study have led to the recommendation that Wescodyne G containing 75 ppm available iodine be used in standing operating procedures for the initial cleaning and subsequent disinfection of rectal thermocouple catheters. PMID:13765378

  4. Complete radiotherapy response in rectal cancer: A review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Couch, Daniel G; Hemingway, David M

    2016-01-14

    Complete response to chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer is becoming a common clinical entity. Techniques to diagnose complete response and how to survey these patients without operative intervention are still unclear. We review the most recent evidence. Barriers to firm conclusions regarding this are heterogeneity of diagnostic definitions, differing surveillance protocols, and a lack of randomised studies. PMID:26811600

  5. Comparative analysis of radiosensitizers for K-RAS mutant rectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Laura B; Krebs, Angela M; Kim, Stephen Y; Hong, Theodore S; Haigis, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 40% of rectal cancers harbor activating K-RAS mutations, and these mutations are associated with poor clinical response to chemoradiotherapy. We aimed to identify small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) that synergize with ionizing radiation (IR) ("radiosensitizers") that could be incorporated into current treatment strategies for locally advanced rectal cancers (LARCs) expressing mutant K-RAS. We first optimized a high-throughput assay for measuring individual and combined effects of SMIs and IR that produces similar results to the gold standard colony formation assay. Using this screening platform and K-RAS mutant rectal cancer cell lines, we tested SMIs targeting diverse signaling pathways for radiosensitizing activity and then evaluated our top hits in follow-up experiments. The two most potent radiosensitizers were the Chk1/2 inhibitor AZD7762 and the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235. The chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which is used to treat LARC, synergized with AZD7762 and enhanced radiosensitization by AZD7762. This study is the first to compare different SMIs in combination with IR for the treatment of K-RAS mutant rectal cancer, and our findings suggest that Chk1/2 inhibitors should be evaluated in new clinical trials for LARC. PMID:24349411

  6. Relationship between temperament and transportation with rectal temperature and secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and the secretion of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning with the 8...

  7. PELVIC FLOOR SYMPTOMS AND QUALITY OF LIFE ANALYSES IN WOMEN UNDERGOING SURGERY FOR RECTAL PROLPASE

    PubMed Central

    ELLINGTON, DR; MANN, M; BOWLING, CB; DRELICHMAN, ER; GREER, WJ; SZYCHOWSKI, JM; RICHTER, HE

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characterize pelvic floor symptom distress and impact, sexual function and quality of life in women who underwent rectal prolapse surgery. Methods Subjects undergoing rectal prolapse surgery from 20042009 completed questionnaires including the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire. Baseline demographic, medical, and surgical characteristics were extracted by chart review. Demographic and clinic outcomes of women undergoing transperineal and abdominal approaches were compared. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for continuous variables and Fishers exact test for categorical measures. Results 45 were identified; two deceased at follow-up. 28/43 subjects (65.1%) responded to the questionnaires. Mean time from original procedure was 3.9 3.1 years. No differences in median total Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and subscale scores, and Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire scores in women undergoing open rectopexy versus transperineal proctectomy were seen (all p>0.05). 26 (60%) participants answered the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, nine reported sexual activity within the last month. All underwent abdominal procedures. Conclusion There are few colorectal or other pelvic floor symptoms after rectal prolapse repair. Robust prospective studies are needed to more fully characterize and understand issues associated with rectal prolapse surgery in women. PMID:25379122

  8. Palliative pelvic radiotherapy of symptomatic incurable rectal cancer a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. Locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancers frequently cause pelvic morbidity including pain, bleeding and mass effect. Palliative pelvic radiotherapy is used to relieve these symptoms and delay local progression. There is no established optimal radiotherapy regimen and clinical practices vary. Our aim was to review the efficacy and toxicity of palliative pelvic radiotherapy of symptomatic rectal cancer and to evaluate different fractionation schedules, based on published literature. Material and methods. Systematic literature searches of Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases were performed through 2011. Studies reporting symptomatic response or quality of life (QOL) after palliative radiotherapy for rectal or rectosigmoid cancer were eligible. Results. Twenty-seven studies were included, of which 23 were retrospective reviews. There were no patient-reported outcomes or QOL assessments. There were large variations in applied radiotherapy regimens. Pooled overall symptom response rate was 75% and positive responses were reported for pain (78%), bleeding and discharge (81%), mass effect (71%) and other pelvic symptoms (72%). Toxicity results were not evaluable. Conclusion. Palliative pelvic radiotherapy for symptomatic rectal cancer appears to provide relief of a variety of pelvic symptoms, although there is no documented optimal radiotherapy regimen in this context. There is inadequate evidence regarding onset, duration and degree of symptom palliation, QOL and associated toxicity with this treatment and prospective studies are therefore needed. PMID:24195692

  9. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic selection for body temperature regulation during heat stress might be a useful approach to reduce the magnitude of heat stress effects on production and reproduction. Present objectives were to estimate the genetic parameters of rectal temperature in dairy cows reared in free stall barns und...

  10. Rectal Tumour Staging with Endorectal Ultrasound: Is There Any Difference between Western and Eastern European Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Fbin, Anna; Bor, Renta; Farkas, Klaudia; Blint, Anita; Milassin, gnes; Rutka, Mariann; Tiszlavicz, Lszl; Wittmann, Tibor; Nagy, Ferenc; Molnr, Tams; Szepes, Zoltn

    2016-01-01

    Background. Rectal tumour management depends highly on locoregional extension. Rectal endoscopic ultrasound (ERUS) is a good alternative to computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, in Hungary only a small amount of rectal tumours is examined with ERUS. Methods. Our retrospective study (20062012) evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of ERUS and compares the results, the first data from Central Europe, with those from Western Europe. The effect of neoadjuvant therapy, rectal probe type, and investigator's experience were also assessed. Results. 311 of the 647 ERUS assessed locoregional extension. Histological comparison was available in 177 cases: 67 patients underwent surgery alone; 110 received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT); ERUS preceded CRT in 77 and followed it in 33 patients. T-staging was accurate in 72% of primarily operated patients. N-staging was less accurate (62%). CRT impaired staging accuracy (64% and 59% for T- and N-staging). Rigid probes were more accurate (79%). At least 30 examinations are needed to master the technique. Conclusions. The sensitivity of ERUS complies with the literature. ERUS is easy to learn and more accurate in early stages but unnecessary for restaging after CRT. Staging accuracy is similar in Western and Central Europe, although the number of examinations should be increased.

  11. Anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer with mesorectal excision: incidence, risk factors, and management.

    PubMed

    Tortorelli, Antonio Pio; Alfieri, Sergio; Sanchez, Alejandro Martin; Rosa, Fausto; Papa, Valerio; Di Miceli, Dario; Bellantone, Chiara; Doglietto, Giovanni Battista

    2015-01-01

    We investigated risk factors and prognostic implications of symptomatic anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer, and the influence of a diverting stoma. Our retrospective review of prospective collected data analyzed 475 patients who underwent anterior resection for rectal cancer. Uni- and multivariate analysis was made between anastomotic leakage and patient, tumor, and treatment variables, either for the overall group (n = 475) and in the midlow rectal cancer subgroup (n = 291). Overall rate of symptomatic leakage was 9 per cent (43 of 475) with no related postoperative mortality. At univariate analysis, significant factors for leak were a tumor less than 6 cm from the anal verge (13.7 vs 6.6%; P = 0.011) and intraoperative transfusions (16.9 vs 4.3%; P = 0.001). Similar results were observed in the midlow rectal cancer subgroup. At multivariate analysis, no parameter resulted in being an independent prognostic factor for risk of leakage. In patients with a leakage, a temporary enterostomy considerably reduced the need for reoperation (12.5 vs 77.8%; P < 0.0001) and the risk of a permanent stoma (18.7 vs 28.5%; P = 0.49). The incidence of anastomotic failure increases for lower tumors, whereas it is not influenced by radiotherapy. Defunctioning enterostomy does not influence the leak rate, but it mitigates clinical consequences. PMID:25569064

  12. EURECCA consensus conference highlights about colon & rectal cancer multidisciplinary management: the radiology experts review.

    PubMed

    Tudyka, V; Blomqvist, L; Beets-Tan, R G H; Boelens, P G; Valentini, V; van de Velde, C J; Dieguez, A; Brown, G

    2014-04-01

    Some interesting shifts have taken place in the diagnostic approach for detection of colorectal lesions over the past decade. This article accompanies the recent EURECCA consensus group reccomendations for optimal management of colon and rectal cancers. In summary, imaging has a crucial role to play in the diagnosis, staging assessment and follow up of patients with colon and rectal cancer. Recent advances include the use of CT colonography instead of Barium Enema in the diagnosis of colonoic cancer and as an alternative to colonoscopy. Modern mutlidetector CT scanning techniques have also shown improvements in prognostic stratification of patients with colonic cancer and clinical trials are underway testing the selective use of neoadjuvant therapy for imaging identified high risk colon cancers. In rectal cancer, high resolution MRI with a voxel size less or equal to 3 1 1 mm3 on T2-weighted images has a proven ability to accurately stage patients with rectal cancer. Moreover, preoperative identification of prognostic features allows stratification of patients into different prognostic groups based on assessment of depth of extramural spread, relationship of the tumour edge to the mesorectal fascia (MRF) and extramural venous invasion (EMVI). These poor prognostic features predict an increased risk of local recurrence and/or metastatic disease and should form the basis for preoperative local staging and multidisciplinary preoperative discussion of patient treatment options. PMID:24439446

  13. Complete radiotherapy response in rectal cancer: A review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Daniel G; Hemingway, David M

    2016-01-01

    Complete response to chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer is becoming a common clinical entity. Techniques to diagnose complete response and how to survey these patients without operative intervention are still unclear. We review the most recent evidence. Barriers to firm conclusions regarding this are heterogeneity of diagnostic definitions, differing surveillance protocols, and a lack of randomised studies. PMID:26811600

  14. Successful treatment of recurrent rectal prolapse using three Thiersch sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Kashif; Gan, Richard Wei Chern; Singh, Shailinder

    2015-01-01

    Many techniques are described to manage recurrent rectal prolapse in children, including repeated Thiersch stitch, phenol injections, Delorme and Altemeier procedures, and rectopexy. We describe a case of successful treatment of rectal prolapse by placing three Thiersch sutures circumferentially along the anal canal--a simple and novel modification of a well-known procedure. An 8-year-old boy with full-thickness rectal prolapse was treated with laxatives to no avail. He was subsequently treated with phenol-in-almond-oil injection and insertion of a 1/0PDS Thiersch suture. The effects were temporary with recurrence 3 months later. A further phenol-in-almond-oil injection was given and a 1/0PDS Thiersch suture placed, and the patient was discharged on laxatives. Recurrence occurred again at 3 months. This was treated with three circumferential Thiersch sutures along the anal canal--one Prolene 2/0 and two 1/0PDS. There has been no recurrence at follow-up. Placement of three sequential Thiersch sutures along the rectum is effective in treating recurrent rectal prolapse and a good alternative to major rectopexy. PMID:26607187

  15. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters.

  16. Rectal stenosis caused by foreign body reaction to sodium polystyrene sulfonate crystals (Kayexalate).

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Denis; Brevet, Marie; Manaouil, David; Yzet, Thierry; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Sevestre, Henri

    2007-06-01

    Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) (Kayexalate) is a cation-exchange resin used to treat hyperkaliema. Administered with sorbitol, it usually has minor adverse effects, but it may cause colonic or intestinal necrosis in uremic patients. We report an unusual case of rectal stenosis due to SPS crystals in a 46-year-old man. The patient had been involved in a car accident with severe thoracic and abdominal trauma. During his hospitalization, he presented traumatic acute pancreatitis with ischemic colitis because of hypotension, and acute renal insufficiency treated by hemofiltration and Kayexalate administered by nasogastric tube without sorbitol. Left colon was resected and Hartmann's procedure was performed. Restoration of the colon continuity was performed 13 months later. The rectal lumen was narrowed with a thickened rectal wall. Microscopic examination revealed fibrosis of the submucosa containing numerous basophilic polygonal crystals surrounded by macrophages. This is the first case report of rectal stenosis caused by foreign body reaction to SPS crystals after ischemic colitis. PMID:17498597

  17. The influence of bovine temperament on rectal temperature and stress hormones in response to transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine the influence of bovine temperament on rectal temperature (RT), cortisol (CS), and epinephrine (EPI) secretion in response to transportation. Brahman bulls (10 months of age) were selected from the spring 2007 calf crop based on temperament score which was an ave...

