Sample records for rectal administration

  1. Pharmacokinetics of propylene glycol after rectal administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Kollöffel; L. E. A. Weekers; P. B. Goldhoorn

    1996-01-01

    Propylene glycol is an excipient of various pharmaceutical preparations. The pharmacokinetics after rectal administration are studied, followed by a consideration on local and systemic side-effects for a solution of paracetamol in a mixture of propylene glycol and water. After administration of 8.64 g propylene glycol to 10 adults and 173 mg\\/kg body weight to 4 children, peak concentrations (Cmax) of

  2. Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen following single oral, intramuscular and rectal doses and after repeated oral administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ishizaki; T. Sasaki; T. Suganuma; Y. Horail; K. Chiba; M. Watanabe; W. Asuke; H. Hoshi

    1980-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen was studied in the same healthy subjects after single oral, intramuscular and rectal doses, and after repeated oral administration. No significant difference in the mean t1\\/2 (1.13–1.27 h) was observed after the different modes of administration. The mean [AUC]08 after rectal administration of a suppository showed the minimum significant difference (p<0.05) from that after oral administration

  3. Rectal administration of diazepam in solution in the acute treatment of convulsions in infants and children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F U Knudsen

    1979-01-01

    In a prospective study 44 children, aged 6 months to 5 years, admitted to hospital with febrile convulsions or epilepsy, were treated with diazepam in solution administered rectally during 59 generalised attacks. Rectal administration of diazepam was effective in the acute treatment of convulsions in 80% of cases. In 10% the treatment failed, whereas diazepam administered intravenously had prompt effect;

  4. School Nurses' Experience with Administration of Rectal Diazepam Gel for Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Christine; O'Hara, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine school nurses' knowledge of state and school district policies, their experience regarding the administration of rectal diazepam gel in the school, and the perceived benefits and barriers of providing this treatment. Four hundred nineteen nurses responded to a survey conducted during the National…

  5. Lack of absorption of didanosine after rectal administration in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Wintergerst, U; Rolinski, B; Sölder, B; Bogner, J R; Wolf, E; Jäger, H; Roscher, A A; Belohradsky, B H

    1999-03-01

    The feasibility of rectal administration of didanosine (DDI) was studied in six human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. After oral intake of a DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area) combined with an antacid (Maalox), pharmacokinetic parametric values were in accordance with previously published data; the mean +/- standard deviation for terminal half-life was 59.5 +/- 15.0 min, that for peak concentration was 5.2 +/- 3.9 mumol/liter, and that for the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was 494 +/- 412 min.mumol/liter. After rectal administration of a similarly prepared DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area), plasma DDI levels were below the detection limit (0.1 mumol/liter) at all time points in five of the six patients, and in the remaining patient the AUC after rectal application was only 5% of that after oral administration. We conclude that oral administration of DDI cannot be easily replaced by rectal application. PMID:10049294

  6. Lack of Absorption of Didanosine after Rectal Administration in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wintergerst, Uwe; Rolinski, B.; Sölder, B.; Bogner, J. R.; Wolf, E.; Jäger, H.; Roscher, A. A.; Belohradsky, B. H.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of rectal administration of didanosine (DDI) was studied in six human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. After oral intake of a DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area) combined with an antacid (Maalox), pharmacokinetic parametric values were in accordance with previously published data; the mean ± standard deviation for terminal half-life was 59.5 ± 15.0 min, that for peak concentration was 5.2 ± 3.9 ?mol/liter, and that for the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was 494 ± 412 min · ?mol/liter. After rectal administration of a similarly prepared DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area), plasma DDI levels were below the detection limit (0.1 ?mol/liter) at all time points in five of the six patients, and in the remaining patient the AUC after rectal application was only 5% of that after oral administration. We conclude that oral administration of DDI cannot be easily replaced by rectal application. PMID:10049294

  7. Lack of Absorption of Didanosine after Rectal Administration in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    UWE WINTERGERST; B. ROLINSKI; B. SOLDER; J. R. BOGNER; E. WOLF; H. JAGER; A. A. ROSCHER; B. H. BELOHRADSKY

    The feasibility of rectal administration of didanosine (DDI) was studied in six human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. After oral intake of a DDI solution (100 mg\\/m2 of body surface area) combined with an antacid (Maalox), pharmacokinetic parametric values were in accordance with previously published data; the mean 6 standard deviation for terminal half-life was 59.5 6 15.0 min, that for peak

  8. Absorption of 3H-benzocaine from ointments following rectal administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Ayres, J W; Lorskulsint, D; Lock, A

    1975-12-01

    Total radioactivity in the blood of rats for 5 hr following rectal administration of 3H-benzocaine in oleaginous, absorption, emulsion (water-in-oil and oil-in water), and water-soluble ointment vehicles was measured. The release was greatest from the water-soluble vehicle and followed the same relative order as seen in an earlier in vitro experiment. No intact benzocaine was found in the blood using radiochromatography. In vitro hydrolysis of benzocaine by rat blood did not occur as determined with the techniques of this experiment. PMID:1206488

  9. Evaluation of Epirubicin in Thermogelling and Bioadhesive Liquid and Solid Suppository Formulations for Rectal Administration

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yu-Li; Lin, Yijun; Lin, Hong-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Temperature sensitive Pluronic (Plu) and pH-sensitive polyacrylic acid (PAA) were successfully mixed in different ratios to form in situ gelling formulations for colon cancer therapy. The major formulations were prepared as the liquid and solid suppository dosage forms. Epirubicin (Epi) was chosen as a model anticancer drug. In vitro characterization and in vivo pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of Epi in six Plu/PAA formulations were evaluated. Our in vitro data indicate that Epi in Plu 14%/PAA 0.75% of both solid and liquid suppositories possess significant cytotoxicity, strong bioadhesive force, long-term appropriate suppository base, sustained release, and high accumulation of Epi in rat rectums. These solid and liquid suppositories were retained in the upper rectum of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for at least 12 h. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study using SD rats showed that after rectal administration of solid and liquid suppositories, Epi had greater area under the curve and higher relative bioavailability than in a rectal solution. These solid and liquid suppositories exhibited remarkable inhibition on the tumor growth of CT26 bearing Balb/c mice in vivo. Our findings suggest that in situ thermogelling and mucoadhesive suppositories demonstrate a great potential as colon anticancer delivery systems for protracted release of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24384838

  10. Sumatriptan (rectal route of administration) for acute migraine attacks in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine is a highly disabling condition for the individual and also has wide-reaching implications for society, healthcare services, and the economy. Sumatriptan is an abortive medication for migraine attacks, belonging to the triptan family. Rectal administration may be preferable to oral for individuals experiencing nausea and/or vomiting. Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of rectal sumatriptan compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine attacks in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, online databases, and reference lists for studies through 13 October 2011. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- and/or active-controlled studies using rectally administered sumatriptan to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used numbers of participants achieving each outcome to calculate relative risk (or ‘risk ratio’) and numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or a different active treatment. Main results Three studies (866 participants) compared rectally administered sumatriptan with placebo or an active comparator. Most of the data were for the 12.5 mg and 25 mg doses. For the majority of efficacy outcomes, sumatriptan surpassed placebo. For sumatriptan 12.5 mg versus placebo the NNTs were 5.2 and 3.2 for headache relief at one and two hours, respectively. Results for the 25 mg dose were similar to the 12.5 mg dose, and there were no significant differences between the two doses for any of the outcomes analysed. The NNTs for sumatriptan 25 mg versus placebo were 4.2, 3.2, and 2.4 for pain-free at two hours, headache relief at one hour, and headache relief at two hours, respectively. Relief of functional disability was greater with sumatriptan than with placebo, with NNTs of 8.0 and 4.0 for the 12.5 mg and 25 mg doses, respectively. For the most part, adverse events were transient and mild and were more common with sumatriptan than with placebo, but there were insufficient data to perform any analyses. Direct comparison of sumatriptan with active treatments was limited to one study comparing sumatriptan 25 mg with ergotamine tartrate 2 mg + caffeine 100 mg. Authors’ conclusions Based on limited amounts of data, sumatriptan 25 mg, administered rectally, is an effective treatment for acute migraine attacks, with participants in these studies experiencing a significant reduction in headache pain and functional disability within two hours of treatment. The lack of data on relief of headache-associated symptoms or incidence of adverse events limits any conclusions that can be drawn. PMID:22336868

  11. Lawsonia intracellularis: humoral immune response and fecal shedding in weanling foals following intra-rectal administration of frozen-thawed or lyophilized avirulent live vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, Nicola; Jackson, Ryan; Mapes, Samantha M; Noland, Jayme; Stenbom, Robert M; Gebhart, Connie

    2010-10-01

    The humoral immune response and fecal shedding of Lawsonia intracellularis was investigated in 20 weanling foals following intra-rectal administration of frozen-thawed or lyophilized avirulent live L. intracellularis vaccine. Foals received either 30 mL frozen-thawed or lyophilized vaccine intra-rectally, given twice, 4 weeks apart. Serum samples from each foal were collected every 4 weeks for 16 weeks following the first vaccination and tested for anti-L. intracellularis specific IgG by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. Rectal swabs were collected every other day following the first vaccination for 4 weeks for detection of L. intracellularis by real-time PCR. Both vaccine formulations administered intra-rectally in weanling foals were safe and led to similar onset and duration of fecal shedding and measurable serum IgG response against L. intracellularis. PMID:19699124

  12. Review of the clinical pharmacokinetics of artesunate and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin following intravenous, intramuscular, oral or rectal administration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Artesunate (AS) is a clinically versatile artemisinin derivative utilized for the treatment of mild to severe malaria infection. Given the therapeutic significance of AS and the necessity of appropriate AS dosing, substantial research has been performed investigating the pharmacokinetics of AS and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA). In this article, a comprehensive review is presented of AS clinical pharmacokinetics following administration of AS by the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), oral or rectal routes. Intravenous AS is associated with high initial AS concentrations which subsequently decline rapidly, with typical AS half-life estimates of less than 15 minutes. AS clearance and volume estimates average 2 - 3 L/kg/hr and 0.1 - 0.3 L/kg, respectively. DHA concentrations peak within 25 minutes post-dose, and DHA is eliminated with a half-life of 30 - 60 minutes. DHA clearance and volume average between 0.5 - 1.5 L/kg/hr and 0.5 - 1.0 L/kg, respectively. Compared to IV administration, IM administration produces lower peaks, longer half-life values, and higher volumes of distribution for AS, as well as delayed peaks for DHA; other parameters are generally similar due to the high bioavailability, assessed by exposure to DHA, associated with IM AS administration (> 86%). Similarly high bioavailability of DHA (> 80%) is associated with oral administration. Following oral AS, peak AS concentrations (Cmax) are achieved within one hour, and AS is eliminated with a half-life of 20 - 45 minutes. DHA Cmax values are observed within two hours post-dose; DHA half-life values average 0.5 - 1.5 hours. AUC values reported for AS are often substantially lower than those reported for DHA following oral AS administration. Rectal AS administration yields pharmacokinetic results similar to those obtained from oral administration, with the exceptions of delayed AS Cmax and longer AS half-life. Drug interaction studies conducted with oral AS suggest that AS does not appreciably alter the pharmacokinetics of atovaquone/proguanil, chlorproguanil/dapsone, or sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine, and mefloquine and pyronaridine do not alter the pharmacokinetics of DHA. Finally, there is evidence suggesting that the pharmacokinetics of AS and/or DHA following AS administration may be altered by pregnancy and by acute malaria infection, but further investigation would be required to define those alterations precisely. PMID:21914160

  13. Topical administration of 5-aminosalicylic acid enemas in patients with ulcerative colitis. Studies on rectal absorption and excretion.

    PubMed Central

    Campieri, M; Lanfranchi, G A; Boschi, S; Brignola, C; Bazzocchi, G; Gionchetti, P; Minguzzi, M R; Belluzzi, A; Labò, G

    1985-01-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is a new treatment for patients suffering from ulcerative colitis but only limited information is available about its rectal absorption. We therefore studied seven patients with ulcerative colitis in remission, and five with active disease to determine acetylated and free 5-ASA plasma concentrations and urinary acetyl 5-ASA after the administration of three different types of enemas: (2 g 5-ASA/100 ml, 4 g/100 ml, and 200 ml). In patients in remission urinary acetyl 5-ASA excretion was dose and volume dependent (p less than 0.01; p less than 0.05) but this correlation was absent in active disease. Because aminosalicylates are usually eliminated through the kidney, these low values (10% in active disease and 19% in those in remission) suggest that the beneficial action may be local. Urinary recovery was significantly lower in patients with active disease (p less than 0.01; p less than 0.02). No accumulation of 5-ASA was found in plasma after repeated daily administration. PMID:3979912

  14. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

  15. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal dilator is a...

  19. Mesalamine Rectal

    MedlinePLUS

    Rectal mesalamine is used to treat ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in the lining of ... sigmoid colon [last section of the colon]). Rectal mesalamine is in a class of medications called anti- ...

  20. Rectal Hyposensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc A. Gladman; Peter J. Lunniss; S. M. Scott; Michael Swash

    2006-01-01

    Rectal hyposensitivity (RH) relates to a diminished perception of rectal distension that is diagnosed during anorectal physiologic investigation. There have been few direct studies of this physiologic abnormality, and its contribution to the development of functional bowel disorders has been relatively neglected. However, it appears to be common in patients with such disorders, being most prevalent in patients with functional

  1. Clearance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in calves by rectal administration of bovine lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Kieckens, E; Rybarczyk, J; De Zutter, L; Duchateau, L; Vanrompay, D; Cox, E

    2015-03-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains, of which E. coli O157:H7 is the best-studied serotype, are an important group of foodborne pathogens causing severe illness in humans worldwide. The main reservoirs for EHEC are ruminants, mostly cattle, which harbor the bacteria in their intestinal tracts without showing clinical symptoms. In this study, we used bovine lactoferrin, a natural occurring bactericidal and immunomodulating protein, as an antibacterial agent against EHEC infection in cattle. Nine 3-month-old Holstein-Friesian calves were experimentally infected with EHEC (strain NCTC12900). Three animals received a daily rectal spray treatment with bovine lactoferrin, three animals received an oral treatment, and three animals served as a control group. Blood samples were collected weekly and fecal samples twice weekly to monitor antibody responses and fecal excretion, respectively. Animals in the rectal group ceased shedding within 26 days of the experimental treatment and remained negative. This beneficial effect of bovine lactoferrin was not observed in the oral group, where animals were still shedding at the time of euthanasia (day 61). All groups developed serum responses, but no clear differences could be observed between the groups. However, the results indicate that the use of bovine lactoferrin as a rectal treatment can be a useful strategy to preclude further transmission of EHEC infections from cattle to humans. PMID:25527551

  2. Diazepam Rectal

    MedlinePLUS

    Diazepam rectal gel is used in emergency situations to stop cluster seizures (episodes of increased seizure activity) ... are taking other medications to treat epilepsy (seizures). Diazepam is in a class of medications called benzodiazepines. ...

  3. Bisacodyl Rectal

    MedlinePLUS

    Bisacodyl Uniserts® ... Fleet® Bisacodyl Enema ... Rectal bisacodyl is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation. It also is used to empty the bowels before surgery and certain medical procedures. Bisacodyl is in a class of medications called stimulant ...

  4. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  5. Calcium Salts for Treating Hypocalcemia: Carrier Effects, AcidBase Balance, and Oral Versus Rectal Administration1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse P. Goff; Ronald L. Horst

    1994-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral Ca salt supplements,are being used to combat,hypocalcemia,in dairy cows. The absorption of these Ca supple- ments is dependent,on the salt and car- rier used. In the studies presented, the magnitude,of the rise in plasma Ca con- centration following,administration,of the Ca preparation was used as an index of Ca absorption by the gastrointestinal tract. Calcium chloride preparations in a

  6. Pentobarbital Oral and Rectal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as a capsule and liquid to take by mouth and as a suppository to be used rectally. ... Grisactin), medications for depression or seizures, metronidazole (Flagyl), oral contraceptives, propranolol (Inderal), quinidine, rifampin, sedatives, sleeping pills, ...

  7. Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fever or significant rectal bleeding. Laser or infrared coagulation and sclerotherapy (injection of medicine directly into the ... or if symptoms persist despite rubber band ligation, coagulation or sclerotherapy. What are anal fissures? Tears that ...

  8. Rectal cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Mohammad Sadegh; Keramati, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Rectal cancer is the second most common cancer in large intestine. The prevalence and the number of young patients diagnosed with rectal cancer have made it as one of the major health problems in the world. With regard to the improved access to and use of modern screening tools, a number of new cases are diagnosed each year. Considering the location of the rectum and its adjacent organs, management and treatment of rectal tumor is different from tumors located in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract or even the colon. In this article, we will review the current updates on rectal cancer including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, screening, and staging. Diagnostic methods and latest treatment modalities and approaches will also be discussed in detail.

  9. Rectal Microbicide Development

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    The last few years have seen important progress in demonstrating the efficacy of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, vaginal microbicides, and treatment as prevention as effective strategies for reducing the risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV infection. There has also been significant progress in the development of rectal microbicides. Preclinical non-human primate studies have demonstrated that antiretroviral microbicides can provide significant protection from rectal challenge with SIV or SHIV. Recent Phase 1 rectal microbicide studies have characterized the safety, acceptability, compartmental pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmaco-dynamics (PD) of both UC781 and tenofovir gels. The tenofovir gel formulation used in vaginal studies was not well tolerated in the rectum and newer rectal-specific formulations have been developed and evaluated in Phase 1 studies. The PK/PD data generated in these Phase 1 studies may reduce the risk of advancing ineffective candidate rectal microbicides into late stage development. Tenofovir gel is currently poised to move into Phase 2 evaluation and it is possible that a Phase 2B/3 effectiveness study with this product could be initiated in the next 2–3 years. PMID:23612991

  10. Plasma concentrations after high-dose (45 mg · kg ?1 ) rectal acetaminophen in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyne J. Montgomery; James P. McCormack; Clayton C. Reichert; Colin P. Marsland

    1995-01-01

    Although the recommended dose of rectal acetaminophen (25–30 mg · kg?1) is twice that for oral administration (10–15 mg · kg?1), the literature justifies the use of a higher dose when acetaminophen is administered via the rectal route. We measured’\\u000a venous plasma acetaminophen concentrations resulting from 45 mg · kg?1 of rectal acetaminophen in ten ASA 1, 15 kg paediatric

  11. Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak, Iwona; Kowalski, Grzegorz; ?uczak, Jacek; Kosicka, Katarzyna; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Sopata, Maciej; G?ówka, Franciszek

    2014-01-01

    Background Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III “pain ladder” drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient’s refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures), and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal) on the bupivacaine plasma concentration. Cases We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours). The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 mL every 4.5–11 hours). Methods Total bupivacaine plasma concentrations were determined using the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. Results Effective pain control was achieved with intrathecal bupivacaine (0.077–0.154 mg·kg?1) and bupivacaine in enema (1.820 mg·kg?1). Intrathecal bupivacaine (0.5%, 2 mL) caused a drop in blood pressure; other side effects were absent in both cases. Total plasma bupivacaine concentrations following intrathecal and rectal bupivacaine application did not exceed 317.2 ng·mL?1 and 235.7 ng·mL?1, respectively. Bupivacaine elimination was slower after rectal than after intrathecal administration (t½= 5.50 versus 2.02 hours, respectively). Limitations This study reports two cases only, and there could be inter-patient variation. Conclusion Bupivacaine in boluses administered intrathecally (0.25%, 2 mL) provided effective, safe analgesia in advanced cancer patients. Bupivacaine enema (100 mg·100 mL?1) was shown to be a valuable option for control of end-of-life tenesmoid cancer pain. PMID:25336967

  12. Administration

    Cancer.gov

    Overview The Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory (CGR) Administrative team is responsible for the support of all staff and operational requirements for the laboratory.  With approximately 50 staff members to support this team covers a wide breadth of

  13. [MRI of rectal stromal tumour].

    PubMed

    Dam, Claus; Lindebjerg, Jan; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2012-06-25

    A 39-year-old man was referred to hospital with a rectal tumour and underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy and diagnostic imaging. The tumour had immunohistochemical characteristics for gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). The differential diagnosis of GIST to adenocarcinoma is important to be aware of for the rectal multidisciplinary team. On suspicion of GIST, patients should be referred to a sarcoma centre. The diagnosis of rectal GIST can be suggested on MRI by the presence of a well-defined heterogeneously large mass with a necrotic center associated with a prominent extra-luminal component and hyperechoic appearance on ultrasound. PMID:22735120

  14. Proctoclysis: emergency rectal fluid infusion.

    PubMed

    Tremayne, Vincent

    This article describes the use and effectiveness of proctoclysis (rectal fluid infusion) in providing fluid resuscitation in the absence of intravenous access in rural and remote environments. PMID:19856644

  15. Medical devices; gastroenterology-urology devices; classification of the rectal control system. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the rectal control system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the rectal control system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:26030940

  16. About the Therapy of Laryngotracheitis (Croup): Significance of Rectal Dosage Forms.

    PubMed

    Beubler, Eckhard; Dittrich, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are drugs of choice for treatment of laryngotracheitis (croup). They may be administered orally as tablets or juice, locally as inhalation or rectally as suppository or capsule. If doctors decide to use a rectal administration for practical reasons, it is obvious from a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic point of view that prednisolone capsules have an earlier and stronger anti-inflammatory effect than a prednisone suppository. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:26021412

  17. Delayed Treatment for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ristvedt, Stephen L.; Birnbaum, Elisa H.; Dietz, David W.; Fleshman, James W.; Kodner, Ira J.; Read, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Reports of the relationship between length of delay before diagnosis of rectal cancer and stage of the disease have been mixed. The present study documented the magnitude and medical ramifications of delay in diagnosing rectal cancer. METHODS One hundred twenty patients who had been recently diagnosed with rectal cancer provided information regarding history of symptoms and initial perceptions of those symptoms. Patients also estimated the time elapsed from onset of symptoms until their first consultation with a physician, as well as time elapsed from consultation until the diagnosis of rectal cancer was made. Stage information was gathered from patient charts. RESULTS For 106 of the patients, the first sign of rectal cancer was in the form of symptoms, and the most common first symptom was rectal bleeding. For the remaining 14 patients, their cancer was first discovered through routine examination. Over 75 percent of patients with symptoms did not initially believe that they were caused by cancer or any other serious problem, and over 50 percent attributed their symptoms to hemorrhoids. There was a clear trend, albeit statistically nonsignificant, toward worsening disease with longer delays. Median delay times in weeks were Stage I (10.0 weeks), Stage II (14.0 weeks), Stage III (18.5 weeks), and Stage IV (26.0 weeks). CONCLUSIONS Delayed diagnosis for rectal cancer remains a significant problem, with instances of delay attributable to both patient and physician. Delayed diagnosis can result in more serious disease and, when attributable to the physician, can result in damaged trust and sometimes legal action. PMID:15981064

  18. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer This page ... Rectal Cancer Drugs Approved for Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Drugs Approved for Colon Cancer Adrucil (Fluorouracil) Avastin (Bevacizumab) ...

  19. Prognostic markers in rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jessup, J M; Loda, M

    1998-09-01

    Guidelines from two major organizations have recently supported the use of only the serological marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for the prognostication and monitoring of patients with colorectal carcinoma. However, in view of the exciting advances made recently in elucidating the molecular and cellular biology of adenocarcinoma of the rectum, the molecules that transform the well-ordered normal rectal epithelium into an invasive adenocarcinoma may yield information about the ultimate behavior of that cancer. Consequently, assessing the expression of molecules within a primary cancer may predict the probability of regional and distant metastasis, response to therapy, and outcome. This review analyzes the current state of intratumoral expression of several molecular markers for the management of rectal cancer and evaluates their potential for defining which patients may undergo rectal sphincter preservation and need adjuvant therapy. PMID:9730420

  20. Administration ADMINISTRATION

    E-print Network

    Bolding, M. Chad

    6 Administration ADMINISTRATION University Governance and administration The University is governed, carrying out major Univer- sity public relations functions, evaluating the results of University plans are administered by the president and executive officers for advancement, public service and agriculture, student

  1. Overview of Radiation Therapy for Treating Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kye, Bong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    A major outcome of importance for rectal cancer is local control. Parallel to improvements in surgical technique, adjuvant therapy regimens have been tested in clinical trials in an effort to reduce the local recurrence rate. Nowadays, the local recurrence rate has been reduced because of both good surgical techniques and the addition of radiotherapy. Based on recent reports in the literature, preoperative chemoradiotherapy is now considered the standard of care for patients with stages II and III rectal cancer. Also, short-course radiotherapy appears to provide effective local control and the same overall survival as more long-course chemoradiotherapy schedules and, therefore, may be an appropriate choice in some situations. Capecitabine is an acceptable alternative to infusion fluorouracil in those patients who are able to manage the responsibilities inherent in self-administered, oral chemotherapy. However, concurrent administration of oxaliplatin and radiotherapy is not recommended at this time. Radiation therapy has long been considered an important adjunct in the treatment of rectal cancer. Although no prospective data exist for several issues, we hope that in the near future, patients with rectal cancer can be treated by using the best combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy in near future. PMID:25210685

  2. Sleeping position and rectal temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S A Petersen; E S Anderson; M Lodemore; D Rawson; M P Wailoo

    1991-01-01

    The effects of sleeping position upon body temperature were assessed by continuous monitoring of rectal temperature in 137 babies sleeping at home under conditions chosen by their parents. There were three groups of subjects: (1) normal babies aged 12-22 weeks whose temperature rhythms were developed, (2) normal babies aged 6-12 weeks who were developing their night time temperature rhythms, and

  3. Origin of rectal electric waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Shafik

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The rectum possesses electric activity in the form of pacesetter and action potentials. In a recent study we suggested that the waves are not initiated by the extrarectal autonomic innervation but might be triggered by a “rectosigmoid pacemaker.” It was postulated that the electric signals are transmitted in the rectal wall through either the muscle bundles or enteric nerve

  4. Radiation treatment for rectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Cummings

    1995-01-01

    Radiation treatment is widely used in the management of adenocarcinomas of the rectum, either alone or more frequently as part of multimodality treatment protocols. External beam radiation is capable of eradicating about one-third of bulky but mobile primary rectal cancers and is an alternative to be considered when standard surgery is not possible. Endorectal irradiation, either alone or combined with

  5. Axillary and rectal temperature measurements in infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C J Morley; P H Hewson; A J Thornton; T J Cole

    1992-01-01

    Rectal and axillary temperatures were measured during the daytime in 281 infants seen randomly at home and 656 at hospital under 6 months old, using mercury-in-glass thermometers. The normal temperature range derived from the babies at home was 36.7-37.9 degrees C for rectal temperature and 35.6-37.2 degrees C for axillary temperature. Rectal temperature was higher than axillary in 98% of

  6. Laparoscopic rectal resection versus open rectal resection with minilaparotomy for invasive rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tong; Tian, Hongpeng; Liu, Zuoliang; Xia, Shusen

    2014-01-01

    Background The minilaparotomy approach is technically feasible for the resection of rectal cancer in selected patients with rapid postoperative recovery and small incision. The study aimed to compare the clinical and oncological outcomes of minilaparotomy and laparoscopic approaches in patients with rectal cancer. Methods The 122 included patients with rectal cancer were assigned to either minilaparotomy group (n=65) or laparoscopic group (n=57) which ran from January 2005 to January 2008. Clinical characteristics, perioperative outcomes, postoperative and long-term complications, pathological results and survival rates were compared between the groups. Results The demographic data of the two groups were similar. The time to normal diet (P=0.024) and the hospital stay (P=0.043) were less in the laparoscopic group than that in the minilaparotomy group. Compared with the minilaparotomy group, the mean operation time was significantly longer [low anterior resection (LAR), P=0.030; abdominoperineal resection (APR), P=0.048] and the direct costs higher for laparoscopic group (P<0.001). The morbidity and mortality were comparable between the two groups. Local recurrence was similar (5.3% laparoscopic, 1.5% minilaparotomy, P=0.520). The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates were also similar (overall survival is 87.1% in laparoscopic group, and 82.5%in minilaparotomy group, P=0.425; disease-free survival is 74.2% in the laparoscopic group, and 71.4% in mini- laparotomy group, P=0.633). Conclusions The minilaparotomy approach was similarly safe and oncologically equivalent to laparoscopic approach for patients with rectal cancer. At the expense of a longer operative time and higher cost, laparoscopic surgery was associated with faster postoperative recovery. PMID:24490041

  7. CASE REPORT: RECTAL ADMINSTRATION OF IVERMECTIN TO A PATIENT WITH STRONGYLOIDES HYPERINFECTION SYNDROME

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PHILIP E. TARR; PETER S. MIELE; KENNETH S. PEREGOY; MARGO A. SMITH; FRANKLIN A. NEVA; DANIEL R. LUCEY

    Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome may be complicated by paralytic ileus that interferes with the absorption of oral anti-helminthics. We report on the administration of ivermectinas a rectal en ema preparationto a renal transplant recipient with Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome and progressive ileus. Attempts at treatment using nasogastric albendazole and ivermectin were unsuccessful despite clamping the nasogastric tube after drug administra- tion. Ivermectin

  8. Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin Calcium, and Oxaliplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-20

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  9. Fournier gangrene: rare complication of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ossibi, Pierlesky Elion; Souiki, Tarik; Majdoub, Karim Ibn; Toughrai, Imane; Laalim, Said Ait; Mazaz, Khalid; Tenkorang, Somuah; Farih, My Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's Gangrene is a rare complication of rectal cancer. Its discovery is often delayed. It's incidence is about 0.3/100 000 populations in Western countries. We report a patient with peritoneal perforation of rectal cancer revealed by scrotal and perineal necrotizing fasciitis.

  10. Cellulite nécrosante périnéale révélant un adénocarcinome rectal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Lamy; B Tissot; F Pigot

    2003-01-01

    We report one case of rectal cancer disclosed by a perineal cellulitis in a diabetic woman. This infrequent association has a bad prognosis. Diagnosis is mainly clinical. Treatment is urgent with large spectrum antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement, colostomy and hyperbaric oxygen if available. Surgical treatment of the rectal cancer can be done immediately or delayed.

  11. Rectal compliance in females with obstructed defecation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Gosselink; W. C. J. Hop; W. R. Schouten

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate whether rectal compliance is altered in females with obstructed defecation. METHODS: Eighty female patients with obstructed defecation and 60 control subjects were studied. Rectal compliance was measured with an “infinitely compliant” polyethylene bag. This bag was inserted in the rectum and inflated with air to selected pressure plateaus (range, 0–60 mmHg; cumulative steps

  12. Transrectal ultrasound: Accurate staging for rectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Douglas Wong

    2000-01-01

    Continued evolution of the instrumentation for endorectal ultrasound has made it more accurate and user friendly. This, combined with the exploration of less invasive treatments of colorectal disease, has led to the wider adoption of this imaging technology for the staging of rectal and anal cancer. The accuracy of endoluminal ultrasound for staging of rectal cancer has been established from

  13. Müllerian Adenosarcoma Arising From Rectal Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunseok; Oh, Hoon Kyu

    2014-01-01

    A Müllerian adenosarcoma is an extremely rare tumor characterized by a stromal component of usually low-grade malignancy and by a benign glandular epithelial component. A Müllerian adenosarcoma occurs mainly in the uterus, but also in extrauterine locations. Extrauterine Müllerian adenosarcomas are thought to arise from endometriotic deposits. A 36-year-old female presented to Daegu Catholic University Medical Center with a symptom of loose stool for several months. The imaging studies revealed a rectal mass, so she underwent a laparoscopic low anterior resection. Although extemporary pathology revealed an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, the final histologic diagnosis was a Müllerian adenosarcoma arising from rectal endometriosis. To our knowledge, except a concomitant rectal villotubular adenoma, cases of Müllerian adenosarcomas arising the rectal wall are rare. An adenosarcoma arising from endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass, even one appearing in rectal wall, because ectopic endometrial tissue exists everywhere. PMID:25360431

  14. Progress in Rectal Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ceelen, Wim P.

    2012-01-01

    The dramatic improvement in local control of rectal cancer observed during the last decades is to be attributed to attention to surgical technique and to the introduction of neoadjuvant therapy regimens. Nevertheless, systemic relapse remains frequent and is currently insufficiently addressed. Intensification of neoadjuvant therapy by incorporating chemotherapy with or without targeted agents before the start of (chemo)radiation or during the waiting period to surgery may present an opportunity to improve overall survival. An increasing number of patients can nowadays undergo sphincter preserving surgery. In selected patients, local excision or even a “wait and see” approach may be feasible following active neoadjuvant therapy. Molecular and genetic biomarkers as well as innovative imaging techniques may in the future allow better selection of patients for this treatment option. Controversy persists concerning the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy after neoadjuvant regimens. The currently available evidence suggests that in complete pathological responders long-term outcome is excellent and adjuvant therapy may be omitted. The results of ongoing trials will help to establish the ideal tailored approach in resectable rectal cancer. PMID:22970381

  15. 608 AdministrAtion Administration

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    608 AdministrAtion Administration President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Paula Sanders Director of the James A . Baker III Institute for Public Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rick Greenspan Vice President for Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  16. PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-06

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  17. Mantle Cell Lymphoma Mimicking Rectal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Atay, Hilmi; Y?ld?z, Levent; Bekta?, Ahmet; Turgut, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. After the (11;14) translocation was identified as its constant finding in 1992, MCL was recognized as a separate subgroup of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In MCL, extranodal involvement may be observed in the bone marrow, the spleen, the liver, and the gastrointestinal system (GIS). Cases of MCL that present with a massive and solitary rectal mass are rare in the literature. In this case report, our aim was to present an MCL patient with a rarely observed solitary rectal involvement mimicking rectal carcinoma and to discuss treatment options for this patient. PMID:24822134

  18. Rectal Cancer, Version 2.2015.

    PubMed

    Benson, Al B; Venook, Alan P; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Chan, Emily; Chen, Yi-Jen; Cooper, Harry S; Engstrom, Paul F; Enzinger, Peter C; Fenton, Moon J; Fuchs, Charles S; Grem, Jean L; Grothey, Axel; Hochster, Howard S; Hunt, Steven; Kamel, Ahmed; Kirilcuk, Natalie; Leong, Lucille A; Lin, Edward; Messersmith, Wells A; Mulcahy, Mary F; Murphy, James D; Nurkin, Steven; Rohren, Eric; Ryan, David P; Saltz, Leonard; Sharma, Sunil; Shibata, David; Skibber, John M; Sofocleous, Constantinos T; Stoffel, Elena M; Stotsky-Himelfarb, Eden; Willett, Christopher G; Gregory, Kristina M; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    The NCCN Guidelines for Rectal Cancer begin with the clinical presentation of the patient to the primary care physician or gastroenterologist and address diagnosis, pathologic staging, surgical management, perioperative treatment, posttreatment surveillance, management of recurrent and metastatic disease, and survivorship. The NCCN Rectal Cancer Panel meets at least annually to review comments from reviewers within their institutions, examine relevant new data from publications and abstracts, and reevaluate and update their recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize major discussion points from the 2015 NCCN Rectal Cancer Panel meeting. Major discussion topics this year were perioperative therapy options and surveillance for patients with stage I through III disease. PMID:26085388

  19. Comparison between Preoperative Rectal Diclofenac Plus Paracetamol and Diclofenac Alone for PostoperativePain of Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Samimi Sede, Saghar; Davari Tanha, Fateme; Valadan, Mehrnaz; Modaressi, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To detect whether the preoperative combined administration of rectal diclofenac and paracetamol is superior to placebo or rectal diclofenac alone for pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Materials and methods: Ninety female patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II), scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were recruited to this double blind trial and were randomized to receive one of three modalities before surgery: rectal combination of diclofenac and paracetamol, rectal diclofenac alone or rectal placebo alone which were given as a suppository one hour prior to surgery. The primary outcomes were visual analogue pain scores measured at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours after surgery and the time of first administration and also total amount of morphine used in the first 24 hour after surgery. A 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS ) was used to assess pain intensity at rest. Results: In patients receiving the combination of diclofenac and paracetamol total dose of morphine used in the first 24 hour after surgery was significantly lower (13.9 ± 2.7 mg) compared to diclofenac group (16.8± 2.8 mg) and placebo group (20.1 ± 3.6 mg) (p<0.05). VAS pain score was significantly lower in combination group compared to other groups all time during first 24 hours (p<0.05). There had been a significant difference between combination group and the two other groups in terms of the first request of morphine (p<0.05). Conclusion: According to our study Patients who receive the rectal diclofenac-paracetamol combination experience significantly a lower pain scale in the first 24 hour after surgery compared with patients receiving diclofenac or placebo alone. Their need to supplementary analgesic is significantly later and lower compared to placebo and diclofenac alone. PMID:25628716

  20. Evaluating the effect of rectal distension and rectal movement on prostate gland position using cine MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anwar R Padhani; Vincent S Khoo; John Suckling; Janet E Husband; Martin O Leach; David P Dearnaley

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dynamic interrelationship between rectal distension and rectal movements, and to determine the effect of rectal movement on the position of the prostatic gland using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods and Materials: Fifty-five patients with biopsy-proven or suspected prostate cancer were examined in the axial plane using repeated spoiled gradient-echo sequences every 10 seconds for 7 minutes.

  1. Thyroid gland metastasis of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Shinsuke; Matsuura, Sohei; Kishi, Hirohisa; Maeda, Mamoru; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a history of rectal cancer was admitted to our hospital to undergo thyroidectomy and left adrenalectomy. She had undergone low anterior resection and regional lymph node dissection for rectal cancer 52 months pre-admission (T3 N1 M0, stage IIIb according to International Union Against Cancer tumor-node-metastasis), and she had also undergone metastasectomy for lung metastases and right adrenal gland metastasis after the rectal surgery. Follow-up computed tomography scans detected nodules in the bilateral lobes of the thyroid gland and in the left adrenal gland. Subtotal thyroidectomy and left adrenalectomy were performed, and pathological examination revealed metastases of rectal cancer to the thyroid gland and left adrenal gland. PMID:25952954

  2. Low Rectal Cancer Study (MERCURY II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-04

    Adenocarcinoma; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Colorectal Neoplasms; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases; Rectal Diseases

  3. [Mycobacterium chelonae and solitary rectal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J C; Reyes, D M; Royo, G; Andrada, E; Sillero, C

    2000-12-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer is of varied etiology and the appearance of this syndrome due to Mycobacterium chelonae is exceptional. We present a case of a solitary rectal ulcer associated with Mycobacterium chelonae subspecies chelonae in an immunocompetent individual. This microorganism is involved in cutaneous, ocular, pulmonary and soft tissue infections. Treatment of infections has traditionally been surgical, although various antibiotic treatments have been used depending on the sensitivity of the microorganism, the severity of the infection and the surgical possibilities. PMID:11149222

  4. Antioxidants, Carotenoids, and Risk of Rectal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen A. Murtaugh; Khe-ni Ma; Joan Benson; Karen Curtin; Bette Caan

    2004-01-01

    Numerous properties suggest that antioxidants and carotenoids may be valuable chemopreventive agents. A population-based case-control study of 952 rectal cancer cases and 1,205 controls from Northern California and Utah was conducted between September 1997 and February 2002. Detailed diet history, medical history, and lifestyle factors interviews were conducted. Dietary antioxidants were not associated with rectal cancer risk in men. For

  5. Colorectal Cancer or Colon and Rectal Cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Li; J. Y. Li; A. L. Zhao; J. Gu

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to compare features of colon and rectal cancers such as prognosis, clinicopathological features and tumor markers, namely carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and p27kip1. Methods: Two hundred and thirty patients with stage I–III colon or rectal cancer were retrospectively assessed with the endpoint of recurrence or metastasis after curative operation. CEA, MMP-2

  6. Advances in multidisciplinary treatment of rectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changlin Zhao; Hongqin Sun; Yang Yang; Huimian Xu

    2009-01-01

    To summarize the advances in the multidisciplinary treatment of rectal cancer and to analyze the existing problems and development\\u000a prospects. The full text database retrieval system of MEDLINE and the periodicals of CHKD were searched. The words “rectal\\u000a cancer, diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy, analysis” were used as key words for retrieval of\\u000a literature concerning the values and clinical

  7. 590 AdministrAtion Administration

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    589 #12;590 AdministrAtion Administration President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Paula Sanders Director of the James A . Baker III Institute for Public Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Edward P . Djerejian Vice President for Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  8. Rectal artemisinins for malaria: a review of efficacy and safety from individual patient data in clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Melba; Ribeiro, Isabela; Warsame, Marian; Karunajeewa, Harin; Petzold, Max

    2008-01-01

    Background Rectal administration of artemisinin derivatives has potential for early treatment for severe malaria in remote settings where injectable antimalarial therapy may not be feasible. Preparations available include artesunate, artemisinin, artemether and dihydroartemisinin. However each may have different pharmacokinetic properties and more information is needed to determine optimal dose and comparative efficacy with each another and with conventional parenteral treatments for severe malaria. Methods Individual patient data from 1167 patients in 15 clinical trials of rectal artemisinin derivative therapy (artesunate, artemisinin and artemether) were pooled in order to compare the rapidity of clearance of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia and the incidence of reported adverse events with each treatment. Data from patients who received comparator treatment (parenteral artemisinin derivative or quinine) were also included. Primary endpoints included percentage reductions in parasitaemia at 12 and 24 hours. A parasite reduction of >90% at 24 hours was defined as parasitological success. Results Artemisinin and artesunate treatment cleared parasites more rapidly than parenteral quinine during the first 24 hours of treatment. A single higher dose of rectal artesunate treatment was five times more likely to achieve >90% parasite reductions at 24 hours than were multiple lower doses of rectal artesunate, or a single lower dose administration of rectal artemether. Conclusion Artemisinin and artesunate suppositories rapidly eliminate parasites and appear to be safe. There are less data on artemether and dihydroartemisinin suppositories. The more rapid parasite clearance of single high-dose regimens suggests that achieving immediate high drug concentrations may be the optimal strategy. PMID:18373841

  9. Does gadolinium-based contrast material improve diagnostic accuracy of local invasion in rectal cancer MRI? A multireader study.