  18. Dose-distance metric that predicts late rectal bleeding in patients receiving radical prostate external-beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Richard; Chan, Elisa K.; Kosztyla, Robert; Liu, Mitchell; Moiseenko, Vitali

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between rectal dose distribution and the incidence of late rectal complications following external-beam radiotherapy has been previously studied using dose-volume histograms or dose-surface histograms. However, they do not account for the spatial dose distribution. This study proposes a metric based on both surface dose and distance that can predict the incidence of rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy. One hundred and forty-four patients treated with radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer were prospectively followed to record the incidence of grade ?2 rectal bleeding. Radiotherapy plans were used to evaluate a dose-distance metric that accounts for the dose and its spatial distribution on the rectal surface, characterized by a logistic weighting function with slope a and inflection point d0. This was compared to the effective dose obtained from dose-surface histograms, characterized by the parameter n which describes sensitivity to hot spots. The log-rank test was used to determine statistically significant (p < 0.05) cut-off values for the dose-distance metric and effective dose that predict for the occurrence of rectal bleeding. For the dose-distance metric, only d0 = 25 and 30 mm combined with a > 5 led to statistical significant cut-offs. For the effective dose metric, only values of n in the range 0.07-0.35 led to statistically significant cut-offs. The proposed dose-distance metric is a predictor of rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Both the dose-distance metric and the effective dose metric indicate that the incidence of grade ?2 rectal bleeding is sensitive to localized damage to the rectal surface.

  19. Role of Peroxiredoxin I in Rectal Cancer and Related to p53 Status

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Miao-Fen; Lee, Kuan-Der; Yeh, Chung-Hung; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Shih; Chin, Chih-Chien; Lin, Paul- Yang; Wang, Jeng-Yi

    2010-11-01

    Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is widely accepted for the treatment of localized rectal cancer. Although peroxiredoxin I (PrxI) and p53 have been implicated in carcinogenesis and cancer treatment, the role of PrxI and its interaction with p53 in the prognosis and treatment response of rectal cancer remain relatively unstudied. Methods and Materials: In the present study, we examined the levels of PrxI and p53 in rectal cancer patients using membrane arrays and compared them with normal population samples. To demonstrate the biologic changes after manipulation of PrxI expression, we established stable transfectants of HCT-116 (wild-type p53) and HT-29 (mutant p53) cells with a PrxI silencing vector. The predictive capacities of PrxI and p53 were also assessed by relating the immunohistochemical staining of a retrospective series of rectal cancer cases to the clinical outcome. Results: The membrane array and immunochemical staining data showed that PrxI, but not p53, was significantly associated with the tumor burden. Our immunochemistry findings further indicated that PrxI positivity was linked to a poor response to neoadjuvant therapy and worse survival. In cellular and animal experiments, the inhibition of PrxI significantly decreased tumor growth and sensitized the tumor to irradiation, as indicated by a lower capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species and more extensive DNA damage. The p53 status might have contributed to the difference between HCT-116 and HT-29 after knockdown of PrxI. Conclusion: According to our data, the level of PrxI combined with the p53 status is relevant to the prognosis and the treatment response. We suggested that PrxI might be a new biomarker for rectal cancer.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging based rectal cancer classification: landmarks and technical standardization.

    PubMed

    Alasari, Sami; Lim, Daero; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2015-01-14

    Rectal cancer classification is important to determine the preoperative chemoradiation therapy and to select appropriate surgical technique. We reviewed the Western and Japanese rectal cancer classification and we propose our new classification based of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We determine the relation of the tumor to fixed parameters in MRI, which are peritoneal reflection and levator ani muscle. Then, we classify the rectal cancer into four levels based on tumor distal margin and invasion to MRI parameters. We applied all three classifications to 60 retrospectively collected patients of different rectal cancer distance and we compared our classifications to the others. Based on each level we standardize our surgical approach. For stages?I-III, We found that level?I?where tumor distal margin is located above the peritoneal reflection and all of them were received low anterior resection (LAR) without chemoradiation. Level II where tumor distal margin is located from the peritoneal reflection and above the levator ani insertion on the rectum. 90% of them were received LAR chemoradiation. Level III where tumor distal margin is located at the level of levator ani insertion or invading any part of the levator ani. 60% of them had ULAR + coloanal anastomosis chemoradiation. Level IV where the tumor distal margin is located below the levator ani insertion; 77% were received APR chemoradiation. The overall kappa for all levels between surgeons and radiologist was 0.93 (95%CI: 0.87-0.99), which is indicating almost perfect agreement. We concluded that the management of rectal tumors differed among each tumor level and our new MRI based classification might facilitate the prediction of surgical and chemoradiation management with better communication among a multidisciplinary team comparing to other classifications. PMID:25593457

  1. Meta-analysis of robotic and laparoscopic surgery for treatment of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuang; Jiang, Hong-Gang; Chen, Zhi-Heng; Zhou, Shu-Yang; Liu, Xiao-Sun; Yu, Ji-Ren

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis to determine the relative merits of robotic surgery (RS) and laparoscopic surgery (LS) for rectal cancer. METHODS: A literature search was performed to identify comparative studies reporting perioperative outcomes for RS and LS for rectal cancer. Pooled odds ratios and weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using either the fixed effects model or random effects model. RESULTS: Eight studies matched the selection criteria and reported on 661 subjects, of whom 268 underwent RS and 393 underwent LS for rectal cancer. Compared the perioperative outcomes of RS with LS, reports of RS indicated favorable outcomes considering conversion (WMD: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.11-0.58; P = 0.001). Meanwhile, operative time (WMD: 27.92, 95% CI: -13.43 to 69.27; P = 0.19); blood loss (WMD: -32.35, 95% CI: -86.19 to 21.50; P = 0.24); days to passing flatus (WMD: -0.18, 95% CI: -0.96 to 0.60; P = 0.65); length of stay (WMD: -0.04; 95% CI: -2.28 to 2.20; P = 0.97); complications (WMD: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.71-1.55; P = 0.82) and pathological details, including lymph nodes harvested (WMD: 0.41, 95% CI: -0.67 to 1.50; P = 0.46), distal resection margin (WMD: -0.35, 95% CI: -1.27 to 0.58; P = 0.46), and positive circumferential resection margin (WMD: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.12-2.39; P = 0.42) were similar between RS and LS. CONCLUSION: RS for rectal cancer is superior to LS in terms of conversion. RS may be an alternative treatment for rectal cancer. Further studies are required. PMID:22215947

  2. Rectal Motion in Patients Receiving Preoperative Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Rectum

    SciTech Connect

    Brierley, James D.; Dawson, Laura A.; Sampson, Elliott; Bayley, Andrew; Scott, Sandra; Moseley, Joanne L.; Craig, Timothy; Cummings, Bernard; Dinniwell, Robert; Kim, John J.; Ringash, Jolie; Wong, Rebecca; Brock, Kristy K.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the movement of rectum, mesorectum, and rectal primary during a course of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with Stage II or III rectal cancer had a planning CT scan with rectal contrast before commencement of preoperative chemoradiation. The scan was repeated during Weeks 1, 3, and 5 of chemoradiation. The rectal primary (gross tumor volume), rectum, mesorectum, and bladder were contoured on all four scans. An in-house biomechanical model-based deformable image registration technique, Morfeus, was used to measure the three-dimensional spatial change in these structures after bony alignment. The required planning target volume margin for this spatial change, after bone alignment, was also calculated. Results: Rectal contrast was found to introduce a systematic error in the position of all organs compared with the noncontrast state. The largest change in structures during radiotherapy was in the anterior and posterior directions for the mesorectum and rectum and in the superior and inferior directions for the gross tumor volume. The planning target volume margins required for internal movement for the mesorectum based on the three scans acquired during treatment are 4 mm right, 5 mm left, 7 mm anterior, and 6 mm posterior. For the rectum, values were 8 mm right, 8 mm left, 8 mm anterior, and 9 mm posterior. The greatest movement of the rectum occurred in the upper third. Conclusions: Contrast is no longer used in CT simulation. Assuming bony alignment, a nonuniform margin of 8 mm anteriorly, 9 mm posteriorly, and 8 mm left and right is recommended.

  3. Tumor deposits in rectal adenocarcinoma after neoadjuvant chemoradiation are associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Purva; Lu, Pengcheng; Ayers, Gregory D; Herline, Alan J; Washington, Mary K

    2014-09-01

    Although tumor deposits have been associated with poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma, the prevalence and clinical significance of tumor deposits in rectal adenocarcinoma following neoadjuvant chemoradiation are relatively unexplored. The aims of this study are to assess the clinical significance of tumor deposits in rectal adenocarcinoma patients, including those receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Pathology slides and medical records from 205 consecutive patients who underwent resection for rectal adenocarcinoma between 1990 and 2010 at a single tertiary care center were reviewed. Patients with tumor deposits had higher tumor grade (P=0.006) and worse tumor stage (P<0.001) at presentation than patients without tumor deposits. Among 110 patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation, tumor deposits were associated with higher rates of lymph node involvement (P=0.035) and distant metastases (P=0.006), and decreased survival (P=0.027). These patients had a trend toward lower treatment response scores (P=0.285) and higher local recurrence (P=0.092). Of 52 patients with tumor deposits, those who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation had significantly worse pretreatment stage by endoscopic ultrasound (P<0.001) but interestingly had significantly lower rates of lymphovascular invasion on resection (P<0.001) compared with those who had not received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Despite treatment with neoadjuvant chemoradiation, tumor deposits were present in over one-fifth of rectal adenocarcinoma patients. Overall, the outcome of patients with tumor deposits in treated and untreated patients were similar, however the association of tumor deposits with deeply invasive tumors and less tumor regression when comparing with treated patients without tumor deposits raises the possibility that these tumors could have a more aggressive biology, possibly explaining the association of tumor deposits with higher rates of recurrence and lower survival after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Overall, tumor deposits appear to be a poor prognostic marker among rectal adenocarcinoma patients following neoadjuvant chemoradiation and may identify a subset of patients who require aggressive adjuvant therapy to prevent recurrence. PMID:24434897

  4. Expression of FXYD-3 is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Rectal Cancer Patients With Preoperative Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Loftas, Per; Onnesjoe, Sofia; Widegren, Emma; Adell, Gunnar; Kayed, Hany; Kleeff, Joerg; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Sun Xiaofeng

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: FXYD-3 (MAT-8) is overexpressed in several types of cancers; however, its clinical relevance in rectal cancers has not been studied. Therefore, we examined FXYD-3 expression in rectal cancers from the patients who participated in a Swedish clinical trial of preoperative radiotherapy (RT) to determine whether FXYD-3 was overexpressed in rectal cancers and correlated with RT, survival, and other clinicopathologic variables. Methods and Materials: The study included 140 rectal cancer patients who participated in a clinical trial of preoperative RT, 65 with and 75 without RT before surgery. FXYD-3 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distant (n = 70) and adjacent (n = 101) normal mucosa, primary tumors (n = 140), and lymph node metastasis (n = 36). Results: In the whole cohort, strong FXYD-3 expression was correlated with infiltrative tumor growth (p = 0.02). In the RT group, strong FXYD-3 expression alone (p = 0 .02) or combined with phosphatase of regenerating liver was associated with an unfavorable prognosis (p = 0.02), independent of both TNM stage and tumor differentiation. In tumors with strong FXYD-3 expression, there was less tumor necrosis (p = 0.02) and a trend toward increased incidence of distant metastasis (p = 0.08) after RT. None of these effects was seen in the non-RT group. FXYD-3 expression in the primary tumors tended to be increased compared with normal mucosa regardless of RT. Conclusion: FXYD-3 expression was a prognostic factor independent of tumor stage and differentiation in patients receiving preoperative RT for rectal cancer.

  5. Rectal microRNAs are perturbed in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease of the colon

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Adam M.; Hand, Nicholas J.; Tsoucas, Daphne M.; Le Guen, Claire L.; Baldassano, Robert N.; Friedman, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Changes in intestinal microRNAs have been reported in adult patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohns disease. The goal of this study was to identify changes in microRNA expression associated with colitis in children with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods Rectal mucosal biopsies (n=50) and blood samples (n=47) were collected from patients with known or suspected inflammatory bowel disease undergoing endoscopy. Rectal and serum microRNA levels were profiled using the human nCounter platform and the TaqMan low-density array platform, respectively. Significantly altered microRNAs were then validated in independent sample sets via quantitative RT-PCR. In vitro luciferase reporter assays were performed in the human colorectal Caco-2 cell line to determine the effect of miR-192 on NOD2 expression. Results Profiling of rectal RNA identified 21 microRNAs significantly altered between control, UC, and colonic CD sample groups. Nine of the ten microRNAs selected for validation were confirmed as significantly changed. Rectal miR-24 was increased 1.47-fold in UC compared to CD samples (p=0.0052) and was the only microRNA altered between IBD subtypes. Three colitis-associated microRNAs were significantly altered in the sera of disease patients and displayed diagnostic utility. However, no serum microRNAs were found to distinguish ulcerative colitis from Crohns colitis. Finally, miR-192 inhibition did not affect luciferase reporter activity, suggesting miR-192 does not regulate human NOD2. Conclusion This study has demonstrated that rectal and serum microRNAs are perturbed in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Future studies identifying the targets of inflammatory bowel disease-associated microRNAs may lead to novel therapies. PMID:24613022

  6. Quality of Life After a Low Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Walma, Marieke S.; de Roos, Marnix A.J.; Boerma, Djamila; van Westreenen, Henderik L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fecal incontinence is a major concern, and its incidence increases with age. Quality of life may decrease due to fecal incontinence after both sphincter-saving surgery and a rectal resection with a permanent stoma. This study investigated quality of life, with regard to fecal incontinency, in elderly patients after rectal-cancer surgery. Methods All patients who underwent elective rectal surgery with anastomosis for rectal cancer between December 2008 and June 2012 at two Dutch hospitals were eligible for inclusion. The Wexner and the fecal incontinence quality of life (FIQoL) scores were collected. Young (<70 years of age) and elderly (?70 years of age) patients were compared. Results Seventy-nine patients were included, of whom 19 were elderly patients (24.1%). All diverting stomas that had been placed (n = 60, 75.9%) had been closed at the time of the study. There were no differences in Wexner or FIQoL scores between the young and the elderly patients. Also, there were no differences between patients without a diverting stoma and patients in whom bowel continuity had been restored. Elderly females had significantly worse scores on the FIQoL subscales of coping/behavior (P = 0.043) and depression/self-perception (P = 0.004) than young females. Elderly females scored worse on coping/behavior (P = 0.010) and depression/self-perception (P = 0.036) than elderly males. Young and elderly males had comparable scores. Conclusion Quality of life with regard to fecal incontinency is worse in elderly females after sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer. Patients should be informed of this impact, and a definite stoma may be considered in this patient group.

  7. Effects of oral meloxicam administration to beef cattle receiving lipopolysaccharide administration or vaccination against respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M C; Cooke, R F; Marques, R S; Arispe, S A; Keisler, D H; Bohnert, D W

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of oral meloxicam administration on metabolic, inflammatory, and acute-phase responses of beef cattle receiving a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (Exp. 1; d -1 to 6) or vaccinated against respiratory pathogens (Exp. 2; d 7 to 21). Twenty-one Angus steers ( = 11) and heifers ( = 10) were housed in individual pens on d -15 and were offered free-choice water, mineral-vitamin mix, and hay until d 21. In Exp. 1, cattle were ranked on d -1 by sex and BW and assigned to 1) oral meloxicam administration (1 mg/kg BW daily) from day -1 to 6 (MEL8), 2) oral meloxicam administration (1 mg/kg BW) on d 0 and oral lactose monohydrate administration (1 mg/kg BW) on d -1 and from d 1 to 6 (MEL1), or 3) oral lactose monohydrate administration (1 mg/kg BW daily) from d -1 to 6 (CON). On d 0, cattle received an intravenous LPS bolus (0.5 ?g/kg BW) concurrently with treatment administration. Rectal temperature (RTEMP) was assessed, and blood samples were collected at -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h relative to LPS administration. No treatment effects were detected ( ? 0.36) for RTEMP, concentrations of serum tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), plasma haptoglobin, cortisol, insulin, and leptin, as well as blood mRNA expression of ? and cyclooxygenase-2, although all variables increased ( < 0.01) across treatments after LPS administration. In Exp. 2, cattle received the same treatments that they were assigned to in Exp. 1 from d 7 to d 13 and were vaccinated against respiratory pathogens concurrently with treatment administration on d 8. Blood samples were collected, and RTEMP was assessed as in Exp. 1 in addition to 168, 240, and 336 h relative to vaccination. No treatment effects were detected ( ? 0.26) for RTEMP, the same plasma and serum variables evaluated in Exp. 1, and serum concentrations of antibodies against or serum titers against bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus-1, and parainfluenza-3 virus. All variables increased ( < 0.01) across treatments after vaccination, except for serum TNF? and titers against bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 ( ? 0.40). Collectively, this study found no evidence that oral meloxicam administration, at the doses and intervals utilized herein, mitigated the metabolic, inflammatory, and acute-phase reactions elicited by LPS administration or vaccination against respiratory pathogens. PMID:26523594

  8. [A Case of Long-Term Survival after Resection of Liver and Adrenal Metastases from Rectal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Okajima, Chisato; Fukunari, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Yudai; Kato, Tomotaka; Nakao, Keisuke; Shitara, Kenji; Hayashi, Tetsuji; Ajioka, Yoichi

    2015-11-01

    A 72-year-old man underwent Miles' operation for rectal cancer. Histological findings showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, a, ly0, v1, n0, stage ?(ly0, v1). Five months later, left lateral segmentectomy and left adrenalectomy were performed owing to the metastasis of the rectal cancer to the liver and adrenal glands. Two years after these operations, left nephrectomy was performed for retroperitoneal recurrence around the left kidney. All resected specimens showed metastatic adenocarcinoma derived from the rectal cancer. No recurrence has been detected in the 4 years since the left nephrectomy. Aggressive resection of well-controlled metastatic lesions including those in the adrenal glands is recommended. PMID:26805357

  9. [Transsacral rectopexy for treatment of bleeding rectal prolapse in a patient with severe liver disease: case report].

    PubMed

    Bringel, R W; Sobrado, C W; Nahas, S C; Habr-Gama, A

    1998-01-01

    Rectal procidentia is an uncommon but debilitating condition that often affects elderly patients with significant medical problems. Fecal incontinence is usually frequent. Abdominal rectopexy with or without sigmoid resection repeatedly demonstrate lower recurrence rates (2-4%) but in high-risk patients, morbidity and mortality may be significant. Perineal or transacral approaches may be used in these patients to avoid the complications of abdominal procedures and general anesthesia. The lack of experience with transacral approach has limited your utilization by colon and rectal surgeons. We describe a case of rectal procidentia in patient with severe liver disease (Child C) sucssefull treated with transacral rectopexy, detailing the technique used. PMID:10413948

  10. [Is there a relationship between rectal colonization and nosocomial infection of patients in intensive care unit?].

    PubMed

    Yeşilbağ, Zuhal; Çağatay, Arif Atahan; Karadeniz, Aslı; Başaran, Seniha; Orhun, Günseli; Ergin Özcan, Perihan; Özsüt, Halit; Eraksoy, Haluk

    2015-07-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms are a major problem in intensive care units (ICUs) with high mortality and morbidity rates and the prior colonization is an important risk factor for these infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of rectal colonization of MDR microorganisms and the association between the microorganisms that caused colonization and infection in the patients with nosocomial infections in ICUs. Rectal swabs were obtained on the day of 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and weekly thereafter from 80 patients over 18 years of age hospitalized in ICU for more than 48 hours, and cultured for vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- producing gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and carbapenem-resistant enteric and nonenteric bacilli. Patients whose rectal swabs were not obtained on admission (on the day of 0), were excluded even they were hospitalized more than 48 hours. Bile esculin agar containing 64 μg/mL ceftazidime and 6 μg/mL vancomycin, chromogenic MRSA agar and blood agar media, MacConkey agar containing 1 mg/L ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, and 5 mL tryptic soy broth media containing 10 µg imipenem and meropenem discs were used for identification. Identification of GNB was determined by conventional methods and ESBL production was determined by double-disc synergy test. Patients have been followed up for nosocomial infections. Bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed with standard microbiological methods. In 37 (46%) of the 80 patients, at least one MDR microorganism was isolated in rectal swab cultures on the day of 0. The most common microorganisms were ESBL-positive E.coli (19%), followed by ESBL-positive K.pneumoniae (13%), carbapenem-resistant P.aeruginosa (10%), ESBL-positive K.oxytoca (3%), MRSA (1%), VRE (1%), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter sp. (1%) and carbapenem-resistant K.pneumoniae (1%), respectively. The number of microorganisms isolated from rectal swab cultures on the following days have increased, and on the 7th day, the rate of the patients with rectal colonization ascended to 72%. Out of 80 patients, 52 (65%) had nosocomial infections in the follow-up and the mean duration of infection development was 11.8±9.9 days in these patients. Patients with and without rectal colonization were compared in terms of subsequent nosocomial infection rates. While no statistically significant difference has been detected between two groups on the day of 0, patients with rectal colonization detected on the day of 3 and 7, had a significantly higher incidence of nosocomial infections (p=0.02, p=0.01). Among the patients with ESBL-positive GNB, carbapenem-resistant K.pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant P.aeruginosa and VRE infections, the same microorganisms have been isolated in the rectal swab cultures taken before the development of infection. This result was statistically significant for each of these microorganisms (p=0.00-0.03). However, such a correlation was not observed for Acinetobacter infections. Since MRSA infections developed in only two patients, no istatistical analysis has been done for this microorganism. In conclusion, our data suggest that MDR microorganisms that cause nosocomial infections, initially colonize the gastrointestinal tract, and early detection of colonized patients in ICUs may help an effective infection control by preventing the spread of these resistant microorganisms. PMID:26313275

  11. The Superior Rectal Artery as a Recipient Vessel for Free Flap Transfer After Partial Sacrectomy in Patients With Chordoma.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shimpei; Arikawa, Masaki; Fujiki, Masahide; Kawai, Akira; Kobayashi, Eisuke; Sakuraba, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Free flaps have rarely been used to reconstruct lumbosacral defects, primarily because of the lack of suitable recipient vessels in this region. We propose the novel use of the superior rectal artery as a recipient vessel for free flap transfer after partial or total sacrectomy. We transferred free flow-through latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps, with the superior rectal vessels as recipient vessels, to reconstruct defects after partial sacrectomy in 2 patients with sacral chordoma. The flaps survived completely, and the wounds healed uneventfully in both patients. The superior rectal artery is easier to dissect and anastomose than are gluteal vessels and is less affected by patients' postoperative postural change than are extraperitoneal vessels. We believe that the superior rectal artery is a versatile recipient vessel for free flap transfer to reconstruct sacrectomy defects. PMID:26855034