    PubMed

    Gollub, Marc J; Lakhman, Yulia; McGinty, Katrina; Weiser, Martin R; Sohn, Michael; Zheng, Junting; Shia, Jinru

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare reader accuracy and agreement on rectal MRI with and without gadolinium administration in the detection of T4 rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS. In this study, two radiologists and one fellow independently interpreted all posttreatment MRI studies for patients with locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer using unenhanced images alone or combined with contrast-enhanced images, with a minimum interval of 4 weeks. Readers evaluated involvement of surrounding structures on a 5-point scale and were blinded to pathology and disease stage. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and AUC were calculated and kappa statistics were used to describe interreader agreement. RESULTS. Seventy-two patients (38 men and 34 women) with a mean age of 61 years (range, 32-86 years) were evaluated. Fifteen patients had 32 organs invaded. Global AUCs without and with gadolinium administration were 0.79 and 0.77, 0.91 and 0.86, and 0.83 and 0.78 for readers 1, 2, and 3, respectively. AUCs before and after gadolinium administration were similar. Kappa values before and after gadolinium administration for pairs of readers ranged from 0.5 to 0.7. CONCLUSION. On the basis of pathology as a reference standard, the use of gadolinium during rectal MRI did not significantly improve radiologists' agreement or ability to detect T4 disease. PMID:25615776

  10. Management of rectal foreign bodies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Entrapped anorectal foreign bodies are being encountered more frequently in clinical practice. Although entrapped foreign bodies are most often related to sexual behavior, they can also result from ingestion or sexual assault. Methods Between 1999 and 2009, 15 patients with foreign bodies in the rectum were diagnosed and treated, at Izmir Training and Research Hospital, in Izmir. Information regarding the foreign body, clinical presentation, treatment strategies, and outcomes were documented. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of these unusual patients. Results All patients were males, and their mean age was 48 years (range, 33–68 years). The objects in the rectum of these 15 patients were an impulse body spray can (4 patients), a bottle (4 patients), a dildo (2 patient), an eggplant (1 patient), a brush (1 patient), a tea glass (1 patient), a ball point pen (1 patient) and a wishbone (1 patient, after oral ingestion). Twelve objects were removed transanally by anal dilatation under general anesthesia. Three patients required laparotomy. Routine rectosigmoidoscopic examination was performed after removal. One patient had perforation of the rectosigmoid and 4 had lacerations of the mucosa. None of the patients died. Conclusions Foreign bodies in the rectum should be managed in a well-organized manner. The diagnosis is confirmed by plain abdominal radiographs and rectal examination. Manual extraction without anaesthesia is only possible for very low-lying objects. Patients with high- lying foreign bodies generally require general anaesthesia to achieve complete relaxation of the anal sphincters to facilitate extraction. Open surgery should be reserved only for patients with perforation, peritonitis, or impaction of the foreign body. PMID:23497492

  11. Surgical management for rectal prolapse: an update.

    PubMed

    Murphy, P B; Schlachta, C M; Alkhamesi, N A

    2015-08-01

    Surgical management of rectal prolapse remains a challenge with the bredth of choices available and varies on the international, national, regional and locoregional level depending on expertise, comfort and perception of the available evidence. Long-standing opinions on approach of repair, abdominal vs. perineal, have been based on limited evidence and on anesethetic methods that are now relics of the past. Laparoscopic surgical repair and modern anesthethesia has made the abdominal approach more attractive even to the octagenerian with multiple comorbidities. Surgical management should still be individualized and prior to offering surgical correction of rectal prolapse one must understand each patient's syptoms, particularly incontinence and constipation, as well the effect rectal prolapse has on the patient's overall quality of life. PMID:25897588

  12. Nasal administration of opioids for pain management in adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Dale; R. Hjortkjaer; E. D. Kharasch

    2002-01-01

    Background: Nasal administration of opioids may be an alterna- tive route to intravenous, subcutaneous, oral transmucosal, oral or rectal administration in some patients. Key features may be self-administration, combined with rapid onset of action. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the present base of knowledge on this topic. Methods: The review is based on human studies found in

  13. 588 ADMINISTRATION Administration

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    588 ADMINISTRATION Administration President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zenaido Camacho Vice President for Finance and Administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ann Wright Vice President for Public Affairs

  14. Comparison of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Regimens in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Rectal Cancer Who Are Receiving Radiation Therapy and Fluorouracil Before or After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-26

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  15. Differences in microbial signatures between rectal mucosal biopsies and rectal swabs.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Pérez, Félix; McCoy, Amber N; Okechukwu, Charles; Carroll, Ian M; Smith, Kevin M; Jeremiah, Kim; Sandler, Robert S; Asher, Gary N; Keku, Temitope O

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence the microbiota of the large bowel may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other diseases including type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Current sampling methods to obtain microbial specimens, such as feces and mucosal biopsies, are inconvenient and unappealing to patients. Obtaining samples through rectal swabs could prove to be a quicker and relatively easier method, but it is unclear if swabs are an adequate substitute. We compared bacterial diversity and composition from rectal swabs and rectal mucosal biopsies in order to examine the viability of rectal swabs as an alternative to biopsies. Paired rectal swabs and mucosal biopsy samples were collected in un-prepped participants (n = 11) and microbial diversity was characterized by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial community composition from swab samples was different from rectal mucosal biopsies (p = 0.001). Overall the bacterial diversity was higher in swab samples than in biopsies as assessed by diversity indexes such as: richness (p = 0.01), evenness (p = 0.06) and Shannon's diversity (p = 0.04). Analysis of specific bacterial groups by qPCR showed higher copy number of Lactobacillus (p < 0.0001) and Eubacteria (p = 0.0003) in swab samples compared with biopsies. Our findings suggest that rectal swabs and rectal mucosal samples provide different views of the microbiota in the large intestine. PMID:23060016

  16. Rectal motility studies in faecally incontinent geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J A; Brocklehurst, J C; Kiff, E S; Ferguson, G; Faragher, E B

    1990-09-01

    Rectal motility was assessed in three groups of geriatric patients (faecally incontinent, continent faecally impacted and control patients) to determine whether 'uninhibited' rectal contractions are a cause of faecal incontinence. The incidence of rectal contractions in response to rectal distension did not differ between the three study groups. Two-thirds of the incontinent patients were unable to retain a condom distended with water (soft-stool model) during a proctometrogram. Involuntary expulsion of this device was correlated with the presence of rectal contractions and low anal resting pressure. Involuntary expulsion of an airfilled balloon (firm-stool model) from the rectum occurred less frequently and was correlated with low resting pressure but not with rectal contractions. The contribution of 'uninhibited' rectal contractions to faecal incontinence is insignificant except for a minor role in the expulsion of liquid stool. PMID:2251964

  17. Rectal ulcers induced by systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Yau, Alan Hoi Lun; Chu, Karen; Yang, Hui Min; Ko, Hin Hin

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with diarrhoea, haematochezia, tenesmus and rectal pain for 2?months. She was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 8?years ago and remained on prednisone, azathioprine and hydroxychloroquine. Blood work revealed a positive ANA (antinuclear antibody test), anti-dsDNA 749?IU/mL (0-300?IU/mL), C3 0.22?g/L (0.65-1.65?g/L) and C4 0.05?g/L (0.16-0.60?g/L). Stool studies were unremarkable. MRI of the pelvis showed a rectum with eccentric wall thickening. Flexible sigmoidoscopy showed severe proctitis with multiple deep ulcers and diffuse submucosal haemorrhage. Rectal biopsy revealed crypt architectural distortion and reactive fibrosis in the lamina propria. The patient was given mesalamine suppository for 2?weeks with minimal improvement. Repeat flexible sigmoidoscopy showed a coalesced 3×4?cm full-thickness rectal ulcer. Therefore, the patient was given intravenous methylprednisolone for 3?days, followed by intravenous cyclophosphamide for 2?weeks. Her symptoms resolved and repeat flexible sigmoidoscopy showed fibrotic healing of the rectal ulcers. PMID:25150239

  18. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasoundcoupled optical

    E-print Network

    Piao, Daqing

    -Optical Instrumenta- tion Engineers. DOI: 10.1117/1.3149852 Keywords: prostate cancer; trans-rectal optical tomography and functionality. NIR optical tomography has contributed to diagnosis and prognosis of cancer,2 understanding. This approach was motivated by the hypothesis that optical properties of prostate cancer in vivo may

  19. Neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pasetto, Lara Maria; Pucciarelli, Salvatore; Agostini, Marco; Rossi, Elena; Monfardini, Silvio

    2004-10-01

    Rectal cancer is one of the most common neoplasms of Western Countries. Overall mortality at 5 years is about 40%. This cancer is commonly diagnosed at a precocious stage, but because of local relapse and/or metastatic disease, only half of radically resected patients can be considered disease free. The value of adding radiotherapy to surgery in the treatment of patients with resectable rectal cancer has been assessed in trials using either preoperative or postoperative irradiation. Preoperative irradiation is more "dose-effective" than postoperative radiotherapy; that is, a higher dose is needed postoperatively to reduce rates of local recurrence to the same extent as preoperative radiation. Nevertheless, preoperative treatment has not been routinely recommended, mainly because it has not been shown to improve overall survival and because in some trials it has been associated with increased postoperative mortality. This paper critically reviews clinical trials of chemoradiotherapy on whether an optimal combination exists for locally advanced rectal cancer. Even if in the latest years, recent advances in surgery have improved the local control of disease, the next steps in rectal cancer care should aim at the improvement of local cure rates and the enhancement of systemic control. New approaches to CT treatment are necessary. Patient enrollment into rigorous and well-conducted clinical trials will generate new information regarding investigational therapies and it will offer improved therapies for patients with this disease. PMID:15363467

  20. The urogenital and rectal pain syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Wesselmann; Arthur L Burnett; Leslie J Heinberg

    1997-01-01

    Pain syndromes of the urogenital and rectal area are well described but poorly understood and underrecognized focal pain syndromes. They include vulvodynia, orchialgia, urethral syndrome, penile pain, prostatodynia, coccygodynia, perineal pain, proctodynia and proctalgia fugax. The etiology of these focal pain syndromes is not known. A specific secondary cause can be identified in a minority of patients, but most often

  1. Rectal Cancer: Adjuvant Therapy and New Directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin P. McMullen; Charles Matthews; A. William Blackstock

    2007-01-01

    Cancers of the colon and rectum are a leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States and worldwide. The 5-year survival rates, in general, have improved over time for patients with colon cancer due to evolving preventative strategies, improved screening techniques and the recent development of more effective therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, the treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal

  2. 556 ADMINISTRATION Administration

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    556 ADMINISTRATION Administration President ........................................... Zenaido Camacho Vice President for Finance and Administration ........................... Dean W. Currie President for Public Affairs .................................................... Terry Shepard Vice

  3. The pharmacokinetic properties of intramuscular artesunate and rectal dihydroartemisinin in uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ilett, Kenneth F; Batty, Kevin T; Powell, Shane M; Binh, Tran Quang; Thu, Le Thi Anh; Phuong, Hoang Lan; Hung, Nguyen Canh; Davis, Timothy M E

    2002-01-01

    Aims To obtain pharmacokinetic data for artesunate (ARTS) and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) following i.m. ARTS and rectal DHA administration. Methods Twelve Vietnamese patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were randomized to receive either i.v. or i.m. ARTS (120 mg), with the alternative preparation given 8 h later in an open crossover design. A further 12 patients were given i.v. ARTS (120 mg) at 0 h and rectal DHA (160 mg) 8 h later. Results Following i.v. bolus, ARTS had a peak concentration of 42 µm (16 mg l?1), elimination t1/2 = 3.2 min, CL = 2.8 l h?1 kg?1 and V = 0.22 l kg?1. The Cmax for DHA was 9.7 µm (2.7 mg l?1), t1/2 = 59 min, CL = 0.64 l h?1 kg?1 and V = 0.8 l kg?1. Following i.m. ARTS, Cmax was 2.3 µm (3.7 mg l?1), the apparent t1/2 = 41 min, CL = 2.9 l h?1 kg?1 and V = 2.6 l kg?1. The relative bioavailability of DHA was 88%, Cmax was 4.1 µm (1.16 mg l?1) and t1/2 = 64 min. In the rectal DHA study, relative bioavailability of DHA was 16%. Conclusions For patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria i.m. ARTS is a suitable alternative to i.v. ARTS, at equal doses. To achieve plasma DHA concentrations equivalent to parenteral administration of ARTS, rectal DHA should be given at approximately four-fold higher milligram doses. Further studies are needed to determine whether these recommendations can be applied to patients with severe malaria. PMID:11849191

  4. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Colon or Rectal Cancer That is Metastatic or Locally Advanced and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-06

    Colon Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Colon Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  5. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer by intrarectal ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Hildebrandt; G. Feifel

    1985-01-01

    Digital examination and computed tomography are the current modalities employed to assess the depth of invasion of rectal\\u000a cancer. Each technique has limitations in that high rectal tumors cannot be examined digitally and CT is unable to detect\\u000a small tumors. However, preoperative diagnostic capability can be improved with the use of intrarectal ultrasound. We have\\u000a examined 25 patients with rectal

  6. Smooth-muscle rectal tumors: A therapeutic dilemma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederig D. Nemer; John M. Stoeckinger; O. Thomas Evans

    1977-01-01

    Summary  Five cases of smooth-muscle rectal tumors seen in the Lexington, Kentucky, area over a 25-year period are reported. These\\u000a unusual tumors cause symptoms similar to those of more common anorectal diseases, namely, painful defecation and rectal bleeding.\\u000a Often these tumors are initially asymptomatic due to their submucosal origin. Clinical diagnosi depends on awareness of these\\u000a lesions, digital rectal examination, endoscopic

  7. The appreciation of rectal distention in fecal incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme H. Ferguson; Judy Redford; James A. Barrett; Edward S. Kiff

    1989-01-01

    The subjective response to rectal balloon sensation was assessed with anorectal manometry and pudendal nerve terminal motor\\u000a latency measurement (PNTML) in three groups of patients. There were 37 healthy subjects, 54 patients with idiopathic fecal\\u000a incontinence (IFI), and 36 with complete rectal prolapse and incontinence (CRP). There was no significant difference for any\\u000a parameter of rectal balloon sensation between patients

  8. Cytomegalovirus Colitis Mimicking Rectal Carcinoma in a Young Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Gaurang; Kalakonda, Aditya; Manocha, Divey; Rawlins, Sekou

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is often seen in immunocompromised patients. Rarely, immunocompetent patients may present with CMV as a self-limiting, flu-like illness, though a few cases of significant organ-specific complications have been reported in these patients. We report a case in which a previously healthy man presented with hematochezia and an obstructing rectal mass thought to be rectal adenocarcinoma. Biopsy was positive for CMV, which was treated with full resolution of rectal mass confirmed with colonoscopy and barium contrast enema. This is the first reported case of CMV colitis mimicking rectal adenocarcinoma in an immunocompetent patient.

  9. The appreciation of rectal distention in fecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, G H; Redford, J; Barrett, J A; Kiff, E S

    1989-11-01

    The subjective response to rectal balloon sensation was assessed with anorectal manometry and pudendal nerve terminal motor latency measurement (PNTML) in three groups of patients. There were 37 healthy subjects, 54 patients with idiopathic fecal incontinence (IFI), and 36 with complete rectal prolapse and incontinence (CRP). There was no significant difference for any parameter of rectal balloon sensation between patients with IFI and normals. Patients with CRP differed only in onset (P = .001). The results show that the appreciation of rectal distention is maintained in IFI. PMID:2806025

  10. Adjuvant Radio-Chemotherapy with 5Fluorouracil and Leucovorin in Stage II and III Rectal Cancer: 12 Months vs. 6 Months of Therapy. A Study of the Association for Medical Oncology of the German Cancer Society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Queißer; G. Hartung; A. Kopp-Schneider; P. Diezler; E. Hagmüller; A. Baur; J. Weniger; C. Wojatshcek; N. Janssen; D. Hossfeld; H. Lindemann; T. Schnabel; L. Edler

    2000-01-01

    Summary Background: Postoperative radio-chemotherapy has been established as standard treatment for stage II and III rectal cancer patients. However, modulation and schedule of administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) therapy are still subject of discussion. In a prospectively randomized study we compared 12 vs. 6 months of 5-FU/leucovorin (LV) chemo-radiotherapy in locally advanced or node-positive rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: Patients with

  11. The effects of biofeedback on rectal sensation and distal colonic motility in patients with disorders of rectal evacuation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland M. H. G. Mollen; Beatrice Salvioli; Michael Camilleri; Duane Burton; Louis J. Kost; Sidney F. Phillips; John H. Pemberton

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Abnormalities of descending colon motility reported in a subset of patients with rectal evacuation disorders are consistent with a rectocolonic inhibitory reflex. Our aims were to evaluate distal colon motor function and rectal sensation in such patients and assess effects of biofeedback (BF) training on these functions.METHODS:Seven patients (five women, two men; mean age 36 yr) with rectal evacuation disorders

  12. A comparison of rectal and subcutaneous body temperature measurement in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Cilia, J; Piper, D C; Upton, N; Hagan, J J

    1998-07-01

    Two methods of measuring body temperature were compared in common marmosets. Subcutaneous temperatures were measured remotely via previously implanted subcutaneous microchips (Plexx BV, IPTT-100) prior to measurement of rectal temperature using a conventional rectal probe. Marmosets were treated with saline or the brain penetrant, 5-HT1A/B/D receptor agonist SKF-99101H (3-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-4-chloro-5-propoxyindole hemifumarate) (0.3-3 mg/kg SC), which has previously been shown to induce hypothermia in guinea pigs. Body temperature was sampled immediately before drug administration and at 30-min intervals thereafter for a period of 2.5 h. SKF-99101H dose-dependently induced hypothermia in the common marmoset and there was close agreement between rectal and subcutaneous body temperatures, with an average difference in absolute body temperature of 0.26+/-0.02 degrees C. The data show that subcutaneously implanted microchips provide a simple, reliable measure of body temperature in common marmosets which is sensitive to pharmacological intervention, minimizes handling induced stress, and is minimally invasive. PMID:9920530

  13. Local excision and postoperative radiotherapy for distal rectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Benson; C. Shun Wong; Bernard J Cummings; James Brierley; Pamela Catton; Jolie Ringash; Mohamed Abdolell

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the outcome following local excision and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for distal rectal carcinoma.Materials and Methods: Seventy-three patients received postoperative radiotherapy following local surgery for primary rectal carcinoma at Princess Margaret Hospital from 1983 to 1998. Selection factors for postoperative RT were patient preference, poor operative risks, and “elective” where conservative therapy was regarded as optimal therapy. Median

  14. Sphincter denervation in anorectal incontinence and rectal prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A G Parks; M Swash; H Urich

    1977-01-01

    Biopsies of the external anal sphincter, puborectalis, and levator ani muscles have been examined in 24 women and one man with long-standing anorectal incontinence, 18 of whom also had rectal prolapse, and in two men with rectal prolapse alone. In 16 of the women anorectal incontinence was of unknown cause, but in eight there was a history of difficult labour.

  15. Why Rectal Douches May Be Acceptable Rectal-Microbicide Delivery Vehicles for MSM

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Bauermeister, José; Ventuneac, Ana; Dolezal, Curtis; Mayer, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Rationale To explore age of onset of rectal douching among men who have sex with men (MSM) and reasons leading to and maintaining douching behavior; and to consider whether rectal douches containing microbicidal agents might be acceptable for men at HIV risk. Methods In Stage 1, we used qualitative methods to explore douching behavior in a sample of 20 MSM. Subsequently, we developed a structured questionnaire that was administered in Stage 2 to 105 MSM. Results More than half of participants who completed Stage 1 douched during the trial despite having been advised not to do so. Of the 105 HIV uninfected participants in Stage 2, 51% reported using rectal douches in the prior six months; 47% douched before and 25% after anal intercourse. Most participants reported douching frequently or always. On average, men reported douching about two hours prior to or one hour following intercourse. Average age of onset was late 20s. Most men who douched wanted to be clean or were encouraged to douche by their partners. Some men thought douching after sex could prevent STIs. Conclusion Rectal douching appears to be a popular behavior among men who have RAI. It is necessary to identify harmless douches. If HIV/STI preventive douches can be developed, rectal douching prior to or following sexual intercourse could become an important additional prevention tool. To reshape an existing behavior to which some men strongly adhere, like douching, by suggesting use of one type of douche over another may be more successful than trying to convince MSM to engage in behaviors they never practiced before or those they resist (e.g., condom use). PMID:19959973

  16. Anorectal avulsion: an exceptional rectal trauma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Anorectal avulsion is an exceptional rectal trauma in which the anus and sphincter no longer join the perineum and are pulled upward. As a result, they ventrally follow levator ani muscles. We present a rare case of a 29-years old patient who was admitted in a pelvic trauma context; presenting a complete complex anorectal avulsion. The treatment included a primary repair of the rectum and a diverting colostomy so as to prevent sepsis. Closure of the protective sigmoidostomy was performed seven months after the accident and the evolution was marked by an anal stenosis requiring iterative dilatations. PMID:24094142

  17. Rectal dieulafoy lesion managed by hemostatic clips.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Hun; Kim, Joo Hoon; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Seun Ja; Park, Moo In; Moon, Won

    2012-12-01

    The classic Dieulafoy lesion is a minute gastric mucosal defect which bleeds massively from an exposed artery. The typical endoscopic appearance of this lesion is a single, round mucosal defect with an artery protruding from its base in the absence of surrounding ulceration. We encountered an 89-year-old man who developed sudden massive fresh rectal bleeding. The source of hemorrhage was found at colonoscopy after careful irrigation and inspection to be a Dieulafoy lesion situated in rectum. Hemostasis was achieved successfully with epinephrine injection and endoscopic hemostatic clipping. PMID:23226179

  18. MRI in local staging of rectal cancer: an update

    PubMed Central

    Tapan, Ümit; Özbayrak, Mustafa; Tatl?, Servet

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative imaging for staging of rectal cancer has become an important aspect of current approach to rectal cancer management, because it helps to select suitable patients for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and determine the appropriate surgical technique. Imaging modalities such as endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play an important role in assessing the depth of tumor penetration, lymph node involvement, mesorectal fascia and anal sphincter invasion, and presence of distant metastatic diseases. Currently, there is no consensus on a preferred imaging technique for preoperative staging of rectal cancer. However, high-resolution phased-array MRI is recommended as a standard imaging modality for preoperative local staging of rectal cancer, with excellent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capability, and absence of ionizing radiation. This review will mainly focus on the role of MRI in preoperative local staging of rectal cancer and discuss recent advancements in MRI technique such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. PMID:25010367

  19. The rational design and development of a dual chamber vaginal/rectal microbicide gel formulation for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Ham, Anthony S; Nugent, Sean T; Peters, Jennifer J; Katz, David F; Shelter, Cory M; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Boczar, Ashlee D; Buckheit, Karen W; Buckheit, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The DuoGel™ was developed for safe and effective dual chamber administration of antiretroviral drugs to reduce the high incidence of HIV transmission during receptive vaginal and anal intercourse. The DuoGel™s containing IQP-0528, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), were formulated from GRAS excipients approved for vaginal and rectal administration. The DuoGel™s were evaluated based upon quantitative physicochemical and biological evaluations defined by a Target Product Profile (TPP) acceptable for vaginal and rectal application. From the two primary TPP characteristics defined to accommodate safe rectal administration three DuoGel™ formulations (IQB3000, IQB3001, and IQB3002) were developed at pH 6.00 and osmolality ?400mmol/kg. The DuoGel™s displayed no in vitro cellular or bacterial toxicity and no loss in viability in ectocervical and colorectal tissue. IQB3000 was removed from consideration due to reduced NNRTI delivery (?65% reduction) and IQB3001 was removed due to increase spread resulting in leakage. IQB3002 containing IQP-0528 was defined as our lead DuoGel™ formulation, possessing potent activity against HIV-1 (EC50=10nM). Over 12month stability evaluations, IQB3002 maintained formulation stability. This study has identified a lead DuoGel™ formulation that will safely deliver IQP-0528 to prevent sexual HIV-1 transmission in the vagina and rectum. PMID:26093158

  20. KRAS testing on colo-rectal carcinoma cytological imprints.

    PubMed

    Malapelle, Umberto; Bellevicine, Claudio; Russo, Anna; Salatiello, Maria; Palombini, Lucio; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2011-04-01

    Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, cetuximab, and panitumumab, are administrated under the condition that advanced colo-rectal cancer (CRC) carries a wild-type KRAS gene. Thus, clinicians request pathologists to genotype KRAS before treatment. In the near future routine mutation testing at the same time of the surgery may be implemented. The reliability of a rapid KRAS testing on ex vivo cytological samples obtained by direct scraping of the colon tumour tissue is here evaluated. A consecutive series of 20 surgically resected, primary CRC specimens was analysed. Fresh tissue from CRC was scraped with a scalpel blade, smeared on uncoated glass slides, air-dried and Diff-Quik stained to ensure malignant cell presence. The same tissue area was also histologically processed. Exon 2 KRAS gene mutations were evaluated on both cytological and histological specimens by dideoxy sequencing and by the DxS KRAS Mutation Test Kit (DxS, Manchester, England). Data obtained on on imprint cytology and matched histological samples showed full concordance; however, the mutation frequency was slightly higher (35%) by the DxS KRAS Mutation Test Kit than by the dideoxy sequencing (30%). Thus, colon cancer imprint cytology sample is a reliable biospecimen for both dideoxy-sequencing and DxS KRAS Mutation Test Kit analysis and it may be useful to abbreviate the KRAS assay turnaround time. PMID:20607679

  1. Optimal time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy in preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chang Sik [Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Won [Department of Medical Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jhkim2@amc.seoul.kr; Choi, Won Sik [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Cheol [Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Heung Moon [Department of Medical Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Min Hee [Department of Medical Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Se Jin [Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Do [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-wook [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Seong Soo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Kyung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Cheon [Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: Capecitabine and its metabolites reach peak plasma concentrations 1 to 2 hours after a single oral administration, and concentrations rapidly decrease thereafter. We performed a retrospective analysis to find the optimal time interval between capecitabine administration and radiotherapy for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy was measured in patients who were treated with preoperative radiotherapy and concurrent capecitabine for rectal cancer. Patients were classified into the following groups. Group A1 included patients who took capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy, and Group B1 included all other patients. Group B1 was then subdivided into Group A2 (patients who took capecitabine 2 hours before radiotherapy) and Group B2. Group B2 was further divided into Group A3 and Group B3 with the same method. Total mesorectal excision was performed 6 weeks after completion of chemoradiation and the pathologic response was evaluated. Results: A total of 200 patients were enrolled in this study. Pathologic examination showed that Group A1 had higher rates of complete regression of primary tumors in the rectum (23.5% vs. 9.6%, p = 0.01), good response (44.7% vs. 25.2%, p = 0.006), and lower T stages (p = 0.021) compared with Group B1; however, Groups A2 and A3 did not show any improvement compared with Groups B2 and B3. Multivariate analysis showed that increases in primary tumors in the rectum and good response were only significant when capecitabine was administered 1 hour before radiotherapy. Conclusion: In preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer, the pathologic response could be improved by administering capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy.

  2. Differences in the pregnancy-terminating effectiveness of an LH-RH analogue by subcutaneous, vaginal, rectal, and nasal routes in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, I

    1982-08-01

    A long-acting analogue of LH-RH, des-Gly10-[D-Leu6]-LH-RH-ethylamide (TAP-144), was administered once or twice on day 9 of pregnancy by subcutaneous, vaginal, rectal, and nasal routes to rats; the pregnancy-terminating effectiveness of these routes was determined on day 14. When rats were given a single dose of TAP-144, the ED50 value was 1.2 micrograms/100 g body weight by the vaginal route, the effectiveness being 752 and 1,221 times higher than those by the subcutaneous and rectal routes, respectively. Nasal administration was not effective in terminating pregnancy even at a high dose of 2,000 micrograms/100 g body weight. The addition of a surfactant (BL-9) did not increase the effectiveness by the rectal route. When TAP-144 was administered twice a day, the effectiveness was markedly increased by every route. The ED50 values were 0.32 microgram/100 g body weight/time by the subcutaneous route, which was comparable to that of the vaginal route, 14.2 micrograms of the rectal route, and 84.6 micrograms of the nasal route. The addition of the surfactant increased the effectiveness 26 times by the nasal route but not by the rectal route. The pregnancy-terminating effect of TAP-144 was reversed by treatment with progesterone. PMID:6818022

  3. Comparison of Digital Rectal and Microchip Transponder Thermometry in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Quimby, Jessica M; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Lappin, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the use of traditional rectal thermometry with an implantable microchip temperature transponder in cats. The microchip transponder was implanted over the shoulder blades and was programmed with cat identification information. Concurrently, the cats were involved in a study in which they were infected experimentally with feline herpesvirus 1; this situation enabled temperature comparisons in both normal and abnormal ranges. Results from the microchip transponder technique were compared with rectal thermometry by using a concordance test of agreement. These data revealed close agreement between rectal and microchip transponder thermometry in the cat at both normal and abnormal temperature ranges. PMID:19653950

  4. Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery for Rectal Tumors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kunitake, Hiroko; Abbas, Maher A

    2012-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1983, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) has emerged as a safe and effective method to treat rectal lesions including benign tumors, early rectal cancer, and rectal fistulas and strictures. This minimally invasive technique offers the advantages of superior visualization of the lesion and greater access to proximal lesions with lower margin positivity and specimen fragmentation and lower long-term recurrence rates over traditional transanal excision. In addition, over two decades of scientific data support the use of TEM as a viable alternative to radical excision of the rectum with less morbidity, faster recovery, and greater potential cost savings when performed at specialized centers. PMID:22745615

  5. Morphological characteristics of lateral pelvic lymph nodes in rectal carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyoshi Matsuoka; Tadahiko Masaki; Masanori Sugiyama; Yutaka Atomi; Yasuo Ohkura; Atsuhiko Sakamoto

    2007-01-01

    Aim  Macroscopic and imaging indicators for lymph node metastasis have been documented not in lateral pelvic lymph nodes but in\\u000a mesorectal lymph nodes in patients with rectal carcinoma. We conducted this study to uncover morphological characteristics\\u000a of lateral pelvic lymph nodes in patients with rectal carcinoma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Fifty-eight patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma who had total mesorectal excision and

  6. Applying for a Fellowship in Colon and Rectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Einarsdottir, Hulda

    2011-01-01

    Colon and Rectal Surgery is a challenging and fulfilling field with interesting and widely variable tasks, making it the preferred career for an increasing number of residents who are in the final path of their general surgery training. Due to the steadily rising interest in the field, it has become increasingly difficult to match into a fellowship in Colon and Rectal Surgery. For those who have decided to pursue a career in Colon and Rectal Surgery, this overview may be of some use during the quite cumbersome and costly process of applying for a fellowship. PMID:22654566

  7. The radiation-induced changes in rectal mucosa: Hyperfractionated vs. hypofractionated preoperative radiation for rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Starzewski, Jacek J. [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Pajak, Jacek T. [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Pawelczyk, Iwona [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Lange, Dariusz [Department of Tumor Pathology, Comprehensive Cancer Center Division, Gliwice (Poland); Golka, Dariusz [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland)]. E-mail: dargolka@wp.pl; Brzeziska, Monika [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland); Lorenc, Zbigniew [Department of General and Colorectal Surgery, Medical University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of acute radiation-induced rectal changes in patients who underwent preoperative radiotherapy according to two different irradiation protocols. Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent preoperative radiotherapy; 44 and 24 patients underwent hyperfractionated and hypofractionated protocol, respectively. Fifteen patients treated with surgery alone served as a control group. Five basic histopathologic features (meganucleosis, inflammatory infiltrations, eosinophils, mucus secretion, and erosions) and two additional features (mitotic figures and architectural glandular abnormalities) of radiation-induced changes were qualified and quantified. Results: Acute radiation-induced reactions were found in 66 patients. The most common were eosinophilic and plasma-cell inflammatory infiltrations (65 patients), erosions, and decreased mucus secretion (54 patients). Meganucleosis and mitotic figures were more common in patients who underwent hyperfractionated radiotherapy. The least common were the glandular architectural distortions, especially in patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy. Statistically significant differences in morphologic parameters studied between groups treated with different irradiation protocols were found. Conclusion: The system of assessment is a valuable tool in the evaluation of radiation-induced changes in the rectal mucosa. A greater intensity of regenerative changes was found in patients treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy.

  8. Approach of trans-rectal NIR optical tomography probing for the imaging of prostate with trans-rectal ultrasound correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Daqing; Jiang, Zhen; Xu, Guan; Musgrove, Cameron; Bunting, Charles F.

    2008-02-01

    The trans-rectal implementation of NIR optical tomography makes it possible to assess functional status like hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in prostate non-invasively. Trans-rectal NIR tomography may provide tissue-specific functional contrast that is potentially valuable for differentiation of cancerous lesions from normal tissues. Such information will help to determine if a prostate biopsy is needed or can be excluded for an otherwise ambiguous lesion. The relatively low spatial resolution due to the diffuse light detection in trans-rectal NIR tomography, however, limits the accuracy of localizing a suspicious tissue volume. Trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) is the clinical standard for guiding the positioning of biopsy needle owing to its resolution and convenience; nevertheless, TRUS lacks the pathognomic specificity to guide biopsy to only the suspicious lesions. The combination of trans-rectal NIR tomography with TRUS could potentially give better differentiation of cancerous tissue from normal background and to accurately localize the cancer-suspicious contrast obtained from NIR tomography. This paper will demonstrate the design and initial evaluation of a trans-rectal NIR tomography probe that can conveniently integrate with a commercial TRUS transducer. The transrectal NIR tomography obtained from this probe is concurrent with TRUS at matching sagittal imaging plane. This design provides the flexibility of simple correlation of trans-rectal NIR with TRUS, and using TRUS anatomic information as spatial prior for NIR image reconstruction.

  9. Rectal Douching and Implications for Rectal Microbicides among Populations Vulnerable to HIV in South America: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Jerome T.; Kinsler, Janni J.; Imrie, John; Nureña, César R.; Sánchez, Jorge; Cunningham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective While gel-formulated Rectal Microbicides (RM) are the first to enter clinical trials, rectal douching in preparation for anal intercourse is a common practise, thus RMs formulated as douches may be a convenient alternative to gels. Nonetheless, little is known about potential users’ thoughts regarding douche-formulated RMs or rectal douching practises, data needed to inform the advancement of douche-based RMs. This qualitative study examined thoughts regarding douches, their use as a RM and current douching practises among men who have sex with men and transgender women. Methods Ten focus groups and 36 in-depth interviews were conducted (N=140) to examine the overall acceptability of RM, of which one component focused on rectal douching. Focus groups and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded; text relating to rectal douching was extracted and analysed. Sociodemographic information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results Support for a douche-formulated RM centred on the possibility of combined pre-coital hygiene and HIV protection, and it was believed that a deeply-penetrating liquid douche would confer greater HIV protection than a gel. Drawbacks included rectal dryness; impracticality and portability issues; and, potential side effects. Non-commercial douching apparatus use was common and liquids used included detergents, vinegar, bleach, lemon juice and alcohol. Conclusions A douche-formulated RM while desirable and perceived as more effective than a gel-formulated RM also generated questions regarding practicality and side-effects. Of immediate concern were the non-commercial liquids already being used which likely damage rectal epithelia, potentially increasing HIV infection risk. Pre-coital rectal douching is common and a RM formulated as such is desirable, but education on rectal douching practices is needed now. PMID:23966338

  10. Successful hemostasis of intractable rectal variceal bleeding using variceal embolization

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung Soo; Kim, Eun Hye; Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Seung Up

    2015-01-01

    Portal hypertension causes portosystemic shunting along the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in gastrointestinal varices. Rectal varices and their bleeding is a rare complication, but it can be fatal without appropriate treatment. However, because of its rarity, no established treatment strategy is yet available. In the setting of intractable rectal variceal bleeding, a transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt can be a treatment of choice to enable portal decompression and thus achieve hemostasis. However, in the case of recurrent rectal variceal bleeding despite successful transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt, alternative measures to control bleeding are required. Here, we report on a patient with liver cirrhosis who experienced recurrent rectal variceal bleeding even after successful transjugular intravenous portosystemic shunt and was successfully treated with variceal embolization. PMID:25741168

  11. Rectal diverticulum in a terrier dog: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi Mehrjerdi, Hossein; Mirshahi, Ali; Afkhami, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Rectal diverticulum is a rare condition in dogs characterized by formation of a pouch or sac due to hernial protrusion of the mucous membranes through a defect in the muscular coat of the rectum. A 12-year-old male terrier dog was admitted with a history of a left perineal swelling, dyschezia and tenesmus during the last five months. Digital rectal examination identified a weakness in the left pelvic diaphragm and feces-filled sac within the lateral wall of the rectum. Positive contrast radiography showed a marked solitary diverticulum (3.5 × 4 × 4.5 cm) with wide-orifice neck arising from the left rectal wall. Using a lateral approach, a large rectal diverticulum was found and diverticulectomy following standard herniorrhaphy was performed. The dog recovered uneventfully with no signs of dyschezia during the next three years. Diverticulectomy by lateral approach and perineal herniorrhaphy produced excellent results. PMID:25593689

  12. Rectal Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haitao; Wang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Rectal pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) will be a critical component of HIV prevention products due to the prevalence of unprotected receptive anal intercourse among men who have sex with men and heterosexual couples. Given the biological considerations of this compartment and the complexity of HIV infection, design of a successful rectal microbicide product faces a number of challenges. Important information is being compiled to begin to address deficits in knowledge toward design of rectal PrEP products for men and women. Aspects of formulation development and preclinical and clinical evaluation of rectal products studied to date are summarized in this review. This article is based on a presentation at the "Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies," held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21–22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188705

  13. Role of laparoscopy in rectal cancer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahi, Ido; Mazeh, Haggi

    2014-01-01

    Despite established evidence on the advantages of laparoscopy in colon cancer resection, the use of laparoscopy for rectal cancer resection is still controversial. The initial concern was mainly regarding the feasibility of laparoscopy to achieve an adequate total mesorectal excision specimen. These concerns have been raised following early studies demonstrating higher rates of circumferential margins positivity following laparoscopic resection, as compared to open surgery. Similar to colon resection, patients undergoing laparoscopic rectal cancer resection are expected to benefit from a shorter length of hospital stay, less analgesic requirements, and a faster recovery of bowel function. In the past decade there have been an increasing number of large scale clinical trials investigating the oncological and perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic rectal cancer resection. In this review we summarize the current literature available on laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. PMID:24803801

  14. Adult rectosigmoid junction intussusception presenting with rectal prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jing Zeng; Teo, Li Tserng; Chiu, Ming Terk

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of intussusception in adults present with chronic and nonspecifi c symptoms, and can sometimes be challenging to diagnose. We herein report on a patient w ith the rare symptom of colonic intussusceptions presenting with rectal prolapse and review the existing literature of similar case reports to discuss how to reach an accurate diagnosis. A 75-year-old woman with dementia presented with per rectal bleeding, rectal prolapse and lower abdominal pain. An operation was scheduled and a large sigmoid intussusception with a polyp as a leading point was found intraoperatively. She subsequently recovered well and was discharged. As large sigmoid intussusceptions may present as rectal prolapse, intussusception should be considered as a differential diagnosis for immobile patients, especially when the leading point is a lesion.

  15. Axillary and Rectal Temperature Measurements Poorly Agree in Newborn Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. E. Hissink Muller; L. H. van Berkel; A. J. de Beaufort

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Evaluation of the agreement between axillary temperature measurements and rectal temperature measurements in neonates. Methods: Rectal and axillary body temperatures were simultaneously measured for 3 min in 33 neonates (gestational age 25–42 weeks, weight 840–4,005 g). Two investigators performed paired measurements, one in each neonate. A single type of thermometer was used in this study: one thermometer for each

  16. Perineal repair of rectal procidentia with an elastic fabric sling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Labow; Robert J. Rubin; Barton Hoexter; Eugene P. Salvati

    1980-01-01

    The use of a Dacron®-reinforced Silastic® graft in the perineal repair of rectal procidentia offers a simple technique for\\u000a elderly and debilitated patients. Experience with this procedure in nine patients, followed for two years, indicates that\\u000a this elastic material appears to have substantial advantages over wire or synthetic mesh in the perineal repair of rectal\\u000a procidentia.

  17. Administration and Staff 598 ADMINISTRATION

    E-print Network

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    597 Administration and Staff #12;598 ADMINISTRATION Administration President ........................................... Zenaido Camacho Vice President for Finance and Administration ........................... Dean W. Currie President for Public Affairs .................................................... Terry Shepard Vice

  18. Stapled transanal rectal resection versus stapled anopexy in the cure of hemorrhoids associated with rectal prolapse. A randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Boccasanta; Marco Venturi; Giancarlo Roviaro

    2007-01-01

    Purpose  A remarkable incidence of failures after stapled axopexy (SA) for hemorrhoids has been recently reported by several papers,\\u000a with an incomplete resection of the prolapsed tissue, due to the limited volume of the stapler casing as possible cause. The\\u000a stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) was demonstrated to successfully cure the association of rectal prolapse and rectocele\\u000a by using two staplers.

  19. The influence of pH on rectal absorption of sodium benzoate studied in man by rectal lumen perfusion.

    PubMed

    Böttger, W M; Schoonen, A J; de Vries-Nijboer, G W; Visser, J; Meijer, D F

    1990-02-01

    The influence of pH on rectal absorption of sodium benzoate in man was studied by means of a rectal lumen perfusion method and compared with in vitro measurements on diffusional transport of sodium benzoate across an octanol/water interface. For nonbuffered solutions of benzoate in vitro, it was shown that mass flux across an octanol/water interface occurs in agreement with the pH-partition model. In vivo however, mass flux increases less with decreasing pH of unbuffered perfusate than is anticipated on the basis of the pH-partition model. Probably an alkaline flow across the rectal mucosa into the lumen is present as a physiological neutralization mechanism. In contrast, buffered solutions of benzoate show a linear relationship between mass flux and decreasing pH in vitro as well as in vivo. The effect of buffer on the concentration profile of benzoic acid is qualitatively explained. It is shown that an alkaline flow across the rectal mucosa only slightly influences absorption of benzoic acid from strongly buffered solutions in the rectal lumen. It is concluded that the use of strong buffers in rectal solutions induces a drastic effect on the pH of the boundary layer, an effect not seen for unbuffered solutions. This phenomenon does not invalidate the pH-partition hypothesis but can be explained by it. PMID:2329467

  20. Assessment of metabolic response to pre-operative treatment of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Abu Zallouf, S; El-Sherify, M S; Fayaz, S

    2010-07-01

    In the era of targeted therapy and high precision radiotherapy for patients with cancer, tailoring and individualization of treatment is needed more and more. In part to avoid ineffective administration of a toxic treatment to a patient that unlikely to get any benefit of it. And also to decrease the expenses of treatment and saving the drugs and resources to patients that deserve. Many predictive factors and markers are searched and well-known in many malignancies, but still rectal cancer lacks such predictors. As the pre-operative chemoradiotherapy is becoming the standard of care of treating patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma, a predictive factor, or at least an early indicator, of patient's response to treatment is needed. First, it may help to modulate the pre-operative treatment by employing another chemotherapeutic or targeted agent e.g. oxaloplatin or cetuximab instead of the standard fluorouracil compounds. It may also help to avoid continuation of unnecessary protracted course of radiotherapy for 5-6 weeks for a patient who is unlikely to achieve a satisfactory response. This will help to avoid the definite toxicity of pelvic irradiation and avoid wasting time before going to surgery. Here comes the role of imaging techniques in predicting the metabolic response such as functional computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or positron-emission tomography (PET) scan. In this review we will go through the principles, indications and benefits of employing such techniques in the assessment of response to pre-operative chemoradiotherapy of rectal cancer. PMID:20601343

  1. Original article Effect of 1-24ACTH administration on sheep blood

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Effect of 1-24ACTH administration on sheep blood granulocyte functions Saverio) and 48 (T48) hours after 1-24ACTH administration. Ten sheep serving as the controls were sampled at the same time intervals, using saline solution instead of 1-24ACTH. At each time sampling, rectal

  2. COX-2 verexpression in pretreatment biopsies predicts response of rectal cancers to neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Fraser M. [Departments of Surgery and Histopathology, and Academic Unit of Clinical and Molecular Oncology, St. James's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Reynolds, John V. [Departments of Surgery and Histopathology, and Academic Unit of Clinical and Molecular Oncology, St. James's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)]. E-mail: reynoldsjv@stjames.ie; Kay, Elaine W. [Department of Histopathology, Beaumont Hospital and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Crotty, Paul [Department of Histopathology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin (Ireland); Murphy, James O. [Departments of Surgery and Histopathology, and Academic Unit of Clinical and Molecular Oncology, St. James's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Hollywood, Donal [Departments of Surgery and Histopathology, and Academic Unit of Clinical and Molecular Oncology, St. James's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Gaffney, Eoin F. [Departments of Surgery and Histopathology, and Academic Unit of Clinical and Molecular Oncology, St. James's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Stephens, Richard B. [Departments of Surgery and Histopathology, and Academic Unit of Clinical and Molecular Oncology, St. James's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Kennedy, M. John [Departments of Surgery and Histopathology, Academic Unit of Clinical and Molecular Oncology, St. James's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the utility of COX-2 expression as a response predictor for patients with rectal cancer who are undergoing neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment biopsies (PTB) from 49 patients who underwent RCT were included. COX-2 and proliferation in PTB were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL stain. Response to treatment was assessed by a 5-point tumor-regression grade (TRG) based on the ratio of residual tumor to fibrosis. Results: Good response (TRG 1 + 2), moderate response (TRG 3), and poor response (TRG 4 + 5) were seen in 21 patients (42%), 11 patients (22%), and 17 patients (34%), respectively. Patients with COX-2 overexpression in PTB were more likely to demonstrate moderate or poor response (TRG 3 + 4) to treatment than were those with normal COX-2 expression (p = 0.026, chi-square test). Similarly, poor response was more likely if patients had low levels of spontaneous apoptosis in PTBs (p = 0.0007, chi-square test). Conclusions: COX-2 overexpression and reduced apoptosis in PTB can predict poor response of rectal cancer to RCT. As COX-2 inhibitors are commercially available, their administration to patients who overexpress COX-2 warrants assessment in clinical trials in an attempt to increase overall response rates.

  3. Sexual Function in Males After Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bruheim, Kjersti, E-mail: Kjersti.bruheim@medisin.uio.n [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Guren, Marianne G. [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Dahl, Alv A. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Clinical Cancer Research, the Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Skovlund, Eva [School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Balteskard, Lise [University Hospital of Northern Norway, Tromso (Norway); Carlsen, Erik [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Ulleval, Oslo (Norway); Fossa, Sophie D. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Clinical Cancer Research, the Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Tveit, Kjell Magne [Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval Cancer Centre, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Knowledge of sexual problems after pre- or postoperative radiotherapy (RT) with 50 Gy for rectal cancer is limited. In this study, we aimed to compare self-rated sexual functioning in irradiated (RT+) and nonirradiated (RT-) male patients at least 2 years after surgery for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients diagnosed with rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Male patients without recurrence at the time of the study. The International Index of Erectile Function, a self-rated instrument, was used to assess sexual functioning, and serum levels of serum testosterone were measured. Results: Questionnaires were returned from 241 patients a median of 4.5 years after surgery. The median age was 67 years at survey. RT+ patients (n = 108) had significantly poorer scores for erectile function, orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction with sex life compared with RT- patients (n = 133). In multiple age-adjusted analysis, the odds ratio for moderate-severe erectile dysfunction in RT+ patients was 7.3 compared with RT- patients (p <0.001). Furthermore, erectile dysfunction of this degree was associated with low serum testosterone (p = 0.01). Conclusion: RT for rectal cancer is associated with significant long-term effects on sexual function in males.

  4. Repetitive sigmoid stimulation induces rectal hyperalgesia in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Munakata; B Naliboff; F Harraf; A Kodner; T Lembo; L Chang; DH Silverman; EA Mayer

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Only a fraction of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show hypersensitivity to rectal distention. The current study sought to determine if repetitive high-pressure stimulation of sigmoid mechanoreceptors modulates perception of rectal pain and discomfort. METHODS: In 14 patients with IBS and 11 healthy controls, perception thresholds for discomfort and pain during rectal sensory tracking and verbal

  5. Prickly pear fruit bezoar presenting as rectal perforation in an elderly patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordan M. Steinberg; Arieh Eitan

    2003-01-01

    Background and aims. Prickly pear fruit rectal seed bezoars are an extremely rare entity. Only nine cases of rectal seed bezoar have been reported, only one of which involved the prickly pear fruit seed. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is also the first reported case presenting as rectal perforation.Patients and methods. We report a case of prickly pear fruit bezoar

  6. 75 FR 51080 - Determination That DIASTAT (Diazepam Rectal Gel), 5 Milligrams/Milliliter, 10 Milligrams/2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...FDA-2006-P-0386] Determination That DIASTAT (Diazepam Rectal Gel), 5 Milligrams/ Milliliter...FDA) has determined that DIASTAT (diazepam rectal gel) (DIASTAT), 5 milligrams...abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for diazepam rectal gel, 5 mg/mL, 10 mg/2...

  7. In siblings of celiac children, rectal gluten challenge reveals gluten sensitization not restricted to celiac HLA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Troncone; L Greco; M Mayer; G Mazzarella; L Maiuri; M Congia; F Frau; S De Virgiliis; S Auricchio

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammatory changes in the rectum of patients with celiac disease after local instillation of gluten have been reported. The aim of this study was to examine rectal mucosa after local gluten challenge in children with celiac disease and their siblings. METHODS: Rectal biopsy specimens were obtained before and 6 hours after rectal challenge with a peptictryptic digest

  8. Human Collagen Injections to Reduce Rectal Dose During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, William R., E-mail: noyes@cancercenternd.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Hosford, Charles C. [Department of Medical Statistics, University of North Dakota School of Medicine, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Schultz, Steven E. [Department of Urology, RiverView Health, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Objectives: The continuing search for interventions, which address the incidence and grade of rectal toxicities associated with radiation treatment of prostate cancer, is a major concern. We are reporting an investigational trial using human collagen to increase the distance between the prostate and anterior rectal wall, thereby decreasing the radiation dose to the rectum. Methods: This is a pilot study evaluating the use of human collagen as a displacing agent for the rectal wall injected before starting a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Using a transperineal approach, 20 mL of human collagen was injected into the perirectal space in an outpatient setting. Computerized IMRT plans were performed pre- and postcollagen injection, and after a patient completed their radiotherapy, to determine radiation dose reduction to the rectum associated with the collagen injection. Computed tomography scans were performed 6 months and 12 months after completing their radiotherapy to evaluate absorption rate of the collagen. All patients were treated with IMRT to a dose of 75.6 Gy to the prostate. Results: Eleven patients were enrolled into the study. The injection of human collagen in the outpatient setting was well tolerated. The mean separation between the prostate and anterior rectum was 12.7 mm. The mean reduction in dose to the anterior rectal wall was 50%. All men denied any rectal symptoms during the study. Conclusions: The transperineal injection of human collagen for the purpose of tissue displacement is well tolerated in the outpatient setting. The increased separation between the prostate and rectum resulted in a significant decrease in radiation dose to the rectum while receiving IMRT and was associated with no rectal toxicities.