  12. Molecular, Pathologic and MRI Investigation of the Prognostic and Redictive Importance of Extramural Venous Invasion in Rectal Cancer (MARVEL) Trial

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-11-26

    Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Diseases; Colorectal Neoplasms; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases

  13. Estimation of {alpha}/{beta} for Late Rectal Toxicity Based on RTOG 94-06

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Susan L.; Thames, Howard D.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Bosch, Walter R.; Mohan, Radhe; Winter, Kathryn; Cox, James D.; Purdy, James A.; Dong Lei

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To estimate {alpha}/{beta}, the parameter ratio from the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, for Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity among patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 94-06; and to determine whether correcting the rectal dose-volume histogram (DVH) for differences in dose per fraction, based on the LQ model, significantly improves the fit to these data of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. Methods and Materials: The generalized LKB model was fitted to the Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity data in two ways: by using DVHs representing physical dose to rectum, and by using a modified approach in which dose bins in the rectal DVH were corrected for differences in dose per fraction using the LQ model, with {alpha}/{beta} estimated as an additional unknown parameter. The analysis included only patients treated with the same treatment plan throughout radiotherapy, so that the dose per fraction to each voxel of rectum could be determined from the DVH. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess whether the fit of the LQ-corrected model was significantly better than the fit of the LKB model based on physical doses to rectum. Results: The analysis included 509 of the 1,084 patients enrolled on RTOG 94-06. The estimate of {alpha}/{beta} from the LQ-corrected LKB model was 4.8 Gy, with 68% confidence interval 0.6 Gy to 46 Gy. The fit was not significantly different from the fit of the LKB model based on physical dose to rectum (p = 0.236). Conclusions: The estimated fractionation sensitivity for Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity is consistent with values of {alpha}/{beta} for rectum found previously in human beings and in rodents. However, the confidence interval is large, and there is no evidence that LQ correction of the rectal DVH significantly changes the fit or predictions of the LKB model for this endpoint.

  14. Association of statin use with a pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Matthew S.; Minsky, Bruce D. . E-mail: minskyb@mskcc.org; Saltz, Leonard B.; Riedel, Elyn; Chessin, David B.; Guillem, Jose G.

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To assess whether 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, might enhance the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiation in rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2001, 358 patients with clinically resectable, nonmetastatic rectal cancer underwent surgery at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for either locally advanced tumors or low-lying tumors that would require abdominoperineal resection. We excluded 9 patients for radiation therapy dose <45 Gy or if statin use was unknown, leaving 349 evaluable patients. Median radiation therapy dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45-55.8 Gy), and 308 patients (88%) received 5-flurouracil-based chemotherapy. Medication use, comorbid illnesses, clinical stage as assessed by digital rectal examination and ultrasound, and type of chemotherapy were analyzed for associations with pathologic complete response (pCR), defined as no microscopic evidence of tumor. Fisher's exact test was used for categoric variables, Mantel-Haenszel test for ordered categoric variables, and logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results: Thirty-three patients (9%) used a statin, with no differences in clinical stage according to digital rectal examination or ultrasound compared with the other 324 patients. At the time of surgery, 23 nonstatin patients (7%) were found to have metastatic disease, compared with 0% for statin patients. The unadjusted pCR rates with and without statin use were 30% and 17%, respectively (p = 0.10). Variables significant univariately at the p = 0.15 level were entered into a multivariate model, as were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which were strongly associated with statin use. The odds ratio for statin use on pCR was 4.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-12.1; p = 0.003) after adjusting for NSAID use, clinical stage, and type of chemotherapy. Conclusion: In multivariate analysis, statin use is associated with an improved pCR rate after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer. The low prevalence of statin use limits the power to detect a significant difference at a type I error threshold of p = 0.05 in this analysis. Although no definitive conclusions can be drawn on the basis of this retrospective study, the unusually high incidence of pCR after chemoradiation suggests that the use of statins in the treatment of rectal cancer warrants further evaluation.

  15. Paine Appointed Administrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon announcing the appointment of Dr. Thomas O. Paine as Administrator for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The ceremony was held at the White House. Paine had been serving as acting administrator. From left to right: President Richard M. Nixon NASA Administrator Dr. Thomas O. Paine Vice President Spiro T. Agnew

  16. Dose/volume-response relations for rectal morbidity using planned and simulated motion-inclusive dose distributions

    PubMed Central

    Thor, Maria; Apte, Aditya; Deasy, Joseph O; Karlsdttir, sa; Moiseenko, Vitali; Liu, Mitchell; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Many dose-limiting normal tissues in radiotherapy (RT) display considerable internal motion between fractions over a course of treatment, potentially reducing the appropriateness of using planned dose distributions to predict morbidity. Accounting explicitly for rectal motion could improve the predictive power of modelling rectal morbidity. To test this, we simulated the effect of motion in two cohorts. Materials and methods The included patients (232 and 159 cases) received RT for prostate cancer to 70 and 74 Gy. Motion-inclusive dose distributions were introduced as simulations of random or systematic motion to the planned dose distributions. Six rectal morbidity endpoints were analysed. A probit model using the QUANTEC recommended parameters was also applied to the cohorts. Results The differences in associations using the planned over the motion- inclusive dose distributions were modest. Statistically significant associations were obtained with four of the endpoints, mainly at high doses (5570 Gy), using both the planned and the motion-inclusive dose distributions, primarily when simulating random motion. The strongest associations were observed for GI toxicity and rectal bleeding (Rs=0.120.21; Rs=0.110.20). Applying the probit model, significant associations were found for tenesmus and rectal bleeding (Rs=0.13, p=0.02). Conclusion Equally strong associations with rectal morbidity were observed at high doses (>55 Gy), for the planned and the simulated dose distributions including in particular random rectal motion. Future studies should explore patient-specific descriptions of rectal motion to achieve improved predictive power. PMID:24231236

  17. Argon Plasma Coagulation Therapy Versus Topical Formalin for Intractable Rectal Bleeding and Anorectal Dysfunction After Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, Eric; Tam, William; Schoeman, Mark; Moore, James; Thomas, Michelle; Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction associated with chronic radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Thirty men (median age, 72 years; range, 49-87 years) with intractable rectal bleeding (defined as ≥1× per week and/or requiring blood transfusions) after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma were randomized to treatment with APC (n=17) or topical formalin (n=13). Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) anorectal symptoms (validated questionnaires, including modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic and visual analogue scales for rectal bleeding); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded rectal balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and after the treatment endpoint (defined as reduction in rectal bleeding to 1× per month or better, reduction in visual analogue scales to ≤25 mm, and no longer needing blood transfusions). Results: The treatment endpoint was achieved in 94% of the APC group and 100% of the topical formalin group after a median (range) of 2 (1-5) sessions of either treatment. After a follow-up duration of 111 (29-170) months, only 1 patient in each group needed further treatment. Reductions in rectal compliance and volumes of sensory perception occurred after APC, but no effect on anorectal symptoms other than rectal bleeding was observed. There were no differences between APC and topical formalin for anorectal symptoms and function, nor for anal sphincteric morphology. Conclusions: Argon plasma coagulation and topical formalin had comparable efficacy in the durable control of rectal bleeding associated with chronic radiation proctitis but had no beneficial effect on anorectal dysfunction.

  18. Accumulation ofDendrobium superbum (orchidaceae) fragrance in the rectal glands by males of the melon fly,Dacus cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Nishida, R; Iwahashi, O; Tan, K H

    1993-04-01

    4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone was characterized from flowers of the orchidDendrobium superbum as a specific attractant factor for the male melon fly,Dacus cucurbitae. The male flies compulsively licked the flower surface and sequestered the compound in significant quantities in their rectal glands. The compound was detected within 6 hr after ingestion and was retained for more than six days in the rectal gland sacs. PMID:24249012

  19. Increased expression of FERM domain-containing 4A protein is closely associated with the development of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    FAN, YONGTIAN; LI, DECHUAN; QIAN, JUN; LIU, YONG; FENG, HAIYANG; LI, DECHUAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect the expression levels of FERM domain-containing 4A (FRMD4A) in rectal cancer tissues and peripheral blood and to investigate the correlation between FRMD4A and cancer development. A total of 78 consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy individuals were used as the control group. The expression of FRMD4A in rectal cancer and the corresponding normal adjacent tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The expression of FRMD4A mRNA in peripheral blood was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression of FRMD4A in rectal cancer tissues was found to be negatively correlated with the degree of differentiation, depth of invasion and Dukes' stage. A negative correlation was identified between FRMD4A and epithelial cadherin expression. The expression of FRMD4A in the peripheral blood of patients with rectal cancer was significantly increased compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). Expression of FRMD4A in the peripheral blood in the patients with lymph node metastasis was significantly increased compared with that in the patients without lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). These results indicate that the expression of FRMD4A is significantly increased in rectal cancer tissues and the peripheral blood of patients with rectal cancer, and the expression levels of FRMD4A are closely associated with differentiation, invasion of rectal cancer and Dukes' stage. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that FRMD4A may be used as a target for the diagnosis and treatment of rectal cancer. PMID:26893625

  20. Rectally administered prednisolone--evidence for a predominantly local action.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D A; Taylor, M; James, V H; Walker, G

    1980-01-01

    Plasma prednisolone levels have been compared in healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from idiopathic proctocolitis after the administration of standard retention enemata containing either prednisolone-21-phosphate or prednisolone metasulphobenzoate sodium. The levels were significantly lower after the latter, irrespective of the presence or degree of activity of the disease. Prednisolone metasulphobenzoate appeared to be as effective as the 21-phosphate ester for the treatment of proctocolitis in the few patients where the two drugs were compared. It seems possible that the beneficial effect of the form of therapy is exerted predominantly locally, rather than by systemic action. PMID:7399322

  1. Strategies to evaluate the impact of rectal volume on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Ana Paula Diniz Fortuna; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo Jos; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo; Segreto, Roberto Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the rectal volume influence on prostate motion during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Fifty-one patients with prostate cancer underwent a series of three computed tomography scans including an initial planning scan and two subsequent scans during 3D-CRT. The organs of interest were outlined. The prostate contour was compared with the initial CT images considering the anterior, posterior, superior, inferior and lateral edges of the organ. Variations in the anterior limits and volume of the rectum were assessed and correlated with prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction. Results The maximum range of prostate motion was observed in the superoinferior direction, followed by the anteroposterior direction. A significant correlation was observed between prostate motion and rectal volume variation (p = 0.037). A baseline rectal volume superior to 70 cm3 had a significant influence on the prostate motion in the anteroposterior direction (p = 0.045). Conclusion The present study showed a significant interfraction motion of the prostate during 3D-CRT with greatest variations in the superoinferior and anteroposterior directions, and that a large rectal volume influences the prostate motion with a cutoff value of 70 cm3. Therefore, the treatment of patients with a rectal volume > 70 cm3 should be re-planned with appropriate rectal preparation.