  9. Continuous angiotensin II infusion increases tumour: normal blood flow ratio in colo-rectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Burke, D; Davies, M M; Zweit, J; Flower, M A; Ott, R J; Dworkin, M J; Glover, C; McCready, V R; Carnochan, P; Allen-Mersh, T G

    2001-01-01

    Insufficient blood flow within colo-rectal hepatic metastases is a factor which may limit drug delivery to, and thus the response of, these tumours to regional chemotherapy. Loco-regional flow may be manipulated pharmacologically to enhance the tumour blood flow relative to that of the normal liver. However, as yet, only transient effects have been studied. Patients receiving regional chemotherapy for unresectable hepatic disease were given a 45?min regional infusion of the vasoconstrictor Angiotensin II. Intrahepatic blood flow distribution was assessed serially by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging together with the trapping tracer copper(II) pyruvaldehyde bis(N-4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-PTSM) labelled using copper-62. Eleven lesions in nine patients were studied, with no adverse effects. Prior to Angiotensin II administration tumour blood flow was generally found to be greater than that of liver (10/11 lesions; 8/9 patients; median TNR 1.3, iqr 0.9–2.5). A significant increase in relative flow to tumour was seen in response to 10?min Angiotensin II infusion in most cases (7/11 lesions; 7/9 patients; median TNR 2.1, iqr 1.4–4.1; P = 0.008), which appeared to be sustained throughout the 45?min infusion period (median TNR 1.85, iqr 1.3–3.8; P = 0.03). These effects were accompanied by transient elevation of mean arterial pressure, but no change in pulse rate. These observations suggest that prolonged regional vasoconstrictor administration could prove useful in the management of unresectable colo-rectal hepatic metastases, and that further development of vascular manipulation to enhance tumour targeting and drug delivery is warranted. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11742481

  10. Pre-referral rectal artesunate for severe malaria

    PubMed Central

    Okebe, Joseph; Eisenhut, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe or complicated malaria is a medical emergency and people die as a result of delays in starting treatment. Most patients need parenteral treatment, and in primary healthcare facilities, where intravenous therapy is not available but intramuscular injections can be given, intramuscular quinine, artesunate, and artemether have been used before transporting patients to hospital. However, in rural settings with limited access to health care, intramuscular injections may also be unavailable. In these situations, rectal artesunate given prior to transfer to hospital by volunteers with little medical training, may be a feasible option. Objectives To evaluate the effects of pre-referral treatment with rectal artesunate on mortality and morbidity in people with severe malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE and LILACS up to 21 May 2014. We also searched the WHO clinical trial registry platform and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) for ongoing trials. Selection criteria Individual or cluster-randomized controlled trials comparing pre-referral rectal artesunate with placebo or injectable antimalarials in children and children with severe malaria. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts for potentially eligible trials, and extracted data from the included trials. Dichotomous outcomes were summarized using risk ratios (RR) and presented with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Where data allowed, we conducted subgroup analyses by age, trial region and whether participants were included in the trial analysis. We assessed the quality of evidence for the most important outcomes using the GRADE approach. Main results One trial met the inclusion criteria; a placebo-controlled trial of 17,826 children and adults living in rural villages in Ghana and Tanzania (Africa) and Bangladesh (Asia). Villagers with no previous medical training were trained to recognize the symptoms of severe malaria, administer rectal artesunate and refer patients to hospital. The trained villagers were supervised during the trial period. In the African sites only children aged 6 to 72 months were enrolled, whereas in Bangladesh, older children and adults were also enrolled. In young children (aged 6 to 72 months) there were fewer deaths following rectal artesunate than with placebo (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.93; one trial; 8050 participants; moderate quality evidence), while in older children and adults there were more deaths in those given rectal artesunate (RR 2.21; 95% CI 1.18 to 4.15; one trial; 4018 participants; low quality evidence). In Africa, only 56% of participants reached a secondary healthcare facility within six hours compared to over 90% in Asia. There were no differences between the intervention and control groups in the proportion of participants reaching a healthcare facility within six hours (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.01; 12,068 participants), or in the proportion with parasitaemia (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.02; 17,826 participants), or with coma or convulsions on arrival (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.14; 12,068 participants). There are no existing trials that compare rectal versus intramuscular artesunate. Authors' conclusions In rural areas without access to injectable antimalarials rectal artesunate provided before transfer to a referral facility probably reduces mortality in severely ill young children compared to referral without treatment. However, the unexpected finding of possible higher mortality in older children and adults has to be taken into account in forming any national or local policies about pre-referral rectal artesunate. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Rectal artesunate for treating people with suspected severe malaria before transfer to hospital Cochrane Collaboration researchers conducted a review of the effects of pre-referral rectal artesunate for people with suspected severe malaria, living in rural areas without healthcare services. After searching for all

  11. The Expression Level and Prognostic Value of Y-Box Binding Protein-1 in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Ping-Wu; Feng, Gang; Xie, Gang; Wang, An-Qun; Yang, Yong-Hong; Wang, Dong; Du, Xiao-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to simultaneously evaluate the expression of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) in non-neoplastic rectal tissue and rectal cancer tissue, and to collect clinical follow-up data for individual patients. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the developmental functions and prognostic value of YB-1 in rectal cancer. We performed immunohistochemical studies to examine YB-1 expression in tissue samples from 80 patients with rectal cancer, 30 patients with rectal tubular adenoma, and 30 patients with rectitis. The mean YB-1 histological scores for rectal cancer, rectal tubular adenoma, and rectitis tissue specimens were 205.5, 164.3, and 137.7, respectively. Shorter disease-free and overall survival times were found in patients with rectal cancer who had higher YB-1 expression than in those with lower expression (38.2 months vs. 52.4 months, P = 0.013; and 44.4 months vs. 57.3 months, P = 0.008, respectively). Our results indicate that YB-1 expression is higher in rectal cancer tissue than in rectal tubular adenoma and rectitis tissue and that it may be an independent prognostic factor for rectal cancer. PMID:25790262

  12. Ruptured rectal duplication with urogenital abnormality: Unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailesh; Babu, M Narendra; Jadhav, Vinay; Shankar, Gowri; Santhanakrishnan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Rectal duplication (RD) accounts for 5% of alimentary tract duplication. A varied presentation and associated anomalies have been described in the literature. Antenatal rupture of the RD is very rare. We present an unusual case of a ruptured RD associated with urogenital abnormalities in newborn male. We are discussing diagnosis, embryology, management and literature review of ruptured RD. PMID:25552833

  13. Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

  14. Anterior sagittal approach without splitting the rectal wall

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Mila Torii Corrêa; Fachin, Camila Girardi; de Albuquerque Maranhão, Renato Frota; Shida, Márcia Emília Francisco; Martins, José Luiz

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The anterior sagittal transrectal approach (ASTRA) has already become popular to treat lesions in the proximal urethra such as trauma, duplicity and stenosis, prostatic utricle, urethral–vaginal fistulas and urogenital sinus anomalies. It provides much better exposure than the traditional perineal approach. Morbidity caused by this technique could be potentially decreased if the anterior sagittal access were to be made without sectioning the rectum. We report our initial experience using anterior approach without rectal sectioning for the treatment of three different types of pelvic disorders. PRESENTATION OF CASE Anterior sagittal access without sectioning the rectal wall was carried out in three different clinical cases – a vaginoplasty in a female patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia; to treat paradoxical urinary incontinence in a patient with proximal hypospadias (46XY karyotype) and another one with gonadal dysgenesis (46XO/XY karyotype). DISCUSSION Several surgical techniques have been reported to repair congenital or acquired lesions in the posterior urethra with high morbidity and no guarantees of adequate and safe surgical exposition. ASTRA provides an excellent exposure, splitting only the anterior rectal wall. In this study, the anterior sagittal approach was applied without splitting the rectal wall to repair different posterior urethral anomalies, providing excellent exposure without compromising the fecal continence mechanism. CONCLUSION The anterior sagittal approach without splitting the rectum is a feasible procedure which provides excellent exposure to the posterior urethra in most cases and leads to less morbidity as it avoids the splitting and suturing of the rectum anterior wall. PMID:23811390

  15. Interexaminer variability of digital rectal examination in detecting prostate cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah S. Smith; William J. Catalona

    1995-01-01

    Objectives.Digital rectal examination (DRE) is an important method of prostate cancer detection used by primary care physicians and medical specialists to identify patients in whom a prostatic biopsy is warranted. However, there is little empirical evidence assessing the degree of interexaminer variability in the use of DRE for the detection of prostate cancer. We addressed this issue within the framework

  16. Vaginal and rectal infection of cats with feline immunodeficiency virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah A. Bishop; Christopher R. Stokes; Timothy J. Gruffydd-Jones; Christine V. Whiting; David A. Harbour

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of vaginal and rectal mucosal routes for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) uptake and infection, as a model of mucosal HIV infection, and to determine the fate of virus at these mucosal sites following transmission of infection. SPF cats were exposed to FIV isolates (PET, GL-8, T637), administered as either cell-associated

  17. Treatment of detrusor instability with oxybutynin rectal suppositories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Winkler; P. K. Sand

    1998-01-01

    Our aim was to determine whether oxybutynin hydrochloride suppositories can be used as a treatment for detrusor instability in patients who have not been able to tolerate oral pharmacological agents. A retrospective chart review of 25 women diagnosed with detrusor instability and treated with oxybutynin rectal suppositories was conducted. Each suppository contained 5 mg oxybutynin, 15 mg micronized Sila gel,

  18. Sexual function after treatment for rectal cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Ho, Vanessa P; Lee, Yoori; Stein, Sharon L; Temple, Larissa K F

    2011-01-01

    Sexual function is one element of QOL that may be significantly altered following treatment for rectal cancer, but the incidence and contributing risk factors are generally poorly understood. Nevertheless, the impact of rectal cancer therapy on sexual function should be conveyed to patients preoperatively. In addition to helping patients evolve realistic expectations, it will help clinicians identify those for whom interventions may be appropriate. In the past 10 years, there has been an increase in the number of studies reporting sexual dysfunction following rectal cancer treatment. However, these studies are difficult to interpret collectively for a variety of reasons. Most importantly, sexual dysfunction lacks a standardized definition, which leads to poor comparability between studies. The best inclusive definitions describe sexual dysfunction as a collection of distinct symptoms, which differ for men and women. The absence of sexual activity is sometimes used as a surrogate for sexual dysfunction, but this is confounded by an individual's desire and opportunity for sexual activity, and may not be an accurate reflection of physiologic functionality. Additional factors complicating assimilation of studies include the absence of baseline data, missing data, small sample sizes, and heterogeneity in use of validated and nonvalidated instruments. The purpose of this article is to systematically review the contemporary literature reporting sexual function after rectal surgery to determine the overall risk of sexual dysfunction, evaluate possible contributing factors, and identify questions that should be addressed in future studies. PMID:21160322

  19. Rectal angiolipoma: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kacar, Sabite; Kuran, Sedef; Temucin, Tulay; Odemis, Bulent; Karadeniz, Nilufer; Sasmaz, Nurgul

    2007-01-01

    Angiolipoma is a rare vascular variant of the benign lipomatous tumors and is generally seen in subcutaneous tissues. We report a 70-year-old female with abdominal distension not related to rectal small polypoid mass with peduncule described as angiolipoma by histologically, and review the literature. PMID:17457984

  20. Intraoperative radiation therapy in integrated treatment of rectal cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Sofo; Carlo Ratto; Giovanni Battista Doglietto; Vincenzo Valentini; Lucio Trodella; Massimo Ippoliti; Paolo Nucera; Marta Merico; Rocco Bellantone; Maurizio Bossola; Numa Cellini; Francesco Crucitti

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: Risk of local recurrence of rectal cancer remains high despite extensive therapeutic strategies, many of which have been tried to achieve better local control (i.e., external beam radiation therapy (EBRT)). Recently, intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) has been introduced in clinical protocols to boost the areas at risk of local recurrence. METHODS: Between April 1990 and December 1995, 44 patients

  1. Higher rectal temperatures in co-sleeping infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C S Tuffnell; S A Petersen; M P Wailoo

    1996-01-01

    The effect on deep body temperature of infants co-sleeping (with either or both parents) is investigated in this case control study. Overnight continuous recordings of rectal temperature were made from 34 babies co-sleeping with one or both parents throughout the night and 34 infants matched for age, feeding regimen, parental smoking, thermal environment, sleeping position, and sex who slept alone.

  2. Rectal-skin temperature difference in septicaemic newborn infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Messaritakis; D Anagnostakis; H Laskari; C Katerelos

    1990-01-01

    Serial skin (sole) and rectal temperatures were simultaneously taken from 55 healthy and 26 septicaemic newborn infants to find out prospectively whether septicaemic newborn infants have any thermoregulatory reaction to the septicaemia, and whether regular temperature measurements could help in the early diagnosis of septicaemia. The septicaemic infants were divided into three groups: the first comprised eight feverish infants, the

  3. Comparison between rectal and infrared skin temperature in the newborn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario De Curtis; Flaminia Calzolari; Alessandra Marciano; Viviana Cardilli; Gianvincenzo Barba

    2008-01-01

    The reliability of measurement of body temperature using a new infrared skin thermometer was evaluated in 107 newborns. The use of the device was associated with low operator-related variability and acceptable limits of agreement with the temperature measured with a rectal mercury thermometer. Use of the infrared skin thermometer is a comfortable and reliable way of measurement of body temperature

  4. Quantification of Histologic Regression of Rectal Cancer After Irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. D. Wheeler; B. F. Warren; N. J. Mc C. Mortensen; N. Ekanyaka; H. Kulacoglu; A. C. Jones; B. D. George; M. G. W. Kettlewell

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Long-course preoperative radiotherapy has been recommended for rectal carcinoma when there is concern about the ability to perform a curative resection, for example, in larger tethered tumors or those sited anteriorly or near the anal sphincter. “Downstaging” of the tumor may occur, and this is of importance when estimating the prognosis and selecting postoperative therapy for patients. We studied

  5. Tumeur stromale rectale: à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Rejab, Haitham; Kridis, Wala Ben; Ben Ameur, Hazem; Feki, Jihene; Frikha, Mounir; Beyrouti, Mohamed Issam

    2014-01-01

    Les tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales sont des tumeurs mésenchymateuses peu fréquentes. Elles sont localisées préférentiellement eu niveau de l'estomac. La localisation rectale reste rare. A un nouveau cas de tumeur stromale du rectum ainsi qu'une bref revue de la littérature, on se propose d’étudier les particularités cliniques, radiologiques et thérapeutiques de cette entité rare. PMID:25120863

  6. Three-dimensional endosonography for staging of rectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hünerbein, M; Schlag, P M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This prospective study was conducted to investigate the value of three-dimensional (3D) endosonography for staging of rectal cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Transrectal ultrasound is the most sensitive technique for peroperative staging and follow-up of rectal cancer. Major limitations of this technique include the complexity of image interpretation and the inability to examine stenotic tumors or to identify recurrent rectal cancer. METHODS: Three-dimensional endosonography was performed in 100 patients with rectal tumors. Transrectal volume scans were obtained using a 3D multiplane transducer (7.5/10.0 MHz). Stenotic tumors were examined with a 3D frontfire transducer (5.0/7.5 MHz). The volume scans were processed and analyzed on a Combison 530 workstation (Kretztechnik, Zipf, Austria). RESULTS: The 3D endosonography and conventional endosonography were performed in 49 patients with nonstenotic rectal cancer. Display of volume data in three perpendicular planes or as 3D view facilitated the interpretation of ultrasound images and enhanced the diagnostic information of the data. The accuracy of 3D endosonography in the assessment of infiltration depth was 88% compared to 82% with the conventional technique. In the determination of lymph node involvement, 3D and two-dimensional endosonography provided accuracy rates of 79% and 74%, respectively. The 3D scanning allowed the visualization of obstructing tumors using reconstructed planes in front of the transducer. Correct assessment of the infiltration depth was possible in 15 of 21 patients with obstructing tumors (accuracy, 76%). Three-dimensional endosonography displayed suspicious pararectal lesions in 30 patients. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy was extremely precise (accuracy, 98%) and showed malignancy in 10 of 30 patients. Histologic analysis changed the endosonographic diagnosis in 8 (27%) of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: The 3D endosonography permits examination of rectal cancer using previously unattainable planes and 3D views. The 3D imaging and ultrasound-guided biopsy seem capable to improve staging of rectal cancer and should be evaluated in further studies. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9114803

  7. Colostomy and drainage for civilian rectal injuries: is that all?

    PubMed Central

    Burch, J M; Feliciano, D V; Mattox, K L

    1989-01-01

    One hundred consecutive patients with injuries to the extraperitoneal rectum were treated over a ten-year period at an urban trauma center. The mechanisms of injury included firearms in 82 patients, stab wounds in 3 patients, a variety of other penetrating injuries in 10 patients, and in 5 patients the injuries resulted from blunt trauma. Treatment of the rectal injury was determined by the bias of the operating surgeon, the condition of the patient, and the magnitude of the rectal injury. Proximal loop colostomies were performed in 44 patients, diverting colostomies in 51 patients, Hartmann's procedure in 4 patients, and an abdominoperineal resection in 1 patient. Extraperitoneal rectal perforations were closed in 21 patients and the rectum was irrigated free of feces in 46 patients. Transperineal, presacral drainage was used in 93 patients. Infectious complications potentially related to the management of the rectal wound occurred in 11 patients (11%) and included abdominal or pelvic abscesses (4 patients), wound infections (6 patients), rectocutaneous fistulas (3 patients), and missile tract infections (2 patients). Four patients (4%) died as a result of their injuries. Of the therapeutic options available, statistical analysis revealed that only the failure to drain the presacral space increased the likelihood of infectious complications (p = 0.03); however, as it could not be determined with certainty that the use of, or failure to use, any particular therapeutic option had an effect on the risk of death. It is concluded that colostomy and drainage are the foundations of the successful treatment of civilian injuries to the extraperitoneal rectum. The use of adjuncts such as diverting colostomies, repair of the rectal wound, and irrigation of the rectum has little effect on mortality and morbidity. PMID:2705824

  8. Rectal Dose and Source Strength of the High-Dose-Rate Iridium-192 Both Affect Late Rectal Bleeding After Intracavitary Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Isohashi, Fumiaki, E-mail: isohashi@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.j [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Division of Medical Physics, Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reconfirm our previous findings that the rectal dose and source strength both affect late rectal bleeding after high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT), by using a rectal dose calculated in accordance with the definitions of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 (ICRU{sub RP}) or of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters by the Groupe Europeen de Curietherapie of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. Methods and Materials: Sixty-two patients who underwent HDR-ICBT and were followed up for 1 year or more were studied. The rectal dose for ICBT was calculated by using the ICRP{sub RP} based on orthogonal radiographs or the DVH parameters based on computed tomography (CT). The total dose was calculated as the biologically equivalent dose expressed in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). The relationship between averaged source strength or the EQD{sub 2} and late rectal bleeding was then analyzed. Results: When patients were divided into four groups according to rectal EQD{sub 2} ({>=} or =} or <2.4 cGy.m{sup 2}.h{sup -1}), the group with both a high EQD{sub 2} and a high source strength showed a significantly greater probability of rectal bleeding for ICRU{sub RP}, D{sub 2cc}, and D{sub 1cc}. The patients with a median rectal dose above the threshold level did not show a greater frequency of rectal bleeding unless the source strength exceeded 2.4 cGy.m{sup 2}.h{sup -1}. Conclusions: Our results obtained with data based on ICRU{sub RP} and CT-based DVH parameters indicate that rectal dose and source strength both affect rectal bleeding after HDR-ICBT.

  9. Prognostic Factors Affecting Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer and Clinical Significance of Hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany)], E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Kuhn, Hildegard [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Schultze, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Homann, Nils [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Brandenburg, Bernd; Schulte, Rainer [Center for Radiotherapy and Radiology, Luebeck (Germany); Krull, Andreas [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg, Eppendorf (Germany); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate potential prognostic factors, including hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy, for associations with survival and local control in patients with unirradiated locally recurrent rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: Ten potential prognostic factors were investigated in 94 patients receiving radiotherapy for recurrent rectal cancer: age ({<=}68 vs. {>=}69 years), gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0-1 vs. 2-3), American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage ({<=}II vs. III vs. IV), grading (G1-2 vs. G3), surgery, administration of chemotherapy, radiation dose (equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions: {<=}50 vs. >50 Gy), and hemoglobin levels before (<12 vs. {>=}12 g/dL) and during (majority of levels: <12 vs. {>=}12 g/dL) radiotherapy. Multivariate analyses were performed, including hemoglobin levels, either before or during radiotherapy (not both) because these are confounding variables. Results: Improved survival was associated with better performance status (p < 0.001), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.023), surgery (p = 0.011), chemotherapy (p = 0.003), and hemoglobin levels {>=}12 g/dL both before (p = 0.031) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, performance status, AJCC stage, and hemoglobin levels during radiotherapy maintained significance. Improved local control was associated with better performance status (p = 0.040), lower AJCC stage (p = 0.010), lower grading (p = 0.012), surgery (p < 0.001), chemotherapy (p < 0.001), and hemoglobin levels {>=}12 g/dL before (p < 0.001) and during (p < 0.001) radiotherapy. On multivariate analyses, chemotherapy, grading, and hemoglobin levels before and during radiotherapy remained significant. Subgroup analyses of the patients having surgery demonstrated the extent of resection to be significantly associated with local control (p = 0.011) but not with survival (p = 0.45). Conclusion: Predictors for outcome in patients who received radiotherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer were performance status, AJCC stage, chemotherapy, surgery, extent of resection, histologic grading, and hemoglobin levels both before and during radiotherapy.

  10. DEER RECTAL TEMPERATURES * Demarais et al. 705DEER RECTAL TEMPERATURES * Demarais et al. 705 SAS INSTITUTEINC. 1982. SAS user's guide: statis-

    E-print Network

    Beier, Paul

    DEER RECTAL TEMPERATURES * Demarais et al. 705DEER RECTAL TEMPERATURES * Demarais et al. 705 SAS. Fastingmetabolismof white- tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage.33:490-498. WEISFELD, G. E. 1982. An extensionof the stress. Fastingmetabolismof white- tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage.33:490-498. WEISFELD, G. E. 1982. An extensionof the stress

  11. Revised Tumor and Node Categorization for Rectal Cancer Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results and Rectal Pooled Analysis Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Leonard L.; Jessup, John Milburn; Sargent, Daniel J.; Greene, Frederick L.; Stewart, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The sixth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) rectal cancer staging subdivided stage II into IIA (T3N0) and IIB (T4N0) and stage III into IIIA (T1-2N1M0), IIIB (T3-4N1M0), and IIIC (anyTN2M0). Subsequent analyses supported revised substaging of stage III as a result of improved survival with T1-2N2 versus T3-4N2 and survival of T4N1 more similar to T3-4N2 than T3N1. The AJCC Hindgut Taskforce sought population-based validation that depth of invasion interacts with nodal status to affect survival. Methods Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data from January 1992 to December 2004 for 35,829 patients with rectal cancer were compared with rectal pooled analysis data (3,791 patients). T4N0 cancers were stratified by tumors that perforate visceral peritoneum (T4a) versus tumors that invade or are adherent to adjacent organs or structures (T4b). N1 and N2 were stratified by number of positive nodes as follows: N1a/N1b (one v two to three nodes) and N2a/N2b (four to six v ? seven nodes). Five-year observed and relative survival rates were obtained for each TN category. Results SEER rectal cancer analyses confirm that T1-2N2 cancers have better prognosis than T3-4N2, T4bN1 have similar prognosis to T4N2, T1-2N1 have similar prognosis to T2N0/T3N0, and T1-2N2a have similar prognosis to T2N0/T3N0 (T1N2a) or T4aN0 (T2N2a). Prognosis for T4a lesions is better than T4b by N category. The number of positive nodes affects prognosis. Conclusion This SEER population-based rectal cancer analysis validates the rectal pooled analyses and supports the shift of T1-2N2 lesions from IIIC to IIIA or IIIB and T4bN1 from IIIB to IIIC. SEER outcomes support subdividing T4, N1, and N2 and revised substaging of stages II and III. Survival by TN category suggests a complex biologic interaction between depth of invasion and nodal status. PMID:19949015

  12. Proctitis and rectal stenosis induced by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory suppositories.

    PubMed

    D'Haens, G; Breysem, Y; Rutgeerts, P; van Besien, B; Geboes, K; Ponette, E; Vantrappen, G

    1993-10-01

    Anorectal ulceration eventually leading to rectal stenosis was observed in 10 patients who abused analgetic suppositories containing acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen, and codeine. Most patients were middle-aged women with a neurotic or psychiatric background. Perianal skin lesions were present in half of the patients. The endoscopic aspect of the sharply demarcated distal rectal lesions with squamous and transitional epithelium (anoderm) ascending from the anal canal was rather typical, but the appearances on biopsy were nonspecific. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms include mucosal prostaglandin depletion secondary to blockade of cyclooxygenase and shift to lipoxygenase products in the arachidonic acid cascade. Treatment options include drug cessation, topical steroids, and endoscopic dilation. Supporting psychological therapy often is necessary. PMID:8228081

  13. Robotic technology: Optimizing the outcomes in rectal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Buchs, Nicolas C

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive rectal resection remains a challenging procedure, even in experienced hands. Technical limitations explain at least in part the reasons of a relatively poor adoption of laparoscopy for rectal resection, in particular for low tumors in a deep and narrow pelvis. Robotics is intended to overcome these limitations. Potentially better short-term outcomes have been published: reduced conversion rates, better functional outcomes, shorter learning curve, reduction of positive margins, better specimen… However, robotic surgery has not yet taken over as the gold standard approach for low anterior resection. Several drawbacks might indeed discourage the most fervent surgeon: the size of the robot, the lack of tactile feedback, the risk and difficulties during multiquadrant surgery, and, of course, costs. Whilst new systems might overcome most of these drawbacks, it seems obvious that the development of robotic surgery is underway. Robotics is not just another interesting technical tool, but more a new concept, which should play a role in the future.

  14. Robotic technology: Optimizing the outcomes in rectal cancer?

    PubMed

    Buchs, Nicolas C

    2015-06-10

    Minimally invasive rectal resection remains a challenging procedure, even in experienced hands. Technical limitations explain at least in part the reasons of a relatively poor adoption of laparoscopy for rectal resection, in particular for low tumors in a deep and narrow pelvis. Robotics is intended to overcome these limitations. Potentially better short-term outcomes have been published: reduced conversion rates, better functional outcomes, shorter learning curve, reduction of positive margins, better specimen… However, robotic surgery has not yet taken over as the gold standard approach for low anterior resection. Several drawbacks might indeed discourage the most fervent surgeon: the size of the robot, the lack of tactile feedback, the risk and difficulties during multiquadrant surgery, and, of course, costs. Whilst new systems might overcome most of these drawbacks, it seems obvious that the development of robotic surgery is underway. Robotics is not just another interesting technical tool, but more a new concept, which should play a role in the future. PMID:26078918

  15. Clinical application of multimodality imaging in radiotherapy treatment planning for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan Yang; Zhe, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of rectal cancer. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy are mainstay techniques of radiotherapy for rectal cancer. However, the success of these techniques is heavily reliant on accurate target delineation and treatment planning. Computed tomography simulation is a cornerstone of rectal cancer radiotherapy, but there are limitations, such as poor soft-tissue contrast between pelvic structures and partial volume effects. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) can overcome these limitations and provide additional information for rectal cancer treatment planning. PET can also reduce the interobserver variation in the definition of rectal tumor volume. However, there is a long way to go before these image modalities are routinely used in the clinical setting. This review summarizes the most promising studies on clinical applications of multimodality imaging in target delineation and treatment planning for rectal cancer radiotherapy. PMID:24334539

  16. Hyperthermia in the multimodal therapy of advanced rectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wust, P; Gellermann, J; Rau, B; Löffel, J; Speidel, A; Stahl, H; Riess, H; Vogl, T J; Felix, R; Schlag, P M

    1996-01-01

    The synergistic effects of hyperthermia (raising temperatures to 40 degrees C and above) when combined with radiotherapy and cytotoxic drugs and a modulation of immunological phenomena have been demonstrated in the laboratory. Pre-clinical data relating to hyperthermia are summed up, along with their implications for clinical application. Controlled studies of local and regional hyperthermia have been performed during recent years, and these show us that the adjunction of hyperthermia provides at least an improvement of local control compared with radiotherapy alone. Current clinical results are summarized. Therapy systems based on radiowave irradiation have been commercially available for regional hyperthermia of the pelvis since the mid 1980s. This technology allows us to perform sufficiently tolerable and effective regional hyperthermia on rectal carcinomas. Used as part of curative preoperative and postoperative multimodal therapeutic strategies, hyperthermia can lead to improvement in local control (resectability, down-staging, progression-free time, recurrence rate), at least for certain risk groups. The preoperative radio-chemo-thermotherapy of advanced primary and recurring rectal carcinoma, uT3/4, was tested in a phase-I/II study of 20 patients. Therapy procedure, acute toxicity, thermal parameters, and response are described and discussed for this patient group. The regimen proved to be sufficiently tolerable, and complications did not occur. Tumor resection was performed on 14 of the 20 patients; 13 of the procedures were R0-resections and one was an R2 resection. In 64% of the resected rectal carcinomas, histopathological down-staging of the pretherapeutic endosonographical stadium was achieved; in three of the patients, despite continued non-resectability, local control has now been maintained for more than 12 months. In two patients with nonresectable rectal carcinomas, local progress was seen during the neoadjuvant combination therapy. PMID:8893348

  17. Frequency of HER-2 positivity in rectal cancer and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Conradi, Lena-Christin; Styczen, Hanna; Sprenger, Thilo; Wolff, Hendrik A; Rödel, Claus; Nietert, Manuel; Homayounfar, Kia; Gaedcke, Jochen; Kitz, Julia; Talaulicar, Recca; Becker, Heinz; Ghadimi, Michael; Middel, Peter; Beissbarth, Tim; Rüschoff, Josef; Liersch, Torsten

    2013-04-01

    In patients with advanced rectal cancer (cUICC II and III) multimodality therapy resulted in better long-term local tumor control. Ongoing clinical trials are focusing on therapy intensification to improve disease-free (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS), the integration of biomarkers for prediction of individual recurrence risk, and the identification of new targets. In this context, we investigated HER-2, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, whose expression pattern and role was unclear in rectal cancer. A total of 264 patients (192 male, 72 female; median age 64 y) received standardized multidisciplinary treatment according to protocols of phase II/III trials of the German Rectal Cancer Study Group. HER-2 status was determined in pretherapeutic biopsies and resection specimens using immunohistochemistry scoring and detection of silver in situ hybridization amplification. Tumors with an immunohistochemistry score of 3 or silver in situ hybridization ratios of ?2.0 were classified HER-2 positive; these results were correlated with clinicopathologic parameters [eg, resection (R) status, nodal status ((y)pN)], DFS, and CSS. Positive HER-2 status was found in 12.4% of biopsies and in 26.7% of resected specimens. With a median follow-up of 46.5 months, patients with HER-2 positivity showed in trend a better DFS (P=0.1) and a benefit in CSS (P=0.03). The 5-year survival rate was 96.0% (HER-2 positive) versus 80.0% (HER-2 negative). In univariate and multivariate analyses, HER-2 was an independent predictor for CSS (0.02) along with the (y)pN status (P<0.00001) and R status (P=0.011). HER-2 amplification is detectable in a relevant proportion (26.7%) of rectal cancer patients. For the development of innovative new therapies, HER-2 may represent a promising target and should be further assessed within prospective clinical trials. PMID:23282976

  18. Current status of quality measurement in colon and rectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Formosa; Shivarani, Sepideh; Yoo, James

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing pressure from the public and insurance payors for transparency and accountability in ensuring the quality of health care. In response to this, hospitals are now mandated to participate in quality improvement initiatives, and to report on their performance. This article describes three programs related to the measurement of quality that impact colon and rectal surgery: the Surgical Care Improvement Project, the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, and the Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program. PMID:24587699

  19. Gender-related differences in rectal temperature in human neonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emese Nagy

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the gender-related differences in human neonates' body temperature. Rectal temperatures of 101 newborns (52 girls and 49 boys) were measured using a calibrated glass-mercury thermometer five times during their first 5 days of life. Results show that the temperature of males, averaged over 5 days, was significantly lower (37.068°C) than that of

  20. Correction of rectal procidentia by use of polypropylene mesh (Marlex)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max I. Lomas; Howard Cooperman

    1972-01-01

    Summary and Conclusions  A simple rapid method for the correction of rectal procidentia by the use of polypropylene mesh (Marlex) is described. The\\u000a excellent results of this procedure make it preferable to any other. The material used gives the impression that an external\\u000a sphincter is present immediately postoperatively. It is hoped that this technic will permit treatment of the elderly patient

  1. Intensified neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy for rectal cancer enhances surgical complications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy has proven superior to adjuvant treatment in reducing the rate of local recurrence without impairing cancer related survival or the incidence of distant metastases. The present study aimed at addressing the effects of an intensified protocol of neoadjuvant treatment on the development of postoperative complications. Methods A total of 387 patients underwent oncological resection for rectal cancer in our institution between January 2000 and December 2009. 106 patients received an intensified radiochemotherapy. Perioperative morbidity and mortality were analyzed retrospectively with special attention on complication rates after intensified radio-chemotherapy. Therefore, for each patient subjected to neoadjuvant treatment a patient without neoadjuvant treatment was matched in the following order for tumor height, discontinuous resection/exstirpation, T-category of the TNM-system, dividing stoma and UICC stage. Results Of all patients operated for rectal cancer, 27.4% received an intensified neoadjuvant treatment. Tumor location in the matched patients were in the lower third (55.2%), middle third (41.0%) and upper third (3.8%) of the rectum. Postoperatively, surgical morbidity was higher after intensified neoadjuvant treatment. In the subgroup with low anterior resection (LAR) the anastomosis leakage rate was higher (26.6% vs. 9.7%) and in the subgroup of patients with rectal exstirpations the perineal wound infection rate was increased (42.2% vs. 18.8%) after intensified radiochemotherapy. Conclusions In rectal cancer the decision for an intensified neoadjuvant treatment comes along with an increase of anastomotic leakage and perineal wound infection. Quality of life is often reduced considerably and has to be balanced against the potential benefit of intensifying neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. PMID:24073705

  2. Rectal lymphogranuloma venereum surveillance in France 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Herida, M; de Barbeyrac, B; Sednaoui, P; Scieux, C; Lemarchand, N; Kreplak, G; Clerc, M; Timsit, J; Goulet, V; Desenclos, J C; Semaille, Caroline

    2006-09-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis strains belonging to the L1, L2 or L3 genotype. An alert about an outbreak of LGV among MSM in the Netherlands was published in January 2004. The first cases of rectal LGV in France were retrospectively diagnosed in March 2004 and sentinel surveillance for LGV was implemented in April 2004. Most of the participating centres were located in the cities of Paris and Bordeaux. Only confirmed rectal LGV cases were included in the surveillance. Rectal specimens from men that were found to be positive for C trachomatis by PCR were sent to the National Reference Centre for Chlamydia infection for genotyping. Simple epidemiological data provided by clinicians and genotyping results were sent to the Institut de Veille Sanitaire (InVS) where data were anonymously recorded. A total of 328 C. trachomatis rectal strains isolated in men were genotyped by the end of December 2005. Of these, 244 (74%) were LGV strains belonging to the L2 genotype. No L1 or L3 C. trachomatis genotype was found. Diagnosis was made retrospectively for 46 cases. The median age of patients with LGV was 39 years. HIV status was known for 96 patients: 82/96 (85%) were HIV-infected. Most LGV cases were diagnosed in the Paris area (92%). Among the remaining 26% C. trachomatis strains, genotypes Da and G were the most frequent. As with syphilis in recent years, the emergence of LGV in Europe is mainly affecting HIV-infected MSM. The screening and treatment of STIs should be included in the clinical follow-up of all HIV-infected MSM. PMID:17075158

  3. Laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Chan, Dedrick Kok-Hong; Chong, Choon-Seng; Lieske, Bettina; Tan, Ker-Kan

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer is a well-established procedure supported by several well-conducted large-scale randomised controlled trials. Patients could now be conferred the benefits of the minimally invasive approach while retaining comparable oncologic outcomes to the open approach. However, the benefits of laparoscopic proctectomy for rectal cancer remained controversial. While the laparoscopic approach is more technically demanding, results from randomised controlled trials regarding long term oncologic outcomes are only beginning to be reported. The impacts of bladder and sexual functions following proctectomy are considerable and are important contributing factors to the patients' quality of life in the long-term. These issues present a delicate dilemma to the surgeon in his choice of operative approach in tackling rectal cancer. This is compounded further by the rapid proliferation of various laparoscopic techniques including the hand assisted, robotic assisted, and single port laparoscopy. This review article aims to draw on the significant studies which have been conducted to highlight the short- and long-term outcomes and evidence for laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer. PMID:24822196

  4. When is local excision appropriate for "early" rectal cancer?

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kotaro; Koide, Yoshikazu; Katsuno, Hidetoshi

    2014-11-01

    Local excision is increasingly performed for "early stage" rectal cancer in the US; however, local recurrence after local excision has become a controversial issue in Western countries. Local recurrence is considered to originate based on the type of tumor and procedure performed, and in surgical margin-positive cases. This review focuses on the inclusion criteria of "early" rectal cancers for local excision from the Western and Japanese points of view. "Early" rectal cancer is defined as T1 cancer in the rectum. Only the tumor grade and depth of invasion are the "high risk" factors which can be evaluated before treatment. T1 cancers with sm1 or submucosal invasion <1,000 ?m are considered to be "low risk" tumors with less than 3.2 % nodal involvement, and are considered to be candidates for local excision as the sole curative surgery. Tumors with a poor tumor grade should be excluded from local excision. Digital examination, endoscopy or proctoscopy with biopsy, a barium enema study and endorectal ultrasonography are useful for identifying "low risk" or excluding "high risk" factors preoperatively for a comprehensive diagnosis. The selection of an initial local treatment modality is also considered to be important according to the analysis of the nodal involvement rate after initial local treatment and after radical surgery. PMID:24254058

  5. Rectal spirochaetosis in homosexual men: characterisation of the organism and pathophysiology.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, C; Cotton, D W; Hudson, M J; Kirkham, N; Wilmott, F E

    1986-01-01

    Microbiological and electron microscopy studies were carried out on rectal biopsy specimens and faecal samples from eight practising male homosexuals and five heterosexual controls. Rectal spirochaetosis was present in five of the eight homosexual men. The organism was cultured and morphologically identified as a large anaerobic host associated treponeme. The degrees of infestation and depletion of microvilli were also measured. The results are discussed in relation to the possible clinical importance of rectal spirochaetosis. Images PMID:3949351

  6. Primary Burkitt lymphoma presenting as a solitary rectal polyp in a child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gence; C. Sahin; A. C. Celayir; H. Yavuz

    2008-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) accounts for approximately 60% of all lymphomas in children and adolescents. It represents 8–10%\\u000a of all malignancies in children aged between 5 and 19 years. Primary rectal lymphoma in childhood is extremely rare. This\\u000a report focuses on the importance of considering the possibility of malignancy in rectal polyps. We report a 5-year-old girl\\u000a with fresh rectal bleeding who

  7. Thymidylate synthase germline polymorphisms in rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David PaezLaia Pare; Laia Paré; Albert Altés; Francesc Josep Sancho-Poch; Lourdes Petriz; Jordi Garriga; Josep Maria Monill; Juliana Salazar; Elisabeth del Rio; Agustí Barnadas; Eugenio Marcuello; Montserrat Baiget

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Chemoradiotherapy using 5-fluorouracil has shown to be effective treatment for rectal cancer. Thymidylate synthase (TS) is\\u000a an important target enzyme for the fluoropyrimidines. However, the predictive role of TS levels in early stage rectal cancer\\u000a is not yet well understood. We analyzed the value of TS gene polymorphisms as a predictive marker in patients with stage II\\u000a and III rectal

  8. Comparision between transrectal ultrasonography and computed tomography with rectal inflation of gas in preoperative staging of lower rectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Osti; F. Scattoni Padovan; C. Pirolli; S. Sbarbati; V. Tombolini; C. Meli; R. Maurizi Enrici

    1997-01-01

    .   Computed tomography with rectal air insufflation was compared with transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in 63 patients. The\\u000a CT protocol involved pre- and postcontrast scans with 5 mm slice thickness following air insufflation in IV antiperistaltic\\u000a agent. Of the patients, 79 % were scanned in the prone position. Results of the preoperative examinations were compared with\\u000a the histological findings. The CT

  9. Limited segmental rectal resection in the treatment of deeply infiltrating rectal endometriosis: 10 years’ experience from a tertiary referral unit

    PubMed Central

    English, James; Sajid, Muhammad S.; Lo, Jenney; Hudelist, Guy; Baig, Mirza K.; Miles, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The management of symptomatic rectal endometriosis is a challenging condition that may necessitate limited stripping or limited segmental anterior rectal resection (LSARR) depending upon the extent and severity of the disease. Objective. To report the efficacy of LSARR in terms of pain, quality of life and short- and long-term complications—in particular, those pertaining to bowel function. Methods. The case notes of all patients undergoing LSARR were reviewed. The analysed variables included surgical complications, overall symptomatic improvement rate, dysmenorrhoea, dyspareunia, and dyschezia. Chronic pain was measured using a visual analogue scale. Quality of life was measured using the EQ-5D questionnaire. Bowel symptoms were assessed using the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC) questionnaire. Results. Seventy-four women who underwent LSARR by both open and laparoscopic approaches were included in this study. Sixty-nine (93.2%) women reported improvement in pain and the same percentage would recommend the similar procedure to a friend with the same problem. Approximately 42% of women who wished to conceive had at least one baby. The higher frequency of defecation was a problem in the early post-operative period but this settled in later stages without influencing the quality of life score. Post-operative complications were recorded in 14.9% of cases. Conclusions. LSARR for rectal endometriosis is associated with a high degree of symptomatic relief. Pain relief achieved following LSARR does not appear to degrade with time. As anticipated, some rectal symptoms persist in few patients after long-term follow-up but LSARR is nonetheless still associated with a very high degree of patient satisfaction. PMID:25146341

  10. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal near-infrared optical tomography of canine prostate bearing transmissible venereal tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Piao, Daqing

    2009-02-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography is conducted on a tumor-bearing canine prostate with the assistance of trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The canine prostate tumor model is made possible by a unique round cell neoplasm of dogs, transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) that can be transferred from dog to dog regardless of histocompatibility. A characterized TVT cell line was homogenized and passed twice in subcutaneous tissue of NOD/SCID mice. Following the second passage, the tumor was recovered, homogenized and then inoculated by ultrasound guidance into the prostate gland of a healthy dog. The dog was then imaged with a combined trans-rectal NIR and TRUS imager using an integrated trans-rectal NIR/US applicator. The image was taken by NIR and US modalities concurrently, both in sagittal view. The trans-rectal NIR imager is a continuous-wave system that illuminates 7 source channels sequentially by a fiber switch to deliver sufficient light power to the relatively more absorbing prostate tissue and samples 7 detection channels simultaneously by a gated intensified high-resolution CCD camera. This work tests the feasibility of detecting prostate tumor by trans-rectal NIR optical tomography and the benefit of augmenting TRUS with trans-rectal NIR imaging.

  11. The effect of organotin compounds on chloride secretion by the in vitro perfused rectal gland of Squalus acanthias

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, R.; Lear, S.; Cohen, R.; Spokes, K.; Silva, P. Jr.; Silva, M.; Solomon, H.; Silva, P. (New York Medical College, Valhalla (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The effects of various organotins on membrane function and electrolyte transport were studied in the marine elasmobranch, Squalus acanthias. The isolated perfused rectal gland was used as a model of electrolyte transport. This gland can be stimulated to secrete chloride by atrial natriuretic peptide, veratrine, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide although the mechanism of action of each secretagogue is different. By analysis of the inhibitory effect of an organotin in the presence of each secretagogue, the mechanism of inhibition can be inferred. Tributyltin (TBT) produced a reversible inhibition of epithelial transport at 10(-8) to 10(-7) M which resulted from inhibition of stimulus-secretion coupling in VIP-containing neurons within the gland. The transporting epithelial cells were unaffected at these concentrations. Trimethytin (TMT) produced inhibition at 10(-7) M which was not reversible and which affected primarily the transporting epithelial cells. Triethyltin and triphenyltin were without effect. The inhibitory effect of TBT and TMT was not affected by simultaneous administration of dithiothreitol. TBT also produced inhibition of oxygen consumption, Na+,K-ATPase, and proton ATPase in dispersed rectal gland cells. These results indicate that organotins are toxic to cell membrane functions which are intimately involved in the movement of electrolytes. This is the first evidence of toxicity to membrane transport functions in a marine species which is at risk from environmental exposure.

  12. FOCUSPublic Administration

    E-print Network

    Van Stryland, Eric

    FOCUSPublic Administration Public AdministrationFOCUS U N I V E R S I T Y O F C E N T R A L F L O R I D A · O R L A N D O News from the SCHOOL OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION and CENTER FOR PUBLIC AND NONPROFIT MANAGEMENT Impacting Communities and Lives 2013­2014Volume 9 #12;PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION FOCUS 2013

  13. SU-E-T-280: Reconstructed Rectal Wall Dose Map-Based Verification of Rectal Dose Sparing Effect According to Rectum Definition Methods and Dose Perturbation by Air Cavity in Endo-Rectal Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J [Dept. of Pediatrics, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, H [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J [Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, S; Lee, M; Suh, T [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B [Dept. of Bio-Convergence Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Sun Medical Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric effect and discrepancy according to the rectum definition methods and dose perturbation by air cavity in an endo-rectal balloon (ERB) were verified using rectal-wall (Rwall) dose maps considering systematic errors in dose optimization and calculation accuracy in intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) for prostate cancer patients. Methods: When the inflated ERB having average diameter of 4.5 cm and air volume of 100 cc is used for patient, Rwall doses were predicted by pencil-beam convolution (PBC), anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA), and AcurosXB (AXB) with material assignment function. The errors of dose optimization and calculation by separating air cavity from the whole rectum (Rwhole) were verified with measured rectal doses. The Rwall doses affected by the dose perturbation of air cavity were evaluated using a featured rectal phantom allowing insert of rolled-up gafchromic films and glass rod detectors placed along the rectum perimeter. Inner and outer Rwall doses were verified with reconstructed predicted rectal wall dose maps. Dose errors and extent at dose levels were evaluated with estimated rectal toxicity. Results: While AXB showed insignificant difference of target dose coverage, Rwall doses underestimated by up to 20% in dose optimization for the Rwhole than Rwall at all dose range except for the maximum dose. As dose optimization for Rwall was applied, the Rwall doses presented dose error less than 3% between dose calculation algorithm except for overestimation of maximum rectal dose up to 5% in PBC. Dose optimization for Rwhole caused dose difference of Rwall especially at intermediate doses. Conclusion: Dose optimization for Rwall could be suggested for more accurate prediction of rectal wall dose prediction and dose perturbation effect by air cavity in IMRT for prostate cancer. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) (Grant No. 200900420)

  14. Various techniques of contouring the rectum and their impact on rectal dose-volume histograms

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Mitchell; Berthelet, Eric; Patterson, Kelly; Dick, Ken; Kwan, Winkle

    2003-09-30

    Late rectal bleeding resulting from radiotherapy has been correlated with rectal dose-volume histograms (DVHs). The techniques of contouring the rectum have been inconsistent within the literature, making interpretations of DVHs difficult. This study was conducted to investigate the impact on rectal DVHs when using different ways of contouring. Ten prostate cancer patients were treated with a 4-field box-technique and received 70 Gy. Six different ways of contouring the rectum were implemented by using 3 different cross-sections and 2 different lengths. The 3 different cross sections were (1) anterior rectal wall (arw): only the anterior half of the rectal wall was contoured; (2) whole rectal wall (wrw): the entire rectal wall was contoured but excluding the rectal contents; and (3) the rectum (rec): including the rectal contents. Two different lengths were used for the above 3 volumes: (1) long (Lg): cranial border starting at where the rectum turned horizontally into the sigmoid and the caudal border 2 cm below the prostatic apex; (2) short (Sh): from 2 cm above to 2 cm below the prostate. Therefore, a total of 6 different volumes (Sh arw, Lg arw, Sh wrw, Lg wrw, Sh rec, and Lg rec) were generated. DVHs of all 6 volumes were compared with the y-axis being percentage volume as well as absolute volume (cc). When using percentage volume as the y-axis, Sh arw gave an impression that a large portion of rectum (median of 41.8%) received high dose (greater than 90% prescribed dose), while the Lg wrw and Lg rec revealed a smaller portion of rectum (median of 17.1% and 14.7%, respectively) received high dose. The other contours were somewhere in-between. When using absolute volume as the y-axis, the DVHs of the 4 rectal volumes, excluding the rectal content (Sh and Lg arw, Sh and Lg wrw), merged at doses greater than 80% to 85% prescription, therefore providing similar information within these high-dose regions. Configurations of rectal DVHs varied drastically with different techniques of contouring and may lead to different interpretations. By using absolute volume (cc) as the y-axis, the shape of the 4 rectal DVHs, excluding the rectal content, were similar in the high-dose region. Reporting rectal toxicities in relations to DVHs using absolute volume, as well as percentage volume, may eliminate inconsistencies secondary to different methods of contouring.

  15. In vivo real-time rectal wall dosimetry for prostate radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, Nicholas; Cutajar, Dean L; Metcalfe, Peter E; Lerch, Michael L F; Perevertaylo, Vladimir L; Tomé, Wolfgang A; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2010-07-01

    Rectal balloons are used in external beam prostate radiotherapy to provide reproducible anatomy and rectal dose reductions. This is an investigation into the combination of a MOSFET radiation detector with a rectal balloon for realtime in vivo rectal wall dosimetry. The MOSFET used in the study is a radiation detector that provides a water equivalent depth of measurement of 70 microm. Two MOSFETs were combined in a face-to-face orientation. The reproducibility, sensitivity and angular dependence were measured for the dual MOSFET in a 6 MV photon beam. The dual MOSFET was combined with a rectal balloon and irradiated with hypothetical prostate treatments in a phantom. The anterior rectal wall dose was measured in real time and compared with the planning system calculated dose. The dual MOSFET showed angular dependence within +/-2.5% in the azimuth and +2.5%/-4% in the polar axes. When compared with an ion chamber measurement in a phantom, the dual MOSFET agreed within 2.5% for a range of radiation path lengths and incident angles. The dual MOSFET had reproducible sensitivity for fraction sizes of 2-10 Gy. For the hypothetical prostate treatments the measured anterior rectal wall dose was 2.6 and 3.2% lower than the calculated dose for 3DCRT and IMRT plans. This was expected due to limitations of the dose calculation method used at the balloon cavity interface. A dual MOSFET combined with a commercial rectal balloon was shown to provide reproducible measurements of the anterior rectal wall dose in real time. The measured anterior rectal wall dose agreed with the expected dose from the treatment plan for 3DCRT and IMRT plans. The dual MOSFET could be read out in real time during the irradiation, providing the capability for real-time dose monitoring of the rectal wall dose during treatment. PMID:20571209

  16. Patient Delay in Colorectal Cancer Patients: Associations with Rectal Bleeding and Thoughts about Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Anette F.; Hansen, Rikke P.; Vedsted, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Rectal bleeding is considered to be an alarm symptom of colorectal cancer. However, the symptom is seldom reported to the general practitioner and it is often assumed that patients assign the rectal bleeding to benign conditions. The aims of this questionnaire study were to examine whether rectal bleeding was associated with longer patient delays in colorectal cancer patients and whether rectal bleeding was associated with cancer worries. All incident colorectal cancer patients during a 1-year period in the County of Aarhus, Denmark, received a questionnaire. 136 colorectal cancer patients returned the questionnaire (response rate: 42%). Patient delay was assessed as the interval from first symptom to help-seeking and was reported by the patient. Patients with rectal bleeding (N?=?81) reported longer patient intervals than patients without rectal bleeding when adjusting for confounders including other symptoms such as pain and changes in bowel habits (HR?=?0.43; p?=?0.004). Thoughts about cancer were not associated with the patient interval (HR?=?1.05; p?=?0.887), but more patients with rectal bleeding reported to have been wondering if their symptom(s) could be due to cancer than patients without rectal bleeding (chi2?=?15.29; p<0.001). Conclusively, rectal bleeding was associated with long patient delays in colorectal cancer patients although more patients with rectal bleeding reported to have been wondering if their symptom(s) could be due to cancer than patients without rectal bleeding. This suggests that assignment of symptoms to benign conditions is not the only explanation of long patient delays in this patient group and that barriers for timely help-seeking should be examined. PMID:23894527

  17. 25 mg versus 50?mg dose of rectal diclofenac for prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis in Japanese patients: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihara, Takeo; Horimoto, Masayoshi; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Osugi, Naoto; Ikezoe, Tatsuro; Kotani, Kaori; Sanada, Toru; Higashi, Churi; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Ota, Makiyo; Mizuno, Tatsunori; Gotoh, Yasukazu; Okuda, Yorihide; Suzuki, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the appropriate administration dose of non-steroidal anti-inflammation drugs to prevent pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Importantly, the 100?mg dose of diclofenac recommended in Western countries has not been permitted in Japan. Design A retrospective study. Settings A single centre in Japan. Participants This study enrolled patients who underwent ERCP at the Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka Saiseikai Senri Hospital, from April 2011 through June 2013, and who received either a 25 or a 50?mg dose of rectal diclofenac after ERCP. Primary outcome measure The occurrence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). A multivariate regression model was used to assess the effect of the 50?mg dose (the 50?mg group) of rectal diclofenac and to compare it to the occurrence of PEP referring to the 25?mg group. Results A total of 155 eligible patients received either 25?mg (84 patients) or 50?mg (71 patients) doses of rectal diclofenac after ERCP to prevent PEP. The proportion of PEP was significantly lower in the 50?mg group than in the 25?mg group (15.5% (11/71) vs 33.3% (28/84), p=0.018). In a multivariate analysis, the occurrence of PEP was significantly lower in the 50?mg group than in the 25?mg group even after adjusting potential confounding factors (adjusted OR=0.27, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.70). Conclusions From this observation, the occurrence of PEP was significantly lower among ERCP patients with the 50?mg dose of rectal diclofenac than among those with the 25?mg dose. PMID:25795692

  18. Differential induction of mucosal and systemic antibody responses in women after nasal, rectal, or vaginal immunization: influence of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Pamela A; Williams, Selvi B; Lynch, Rebecca M; Flanigan, Timothy P; Patterson, Rosalyn R; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Neutra, Marian R

    2002-07-01

    A cholera vaccine containing killed vibrios and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) was used to compare mucosal immunization routes for induction of systemic and mucosal Ab. Four groups of women were given three monthly immunizations by the rectal immunization (R(imm)) route, nasal immunization (N(imm)) route, or vaginal immunization route during either the follicular (V-FP(imm)) or luteal (V-LP(imm)) menstrual cycle phase. N(imm) was performed with 10-fold less vaccine to determine if administration of less Ag by this route can, as in rodents, produce mucosal Ab responses comparable to those induced by higher dose R(imm) or vaginal immunization. Concentrations of Ab induced in sera and secretions were measured by ELISA. None of these routes produced durable salivary Ab responses. N(imm) induced greatest levels of CTB-specific IgG in sera. R(imm) failed to generate CTB-specific IgA in genital tract secretions. N(imm), V-FP(imm), and V-LP(imm) all produced cervical CTB-specific IgA responses comparable in magnitude and frequency. However, only V-FP(imm) induced cervical IgA2-restricted Ab to the bacterial LPS vaccine component. V-FP(imm), but not V-LP(imm), also induced CTB-specific IgA in rectal secretions. N(imm) was superior to V-FP(imm) for producing rectal CTB-specific IgA, but the greatest amounts of CTB-specific IgA and LPS-specific IgA, IgG, and IgM Ab were found in rectal secretions of R(imm) women. These data suggest that in women, N(imm) alone could induce specific Ab in serum, the genital tract, and rectum. However, induction of genital tract and rectal Ab responses of the magnitude generated by local V-FP(imm) or R(imm) will likely require administration of comparably high nasal vaccine dosages. PMID:12077289

  19. Conservative treatment of rectal cancer with local excision and postoperative radiation therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D Minsky

    1995-01-01

    The conventional surgical treatment for patients with potentially curable transmural and\\/or node positive rectal cancer is a low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of local excision and postoperative radiation therapy as primary therapy for selected rectal cancers. The limited data suggest that the approach of local excision and postoperative radiation therapy

  20. Increased recovery of group B streptococcus by the inclusion of rectal culturing and enrichment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Platt; James C. McLaughlin; George J. Gilson; Mary F. Wellhoner; Linda J. Nims

    1995-01-01

    Detection of intrapartum carriage of group B streptococcus (GBS) and subsequent antibiotic prophylaxis may prevent GBS infections in neonates. Because the gastrointestinal tract is the primary source of this organism, detection of carrier status requires both rectal and vaginal swabs. Vaginal swabs from 651 obstetric outpatients were plated onto 5% sheep blood agar. A second vaginal and a rectal swab

  1. Transrectal ultrasound study of the pathogenesis of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Van Outryve, M J; Pelckmans, P A; Fierens, H; Van Maercke, Y M

    1993-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasonography is of clinical value in anorectal carcinoma and in inflammatory diseases of the anorectum. In this study a rigid linear endorectal probe was used to examine 15 patients with endoscopically and biopsy proved diagnosis of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. In 13 of the 15 patients the rectal wall was thicker (mean (SEM) 5.7 (0.4) mm; normal values: 2.8 (0.1) mm) near the rectal ulcer. In all these cases the muscularis propria layer exceeded the maximum normal diameter of 2 mm. In nine of the 15 patients the normal rectal wall echo-structure, with five distinct layers, was disturbed and there was fading of the borders between the mucosa and the muscularis propria. Poor relaxation of the puborectalis muscle during straining was seen on ultrasound in 11 patients, as was intussusception of the rectal wall. The obvious enlargement of the muscularis propria points to a chronic mechanical load on the rectal wall. The ulcerative lesions are formed in this area of overloaded rectal wall. The direct visualisation of the puborectalis muscle during dynamic transrectal ultrasonography indicates that the fact that it does not relax is an important element in the pathogenesis of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8244113

  2. SwiftLase: a new technology for char-free ablation in rectal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, David A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe layer-by-layer char-free ablation of hemorrhoids and other rectal lesions at very low CO2 laser power levels with a miniature `SwiftLaser' optomechanical flashscanner. Increased speed with excellent control, very shallow thermal damage, and less postoperative pain are the main advantages of the flashscan technology in rectal surgery.

  3. A tensor-based population value decomposition to explain rectal toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A tensor-based population value decomposition to explain rectal toxicity after prostate cancer jdospina@unal.edu.co Abstract In prostate cancer radiotherapy the association between the dose dis irradiated zones correlated with rectal bleeding after prostate cancer radiotherapy. Thus, the aim

  4. A novel classification method for prediction of rectal bleeding in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A novel classification method for prediction of rectal bleeding in prostate cancer radiotherapy/side-effects relationships in prostate cancer radiotherapy is crucial to define appropriate individual's constraints to identify patients at risk of presenting rectal bleeding from a population treated for prostate cancer

  5. What is the role for the circumferential margin in the modern treatment of rectal cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Nagtegaal; P. Quirke

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Treatment of rectal cancer has changed dramatically over the last decade. The worldwide introduction of total mesorectal excision in combination with the increasing use of radio(chemo)-therapy has led to an improved prognosis. One of the main prognostic factors in rectal cancer is the circumferential resection margin (CRM). Since the initial description of its clinical importance in 1986, the involvement

  6. The Effective and Efficient Management of Patients with Rectal Bleeding to Identify the Few with Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Thompson; Edwin T. Swarbrick; Brian G. Ellis; Iona C. Heath; L. Faulds Wood; Wendy S. Atkin

    There are currently insufficient resources to fully investigate all patients with rectal bleeding to exclude the small possibility of cancer, and this is the dominant factor in developing strategies for the management of rectal bleeding. However, even if there were unlimited resources it may not be desirable to investigate all patients because the small risks associated with the investigative procedure

  7. Altered rectal perception is a biological marker of patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Mertz; Bruce Naliboff; Julie Munakata; Negar Niazi; Emeran A. Mayer

    1995-01-01

    Background & Aims: Lowered visceral perception thresholds have been suggested as a biological marker of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The current study sought to determine the prevalence of altered rectal visceral perception in patients with IBS and the correlation of altered perception thresholds with subjective symptoms. Methods: Anorectal manometry and rectal perception thresholds to balloon distention were determined in 100

  8. Validation of a Bovine Rectal Palpation Simulator for Training Veterinary Students

    E-print Network

    Williamson, John

    Validation of a Bovine Rectal Palpation Simulator for Training Veterinary Students Sarah BAILLIE 1 Systems Group, Department of Computing Science 2 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, UK 3 Clyde Veterinary Group, Lanark, UK {sarah, stephen}@dcs.gla.ac.uk Abstract. Bovine rectal

  9. Rectal temperature of normal babies the night after first diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus immunisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Rawson; S A Petersen; M P Wailoo

    1990-01-01

    Continuous rectal temperature recordings were made from 32 babies the night after their first diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus immunisation and compared with recordings made before immunisation. Tog values of clothes and wrapping and room temperatures were also recorded. We found that immunisation the day before disturbs the normal night time rhythm of deep body temperature. The rectal temperature of immunised

  10. Esophageal and rectal temperatures as estimates of core temperature during therapeutic whole-body hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Subrata; Donn, Steven M; Bhagat, Indira; Dechert, Ronald E; Barks, John D

    2013-01-01

    We monitored whole-body cooling concurrently by both esophageal and rectal probes. Esophageal temperature was significantly higher compared with simultaneous rectal temperature during cooling, with a temperature gradient ranging from 0.46 to 1.03°C (median, 0.8°C; IQR, 0.6-0.8°C). During rewarming, this temperature difference disappeared. PMID:23063267

  11. Rectal wall contractility in response to an evoked urge to defecate in patients with obstructed defecation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Schouten; Manon J. Gosselink; Michiel O. Boerma; Abida Z. Ginai

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine rectal sensory perception and rectal wall contractility in response to an evoked urge to defecate and to identify differences between control subjects and patients with obstructed defecation. METHODS: Twenty control patients (10 men; median age, 47 (range, 17–78) years) and 29 female patients with disabling obstructed defecation (median age, 48 (range,

  12. Study on the Relationship between Lymphatic Vessel Density and Distal Intramural Spread of Rectal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Chen; W. Shen; M. Chen; G. Cai; X. Liu

    2007-01-01

    Background: The smallest safe margin of distal clearance for lower rectal cancer is very important for the operation. In a previous study, a few factors were found to play a role in distal intramural spread (DIS), but there are few data regarding the influence of lymphangiogenesis. We studied the relationship between lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and DIS of rectal cancer,

  13. Palliative Treatment of Rectal Carcinoma Recurrence Using Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Mylona, Sophia, E-mail: mylonasophia@yahoo.com; Karagiannis, Georgios, E-mail: gekaragiannis@yahoo.gr; Patsoura, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.patsoura@yahoo.gr [Hellenic Red Cross Hospital 'Korgialenio-Benakio' (Greece); Galani, Panagiota, E-mail: gioulagalani@yahoo.com [Amalia Fleming Hospital (Greece); Pomoni, Maria, E-mail: marypomoni@gmail.com [Evgenidion Hospital (Greece); Thanos, Loukas, E-mail: loutharad@yahoo.com [Sotiria Hospital (Greece)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the palliative treatment of recurrent unresectable rectal tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation. Therapy was performed with the patient under conscious sedation with a seven- or a nine-array expandable RF electrode for 8-10 min at 80-110 Degree-Sign C and a power of 90-110 W. All patients went home under instructions the next day of the procedure. Brief Pain Inventory score was calculated before and after (1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months) treatment. Results: Complete tumor necrosis rate was 77.8% (21 of a total 27 procedures) despite lesion location. BPI score was dramatically decreased after the procedure. The mean preprocedure BPI score was 6.59, which decreased to 3.15, 1.15, and 0.11 at postprocedure day 1, week 1, and month 1, respectively, after the procedure. This decrease was significant (p < 0.01 for the first day and p < 0.001 for the rest of the follow-up intervals (paired Student t test; n - 1 = 26) for all periods during follow-up. Six patients had partial tumor necrosis, and we were attempted to them with a second procedure. Although the necrosis area showed a radiographic increase, no complete necrosis was achieved (secondary success rate 65.6%). No immediate or delayed complications were observed. Conclusion: CT-guided RF ablation is a minimally invasive, safe, and highly effective technique for treatment of malignant rectal recurrence. The method is well tolerated by patients, and pain relief is quickly achieved.

  14. Phase II Study of Preoperative Helical Tomotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ridder, Mark de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oncologisch Centrum UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: mark.deridder@uzbrussel.be; Tournel, Koen M.S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oncologisch Centrum UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Nieuwenhove, Yves van [Department of Surgery, Oncologisch Centrum UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Engels, Benedikt [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oncologisch Centrum UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Hoorens, Anne [Department of Pathology, Oncologisch Centrum UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Everaert, Hendrik [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Oncologisch Centrum UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Beeck, Bart op de [Department of Radiology, Oncologisch Centrum UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Vinh-Hung, Vincent [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oncologisch Centrum UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); De Greve, Jacques [Department of Medical Oncology, Oncologisch Centrum UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Delvaux, Georges [Department of Surgery, Oncologisch Centrum UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Verellen, Dirk; Storme, Guy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oncologisch Centrum UZ Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To explore the efficacy and toxicity profile of helical tomotherapy in the preoperative treatment of patients with rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: Twenty-four patients with T3/T4 rectal cancer were included in this nonrandomized noncontrolled study. A dose of 46 Gy in daily fractions of 2 Gy was delivered to the presacral space and perineum if an abdominoperineal resection was deemed necessary. This dose was increased by a simultaneous integrated boost to 55.2 Gy when the circumferential resection margin was less than 2 mm on magnetic resonance imaging. Acute toxicity was evaluated weekly. Metabolic response was determined in the fifth week after the end of radiotherapy by means of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scan. A metabolic response was defined as a decrease in maximal standardized uptake value of more than 36%. Results: The mean volume of small bowel receiving more than 15 Gy and mean bladder dose were 227 ml and 20.8 Gy in the no-boost group and 141 ml and 21.5 Gy in the boost group. Only 1 patient developed Grade 3 enteritis. No other Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed. Two patients developed an anastomotic leak within 30 days after surgery. The metabolic response rate was 45% in the no-boost group compared with 77% in the boost group. All except 1 patient underwent an R0 resection. Conclusions: Helical tomotherapy may decrease gastrointestinal toxicity in the preoperative radiotherapy of patients with rectal cancer. A simultaneous integrated radiation boost seems to result in a high metabolic response rate without excessive toxicity.

  15. Transcriptomic profiles differentiate normal rectal epithelium and adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hogan, J; Dejulius, K; Liu, X; Coffey, J C; Kalady, M F

    2015-05-01

    Adenocarcinoma is a histologic diagnosis based on subjective findings. Transcriptional profiles have been used to differentiate normal tissue from disease and could provide a means of identifying malignancy. The goal of this study was to generate and test transcriptomic profiles that differentiate normal from adenocarcinomatous rectum. Comparisons were made between cDNA microarrays derived from normal epithelium and rectal adenocarcinoma. Results were filtered according to standard deviation to retain only highly dysregulated genes. Genes differentially expressed between cancer and normal tissue on two-groups t test (P < 0.05, Bonferroni P value adjustment) were further analyzed. Genes were rank ordered in terms of descending fold change. For each comparison (tumor versus normal epithelium), those 5 genes with the greatest positive fold change were grouped in a classifier. Five separate tests were applied to evaluate the discriminatory capacity of each classifier. Genetic classifiers derived comparing normal epithelium with malignant rectal epithelium from pooled stages had a mean sensitivity and specificity of 99.6% and 98.2%, respectively. The classifiers derived from comparing normal and stage I cancer had comparable mean sensitivities and specificities (97% and 98%, respectively). Areas under the summary receiver-operator characteristic curves for each classifier were 0.981 and 0.972, respectively. One gene was common to both classifiers. Classifiers were tested in an independent Gene Expression Omnibus-derived dataset. Both classifiers retained their predictive properties. Transcriptomic profiles comprising as few as 5 genes are highly accurate in differentiating normal from adenocarcinomatous rectal epithelium, including early-stage disease. PMID:26011201

  16. Generic Planning Target Margin for Rectal Cancer Treatment Setup Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)], E-mail: jrobertson@beaumont.edu; Campbell, Jonathon P.; Yan Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To calculate the generic planning target margin (GPTM) for patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) for rectal cancer placed in a prone position with a customized cradle for small-bowel exclusion. Methods and Materials: A total of 25 consecutive rectal cancer patients were treated for 25 or 28 fractions in a prone position using a cradle to maximize small bowel exclusion. Treatment planning computed tomography (CT) scans were used to create orthogonally digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) for portal image registration, which were compared with daily portal images from an electronic portal-imaging device (EPID). Translation values needed to align the DRRs and EPIDs were recorded for the superior to inferior (SI), right to left (RL), and anterior to posterior (AP) directions, and used to calculate the GPTM using the four-parameter model. Age, weight, and body mass index were tested compared with the setup variation using a Pearson correlation and a t test for significance. Gender versus setup variation was compared with a t test. Results: A total of 1,723 EPID images were reviewed. The GPTM was 10 mm superior, 8 mm inferior, 7 mm RL and 10 mm AP. Age and gender were unrelated to setup variation. Weight was significantly associated with systematic AP variation (p < 0.05). BMI was significantly associated with systematic SI (p < 0.05) and AP (p < 0.01) variation and random RL variation (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The GPTM for rectal cancer is asymmetric with a maximum of 10 mm in the superior, anterior and posterior dimensions. Body mass index may effect setup variation. Research using advanced treatment planning should include these margins in the planning target volume definition.

  17. A review of rectal toxicity following permanent low dose-rate prostate brachytherapy and the potential value of biodegradable rectal spacers.

    PubMed

    Schutzer, M E; Orio, P F; Biagioli, M C; Asher, D A; Lomas, H; Moghanaki, D

    2015-06-01

    Permanent radioactive seed implantation provides highly effective treatment for prostate cancer that typically includes multidisciplinary collaboration between urologists and radiation oncologists. Low dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy offers excellent tumor control rates and has equivalent rates of rectal toxicity when compared with external beam radiotherapy. Owing to its proximity to the anterior rectal wall, a small portion of the rectum is often exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation from this procedure. Although rare, some patients develop transfusion-dependent rectal bleeding, ulcers or fistulas. These complications occasionally require permanent colostomy and thus can significantly impact a patient's quality of life. Aside from proper technique, a promising strategy has emerged that can help avoid these complications. By injecting biodegradable materials behind Denonviller's fascia, brachytherpists can increase the distance between the rectum and the radioactive sources to significantly decrease the rectal dose. This review summarizes the progress in this area and its applicability for use in combination with permanent LDR brachytherapy. PMID:25687401

  18. Association of rectal toxicity with thermal dose parameters in treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with radiation and hyperthermia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D Hurwitz; Irving D Kaplan; Jorgen L Hansen; Savina Prokopios-Davos; George P Topulos; Kenneth Wishnow; Judith Manola; Bruce A Bornstein; Kullervo Hynynen

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Although hyperthermia has been used for more than two decades in the treatment of pelvic tumors, little is known about the potential impact of heat on rectal toxicity when combined with other treatment modalities. Because rectal toxicity is a concern with radiation and may be exacerbated by hyperthermia, definition of the association of thermal dose parameters with rectal toxicity

  19. An outbreak of anal fibropapillomatosis in cows following rectal examinations.

    PubMed

    Tweddle, N E; White, W E

    1977-10-01

    An outbreak of fibropapillomatosis following rectal examination for pregnancy and involving the anus and to a lesser extent the rectum in a herd of beef heifers in western Victoria is described. Almost half the herd were involved at one time; most lesions regressed with the following 16 weeks. Lesions varied from 0.2 mm diameter polyps up to large multiple lesions up to 7 x 5 x 2 cm with a broad base. The presence of lesions did not affect the body condition or health of the animals. PMID:612325

  20. Advances in radiotherapy delivery for rectal cancer: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Sermeus, Alexandra; Engels, Benedikt; Urbain, Daniel; De Ridder, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy with an integrated boost offer excellent local control rates in patients with rectal cancer. The introduction of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and image-guided radiotherapy has drastically improved the tolerance of these treatments. The new challenge is developing organ-preserving strategies and curative treatments for medically inoperable patients. Contact radiotherapy seems efficient for small tumors. Tumor hypoxia limits the success of radiotherapy for locally advanced cancers. Modulation of the L-arginine/iNOS pathway and implementation of hypoxia imaging in radiotherapy planning may overcome this hurdle. PMID:25644307

  1. [Perineal incisional hernia following rectal resection. Diagnostic and management].

    PubMed

    Villar, F; Frampas, E; Mirallié, E; Potiron, L; Villet, R; Lehur, P-A

    2003-05-01

    Postoperative perineal hernia is a rare complication following abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. We report four cases illustrating its clinical presentation and modern management. Surgical technique for rectal excision and perineal closure, making of an epiplooplasty, postoperative infection may contribute to the occurrence of this complication. Mesh repair through an anterior open or laparoscopic abdominal approach is one of the surgical options if not contraindicated by age and/or general condition. Perineal or combined approaches can also be selected to solve this difficult problem. PMID:12853021

  2. Local excision for early rectal cancer: transanal endoscopic microsurgery and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Althumairi, Azah A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of treatment for early stage rectal cancer is to optimize oncologic control while minimizing the long-term impact of treatment on quality of life. The standard of care treatment for most stage I and II rectal cancers is radical surgery alone, specifically total mesorectal excision (TME). For early rectal cancers, this procedure is usually curative but can have a substantial impact on quality of life, including the possibility of permanent colostomy and the potential for short and long-term bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction. Given the morbidity associated with radical surgery, alternative approaches to management of early rectal cancer have been explored, including local excision (LE) via transanal excision (TAE) or transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) and transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS). Compared to the gold standard of radical surgery, local procedures for strictly selected early rectal cancers should lead to identical oncological results and even better outcomes regarding morbidity, mortality, and quality of life.

  3. High-dose-rate pre-operative endorectal brachytherapy for patients with rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Devic, Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    High-dose-rate endorectal brachytherapy (HDREBT) is an image guided brachytherapy treatment for patients with rectal cancer. It is based on tumor imaging with magnetic resonance in particular, which is used to choose eligible patients and improve tumor visualization. Treatment planning is performed using 3D CT simulation and treatment planning. The treatment is given on an outpatient basis and requires minimal local anesthesia. The validation of the technique was carried out through a preoperative study and is now explored as part of a radical treatment for early rectal cancer or as a boost modality. We describe technical aspects of the HDREBT and we discuss the ongoing institutional review board approved studies exploring the clinical applications of this treatment modality for patients with rectal cancer: 1) as a neoadjuvant treatment for patients with operable rectal tumor; 2) as a option to improve local control in patients with newly diagnosed rectal cancer but with previous pelvic radiation.

  4. Concurrent genital and rectal prolapse: two pathologies--one joint operation.

    PubMed

    Dekel, A; Rabinerson, D; Rafael, Z B; Kaplan, B; Mislovaty, B; Bayer, Y

    2000-01-01

    This study is a prospective assessment of a joint operation to repair concomitant genital and rectal prolapse, including 10 women treated for concomitant genital and rectal prolapse from 1991 to 1995. Joel-Cohen vaginal hysterectomy was used to correct the genital prolapse, followed by the Altemeier procedure (transperineal rectosigmoidectomy) to correct the rectal prolapse. The post-operative course was uneventful in all cases and there were no recurrences of prolapse in the three year follow up period. Improvement of sphincteric tone was shown in all cases by transrectal manometry, and bladder and rectal continence was maintained. The combined surgical procedure for concurrent genital and rectal prolapse is easy to perform and safe and efficient in terms of recurrence and continence. It is hoped this report will increase multidisciplinary awareness of an effective solution for a potentially debilitating problem. PMID:10645872

  5. Local excision for early rectal cancer: transanal endoscopic microsurgery and beyond.

    PubMed

    Althumairi, Azah A; Gearhart, Susan L

    2015-06-01

    The goal of treatment for early stage rectal cancer is to optimize oncologic control while minimizing the long-term impact of treatment on quality of life. The standard of care treatment for most stage I and II rectal cancers is radical surgery alone, specifically total mesorectal excision (TME). For early rectal cancers, this procedure is usually curative but can have a substantial impact on quality of life, including the possibility of permanent colostomy and the potential for short and long-term bowel, bladder, and sexual dysfunction. Given the morbidity associated with radical surgery, alternative approaches to management of early rectal cancer have been explored, including local excision (LE) via transanal excision (TAE) or transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) and transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS). Compared to the gold standard of radical surgery, local procedures for strictly selected early rectal cancers should lead to identical oncological results and even better outcomes regarding morbidity, mortality, and quality of life. PMID:26029457

  6. Dynamic study of rectally absorbed ammonia in liver cirrhosis using (13N)ammonia and a positron camera

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, H.; Okuda, K.; Musha, H.; Tateno, Y.; Fukuda, N.; Matsumoto, T.; Shisido, F.; Rikitake, T,; Iinuma, T.; Kurisu, A.; Arimizu, N.

    1980-11-01

    (13N)Ammonia produced by the cyclotron was instilled intrarectally in patients with cirrhosis and other liver diseases to study the turnover of rectally absorbed (12N)ammonia. In the control, (13N)ammonia was absorbed quickly and visualized the liver, whereas in patients with cirrhosis, the lungs and heart were first visualized, and 13N activity over the head was also higher. It was suggested that a large proportion of absorbed (13N)ammonia bypassed hepatocytes and reached peripheral tissues in cirrhosis. The heart/liver ratio of 13N and 13N over the head were correlated with various indices of portal hypertension. The relative proportion of nonammonia 13N metabolites in blood was lower at 5 and 15 min after administration in cirrhosis, suggesting a reduced capacity of the liver to remove and metabolize ammonia.

  7. The Implementation of a Standardized Approach to Laparoscopic Rectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Aslak, Katrine Kanstrup

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to audit our results after implementation of a standardized operative approach to laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer within a fast-track recovery program. Methods: From January 2009 to February 2011, 100 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic surgery on an intention-to-treat basis for rectal cancer. The results were retrospectively reviewed from a prospectively collected database. Operative steps and instrumentation for the procedure were standardized. A standard perioperative care plan was used. Results: The following procedures were performed: low anterior resection (n=26), low anterior resection with loop-ileostomy (n=39), Hartmann's operation (n=14), and abdominoperineal resection (n=21). The median length of hospital stay was 7 days; 9 patients were readmitted. There were 9 cases of conversion to open surgery. The overall complication rate was 35%, including 6 cases (9%) of anastomotic leakages requiring reoperation. The 30-day mortality was 5%. The median number of harvested lymph nodes was 15 (range, 2 to 48). There were 6 cases of positive circumferential resection margins. The median follow-up was 9 (range, 1 to 27) months. One patient with disseminated cancer developed port-site metastasis. Conclusions: The results confirm the safety of a standardized approach, and the oncological outcomes are comparable to those of similar studies. PMID:23477176

  8. Predictive response biomarkers in rectal cancer neoadjuvant treatment.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Marco; Crotti, Sara; Bedin, Chiara; Cecchin, Erika; Maretto, Isacco; D'Angelo, Edoardo; Pucciarelli, Salvatore; Nitti, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancer (RC) treatment is a challenge, because RC has a high rate of local recurrence. To date preoperative chemoradiotherapy (pCRT) is widely accepted as standard protocol of care for middle-low RC, but complete tumour response rate ranges from 4 to 44% and 5-year local recurrence rate is 6%. Better understanding of molecular biology and carcinogenesis pathways could be used both for pre-neoplastic lesions and locally recurrence diagnosis, and for tumour response prediction to therapy. Circulating molecules, gene expression and protein signature are promising sources to biomarker discovery. Several studies have evaluated potential predictors of response and recently, cell-free Nucleic Acid levels have been associated to tumour response to neoadjuvant therapies. Alternative method is the serum or plasma proteome and peptidome analysis. It may be ideally suited for its minimal invasiveness and it can be repeated at multiple time points throughout the treatment in contrast to tissue-based methods which still remain the most reliable and specific approach. Many studies have analyzed preoperative rectal tissue prognostic factor, but data are controversial or not confirmed. PMID:24389265

  9. Differences in telomerase activity between colon and rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ayiomamitis, Georgios D.; Notas, George; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Zizi-Sermpetzoglou, Adamantia; Georgiadou, Maria; Sfakianaki, Ourania; Kouroumallis, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers and the third leading cause of cancer death in both sexes. The disease progresses as a multistep process and is associated with genetic alterations. One of the characteristic features of cancer is telomerase activation. We sought to evaluate the differences in telomerase activity between colon cancer and adjacent normal tissue and to correlate the differences in telomerase activity between different locations with clinicopathological factors and survival. Methods Matched colon tumour samples and adjacent normal mucosa samples 10 cm away from the tumour were collected during colectomy. We assessed telomerase activity using real time polymerase chain reaction. Several pathological characteristics of tumours, including p53, Ki-67, p21, bcl2 and MLH1 expression were also studied. Results We collected samples from 49 patients. There was a significantly higher telomerase activity in colon cancer tissue than normal tissue. Adenocarcinomas of the right colon express significantly higher telomerase than left-side cancers. Colon cancers and their adjacent normal tissue had significantly more telomerase and were more positive to MLH1 than rectal cancers. The expression of p53 negatively correlated to telomerase activity and was linked to better patient survival. Conclusion Colon and rectal cancers seem to have different telomerase and MLH1 profiles, and this could be another factor for their different biologic and clinical behaviour and progression. These results support the idea that the large bowel cannot be considered a uniform organ, at least in the biology of cancer. PMID:24869613

  10. The Current State of Targeted Agents in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Dong; Eng, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Targeted biologic agents have an established role in treating metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), and the integration of targeted therapies into the treatment of CRC has resulted in significant improvements in outcomes. Rapidly growing insight into the molecular biology of CRC, as well as recent developments in gene sequencing and molecular diagnostics, has led to high expectations for the identification of molecular markers to be used in personalized treatment regimens. The mechanisms of action and toxicities of targeted therapies differ from those of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Targeted therapy has raised new insight about the possibility of tailoring treatment to an individual's disease, the assessment of drug effectiveness and toxicity, and the economics of cancer care. This paper covers the last decade of clinical trials that have explored the toxicity and efficacy of targeted agents in locally advanced and metastatic CRC and how their role may benefit patients with rectal cancer. Future efforts should include prospective studies of these agents in biomarker-defined subpopulations, as well as studies of novel agents that target angiogenesis, tumor-stromal interaction, and the cell signaling pathways implicated in rectal cancer. PMID:22675625

  11. [Irradiation with carbon ions for locally recurrent rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Noura, Shingo; Ohue, Masayuki; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Fukata, Tadafumi; Fujino, Shiki; Sugimura, Keijiro; Akita, Hirofumi; Gotoh, Kunihito; Motoori, Masaaki; Takahashi, Hidenori; Marubashi, Shigeru; Kishi, Kentaro; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Masahiko; Sakon, Masato

    2014-11-01

    A female patient in her 70s underwent an abdominoperineal resection and bilateral lymph node dissection for advanced lower rectal cancer. The patient did not receive neoadjuvant therapy. In the Japanese classification of colorectal carcinoma (8th Edition), the tumor was a moderately differentiated type 2 adenocarcinoma, and was 4.5 cm in size. Histologically, the tumor was considered to be Stage IIIb (T3N0M0). She received no adjuvant chemotherapy. After 39 months, pelvic computed tomography (CT ) revealed a 29 mm tumor in the right pelvic wall. The patient declined surgery for recurrence so radiotherapy was planned. First, chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 was administered for 4 courses to reduce tumor size. Consequently, irradiation with carbon ions was given to the site of recurrence at a total dose of 74 GyE in 37 fractions. There were no severe complications. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level decreased to the lower limit of the normal range from a maximum of 4.9, and no progression of the recurrent tumor was detected on CT for approximately 4 years. Systemic chemotherapy followed by irradiation with carbon ions may be effective for recurrent rectal cancer. PMID:25731305

  12. Radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis. Prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of oral sulfasalazine plus rectal steroids versus rectal sucralfate

    SciTech Connect

    Kochhar, R.; Patel, F.; Dhar, A.; Sharma, S.C.; Ayyagari, S.; Aggarwal, R.; Goenka, M.K.; Gupta, B.D.; Mehta, S.K. (Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India))

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective study, 37 consecutive patients with radiation-induced proctosigmoiditis were randomized to receive a four-week course of either 3.0 g oral sulfasalazine plus 20 mg twice daily rectal prednisolone enemas (group I, N = 18) or 2.0 g twice daily rectal sucralfate enemas plus oral placebo (group II, N = 19). The two groups were comparable with respect to demographic features, duration of symptoms, and clinical and endoscopic staging of the disease. Fifteen patients in group I and 17 in group II completed the trial. At four weeks, both groups showed significant clinical improvement (P less than 0.01 for group I and P less than 0.001 for group II) and endoscopic healing (P less than 0.01 for group I and P less than 0.001 for group II). When the two groups were compared, sucralfate enemas showed a significantly better response as assessed clinically (P less than 0.05), although endoscopically the response was not statistically different (P greater than 0.05). We conclude that both treatment regimens are effective in the management of radiation proctitis. Sucralfate enemas give a better clinical response, are tolerated better, and because of the lower cost should be the preferred mode of short-term treatment.

  13. Self-reported practice patterns and knowledge of rectal cancer care among Canadian general surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Devon P.; Porter, Geoff A.; Johnson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Our objective was to examine the knowledge and treatment decision practice patterns of Canadian surgeons who treat patients with rectal cancer. Methods A mail survey with 6 questions on staging investigations, management of low rectal cancer, lymph node harvest, surgical margins and use of adjuvant therapies was sent to all general surgeons in Canada. Appropriate responses to survey questions were defined a priori. We compared survey responses according to surgeon training (colorectal/surgical oncology v. others) and geographic region (Atlantic, Central, West). Results The survey was sent to 2143 general surgeons; of the 1312 respondents, 703 treat patients with rectal cancer. Most surgeons responded appropriately to the questions regarding staging investigations (88%) and management of low rectal cancer (88%). Only 55% of surgeons correctly identified the recommended lymph node harvest as 12 or more nodes, 45% identified 5 cm as the recommended distal margin for upper rectal cancer, and 70% appropriately identified which patients should be referred for adjuvant therapy. Surgeons with subspecialty training were significantly more likely to provide correct responses to all of the survey questions than other surgeons. There was limited variation in responses according to geographic region. Subspecialty-trained surgeons and recent graduates were more likely to answer all of the survey questions correctly than other surgeons. Conclusion Initiatives are needed to ensure that all surgeons who treat patients with rectal cancer, regardless of training, maintain a thorough and accurate knowledge of rectal cancer treatment issues. PMID:25421080

  14. Rectal thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements using the microselectron high dose rate afterloader in postoperative intravaginal radiation cases

    SciTech Connect

    Kessaris, N.; Nori, D. (Booth Memorial Medical Center, Flushing, NY (United States))

    1993-03-20

    The purpose of this study is twofold: First, to measure the dose distribution along the anterior and posterior rectal wall, compare them to the prescribed dose and establish the rectal length receiving the maximum dose. Second, to carry out in-phantom dose measurements in order to confirm that the dose planned is in fact the dose delivered. The dose distribution along the anterior and posterior rectal wall was measured for a group of 25 gynecologic cases treated with a vaginal cylinder, using the MicroSelectron High Dose Rate system. The method of measurement employed flexible vinyl rectal probes (1 or 2 cm diameter). Two fine plastic tubes, each containing 15 thermoluminescent dosimeters rods, were attached along the probe on opposite sides to measure the anterior and posterior rectal wall dose distributions. The dose distribution exhibited a sharp peak covering a rectal length from one to two centimeters. The peak doses for the anterior rectal wall ranged from 60% to 110% of prescribed dose. In-phantom measurements used layers of phantom material that contained a special source tube for the Iridium-192 source as well as thermoluminescent dosimeter tube(s) positioned at 1 cm distance from the source tube. The afterloader was programmed to deliver 300 cGy at 1 cm along its treatment length. The thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements showed good agreement with the doses expected on the basis of the treatment plan. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Rectal cancer: An evidence-based update for primary care providers

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Wolfgang B; Kwaan, Mary R; Madoff, Robert D; Melton, Genevieve B

    2015-01-01

    Rectal adenocarcinoma is an important cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and key anatomic differences between the rectum and the colon have significant implications for management of rectal cancer. Many advances have been made in the diagnosis and management of rectal cancer. These include clinical staging with imaging studies such as endorectal ultrasound and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, operative approaches such as transanal endoscopic microsurgery and laparoscopic and robotic assisted proctectomy, as well as refined neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies. For stage II and III rectal cancers, combined chemoradiotherapy offers the lowest rates of local and distant relapse, and is delivered neoadjuvantly to improve tolerability and optimize surgical outcomes, particularly when sphincter-sparing surgery is an endpoint. The goal in rectal cancer treatment is to optimize disease-free and overall survival while minimizing the risk of local recurrence and toxicity from both radiation and systemic therapy. Optimal patient outcomes depend on multidisciplinary involvement for tailored therapy. The successful management of rectal cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach, with the involvement of enterostomal nurses, gastroenterologists, medical and radiation oncologists, radiologists, pathologists and surgeons. The identification of patients who are candidates for combined modality treatment is particularly useful to optimize outcomes. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging and multimodal therapy of patients with rectal cancer for primary care providers.

  16. PrPCWD in rectal lymphoid tissue of deer (Odocoileus spp.).

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Spraker, Terry R; González, Lorenzo; Dagleish, Mark P; Sirochman, Tracey M; Brown, Jeremy C; Jeffrey, Martin; Miller, Michael W

    2007-07-01

    The utility of rectal lymphoid tissue sampling for the diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (CWD) infections in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was evaluated. CWD-associated prion protein (PrP(CWD)) deposits were observed in the rectal mucosa from 19 orally inoculated mule deer by 381 days post-inoculation (p.i.); similarly, 45 out of 50 naturally infected mule deer had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa. In orally inoculated white-tailed deer, the presence of glycine (G) or serine (S) at codon 96 of the native PrP (denoted 96GG, 96GS or 96SS) appeared to influence the temporal patterns of PrP(CWD) deposition: nine out of 11 infected 96GG individuals had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa by 342 days p.i., whereas only three out of seven infected 96GS individuals had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa by 381 days p.i. and none of three 96SS individuals had PrP(CWD) in their rectal mucosa by 751 days p.i. These findings support further evaluation of rectal mucosa sampling in CWD surveillance. PMID:17554043

  17. Predictive Factors and Management of Rectal Bleeding Side Effects Following Prostate Cancer Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Jeremy G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.Stock@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To report on the incidence, nature, and management of rectal toxicities following individual or combination brachytherapy following treatment for prostate cancer over a 17-year period. We also report the patient and treatment factors predisposing to acute ?grade 2 proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 2752 patients were treated for prostate cancer between October 1990 and April 2007 with either low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with androgen depletion therapy (ADT) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and were followed for a median of 5.86 years (minimum 1.0 years; maximum 19.19 years). We investigated the 10-year incidence, nature, and treatment of acute and chronic rectal toxicities following BT. Using univariate, and multivariate analyses, we determined the treatment and comorbidity factors predisposing to rectal toxicities. We also outline the most common and effective management for these toxicities. Results: Actuarial risk of ?grade 2 rectal bleeding was 6.4%, though notably only 0.9% of all patients required medical intervention to manage this toxicity. The majority of rectal bleeding episodes (72%) occurred within the first 3 years following placement of BT seeds. Of the 27 patients requiring management for their rectal bleeding, 18 underwent formalin treatment and nine underwent cauterization. Post-hoc univariate statistical analysis revealed that coronary artery disease (CAD), biologically effective dose, rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (RV100), and treatment modality predict the likelihood of grade ?2 rectal bleeding. Only CAD, treatment type, and RV100 fit a Cox regression multivariate model. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy is very well tolerated and rectal bleeding toxicities are either self-resolving or effectively managed by medical intervention. Treatment planning incorporating adjuvant ADT while minimizing RV100 has yielded the best toxicity-free survival following BT.

  18. Rectal-wall dose dependence on postplan timing after permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Taussky, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Yeung, Ivan [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Williams, Theresa [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Pearson, Shannon [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); McLean, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Pond, Gregory [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada)]. E-mail: Juanita.crook@rmp.uhn.on.ca

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: Dose to rectal wall after permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy is dependent on distance between posterior prostatic seeds and anterior rectal wall and is influenced by postimplant periprostatic edema. We analyzed the effect of postplan timing on anterior rectal-wall dose. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients received permanent seed {sup 125}I brachytherapy as monotherapy (145 Gy). Implants were preplanned by use of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and carried out by use of preloaded needles. Postimplant dosimetry was calculated by use of magnetic resonance imaging-computed tomography fusion on Days 1, 8, and 30. The anterior rectal-wall dose is reported as the isodose enclosing 1.0 or 2.0 cc of rectal wall and as the RV100 in cc. Results: The dose to rectal wall increased progressively over time. The median increase in dose to 1.0 cc of rectal wall (RD [1 cc]) from Day 1 to 30 was 39.2 Gy (p < 0.001). RV100 increased from a median of 0.07 cc on Day 1 to 0.67 cc on Day 30. The most significant predictor of rectal-wall dose (RD [1 cc], RD [2 cc], or RV100) was the time of evaluation (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Although periprostatic edema cannot be quantified by postimplant imaging, the dose to the anterior rectal wall increases significantly over time as prostatic and periprostatic edema resolve. Critical-organ dose reporting and guidelines for minimizing toxicity must take into account the time of the assessment.

  19. Proteomic analysis of colon and rectal carcinoma using standard and customized databases

    PubMed Central

    Slebos, Robbert J.C.; Wang, Xia; Wang, Xaojing; Zhang, Bing; Tabb, David L.; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding proteomic differences underlying the different phenotypic classes of colon and rectal carcinoma is important and may eventually lead to a better assessment of clinical behavior of these cancers. We here present a comprehensive description of the proteomic data obtained from 90 colon and rectal carcinomas previously subjected to genomic analysis by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Here, the primary instrument files and derived secondary data files are compiled and presented in forms that will allow further analyses of the biology of colon and rectal carcinoma. We also discuss new challenges in processing these large proteomic datasets for relevant proteins and protein variants. PMID:26110064

  20. The value of computed tomography in the diagnostics of recurrent rectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Rotte, K H; Hebbar, H G; Ghoneim, I M

    1988-01-01

    Computed tomography as a noninvasive X-ray method offers new facilities for detecting and diagnosing recurrences after surgical treatment of rectal carcinomas. In a comparative study the CT findings of 14 patients with recurrent rectal tumors of the Kuwait Cancer Control Center and of 77 patients of the Central Institute for Cancer Research in Berlin-Buch/GDR were reviewed. CT is of high sensitivity and specificity for the detection and the extent diagnosis of recurrent rectal tumors and is helpful in taking the appropriate therapeutic decision (surgery, radiotherapy). CT examination becomes mandatory for the postoperative follow-up and further assessment. PMID:3415436

  1. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: The first attempt in treatment of rectal amyloidoma

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Richa; George, Virgilio V

    2015-01-01

    Localized amyloidosis is characterized by amyloid protein deposition restricted to one organ or tissue without systemic involvement. Gastrointestinal manifestations of localized amyloidoma are unusual, which makes amyloidoma restricted to the rectum a very rare diagnosis requiring a high index of suspicion. We present a rare account for rectal amyloidoma with an unusual presentation of obstructive symptoms and its treatment using a sophisticated surgical modality, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), which resulted in complete excision of the lesion without hospitalization and complications. The successful treatment for this rectal amyloidoma using TEM emphasizes the need to broaden its application in the treatment of various rectal lesions while preserving organ function and decreasing recurrence. PMID:25632208

  2. Is total pelvic exenteration reasonable primary treatment for rectal carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, L F; Huddleston, C B; Sawyers, J L; Potts, J R; Sharp, K W; McDougal, S W

    1988-01-01

    Total pelvic exeneration (TPE) is reasonable primary surgical therapy in select patients with large bulky locally invasive rectal cancers that can be removed en bloc. Many do not have either nodal or distant metastasis. Furthermore, TPE can be curative and often is palliative for similar lesions that are recurrent or nonresponsive to radiation therapy. Operative mortality rates should be under 10% and can be under 5% for primary cases. Although improvement in preoperative management and operative technique, especially with urinary conduits and postoperative care is clear, both early and late complications are significant. Unfortunately, preoperative identification of those patients requiring TPE rather than abdominoperineal or low anterior resection remains poor. Furthermore, recent improvements in techniques for pelvic slings to prevent small bowel entrapment and protection from irradiation or myocutaneous flaps to obliterate the massive dead space are not yet clearly established as preventors of either early or later complications. PMID:3291792

  3. Rectal bleeding in a 4-month-old boy

    SciTech Connect

    Dutro, J.A.; Santanello, S.A.; Unger, F.; Goodwin, C.D.

    1986-10-24

    A case of bleeding Meckel's diverticulum is described in an infant. A 4-month-old boy was seen initially with a 24-hour history of painless hematochezia. His parents had noted two episodes of maroon-colored stool that did not appear to be associated with any abdominal distress. His medical history was unremarkable, with normal growth and development. Physical examination revealed a well-nourished, well-hydrated infant in no apparent distress. Vital signs were normal. Rectal examination revealed no masses, but bright-red blood was noted on the examining finger. Findings from the remainder of the examination were normal. An upright roentgenogram of the abdomen was obtained and demonstrated no abnormalities. The abdominal technetium scan was abnormal. An exploratory laparotomy was performed later on the day of admission.