  2. Rectal arterio-portal fistula: An unusual cause of persistent bleeding per rectum following a proximal spleno-renal shunt

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Hao Yun; Lee, Ser Yee; Chung, Yaw Fui Alexander; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Low, Albert Su-Chong; Thng, Choon Hua; Madhavan, Krishnakumar

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal arterio-venous malformations are a known cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. We present a rare case of persistent rectal bleeding due to a rectal arterio-portal venous fistula in the setting of portal hypertension secondary to portal vein thrombosis. The portal hypertension was initially surgically treated with splenectomy and a proximal splenorenal shunt. However, rectal bleeding persisted even after surgery, presenting us with a diagnostic dilemma. The patient was re-evaluated with a computed tomography mesenteric angiogram which revealed a rectal arterio-portal fistula. Arterio-portal fistulas are a known but rare cause of portal hypertension, and possibly the underlying cause of continued rectal bleeding in this case. This was successfully treated using angiographic localization and super-selective embolization of the rectal arterio-portal venous fistula via the right internal iliac artery.The patient subsequently went on to have a full term pregnancy. Through this case report, we hope to highlight awareness of this unusual condition, discuss the diagnostic workup and our management approach. PMID:23840157

  3. Design of a rectal probe for diffuse optical spectroscopy imaging for chemotherapy and radiotherapy monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giessen, Martijn; Santoro, Ylenia; Mirzaei Zarandi, Soroush; Pigazzi, Alessio; Cerussi, Albert E.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2014-03-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopy imaging (DOSI) has shown great potential for the early detection of non-responding tumors during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer, already one day after therapy starts. Patients with rectal cancer receive similar chemotherapy treatment. The rectum geometry and tissue properties of healthy and tumor tissue in the rectum and the requirement of surface contact impose constraints on the probe design. In this work we present the design of a DOSI probe with the aim of early chemotherapy/radiotherapy effectiveness detection in rectal tumors. We show using Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements that the colon tissue can be characterized reliably using a source-detector separation in the order of 10 mm. We present a design and rapid prototype of a probe for DOSI measurements that can be mounted on a standard laparoscope and that fits through a standard rectoscope. Using predominantly clinically approved components we aim at fast clinical translation.

  4. IQGAP1 in rectal adenocarcinomas: localization and protein expression before and after radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Holck, Susanne; Nielsen, Hans Jrgen; Hammer, Emilie; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2015-01-28

    Treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma includes total mesorectal excision, which is preceded by radiochemotherapy (RCT) in cases of advanced disease. The response to RCT varies from total tumor regression to no effect but this heterogeneous response is unexplained. However, both radiation and treatment with 5-fluorouracil may induce treatment resistance through upregulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. IQGAP1 is a scaffold protein that appears to be essential to MAPK signaling in cancers. We have therefore studied IQGAP1 protein expression in rectal adenocarcinomas before and after RCT. We demonstrate that cancer cells show increased apical staining for IQGAP1 following RCT. Interestingly, this increase is significantly higher in patients showing poor RCT responses. Our results also suggest that low levels of apical IQGAP1-staining in biopsies may predict the RCT response. Together, these data suggest that both the level and localization of IQGAP1 may influence the treatment response. PMID:25305455

  5. Rectal prolapse associated with anorexia nervosa: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is one of a few mental health diagnoses that affects every organ system. Patients with AN often present with multiple secondary effects of starvation at the time of first assessment, including gastrointestinal (GI) complaints. In extreme cases, severe GI complications such as rectal prolapse may be encountered as a consequence of the illness although formal studies investigating the frequency of such occurrences are lacking. We present the case of a 16 year old female previously diagnosed with anorexia nervosa that developed a rectal prolapse as a consequence of her disease as well as a detailed literature review investigating the frequency and prevalence of such occurrences in this population. PMID:24999417

  6. Graciloplasty for the rectovaginal fistula after chemoradiation followed by total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Rectovaginal fistula (RVF) is one of the intractable complications following chemoradiation and total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer. It is supposed that there is a strong possibility of this complication occurring in patients after radiation therapy and having underlying sepsis. We describe herein two female patients (73 and 40 years old) who developed RVF after chemoradiation and TME for rectal cancer, who were successfully managed by gracilis muscle transposition. Fecal diversion was done as a preliminary step to the fistula repair. Success was defined as healed fistula after stoma closure. The strategy in the present report is a useful option for RVF management in such patients as other successful modalities are very limited. PMID:23273238

  7. Hypothalamic, rectal, and muscle temperatures in exercising dogs - Effect of cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, B.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the mechanisms of performance prolongation during exercise is presented. Measurements were obtained of the rectal, muscle, and hypothalamic temperature of dogs during treadmill exercise at an ambient temperature of 22 + or - 1 C, with and without cooling by use of ice packs. In comparison with exercise without cooling, exercise with cooling was found to: (1) increase exercise duration from 90 + or - 14 to 145 + or - 15 min; (2) attenuate increases in hypothalamic, rectal and muscle temperature; (3) decrease respiratory and heart rates; and (4) lower blood lactic acid content. It is shown that although significant differences were found between the brain, core, and muscle temperatures during exercise with and without cooling, an inverse relation was observed between muscle temperature and the total duration of exercise. It is suggested that sustained muscle hyperthermia may have contributed to the limitation of working ability in exercise with and without cooling.

  8. Pathologic Assessment of Rectal Carcinoma after Neoadjuvant Radio(chemo)therapy: Prognostic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hav, Monirath; Libbrecht, Louis; Ferdinande, Liesbeth; Geboes, Karen; Pattyn, Piet; Cuvelier, Claude A.

    2015-01-01

    Neoadjuvant radio(chemo)therapy is increasingly used in rectal cancer and induces a number of morphologic changes that affect prognostication after curative surgery, thereby creating new challenges for surgical pathologists, particularly in evaluating morphologic changes and tumour response to preoperative treatment. Surgical pathologists play an important role in determining the many facets of rectal carcinoma patient care after neoadjuvant treatment. These range from proper handling of macroscopic specimens to accurate microscopic evaluation of pathological features associated with patients' prognosis. This review presents the well-established pathological prognostic indicators and discusses challenging features in order to provide both surgical pathologists and treating physicians with a checklist that is useful in a neoadjuvant setting. PMID:26509160

  9. Granulocytic sarcoma of the rectum: Report of one case that presented with rectal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Benjazia, Elhem; Khalifa, Mabrouk; Benabdelkader, Atef; Laatiri, Adnene; Braham, Ahlem; Letaief, Amel; Bahri, Fethi

    2010-01-01

    Granulocytic sarcoma is an uncommon and localized extramedullary tumor composed of immature granulocytic cells. It may present in association with acute myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic myelogenous leukaemia. Granulocytic sarcoma may occur in any anatomical site but involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is rare, especially in the rectum. We report on the case of a 17 year old female who presented with rectal bleeding, abdominal pain and weight loss one mo prior to admission. Rectosigmoidoscopy revealed a rectal polypoid and ulcerated mass. The histological examination of the mass showed granulocytic sarcoma. Bone marrow examination was compatible with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (FAB type M3). This case report is a reminder of this peculiar sign of tumoral syndrome in acute myeloid leukaemia. We also discuss diagnostic methods and analyze the disease course. PMID:21607155

  10. Granulocytic sarcoma of the rectum: Report of one case that presented with rectal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benjazia, Elhem; Khalifa, Mabrouk; Benabdelkader, Atef; Laatiri, Adnene; Braham, Ahlem; Letaief, Amel; Bahri, Fethi

    2010-10-15

    Granulocytic sarcoma is an uncommon and localized extramedullary tumor composed of immature granulocytic cells. It may present in association with acute myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic myelogenous leukaemia. Granulocytic sarcoma may occur in any anatomical site but involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is rare, especially in the rectum. We report on the case of a 17 year old female who presented with rectal bleeding, abdominal pain and weight loss one mo prior to admission. Rectosigmoidoscopy revealed a rectal polypoid and ulcerated mass. The histological examination of the mass showed granulocytic sarcoma. Bone marrow examination was compatible with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (FAB type M3). This case report is a reminder of this peculiar sign of tumoral syndrome in acute myeloid leukaemia. We also discuss diagnostic methods and analyze the disease course. PMID:21607155

  11. Rectal cancer. Treatment advances that reduce recurrence rates and lengthen survival.

    PubMed

    Sexe, R; Miedema, B W

    1993-07-01

    The risk of malignant disease arising in rectal mucosa is high. Surgery is the most effective form of treatment but results in cure in only 50% of patients. Adjuvant preoperative radiation therapy reduces the likelihood of local recurrence but does not improve survival rates. Fluorouracil is the most effective agent for adjuvant chemotherapy and slightly improves survival when given after surgery. Combining radiation therapy with chemotherapy appears to have a synergistic effect, and recent studies show that providing this combination after surgery improves survival. Future trends in the treatment of rectal cancer are expected to include expanded use of local excision to preserve anal sphincter function, preoperative use of a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, perioperative use of chemotherapy combined with immunostimulating therapy, and use of tumor antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:8321771

  12. [Treatment of early rectal carcinoma by transanal resection-a case report].

    PubMed

    Yabe, Nobushige; Murai, Shinji; Shimizu, Hirotomo; Fukushima, Hideki; Minagawa, Takuya; Ishida, Takashi; Shoji, Takahiro; Amemiya, Tetsu; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2011-11-01

    A 55-year-old female was admitted to Ogikubo Hospital for severe anemia and prolapse of a tumor from the anus, which had developed over 2 years. Rectal examination revealed a giant soft tumor. Endoscopic study revealed a lobulated giant tumor with a granular surface. Gastrografin-enema study showed a giant tumor, which was full of the rectum. Pathological examination showed a well differentiated carcinoma. No other prominent metastatic lesions were demonstrated. The transanal diagnostic resection of rectal cancer was performed in October 2010. This correct diagnosis showed both well differentiated adenocarcinoma and intramucosal carcinoma. We therefore recommend that a tumor of the lower rectum should undergo a diagnostic excision by means of either a local excision, ESD or TEM. PMID:22202256

  13. 17-Week Delay Surgery after Chemoradiation in Rectal Cancer with Complete Pathological Response

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Marisa D.; Gomes, Manuel T.; Moreno, Filipa; Rocha, Anabela; Lopes, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) followed by curative surgery still remains the standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). The main purpose of this multimodal treatment is to achieve a complete pathological tumor response (ypCR), with better survival. The surgery delay after CRT completion seems to increase tumor response and ypCR rate. Usually, time intervals range from 8 to 12 weeks, but the maximum tumor regression may not be seen in rectal adenocarcinomas until several months after CRT. About this issue, we report a case of a 52-year-old man with LARC treated with neoadjuvant CRT who developed, one month after RT completion, an acute myocardial infarction. The need to increase the interval between CRT and surgery for 17 weeks allowed a curative surgery without morbidity and an unexpected complete tumor response in the resected specimen (given the parameters presented in pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 11 weeks after radiotherapy completion). PMID:26579325

  14. Transanal evisceration of the small bowel a rare complication of rectal prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Kornaropoulos, Michael; Makris, Marinos C.; Yettimis, Evripides; Zevlas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transanal evisceration of small bowel is an extremely rare surgical emergency. Of the nearly 70 cases reported in the literature, rectal prolapse is the predisposing factor that has been most frequently related to this pathology. Presentation of case We report a 78-year-old female with history of chronic rectal prolapse who presented in our emergency department with evisceration of small intestinal loops through the anus. In surgery after complete reduction of the eviscerated bowel into the peritoneal cavity, almost 20cm of the terminal ileum up to the ileocecal valve were necrotic and therefore a right hemicolectomy with primary anastomosis was performed. Additionally a 2cm craniocaudally tear was revealed in the antimesenteric border of the upper rectum and a Hartman procedure was also performed. The patient was discharged after 10 days. Discussion Early recognition and timely surgical intervention offers the best prognosis, avoiding a fatal conclusion or an extensive intestinal resection. PMID:26708948

  15. [Organization of colon-rectal cancer screening in the Provincial Health Agency of Ragusa].