  4. Establishment and characterization of a bovine rectal myxoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Aditya P; Tiwari, Ashok K; Ravi Kumar, G; Chaturvedi, U; Veer Singh, Lakshya; Saxena, Shikha; Palia, S K; Jadon, N S; Singh, R; Singh, K P; Brahmaprakash, B S; Maiti, S K; Das, A K

    2015-02-01

    A new bovine cell line was developed from tumor biopsy material of rectum obtained from clinical case of 7 years old cattle with tumor mass obliterating the rectal opening. Histopathology of tumor revealed scattered stellate cells arranged singly or in clusters in loose mucinous ground substance, simulating myxoma. The cells obtained from tumor mass have been cultured for more than 36 months in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The population doubling time of this cell line was about 20.64 h. The cytogenetic analysis revealed several chromosomal abnormalities with bizarre karyotype. The origin of the cell line was confirmed by PCR amplification of 1086 bp fragment of 16s rRNA using bovine species specific primers. The new cell line would act as in vitro model to study many aspect of cancer biology such as tumor development, differentiation and therapeutics regimen to combat cancer. PMID:25441618

  5. Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma with liver metastasis of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Kiyoto; Aoki, Hideki; Takehara, Yuko; Yamasaki, Rie; Tanakaya, Kohji; Takeuchi, Hitoshi

    2012-10-14

    Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma is a particularly rare tumor with a poor prognosis. Curative resection is currently the only effective treatment, and the efficacy of chemotherapy is unclear. This represents the first case report of a patient with primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma co-existing with metastatic liver carcinoma. We present a 59-year-old man who was diagnosed preoperatively with rectal cancer with multiple liver metastases. He underwent a curative hepatectomy after a series of chemotherapy regimens with modified FOLFOX6 consisting of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin plus bevacizumab, FOLFIRI consisting of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan plus bevacizumab, and irinotecan plus cetuximab. One of the liver tumors showed a different response to chemotherapy and was diagnosed as a leiomyosarcoma following histopathological examination. This case suggests that irinotecan has the potential to inhibit the growth of hepatic leiomyosarcomas. The possibility of comorbid different histological types of tumors should be suspected when considering the treatment of multiple liver tumors. PMID:23082067

  6. Clinical Decision Support for Colon and Rectal Surgery: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Allison B.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) has been shown to improve clinical processes, promote patient safety, and reduce costs in healthcare settings, and it is now a requirement for clinicians as part of the Meaningful Use Regulation. However, most evidence for CDS has been evaluated primarily in internal medicine care settings, and colon and rectal surgery (CRS) has unique needs with CDS that are not frequently described in the literature. The authors reviewed published literature in informatics and medical journals, combined with expert opinion to define CDS, describe the evidence for CDS, outline the implementation process for CDS, and present applications of CDS in CRS.CDS functionalities such as order sets, documentation templates, and order facilitation aids are most often described in the literature and most likely to be beneficial in CRS. Further research is necessary to identify and better evaluate additional CDS systems in the setting of CRS. PMID:24436644

  7. Use of robotics in colon and rectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Pucci, Michael J; Beekley, Alec C

    2013-03-01

    The pace of innovation in the field of surgery continues to accelerate. As new technologies are developed in combination with industry and clinicians, specialized patient care improves. In the field of colon and rectal surgery, robotic systems offer clinicians many alternative ways to care for patients. From having the ability to round remotely to improved visualization and dissection in the operating room, robotic assistance can greatly benefit clinical outcomes. Although the field of robotics in surgery is still in its infancy, many groups are actively investigating technologies that will assist clinicians in caring for their patients. As these technologies evolve, surgeons will continue to find new and innovative ways to utilize the systems for improved patient care and comfort. PMID:24436647

  8. The Use of Rectal Douches among HIV-uninfected and Infected Men who Have Unprotected Receptive Anal Intercourse: Implications for Rectal Microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Bauermeister, José A.; Ventuneac, Ana; Dolezal, Curtis; Balan, Ivan; Remien, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Although some rectal douches result in surface epithelium loss and potential increase of HIV transmission, men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to use them. We describe the prevalence of this practice among MSM engaging in unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) in risky circumstances. A multiethnic sample with overrepresentation of HIV-negative MSM who had URAI in the previous year was recruited exclusively through the Internet. Participants were 105 MSM (78 HIV-negative, 27 HIV-positive). 53% of HIV-negative and 96% of HIV-positive men douched in preparation for sex, most of them frequently or always, mainly for hygienic purposes. 27% of HIV-negative and 44% of HIV-positive douched after sex, partly believing douching protected from infections. Douching practices started around age 25. Regression analyses found the association between HIV status and douching occasions persisted after controlling for demographic characteristics and number of URAI occasions. Rectal douching in preparation for sex is common among men who practice URAI. This population could benefit from alternatives to condoms, such as rectal microbicides. Given the popularity of pre-coital douching and its frequency, a harmless rectal douche that could deliver a rectal microbicide could have great acceptability. PMID:17705033

  9. STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS Administration

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS RESEARCH Basic Applied Medical Administration University laboratories Federal laboratories/agencies Public health departments Hospital laboratories Commercial medical laboratories, biology, or chemistry to qualify for laboratory technician/ research assistant positions. Choose courses

  10. Bisacodyl rectal preparation can decrease infectious complications of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong Soo Jeon; Seung-Hyo Woo; Ji-Hwan Hyun; Han Yong Choi; Soo Eung Chai

    2003-01-01

    ObjectivesTo assess whether rectal preparation before transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy could decrease the rate of infectious complications and to find any possible risk factors affecting the development of complications.

  11. Rectal ultrastructure in salt- and freshwater mosquito larvae in relation to physiological state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Meredith; J. E. Phillips

    1973-01-01

    A comparison of rectal morphology and ultrastructure is made between a freshwater (A. aegypti) and salt water (A. campestris) species of mosquito larvae, and between A. campestris larvae producing hyper- and hyposmotic urine.

  12. A Case of Metastatic Rectal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Initially Diagnosed as Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Win, Aung Zaw; Aparici, Carina Mari

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the rectum is extremely rare with a reported incidence of only 0.025–0.1% of all colorectal tumors. The patient was a 68-year-old man who presented with fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and unintentional weight loss. A chest CT revealed a left suprahilar mass suspected to be lung cancer and an initial diagnosis of primary lung cancer was made. However, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) exam revealed an intensely hypermetabolic rectal mass which turned out to be rectal squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first report that shows FDG-PET/CT images of rectal squamous cell carcinoma metastasis to the skin, muscle, bone, and lung. Use of PET/CT in the initial diagnosis of non-resectable rectal cancers may avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:25973286

  13. Evolution of imaging in rectal cancer: multimodality imaging with MDCT, MRI, and PET.

    PubMed

    Raman, Siva P; Chen, Yifei; Fishman, Elliot K

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and positron emission tomography (PET) are complementary imaging modalities in the preoperative staging of patients with rectal cancer, and each offers their own individual strengths and weaknesses. MRI is the best available radiologic modality for the local staging of rectal cancers, and can play an important role in accurately distinguishing which patients should receive preoperative chemoradiation prior to total mesorectal excision. Alternatively, both MDCT and PET are considered primary modalities when performing preoperative distant staging, but are limited in their ability to locally stage rectal malignancies. This review details the role of each of these three modalities in rectal cancer staging, and how the three imaging modalities can be used in conjunction. PMID:25830037

  14. Gastric duplication cyst: A cause of rectal bleeding in a young child.

    PubMed

    Surridge, Clare A; Goodier, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts are an uncommon congenital anomaly and rectal bleeding is a rare presentation of a complicated gastric duplication cyst. This case report describes the radiological findings in a child with a complicated gastric duplication cyst. PMID:25047323

  15. Selection Criteria for the Radical Treatment of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Mansel Leigh; Harris, Dean; Davies, Mark; Lucas, Malcolm; Drew, Peter; Beynon, John

    2011-01-01

    There are over 14,000 newly diagnosed rectal cancers per year in the United Kingdom of which between 50 and 64 percent are locally advanced (T3/T4) at presentation. Pelvic exenterative surgery was first described by Brunschwig in 1948 for advanced cervical cancer, but early series reported high morbidity and mortality. This approach was later applied to advanced primary rectal carcinomas with contemporary series reporting 5-year survival rates between 32 and 66 percent and to recurrent rectal carcinoma with survival rates of 22–42%. The Swansea Pelvic Oncology Group was established in 1999 and is involved in the assessment and management of advanced pelvic malignancies referred both regionally and UK wide. This paper will set out the selection, assessment, preparation, surgery, and outcomes from pelvic exenterative surgery for locally advanced primary rectal carcinomas. PMID:22312517

  16. Rectal adenocarcinoma metastatic to the tonsil; PET-CT observations with pathological confirmation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    HE, JIAN-PING; ZHANG, SHUANG; PANG, ZONG-GUO; LI, QIU

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis of rectal adenocarcinoma develops by lymphatic or hematogenous spread. The usual sites of metastasis from rectal adenocarcinoma include local and distant lymph nodes, the liver and the lungs. The current case report presents a unique case of a mass that was identified in the tonsil by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), indicating a metastasis from rectal adenocarcinoma. Metastatic tumor to the tonsil is extremely rare and to the best of our knowledge, no previous studies have reported a case of tonsil metastasis from rectal adenocarcinoma. PET-CT scanners represent an important evolution in technology that is helping to bring anatomical imaging togeother with functional imaging in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient. PMID:24348839

  17. Clinical outcome of laparoscopic intersphincteric resection combined with transanal rectal dissection for t3 low rectal cancer in patients with a narrow pelvis.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Kimihiko; Shiokawa, Hiroyuki; Teramoto, Tatsuo; Koike, Junichi; Kaneko, Hironori

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to analyze the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic intersphincteric resection (ISR) combined with transanal rectal dissection (TARD) for T3 low rectal cancer in a narrow pelvis. Methods. We studied 20 patients with a narrow pelvis of median body mass index 25.3 (16.9-31.2). Median observation period was 23.6 months (range 12.2-56.7). Results. Partial, subtotal, and total ISR was performed in 15, 1, and 4 patients, respectively. Median duration of TARD was 83?min (range 43-135). There were no major complications perioperatively or postoperatively. Surgical margins were histologically free of tumor cells in all patients, and there was no local recurrence. Excluding urgency, frequency of bowel movements, and incontinence status improved gradually after stoma closure. Conclusion. Laparoscopic ISR combined with TARD is technically feasible for selective T3 low rectal cancer in patients with a narrow pelvis. PMID:22312529

  18. Clinical Outcome of Laparoscopic Intersphincteric Resection Combined with Transanal Rectal Dissection for T3 Low Rectal Cancer in Patients with a Narrow Pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Funahashi, Kimihiko; Shiokawa, Hiroyuki; Teramoto, Tatsuo; Koike, Junichi; Kaneko, Hironori

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to analyze the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic intersphincteric resection (ISR) combined with transanal rectal dissection (TARD) for T3 low rectal cancer in a narrow pelvis. Methods. We studied 20 patients with a narrow pelvis of median body mass index 25.3 (16.9–31.2). Median observation period was 23.6 months (range 12.2–56.7). Results. Partial, subtotal, and total ISR was performed in 15, 1, and 4 patients, respectively. Median duration of TARD was 83?min (range 43–135). There were no major complications perioperatively or postoperatively. Surgical margins were histologically free of tumor cells in all patients, and there was no local recurrence. Excluding urgency, frequency of bowel movements, and incontinence status improved gradually after stoma closure. Conclusion. Laparoscopic ISR combined with TARD is technically feasible for selective T3 low rectal cancer in patients with a narrow pelvis. PMID:22312529

  19. Selection criteria for treatment of rectal cancer with combined external and endocavitary radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa H. Birnbaum; Olagunju A. Ogunbiyi; Giuseppe Gagliardi; Robert D. Fry; Robert J. Myerson; Ira J. Kodner; James W. Fleshman

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify factors predictive of recurrence of rectal tumors treated with combined external and endocavitary radiation. METHODS: Seventy-two patients with rectal cancer were evaluated clinically and with transrectal ultrasound before combined external and endocavitary radiation. Ideal lesions were moderately differentiated, mobile, not ulcerated, vs. 48 percent;P=0.01). Mobile lesions recurred less than tethered lesions

  20. Distorted rectal tissue on prostate needle biopsy: a mimicker of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Schowinsky, Jeffrey T; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2006-07-01

    Rectal tissue is often seen in needle biopsies of the prostate gland. On rare occasion distorted rectal glands can mimic prostatic adenocarcinoma, an issue not previously addressed in the peer-reviewed literature. We evaluated 16 prostate needle biopsies received in consultation where the submitting pathologist questioned whether a focus of rectal tissue was prostate cancer. In addition to the distorted architecture, features mimicking prostate cancer included: (1) blue-tinged intraluminal mucinous secretions in 10 cases (63%), (2) prominent nucleoli in 6 cases (37%), (3) mitotic activity in 6 cases (37%), (4) extracellular mucin in 5 cases (31%), and (5) adenomatous changes of the rectal tissue in 1 case (6%). Immunohistochemical results further mimicked prostate cancer with negative stains for the basal cell markers high-molecular weight cytokeratin (n=6) and p63 (n=4), and positive stains for racemase in 4 of 5 biopsies. Diagnostic clues to recognizing that these foci were distorted rectal fragments were the presence of (1) lamina propria in 12 cases (75%), (2) rectal tissue located on a detached fragment of tissue in 10 biopsies (63%), (3) associated inflammation in 10 cases (63%), (4) goblet cells in 7 cases (44%), and (5) muscularis propria in 6 cases (37%). In 2 cases, there was negative staining for prostate specific antigen (PSA) and in 1 case negative staining for cytokeratin 7 and positivity for cytokeratin 20. Rectal glands are associated with many of the classical features of prostate cancer, and immunohistochemistry may be misleading. Recognition of these features mimicking prostate cancer and awareness of other findings that are diagnostic of rectal tissue on biopsy can prevent a misdiagnosis of atypical prostate glands or prostate cancer. PMID:16819329

  1. Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1): a potential marker of prognosis in rectal carcinoma?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Cooper; S Sario?lu; S Sökmen; M Füzün; A Küpelio?lu; H Valentine; I B Görken; R Airley

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the pattern and level of expression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) in rectal carcinoma in relation to outcome as a potential surrogate marker of tumour hypoxia. Formalin-fixed tumour sections from 43 patients with rectal carcinoma, who had undergone radical resection with curative intent, were immunohistochemically stained for GLUT-1. A mean of three sections

  2. Disparities in Evaluation of Patients With Rectal Bleeding 40 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    SHIELDS, HELEN M.; STOFFEL, ELENA M.; CHUNG, DANIEL C.; SEQUIST, THOMAS D.; LI, JUSTIN W.; PELLETIER, STEPHEN R.; SPENCER, JUSTIN; SILK, JEAN M.; AUSTIN, BONITA L.; DIGUETTE, SUSAN; FURBISH, JEAN E.; LEDERMAN, RUTH; WEINGART, SAUL N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Rectal bleeding is associated with colorectal cancer. We characterized the evaluation of patients aged 40 years and older with rectal bleeding and identified characteristics associated with inadequate evaluation. METHODS We conducted a retrospective review of records of outpatient visits that contained reports of rectal bleeding for patients aged 40 years and older (N = 480). We studied whether patient characteristics affected whether or not they received a colonoscopy examination within 90 days of presentation with rectal bleeding. Patient characteristics included demographics; family history of colon cancer and polyps; and histories of screening colonoscopies, physical examinations, referrals to specialists at the index visit, and communication of laboratory results. Data were collected from medical records, and patient income levels were estimated based on Zip codes. RESULTS Nearly half of the patients presenting with rectal bleeding received colonoscopies (48.1%); 81.7% received the procedure within 90 days. A history of a colonoscopy examination was more likely to be reported in white patients compared with Hispanic or Asian patients (P = .012 and P = .006, respectively), and in high-income compared with low-income patients (P = .022). A family history was more likely to be documented among patients with private insurance than those with Medicaid or Medicare (P = .004). A rectal examination was performed more often for patients who were white or Asian, male, and with high or middle incomes, compared with those who were black, Hispanic, female, or with low incomes (P = .027). White patients were more likely to have their laboratory results communicated to them than black patients (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS Sex, race, ethnicity, patient income, and insurance status were associated with disparities in evaluation of rectal bleeding. There is a need to standardize the evaluation of patients with rectal bleeding. PMID:23891918

  3. Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy and Anal Sphincter Preservation with Locally Advanced Rectal Adenocarcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Luna-Pérez; Saúl Rodríguez-Ramírez; Darío F. Rodriguez-Coria; Armando Fernández; Sonia Labastida; Alejandro Silva; Marvin J. López

    2001-01-01

    .   Preoperative irradiation has been used to produce tumor regression and allow complete resection of rectal cancer with a sphincter-saving\\u000a procedure. To evaluate the associated toxicity, the response in the primary tumor, and the postsurgical morbidity in a group\\u000a of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiation therapy and low anterior resection,\\u000a 120 patients were treated with

  4. Late Rectal Toxicity on RTOG 94-06: Analysis Using a Mixture Lyman Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.or [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Image-Guided Therapy QA Center, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Winter, Kathryn [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Kuban, Deborah; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, M. Rex [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Thames, Howard D. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To estimate the parameters of the Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model using censored time-to-event data for Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity among patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-06, a dose-escalation trial designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: The Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model was fitted to data from 1,010 of the 1,084 patients accrued on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-06 using an approach that accounts for censored observations. Separate fits were obtained using dose-volume histograms for whole rectum and dose-wall histograms for rectal wall. Results: With a median follow-up of 7.2 years, the crude incidence of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity was 15% (n = 148). The parameters of the Lyman model fitted to dose-volume histograms data, with 95% profile-likelihood confidence intervals, were TD{sub 50} = 79.1 Gy (75.3 Gy, 84.3 Gy), m = 0.146 (0.107, 0.225), and n = 0.077 (0.041, 0.156). The fit based on dose-wall histogram data was not significantly different. Patients with cardiovascular disease had a significantly higher incidence of late rectal toxicity (p = 0.015), corresponding to a dose-modifying factor of 5.3%. No significant association with late rectal toxicity was found for diabetes, hypertension, rectal volume, rectal length, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, or prescribed dose per fraction (1.8 Gy vs. 2 Gy). Conclusions: These results, based on a large cohort of patients from a multi-institutional trial, are expected to be widely representative of the ability of the Lyman model to describe the long-term risk of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

  5. Prognostic implications of downstaging following preoperative radiation therapy for operable T3–T4 rectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Christine Kaminsky-Forrett; Thierry Conroy; Elisabeth Luporsi; Didier Peiffert; Michel Lapeyre; Patrick Boissel; Francois Guillemin; Pierre Bey

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of tumor downstaging after preoperative radiation for resectable rectal cancer.Methods and Materials: Eighty-eight patients with non-metastatic resectable rectal cancers (76 T3 and 12 T4) were treated with preoperative irradiation. Median dose was 40 Gy (30–46 Gy) delivered over 32 days (range 11–40). Seventeen patients received preoperative chemotherapy, two courses of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) 350 mg\\/m2\\/day

  6. PreOperative Staging with Positron Emission Tomography in Patients with Pelvic Recurrence of Rectal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian F. Faneyte; Raphaëla C. Dresen; Michela A. L. Edelbroek; Grard A. P. Nieuwenhuijzen; Harm J. T. Rutten

    2008-01-01

    Background\\/Aim:The treatment of pelvic recurrences of rectal cancer is primarily surgical. The substantial morbidity and mortality of such resections warrant stringent patient selection. Recent literature reports PET to be of additional value to CT for the detection of metastases in colorectal cancer patients. We studied the clinical impact of PET in pelvic rectal cancer recurrence. Methods:PET findings in 37 pelvic

  7. Complications Associated With Two Laparoscopic Procedures Used in the Management of Rectal Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Rozsnayi, Francisc; Puscasiu, Lucian; Resch, Benoit; Belhiba, Hend; Lefebure, Benoit; Scotte, Michel; Michot, Francis; Marpeau, Loïc; Tuech, Jean Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Background: To evaluate intra- and postoperative complications associated with laparoscopic management of rectal endometriosis by either colorectal segmental resection or nodule excision. Methods: During 39 consecutive months, 46 women underwent laparoscopic management of rectal endometriosis and were included in a retrospective comparative study. The distinguishing feature of the study is that the choice of the surgical procedure is not related to the characteristics of the nodule. Results: Colorectal segmental resection with colorectal anastomosis was carried out in 15 patients (37%), while macroscopically complete rectal nodule excision was performed in 31 women (63%). No intraoperative complications were recorded. In the colorectal resection group, 3 women (18%) had a bladder atony (spontaneously regressive in 2 women), 4 women (24%) experienced chronic constipation, one had an anastomosis leakage (6%), while 2 women (13%) had acute compartment syndrome with peripheral sensory disturbance. In the nodule excision group, 1 woman (4%) developed transitory right obturator nerve motor palsy. Based on both postoperative pain and improvement in quality of life, all 29 women in the excision group (100%) and 14 women in the colorectal resection group (82%) would recommend the surgical procedure to a friend suffering from the same disease. Conclusion: Our study suggests that carrying out colorectal segmental resection in rectal endometriosis is associated with unfavourable postoperative outcomes, such as bladder and rectal dysfunction. These outcomes are less likely to occur when rectal nodules are managed by excision. Information about complications related to both surgical procedures should be provided to patients managed for rectal endometriosis and should be taken into account when a decision is being made about the most appropriate treatment of rectal endometriosis in each case. PMID:20932363

  8. Proctocolectomy with jejunal pouch-distal rectal anastomosis: An alternative to ileal pouch reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michinaga Takahashi; James W. Williams; Keith A. Kelly

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a jejunal pouch would have a lower resting pressure, be more distensible, and\\u000a have more interdigestive migrating myoelectric complexes and less fecal bacterial overgrowth than would an ileal pouch after\\u000a proctocolectomy and pouch-distal rectal anastomosis. In six conscious dogs with a jejunal pouch-distal rectal anastomosis\\u000a and six with an ileal pouch-distal

  9. Perirectal graciloplasty: a novel surgical technique for the treatment of the neurogenic rectum and rectal inertia.

    PubMed

    Shafik, A

    1998-08-01

    A novel technique for evacuation of the denervated rectum was carried out on 11 mongrel dogs (mean weight 15.8 +/- 4.6 kg). The gracilis muscle was mobilized from the thigh, pedicled on its origin from the pubic ramus, and was introduced into the ischiorectal fossa through a para-anal incision. The abdomen was opened and the rectum mobilized and wrapped with the gracilis muscle which was pulled through the ischiorectal fossa into the pelvis. Rectal denervation was induced by bilateral pelvic ganglionectomy; cystostomy was performed owing to the resultant vesical denervation. Two electrodes were sutured to the gracilis muscle and connected to a myostimulator. The effect of electrostimulation of the gracilis muscle on the rectal and rectal neck (anal canal) pressures and on balloon expulsion was determined. Gracilis muscle stimulation with a burst of 30 Hz during 300 msec with a stimulus of 0.5 msec and an intensity just suprathreshold effected a rectal pressure rise (P < 0.001) with no rectal neck pressure change (P > 0.05); balloon expulsion occurred at a mean balloon filling of 14.8 +/- 3.2 mL. Gracilis muscle transposition could be a suitable experimental model for evacuation of the neurogenic rectum. The technique might be considered for the treatment of the neurogenic rectum, or rectal inertia. PMID:9697103

  10. Development of HIV-1 Rectal-Specific Microbicides and Colonic Tissue Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Russo, Julie; Wang, Lin; Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Li, Jie; Friend, David R.; McGowan, Ian M.; Rohan, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is structurally and functionally different from the vagina. Thus, the paradigm of topical microbicide development and evaluation has evolved to include rectal microbicides (RMs). Our interest was to create unique RM formulations to safely and effectively deliver antiretroviral drugs to mucosal tissue. RMs were designed to include those that spread and coat all surfaces of the rectum and distal colon rapidly (liquid) and those that create a deformable, erodible barrier and remain localized at the administration site (gel). Tenofovir (TFV) (1%) was formulated as an aqueous thermoreversible fluid and a carbopol-based aqueous hydrogel. Lipid-based liquid and gel formulations were prepared for UC781 (0.1%) using isopropyl myristate and GTCC (Caprylic/Capric Triglycerides), respectively. Formulations were characterized for pH, viscosity, osmolality, and drug content. Pre-clinical testing incorporated ex vivo colonic tissue obtained through surgical resections and flexible sigmoidoscopy (flex sig). As this was the first time using tissue from both sources side-by-side, the ability to replicate HIV-1 was compared. Efficacy of the RM formulations was tested by applying the products with HIV-1 directly to polarized colonic tissue and following viral replication. Safety of the formulations was determined by MTT assay and histology. All products had a neutral pH and were isoosmolar. While HIV-1BaL and HIV-1JR-CSF alone and in the presence of semen had similar replication trends between surgically resected and flex sig tissues, the magnitude of viral replication was significantly better in flex sig tissues. Both TFV and UC781 formulations protected the colonic tissue, regardless of tissue source, from HIV-1 and retained tissue viability and architecture. Our in vitro and ex vivo results show successful formulation of unique RMs. Moreover, the results of flex sig and surgically resected tissues were comparable suggesting the incorporation of both in pre-clinical testing algorithms. PMID:25025306

  11. Factors associated with the survival of prostate cancer patients with rectal involvement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer patients with rectal involvement are rare, and the factors associated with the survival of these patients are yet to be elucidated. Patients and methods We collected data on patients who were admitted to our hospital for prostate cancer in the last thirteen years and of those in studies in the literature. The associations of clinical characteristics with survival were evaluated using Cox regression models. Results This study included 94 patients (5 admitted to our hospital and 89 from studies in the literature) of prostate cancer with rectal involvement. 11 patients in the group of synchronous rectal involvement at first cancer diagnosis (n = 58) and 23 patients in the group of metachronous diagnosis of rectal involvement (n = 29) died at the latest follow up. The estimated overall survival rate (% ± SE) at 1, 3, and 5 years were 68.3 ± 5.3%, 54.4 ± 7.2%, and 38.1 ± 11.1%, respectively. In the Cox univariate analysis, Asian prostate cancer (p = 0.001) was associated with better survival, while rectal bleeding (p = 0.043), metachronous presentation of development of rectal involvement (p = 0.000), prior hormonal therapy (p = 0.000) and extrarectal metastases (p = 0.054) were associated with poor survival. In multivariate analysis, prior hormone therapy (HR = 14.540, p = 0.000) and rectal bleeding (HR = 2.195, p = 0.041) retained independent poor prognostic values. There were 13 patients survived for more than 3 years, the longest survival time was 96 months. Total pelvic extenteration (TPE) combined with hormonal therapy in 12 hormone-untreated prostate cancer give us six of thirteen long-term survivors for more than 3 years in this series. Conclusions Our findings suggest that rectal involvement does not necessarily predict a worse outcome when presenting as a previously hormone-untreated disease and that the prognosis was worse when presenting as a hormone relapsed disease. Prior hormone therapy and rectal bleeding were associated independently with a significantly poor overall survival in prostate cancer patients with rectal involvement. TPE combined with hormonal therapy appears to confer better overall survival in hormonally untreated patients. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1604504118106105. PMID:24555830

  12. Carcinoembryonic Antigen as a Predictor of Pathologic Response and a Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy and Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ji Won [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Seok-Byung [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sblim@amc.seoul.kr; Kim, Dae Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung Hae [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Department of Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong Sang; Chang, Hee Jin; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a predictor of response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and prognostic factor for rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: The study retrospectively evaluated 352 locally advanced rectal cancer patients who underwent preoperative CRT followed by surgery. Serum CEA levels were determined before CRT administration (pre-CRT CEA) and before surgery (post-CRT CEA). Correlations between pre-CRT CEA levels and rates of good response (Tumor regression grade 3/4) were explored. Patients were categorized into three CEA groups according to their pre-/post-CRT CEA levels (ng/mL) (Group A: pre-CRT CEA {<=} 3; B: pre-CRT CEA >3, post-CRT CEA {<=}3; C: pre- and post-CRT CEA >3 ng/mL), and their oncologic outcomes were compared. Results: Of 352 patients, good responses were achieved in 94 patients (26.7%). The rates of good response decreased significantly as the pre-CRT CEA levels became more elevated (CEA [ng/mL]: {<=}3, 36.4%; 3-6, 23.6%; 6-9, 15.6%; >9, 7.8%; p < 0.001). The rates of good response were significantly higher in Group A than in Groups B and C (36.4% vs. 17.3% and 14.3%, respectively; p < 0.001). The 3-year disease-free survival rate was significantly better in Groups A and B than in Group C (82% and 79% vs. 57%, respectively; p = 0.005); the CEA grouping was identified as an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.025). Conclusions: In locally advanced rectal cancer patients, CEA levels could be of clinical value as a predictor of response to preoperative CRT and as an independent prognostic factor after preoperative CRT and curative surgery.

  13. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  14. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  15. Impact of rectal balloon-filling materials on the dosimetry of prostate and organs at risk in photon beam therapy.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shiv P; Das, Indra J; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A S; Cheng, Chee-Wai

    2013-01-01

    The use of rectal balloon in radiotherapy of prostate cancer is shown to be effective in reducing prostate motion and minimizing rectal volume, thus reducing rectal toxicity. Air-filled rectal balloon has been used most commonly, but creates dose perturbation at the air-tissue interface. In this study, we evaluate the effects of rectal balloon-filling materials on the dose distribution to the target and organs at risk. The dosimetric impact of rectal balloon filling was studied in detail for a typical prostate patient, and the general effect of the balloon filling was investigated from a study of ten prostate patients covering a wide range of anterior-posterior and left-right separations, as well as rectal and bladder volumes. Hounsfield units (HU) of the rectal balloon filling was changed from -1000 HU to 1000 HU at an interval of 250 HU, and the corresponding changes in the relative electron density (RED) was calculated. For each of the HU of the rectal balloon filling, a seven-field IMRT plan was generated with 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. Dosimetric evaluation was performed with the AAA algorithm for inhomogeneity corrections. A detailed study of the rectal balloon filling shows that the GTV, PTV, rectal, and bladder mean dose decreased with increasing values of RED in the rectal balloon. There is significant underdosage in the target volume at the rectum-prostate interface with an air-filled balloon as compared to that with a water-filled balloon for both 6 MV and 15 MV beams. While the dosimetric effect of the rectal balloon filling is reduced when averaged over ten patients, generally an air-filled balloon results in lower minimum dose and lower mean dose in the overlap region (and possibly the PTV) compared to those produced by water-filled or contrast-filled balloons. Dose inhomogeneity in the target volume is increased with an air-filled rectal balloon. Thus a water-filled or contrast-filled rectal balloon is preferred to an air-filled rectal balloon in EBRT of prostate treatment. PMID:23318385

  16. Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Qi; Shi, Zhiao; Chambers, Matthew C.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Shaddox, Kent F.; Kim, Sangtae; Davies, Sherri R.; Wang, Sean; Wang, Pei; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Rivers, Robert C.; Rodriguez, Henry; Townsend, R. Reid; Ellis, Matthew J.C.; Carr, Steven A.; Tabb, David L.; Coffey, Robert J.; Slebos, Robbert J.C.; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We analyzed proteomes of colon and rectal tumors previously characterized by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and performed integrated proteogenomic analyses. Somatic variants displayed reduced protein abundance compared to germline variants. mRNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein abundance differences between tumors. Proteomics identified five proteomic subtypes in the TCGA cohort, two of which overlapped with the TCGA “MSI/CIMP” transcriptomic subtype, but had distinct mutation, methylation, and protein expression patterns associated with different clinical outcomes. Although copy number alterations showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA abundance, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of candidate driver genes. The chromosome 20q amplicon was associated with the largest global changes at both mRNA and protein levels; proteomics data highlighted potential 20q candidates including HNF4A, TOMM34 and SRC. Integrated proteogenomic analysis provides functional context to interpret genomic abnormalities and affords a new paradigm for understanding cancer biology. PMID:25043054

  17. Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Qi; Shi, Zhiao; Chambers, Matthew C; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Shaddox, Kent F; Kim, Sangtae; Davies, Sherri R; Wang, Sean; Wang, Pei; Kinsinger, Christopher R; Rivers, Robert C; Rodriguez, Henry; Townsend, R Reid; Ellis, Matthew J C; Carr, Steven A; Tabb, David L; Coffey, Robert J; Slebos, Robbert J C; Liebler, Daniel C

    2014-09-18

    Extensive genomic characterization of human cancers presents the problem of inference from genomic abnormalities to cancer phenotypes. To address this problem, we analysed proteomes of colon and rectal tumours characterized previously by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and perform integrated proteogenomic analyses. Somatic variants displayed reduced protein abundance compared to germline variants. Messenger RNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein abundance differences between tumours. Proteomics identified five proteomic subtypes in the TCGA cohort, two of which overlapped with the TCGA 'microsatellite instability/CpG island methylation phenotype' transcriptomic subtype, but had distinct mutation, methylation and protein expression patterns associated with different clinical outcomes. Although copy number alterations showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA abundance, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of candidate driver genes. The chromosome 20q amplicon was associated with the largest global changes at both mRNA and protein levels; proteomics data highlighted potential 20q candidates, including HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha), TOMM34 (translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 34) and SRC (SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase). Integrated proteogenomic analysis provides functional context to interpret genomic abnormalities and affords a new paradigm for understanding cancer biology. PMID:25043054

  18. Five years with a rectal foreign body: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ozbilgin, Mücahit; Arslan, Baha; Yakut, Mehmet Can; Aksoy, Süleyman Ozkan; Terzi, Mustafa Cem

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Rectal foreign bodies are rare colorectal emergencies. They are important for the complications that may occur. Delayed response causes a wide range of complications or may even result in death. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 22 years old male patient was seen at our hospital with anal pain, discharge, and complaining of incontinence. The patient stated that a bottle of beverage was placed into his anal canal in an inverted manner for sexual satisfaction 5 years previously. DISCUSSION After clinical and radiological assessment under general anaesthesia in the lithotomy position the object was removed by a laparotomy. He was advised to seek legal help and he received psychiatric treatment in the postoperative period prior to his discharge. CONCLUSION Complications such as abscess, perianal fistula complicated by severe pelvic sepsis and osteomyelitis were expected complications in this case. As in this case, a surgical approach may eliminate dissection planes, increasing morbidity and mortality related to the injuring of surrounding bodies during object extraction. PMID:25553525

  19. Rectal impalement injury: from cruelty to salvage endeavour.

    PubMed

    Lupa?cu, C; Fotea, V; Sârbu, P; Andronic, D

    2015-01-01

    Massive penetrating trauma by rectal impalement is a very rare form of injury, complicated and potentially lethal. It is even rarer for such injury to result in pelvic, abdominal and thoracic internal damages. We report the case of a 62 year-old man who was admitted in emergency after an aggression with a sharp wooden stake inserted forcibly into his rectum. Clinical examination revealed the blunt extremity of the stake outside the anus and the prominent sharp end reaching his right supraclavicular fossa. Radiographic examination showed the stake extending from the rectum to the right side of the neck.Surgery disclosed penetration through the rectum, retroperitoneum,large bowel mesentery, liver, diaphragm, right lung and right 2nd rib. The patient survived following management by a multidisciplinary surgical team. As similar reported cases are scarce, knowledge of the management of the few cases that have been successfully treated is likely to prepare the emergency teams to act rationally and efficiently in such exceptionally grave circumstances. PMID:25800318

  20. Initially unresectable rectal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative irradiation and surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, W M; Million, R R; Bland, K I; Pfaff, W W; Copeland, E M

    1987-01-01

    This is an analysis of 23 patients with clinically and/or surgically unresectable adenocarcinoma of the rectum on initial evaluation who were treated with preoperative irradiation and surgery between March 1970 and April 1981. All patients have had follow-up for at least 5 years. Five patients (22%) had exploratory laparotomy and diverting colostomy before irradiation. All patients were irradiated with megavoltage equipment to the pelvis at 180 rad/fraction, continuous-course technique. Total doses ranged from 3500 to 6000 rad with a mean of 4800 rad and a median of 5000 rad. All patients had surgery 2-11 weeks (mean: 4.9 weeks; median: 4 weeks) after radiation therapy. Twelve patients (52%) had lesions that were incompletely resected because of positive margins (7 patients), distant metastasis (1 patient), or both (4 patients). All of these patients died of cancer within 5 years of treatment. Eleven patients had an apparent complete excision of their rectal cancer; six patients (55%) subsequently had a local recurrence. The 5-year absolute survival rate for patients who had complete resection was 18% (2 of 11 patients). The 5-year absolute and determinate survival rates for the entire study were 9% (2 of 23 patients) and 9% (2 of 22 patients), respectively. One patient (in the incomplete resection group) died after operation secondary to sepsis and diffuse intravascular coagulation. PMID:3800461

  1. Biomarkers for Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kuremsky, Jeffrey G. [University of North Carolina (UNC) Institute for Pharmacogenomics and Individualized Therapy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); UNC Doris Duke Clinical Research Fellowship Program, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tepper, Joel E. [UNC Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); McLeod, Howard L. Phar [University of North Carolina (UNC) Institute for Pharmacogenomics and Individualized Therapy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); UNC Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)], E-mail: hmcleod@unc.edu

    2009-07-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is currently treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Although approximately 45% of patients respond to neoadjuvant therapy with T-level downstaging, there is no effective method of predicting which patients will respond. Molecular biomarkers have been investigated for their ability to predict outcome in LARC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. A literature search using PubMed resulted in the initial assessment of 1,204 articles. Articles addressing the ability of a biomarker to predict outcome for LARC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation were included. Six biomarkers met the criteria for review: p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), thymidylate synthase, Ki-67, p21, and bcl-2/bax. On the basis of composite data, p53 is unlikely to have utility as a predictor of response. Epidermal growth factor receptor has shown promise as a predictor when quantitatively evaluated in pretreatment biopsies or when EGFR polymorphisms are evaluated in germline DNA. Thymidylate synthase, when evaluated for polymorphisms in germline DNA, is promising as a predictive biomarker. Ki-67 and bcl-2 are not useful in predicting outcome. p21 needs to be further evaluated to determine its usefulness in predicting outcome. Bax requires more investigation to determine its usefulness. Epidermal growth factor receptor, thymidylate synthase, and p21 should be evaluated in larger prospective clinical trials for their ability to guide preoperative therapy choices in LARC.

  2. Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS): new treatment for early rectal cancer and large rectal polyps—experience of an Italian center.

    PubMed

    Maglio, Riccardo; Muzi, Gallinella Marco; Massimo, Massimo Meucci; Masoni, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a minimally invasive technique for excision of rectal tumors that avoids conventional pelvic resectional surgery along with its risks and side effects. Although appealing, the associated cost and complex learning curve limit TEM use by colorectal surgeons. Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) has emerged as an alternative to TEM. This platform uses ordinary laparoscopic instruments to achieve high-quality local excision. The aim of the study is to assess reliability of the technique. From July 2012 to August 2013, 15 consecutive patients with rectal pathology underwent TAMIS. After a single-incision laparoscopic surgery port was introduced into the anal canal, a pneumorectum was established with a laparoscopic device followed by transanal excision with conventional laparoscopic instruments, including graspers, electrocautery, and needle drivers. Patient demographics, operative data, and pathologic data were recorded. Of the 15 patients, 10 had rectal cancers (six T1 lesions and four T2 after preoperative chemoradiotherapy). The remainder of patients had a local excision for voluminous benign rectal adenomas. The median length of the lesions from the anal verge was 7 cm (range, 4 to 20 cm). The median operating time was 86 minutes (range, 33 to 160 minutes). There was no surgical morbidity or mortality. The median postoperative hospital stay was two days (range, 1 to 4 days). TAMIS seems to be a feasible and safe treatment option for early rectal cancer. We believe that this new technique is easy to perform, cost-effective, and less traumatic to the anal sphincter compared with traditional TEM. PMID:25760203

  3. Delayed endoluminal vacuum therapy for rectal anastomotic leaks after rectal resection in a swine model: a new treatment option.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Laura H; Shada, Amber; Ritter, Lane A; Mauro, David M; Mentrikoski, Mark J; Feldman, Sanford H; Kleiner, Daniel E

    2014-04-01

    Anastomotic leaks are a dreaded surgical complication following colorectal operations. Creation of a temporary proximal diverting ileostomy is used in high-risk anastomoses, however, additional surgical risk is accumulated with its creation and reversal. Endoluminal vacuum therapy has been shown to seal anastomotic defects in the prophylactic setting in a pig model and we hypothesized it could be utilized in a delayed fashion to rescue subjects with an active anastomotic leak. Yorkshire pigs underwent rectal resection, intentional leak confirmed by fluoroscopy, and endoluminal vacuum therapy device placement to low continuous suction. Following treatment, a contrast enema and necropsy was performed for gross and histopathology. Pigs underwent 2 (or 5) days of free intraperitoneal leak prior to device placement and 5 (or 7) subsequent days of endoluminal vacuum therapy. Six of seven early-treated pigs sealed their anastomotic defect, while two of the four treated pigs in this extended group sealed the defect. Endoluminal vacuum therapy is feasible and well tolerated in a pig model, and it has been shown to seal a significant number of freely leaking anastomoses in the early period (86%). This technology warrants further study as it may provide a noninvasive means to treatment of anastomotic leaks. PMID:24456480

  4. Anterior-only Partial Sacrectomy for en bloc Resection of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roldan, Hector; Perez-Orribo, Luis F.; Plata-Bello, Julio M.; Martin-Malagon, Antonio I.; Garcia-Marin, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?The usual procedure for partial sacrectomies in locally advanced rectal cancer combines a transabdominal and a posterior sacral route. The posterior approach is flawed with a high rate of complications, especially infections and wound-healing problems. Anterior-only approaches have indirectly been mentioned within long series of rectal cancer surgery. We describe a case of partial sacrectomy for en bloc resection of a locally advanced rectal cancer with invasion of the low sacrum through a combined transabdominal and perineal approach without any posterior incision. Methods?Through a midline laparotomy, the tumor was dissected and the sacral osteotomy was performed. Once the sacrum was mobile, the muscular attachments to its posterior wall were cut through the perineal approach. This latter route was also used to remove the whole specimen. Results?The postoperative period was uneventful in terms of infection and wound healing, but the patient developed right foot dorsiflexion paresis that completely disappeared in 1 month. Resection margins were negative. After a follow-up of 18 months, the patient has no local recurrence but presented lung and liver metastases. Conclusion?In cases of rectal cancer involving the low sacrum, the combination of a transabdominal and a perineal route to carry out the partial sacrectomy is a feasible approach that avoids changes of surgical positioning and the morbidity related to posterior incisions. This strategy should be considered when deciding on undertaking partial sacrectomy in locally advanced rectal cancer. PMID:25396109

  5. Rectal spirochaetosis in homosexual men: the association with sexual practices, HIV infection and enteric flora.

    PubMed Central

    Law, C L; Grierson, J M; Stevens, S M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of rectal spirochaetosis in homosexual men attending a sexually transmissible diseases clinic and investigate the association between their presence and sexual practices, HIV infection and enteric flora. DESIGN--The study included 144 male homosexual subjects who each completed a questionnaire, underwent physical examination, proctoscopy and investigations for STD and HIV screening, rectal biopsies and collection of faecal samples. SETTING--The Sexual Health Centre, Sydney Hospital, Sydney, Australia. RESULTS--Spirochaetes were detected in 39% of the rectal biopsies, using histological criteria. Logistic regression analysis showed that rectal spirochaetosis was significantly associated with: oral-anal contact. (P < 0.05, OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.48-8.05); detection of 3-5 different non-pathogenic protozoa in faeces (P < 0.01, OR 11.68, 95% C.I. 2.33-58) and a positive HIV antibody test (P < 0.01) OR 4.48, 95% C.I. 1.28-15.72). CONCLUSIONS--These findings indicate that rectal spirochaetosis is relatively common in homosexual men. The association with non-pathogenic protozoa is most likely attributable to the common mode of transmission viz oral-anal contact. However it is difficult to determine whether the association with HIV infection is cause or effect because of the limitations in the study design. Further information is required to determine the clinical significance of infection with these organisms. PMID:8300095

  6. An Interactive Tool for Individualized Estimation of Conditional Survival in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Samuel J; Wissel, Amanda R.; Luh, Join Y; Fuller, C David; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Thomas, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Background For rectal cancer patients who have already survived a period of time after diagnosis, survival probability changes and is more accurately depicted by conditional survival. The specific aim of this study was to develop an interactive tool for individualized estimation of changing prognosis for rectal cancer patients. Methods A multivariate Cox proportional hazards (CPH) survival model was constructed using data from rectal cancer patients diagnosed from 1994 to 2003 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Age, race, sex, and stage were used as covariates in the survival prediction model. The primary outcome variable was overall survival conditional on having survived up to 5 years from diagnosis. Results Data from 42,830 rectal cancer patients met the inclusion criteria. The multivariate CPH model showed age, race, sex, and stage as significant independent predictors of survival. The survival prediction model demonstrated good calibration and discrimination, with a bootstrap-corrected concordance index of 0.75. A web-based prediction tool was built from this regression model that can compute individualized estimates of changing prognosis over time. Conclusions An interactive prediction modeling tool can estimate prognosis for rectal cancer patients who have already survived a period of time after diagnosis and treatment. Having more accurate prognostic information can empower both patients and clinicians to be able to make more appropriate decisions regarding follow-up, surveillance testing, and future treatment. PMID:21207162

  7. Chloride secretagogues stimulate inositol phosphate formation in shark rectal gland tubules cultured in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Ecay, T.W.; Valentich, J.D. (Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Neuroendocrine activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland cells is associated with increases in cellular cAMP, cGMP, and free calcium concentrations. We report here on the effects of several chloride secretagogues on inositol phosphate formation in cultured rectal gland tubules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), atriopeptin (AP), and ionomycin increase the total inositol phosphate levels of cultured tubules, as measured by ion exchange chromatography. Forskolin, a potent chloride secretagogue, has no effect on inositol phosphate formation. The uptake of {sup 3}H-myo-inositol into phospholipids is very slow, preventing the detection of increased levels of inositol trisphosphate. However, significant increases in inositol monophosphate (IP1) and inositol biphosphate (IP2) were measured. The time course of VIP- and AP-stimulated IP1 and IP2 formation is similar to the effects of these agents on the short-circuit current responses of rectal gland monolayer cultures. In addition, aluminum fluoride, an artificial activator of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, stimulates IP1 and IP2 formation. We conclude that rectal gland cells contain VIP and AP receptors coupled to the activation of phospholipase C. Coupling may be mediated by G-proteins. Receptor-stimulated increases in inositol phospholipid metabolism is one mechanism leading to increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, an important regulatory event in the activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland epithelial cells.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in rectal cancer: A surgeon’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    Saklani, Avanish P; Bae, Sung Uk; Clayton, Amy; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in rectal cancer was first investigated in 1999 and has become almost mandatory in planning rectal cancer treatment. MRI has a high accuracy in predicting circumferential resection margin involvement and is used to plan neoadjuvant therapy. The accuracy of MRI in assessing mesorectal lymph nodes remains moderate, as there are no reliable criteria to assess nodal involvement. MRI seems to be good in assessing peritoneal involvement in upper rectal cancer; this however has been assessed in only a few studies and needs further research. For low rectal cancers, mesorectum is thin at the level of levator ani especially in relation to prostate; so predicting circumferential resection margin involvement is not easy. However high spatial resolution coronal imaging shows levator muscles, sphincter complex and intersphincteric plane accurately. This is used to stage low rectal tumors and plan plane of surgery (standard surgery, intersphincteric resection, Extralevator abdominoperineal resection). While most centres perform MRI post chemoradiotherapy, its role in accurate staging post neoadjuvant therapy remains debatable. THe role of Diffusion weighted MRI post neoadjuvant therapy is being evaluated in research settings. PMID:24616572

  9. [Successful resection of recurrent lesions in a patient with ovarian torsion diagnosed with rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Shimojima, Yukio; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Yokomizo, Hajime; Yano, Yuki; Nakayama, Mao; Okayama, Sachiyo; Satake, Masaya; Matsumoto, Atsuo; Fujimoto, Takashi; Usui, Takefumi; Yamaguchi, Kentarou; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Shimakawa, Takeshi; Katsube, Takao; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2014-11-01

    We report the successful resection of recurrent tumors, including brain metastasis, in a patient with StageIV rectal cancer. A 29-year-old female patient was admitted with lower abdominal pain to the gynecological department in April 2005. The patient underwent emergency surgery following the diagnosis of left ovarian torsion. She was transferred to the Department of Surgery with suspected rectal cancer based on a pathological diagnosis of a Krukenberg's tumor. She underwent surgery for local advanced cancer using high anterior resection, hysterectomy, right oophorectomy, partial ileal resection, and appendectomy. In September 2007, she underwent very low anterior resection for an anastomotic recurrence. The patient then received 6 courses of modified 5-fluorouracil Leucovorin oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) as adjuvant chemotherapy. In March 2009, left paresis was observed. She underwent tumor resection and g-knife radiosurgery for brain metastasis in the right temporal lobe. In December 2009, metastasis in the right rectal muscle was resected following diagnosis by computed tomography (CT). In September 2013, she underwent further surgical resection of a tumor recurrence in the right rectal muscle. The pathological diagnosis of each resected tumor was metastatic rectal cancer. The patient has been disease-free since the last operation. PMID:25731337

  10. [The functional and manometric-volumetric results following abdominal rectopexy for total rectal prolapse].

    PubMed

    Scaglia, M; Comotti, F; Fornari, M; Ribero, F; Delaini, G G; Canino, V; Hultén, L

    1992-01-01

    Functional changes after the posterior abdominal rectopexy for the treatment of rectal prolapse are not fully understood. We studied the effects of Wells' or Ripstein's rectopexy on functional characteristics as related to anal sphincter function, rectal volume and sensory function in 21 patients with complete rectal prolapse. We have observed an improvement of continence over 70 per cent in both groups. However, an absent or a decreased call to stool, constipation and evacuation difficulties are the aftermath of Wells' rectopexy, while these complaints appear basically unaffected by Ripstein's technique. Sensory thresholds for sense of filling and urge were significantly raised after Wells' rectopexy even one year after operation, whereas after Ripstein's operation sense of filling was not significantly affected and while sense of urge was increased early postoperatively, it was not significantly changed at one year postoperative control. In conclusion, when fecal incontinence appears associated to a complete rectal prolapse has good chances to improve postoperatively. Preoperative evacuation difficulties seems to be unaffected by a posterior abdominal rectopexy, Wells or Ripstein, but an extensive dissection of the rectum with the division of the lateral stalks, as it is performed in Wells' operation, seems to be a procedure that can create a further burden of problems to the patient and it seems coupled to a manovolumetric elevation of rectal sensory thresholds. PMID:1344149

  11. Incidental discovery of ano-rectal disease during transrectal ultrasound performed for prostatic disease.

    PubMed

    Martino, Pasquale; Martino, Donato; Palazzo, Silvano; Altomare, Donato Francesco; Garofalo, Lucio; Battaglia, Michele; Selvaggi, Francesco Paolo

    2005-03-01

    Transrectal ultrasound (US) has long been a routine investigation for the study of various diseases of the prostate. The use of 360 degrees transverse scanning probes and recently, of 3D probes, has been proposed as a suitable means of studying the rectal wall. Between January 1997 and February 2004, 3758 subjects suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms associated with micturition disturbances underwent transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) with a multiplane probe having a variable frequency ranging up to 7.5 MHz and, in the later period, with a transrectal 3D volumetric probe. In 489 patients (13%) TRUS yielded suspicious images of the rectal wall. This finding was verified by a proctologic and rectoscopic examination. In 132 cases (27%) it was shown to be a false positive, mainly due to imperfect cleansing of the anal canal; in 284 cases (58%) benign disease was demonstrated (hemorrhoids in 192 patients, abscesses in 21, perianal fistulas in 18, inflamed lymph nodes in 27, polyps in 16). In 34 patients (7%) a malignant tumor was found (infiltration of the anterior rectal wall by a prostatic adenocarcinoma in 13, and a primitive adenocarcinoma of rectal origin in the remaining 21). It can be concluded that transrectal US does not permit a certain diagnosis of the nature of rectal disease, but does raise a diagnostic suspicion that can orient the surgeon to schedule more invasive diagnostic investigations. PMID:15906788

  12. Trans-rectal interventional MRI: initial prostate biopsy experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Bernadette M.; Behluli, Meliha R.; Feller, John F.; May, Stuart T.; Princenthal, Robert; Winkel, Alex; Kaminsky, David B.

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate gland when evaluated along with T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and their corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps can yield valuable information in patients with rising or elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels1. In some cases, patients present with multiple negative trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies, often placing the patient into a cycle of active surveillance. Recently, more patients are undergoing TRIM for targeted biopsy of suspicious findings with a cancer yield of ~59% compared to 15% for second TRUS biopsy2 to solve this diagnostic dilemma and plan treatment. Patients were imaged in two separate sessions on a 1.5T magnet using a cardiac phased array parallel imaging coil. Automated CAD software was used to identify areas of wash-out. If a suspicious finding was identified on all sequences it was followed by a second imaging session. Under MRI-guidance, cores were acquired from each target region3. In one case the microscopic diagnosis was prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), in the other it was invasive adenocarcinoma. Patient 1 had two negative TRUS biopsies and a PSA level of 9ng/mL. Patient 2 had a PSA of 7.2ng/mL. He underwent TRUS biopsy which was negative for malignancy. He was able to go on to treatment for his prostate carcinoma (PCa)4. MRI may have an important role in a subset of patients with multiple negative TRUS biopsies and elevated or rising PSA.

  13. Treatment of complete rectal prolapse: To narrow, to wrap, to suspend, to fix, to encircle, to plicate or to resect?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han C. Kuijpers

    1992-01-01

    Selection of the best surgical procedure for the treatment of complete rectal prolapse is difficult amid the many different techniques for which excellent results are reported. A critical review is given. It is concluded that any surgical procedure with rectal mobilization and fixation as a standard maneuver will lead to a recurrence rate of 2% to 4%. Advocacy of additional

  14. DuraSeal as a spacer to reduce rectal doses in low-dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Vesa-Pekka; Kärnä, Aarno; Vaarala, Markku H

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of off-label use of DuraSeal polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel in low-dose rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy seed implantation to reduce rectal doses. Diluted DuraSeal was easy to use and, in spite of a clearance effect, useful in decreasing D?cc rectal doses. PMID:25201125

  15. Successful treatment of giant rectal varices by modifi ed percutaneous transhepatic obliteration with sclerosant: Report of a case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirotoshi Okazaki; Kazuhide Higuchi; Masatsugu Shiba; Shirou Nakamura; Tomoko Wada; Kazuki Yamamori; Ai Machida; Kaori Kadouchi; Akihiro Tamori; Kazunari Tominaga; Toshio Watanabe; Yasuhiro Fujiwara; Kenji Nakamura; Tetsuo Arakawa

    We present a female patient with continuous melena, diagnosed with rectal variceal bleeding. She had a history of esophageal varices, which were treated with endoscopic therapy. Five years after the treatment of esophageal varices, continuous melena occurred. Since colonoscopy showed that the melena was caused by giant rectal varices, we thought that they were not suitable to receive endoscopic treatment.

  16. [A case of laparoscopic surgery for a rectal carcinoid after ALTA therapy for an internal hemorrhoid].

    PubMed

    Aomatsu, Naoki; Nakamura, Masanori; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Nakao, Shigetomi; Uchima, Yasutake; Aomatsu, Keiho

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of laparoscopic surgery for a rectal carcinoid after aluminum potassium and tannic acid (ALTA) therapy for an internal hemorrhoid. A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of bleeding during defecation. He was diagnosed via anoscopy with Goligher grade II internal hemorrhoids. Examination via colonoscopy revealed 2 yellowish submucosal tumors in the lower rectum that were 5mm and 10mm in diameter. A rectal carcinoid tumor was diagnosed based on histopathology. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated no metastases to the liver or lymph nodes. First, we performed ALTA therapy for the internal hemorrhoids. Two weeks later, we performed laparoscopic-assisted low anterior resection (D2) for the rectal carcinoid. The patient was discharged without complications and has not experienced recurrence during the 2 years of follow-up care. PMID:25731340

  17. Rectal cancer with disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yuichiro; Takeishi, Kazuki; Guntani, Atsushi; Tsujita, Eiji; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Matsuyama, Ayumi; Hamatake, Motoharu; Maeda, Takashi; Tsutsui, Shinichi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Fujihara, Megumu; Ishida, Teruyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We report a rare case of disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from rectal cancer with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A 65-year-old man was admitted with melena and low back pain at rest. X-ray examination showed rectal cancer with multiple bone metastases. Laboratory examination showed severe anemia and DIC. Histologic examination showed disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow. The DIC was considered to be caused by disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from rectal cancer, and we immediately started treatment with anti-DIC therapy and anticancer chemotherapy with the modified FOLFOX6 regimen (mFOLFOX6). After some response to therapy, the patient's general condition deteriorated, and he died 128 days after admission. This is the first English report showing disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow from colorectal cancer treated with mFOLFOX6. PMID:25216414

  18. Calretinin immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of Hirschprung disease in rectal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Cinel, Leyla; Ceyran, Bahar; Güçlüer, Berrin

    2015-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the usability of calretinin staining in the diagnosis and exclusion of HD in 36 rectal biopsies. Through immunohistochemical examination, in of a total of 21 pediatric patients in whom ganglion cells were detected in first rectal biopsies and in re-biopsies, ganglion cells were seen through nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. In the lamina propria and superficial submucosa, staining of nerve fibers was detected in a granular pattern in varying intensities. Out of a total of 5 biopsies (including one re-biopsy) of non-HD patients, where ganglion cells could not be seen, the nerve fibers were all stained. On the other hand, in 10 HD patients, diagnosed by a colon pull through operation, calretinin staining was not detected in any area of the rectal biopsies except for the mast cells. We conclude that calretinin immunostaining for the diagnosis of HD is an easy and reliable method for use in daily practice. PMID:25442014

  19. New technique of transanal proctectomy with completely robotic total mesorrectal excision for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Gómez Ruiz, Marcos; Palazuelos, Carlos Manuel; Martín Parra, José Ignacio; Alonso Martín, Joaquín; Cagigas Fernández, Carmen; del Castillo Diego, Julio; Gómez Fleitas, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Anterior resection with total mesorectal excision is the standard method of rectal cancer resection. However, this procedure remains technically difficult in mid and low rectal cancer. A robotic transanal proctectomy with total mesorectal excision and laparoscopic assistance is reported in a 57 year old male with BMI 32 kg/m2 and rectal adenocarcinoma T2N1M0 at 5 cm from the dentate line. Operating time was 420 min. Postoperative hospital stay was 6 days and no complications were observed. Pathological report showed a 33 cm specimen with ypT2N0 adenocarcinoma at 2 cm from the distal margin, complete TME and non affected circumferential resection margin. Robotic technology might reduce some technical difficulties associated with TEM/TEO or SILS platforms in transanal total mesorectal excision. Further clinical trials will be necessary to assess this technique. PMID:24589418

  20. A tensor-based population value decomposition to explain rectal toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ospina, Juan David; Commandeur, Frédéric; Ríos, Richard; Dréan, Gaël; Correa, Juan Carlos; Simon, Antoine; Haigron, Pascal; de Crevoisier, Renaud; Acosta, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    In prostate cancer radiotherapy the association between the dose distribution and the occurrence of undesirable side-effects is yet to be revealed. In this work a method to perform population analysis by comparing the dose distributions is proposed. The method is a tensor-based approach that generalises an existing method for 2D images and allows for the highlighting of over irradiated zones correlated with rectal bleeding after prostate cancer radiotherapy. Thus, the aim is to contribute to the elucidation of the dose patterns correlated with rectal toxicity. The method was applied to a cohort of 63 patients and it was able to build up a dose pattern characterizing the difference between patients presenting rectal bleeding after prostate cancer radiotherapy and those who did not. PMID:24579164

  1. International Preoperative Rectal Cancer Management: Staging, Neoadjuvant Treatment, and Impact of Multidisciplinary Teams

    PubMed Central

    Augestad, Knut M.; Lindsetmo, Rolv-Ole; Stulberg, Jonah; Reynolds, Harry; Senagore, Anthony; Champagne, Brad; Heriot, Alexander G.; Leblanc, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding variations in preoperative treatment and practice for rectal cancer (RC) on an international level, yet practice variation may result in differences in recurrence and survival rates. Methods One hundred seventy-three international colorectal centers were invited to participate in a survey of preoperative management of rectal cancer. Results One hundred twenty-three (71%) responded, with a majority of respondents from North America, Europe, and Asia. Ninety-three percent have more than 5 years’ experience with rectal cancer surgery. Fifty-five percent use CT scan, 35% MRI, 29% ERUS, 12% digital rectal examination and 1% PET scan in all RC cases. Seventy-four percent consider threatened circumferential margin (CRM) an indication for neoadjuvant treatment. Ninety-two percent prefer 5-FU-based long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT). A significant difference in practice exists between the US and non-US surgeons: poor histological differentiation as an indication for CRT (25% vs. 7.0%, p = 0.008), CRT for stage II and III rectal cancer (92% vs. 43%, p = 0.0001), MRI for all RC patients (20% vs. 42%, p = 0.03), and ERUS for all RC patients (43% vs. 21%, p = 0.01). Multidisciplinary team meetings significantly influence decisions for MRI (RR = 3.62), neoadjuvant treatment (threatened CRM, RR = 5.67, stage II + III RR = 2.98), quality of pathology report (RR = 4.85), and sphincter-saving surgery (RR = 3.81). Conclusions There was little consensus on staging, neoadjuvant treatment, and preoperative management of rectal cancer. Regular multidisciplinary team meetings influence decisions about neoadjuvant treatment and staging methods. PMID:20703471

  2. ESTIMATION OF ?/? FOR LATE RECTAL TOXICITY BASED ON RTOG 94-06

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Susan L.; Thames, Howard D.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Bosch, Walter R.; Mohan, Radhe; Winter, Kathryn; Cox, James D.; Purdy, James A.; Dong, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To estimate ?/?, the parameter ratio from the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, for grade ?2 late rectal toxicity among patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 94-06, and to determine whether correcting the rectal dose-volume histogram (DVH) for differences in dose per fraction, based on the LQ model, significantly improves the fit to these data of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. Methods and Materials The generalized LKB model was fitted to the grade ?2 late rectal toxicity data in two ways: 1) using DVHs representing physical dose to rectum, and 2) using a modified approach in which dose bins in the rectal DVH were corrected for differences in dose per fraction using the LQ model, with ?/? estimated as an additional unknown parameter. The analysis included only patients treated with the same treatment plan throughout radiotherapy, so that the dose per fraction to each voxel of rectum could be determined from the DVH. The likelihood ratio test was used to assess whether the fit of the LQ-corrected model was significantly better than the fit of the LKB model based on physical doses to rectum. Results The analysis included 509 of the 1084 patients enrolled on RTOG 94-06. The estimate of ?/? from the LQ-corrected LKB model was 4.8 Gy, with 68% confidence interval 0.6 Gy to 46 Gy. The fit was not significantly different from the fit of the LKB model based on physical dose to rectum (P = 0.236). Conclusions The estimated fractionation sensitivity for grade ?2 late rectal toxicity is consistent with values of ?/? for rectum found previously in humans and rodents. However, the confidence interval is large, and there is no evidence that LQ-correction of the rectal DVH significantly changes the fit or predictions of the LKB model for this endpoint. PMID:21377288

  3. Reduction of prostate intrafraction motion using gas-release rectal balloons

    SciTech Connect

    Su Zhong; Zhao Tianyu; Li Zuofeng; Hoppe, Brad; Henderson, Randy; Mendenhall, William; Nichols, R. Charles; Marcus, Robert; Mendenhall, Nancy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida 32206 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To analyze prostate intrafraction motion using both non-gas-release (NGR) and gas-release (GR) rectal balloons and to evaluate the ability of GR rectal balloons to reduce prostate intrafraction motion. Methods: Twenty-nine patients with NGR rectal balloons and 29 patients with GR balloons were randomly selected from prostate patients treated with proton therapy at University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute (Jacksonville, FL). Their pretreatment and post-treatment orthogonal radiographs were analyzed, and both pretreatment setup residual error and intrafraction-motion data were obtained. Population histograms of intrafraction motion were plotted for both types of balloons. Population planning target-volume (PTV) margins were calculated with the van Herk formula of 2.5{Sigma}+ 0.7{sigma} to account for setup residual errors and intrafraction motion errors. Results: Pretreatment and post-treatment radiographs indicated that the use of gas-release rectal balloons reduced prostate intrafraction motion along superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Similar patient setup residual errors were exhibited for both types of balloons. Gas-release rectal balloons resulted in PTV margin reductions from 3.9 to 2.8 mm in the SI direction, 3.1 to 1.8 mm in the AP direction, and an increase from 1.9 to 2.1 mm in the left-right direction. Conclusions: Prostate intrafraction motion is an important uncertainty source in radiotherapy after image-guided patient setup with online corrections. Compared to non-gas-release rectal balloons, gas-release balloons can reduce prostate intrafraction motion in the SI and AP directions caused by gas buildup.

  4. Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.co [Cancer Center of Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States); Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M. [Cancer Center of Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 {+-} 3mm (mean {+-} SD) and 10 {+-} 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 {+-} 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 {+-} 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  5. Depletion of neuroendocrine cells in rectal biopsy specimens from HIV positive patients.

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, J. B.; Batman, P. A.; Miller, A. R.; Sedgwick, P. M.; Griffin, G. E.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the density of neuroendocrine cells in rectal biopsy specimens from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals with that of a control group. METHODS: Neuroendocrine cells in rectal biopsies were identified using an immunohistochemical stain for chromogranin and subsequently quantified using a method of linear intercept. RESULTS: Neuroendocrine cells were found to be significantly decreased in the HIV positive group. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of neuroendocrine cells may contribute to apoptotic bodies seen in this condition. This could be related to infection of these cells with HIV and could contribute to diarrhoeal disease in HIV infection. Images PMID:1624601

  6. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: current immediate clinical and oncological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney

    2014-10-21

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery continues to be a challenging operation associated to a steep learning curve. Robotic surgical systems have dramatically changed minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional, magnified and stable view, articulated instruments, and reduction of physiologic tremors leading to superior dexterity and ergonomics. Therefore, robotic platforms could potentially address limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery. It was aimed at reviewing current literature on short-term clinical and oncological (pathological) outcomes after robotic rectal cancer surgery in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was performed for the period 2002 to 2014. A total of 1776 patients with rectal cancer underwent minimally invasive robotic treatment in 32 studies. After robotic and laparoscopic approach to oncologic rectal surgery, respectively, mean operating time varied from 192-385 min, and from 158-297 min; mean estimated blood loss was between 33 and 283 mL, and between 127 and 300 mL; mean length of stay varied from 4-10 d; and from 6-15 d. Conversion after robotic rectal surgery varied from 0% to 9.4%, and from 0 to 22% after laparoscopy. There was no difference between robotic (0%-41.3%) and laparoscopic (5.5%-29.3%) surgery regarding morbidity and anastomotic complications (respectively, 0%-13.5%, and 0%-11.1%). Regarding immediate oncologic outcomes, respectively among robotic and laparoscopic cases, positive circumferential margins varied from 0% to 7.5%, and from 0% to 8.8%; the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was between 10 and 20, and between 11 and 21; and the mean distal resection margin was from 0.8 to 4.7 cm, and from 1.9 to 4.5 cm. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is being undertaken by experienced surgeons. However, the quality of the assembled evidence does not support definite conclusions about most studies variables. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is associated to increased costs and operating time. It also seems to be associated to reduced conversion rates. Other short-term outcomes are comparable to conventional laparoscopy techniques, if not better. Ultimately, pathological data evaluation suggests that oncologic safety may be preserved after robotic total mesorectal excision. However, further studies are required to evaluate oncologic safety and functional results. PMID:25339823

  7. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: Current immediate clinical and oncological outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery continues to be a challenging operation associated to a steep learning curve. Robotic surgical systems have dramatically changed minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional, magnified and stable view, articulated instruments, and reduction of physiologic tremors leading to superior dexterity and ergonomics. Therefore, robotic platforms could potentially address limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery. It was aimed at reviewing current literature on short-term clinical and oncological (pathological) outcomes after robotic rectal cancer surgery in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was performed for the period 2002 to 2014. A total of 1776 patients with rectal cancer underwent minimally invasive robotic treatment in 32 studies. After robotic and laparoscopic approach to oncologic rectal surgery, respectively, mean operating time varied from 192-385 min, and from 158-297 min; mean estimated blood loss was between 33 and 283 mL, and between 127 and 300 mL; mean length of stay varied from 4-10 d; and from 6-15 d. Conversion after robotic rectal surgery varied from 0% to 9.4%, and from 0 to 22% after laparoscopy. There was no difference between robotic (0%-41.3%) and laparoscopic (5.5%-29.3%) surgery regarding morbidity and anastomotic complications (respectively, 0%-13.5%, and 0%-11.1%). Regarding immediate oncologic outcomes, respectively among robotic and laparoscopic cases, positive circumferential margins varied from 0% to 7.5%, and from 0% to 8.8%; the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was between 10 and 20, and between 11 and 21; and the mean distal resection margin was from 0.8 to 4.7 cm, and from 1.9 to 4.5 cm. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is being undertaken by experienced surgeons. However, the quality of the assembled evidence does not support definite conclusions about most studies variables. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is associated to increased costs and operating time. It also seems to be associated to reduced conversion rates. Other short-term outcomes are comparable to conventional laparoscopy techniques, if not better. Ultimately, pathological data evaluation suggests that oncologic safety may be preserved after robotic total mesorectal excision. However, further studies are required to evaluate oncologic safety and functional results. PMID:25339823

  8. Influence of image slice thickness on rectal dose-response relationships following radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, C.; Thor, M.; Liu, M.; Moissenko, V.; Petersen, S. E.; Høyer, M.; Apte, A.; Deasy, J. O.

    2014-07-01

    When pooling retrospective data from different cohorts, slice thicknesses of acquired computed tomography (CT) images used for treatment planning may vary between cohorts. It is, however, not known if varying slice thickness influences derived dose-response relationships. We investigated this for rectal bleeding using dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the rectum and rectal wall for dose distributions superimposed on images with varying CT slice thicknesses. We used dose and endpoint data from two prostate cancer cohorts treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to either 74 Gy (N = 159) or 78 Gy (N = 159) at 2 Gy per fraction. The rectum was defined as the whole organ with content, and the morbidity cut-off was Grade ?2 late rectal bleeding. Rectal walls were defined as 3 mm inner margins added to the rectum. DVHs for simulated slice thicknesses from 3 to 13 mm were compared to DVHs for the originally acquired slice thicknesses at 3 and 5 mm. Volumes, mean, and maximum doses were assessed from the DVHs, and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) values were calculated. For each organ and each of the simulated slice thicknesses, we performed predictive modeling of late rectal bleeding using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. For the most coarse slice thickness, rectal volumes increased (?18%), whereas maximum and mean doses decreased (?0.8 and ?4.2 Gy, respectively). For all a values, the gEUD for the simulated DVHs were ?1.9 Gy different than the gEUD for the original DVHs. The best-fitting LKB model parameter values with 95% CIs were consistent between all DVHs. In conclusion, we found that the investigated slice thickness variations had minimal impact on rectal dose-response estimations. From the perspective of predictive modeling, our results suggest that variations within 10 mm in slice thickness between cohorts are unlikely to be a limiting factor when pooling multi-institutional rectal dose data that include slice thickness variations within this range. Presented in part at the European Society for Therapeutic Radiotherapy and Oncology Annual Meeting, April 5-8, 2014, Vienna, Austria.

  9. Estimation of Rectal Dose Using Daily Megavoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Deformable Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Akino, Yuichi, E-mail: akino@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, Shoichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka General Medical Center, Osaka (Japan); Maruoka, Shintaroh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Takahashi, Yutaka [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Yagi, Masashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Mizuno, Hirokazu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Isohashi, Fumiaki [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: The actual dose delivered to critical organs will differ from the simulated dose because of interfractional organ motion and deformation. Here, we developed a method to estimate the rectal dose in prostate intensity modulated radiation therapy with consideration to interfractional organ motion using daily megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MVCBCT). Methods and Materials: Under exemption status from our institutional review board, we retrospectively reviewed 231 series of MVCBCT of 8 patients with prostate cancer. On both planning CT (pCT) and MVCBCT images, the rectal contours were delineated and the CT value within the contours was replaced by the mean CT value within the pelvis, with the addition of 100 Hounsfield units. MVCBCT images were rigidly registered to pCT and then nonrigidly registered using B-Spline deformable image registration (DIR) with Velocity AI software. The concordance between the rectal contours on MVCBCT and pCT was evaluated using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The dose distributions normalized for 1 fraction were also deformed and summed to estimate the actual total dose. Results: The DSC of all treatment fractions of 8 patients was improved from 0.75±0.04 (mean ±SD) to 0.90 ±0.02 by DIR. Six patients showed a decrease of the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) from total dose compared with treatment plans. Although the rectal volume of each treatment fraction did not show any correlation with the change in gEUD (R{sup 2}=0.18±0.13), the displacement of the center of gravity of rectal contours in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction showed an intermediate relationship (R{sup 2}=0.61±0.16). Conclusion: We developed a method for evaluation of rectal dose using DIR and MVCBCT images and showed the necessity of DIR for the evaluation of total dose. Displacement of the rectum in the AP direction showed a greater effect on the change in rectal dose compared with the rectal volume.

  10. Prognostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen level in rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Moreno García; P. Cejas; M. Blanco Codesido; J. Feliu Batlle; J. de Castro Carpeño; C. Belda-Iniesta; J. Barriuso; J. J. Sánchez; J. Larrauri; M. González-Barón; E. Casado

    2009-01-01

    Background  The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and pathological parameters to improve prediction of disease-free survival\\u000a (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between July 1995 and May 2007, 148 patients with primary rectal adenocarcinoma received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed\\u000a by mesorectal excision. Preoperative treatment included various protocols, UFT and leucovorin (28%)

  11. Computer Systems Administrator

    E-print Network

    Computer Systems Administrator Fort Collins, CO POSITION A Computer Systems Administrator (Non activities. RESPONSIBILITIES The System Administrator will provide Unix/Linux, Windows computer system or computer science, and three years computer systems administration experience. DURATION The work is planned

  12. Purification, cloning, and characterization of an arylsulfotransferase from the anaerobic bacterium Eubacterium rectale IIIH.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, S L; Nanduri, V; Cino, P M; Patel, R

    2000-12-01

    A bacterium, Eubacterium rectale IIIH, which possessed arylsulfotransferase (ASST) activity was isolated from human feces. The ASST gene (astA) was cloned and the corresponding protein partially characterized. This gene shows only moderate homology to the previously sequenced ASST genes of Klebsiella and Enterobacter, which are very closely related to each other. PMID:11320417

  13. Rectal ulcers and massive bleeding after hemorrhoidal band ligation while on aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shruti; Shahzad, Ghulamullah; Rizvon, Kaleem; Subramani, Krishnaiyer; Viswanathan, Prakash; Mustacchia, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic hemorrhoidal band ligation is a well-established nonoperative method for treatment of bleeding internal hemorrhoids (grade 1 to 3). It is a safe and effective technique with a high success rate. Complications with this procedure are uncommon. Although rectal ulceration due to band ligation is a rare complication, it can cause life-threatening hemorrhage especially when patients are on medications which impair hemostasis like aspirin or non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We present 2 cases of massive lower gastro-intestinal bleeding in patients who had a band ligation procedure performed 2 wk prior to the presentation and were on aspirin at home. Both the patients were hemodynamically unstable requiring resuscitation. They required platelet and blood transfusions and were found to have rectal ulcers on colonoscopy done subsequently. The rectal ulcers corresponded to the site of band ligation. The use of aspirin by these patients would have caused defects in the hemostasis and may have predisposed them to massive bleeding in the presence of rectal ulcers occurring after the band ligation procedure. Managing aspirin before and after the ligation may be difficult especially since adequate guidelines are unavailable. Stopping aspirin in all the cases might not be safe and the decision should be individualized. PMID:24749117

  14. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic selection for body temperature regulation during heat stress might be a useful approach to reduce the magnitude of heat stress effects on production and reproduction. Present objectives were to estimate the genetic parameters of rectal temperature in dairy cows reared in free stall barns und...

  15. Rectal Glands of Marine and Fresh-Water Sharks: Comparative Histology.

    PubMed

    Oguri, M

    1964-05-29

    The rectal glands of elasmobranchs perform the function of salt-excreting organs. These glands are smaller and show regressive changes in specimens of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas found in fresh-water environment, compared with specimens of this and other species from a marine habitat. PMID:17814499

  16. Effect of air temperature on the rectal temperature gradient at rest and during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Buono, Michael J; Holloway, Brittany; Levine, Ashley; Rasmussen, Cary; Kolkhorst, Fred W

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of air temperature on the rectal temperature gradient at rest and during exercise. It was hypothesized that the rectal temperature gradient would be exacerbated in cold environments and attenuated in warm environments both at rest and during exercise. Each subject completed three exercise bouts on a motor driven treadmill at approximately 55% of their previously determined maximal oxygen uptake. Three different air temperatures (10, 22, 39°C) were used for the exercise bouts. Rectal temperature was measured at rest and every 5 min during each exercise bout using 4 temperature sensors affixed at 4, 7, 10 and 13 cm past the anal sphincter. Readings obtained from the 4-cm depth were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those obtained at deeper insertion depths both at rest and during exercise for all three air temperatures. Furthermore, the results showed that the rectal temperature gradient was exacerbated in cold environments and attenuated in warm environments both at rest and during exercise. PMID:24665360

  17. Analysis of anastomotic leakage after rectal surgery: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Kazama, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of anastomotic leakage in rectal surgery is around 10 percent. Poor blood supply to the anastomosis, high anastomotic pressure and tension, increased operative blood loss, long operative time, and male sex are risk factors of anastomotic leakage. In the present study, we examined anastomotic leakage cases in rectal surgery at our institute and tried to ascertain the risk factors. Methods Three hundred fifty-seven consecutive patients who underwent rectal resection with anastomosis between January 2008 and October 2013 were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the existence of anastomotic leakage. Clinicopathological features, operative procedures, and intraoperative outcomes were compared between the two groups. Regarding intraoperative procedure, we focused on the ligation level of the inferior mesenteric artery, installing a transanal drainage tube in the rectum, and constructing a diverting stoma. Results Anastomotic leakage occurred in eight patients. All of them were male (p = 0.0284). There were no statistical differences in other characteristics of the patients or tumors, in operative procedures, or in intraoperative outcomes. Conclusions In the present study, no statistically significant risk factors for anastomotic leakage in rectal surgery were detected, except for male sex. However, the rate of anastomotic leakage at our institute was revealed to be rather low. Our exertion to preserve good blood flow and to prevent high tension and pressure on the anastomosis in operation may have led to this result. PMID:26042185

  18. Voxel-based population analysis for correlating local dose and rectal toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Voxel-based population analysis for correlating local dose and rectal toxicity in prostate cancer utilized for predicting toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy are based on dose-volume histograms. One and, as such, must be considered during the inverse IMRT planning step. Keywords: Prostate cancer

  19. Chromosomal copy number changes of locally advanced rectal cancers treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Grade, Marian; Gaedcke, Jochen; Wangsa, Danny; Varma, Sudhir; Beckmann, Jaje; Liersch, Torsten; Hess, Clemens; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ried, Thomas; Ghadimi, B. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Standard treatment of rectal cancer patients comprises preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by radical surgery. However, clinicians are faced with the problem that response rates vary from one individual to another. Predictive biomarkers would therefore be helpful. Materials and Methods In order to identify genomic imbalances that might assist in stratifying tumors into responsive or non-responsive, we used metaphase comparative genomic hybridization to prospectively analyze pre-therapeutic biopsies from 42 patients with locally advanced rectal cancers. These patients were subsequently treated with 5-FU based preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Results Based on downsizing of the T-category, 21 rectal cancers were later classified as responsive, while 21 were non-responsive. Comparing these two groups, we could show that gains of chromosomal regions 7q32-q36 and 7q11-q31, and amplifications of 20q11-q13 were significantly associated with responsiveness to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (P<0.05). However, the probability to detect these copy number changes by chance is high (P=0.21). Conclusion Our primary results suggest that pre-therapeutic evaluation of chromosomal copy number changes may be of value for response prediction of rectal cancers to preoperative chemoradiotherapy. This will require validation in a larger cohort of patients. PMID:19602460

  20. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy: Injection of Hyaluronic Acid to Better Preserve The Rectal Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Udrescu, Corina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Devonec, Marian [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Tanguy, Ronan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Sotton, Marie-Pierre [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Colombel, Marc [Department of Urology, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France)] [Department of Urology, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Ruffion, Alain [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)] [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) between the rectum and the prostate for reducing the dose to the rectal wall in a hypofractionated irradiation for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In a phase 2 study, 10 cc of HA was injected between the rectum and prostate. For 16 patients, the same intensity modulated radiation therapy plan (62 Gy in 20 fractions) was optimized on 2 computed tomography scans: CT1 (before injection) and CT2 (after injection). Rectal parameters were compared: dose to 2.5 cc (D2.5), 5 cc (D5), 10 cc (D10), 15 cc (D15), and 20 cc (D20) of rectal wall and volume of rectum covered by the 90% isodose line (V90), 80% (V80), 70% (V70), 60% (V60), and 50% (V50). Results: The mean V90, V80, V70, V60, and V50 values were reduced by 73.8% (P<.0001), 55.7% (P=.0003), 43.0% (P=.007), 34% (P=.002), and 25% (P=.036), respectively. The average values of D2.5, D5, D10, D15, and D20 were reduced by 8.5 Gy (P<.0001), 12.3 Gy (P<.0001), 8.4 Gy (P=.005), 3.7 Gy (P=.026), and 1.2 Gy (P=.25), respectively. Conclusions: The injection of HA significantly limited radiation doses to the rectal wall.

  1. Atrial natriuretic peptide stimulates salt secretion by shark rectal gland by releasing VIP

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, P.; Stoff, J.S.; Solomon, R.J.; Lear, S.; Kniaz, D.; Greger, R.; Epstein, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Salt secretion by the isolated perfused rectal gland of the spiny dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias, is stimulated by synthetic rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP II) as well as extracts of shark heart, but not by 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. Cardiac peptides have no effect on isolated rectal gland cells or perfused tubules, suggesting that stimulation requires an intact gland. The stimulation of secretion by ANP II is eliminated by maneuvers that block neurotransmitter release. Cardiac peptides stimulate the release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), known to be present in rectal glands nerves, into the venous effluent of perfused glands in parallel with their stimulation of salt secretion, but the release of VIP induced by ANP II is prevented by perfusion with procaine. VIP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Cardiac peptides thus appear to regulate rectal gland secretion by releasing VIP from neural stores within the gland. It is possible that other physiological effects of these hormones might be explained by an action to enhanced local release of neurotransmitters.

  2. Identification of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer with Low Risk of Local Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiao-Xuan; Li, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Xu; Xie, Lan; Cai, Pei-Qiang; An, Xin; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background The routine application of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for T3N0 rectal cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to use clinical, Magnetic resonance imaging, and pathological parameters to identify a subgroup of patients with low risk of local recurrence who might be precluded from neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively maintained database of consecutive rectal cancer patients who underwent curative resection. 166 pathologic confirmed T3N0 rectal cancer patients with tumor located 5–12cm above the anal verge and preoperative circumferential resection margin>1mm were included in analysis. The primary outcomes measured were3- and 5-year local recurrence rates. Results Local recurrence was demonstrated during follow-up in 5 patients; the actuarial overall 3- and 5-year local recurrence rates were 2.5% and 3.4%, respectively. Inadequate sampling of lymph nodes (?12) was associated with higher local recurrence (P = 0.03) in this group of patients. Conclusion For upper and middle T3N0 rectal cancer with preoperative circumferential resection margin>1mm, local recurrence rate after total mesorectal excision is low and surgery alone may be enough for this group of patients. PMID:25629521

  3. Preoperative radiochemotherapy in locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer: regional radiofrequency hyperthermia correlates with clinical parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Rau; P Wust; W Tilly; J Gellermann; C Harder; H Riess; V Budach; R Felix; P. M Schlag

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) is a widely used means of treatment for patients suffering from primary, locally advanced, or recurrent rectal cancer. We evaluated the efficacy of treatment due to additional application of regional hyperthermia (HRCT) to this conventional therapy regime in a Phase II study, employing the annular phased-array system BSD-2000 (SIGMA-60 applicator). The clinical results of the trial

  4. Anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer with mesorectal excision: incidence, risk factors, and management.

    PubMed

    Tortorelli, Antonio Pio; Alfieri, Sergio; Sanchez, Alejandro Martin; Rosa, Fausto; Papa, Valerio; Di Miceli, Dario; Bellantone, Chiara; Doglietto, Giovanni Battista

    2015-01-01

    We investigated risk factors and prognostic implications of symptomatic anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer, and the influence of a diverting stoma. Our retrospective review of prospective collected data analyzed 475 patients who underwent anterior resection for rectal cancer. Uni- and multivariate analysis was made between anastomotic leakage and patient, tumor, and treatment variables, either for the overall group (n = 475) and in the midlow rectal cancer subgroup (n = 291). Overall rate of symptomatic leakage was 9 per cent (43 of 475) with no related postoperative mortality. At univariate analysis, significant factors for leak were a tumor less than 6 cm from the anal verge (13.7 vs 6.6%; P = 0.011) and intraoperative transfusions (16.9 vs 4.3%; P = 0.001). Similar results were observed in the midlow rectal cancer subgroup. At multivariate analysis, no parameter resulted in being an independent prognostic factor for risk of leakage. In patients with a leakage, a temporary enterostomy considerably reduced the need for reoperation (12.5 vs 77.8%; P < 0.0001) and the risk of a permanent stoma (18.7 vs 28.5%; P = 0.49). The incidence of anastomotic failure increases for lower tumors, whereas it is not influenced by radiotherapy. Defunctioning enterostomy does not influence the leak rate, but it mitigates clinical consequences. PMID:25569064

  5. Oncologic outcomes in rectal cancer with close distal resection margins: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kyung Sook; Moon, Nara; Chung, Soon Sup; Lee, Ryung-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The assurance of a negative resection margin is significant in rectal cancer as it indicates a reduced risk of local recurrence; thus, sufficient length of the resection margin is strongly required. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the length of the distal resection margin (DRM) and local recurrence or survival rate and to evaluate the possibility of performing sphincter-conserving surgery. Methods The medical records of 218 rectal cancer patients were analyzed. Patients were classified into three groups according to the length of the DRM as follows: group 1, DRM < 1 cm; group 2, 1 cm ? DRM ? 2 cm; and group 3, DRM > 2 cm. Results Of 218 patients enrolled, 81 were in group 1, 66 in group 2, and 71 in group 3. The 5-year survival rates were 78.2%, 78.2%, and 76.8% for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and there were no statistically significant differences in survival (P = 0.913). Local recurrence was found in 2 patients in group 1, 1 patient in group 2, and 1 patient in group 3; there were no statistically significant differences in local recurrence (P = 0.908). Conclusion A DRM of < 1 cm did not impair the oncologic outcomes of rectal cancer patients. Our results indicated that surgeons should keep in mind to consider the option of sphincter-conserving surgery with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy even in very low rectal cancer.

  6. Dosimetric uncertainties related to the elasticity of bladder and rectal walls: adenocarcinoma of the prostate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the prostate Titre court: Dosimetric uncertainties and the adenocarcinoma of the prostate Incertitudes dosimétriques relatives à lélasticité de la paroi rectale et vésicale : Adenocarcinome de la prostate Cyril:0495293666 and fax:0495293797) #12;2 Abstract. Background Radiotherapy is an important treatment of prostate

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging and endorectal ultrasound for diagnosis of rectal lesions.

    PubMed

    Burdan, Franciszek; Sudol-Szopinska, Iwona; Staroslawska, Elzbieta; Kolodziejczak, Malgorzata; Klepacz, Robert; Mocarska, Agnieszka; Caban, Marek; Zelazowska-Cieslinska, Iwonna; Szumilo, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Endorectal ultrasonography (ERUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow exploring the morphology of the rectum in detail. Use of such data, especially assessment of the rectal wall, is an important tool for ascertaining the perianal fistula localization as well as stage of the cancer and planning it appropriate treatment, as stage T3 tumors are usually treated with neoadjuvant therapy, whereas T2 tumors are initially managed surgically. The only advantage of ERUS over MRI is the possibility of assessing T1 tumors that could be treated by transanal endoscopic microsurgery. However, MRI is better for visualizing most radiological prognostic features in rectal or anal cancer such as a circumferential resection margin less than 1 mm, T stage at T1-T2 or T3 tumors with extramural extension less than 5 mm, absence of extramural vascular invasion, N stage at N0/N1, and tumors located in the middle or upper third of the rectum. It can also evaluate the intersphincteric space or levator ani muscle involvement. Increased signal on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and low apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values as well as an irregular contour and heterogeneous internal signal intensity seem to predict the involvement of pelvic lymphatic nodes better than their size alone. Computed tomography as well as other examination techniques, including digital rectal examination, contrast edema, recto- and colonoscopy, are less useful in staging of rectal cancer but still are very important screening tools. PMID:25586770

  8. Optimal Total Mesorectal Excision for Rectal Cancer: the Role of Robotic Surgery from an Expert's View.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Kyu; Kang, Jeonghyun

    2010-12-01

    Total mesorectal excision (TME) has gained worldwide acceptance as a standard surgical technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. Ever since laparoscopic surgery was first applied to TME for rectal cancer, with increasing penetration rates, especially in Asia, an unstable camera platform, the limited mobility of straight laparoscopic instruments, the two-dimensional imaging, and a poor ergonomic position for surgeons have been regarded as limitations. Robotic technology was developed in an attempt to reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. The robotic system has many advantages, including a more ergonomic position, stable camera platform and stereoscopic view, as well as elimination of tremor and subsequent improved dexterity. Current comparison data between robotic and laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery show similar intraoperative results and morbidity, postoperative recovery, and short-term oncologic outcomes. Potential benefits of a robotic system include reduction of surgeon's fatigue during surgery, improved performance and safety for intracorporeal suture, reduction of postoperative complications, sharper and more meticulous dissection, and completion of autonomic nerve preservation techniques. However, the higher cost for a robotic system still remains an obstacle to wide application, and many socioeconomic issues remain to be solved in the future. In addition, we need more concrete evidence regarding the merits for both patients and surgeons, as well as the merits compared to conventional laparoscopic techniques. Therefore, we need large-scale prospective randomized clinical trials to prove the potential benefits of robot TME for the treatment of rectal cancer. PMID:21221237

  9. EURECCA consensus conference highlights about colon & rectal cancer multidisciplinary management: the radiology experts review.

    PubMed

    Tudyka, V; Blomqvist, L; Beets-Tan, R G H; Boelens, P G; Valentini, V; van de Velde, C J; Dieguez, A; Brown, G

    2014-04-01

    Some interesting shifts have taken place in the diagnostic approach for detection of colorectal lesions over the past decade. This article accompanies the recent EURECCA consensus group reccomendations for optimal management of colon and rectal cancers. In summary, imaging has a crucial role to play in the diagnosis, staging assessment and follow up of patients with colon and rectal cancer. Recent advances include the use of CT colonography instead of Barium Enema in the diagnosis of colonoic cancer and as an alternative to colonoscopy. Modern mutlidetector CT scanning techniques have also shown improvements in prognostic stratification of patients with colonic cancer and clinical trials are underway testing the selective use of neoadjuvant therapy for imaging identified high risk colon cancers. In rectal cancer, high resolution MRI with a voxel size less or equal to 3 × 1 × 1 mm3 on T2-weighted images has a proven ability to accurately stage patients with rectal cancer. Moreover, preoperative identification of prognostic features allows stratification of patients into different prognostic groups based on assessment of depth of extramural spread, relationship of the tumour edge to the mesorectal fascia (MRF) and extramural venous invasion (EMVI). These poor prognostic features predict an increased risk of local recurrence and/or metastatic disease and should form the basis for preoperative local staging and multidisciplinary preoperative discussion of patient treatment options. PMID:24439446

  10. Significance of Cox-2 expression in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachkoria, Ketevan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Zhang Hong [Department of Dermatology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Adell, Gunnar [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Jarlsfelt, Ingvar [Department of Pathology and Cytology, Joenkoeping Hospital, Joenkoeping (Sweden); Sun Xiaofeng [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden)]. E-mail: xiao-feng.sun@ibk.liu.se

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. Our aims were to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression to radiotherapy, and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers with or without radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cox-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distal normal mucosa (n = 28), in adjacent normal mucosa (n = 107), in primary cancer (n = 138), lymph node metastasis (n = 30), and biopsy (n = 85). The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Results: Cox-2 expression was increased in primary tumor compared with normal mucosa (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant change between primary tumor and metastasis. Cox-2 positivity was or tended to be related to more p53 and Ki-67 expression, and less apoptosis (p {<=} 0.05). In Cox-2-negative cases of either biopsy (p = 0.01) or surgical samples (p = 0.02), radiotherapy was related to less frequency of local recurrence, but this was not the case in Cox-2-positive cases. Conclusion: Cox-2 expression seemed to be an early event involved in rectal cancer development. Radiotherapy might reduce a rate of local recurrence in the patients with Cox-2 weakly stained tumors, but not in those with Cox-2 strongly stained tumors.

  11. Malignant tumors in the rectum simulating solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in endoscopic biopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Li, S C; Hamilton, S R

    1998-01-01

    Patients with solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) frequently present with a mass that can be misinterpreted as cancer. In contrast, the occurrence and characteristics of SRUS-like histopathology produced by underlying malignancy have not been reported in detail. We report seven patients whose rectal mass that was induced by infiltrating carcinoma showed only histopathologic changes of SRUS on initial mucosal biopsy specimens. Carcinoma was evident in subsequent specimens after one to five repeat biopsies with delay in diagnosis from 1 week to 18 months in six patients. In one patient, infiltrating carcinoma was suggested on the first biopsy specimen by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin. Three of the patients had primary rectal adenocarcinoma, two had metastatic carcinoma from stomach or ovary, and two had direct invasion of anal squamous cell carcinoma or prostatic adenocarcinoma. We conclude that the histopathology of SRUS may occasionally represent a characteristic but nonspecific mucosal reactive change to a deeper seated malignancy. The terminology "solitary rectal ulcer syndrome/mucosal prolapse changes" with a cautionary note may be useful for reporting biopsy results to emphasize the possibility of underlying primary or metastatic malignancy in the differential diagnosis. PMID:9422323

  12. Risk of Hypogonadism From Scatter Radiation During Pelvic Radiation in Male Patients With Rectal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Yau; Té Vuong; Aurélie Garant; Thierry Ducruet; Patrick Doran; Sergio Faria; Sender Liberman; Carole Richard; François Letellier; Patrick Charlebois; Rasmy Loungnarath; Barry Stein; Slobodan Devic

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Recent studies have reported fluctuations in sex hormones during pelvic irradiation. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of radiation on hormonal profiles for two treatment modalities: conventional external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) given neoadjuvantly for patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Routine serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and

  13. Altered rectal sensory response induced by balloon distention in patients with functional abdominal pain syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsukasa Nozu; Miwako Kudaira

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) has chronic unexplained abdominal pain and is similar to the psychiatric diagnosis of somatoform pain disorder. A patient with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) also has chronic unexplained abdominal pain, and rectal hypersensitivity is observed in a majority of the patients. However, no reports have evaluated the visceral sensory function of FAPS precisely. We aimed

  14. Glucose Infusion into Exercising Dogs after Confinement: Rectal and Active Muscle Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Falecka-Wieczorek, I.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1995-01-01

    Intravenous glucose infusion into ambulatory dogs results in attenuation of exercise-induced increase of both rectal and thigh muscle temperatures. That glucose (Glu) infusion attenuates excessive increase in body temperature from restricted activity during confinement deconditioning. Intravenous glucose infusion attenuates the rise in exercise core temperature in deconditioned dogs by a yet undefined mechanism.