    PubMed

    Blangiardi, F; Ferrera, G; Cilia, S; Aprile, E

    2012-01-01

    Cancer screening is a secondary prevention program that permits early diagnosis of neoplasias and precancerous lesions are in order to diminish mortality and morbidity for certain types of tumors (breast, colon-rectal, and cervical). In 2010, the Ragusa Provincial Health Agency began screening for colon-rectal cancer in an experimental phase that initially involved only the municipality of Ragusa but that was then extended to other municipalities of the province. Although the organizing model suffered from many managerial problems including lack of human resources and tools, there was good collaboration and involvement of the public health/hygiene offices and the general practitioners and volunteer associations. This type of networking was useful in that adhesion to screening was well above that expected. Another winning aspect of the project resulted in clear and pertinent communication to the population. PMID:22880386

  16. Metastasis to the Glans Penis: An Unusual Site of Rectal Cancer Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Beatriz; Matias, Margarida; Alves, Antnio; Jorge, Marlia

    2015-01-01

    Secondary malignancy of the penis is a rare clinical condition, often associated with disseminated genitourinary malignancies. The prognosis is poor and the treatment options include penectomy, local surgical excision, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and supportive therapy. Neither of these therapeutic options lead to superior treatment outcomes in the literature. The authors report the case of a 66 year-old man with a metastasis to the glans penis from a rectal adenocarcinoma, diagnosed two years after radical treatment for primary disease. The patient underwent palliative treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, remaining asymptomatic and disease-free at one year follow-up. Close follow-up of patients with history of rectal adenocarcinoma is very important. Radiochemotherapy is a feasible and effective therapeutic option for penile metastasis, addressing both disease control and symptomatic improvement. PMID:26574990

  17. Prognostic factors associated with locally recurrent rectal cancer following primary surgery (Review)

    PubMed Central

    CAI, YANTAO; LI, ZHENYANG; GU, XIAODONG; FANG, YANTIAN; XIANG, JIANBIN; CHEN, ZONGYOU

    2014-01-01

    Locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC) is defined as an intrapelvic recurrence following a primary rectal cancer resection, with or without distal metastasis. The treatment of LRRC remains a clinical challenge. LRRC has been regarded as an incurable disease state leading to a poor quality of life and a limited survival time. However, curative reoperations have proved beneficial for treating LRRC. A complete resection of recurrent tumors (R0 resection) allows the treatment to be curative rather than palliative, which is a milestone in medicine. In LRRC cases, the difficulty of achieving an R0 resection is associated with the post-operative prognosis and is affected by several clinical factors, including the staging of the local recurrence (LR), accompanying symptoms, patterns of tumors and combined therapy. The risk factors following primary surgery that lead to an increased rate of LR are summarized in this study, including the surgical, pathological and therapeutic factors. PMID:24348812

  18. [Fibrin glue sealant for management of seminal vesicle-rectal fistula : a case report].

    PubMed

    Soda, Tetsuji; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Kakuta, Yoichi; Nakai, Yasutomo; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio

    2013-12-01

    A 56- year-old man underwent a laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer (cT3bN0M0). Postoperatively, he was fairly well and started oral intake on postoperative day (POD) 9. On POD 14, he had an uncomfortable feeling during urination and noticed pneumaturia, and urinalysis revealed hematopyuria. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed air collection in the left seminal vesicle and bladder, and colonoscopy demonstrated a fistula at the anastomotic site. Abdominal CT following the fistulography under colonoscopy demonstrated fistulous communication between the rectum and left seminal vesicle. Under the diagnosis of seminal vesicle-rectal fistula, the patient was successfully treated by filling the fistula with fibrin glue by colonoscopy. No obvious recurrence of the fistula has been observed for 6 months after the treatment. PMID:24419012

  19. Surgical treatment of low rectal cancers with APER and IGAP flap.

    PubMed

    Fulham, Juliette

    This article describes current treatments for individuals with a low rectal cancer. It examines the rationale for surgical treatment involving abdominoperineal excision of the anus and rectum (APER) and outlines how surgery for rectal cancer has evolved over recent years. Surgical advances mean the use of regional flaps is advocated to overcome the common problem of impaired perineal wound healing and the principles of this surgery are summarised. Postoperative nursing considerations relating to the inferior gluteal artery perforator (IGAP) flap will be discussed, as well as the importance of scrupulous wound care and patient education. The implications of this form of surgery on a patient's recovery and discharge planning are also explored. PMID:26067789

  20. Multidisciplinary Management of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer--An Evolving Landscape?

    PubMed

    Lee, Margaret; Gibbs, Peter; Wong, Rachel

    2015-12-01

    For many years, the multidisciplinary approach of neoadjuvant radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision and adjuvant fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy has remained the accepted standard management for locally advanced rectal cancers. Over this time period, many new systemic treatment options have become available, including: additional chemotherapeutic agents (oxaliplatin) and targeted therapies (vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors), which can be added to neoadjuvant and adjuvant regimens or given in combination with radiotherapy as radio-sensitizing agents. Here we review the current literature, examining emerging data related to the impact of multiple modifications to the standard approach, including the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the addition of new agents to standard chemoradiation, and postoperative fluoropyrimidine-based treatment, the optimal timing of surgery, and nonoperative approaches to the management of locally advanced rectal cancers. PMID:26210575

  1. KRAS Mutation Status and Clinical Outcome of Preoperative Chemoradiation With Cetuximab in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 2 Phase II Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Young; Shim, Eun Kyung; Yeo, Hyun Yang; Baek, Ji Yeon; Hong, Yong Sang; Kim, Dae Yong; Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang ; Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Jee Hyun; Im, Seock-Ah; Jung, Kyung Hae; Chang, Hee Jin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Cetuximab-containing chemotherapy is known to be effective for KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer; however, it is not clear whether cetuximab-based preoperative chemoradiation confers an additional benefit compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: We analyzed EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutation status with direct sequencing and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression status with immunohistochemistry in tumor samples of 82 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were enrolled in the IRIX trial (preoperative chemoradiation with irinotecan and capecitabine; n=44) or the ERBIRIX trial (preoperative chemoradiation with irinotecan and capecitabine plus cetuximab; n=38). Both trials were similarly designed except for the administration of cetuximab; radiation therapy was administered at a dose of 50.4 Gy/28 fractions and irinotecan and capecitabine were given at doses of 40 mg/m{sup 2} weekly and 1650 mg/m{sup 2}/day, respectively, for 5 days per week. In the ERBIRIX trial, cetuximab was additionally given with a loading dose of 400 mg/m{sup 2} on 1 week before radiation, and 250 mg/m{sup 2} weekly thereafter. Results: Baseline characteristics before chemoradiation were similar between the 2 trial cohorts. A KRAS mutation in codon 12, 13, and 61 was noted in 15 (34%) patients in the IRIX cohort and 5 (13%) in the ERBIRIX cohort (P=.028). Among 62 KRAS wild-type cancer patients, major pathologic response rate, disease-free survival and pathologic stage did not differ significantly between the 2 cohorts. No mutations were detected in BRAF exon 11 and 15, PIK3CA exon 9 and 20, or EGFR exon 18-24 in any of the 82 patients, and PTEN and EGFR expression were not predictive of clinical outcome. Conclusions: In patients with KRAS wild-type locally advanced rectal cancer, the addition of cetuximab to the chemoradiation with irinotecan plus capecitabine regimen was not associated with improved clinical outcome compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab.

  2. [The method of mucosectomy of rectal stump in reconstructive surgery of ulcer colitis].

    PubMed

    Borota, A V; Polunin, G E; Borota, A A

    2014-12-01

    The method of coloproctectomy performance with formation of a J-like ileal reservoire and ileoanal anastomosis, using welding mucosectomy and protective ileostomy, was proposed. Application of the method guarantees complete excision of the rectal stump mucosa, what excludes the risk of the stump inflammation occurrence, as a sign of residual ulcer colitis in immediate and late postoperative period. Functional results in this setting are not worsen. PMID:25842878

  3. Bowel dysfunction after rectal cancer treatment: a study comparing the specialist's versus patient's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tina Yen-Ting; Emmertsen, Katrine Jssing; Laurberg, Sren

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate how bowel dysfunction after sphincter-preserving rectal cancer treatment, known as low anterior resection syndrome (LARS), is perceived by rectal cancer specialists, in relation to the patient's experience. Design Questionnaire study. Setting International. Participants 58 rectal cancer specialists (45 colorectal surgeons and 13 radiation oncologists). Research procedure The Low Anterior Resection Syndrome Score (LARS score) is a five-item instrument for evaluation of LARS, which was developed from and validated on 961 patients. The 58 specialists individually completed two LARS score-based exercises. In Exercise 1, they were asked to select, from a list of bowel dysfunction issues, five items that they considered to disturb patients the most. In Exercise 2, they were given a list of scores to assign to the LARS score items, according to the impact on quality of life (QOL). Outcome measures In Exercise 1, the frequency of selection of each issue, particularly the five items included in the LARS score, was compared with the frequency of being selected at random. In Exercise 2, the answers were compared with the original patient-derived scores. Results Four of the five LARS score issues had the highest frequencies of selection (urgency, clustering, incontinence for liquid stool and frequency of bowel movements), which were also higher than random. However, the remaining LARS score issue (incontinence for flatus) showed a lower frequency than random. Scores assigned by the specialists were significantly different from the patient-derived scores (p<0.01). The specialists grossly overestimated the impact of incontinence for liquid stool and frequent bowel movements on QOL, while they markedly underestimated the impact of clustering and urgency. The results did not differ between surgeons and oncologists. Conclusions Rectal cancer specialists do not have a thorough understanding of which bowel dysfunction symptoms truly matter to the patient, nor how these symptoms affect QOL. PMID:24448844

  4. Dietary patterns, food groups, and rectal cancer risk in Whites and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christina Dawn; Satia, Jessie A.; Adair, Linda S.; Stevens, June; Galanko, Joseph; Keku, Temitope O.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Associations between individual foods and nutrients and colorectal cancer have been inconsistent, and few studies have examined associations between food, nutrients, dietary patterns, and rectal cancer. We examined the relationship between food groups and dietary patterns and risk of rectal cancer in non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans. Methods Data were from the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study-Phase II and included 1520 Whites (720 cases,800 controls) and 384 African Americans (225 cases,159 controls). Diet was assessed using the Diet History Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Among Whites, non-whole grains and white potatoes were associated with elevated risk of rectal cancer, while fruit, vegetables, dairy, fish, and poultry were associated with reduced risk. In African Americans, high consumption of citrus fruit and added sugar suggested elevated risk. We identified three major dietary patterns in Whites and African Americans. The High Fat/Meat/Potatoes pattern was observed in both race groups, but was only positively associated with risk in Whites (OR: 1.84, 95% CI 1.03–3.15). The Vegetable/Fish/Poultry and Fruit/Whole-Grain/Dairy patterns in Whites had significant inverse associations with risk. In African Americans, there was a positive dose-response for the Fruit/Vegetables pattern (Ptrend <0.0001), and an inverse linear trend for the Legumes/Dairy pattern (Ptrend <0.0001). Conclusion Our findings indicate that associations of certain food groups and overall dietary patterns with rectal cancer risk differ between Whites and African Americans, highlighting the importance of examining diet and cancer relationships in racially diverse populations. PMID:19423533

  5. Quality of life in rectal cancer surgery: What do the patient ask?

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Giovanni D; Luglio, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Rectal cancer surgery has dramatically changed with the introduction of the total mesorectal excision (TME), which has demonstrated to significantly reduce the risk of local recurrence. The combination of TME with radiochemotherapy has led to a reduction of local failure to less than 5%. On the other hand, surgery for rectal cancer is also impaired by the potential for a significant loss in quality of life. This is a new challenge surgeons should think about nowadays: If patients live more, they also want to live better. The fight against cancer cannot only be based on survival, recurrence rate and other oncological endpoints. Patients are also asking for a decent quality of life. Rectal cancer is probably a paradigmatic example: Its treatment is often associated with the loss or severe impairment of faecal function, alteration of body anatomy, urogenital problems and, sometimes, intractable pain. The evolution of laparoscopic colorectal surgery in the last decades is an important example, which emphasizes the importance that themes like scar, recovery, pain and quality of life might play for patients. The attention to quality of life from both patients and surgeons led to several surgical innovations in the treatment of rectal cancer: Sphincter saving procedures, reservoir techniques (pouch and coloplasty) to mitigate postoperative faecal disorders, nerve-sparing techniques to reduce the risk for sexual dysfunction. Even more conservative procedures have been proposed alternatively to the abdominal-perineal resection, like the local excisions or transanal endoscopic microsurgery, till the possibility of a wait and see approach in selected cases after radiation therapy. PMID:26730279