  15. Proctocolectomy with jejunal pouch-distal rectal anastomosis: an alternative to ileal pouch reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Williams, J W; Kelly, K A

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a jejunal pouch would have a lower resting pressure, be more distensible, and have more interdigestive migrating myoelectric complexes and less fecal bacterial overgrowth than would an ileal pouch after proctocolectomy and pouch-distal rectal anastomosis. In six conscious dogs with a jejunal pouch-distal rectal anastomosis and six with an ileal pouch-distal rectal anastomosis (controls), pouch distensibility and motility were measured using a barostat and perfused pressure-sensitive catheters passed per anum, pouch electrical activity was recorded using chronically implanted electrodes, and the number of bacteria per gram of stool was assessed by culture. Dogs with a jejunal pouch had lower resting pouch pressures, more distensible pouches, faster frequencies of pacesetter potentials in the pouch, more phase 3 intervals of the interdigesive migrating myoelectric complex reaching the pouch, but similar numbers and types of bacteria in their stools compared to the dogs with an ileal pouch. We concluded that jejunal pouches have a lower resting pressure, are more distensible, have more cleansing contractions, but a similar fecal flora compared to ileal pouches. A jejunal pouch has features that make it an attractive alternative to an ileal pouch for pouch-distal rectal or pouch-anal canal anastomosis after proctocolectomy. PMID:9841982

  16. Comparison of axillary and rectal temperatures for healthy Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Justin C; Campbell, Vicki L

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare axillary and rectal temperature measurements obtained with a digital thermometer for Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. ANIMALS 26 healthy Beagles (17 sexually intact males and 9 sexually intact females). PROCEDURES Dogs were maintained in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment for 56 days before rectal and axillary temperatures were measured. Axillary and rectal temperatures were obtained in triplicate for each dog by use of a single commercially available manufacturer-calibrated digital thermometer. RESULTS Mean rectal and axillary temperatures of Beagles maintained in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment were significantly different, with a median ± SD difference of 1.4° ± 0.15°C (range, 0.7° to 2.1°C). Mean rectal and axillary temperatures were 38.7°C (range, 37.6° to 39.5°C) and 37.2°C (range, 36.6° to 38.3°C), respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study indicated that the historical reference of a 0.55°C gradient between rectal and axillary temperatures that has been clinically used for veterinary patients was inaccurate for healthy Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. Rectal and axillary temperatures can be measured in veterinary patients. Reliable interpretation of axillary temperatures may accommodate patient comfort and reduce patient anxiety when serial measurement of temperatures is necessary. Further clinical studies will be needed. PMID:26111093

  17. Replicating adenovirus-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) recombinant priming and envelope protein boosting elicits localized, mucosal IgA immunity in rhesus macaques correlated with delayed acquisition following a repeated low-dose rectal SIV(mac251) challenge.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Peng; Patterson, L Jean; Kuate, Seraphin; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Thomas, Michael A; Venzon, David; Zhao, Jun; DiPasquale, Janet; Fenizia, Claudio; Lee, Eun Mi; Kalisz, Irene; Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi S; Pal, Ranajit; Montefiori, David; Keele, Brandon F; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2012-04-01

    We have shown that sequential replicating adenovirus type 5 host range mutant human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) recombinant priming delivered first intranasally (i.n.) plus orally and then intratracheally (i.t.), followed by envelope protein boosting, elicits broad cellular immunity and functional, envelope-specific serum and mucosal antibodies that correlate with protection from high-dose SIV and simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenges in rhesus macaques. Here we extended these studies to compare the standard i.n./i.t. regimen with additional mucosal administration routes, including sublingual, rectal, and vaginal routes. Similar systemic cellular and humoral immunity was elicited by all immunization routes. Central and effector memory T cell responses were also elicited by the four immunization routes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and jejunal, rectal, and vaginal tissue samples. Cellular responses in vaginal tissue were more compartmentalized, being induced primarily by intravaginal administration. In contrast, all immunization routes elicited secretory IgA (sIgA) responses at multiple mucosal sites. Following a repeated low-dose intrarectal (i.r.) challenge with SIV(mac251) at a dose transmitting one or two variants, protection against acquisition was not achieved except in one macaque in the i.r. immunized group. All immunized macaques exhibited reduced peak viremia compared to that of controls, correlated inversely with prechallenge serum antienvelope avidity, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) titers, and percent antibody-dependent cell-mediated viral inhibition. Both antibody avidity and ADCC titers were correlated with the number of exposures required for infection. Notably, we show for the first time a significant correlation of vaccine-induced sIgA titers in rectal secretions with delayed acquisition. Further investigation of the characteristics and properties of the sIgA should elucidate the mechanism leading to this protective effect. PMID:22345466

  18. Dose-distance metric that predicts late rectal bleeding in patients receiving radical prostate external-beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Richard; Chan, Elisa K.; Kosztyla, Robert; Liu, Mitchell; Moiseenko, Vitali

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between rectal dose distribution and the incidence of late rectal complications following external-beam radiotherapy has been previously studied using dose-volume histograms or dose-surface histograms. However, they do not account for the spatial dose distribution. This study proposes a metric based on both surface dose and distance that can predict the incidence of rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy. One hundred and forty-four patients treated with radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer were prospectively followed to record the incidence of grade ?2 rectal bleeding. Radiotherapy plans were used to evaluate a dose-distance metric that accounts for the dose and its spatial distribution on the rectal surface, characterized by a logistic weighting function with slope a and inflection point d0. This was compared to the effective dose obtained from dose-surface histograms, characterized by the parameter n which describes sensitivity to hot spots. The log-rank test was used to determine statistically significant (p < 0.05) cut-off values for the dose-distance metric and effective dose that predict for the occurrence of rectal bleeding. For the dose-distance metric, only d0 = 25 and 30 mm combined with a > 5 led to statistical significant cut-offs. For the effective dose metric, only values of n in the range 0.07-0.35 led to statistically significant cut-offs. The proposed dose-distance metric is a predictor of rectal bleeding in prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Both the dose-distance metric and the effective dose metric indicate that the incidence of grade ?2 rectal bleeding is sensitive to localized damage to the rectal surface.

  19. The effect of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on lymph nodes harvested in TME for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate lymph nodes resection in rectal cancer is important for staging and local control. This retrospective analysis single center study evaluated the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation on the number of lymph nodes in rectal carcinoma, considering some clinicopathological parameters. Methods A total of 111 patients undergone total mesorectal excision for rectal adenocarcinoma from July 2005 to May 2012 in our center were included. No patient underwent any prior pelvic surgery or radiotherapy. Chemoradiotherapy was indicated in patients with rectal cancer stage II or III before chemoradiation. Results One-hundred and eleven patients were considered. The mean age was 67.6 yrs (range 36 – 84, SD 10.8). Fifty (45.0%) received neoadjuvant therapy before resection. The mean number of removed lymph nodes was 13.6 (range 0–39, SD 7.3). In the patients who received neoadjuvant therapy the number of nodes detected was lower (11.5, SD 6.5 vs. 15.3, SD 7.5, p?=?0.006). 37.4% of patients with preoperative chemoradiotherapy had 12 or more lymph nodes in the specimen compared to the 63.6% of those who had surgery at the first step (p: 0.006). Other factors associated in univariate analysis with lower lymph nodes yield included stage (p 0.005) and grade (p 0.0003) of the tumour. Age, sex, tumor site, type of operation, surgeons and pathologists did not weight upon the number of the removed lymph nodes. Conclusion In TME surgery for rectal cancer, preoperative CRT results into a reduction of lymph nodes yield in univariate analisys and linear regression. PMID:24246069

  20. What does absence of lymph node in resected specimen mean after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of insufficient node sampling in patients with rectal cancer managed by neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery has not been clearly determined. We evalulated the impact of insufficient sampling or even abscence of lymph nodes in the specimen on survival in patients at high-risk (T3, T4 or node positive) for rectal cancer. Methods We conducted a single institution, retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent surgical rectal resection following neoadjuvant chemoradiation for treatment of mid to lower rectal cancer between 1997 and 2009. ypNX was defined as the absence of lymph nodes retrieved in the resected specimen. Results A total of 132 patients underwent resection for treatment of rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Ninety four patients (71.2%) were considered as having node-negative disease, including ypNx and ypN0. In 38 patients (28.8%), the primary tumor was associated with regional lymph node metastases (ypNpos). The mean number of retrieved nodes per specimen was 14.2, respectively. The five-year overall survival from initial operation for the ypNx group was 100%, respectively. The estimated five-year overall survival for ypN0 and ypNpos was 84.0% and 60.3%, respectively (P =0.001). No significant differences in overall survival were observed between the ypNx and ypN0 group (P =0.302). Conclusion Absence of recovered LN in resected specimens after neoadjuvant chemoradiation was observed in 7.6% of specimens. Absence of LN should not be regarded as a risk factor for poor survival or as a sign of less radical surgery. PMID:23957923

  1. Rectal Motion in Patients Receiving Preoperative Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Rectum

    SciTech Connect

    Brierley, James D., E-mail: james.brierley@rmp.uhn.on.c [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sampson, Elliott [Department of Medical Science, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Bayley, Andrew [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Scott, Sandra; Moseley, Joanne L. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Craig, Timothy; Cummings, Bernard; Dinniwell, Robert; Kim, John J.; Ringash, Jolie; Wong, Rebecca; Brock, Kristy K. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the movement of rectum, mesorectum, and rectal primary during a course of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with Stage II or III rectal cancer had a planning CT scan with rectal contrast before commencement of preoperative chemoradiation. The scan was repeated during Weeks 1, 3, and 5 of chemoradiation. The rectal primary (gross tumor volume), rectum, mesorectum, and bladder were contoured on all four scans. An in-house biomechanical model-based deformable image registration technique, Morfeus, was used to measure the three-dimensional spatial change in these structures after bony alignment. The required planning target volume margin for this spatial change, after bone alignment, was also calculated. Results: Rectal contrast was found to introduce a systematic error in the position of all organs compared with the noncontrast state. The largest change in structures during radiotherapy was in the anterior and posterior directions for the mesorectum and rectum and in the superior and inferior directions for the gross tumor volume. The planning target volume margins required for internal movement for the mesorectum based on the three scans acquired during treatment are 4 mm right, 5 mm left, 7 mm anterior, and 6 mm posterior. For the rectum, values were 8 mm right, 8 mm left, 8 mm anterior, and 9 mm posterior. The greatest movement of the rectum occurred in the upper third. Conclusions: Contrast is no longer used in CT simulation. Assuming bony alignment, a nonuniform margin of 8 mm anteriorly, 9 mm posteriorly, and 8 mm left and right is recommended.

  2. Men's experience with sexual dysfunction post-rectal cancer treatment: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ball, Melinda; Nelson, Christian J; Shuk, Elyse; Starr, Tatiana D; Temple, Larissa; Jandorf, Lina; Schover, Leslie; Mulhall, John P; Woo, Heidi; Jennings, Sabrina; DuHamel, Katherine

    2013-09-01

    In an effort to address reports from men that their sex life is worse after treatment for rectal cancer, this qualitative study was designed to better understand their experience with sexual dysfunction following rectal cancer treatment, thus providing information on the adaptation of a psycho-educational sexual health intervention for male rectal cancer survivors and simultaneously investigating barriers and promoters that would influence their participation in a psycho-educational sexual health intervention. Thirteen male rectal cancer survivors who were treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) for rectal cancer participated (median time post-treatment was 6.4 years). Six survivors participated in individual semi-structured phone interviews, and seven others took part in focus groups. We performed standard procedures of qualitative thematic text analysis, which involved independent review of interview and focus group transcripts by several analysts followed by consensus meetings to identify key themes. Participants reported bowel dysfunction (N = 13, or 100%) and erectile dysfunction (N = 12, or 92%) as chief complaints. The participants thought a psychoeducational sexual health intervention post-surgery would be helpful because it would provide educational information regarding the etiology of their problems and treatments to improve their sexual health (N = 8, or 62%). Most participants' primary concern immediately after treatment was surviving their disease; improving sexual functioning seemed to become more important over time. Barriers to potentially participating in a psycho-educational sexual health intervention included geographical distance from MSKCC (N = 3, or 3/13) and the risk of embarrassment when discussing sexual issues (N = 5, or 5/13). Men reported that a psycho-educational sexual health intervention would be helpful to improve their sexual functioning post-treatment. Discussion of bowel issues and logistical concerns gave information on the psycho-educational sexual health intervention. PMID:23821133

  3. Overexpression of CPS1 is an independent negative prognosticator in rectal cancers receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Ying; Li, Chien-Feng; Lin, Ching-Yih; Lee, Sung-Wei; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Lin, Li-Ching; Chen, Tzu-Ju; Wu, Ting-Feng; Hsing, Chung-Hsi

    2014-11-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancers are currently treated with neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by surgery, but stratification of risk and final outcomes remain suboptimal. In view of the fact that glutamine metabolism is usually altered in cancer, we profiled and validated the significance of genes involved in this pathway in rectal cancers treated with CCRT. From a published transcriptome of rectal cancers (GSE35452), we focused on glutamine metabolic process-related genes (GO:0006541) and found upregulation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) gene most significantly predicted poor response to CCRT. We evaluated the expression levels of CPS1 using immunohistochemistry to analyze tumor specimens obtained during colonoscopy from 172 rectal cancer patients. Expression levels of CPS1 were further correlated with major clinicopathological features and survivals in this validation cohort. To further confirm CPS1 expression levels, Western blotting was performed for human colon epithelial primary cell (HCoEpiC) and four human colon cancer cells, including HT29, SW480, LoVo, and SW620. CPS1 overexpression was significantly related to advanced posttreatment tumor (T3, T4; P = 0.006) and nodal status (N1, N2; P < 0.001), and inferior tumor regression grade (P = 0.004). In survival analyses, CPS1 overexpression was significantly associated with shorter disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS). Furthermore, using multivariate analysis, it was also independently predictive of worse DSS (P = 0.021, hazard ratio = 2.762) and MeFS (P = 0.004, hazard ratio = 3.897). CPS1 protein expression, as detected by Western blotting, is more abundant in colon cancer cells than nonneoplastic HCoEpiC. Overexpression of CPS1 is associated with poor therapeutic response and adverse outcomes among rectal cancer patients receiving CCRT, justifying the potential theranostic value of CPS1 for such patients. PMID:25099619

  4. Do Older Americans Undergo Stoma Reversal Following Low Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Dodgion, Christopher M.; Neville, Bridget A.; Lipsitz, Stuart R.; Hu, Yue-Yung; Schrag, Deborah; Breen, Elizabeth; Greenberg, Caprice C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective For low-lying rectal cancers, proximal diversion can reduce anastomotic leak after sphincter preserving surgery; however, evidence suggests that such temporary diversions are often not reversed. We aimed to evaluate non-reversal and delayed stoma reversal in elderly patients undergoing low anterior resection (LAR). Design SEER-Medicare linked analysis from 1991-2007. Settings and Participants 1,179 primary stage I-III rectal cancer patients over age 66 who underwent LAR with synchronous diverting stoma. Main Outcome Measures 1) Stoma creation and reversal rates. 2) Time to reversal. 3) Characteristics associated with reversal and shorter time to reversal. Results Within 18 months of LAR, 51% (603/1179) of patients underwent stoma reversal. Stoma reversal was associated with age < 80 years (p<0.0001), male gender (p=0.018), less comorbidities (p=0.017), higher income [quartile 4 vs. 1, (p=0.002)], early tumor stage [1 vs. 3; (p<0.001)], neoadjuvant radiation (p<0.0001), rectal tumor location [vs. rectosigmoid, (p=0.001)], more recent diagnosis (p=0.021), and shorter length of stay on LAR admission (p=0.021). Median time to reversal was 126 days (IQR: 79-249). Longer time to reversal was associated with older age (p=0.031), presence of comorbidities (p=0.014), more advanced tumor stage (p=0.007), positive lymph nodes (p=0.009), receipt of adjuvant radiation therapy (p=0.008), more recent diagnosis (p=0.004) and longer LOS on LAR admission (p <0.0001). Conclusions Half of elderly rectal cancer patients who undergo LAR with temporary stoma have not undergone stoma reversal by 18 months. Identifiable risk factors predict both non-reversal and longer time to reversal. These results help inform pre-operative discussions and promote realistic expectations for elderly rectal cancer patients. PMID:23298948

  5. p53 and Bcl-2 as significant predictors of recurrence and survival in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwandner, O; Schiedeck, T H; Bruch, H P; Duchrow, M; Windhoevel, U; Broll, R

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of p53 nuclear accumulation and Bcl-2 expression after curative surgery for rectal cancer. Immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) (DO-1 for p53; anti-human Bcl-2 MAb, clone 124, for Bcl-2) on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of 160 rectal carcinomas (UICC stages I-III), and results were compared with data from the prospective registry of rectal cancer by univariate and multivariate logistic regression model focusing specifically on recurrence. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and proportional hazards model. p53 nuclear accumulation was documented in 39% (n=63) of tumours and was associated with a higher incidence of tumour progression (local or distant recurrence) and poorer disease-free survival (P<0.0001). Bcl-2 expression was detected in 29% (n=47), and was associated with longer disease-free survival and lower incidence of recurrence (P<0.0086). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that gender (P=0.0136), UICC stage (P=0.0002), p53 expression (P=0.0002) and Bcl-2 expression (P=0. 0243) were independent factors predictive of recurrence. The proportional hazards model identified p53 (P=0.0009), UICC stage (P=0.0480), gender (P=0.0049), but not Bcl-2 (P=0.1503), as independently related to disease-free survival. Looking at the p53/Bcl-2 subgroups, the poorest prognosis was observed in the p53+/Bcl-2- subgroup, whereas patients whose tumours were p53-/Bcl-2+ had the best prognosis (P<0.0001). Immunohistochemical assessment of both p53 and Bcl-2 status may be valuable in predicting recurrence and survival after curative surgery for rectal cancer. Therefore, they play a role as prognostic factors in rectal cancer. p53 is a stronger predictor of prognosis than Bcl-2. PMID:10708936

  6. Modeling late rectal toxicities based on a parameterized representation of the 3D dose distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buettner, Florian; Gulliford, Sarah L.; Webb, Steve; Partridge, Mike

    2011-04-01

    Many models exist for predicting toxicities based on dose-volume histograms (DVHs) or dose-surface histograms (DSHs). This approach has several drawbacks as firstly the reduction of the dose distribution to a histogram results in the loss of spatial information and secondly the bins of the histograms are highly correlated with each other. Furthermore, some of the complex nonlinear models proposed in the past lack a direct physical interpretation and the ability to predict probabilities rather than binary outcomes. We propose a parameterized representation of the 3D distribution of the dose to the rectal wall which explicitly includes geometrical information in the form of the eccentricity of the dose distribution as well as its lateral and longitudinal extent. We use a nonlinear kernel-based probabilistic model to predict late rectal toxicity based on the parameterized dose distribution and assessed its predictive power using data from the MRC RT01 trial (ISCTRN 47772397). The endpoints under consideration were rectal bleeding, loose stools, and a global toxicity score. We extract simple rules identifying 3D dose patterns related to a specifically low risk of complication. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models based on parameterized representations of geometrical and volumetric measures resulted in areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.66, 0.63 and 0.67 for predicting rectal bleeding, loose stools and global toxicity, respectively. In comparison, NTCP models based on standard DVHs performed worse and resulted in AUCs of 0.59 for all three endpoints. In conclusion, we have presented low-dimensional, interpretable and nonlinear NTCP models based on the parameterized representation of the dose to the rectal wall. These models had a higher predictive power than models based on standard DVHs and their low dimensionality allowed for the identification of 3D dose patterns related to a low risk of complication.

  7. Pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in Sudanese patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Ahmed Abd Elrahman; Alawad, Awad Ali M.; Ali, Hussein Abdalla M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Locally advanced rectal cancer can be down staged by neoadjuvant therapy and the resultant tumor response can be quantified histologically. Objective This study aimed to assess pathologic response of neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced rectal cancers treated in Wad Medani Teaching Hospital (WMTH) and National Cancer Institute (NCI), Wad Medani, Sudan. Patients and Methods A total of 36 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer that were managed in WMTH and NCI during the period from 2006-2011 were reviewed. Preoperative pelvic radiotherapy was delivered. Total of 46 Gray were delivered concurrently with 5- fluorouracil (5-FU) on the first and last week of radiation. Total mesorectal excision of the rectal tumour either by anterior or abdominoperineal resections was planned at 6-8 weeks from completion of preoperative treatment. The pathological response to therapy was assessed by histopathology examination of the surgical specimen. Results Initial clinical staging of patients revealed 58.3% of them were stage T3/T4N2M0 and 41.7% were stage T3N0M0. Down-staging to stage T1/T2N0M0 was found in 36.1% and stage T3N0M0 in 30.6%. No response was seen in 8.3% of cases with stage T3/T4N2M0 while complete clinical response (no residual) was seen in 25.0%. Complete histological response was observed 13.8%. Positive lymph-nodes metastasis was confirmed in 8.3% of cases. Conclusion Neoadjuvant chemoradiation is a reasonable option for cases of rectal cancer and deserves further evaluation.

  8. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  9. Effect of Digital Rectal Examination and Needle Biopsy on Serum Total and Percentage of Free Prostate Specific Antigen Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David K. Ornstein; Ganesh S. Rao; Deborah S. Smith; Timothy L. Ratliff; Joseph W. Basler; William J. Catalona

    1997-01-01

    PurposeWe determined the effect of digital rectal examination and prostatic biopsy on serum total and free prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in men undergoing screening for prostate cancer.

  10. DIGITAL RECTAL EXAMINATION FOR DETECTING PROSTATE CANCER AT PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN LEVELS OF 4 NG.\\/ML. OR LESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUSTAVO F. CARVALHAL; DEBORAH S. SMITH; DOUGLAS E. MAGER; CHRISTIAN RAMOS; WILLIAM J. CATALONA

    1999-01-01

    PurposeWe evaluated the detection rate of prostate cancer in men with suspicious digital rectal examination findings and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) 4 ng.\\/ml. or less. We also evaluated the stage and grade of cancers detected.

  11. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv . Author manuscript A tensor-based population value decomposition to explain rectal toxicity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    decomposition to explain rectal toxicity after prostate cancer radiotherapy Juan David Ospina 1 2 * , Fr d ric Flandres-Dunkerque 35042 Rennes Cedex, FR * Correspondence should be addressed to: Juan David Ospina

  12. KRAS Mutation Status and Clinical Outcome of Preoperative Chemoradiation With Cetuximab in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of 2 Phase II Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Young; Shim, Eun Kyung [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yeo, Hyun Yang [Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Ji Yeon [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong Sang [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of) [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Won [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Hyun [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Im, Seock-Ah [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung Hae [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hee Jin, E-mail: heejincmd@yahoo.com [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Division of Translational and Clinical Research I, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Cetuximab-containing chemotherapy is known to be effective for KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer; however, it is not clear whether cetuximab-based preoperative chemoradiation confers an additional benefit compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: We analyzed EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutation status with direct sequencing and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression status with immunohistochemistry in tumor samples of 82 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who were enrolled in the IRIX trial (preoperative chemoradiation with irinotecan and capecitabine; n=44) or the ERBIRIX trial (preoperative chemoradiation with irinotecan and capecitabine plus cetuximab; n=38). Both trials were similarly designed except for the administration of cetuximab; radiation therapy was administered at a dose of 50.4 Gy/28 fractions and irinotecan and capecitabine were given at doses of 40 mg/m{sup 2} weekly and 1650 mg/m{sup 2}/day, respectively, for 5 days per week. In the ERBIRIX trial, cetuximab was additionally given with a loading dose of 400 mg/m{sup 2} on 1 week before radiation, and 250 mg/m{sup 2} weekly thereafter. Results: Baseline characteristics before chemoradiation were similar between the 2 trial cohorts. A KRAS mutation in codon 12, 13, and 61 was noted in 15 (34%) patients in the IRIX cohort and 5 (13%) in the ERBIRIX cohort (P=.028). Among 62 KRAS wild-type cancer patients, major pathologic response rate, disease-free survival and pathologic stage did not differ significantly between the 2 cohorts. No mutations were detected in BRAF exon 11 and 15, PIK3CA exon 9 and 20, or EGFR exon 18-24 in any of the 82 patients, and PTEN and EGFR expression were not predictive of clinical outcome. Conclusions: In patients with KRAS wild-type locally advanced rectal cancer, the addition of cetuximab to the chemoradiation with irinotecan plus capecitabine regimen was not associated with improved clinical outcome compared with chemoradiation without cetuximab.

  13. Finance & Administration Controller's Office

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Finance & Administration Controller's Office July 2014 Michael Williams Controller Controller Administrative Services 51111 Catherine Hebert Program Director ICOFA 61318 Revised: 7/28/2014 #12;Finance Surplus Property 81269 Revised: 7/28/2014 #12;Finance & Administration Controller's Office Disbursement

  14. Finance & Administration Controller's Office

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    Finance & Administration Controller's Office April 2014 Michael Williams Controller Controller ICOFA 61318 Revised: 4/4/2014 #12;Finance & Administration Controller's Office Accounting & Asset Coordinator Property Surplus Sales 81269 Revised: 4/4/2014 #12;Finance & Administration Controller's Office

  15. WRAP53 is an independent prognostic factor in rectal cancer- a study of Swedish clinical trial of preoperative radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Expression of WRAP53 protein has oncogenic properties and it is up regulated in several types of tumors. Methods We examined expression of WRAP53 protein in rectal cancers and analyzed its relationship to the response to preoperative radiotherapy and patient survival. The WRAP53 protein was examined by immunohistochemistry in normal mucosa, primary tumors and lymph node metastases from 143 rectal cancer patients participated in a Swedish clinical trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Results Frequency of WRAP53 protein expression was increased in primary rectal cancer compared to the normal mucosa (p?

  16. Prognostic Significance of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Cyclooxygenase2 in Patients with Rectal Cancer Treated with Preoperative Radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jordi Giralt; Begoña Navalpotro; Eduardo Hermosilla; Ines de Torres; Eloi Espin; Victoria Reyes; Laura Cerezo; Manuel de las Heras; Santiago Ramon y Cajal; Manel Armengol; Sergi Benavente

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prognostic value of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative radiotherapy. Methods: Eighty-one patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were studied. All patients received preoperative pelvic radiotherapy. Forty-seven patients received concomitant chemotherapy. Surgical resection was performed 4–8 weeks later in all patients. Immunohistochemical examination of

  17. Argon Plasma Coagulation Therapy Versus Topical Formalin for Intractable Rectal Bleeding and Anorectal Dysfunction After Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, Eric, E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Tam, William; Schoeman, Mark [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Moore, James; Thomas, Michelle [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Colorectal Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction associated with chronic radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Thirty men (median age, 72 years; range, 49-87 years) with intractable rectal bleeding (defined as ?1× per week and/or requiring blood transfusions) after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma were randomized to treatment with APC (n=17) or topical formalin (n=13). Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) anorectal symptoms (validated questionnaires, including modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic and visual analogue scales for rectal bleeding); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded rectal balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and after the treatment endpoint (defined as reduction in rectal bleeding to 1× per month or better, reduction in visual analogue scales to ?25 mm, and no longer needing blood transfusions). Results: The treatment endpoint was achieved in 94% of the APC group and 100% of the topical formalin group after a median (range) of 2 (1-5) sessions of either treatment. After a follow-up duration of 111 (29-170) months, only 1 patient in each group needed further treatment. Reductions in rectal compliance and volumes of sensory perception occurred after APC, but no effect on anorectal symptoms other than rectal bleeding was observed. There were no differences between APC and topical formalin for anorectal symptoms and function, nor for anal sphincteric morphology. Conclusions: Argon plasma coagulation and topical formalin had comparable efficacy in the durable control of rectal bleeding associated with chronic radiation proctitis but had no beneficial effect on anorectal dysfunction.

  18. Gluten-free diet induces regression of T-Cell activation in the rectal mucosa of patients with celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Cellier; Jean Paul Cervoni; Natacha Patey; Michèle Leborgne; Philippe Marteau; Bruno Landi; Nadine Cerf-Bensussan; Jean-Philippe Barbier; Nicole Brousse

    1998-01-01

    Objective: An increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in the rectal epithelium of patients with active celiac disease has been described. No data are available about how they vary during a gluten-free diet. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a gluten-free diet on T-cell activation in the rectal mucosa of adult patients with

  19. Study of acetylcholinesterase activity in rectal suction biopsy for diagnosis of intestinal dysganglionoses: 17-year experience of a single center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Mercês Santos; Uenis Tannuri; Maria Cecília M. Coelho

    2008-01-01

    Although the utility of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry on rectal suction biopsy in diagnosing Hirschsprung’s\\u000a disease (HD) has been documented, few reports address a great number of biopsies and patients. Our aim is to present a 17-year\\u000a experience on the method of rectal suction biopsy and AChE histochemical staining for diagnosis of intestinal dysganglionoses.\\u000a Between August 1989 and July 2006,

  20. Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, part II: experimental demonstration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhen; Piao, Daqing; Xu, Guan; Ritchey, Jerry W; Holyoak, G Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E; Bunting, Charles F; Slobodov, Gennady; Krasinski, Jerzy S

    2008-10-27

    We demonstrate trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate using an endo-rectal near-infrared (NIR) applicator integrated with a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe. The endo-rectal NIR applicator incorporated a design presented in our previously reported work. A continuous-wave NIR optical tomography system is combined with a commercial US scanner to form the dual-modality imager. Sagittal transrectal imaging is performed concurrently by endo-rectal NIR and TRUS. The TRUS ensures accurate positioning of the NIR applicator as well as guides NIR image reconstruction using the spatial prior of the target. The use of a condom, which is standard for TRUS, is found to have minimal effect on trans-rectal NIR imaging. Tests on avian tissues validates that NIR imaging can recover the absorption contrast of a target, and its accuracy is improved when the TRUS spatial prior is incorporated. Trans-rectal NIR/US imaging of a healthy canine prostate in situ is reported. PMID:18958031

  1. Novel Parameter Predicting Grade 2 Rectal Bleeding After Iodine-125 Prostate Brachytherapy Combined With External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Yutaka, E-mail: shiraishi@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hanada, Takashi; Ohashi, Toshio [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yorozu, Atsunori; Toya, Kazuhito [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Shiro [Department of Urology, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Shigematsu, Naoyuki [Department of Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To propose a novel parameter predicting rectal bleeding on the basis of generalized equivalent uniform doses (gEUD) after {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation therapy and to assess the predictive value of this parameter. Methods and Materials: To account for differences among radiation treatment modalities and fractionation schedules, rectal dose–volume histograms (DVHs) of 369 patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing combined therapy retrieved from corresponding treatment planning systems were converted to equivalent dose-based DVHs. The gEUDs for the rectum were calculated from these converted DVHs. The total gEUD (gEUD{sub sum}) was determined by a summation of the brachytherapy and external-beam radiation therapy components. Results: Thirty-eight patients (10.3%) developed grade 2+ rectal bleeding. The grade 2+ rectal bleeding rate increased as the gEUD{sub sum} increased: 2.0% (2 of 102 patients) for <70 Gy, 10.3% (15 of 145 patients) for 70-80 Gy, 15.8% (12 of 76 patients) for 80-90 Gy, and 19.6% (9 of 46 patients) for >90 Gy (P=.002). Multivariate analysis identified age (P=.024) and gEUD{sub sum} (P=.000) as risk factors for grade 2+ rectal bleeding. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate gEUD to be a potential predictive factor for grade 2+ late rectal bleeding after combined therapy for prostate cancer.

  2. Tumor vascularity evaluated by transrectal color Doppler US in predicting therapy outcome for low-lying rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaro, Brunella [Department of Radiology, Universita Cattolica, Policlinico 'Agostino Gemelli', Largo Agostino Gemelli, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: a.leonemd@tiscalinet.it; Valentini, Vincenzo [Department of Radiology, Universita Cattolica, Policlinico 'Agostino Gemelli', Largo Agostino Gemelli, Rome (Italy); Coco, Claudio [Department of Surgery, Universita Cattolica, Policlinico 'Agostino Gemelli', Largo Agostino Gemelli, Rome (Italy); Mancini, Anna Paola [Department of Radiology, Universita Cattolica, Policlinico 'Agostino Gemelli', Largo Agostino Gemelli, Rome (Italy); Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta [Department of Radiology, Universita Cattolica, Policlinico 'Agostino Gemelli', Largo Agostino Gemelli, Rome (Italy); Vecchio, Fabio Maria [Department of Pathology, Universita Cattolica, Policlinico 'Agostino Gemelli', Largo Agostino Gemelli, Rome (Italy); Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Radiology, Universita Cattolica, Policlinico 'Agostino Gemelli', Largo Agostino Gemelli, Rome (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact on T downstaging of the vasculature supplying blood flow to rectal cancer evaluated by color Doppler ultrasound. Methods and Materials: Color Doppler images were graded in 29 T3-staged rectal carcinoma patients sonographically just before chemoradiation. Any arterial vessels detected in rectal masses were assigned one of two grades: vascularity was considered as grade 1 for vessels feeding the periphery and as grade 2 for vessels coursing in all rectal masses within its peripheral and central portions. The pulsatility indices (PI = peak systolic velocity - end-diastolic velocity/time-averaged maximum velocity) were calculated in the central and peripheral portions. Results: The pathologic observations showed a change in stage in 15 of the 23 patients graded 2, positive predictive value 65.2% (p = 0.047), and in one of the six rectal cancers graded 1 (negative predictive value, 83.3%). The minimal peripheral PI values in rectal cancer graded 2 were higher in nonresponding (2.2 {+-} 1.3) than in responding lesions (1.6 {+-} 0.7) p = 0.01. Conclusion: Vascularity graded 2 associated with low peripheral PI values are indicators of therapy outcome. Vascularity graded 1 and high peripheral PI values in graded 2 have negative predictive value.

  3. A phase Ib study of the effects of black raspberries on rectal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Shu; Burke, Carol A; Hasson, Henrietta; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Molmenti, Christine L Sardo; Seguin, Claire; Liu, Pengyuan; Huang, Tim H-M; Frankel, Wendy L; Stoner, Gary D

    2014-07-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the early onset of colonic polyposis and a high risk for colorectal cancer. FAP is treated by colectomy followed by lifelong removal of rectal polyps. This study determined whether black raspberries (BRBs) might regress rectal polyps in patients with FAP. Fourteen patients with FAP were treated with BRBs daily for 9 months. Seven patients received BRB powder orally plus two BRB suppositories inserted into the rectum at bedtime. The other 7 received an oral placebo plus the suppositories. Rectal polyp counts and polyp sizes were obtained at time zero and after 9 months of BRB treatment. Polyps and adjacent normal tissue were collected at both time points. The burden (P = 0.036) but not number (P = 0.069) of rectal polyps was significantly decreased. No benefit was noted with the addition of oral BRBs. Three patients were nonresponders. BRBs significantly decreased cellular proliferation, DNA methylation methyl transferase 1 protein expression, and p16 promoter methylation, but not promoter methylation of the Wnt pathway antagonists, SFRP2 and WIF1, in rectal polyps (adenomas) from responders but not from nonresponders. The MBD-seq assay revealed more demethylated transcription start sites (TSS), including those for miRNAs, in BRB-treated adenomas from the responders. In conclusion, BRB suppositories seem sufficient for regressing rectal polyps in patients with FAP. PMID:24764585

  4. Rectal ulcer: Due to ketoprofen, argon plasma coagulation and prostatic brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Koessler, Thibaud; Servois, Vincent; Mariani, Pascale; Aubert, Emilie; Cacheux, Wulfran

    2014-12-01

    Prostatic brachytherapy with permanent seed implants is a recent and safe radiation therapy technique associated with radiation-induced digestive disease. Argon plasma coagulation procedure is a validated modality in the management of haemorrhagic radiation proctitis, which is known to occasionally induce chronic rectal ulcers. We report here an original case report of an acute painful rectal ulcer as a consequence of the combination of short-term therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs therapy, prostatic brachytherapy with malposition of seed implants and argon plasma coagulation procedure in a patient with haemorrhagic radiation proctitis. The description of this clinical observation is essential to recommend the discontinuation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs therapy and the control of the position of seed implants in case of prostatic brachytherapy before argon plasma coagulation for radiation-induced proctitis. PMID:25493041

  5. Rectal ulcer: Due to ketoprofen, argon plasma coagulation and prostatic brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Koessler, Thibaud; Servois, Vincent; Mariani, Pascale; Aubert, Emilie; Cacheux, Wulfran

    2014-01-01

    Prostatic brachytherapy with permanent seed implants is a recent and safe radiation therapy technique associated with radiation-induced digestive disease. Argon plasma coagulation procedure is a validated modality in the management of haemorrhagic radiation proctitis, which is known to occasionally induce chronic rectal ulcers. We report here an original case report of an acute painful rectal ulcer as a consequence of the combination of short-term therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs therapy, prostatic brachytherapy with malposition of seed implants and argon plasma coagulation procedure in a patient with haemorrhagic radiation proctitis. The description of this clinical observation is essential to recommend the discontinuation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs therapy and the control of the position of seed implants in case of prostatic brachytherapy before argon plasma coagulation for radiation-induced proctitis. PMID:25493041

  6. Beta-catenin activation through mutation is rare in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nilbert, M; Rambech, E

    2001-07-01

    Increased transcriptional activation through beta-catenin stabilization plays a central role in colorectal tumorigenesis. Alterations of phosphorylation sites within the CTNNB1 gene, which codes for beta-catenin has been reported to occur in about one-half of colorectal tumors without APC-gene mutations. We assessed the importance of mutations in the regulatory domain, located within exon 3 of CTNNB1, in 103 rectal carcinomas and correlated these data with presence of microsatellite instability, somatic frame-shift alterations of the TCF-4 gene, and APC-gene mutations in the tumors. No mutation was detected in exon 3 of the CTNNB1 gene and our results thus demonstrate that beta-catenin activation through mutation rarely contributes to the development of sporadic and microsatellite instability stable rectal cancer. PMID:11454429

  7. Endoscopic trimming of an embedded distally migrated metallic rectal stent with argon plasma coagulation.

    PubMed

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Mateos-Rodriguez, Jose Maria; Fernandez-Bermejo, Miguel; Perez-Gallardo, Belen; Hernandez-Alonso, Moises

    2010-04-01

    There is little experience regarding the use of argon plasma coagulation (APC) to trim malpositioned or migrated, endoscopic, metallic, self-expanding, colorectal stents. We report a case of a distally migrated, uncovered rectal stent complicated with several ulcerations because of impaction against the rectal wall and embedment within the healthy mucosa distal to the neoplasm. Endoscopic en bloc removal was not possible because of diffuse tumoral ingrowth. By using a second generation APC device (60 W, 0.6 L/min), the stent was trimmed allowing access to the back wall, which was tailored after digging up the embedded wires with gentle traction of the stent. Complete extraction of the protruding end of the stent by a 2.5 cm, fully covered pseudoepithelization tissue, was carried out through a flexible overtube. This is the first report of APC endoscopic transection of a long embedded segment from a distally migrated colorectal stent. PMID:20393326

  8. Granulocytic sarcoma of the rectum: Report of one case that presented with rectal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benjazia, Elhem; Khalifa, Mabrouk; Benabdelkader, Atef; Laatiri, Adnene; Braham, Ahlem; Letaief, Amel; Bahri, Fethi

    2010-10-15

    Granulocytic sarcoma is an uncommon and localized extramedullary tumor composed of immature granulocytic cells. It may present in association with acute myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic myelogenous leukaemia. Granulocytic sarcoma may occur in any anatomical site but involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is rare, especially in the rectum. We report on the case of a 17 year old female who presented with rectal bleeding, abdominal pain and weight loss one mo prior to admission. Rectosigmoidoscopy revealed a rectal polypoid and ulcerated mass. The histological examination of the mass showed granulocytic sarcoma. Bone marrow examination was compatible with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (FAB type M3). This case report is a reminder of this peculiar sign of tumoral syndrome in acute myeloid leukaemia. We also discuss diagnostic methods and analyze the disease course. PMID:21607155

  9. A case of Kaposi's sarcoma of the rectum presenting with hematochezia and rectal pain.

    PubMed

    Ishigami, Hideaki; Arai, Makoto; Okimoto, Kenichiro; Minemura, Shoko; Maruoka, Daisuke; Matsumura, Tomoaki; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Nakatani, Yukio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    A man in his 20s was referred to our hospital with hematochezia and rectal pain. Total colonoscopy revealed a reddish, protruding, ulcerated lesion occupying approximately half of the luminal circumference of the rectum. Examination of biopsy specimens showed proliferating spindle cells infiltrating the lamina propria, a finding consistent with Kaposi's sarcoma. The patient was also found to be anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody positive;therefore, we diagnosed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma were also seen in the skin, lung, and lymph nodes, but there were no lesions elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract other than the rectum. We started anti-HIV therapy and chemotherapy against these lesions, and the lesions subsequently reduced in size. We present a rare case of a man with Kaposi's sarcoma presenting with a rectal lesion. PMID:26050727

  10. Rectal leiomyosarcoma: a rare and long-term complication of radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Futuri, Solaiman; Donohoe, Kelsey; Spaccavento, Colette; Yudelman, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the rectum can develop as a late complication in patients with a history of pelvic irradiation. We report the case of a patient who developed rectal leiomyosarcoma 13?years after receiving radiation for treatment of a stage 2 squamous cell cancer of the anus. This was detected on physical examination. Based on a discussion with the patient, we decided to manage conservatively. Overall, leiomyosarcomas constitute 5-12% of radiation-induced sarcomas. Rectal leiomyosarcoma is rare, accounting for 0.1-0.5% of all malignant tumours of the rectum. As radiation therapy plays a major role in the management of anal cancer, it is important that clinicians are aware of the possible development of radiation-induced sarcomas that may occur decades after initial management. PMID:25315801

  11. Reconstruction techniques after extralevator abdominoperineal rectal excision or pelvic exenteration: meshes, plasties and flaps.

    PubMed

    Frasson, Matteo; Flor-Lorente, Blas; Carreño, Omar

    2014-03-01

    Perineal wound complications after abdomino-perineal rectal resection are frequent and clinically relevant for their impact on the length of hospitalization, costs, patients' quality of life and oncologic results. With the diffusion of the preoperative radiotherapy and the gradual shift to the extra-elevator technique, the perineal morbidity rate has increased. Many series describing different techniques of primary closure of the perineal defect have been published, but high-quality clinical studies, indicating which is the best option, are missing. A biologic mesh, associated if possible to an omentoplasty, seems to be sufficient to close the perineal defect after extra-elevator abdomino-perineal rectal resection. However, when the proctectomy is associated to the resection of other organs, as for example vagina or sacrum, resulting in an ample perineal defect, the vertical rectus abdominis flap seems to be the best option. If the perineal defect is smaller, the gracilis or gluteus flaps could be other valid alternatives. PMID:24842691

  12. Rectal cancer. Treatment advances that reduce recurrence rates and lengthen survival.

    PubMed

    Sexe, R; Miedema, B W

    1993-07-01

    The risk of malignant disease arising in rectal mucosa is high. Surgery is the most effective form of treatment but results in cure in only 50% of patients. Adjuvant preoperative radiation therapy reduces the likelihood of local recurrence but does not improve survival rates. Fluorouracil is the most effective agent for adjuvant chemotherapy and slightly improves survival when given after surgery. Combining radiation therapy with chemotherapy appears to have a synergistic effect, and recent studies show that providing this combination after surgery improves survival. Future trends in the treatment of rectal cancer are expected to include expanded use of local excision to preserve anal sphincter function, preoperative use of a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, perioperative use of chemotherapy combined with immunostimulating therapy, and use of tumor antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:8321771

  13. [Augmentation ileocystoplasty as a treatment of vesicoureteral injury following rectal amputation: a case report].

    PubMed

    Kinebuchi, Y; Okaneya, T; Murata, Y; Yoneyama, Y

    1999-05-01

    A 65-year-old man underwent transperineal drainage of pelvic abscess after rectal amputation for rectal cancer. The bladder wall and right ureter were injured during this operation, which led to vesicoperineal fistula and contracted bladder. We performed partial resection of the bladder (fistulectomy), augmentation ileocystoplasty (Cup-patch technique), and bilateral ureteral reimplantation (LeDuc-Camey technique). After surgery, the patient was able to void without any residual urine or incontinence. There was no hydronephrosis or resicoureteral reflux postoperatively. Augmentation cystoplasty is usually performed to treat a contracted bladder, but it can also be applied for the reconstruction of complicated lower urinary tract injury, and may improve the quality of life (QOL) dramatically. PMID:10410322

  14. [Transmural rectal endometriosis as a cause of chronic constipation. A case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Hernández Magro, Paulino Martínez; Barrón Vega, Raúl; Rivas Larrauri, Eduardo; Godínez Guerrero, Mario Alberto; Pérez González, Matías; López Patiño, Salvador

    2011-07-01

    The incidence of intestinal endometriosis is reported between 5.3 and 12% of cases and of these, between 70 and 93% are located in the rectum and sigmoid. We report the case of a 32-year-old with constipation and bloating and cramping pain during the last 2 years. The pain increased in frequency during the past 6 months. From the data obtained from physical examination and imaging studies may be suspected pelvic endometriosis with infiltration of anterior rectal wall. Resection of the low anterior rectum with colo-rectal anastomosis was performed, with adequate surgical outcome and resolution of symptoms. In patients of childbearing age with abdominal or pelvic pain, constipation of recent onset or occlusive bowel, which may or may not be related to the menstrual cycle should be considered transmural infiltration by endometrial tissue. PMID:21966840

  15. Dosimetric uncertainties related to the elasticity of bladder and rectal walls: Adenocarcinoma of the prostate

    E-print Network

    Voyant, Cyril; Delphine, Leschi; Briancon, Jerome; Marcovici, Celine Lantieri; 10.1016/j.canrad.2010.12.006

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. - Radiotherapy is an important treatment for prostate cancer.During treatment sessions, bladder and rectal repletion is difficult to quantify and cannot be measured with a single and initial CT scan acquisition. Some methods, such as image-guided radiation therapy and dose-guided radiation therapy, aimto compensate thismissing information through periodic CT acquisitions. The aimis to adapt patient's position, beam configuration or prescribed dose for a dosimetric compliance. Methods. -We evaluated organmotion (and repletion) for 54 patients after having computed the original ballistic on a new CT scan acquisition. A new delineation was done on the prostate, bladder and rectum to determine the newdisplacements and define organ dosesmistakes (equivalent uniformdose, average dose and dose-volume histograms). Results. - The new CT acquisitions confirmed that bladder and rectal volumes were not constant during sessions. Some cases showed that previously validated treatment plan became unsuitable. A propo...

  16. Design of a rectal probe for diffuse optical spectroscopy imaging for chemotherapy and radiotherapy monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giessen, Martijn; Santoro, Ylenia; Mirzaei Zarandi, Soroush; Pigazzi, Alessio; Cerussi, Albert E.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2014-03-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopy imaging (DOSI) has shown great potential for the early detection of non-responding tumors during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer, already one day after therapy starts. Patients with rectal cancer receive similar chemotherapy treatment. The rectum geometry and tissue properties of healthy and tumor tissue in the rectum and the requirement of surface contact impose constraints on the probe design. In this work we present the design of a DOSI probe with the aim of early chemotherapy/radiotherapy effectiveness detection in rectal tumors. We show using Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements that the colon tissue can be characterized reliably using a source-detector separation in the order of 10 mm. We present a design and rapid prototype of a probe for DOSI measurements that can be mounted on a standard laparoscope and that fits through a standard rectoscope. Using predominantly clinically approved components we aim at fast clinical translation.

  17. Rectal stump lavage: simple procedure resulting in life-threatening complication.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shirley Y W; Lee, Janet Fung-Yee; Ng, Simon S M; Li, Jimmy C M; Yiu, Raymond Y C

    2007-01-01

    In colorectal resections, rectal stump lavage is commonly performed prior to primary anastomosis for reducing bacterial counts and minimizing the risk of anastomotic recurrence. Being a potent bactericidal and cytotoxic disinfectant, chlorhexidine is frequently chosen as the irrigation solution of choice for such purposes. Despite its widespread use, the potential for developing chlorhexidine allergy is still a major concern due to the ever-rising number of literature reports of hypersensitivity reactions to chlorhexidine in surgical patients. This report illustrates the first reported case of life-threatening chlorhexidine anaphylaxis after its use in rectal stump lavage for colorectal resection. This report serves as a reminder of the potential danger of this "hidden allergen" in clinical practice. PMID:17337376

  18. Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer Is Associated With Reduced Serum Testosterone and Increased FSH and LH

    SciTech Connect

    Bruheim, Kjersti [Cancer Center, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: Kjersti.Bruheim@medisin.uio.no; Svartberg, Johan [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso (Norway); Department of Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso (Norway); Carlsen, Erik [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Dueland, Svein [Department of Oncology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Haug, Egil [Hormone Laboratory, Aker University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skovlund, Eva [School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Tveit, Kjell Magne; Guren, Marianne G. [Cancer Center, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: It is known that scattered radiation to the testes during pelvic radiotherapy can affect fertility, but there is little knowledge on its effects on male sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine whether radiotherapy for rectal cancer affects testosterone production. Methods and Materials: All male patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Patients treated with surgery alone were randomly selected from the same registry as control subjects. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were analyzed, and free testosterone was calculated (N = 290). Information about the radiotherapy treatment was collected from the patient hospital charts. Results: Serum FSH was 3 times higher in the radiotherapy group than in the control group (median, 18.8 vs. 6.3 IU/L, p <0.001), and serum LH was 1.7 times higher (median, 7.5 vs. 4.5 IU/l, p <0.001). In the radiotherapy group, 27% of patients had testosterone levels below the reference range (8-35 nmol/L), compared with 10% of the nonirradiated patients (p <0.001). Irradiated patients had lower serum testosterone (mean, 11.1 vs. 13.4 nmol/L, p <0.001) and lower calculated free testosterone (mean, 214 vs. 235 pmol/L, p <0.05) than control subjects. Total testosterone, calculated free testosterone, and gonadotropins were related to the distance from the bony pelvic structures to the caudal field edge. Conclusions: Increased serum levels of gonadotropins and subnormal serum levels of testosterone indicate that curative radiotherapy for rectal cancer can result in permanent testicular dysfunction.