  6. Consolidating Risk Estimates for Radiation-Induced Complications in Individual Patient: Late Rectal Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, Phillip; Devisetty, Kiran; Tarima, Sergey S.; Lawton, Colleen A.F.; Semenenko, Vladimir A.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of a new approach to synthesize published normal tissue complication data using late rectal toxicity in prostate cancer as an example. Methods and Materials: A data survey was performed to identify the published reports on the dose-response relationships for late rectal toxicity. The risk estimates for Grade 1 or greater, Grade 2 or greater, and Grade 3 or greater toxicity were obtained for a test cohort of patients treated at our institution. The influence of the potential factors that might have affected the reported toxicity levels was investigated. The studies that did not conform to the general data trends were excluded, and single, combined risk estimates were derived for each patient and toxicity level. Results: A total of 21 studies of nonoverlapping patient populations were identified. Three studies provided dose-response models for more than one level of toxicity. Of these 21 studies, 6, 14, and 5 were used to derive the initial risk estimates for Grade 1, 2, and 3 or greater toxicity, respectively. A comparison of risk estimates between the studies reporting rectal bleeding and rectal toxicity (bleeding plus other symptoms) or between studies with follow-up <36 months and {>=}36 months did not reveal significant differences (p {>=} .29 for all comparisons). After excluding three reports that did not conform to the general data trends, the combined risk estimates were derived from 5 reports (647 patients), 11 reports (3,369 patients), and 5 reports (1,330 patients) for Grade 1, 2, and 3 or greater toxicity, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed approach is feasible and allows for more systematic use of published dose-response data to estimate the complication risks for the individual patient.

  7. Vaginal Motion and Bladder and Rectal Volumes During Pelvic Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy After Hysterectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Jhingran, Anuja; Salehpour, Mohammad; Sam, Marianne; Levy, Larry; Eifel, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate variations in bladder and rectal volume and the position of the vaginal vault during a 5-week course of pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after hysterectomy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients were instructed how to fill their bladders before simulation and treatment. These patients underwent computed tomography simulations with full and empty bladders and then underwent rescanning twice weekly during IMRT; patients were asked to have full bladder for treatment. Bladder and rectal volumes and the positions of vaginal fiducial markers were determined, and changes in volume and position were calculated. Results: The mean full and empty bladder volumes at simulation were 480 cc (range, 122-1,052) and 155 cc (range, 49-371), respectively. Bladder volumes varied widely during IMRT: the median difference between the maximum and minimum volumes was 247 cc (range, 96-585). Variations in rectal volume during IMRT were less pronounced. For the 16 patients with vaginal fiducial markers in place throughout IMRT, the median maximum movement of the markers during IMRT was 0.59 cm in the right-left direction (range, 0-0.9), 1.46 cm in the anterior-posterior direction (range, 0.8-2.79), and 1.2 cm in the superior-inferior direction (range, 0.6-2.1). Large variations in rectal or bladder volume frequently correlated with significant displacement of the vaginal apex. Conclusion: Although treatment with a full bladder is usually preferred because of greater sparing of small bowel, our data demonstrate that even with detailed instruction, patients are unable to maintain consistent bladder filling. Variations in organ position during IMRT can result in marked changes in the position of the target volume and the volume of small bowel exposed to high doses of radiation.

  8. Transanal natural orifice specimen extraction for laparoscopic anterior resection in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fang-Hai; Hua, Li-Xin; Zhao, Zhi; Wu, Jian-Hai; Zhan, Wen-Hua

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether transanal natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) is a better technique for rectal cancer resection. METHODS: A prospectively designed database of a consecutive series of patients undergoing laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer with various tumor-node-metastasis classi?cations from March 2011 to February 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University was analyzed. Patient selection for transanal specimen extraction and intracorporeal anastomosis was made on the basis of tumor size and distance of rectal lesions from the anal verge. Demographic data, operative parameters, and postoperative outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: None of the patients was converted to laparotomy. Respectively, there were 16 cases in the low anastomosis and five in the ultralow anastomosis groups. Mean age of the patients was 45.4 years, and mean body mass index was 23.1 kg/m2. Mean distance of the lower edge of the lesion from the anal verge was 8.3 cm. Mean operating time was 132 min, and mean intraoperative blood loss was 84 mL. According to the principle of rectal cancer surgery, we performed D2 lymph node dissection in 13 cases and D3 in eight. Mean lymph nodes harvest was 17.8, and the number of positive lymph nodes was 3.4. Median hospital stay was 6.7 d. No serious postoperative complication occurred except for one anastomotic leakage. All patients remained disease free. Mean Wexner score was 3.7 at 11 mo after the operation. CONCLUSION: Transanal NOSE for total laparoscopic low/ultralow anterior resection is feasible, safe and oncologically sound. Further studies with long-term outcomes are needed to explore its potential advantages. PMID:24282364

  9. Preoperative hyperthermia combined with radiochemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer: a phase II clinical trial.

    PubMed Central

    Rau, B; Wust, P; Hohenberger, P; Lffel, J; Hnerbein, M; Below, C; Gellermann, J; Speidel, A; Vogl, T; Riess, H; Felix, R; Schlag, P M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A prospective phase II study was performed to determine the feasibility and efficacy in terms of response rate, resectability, and morbidity in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative regional hyperthermia combined with radiochemotherapy (HRCT). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Recent studies suggest that preoperative radiochemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer can induce downstaging, but after resection the incidence of local recurrences remains high. Hyperthermia (HT) may add tumoricidal effects and improve the efficacy of radiochemotherapy in a trimodal approach. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with histologically proven rectal cancer and T3 or T4 lesions, as determined by endorectal ultrasound and computed tomography, entered the trial. 5-Fluorouracil (300-350 mg/m2) and leucovorin (50 mg) were administered on days 1 to 5 and 22 to 26. Regional HT using the SIGMA 60 applicator (BSD-2000) was given once a week before radiotherapy (45 Gy with 1.8-Gy fractions for 5 weeks). Surgery followed 4 to 6 weeks after completion of HRCT. RESULTS: Preoperative treatment was generally well tolerated, with 16% of patients developing grade III toxicity. No grade IV complications were observed. The overall resectability rate was 32 of 36 patients (89%), and 31 resection specimens had negative margins (R0). One patient refused surgery. In 5 patients (14%), the histopathologic report confirmed no evidence of residual tumor (pCR). A partial remission (PR) was observed in 17 patients (46%). The survival rate after 38 months was 86%. In none of the patients was local recurrence detected after R0(L), but five patients developed distant metastases. CONCLUSION: Preoperative HRCT is feasible and effective and may contribute to locoregional tumor control of advanced rectal cancer, which is to be proven in an ongoing phase III trial. PMID:9527061

  10. Gene methylation in rectal cancer: predictive marker of response to chemoradiotherapy?

    PubMed

    Molinari, Chiara; Casadio, Valentina; Foca, Flavia; Zingaretti, Chiara; Giannini, Massimo; Avanzolini, Andrea; Lucci, Enrico; Saragoni, Luca; Passardi, Alessandro; Amadori, Dino; Calistri, Daniele; Zoli, Wainer

    2013-12-01

    Although numerous studies have focused on the link between CpG island methylator phenotypes and the development of colorectal cancer, few studies have dealt specifically with methylation profiling in rectal cancer and its role in predicting response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT). We characterized methylation profiles in normal and neoplastic tissue samples from patients with rectal cancer and assessed the role of this molecular profile in predicting chemoradioactivity. We evaluated 74 pretreatment tumor samples and 16 apparently normal tissue biopsies from rectal cancer patients submitted to NCRT. The methylation profile of 24 different tumor suppressor genes was analyzed from FFPE samples by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). Methylation status was studied in relation to tissue type and clinical pathological parameters, in particular, pathological response evaluated by tumor regression grade (TRG). ESR1, CDH13, RARB, IGSF4, and APC genes showed high methylation levels in tumor samples (range 18.92-49.77) with respect to normal tissue. Methylation levels of the remaining genes were low and similar in both normal (range 1.91-14.56) and tumor tissue (range 1.84-11). Analysis of the association between methylation and response to therapy in tumor samples showed that only TIMP3 methylation status differed significantly within the four TRG classes (ANOVA, P?rectal cancer by MS-MLPA clearly distinguishes tumor tissue from apparently normal mucosa. Conversely, with the exception of TIMP3 gene, the methylation of selected genes does not seem to correlate with response to NCRT. PMID:23702823

  11. Molecular Markers Predict Distant Metastases After Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Yong Bae; Choi, Jun Jeong; Koom, Woong Sub; Kim, Hoguen; Kim, Nam-Kyu; Ahn, Joong Bae; Lee, Ikjae; Cho, Jae Ho; Keum, Ki Chang

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: The outcomes of adjuvant chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer are nonuniform among patients with matching prognostic factors. We explored the role of molecular markers for predicting the outcome of adjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The study included 68 patients with stages II to III rectal adenocarcinoma who were treated with total mesorectal excision and adjuvant chemoradiation. Chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin was intravenously administered each month for 6-12 cycles. Radiation therapy consisted of 54 Gy delivered in 30 fractions. Immunostaining of surgical specimens for COX-2, EGFR, VEGF, thymidine synthase (TS), and Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) was performed. Results: The median follow-up was 65 months. Eight locoregional (11.8%) and 13 distant (19.1%) recurrences occurred. Five-year locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates for all patients were 83.9%, 78.7%, 66.7%, and 73.8%, respectively. LRFFS was not correlated with TNM stage, surgical margin, or any of the molecular markers. VEGF overexpression was significantly correlated with decreased DMFS (P=.045), while RKIP-positive results were correlated with increased DMFS (P=.025). In multivariate analyses, positive findings for COX-2 (COX-2+) and VEGF (VEGF+) and negative findings for RKIP (RKIP-) were independent prognostic factors for DMFS, DFS, and OS (P=.035, .014, and .007 for DMFS; .021, .010, and <.0001 for DFS; and .004, .012, and .001 for OS). The combination of both COX-2+ and VEGF+ (COX-2+/VEGF+) showed a strong correlation with decreased DFS (P=.007), and the combinations of RKIP+/COX-2- and RKIP+/VEGF- showed strong correlations with improved DFS compared with the rest of the patients (P=.001 and <.0001, respectively). Conclusions: Molecular markers can be valuable in predicting treatment outcome of adjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients.

  12. Validation of a rectal cancer outcome prediction model with a cohort of Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lijun; van Soest, Johan; Wang, Jiazhou; Yu, Jialu; Hu, Weigang; Gong, Yutao U. T.; Valentini, Vincenzo; Xiao, Ying; Dekker, Andre; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The risk of local recurrence (LR), distant metastases (DM) and overall survival (OS) of locally advanced rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiation can be estimated by prediction models and visualized using nomograms, which have been trained and validated in European clinical trial populations. Data of 277 consecutive locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation and surgery from Shanghai Cancer Center, were retrospectively collected and used for external validation. Concordance index (C-index) and calibration curves were used to assess the performance of the previously developed prediction models in this routine clinical validation population. The C-index for the published prediction models was 0.72 ± 0.079, 0.75 ± 0.043 and 0.72 ± 0.089 in predicting 2-year LR, DM and OS in the Chinese population, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curves indicated good discriminating performance regarding LR, but could not convincingly discriminate a low-risk and medium-risk group for distant control and OS. Calibration curves showed a trend of underestimation of local and distant control, as well as OS in the observed data compared with the estimates predicted by the model. In conclusion, we externally validated three models for predicting 2-year LR, DM and OS of locally advanced rectal cancer patients who underwent preoperative chemoradiation and curative surgery with good discrimination in a single Chinese cohort. However, the model overestimated the local control rate compared to observations in the clinical cohort. Validation in other clinical cohorts and optimization of the prediction model, perhaps by including additional prognostic factors, may enhance model validity and its applicability for personalized treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer. PMID:26413811

  13. Risk of Metachronous Colon Cancer Following Surgery for Rectal Cancer in Mismatch Repair Gene Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Win, Aung Ko; Parry, Susan; Parry, Bryan; Kalady, Matthew F.; Macrae, Finlay A.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Young, Graeme P.; Lipton, Lara; Winship, Ingrid; Boussioutas, Alex; Young, Joanne P.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Arnold, Julie; Le Marchand, Loc; Newcomb, Polly A.; Haile, Robert W.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Gallinger, Steven; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite regular surveillance colonoscopy, the metachronous colorectal cancer risk for mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation carriers after segmental resection for colon cancer is high and total or subtotal colectomy is the preferred option. However, if the index cancer is in the rectum, management decisions are complicated by considerations of impaired bowel function. We aimed to estimate the risk of metachronous colon cancer for MMR gene mutation carriers who underwent a proctectomy for index rectal cancer. Methods This retrospective cohort study comprised 79 carriers of germline mutation in a MMR gene (18 MLH1, 55 MSH2, 4 MSH6, and 2 PMS2) from the Colon Cancer Family Registry who had had a proctectomy for index rectal cancer. Cumulative risks of metachronous colon cancer were calculated using the KaplanMeier method. Results During median 9 years (range 132 years) of observation since the first diagnosis of rectal cancer, 21 carriers (27 %) were diagnosed with metachronous colon cancer (incidence 24.25, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 15.8137.19 per 1,000 person-years). Cumulative risk of metachronous colon cancer was 19 % (95 % CI 931 %) at 10 years, 47 (95 % CI 3168 %) at 20 years, and 69 % (95 % CI 4589 %) at 30 years after surgical resection. The frequency of surveillance colonoscopy was 1 colonoscopy per 1.16 years (95 % CI 1.011.31 years). The AJCC stages of the metachronous cancers, where available, were 72 % stage I, 22 % stage II, and 6 % stage III. Conclusions Given the high metachronous colon cancer risk for MMR gene mutation carriers diagnosed with an index rectal cancer, proctocolectomy may need to be considered. PMID:23358792

  14. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelian, Jason M.; Callister, Matthew D.; Ashman, Jonathan B.; Young-Fadok, Tonia M.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Gunderson, Leonard L.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a clinically significant reduction in lower GI toxicity compared with CRT. Further study is needed to evaluate differences in late toxicity and long-term efficacy.

  15. [APPLICATION OF FISTULA PLUG WITH THE FIBRIN ADHESIVE IN TREATMENT OF RECTAL FISTULAS].

    PubMed

    Aydinova, P R; Aliyev, E A

    2015-05-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 21 patients, suffering high transsphincteric and extrasphincteric rectal fistulas, were studied. In patients of Group I the fistula passage was closed, using fistula plug obturator; and in patients of Group II--by the same, but preprocessed by fibrin adhesive. The fistula aperture germeticity, prophylaxis of rude cicatrices development in operative wound zone, promotion of better fixation of bioplastic material were guaranteed, using fistula plug obturator with preprocessing, using fibrin adhesive. PMID:26419026

  16. Middle rectal artery: myth or reality? Retrospective study with CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Bilhim, Tiago; Pereira, José A; Tinto, Hugo Rio; Fernandes, Lúcia; Duarte, Marisa; O'Neill, João E; Pisco, João M

    2013-08-01

    This work aimed to study the prevalence and radiologic anatomy of the middle rectal artery (MRA) using computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The retrospective study (October 2010-February 2012) focused in 167 male patients with prostate enlargement (mean age 64.7 years, range 47-81 years) who underwent selective pelvic arterial embolization for the relief of lower urinary tract symptoms. All patients underwent CTA previously to DSA to evaluate the vascular anatomy of the pelvis and to plan the treatment. MRAs were identified and classified according to their origin, trajectory, termination and relationship with surrounding arteries. We found MRAs in 60 (35.9 %) patients (23.9 % of pelvic sides, n = 80) and of those, 20 (12 %) had bilateral MRAs; 24 MRAs (30 %) were independent of neighbouring arteries and 56 MRAs (70 %) had common origins with prostatic arteries (prostato-rectal trunk). The most frequent MRA origin was the internal pudendal artery (60 %, n = 48), followed by the inferior gluteal artery (21.3 %, n = 17) and common gluteal-pudendal trunk (16.2 %, n = 13). In 2 patients the MRA originated from the obturator artery (2.5 %). Anastomoses to the superior rectal and inferior mesenteric arteries were found in 87.5 % of cases (n = 70). We concluded that MRAs are anatomical variants present in less than half of male patients; have variable origins and frequently share common origins with prostatic arteries. Their correct identification is likely to contribute to improve interventional radiology procedures and prostatic or rectal surgeries. PMID:23296842

  17. Total sacrectomy for recurrent rectal cancer A case report featuring technical details and potential pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Melich, George; Weber, Michael; Stein, Barry; Minutolo, Vincenzo; Arena, Manuel; Arena, Goffredo O.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Total sacrectomy for recurrent rectal cancer is controversial. However, recent publications suggest encouraging outcomes with high sacral resections. We present the first case report describing technical aspects, potential pitfalls and treatment of complications associated with total sacrectomy performed as a treatment of recurrent rectal cancer. PRESENTATION OF CASE A fifty-three year old man was previously treated at another institution with a low anterior resection (LAR) followed by chemo-radiation and left liver tri-segmentectomy for metastatic rectal cancer. Three years following the LAR, the patient developed a recurrence at the site of colorectal anastomosis, manifesting clinically as a contained perforation, forming a recto-cutaneous fistula through the sacrum. Abdomino-perineal resection (APR) and complete sacrectomy were performed using an anteriorposterior approach with posterior spinal instrumented fusion and pelvic fixation using iliac crest bone graft. Left sided vertical rectus abdominis muscle flap and right sided gracilis muscle flap were used for hardware coverage and to fill the pelvic defect. One year after the resection, the patient remains disease free and has regained the ability to move his lower limbs against gravity. DISCUSSION The case described in this report features some formidable challenges due to the previous surgeries for metastatic disease, and the presence of a recto-sacral cutaneous fistula. An approach with careful surgical planning including considerationof peri-operative embolization is vital for a successful outcome of the operation. A high degree of suspicion for pseudo-aneurysms formation due infection or dislodgement of metallic coils is necessary in the postoperative phase. CONCLUSION Total sacrectomy for the treatment of recurrent rectal cancer with acceptable short-term outcomes is possible.A detailed explanation to the patient of the possible complications and expectations including the concept of a very high chancefor recurrence is paramount prior to proceeding with such a surgery. PMID:24879330

  18. Intentionally curative treatment of locally recurrent rectal cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tanis, Pieter J.; Doeksen, Annemiek; van Lanschot, J. Jan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of outcome data beyond local recurrence rates after primary treatment in rectal cancer, despite more information being necessary for clinical decision-making. We sought to determine patient selection, therapeutic modalities and outcomes of locally recurrent rectal cancer treated with curative intent. Methods We searched MEDLINE (19902010) using the medical subject headings rectal neoplasms and neoplasm recurrence, local. Selection of cohort studies was based on the primary intention of treatment and availability of at least 1 outcome variable. Results We included 55 cohort studies comprising 3767 patients; 8 studies provided data on the rate of intentionally curative treatment from an unselected consecutive cohort of patients (481 of 1188 patients; 40%). Patients were symptomatic with pain in 50% (796 of 1607) of cases. Overall, 3088 of 3767 patients underwent resection. The R0 resection rate was 56% (1484 of 2637 patients). The rate of external beam radiotherapy was 100% in 9 studies, 0% in 5 studies, and ranged from 12% to 97% in 37 studies. Overall postoperative mortality was 2.2% (57 of 2515 patients). Five-year survival was at least 25%, with an upper limit of 41% in 11 of 18 studies including at least 50 resections. We found a significant increase in reported survival rates over time (r2 = 0.214, p = 0.007). Conclusion More uniformity in treatment protocols and reporting on outcomes for locally recurrent rectal cancer is warranted. The observed improvement of reported survival rates in time is probably related to better patient selection and optimized multimodality treatment in specialized centres. PMID:23517634

  19. Techniques and Outcome of Surgery for Locally Advanced and Local Recurrent Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Renehan, A G

    2016-02-01

    Locally advanced primary rectal cancer is variably defined, but generally refers to T3 and T4 tumours. Radical surgery is the mainstay of treatment for these tumours but there is a high-risk for local recurrence. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2011) guidelines recommend that patients with these tumours be considered for preoperative chemoradiotherapy and this is the starting point for any discussion, as it is standard care. However, there are many refinements of this pathway and these are the subject of this overview. In surgical terms, there are two broad settings: (i) patients with tumours contained within the mesorectal envelope, or in the lower rectum, limited to invading the sphincter muscles (namely some T2 and most T3 tumours); and (ii) patients with tumours directly invading or adherent to pelvic organs or structures, mainly T4 tumours - here referred to as primary rectal cancer beyond total mesorectal excision (PRC-bTME). Major surgical resection using the principles of TME is the mainstay of treatment for the former. Where anal sphincter sacrifice is indicated for low rectal cancers, variations of abdominoperineal resection - referred to as tailored excision - including the extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE), are required. There is debate whether or not plastic reconstruction or mesh repair is required after these surgical procedures. To achieve cure in PRC-bTME tumours, most patients require extended multivisceral exenterative surgery, carried out within specialist multidisciplinary centres. The surgical principles governing the treatment of recurrent rectal cancer (RRC) parallel those for PRC-bTME, but typically only half of these patients are suitable for this type of major surgery. Peri-operative morbidity and mortality are considerable after surgery for PRC-bTME and RRC, but unacceptable levels of variation in clinical practice and outcome exist globally. To address this, there are now major efforts to standardise terminology and classifications, to allow appropriate comparisons in future studies. PMID:26683258

  20. Open prostatectomy with a rectal balloon: A new technique to control postoperative blood loss

    PubMed Central

    Mohyelden, Khaled; Abdel-Kader, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate a new technique, the rectal balloon (RB), to control blood loss after transvesical prostatectomy (TVP). Patients and methods Over 2years 100 patients were prospectively randomised into two equal groups. All patients underwent TVP for their benign prostatic hyperplasia but a RB (a balloon fixed to a three-way Foley catheter tip by a plaster strip, making it airtight) was used in group 2. The RB was placed in the rectum opposing the prostate and inflated (pressure controlled) for 15min. Haemoglobin levels were assessed before and after TVP. Blood transfusion, the amount of saline used for irrigation, duration of catheterisation, hospital stay, and rectal complaints were recorded. Patients were followed up at 1 and 3months after TVP. Results The enucleated adenoma weight was 102g in group 1 and 106g in group 2. There was a significant difference between groups 1 and 2 in haemoglobin loss within the first 24h after TVP, and in total loss, of 0.9g and 0.2g (P=0.008), and 1.9g and 1g (P=0.001), respectively. There was also a significant difference between the groups in the saline volume used for irrigation (11.4 vs. 2.5L), catheter duration (5.7 vs. 4.3days), and hospital stay (6.2 vs. 5.1days), favouring group 2. Blood transfusions were needed in four patients in group 1 and one in group 2. There were no rectal complaints. Conclusion The use of an inflated RB after TVP is a simple and safe procedure with no specific operative technique, that reduces postoperative blood loss, the incidence of blood transfusion, the volume of saline for irrigation, and shortens the catheterisation period and hospital stay, with no rectal complications. PMID:26413329