  19. In vitro and in vivo study in rats of rectal suppositories containing furosemide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Szilvia Berkó; Géza Regdon; Eszter Ducza; George Falkay; István Er?s

    2002-01-01

    The aim of our experimental work was to formulate furosemide-containing rectal suppositories, to study drug release with in vitro membrane diffusion examinations and to increase drug liberation with the use of non-ionic surfactants (Solutol HS 15, Cremophor RH 60, Montanox 60 DF), which were incorporated in the suppository base in various concentrations. Suppocire AS2X proved to be the best suppository

  20. Clinical Significance of Tumor Regression Grade in Rectal Cancer with Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Joo; Oh, Byung Ryul; Lim, Sang Woo; Huh, Jung Wook; Joo, Jae Kyun; Kim, Young Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy applied to the locally advanced rectal cancer reduces local recurrence and improves survival. We assessed tumor regression grade (TRG) and its influence on survival in rectal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection. Methods We studied 108 patients that were seen at our hospital between August 2004 and December 2008. Patients received preoperative chemoradiotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin by continous infusion during the first and fifth week, delivered with concurrent pelvic radiation of 50.4 Gy, followed by radical surgery at 6-8 weeks. The TRG was determined by the amount of fibrosis in the tumor embedding area and was divided into 5 grades based on the relative amount of fibrosis. We analyzed all preoperative clinicopathologic factors, postoperative pathologic stages, TRG and prognosis, retrospectively. Results Downstaging of rectal cancer through neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy occurred in 64 (59%) patients. The numbers of total regressions (TRG4), good regressions (TRG3), moderate regressions (TRG2), minor regressions (TRG1), and no regression (TRG0) were 19 (18%), 65 (60%), 17 (16%), 6 (5%), and 1 (1%) respectively. The TRG was inversely correlated with perineural invasion and lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.008, P = 0.032). The local recurrence rate declined as the tumor regression grade increased (P = 0.032). The 19 patients with TRG4 had a better three-year disease free survival than the 89 patients with TRG0-3 (P = 0.034). The 16 patients with pathologic complete remission (pCR) had a better three-year disease free survival than the 92 patients with non-pCR (P = 0.025). Conclusion Higher TRG after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer closely correlates with better survival and low local recurrence. The TRG is considered to be a significant prognostic factor. PMID:21152230

  1. Vaginal Motion and Bladder and Rectal Volumes During Pelvic Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy After Hysterectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Jhingran, Anuja, E-mail: ajhingra@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Salehpour, Mohammad [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Sam, Marianne; Levy, Larry; Eifel, Patricia J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate variations in bladder and rectal volume and the position of the vaginal vault during a 5-week course of pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after hysterectomy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients were instructed how to fill their bladders before simulation and treatment. These patients underwent computed tomography simulations with full and empty bladders and then underwent rescanning twice weekly during IMRT; patients were asked to have full bladder for treatment. Bladder and rectal volumes and the positions of vaginal fiducial markers were determined, and changes in volume and position were calculated. Results: The mean full and empty bladder volumes at simulation were 480 cc (range, 122-1,052) and 155 cc (range, 49-371), respectively. Bladder volumes varied widely during IMRT: the median difference between the maximum and minimum volumes was 247 cc (range, 96-585). Variations in rectal volume during IMRT were less pronounced. For the 16 patients with vaginal fiducial markers in place throughout IMRT, the median maximum movement of the markers during IMRT was 0.59 cm in the right-left direction (range, 0-0.9), 1.46 cm in the anterior-posterior direction (range, 0.8-2.79), and 1.2 cm in the superior-inferior direction (range, 0.6-2.1). Large variations in rectal or bladder volume frequently correlated with significant displacement of the vaginal apex. Conclusion: Although treatment with a full bladder is usually preferred because of greater sparing of small bowel, our data demonstrate that even with detailed instruction, patients are unable to maintain consistent bladder filling. Variations in organ position during IMRT can result in marked changes in the position of the target volume and the volume of small bowel exposed to high doses of radiation.

  2. Imaging in rectal cancer with emphasis on local staging with MRI

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Supreeta; Das, Deepak; Engineer, Reena; Saklani, Avanish

    2015-01-01

    Imaging in rectal cancer has a vital role in staging disease, and in selecting and optimizing treatment planning. High-resolution MRI (HR-MRI) is the recommended method of first choice for local staging of rectal cancer for both primary staging and for restaging after preoperative chemoradiation (CT-RT). HR-MRI helps decide between upfront surgery and preoperative CT-RT. It provides high accuracy for prediction of circumferential resection margin at surgery, T category, and nodal status in that order. MRI also helps assess resectability after preoperative CT-RT and decide between sphincter saving or more radical surgery. Accurate technique is crucial for obtaining high-resolution images in the appropriate planes for correct staging. The phased array external coil has replaced the endorectal coil that is no longer recommended. Non-fat suppressed 2D T2-weighted (T2W) sequences in orthogonal planes to the tumor are sufficient for primary staging. Contrast-enhanced MRI is considered inappropriate for both primary staging and restaging. Diffusion-weighted sequence may be of value in restaging. Multidetector CT cannot replace MRI in local staging, but has an important role for evaluating distant metastases. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) has a limited role in the initial staging of rectal cancer and is reserved for cases with resectable metastatic disease before contemplating surgery. This article briefly reviews the comprehensive role of imaging in rectal cancer, describes the role of MRI in local staging in detail, discusses the optimal MRI technique, and provides a synoptic report for both primary staging and restaging after CT-RT in routine practice. PMID:25969638

  3. [The method of mucosectomy of rectal stump in reconstructive surgery of ulcer colitis].

    PubMed

    Borota, A V; Polunin, G E; Borota, A A

    2014-12-01

    The method of coloproctectomy performance with formation of a J-like ileal reservoire and ileoanal anastomosis, using welding mucosectomy and protective ileostomy, was proposed. Application of the method guarantees complete excision of the rectal stump mucosa, what excludes the risk of the stump inflammation occurrence, as a sign of residual ulcer colitis in immediate and late postoperative period. Functional results in this setting are not worsen. PMID:25842878

  4. Rectal irrigation with short-chain fatty acids for distal ulcerative colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard I. Breuer; Stephen K. Buto; Miriam L. Christ; Judy Bean; Piero Vernia; P. Paoluzi; M. C. Di Paolo; Renzo Caprilli

    1991-01-01

    Colon cells from patients with ulcerative colitis utilize short-chain fatty acids inefficiently and may be exposed to decreased concentrations of these compounds. To test whether irrigation of the inflamed mucosa with short-chain fatty acids is useful, we conducted a six-week preliminary trial in 12 patients with distal colitis. Each patient used twice daily rectal irrigations with 100 ml of a

  5. Subtypes of constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome based on rectal perception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Harraf; M Schmulson; L Saba; N Niazi; R Fass; J Munakata; D Diehl; H Mertz; B Naliboff; E A Mayer

    1998-01-01

    Background—Patients who complain of constipation can be divided into those who have lost the natural call to stool, but develop abdominal discomfort after several days without a bowel movement (no urge); and those who experience a constant sensation of incomplete evacuation (urge).Aims—To determine whether the two groups differ in symptoms, colonic transit, and perceptual responses to controlled rectal distension.Methods—Forty four

  6. Isolation of Serpulina pilosicoli from Rectal Biopsy Specimens Showing Evidence of Intestinal Spirochetosis

    PubMed Central

    Trivett-Moore, Nicolle L.; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.; Law, Carmella L. H.; Trott, Darren J.; Hampson, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Histologic evidence of intestinal spirochetosis (IS) was found in 22 of 41 (53.7%) rectal biopsy specimens from homosexual men attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic. Serpulina pilosicoli was cultured from 11 of the IS-positive biopsy specimens (50%) and from 2 specimens (10.5%) in which spirochetes were not observed. The association between seeing spirochetes in biopsy specimens and isolating S. pilosicoli was statistically significant, clearly indicating that this spirochete is the agent of IS. PMID:9431961

  7. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a clinically significant reduction in lower GI toxicity compared with CRT. Further study is needed to evaluate differences in late toxicity and long-term efficacy.

  8. Rectal cancer staging: Correlation between the evaluation with radial echoendoscope and rigid linear probe

    PubMed Central

    Colaiácovo, Rogério; Assef, Maurício Saab; Ganc, Ricardo Leite; Carbonari, Augusto Pincke Cruz; Silva, Flávio Amaro Oliveira Bitar; Bin, Fang Chia; Rossini, Lúcio Giovanni Baptista

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The National Cancer Institute estimated 40,340 new cases of rectal cancer in the United States in 2013. The correct staging of rectal cancer is fundamental for appropriate treatment of this disease. Transrectal ultrasound is considered one of the best methods for locoregional staging of rectal tumors, both radial echoendoscope and rigid linear probes are used to perform these procedures. The objective of this study is to evaluate the correlation between radial echoendoscopy and rigid linear endosonography for staging rectal cancer. Patients and Methods: A prospective analysis of 48 patients who underwent both, radial echoendoscopy and rigid linear endosonography, between April 2009 and May 2011, was done. Patients were staged according to the degree of tumor invasion (T) and lymph node involvement (N), as classified by the American Joint Committee on Cancer. Anatomopathological staging of surgical specimen was the gold standard for discordant evaluations. The analysis of concordance was made using Kappa index. Results: The general Kappa index for T staging was 0.827, with general P < 0.001 (confidence interval [CI]: 95% 0.627-1). The general Kappa index for N staging was 0.423, with general P < 0.001 (CI: 95% 0.214-0.632). Conclusion: The agreement between methods for T staging was almost perfect, with a worse outcome for T2, but still with substantial agreement. The findings may indicate equivalence in the diagnostic value of both flexible and rigid devices. For lymph node staging, there was moderate agreement between the methods. PMID:25184122

  9. The Effect of Hypnosis on Systemic and Rectal Mucosal Measures of Inflammation in Ulcerative Colitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel E. Mawdsley; David G. Jenkins; Marion G. Macey; Louise Langmead; David S. Rampton

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Hypnotherapy is effective in several diseases with a psychosomatic component. Our aim was to study the effects of one session of hypnosis on the systemic and rectal mucosal inflammatory responses in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS:In total, 17 patients with active UC underwent a 50-min session of gut-focused hypnotherapy. Before and after each procedure, the systemic inflammatory response was

  10. Mast Cell Degranulation Induces Delayed Rectal Allodynia in Rats: Role of Histamine and 5HT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Marie Coelho; Jean Fioramonti; Lionel Bueno

    1998-01-01

    Visceral hypersensitivity is a common feature offunctional bowel disorders, where an increased number ofmast cells have often been described. Thus, weinvestigated the effect of an experimental mast cell degranulation induced by BrX-537A on somatic(tail heating) and visceral (rectal distension)sensitivity in rats and the involvement of histamineand\\/or serotonin on this last response. After BrX-537Aadministration, the latency of tail withdrawal reflex wasshortened

  11. Global analysis of miRNA target genes in colon rectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meeta Pradhan; Lakenvia Ledford; Yogesh Pandit; Mathew Palakal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a global analysis of colon rectal cancer genes and their associated miRNAs. Significant genes in colon cancer were obtained by mining the literature and cancer related miRNAs were obtained from miRbase. Five different features were used to analyze to obtain a global gene-miRNA profile. By combining the topological features along with miRNA-gene associations and gene

  12. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CB association with preoperative radiotherapy response in rectal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-Dong; Peng, Yi-Fan; Pan, Hong-Da; Wang, Lin; Li, Kun; Gu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine the correlation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3) CB expression with preoperative radiotherapy response in patients with stage II/III rectal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: PIK3CB immunoexpression was retrospectively assessed in pretreatment biopsies from 208 patients with clinical stage II/III rectal adenocarcinoma, who underwent radical surgery after 30-Gy/10-fraction preoperative radiotherapy. The relation between PIK3CB expression and tumor regression grade, clinicopathological characteristics, and survival time was statistically analyzed. Western blotting and in vitro clonogenic formation assay were used to detect PIK3CB expression in four colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116, HT29, LoVo, and LS174T) treated with 6-Gy ionizing radiation. Pharmacological assays were used to evaluate the therapeutic relevance of TGX-221 (a PIK3CB-specific inhibitor) in the four colorectal cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining indicated that PIK3CB was more abundant in rectal adenocarcinoma tissues with poor response to preoperative radiotherapy. High expression of PIK3CB was closely correlated with tumor height (P < 0.05), ypT stage (P < 0.05), and high-degree tumor regression grade (P < 0.001). High expression of PIK3CB was a potential prognostic factor for local recurrence-free survival (P < 0.05) and metastasis-free survival (P < 0.05). High expression of PIK3CB was also associated with poor therapeutic response and adverse outcomes in rectal adenocarcinoma patients treated with 30-Gy/10-fraction preoperative radiotherapy. In vitro, PIK3CB expression was upregulated in all four colorectal cancer cell lines concurrently treated with 6-Gy ionizing radiation, and the PIK3CB-specific inhibitor TGX-221 effectively inhibited the clonogenic formation of these four colorectal cancer cell lines. CONCLUSION: PIK3CB is critically involved in response to preoperative radiotherapy and may serve as a novel target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25473181

  13. Single incision laparoscopic surgery technique for transanal removal of rectal foreign body

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Bachir; Debs, Tarek; Hage, Said; Bassile, Bashir; Hanna, Philippe; Saint Eve, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    A foreign body in the rectum is not a very common surgical emergency case. In the treatment of rectal foreign bodies, the aim is to use the simplest possible method while protecting the integrity of the intestine. Many removal techniques have been described in the literature. Here we report a case in which a transanal technique using a single incision laparoscopic surgery port was successfully used. PMID:24876403

  14. Evaluation of CHROMagar™ KPC for the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in rectal surveillance cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theofano Panagea; Irene Galani; Maria Souli; Panagiota Adamou; Anastasia Antoniadou; Helen Giamarellou

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the performance of the chromogenic medium CHROMagar™ KPC was evaluated and was compared with in-house-daily prepared McConkey agar plates supplemented with imipenem (1mg\\/L) for the detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. In this surveillance study, rectal swabs were cultured on both media and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for blaKPC and blaVIM was used to confirm the genotype of growing

  15. A Case of Rectal Cancer in a Patient with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se Heon; Lee, Jai Hyuen

    2012-01-01

    A rectal cancer was found in a 67-year-old man with a history of neurofibromatosis type 1. A low anterior resection was performed, and he received concurrent chemoradiation for 6 months. Twelve months after the surgery, a tumor was found at the anastomotic site by positron emission tomography-computed tomography and colonoscopy and was mistaken as anastomotic site recurrence. The tumor was confirmed as an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor through transanal excision. PMID:22816062

  16. Feasibility and Morbidity of Combined Hyperthermia and Radiochemotherapy in Recurrent Rectal Cancer – Preliminary Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schaffer; M. Krych; S. Pachmann; S. Abdel-Rahman; P. M. Schaffer; B. Ertl-Wagner; R. D. Issels

    2003-01-01

    SummaryBackground: The local recurrence rate of colorectal cancer has been significantly reduced due to the use of combined radiochemotherapy. Despite this improvement regarding locally advanced tumour recurrences, the treatment strategy for pre-treated patients remains difficult and unresolved. Patients and Methods: We analysed treatment and follow-up data of 14 patients with local recurrence of rectal cancer who were treated with radiation

  17. Screening digital rectal examination and prostate cancer mortality: a population-based case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J Jacobsen; Erik J Bergstralh; Slavica K Katusic; Harry A Guess; Charles H Darby; Marc D Silverstein; Joseph E Oesterling; Michael M Lieber

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. Although digital rectal examination (DRE) for the detection of prostate cancer has been recommended by many professional groups and has become part of the general physical examination, no randomized clinical trial has demonstrated the efficacy or effectiveness of this practice. We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate the association between DRE and prostate cancer mortality.Methods. With the resources

  18. Rectal erosion of synthetic mesh used in posterior colporrhaphy requiring surgical removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Hurtado; H. Randolph Bailey; Keith O. Reeves

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of pelvic organ prolapse with transvaginally placed synthetic mesh has recently increased. Several reports of complications\\u000a have surfaced raising the overall question of safety regarding its use for vaginal prolapse repair. This case report describes\\u000a a rectal erosion and dyspareunia that resulted from mesh placed into the posterior vaginal wall. A 47-year-old woman underwent\\u000a a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy and

  19. Molecular Markers Predict Distant Metastases After Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jun Won; Kim, Yong Bae [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Jeong [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koom, Woong Sub [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoguen [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam-Kyu [Department of Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Surgery, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joong Bae [Department of Medical Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ikjae; Cho, Jae Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Keum, Ki Chang, E-mail: kckeum@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: The outcomes of adjuvant chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer are nonuniform among patients with matching prognostic factors. We explored the role of molecular markers for predicting the outcome of adjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The study included 68 patients with stages II to III rectal adenocarcinoma who were treated with total mesorectal excision and adjuvant chemoradiation. Chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin was intravenously administered each month for 6-12 cycles. Radiation therapy consisted of 54 Gy delivered in 30 fractions. Immunostaining of surgical specimens for COX-2, EGFR, VEGF, thymidine synthase (TS), and Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) was performed. Results: The median follow-up was 65 months. Eight locoregional (11.8%) and 13 distant (19.1%) recurrences occurred. Five-year locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates for all patients were 83.9%, 78.7%, 66.7%, and 73.8%, respectively. LRFFS was not correlated with TNM stage, surgical margin, or any of the molecular markers. VEGF overexpression was significantly correlated with decreased DMFS (P=.045), while RKIP-positive results were correlated with increased DMFS (P=.025). In multivariate analyses, positive findings for COX-2 (COX-2+) and VEGF (VEGF+) and negative findings for RKIP (RKIP-) were independent prognostic factors for DMFS, DFS, and OS (P=.035, .014, and .007 for DMFS; .021, .010, and <.0001 for DFS; and .004, .012, and .001 for OS). The combination of both COX-2+ and VEGF+ (COX-2+/VEGF+) showed a strong correlation with decreased DFS (P=.007), and the combinations of RKIP+/COX-2- and RKIP+/VEGF- showed strong correlations with improved DFS compared with the rest of the patients (P=.001 and <.0001, respectively). Conclusions: Molecular markers can be valuable in predicting treatment outcome of adjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients.

  20. Imaging in rectal cancer with emphasis on local staging with MRI.

    PubMed

    Arya, Supreeta; Das, Deepak; Engineer, Reena; Saklani, Avanish

    2015-01-01

    Imaging in rectal cancer has a vital role in staging disease, and in selecting and optimizing treatment planning. High-resolution MRI (HR-MRI) is the recommended method of first choice for local staging of rectal cancer for both primary staging and for restaging after preoperative chemoradiation (CT-RT). HR-MRI helps decide between upfront surgery and preoperative CT-RT. It provides high accuracy for prediction of circumferential resection margin at surgery, T category, and nodal status in that order. MRI also helps assess resectability after preoperative CT-RT and decide between sphincter saving or more radical surgery. Accurate technique is crucial for obtaining high-resolution images in the appropriate planes for correct staging. The phased array external coil has replaced the endorectal coil that is no longer recommended. Non-fat suppressed 2D T2-weighted (T2W) sequences in orthogonal planes to the tumor are sufficient for primary staging. Contrast-enhanced MRI is considered inappropriate for both primary staging and restaging. Diffusion-weighted sequence may be of value in restaging. Multidetector CT cannot replace MRI in local staging, but has an important role for evaluating distant metastases. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) has a limited role in the initial staging of rectal cancer and is reserved for cases with resectable metastatic disease before contemplating surgery. This article briefly reviews the comprehensive role of imaging in rectal cancer, describes the role of MRI in local staging in detail, discusses the optimal MRI technique, and provides a synoptic report for both primary staging and restaging after CT-RT in routine practice. PMID:25969638

  1. Endoscopic appearances of the rectal mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease visualised with a magnifying colonoscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Makiyama; M K Bennett; D P Jewell

    1984-01-01

    The magnified endoscopic appearances of the rectum are described in 12 patients with Crohn's disease with apparent rectal sparing on sigmoidoscopy. Five of them had minor abnormalities on colonoscopy but the remaining seven had a normal rectum. After the application of 0.2% methylene blue, examination using a magnifying endoscope (Olympus CF-HM) revealed characteristic 'worm-eaten' appearances in 75% of the patients

  2. Transanal natural orifice specimen extraction for laparoscopic anterior resection in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fang-Hai; Hua, Li-Xin; Zhao, Zhi; Wu, Jian-Hai; Zhan, Wen-Hua

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether transanal natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) is a better technique for rectal cancer resection. METHODS: A prospectively designed database of a consecutive series of patients undergoing laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer with various tumor-node-metastasis classi?cations from March 2011 to February 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University was analyzed. Patient selection for transanal specimen extraction and intracorporeal anastomosis was made on the basis of tumor size and distance of rectal lesions from the anal verge. Demographic data, operative parameters, and postoperative outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: None of the patients was converted to laparotomy. Respectively, there were 16 cases in the low anastomosis and five in the ultralow anastomosis groups. Mean age of the patients was 45.4 years, and mean body mass index was 23.1 kg/m2. Mean distance of the lower edge of the lesion from the anal verge was 8.3 cm. Mean operating time was 132 min, and mean intraoperative blood loss was 84 mL. According to the principle of rectal cancer surgery, we performed D2 lymph node dissection in 13 cases and D3 in eight. Mean lymph nodes harvest was 17.8, and the number of positive lymph nodes was 3.4. Median hospital stay was 6.7 d. No serious postoperative complication occurred except for one anastomotic leakage. All patients remained disease free. Mean Wexner score was 3.7 at 11 mo after the operation. CONCLUSION: Transanal NOSE for total laparoscopic low/ultralow anterior resection is feasible, safe and oncologically sound. Further studies with long-term outcomes are needed to explore its potential advantages. PMID:24282364

  3. Procidentia of the rectum: Teflon sling repair of rectal prolapse, Lahey Clinic experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Clement Jurgeleit; Marvin L. Corman; John A. Coller; Malcolm C. Veidenheimer

    1975-01-01

    Summary  The Teflon-sling method of repair of rectal prolapse in the Lahey Clinic experience has proved to be one of no mortality and\\u000a low morbidity, with a recurrence rate of 7.3 per cent over an average follow-up period of nearly four years. Bowel management\\u000a and incontinence are problems inherent in the pathogenesis of the problem and, though improved, necessitate longterm patient

  4. Rectal mucosal proliferation, dietary factors, and the risk of colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Keku, T O; Galanko, J A; Murray, S C; Woosley, J T; Sandler, R S

    1998-11-01

    Colorectal cancer arises from a series of precursor stages, the so called adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Increased rectal mucosal proliferation may be an early step in this sequence. Because dietary factors are implicated in the etiology of colorectal cancer, one might predict that diet would also be associated with proliferation. We conducted this study to examine the association of diet with rectal mucosal proliferation. Rectal mucosal proliferation was measured in endoscopic biopsy specimens by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry and whole crypt mitotic counts (WCMCs). Diet was evaluated using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The correlation between PCNA labeling index (LI) and WCMCs was determined using Kendall's tau, a nonparametric measure of correlation. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of proliferation on adenoma status, controlling for confounders. The relationship between proliferation and dietary and demographic factors was examined using linear regression. There were 308 patients who had one or both measures of proliferation. There was no significant correlation between PCNA LI and WCMCs (Kendall's tau = 0.04; P = 0.35). Neither measure of proliferation was predictive of adenoma status, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Body mass index and calories per day were significant predictors of WCMC (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). PCNA labeling index was not associated with any dietary variables, although its association with dietary fat nearly reached statistical significance (P = 0.09). The association between proliferation and diet were generally inconsistent. There appears to be no simple relationship between colorectal cancer risk factors, colorectal adenomas, and these two measures of rectal mucosal proliferation. We need simpler, more reliable intermediate markers for use in etiological and intervention studies. PMID:9829707

  5. Prognostic Significance of Microvessel Density Determining by Endoglin in Stage II Rectal Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martinovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Drazen; Martinovic, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Background. The role of endoglin in the Dukes B rectal cancer is still unexplored. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of endoglin (CD105) in resected rectal cancer and to evaluate the relationship between microvessels density (MVD), clinicopathological factors, and survival rates. Methods. The study included 95 primary rectal adenocarcinomas, corresponding to 67 adjacent and 73 distant normal mucosa specimens from surgical resection samples. Tumor specimens were paraffin-embedded and immunohistochemical staining for the CD105 endothelial antigen was performed to count CD105-MVD. For exact measurement of the CD105-MVD used a computer-integrated system Alphelys Spot Browser 2 was used. Results. The intratumoral CD105-MVD was significantly higher compared with corresponding adjacent mucosa (P < 0.0001) and distant mucosa specimens (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the CD105-MVD according to patients age, gender, tumor location, grade of differentiation, histological type, depth of tumor invasion, and tumor size. The overall survival rate was significantly higher in the low CD105-MVD group of patients than in the high CD105-MVD group of patients (log-rank test, P = 0.0406). Conclusion. CD105-assessed MVD could help to identify patients with possibility of poor survival in the group of stage II RC.

  6. [Preoperative radio-chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Vuolo, Giuseppe; Verre, Luigi; Testa, Michele; Perrotta, Mafalda Ester; Pallucca, Eleonora; Di Cosmo, Leonardo; Guarnieri, Alfredo; Savelli, Vinno; Piccolomini, Alessandro; Carli, Anton Ferdinando

    2004-01-01

    Rectal cancer is characterised by a substantial incidence of recurrences despite radical surgical treatment. The combination of preoperative radio- and chemotherapy has afforded functional and prognostic advantages through the prospect it offers of performing a greater number of conservative operations and the enhanced control of locoregional recurrences it allows. In our institute we treated 27 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer over the period from January 1997 to December 2002. All 27 patients underwent preoperative radiochemotherapy (45 Gy on the pelvis and 5-fluorouracil administered on the first and last 5 days of radiotherapy). The patients were then submitted to surgery consisting in 12 abdomino-perineal resections of the rectum, 14 anterior rectal resections and 1 Hartmann's resection. Tumour regression was complete in 22.22% of cases and minimal in 14.81%; 50% reduction was achieved in 22.22% and 50-80% reduction in 40-70% of cases. The toxicity was 14.91%. The incidence of local failure was 3.7% with a follow-up of 52 months. In this series, preoperative radio-chemotherapy proved to be a powerful means of downstaging the tumours and of controlling local failure. PMID:15553440

  7. In rectal cancer, the type of desmoplastic response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy is associated with prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hideki; Shinto, Eiji; Hashiguchi, Yojiro; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Kajiwara, Yoshiki; Sueyama, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    Although the essential contribution of the desmoplastic reaction (DR) to aggressive tumor behavior is increasingly recognized, its prognostic value has not been investigated in rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed 101 consecutive patients with rectal cancer treated with short-course chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery (2001-2007). The DR in the resected primary tumor was pathologically classified into three patterns on the basis of products of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs): mature (multilayered fibrotic), intermediate (keloid-like hyalinized), and immature (mostly myxoid). We classified 46 tumors as mature, 30 as intermediate, and 25 as immature DR. In addition, immunostaining of CD8(+) and FoxP3(+) cells was performed to characterize the immune response accompanying DR. Mature DR correlated with higher density of CD8(+) and FoxP3(+) cells in both resected surgical and pretreatment biopsy specimens. A significant association with DR category was observed for T stage, lymphatic invasion, and venous invasion (P???0.0001-0.0006). Mature DR was significantly associated with higher grade of pathological response (P?=?0.0350). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 82, 72, and 47 % for mature, intermediate, and immature DR, respectively (P?=?0.0055). On multivariate analysis, DR category and ypN were independently predictive of DFS. The pattern of the DR in rectal cancers after chemoradiotherapy treatment might have a prognostic value, as it likely reflects pretreatment desmoplastic environment. PMID:25820417

  8. Primary adrenal gland carcinosarcoma associated with metastatic rectal cancer: a hitherto unreported collision tumor.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Federica; Rossi, Giulio; Fiocchi, Federica; Giacometti, Marco; Fontana, Annalisa; Gibertini, Maria Chiara; Roncucci, Luca; Luppi, Gabriele; Torricelli, Pietro; Rossi, Aldo; Conte, Pier Franco

    2011-01-01

    In this report we describe the case of a young woman with familial adenomatous polyposis who developed metastatic rectal cancer during pregnancy. At diagnosis, we decided to perform a transabdominal laparoscopic adrenalectomy, because of the high risk of bowel obstruction, and to define the origin of the adrenal gland lesion, suspected to be primary on the basis of imaging results. The histological specimen showed a collision tumor between an adrenal metastasis of a rectal tumor and a primary adrenal gland carcinosarcoma. The peculiarity of the case is due not only to its clinical presentation during pregnancy, but also to the presence of this uncommon adrenal collision tumor. A particular challenge for the clinician is to define the priority between these two tumors: the presence of two distinct and colliding aggressive neoplasms poses a problem in the choice of the best therapeutic approach, also given the impossibility to biopsy all metastatic sites. However, we decided to treat the patient as having a metastatic rectal cancer, because we had a solid histological confirmation of metastases. PMID:22158506

  9. Low rectal cancer: Sphincter preserving techniques-selection of patients, techniques and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriou, Nikoletta; Michail, Othon; Moris, Dimitrios; Griniatsos, John

    2015-01-01

    Low rectal cancer is traditionally treated by abdominoperineal resection. In recent years, several new techniques for the treatment of very low rectal cancer patients aiming to preserve the gastrointestinal continuity and to improve both the oncological as well as the functional outcomes, have been emerged. Literature suggest that when the intersphincteric resection is applied in T1-3 tumors located within 30-35 mm from the anal verge, is technically feasible, safe, with equal oncological outcomes compared to conventional surgery and acceptable quality of life. The Anterior Perineal PlanE for Ultra-low Anterior Resection technique, is not disrupting the sphincters, but carries a high complication rate, while the reports on the oncological and functional outcomes are limited. Transanal Endoscopic MicroSurgery (TEM) and TransAnal Minimally Invasive Surgery (TAMIS) should represent the treatment of choice for T1 rectal tumors, with specific criteria according to the NCCN guidelines and favorable pathologic features. Alternatively to the standard conventional surgery, neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy followed by TEM or TAMIS seems promising for tumors of a local stage T1sm2-3 or T2. Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision should be performed only when a board approved protocol is available by colorectal surgeons with extensive experience in minimally invasive and transanal endoscopic surgery. PMID:26191350

  10. A Randomized Trial of Rectal Indomethacin to Prevent Post-ERCP Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Elmunzer, B. Joseph; Scheiman, James M.; Lehman, Glen A.; Chak, Amitabh; Mosler, Patrick; Higgins, Peter D.R.; Hayward, Rodney A.; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Elta, Grace H.; Sherman, Stuart; Waljee, Akbar K.; Repaka, Aparna; Atkinson, Matthew R.; Cote, Gregory A.; Kwon, Richard S.; McHenry, Lee; Piraka, Cyrus R.; Wamsteker, Erik J.; Watkins, James L.; Korsnes, Sheryl J.; Schmidt, Suzette E.; Turner, Sarah M.; Nicholson, Sylvia; Fogel, Evan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Preliminary research suggests that rectally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may reduce the incidence of pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Methods In this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial, we assigned patients at elevated risk for post-ERCP pancreatitis to receive a single dose of rectal indomethacin or placebo immediately after ERCP. Patients were determined to be at high risk on the basis of validated patient- and procedure-related risk factors. The primary outcome was post-ERCP pancreatitis, which was defined as new upper abdominal pain, an elevation in pancreatic enzymes to at least three times the upper limit of the normal range 24 hours after the procedure, and hospitalization for at least 2 nights. Results A total of 602 patients were enrolled and completed follow-up. The majority of patients (82%) had a clinical suspicion of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Post-ERCP pancreatitis developed in 27 of 295 patients (9.2%) in the indomethacin group and in 52 of 307 patients (16.9%) in the placebo group (P = 0.005). Moderate-to-severe pancreatitis developed in 13 patients (4.4%) in the indomethacin group and in 27 patients (8.8%) in the placebo group (P = 0.03). Conclusions Among patients at high risk for post-ERCP pancreatitis, rectal indomethacin significantly reduced the incidence of the condition. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00820612.) PMID:22494121

  11. Expression of the p73 protein in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Daniella [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Gao Jingfang [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Adell, Gunnar [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Sun Xiaofeng [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden)]. E-mail: xiasu@ibk.liu.se

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate p73 expression in normal mucosa, primary tumor, and metastasis in relation to radiotherapy (RT) response and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers. Methods and Materials: p73 was immunohistochemically examined on biopsies (unirradiated, n = 102), distant (from the large bowel, n = 82), and adjacent (adjacent to primary tumor, n = 89) normal mucosa samples, primary tumors (n = 131), and lymph node metastasis (n = 32) from rectal cancer patients participating in a clinical trial of preoperative RT. Seventy-four patients received surgery alone and 57 received additional RT. Results: Cytoplasmic p73 was increased in the primary tumor compared with the distant or adjacent mucosa (p {<=} 0.0001). Nuclear (p = 0.02) and cytoplasmic (p = 0.003) p73 was higher in irradiated distant mucosa samples than in unirradiated ones, and nuclear p73 tended to be increased in irradiated primary tumors compared with unirradiated ones (p = 0.06). p73 was positively related to cyclooxygenase-2 expression in irradiated tumors (p = 0.03). p73-negative tumors tended to have a lower local recurrence after RT compared with unirradiated cases (p 0.06). Conclusions: Normal epithelial cells seem more sensitive to RT than tumor cells regarding p73 expression. Patients with p73-negative rectal tumors may have a lower risk of local recurrence after RT.

  12. Expression of PRL proteins at invasive margin of rectal cancers in relation to preoperative radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallin, Asa R. [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Svanvik, Joar [Department of Surgery, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Adell, Gunnar [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden); Sun Xiaofeng [Department of Oncology, Institute of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoeping, Linkoeping (Sweden)]. E-mail: xiasu@ibk.liu.se

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: PRL-3 (phosphatase of regenerating liver) is involved in metastasis of colorectal cancer; however, its therapeutic implication in cancer patients has not been studied. We investigated the relationships of PRL expression to radiotherapy (RT) in rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Phosphatase of regenerating liver expression was immunohistochemically examined in distant (n = 36) and adjacent (n = 82) normal mucosa, primary tumor (n = 125), biopsy specimens (n = 96), and lymph node metastasis (n = 30) from rectal cancer patients participating in a clinical trial of preoperative RT. Results: Phosphatase of regenerating liver expression was increased from the distant to adjacent mucosa and to the primary tumor (p < 0.05). PRL was highly expressed at the invasive margin in 28% of the primary tumors and 26% of the metastases. In the RT group, strong PRL expression at the invasive margin was related to distant recurrence (p 0.006) and poor survival (p = 0.01), but not in the non-RT group. The survival significance remained even after adjusting for Dukes' stage and differentiation (p = 0.02). Additional multivariate analyses showed that the correlation with prognostic significance of PRL differed between the RT and non-RT groups (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Phosphatase of regenerating liver expression (rather than PRL-3 alone) at the invasive margin predicted resistance to RT and unfavorable survival in rectal cancer patients with preoperative RT.

  13. Implications for selecting local excision in locally advanced rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ji; Li, Guichao; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Local excision may offer the possibility of organ preservation for the management of locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). However, the oncological outcomes of this strategy have been largely associated with the risk of nodal metastases. In this study, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER)-registered rectal cancer patients, and patients from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) after preoperative chemoradiation were combined to analyze the incidence of lymph node metastasis. The results showed that there was a high risk for residual lymph node metastasis among patients even with complete pathologic response of primary tumor after preoperative CRT (12.6–13.2%). However, in the selected group of patients with pre-CRT MRI staging cN0 rectal cancer, there was only one ypN+ case (3.3%) in ypT0–1 group. These results suggest that pre-CRT MRI staging cN0 patients achieved ypT0–1 of bowel wall tumor may be suitable for local resection. PMID:25909169

  14. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in Radiation-Induced Rectal Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, Jeff M., E-mail: jmichalski@radonc.wustl.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Gay, Hiram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Jackson, Andrew [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The available dose/volume/outcome data for rectal injury were reviewed. The volume of rectum receiving >=60Gy is consistently associated with the risk of Grade >=2 rectal toxicity or rectal bleeding. Parameters for the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model from four clinical series are remarkably consistent, suggesting that high doses are predominant in determining the risk of toxicity. The best overall estimates (95% confidence interval) of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model parameters are n = 0.09 (0.04-0.14); m = 0.13 (0.10-0.17); and TD{sub 50} = 76.9 (73.7-80.1) Gy. Most of the models of late radiation toxicity come from three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy dose-escalation studies of early-stage prostate cancer. It is possible that intensity-modulated radiotherapy or proton beam dose distributions require modification of these models because of the inherent differences in low and intermediate dose distributions.

  15. Anterior rectopexy for full-thickness rectal prolapse: Technical and functional results

    PubMed Central

    Faucheron, Jean-Luc; Trilling, Bertrand; Girard, Edouard; Sage, Pierre-Yves; Barbois, Sandrine; Reche, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess effectiveness, complications, recurrence rate, and recent improvements of the anterior rectopexy procedure for treatment of total rectal prolapse. METHODS: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and other relevant database were searched to identify studies. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized studies and original articles in English language, with more than 10 patients who underwent laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for full-thickness rectal prolapse, with a follow-up over 3 mo were considered for the review. RESULTS: Twelve non-randomized case series studies with 574 patients were included in the review. No surgical mortality was described. Conversion was needed in 17 cases (2.9%), most often due to difficult adhesiolysis. Twenty eight patients (4.8%) presented with major complications. Seven (1.2%) mesh-related complications were reported. Most frequent complications were urinary tract infection and urinary retention. Mean recurrence rate was 4.7% with a median follow-up of 23 mo. Improvement of constipation ranged from 3%-72% of the patients and worsening or new onset occurred in 0%-20%. Incontinence improved in 31%-84% patients who presented fecal incontinence at various stages. Evaluation of functional score was disparate between studies. CONCLUSION: Based on the low long-term recurrence rate and favorable outcome data in terms of low de novo constipation rate, improvement of anal incontinence, and low complications rate, laparoscopic anterior rectopexy seems to emerge as an efficient procedure for the treatment of patients with total rectal prolapse. PMID:25945021

  16. Response prediction by FDG-PET after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and combined regional hyperthermia of rectal cancer: correlation with endorectal ultrasound and histopathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Amthauer; Timm Denecke; Beate Rau; Bert Hildebrandt; Michael Hünerbein; Juri Ruf; Ulrike Schneider; Matthias Gutberlet; Peter M. Schlag; Roland Felix; Peter Wust

    2004-01-01

    Accurate response assessment after neoadjuvant therapy is essential in patients with rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the value of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in predicting response of locally advanced rectal cancer to preoperative multimodal treatment. Twenty-two consecutive patients with locally advanced (uT3\\/4) primary rectal cancer were entered in this prospective pilot study. FDG-PET

  17. Age and Comorbid Illness Are Associated With Late Rectal Toxicity Following Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Stenmark, Matt H.; Ritter, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Litzenberg, Dale; Jackson, William; Johnson, Skyler; Albrecht-Unger, Liesel; Donaghy, Alex; Phelps, Laura; Blas, Kevin; Halverson, Schuyler; Marsh, Robin; Olson, Karin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Felix Y., E-mail: ffeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the impacts of patient age and comorbid illness on rectal toxicity following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and to assess the Qualitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in this context. Methods and Materials: Rectal toxicity was analyzed in 718 men previously treated for prostate cancer with EBRT (?75 Gy). Comorbid illness was scored using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCMI), and the NTCP was evaluated with the QUANTEC model. The influence of clinical and treatment-related parameters on rectal toxicity was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The cumulative incidence of rectal toxicity grade ?2 was 9.5% and 11.6% at 3 and 5 years and 3.3% and 3.9% at 3 and 5 years for grade ?3 toxicity, respectively. Each year of age predicted an increasing relative risk of grade ?2 (P<.03; hazard ratio [HR], 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.06]) and ?3 rectal toxicity (P<.0001; HR, 1.14 [95% CI,1.07-1.22]). Increasing CCMI predicted rectal toxicity where a history of either myocardial infarction (MI) (P<.0001; HR, 5.1 [95% CI, 1.9-13.7]) or congestive heart failure (CHF) (P<.0006; HR, 5.4 [95% CI, 0.6-47.5]) predicted grade ?3 rectal toxicity, with lesser correlation with grade ?2 toxicity (P<.02 for MI, and P<.09 for CHF). An age comorbidity model to predict rectal toxicity was developed and confirmed in a validation cohort. The use of anticoagulants increased toxicity independent of age and comorbidity. NTCP was prognostic for grade ?3 (P=.015) but not grade ?2 (P=.49) toxicity. On multivariate analysis, age, MI, CHF, and an NTCP >20% all correlated with late rectal toxicity. Conclusions: Patient age and a history of MI or CHF significantly impact rectal toxicity following EBRT for the treatment of prostate cancer, even after controlling for NTCP.

  18. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery versus endoscopic mucosal resection for large rectal adenomas (TREND-study)

    PubMed Central

    van den Broek, Frank JC; de Graaf, Eelco JR; Dijkgraaf, Marcel GW; Reitsma, Johannes B; Haringsma, Jelle; Timmer, Robin; Weusten, Bas LAM; Gerhards, Michael F; Consten, Esther CJ; Schwartz, Matthijs P; Boom, Maarten J; Derksen, Erik J; Bijnen, A Bart; Davids, Paul HP; Hoff, Christiaan; van Dullemen, Hendrik M; Heine, G Dimitri N; van der Linde, Klaas; Jansen, Jeroen M; Mallant-Hent, Rosalie CH; Breumelhof, Ronald; Geldof, Han; Hardwick, James CH; Doornebosch, Pascal G; Depla, Annekatrien CTM; Ernst, Miranda F; van Munster, Ivo P; de Hingh, Ignace HJT; Schoon, Erik J; Bemelman, Willem A; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent non-randomized studies suggest that extended endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is equally effective in removing large rectal adenomas as transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). If equally effective, EMR might be a more cost-effective approach as this strategy does not require expensive equipment, general anesthesia and hospital admission. Furthermore, EMR appears to be associated with fewer complications. The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of TEM and EMR for the resection of large rectal adenomas. Methods/design Multicenter randomized trial among 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients with a rectal adenoma ? 3 cm, located between 1–15 cm ab ano, will be randomized to a TEM- or EMR-treatment strategy. For TEM, patients will be treated under general anesthesia, adenomas will be dissected en-bloc by a full-thickness excision, and patients will be admitted to the hospital. For EMR, no or conscious sedation is used, lesions will be resected through the submucosal plane in a piecemeal fashion, and patients will be discharged from the hospital. Residual adenoma that is visible during the first surveillance endoscopy at 3 months will be removed endoscopically in both treatment strategies and is considered as part of the primary treatment. Primary outcome measure is the proportion of patients with recurrence after 3 months. Secondary outcome measures are: 2) number of days not spent in hospital from initial treatment until 2 years afterwards; 3) major and minor morbidity; 4) disease specific and general quality of life; 5) anorectal function; 6) health care utilization and costs. A cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of EMR against TEM for large rectal adenomas will be performed from a societal perspective with respectively the costs per recurrence free patient and the cost per quality adjusted life year as outcome measures. Based on comparable recurrence rates for TEM and EMR of 3.3% and considering an upper-limit of 10% for EMR to be non-inferior (beta-error 0.2 and one-sided alpha-error 0.05), 89 patients are needed per group. Discussion The TREND study is the first randomized trial evaluating whether TEM or EMR is more cost-effective for the treatment of large rectal adenomas. Trial registration number (trialregister.nl) NTR1422 PMID:19284647

  19. Rectal gonorrhoea as an independent risk factor for HIV infection in a cohort of homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Craib, K J; Meddings, D R; Strathdee, S A; Hogg, R S; Montaner, J S; O'Shaughnessy, M V; Schechter, M T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether certain sexually transmitted diseases are independent risk factors for HIV transmission in a cohort of homosexual men. METHODS--Eligible cases were identified as those who had seroconverted between November 1982 and November 1990. Two persistently HIV-seronegative control participants were randomly selected for each case from all participants who remained seronegative in November 1990. For cases, risk factor data were taken from an index visit which was defined as the first seropositive visit, while for controls these data were obtained from a matched visit which occurred within two months of the index visit for the corresponding case. Mantel-Haenszel methods and logistic regression were used to compare differences in risk factors for seroconversion between cases and controls. RESULTS--A total of 125 cases and 250 controls were eligible for this study. Cases were significantly more likely to have had reported any gonorrhoea (17% versus 6%; OR = 2.94; 95% CI: 1.51-5.73) or syphilis (7% versus 2%; OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 1.33-10.79) than controls during the seroconversion period. Multivariate logistic regression revealed rectal gonorrhoea to be independently associated with risk of seroconversion (odds ratio = 3.18; p = 0.044), whereas urethral gonorrhoea (p = 0.479) and pharyngeal gonorrhoea (p = 0.434) were not after inclusion of rectal gonorrhoea. In addition, the following variables were also shown to exert an independent effect on seroconversion: frequency of anal intercourse, use of illicit drugs, number of male sexual partners, and lack of a post-secondary education. CONCLUSIONS--In this observational study, rectal gonorrhoea was found to be associated with HIV seroconversion after adjustment for a number of HIV risk factors. We cannot rule out that rectal gonorrhoea was not directly associated with HIV infection but rather with other residual lifestyle factors not fully adjusted for in the analysis. However, the relationship with gonococcal involvement of a specific anatomic site lends support to a biological association between gonorrhoea and HIV infection, rather than to alternative non-biologic explanations. Our findings are consistent with previous studies reporting an association between HIV infection and non-ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases. Such a direct association might be explained by postulating that gonorrhoea results in inflamed rectal mucosa and compromised epithelial integrity, thereby predisposing an individual to subsequent HIV infection. PMID:7635489

  20. Advances in radiotherapy and targeted therapies for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sermeus, Alexandra; Leonard, Wim; Engels, Benedikt; De Ridder, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The last decade witnessed a significant progress in understanding the biology and immunology of colorectal cancer alongside with the technical innovations in radiotherapy. The stepwise implementation of intensity-modulated and image-guided radiation therapy by means of megavolt computed tomography and helical tomotherapy enabled us to anatomically sculpt dose delivery, reducing treatment related toxicity. In addition, the administration of a simultaneous integrated boost offers excellent local control rates. The novel challenge is the development of treatment strategies for medically inoperable patient and organ preserving approaches. However, distant control remains unsatisfactory and indicates an urgent need for biomarkers that predict the risk of tumor spread. The expected benefit of targeted therapies that exploit the tumor genome alone is so far hindered by high cost techniques and pharmaceuticals, hence hardly justifying rather modest improvements in patient outcomes. On the other hand, the immune landscape of colorectal cancer is now better clarified with regard to the immunosuppressive network that promotes immune escape. Both N2 neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) emerge as useful clinical biomarkers of poor prognosis, while the growing list of anti-MDSC agents shows promising ability to boost antitumor T-cell immunity in preclinical settings. Therefore, integration of genetic and immune biomarkers is the next logical step towards effective targeted therapies in the context of personalized cancer treatment. PMID:24415852

  1. Smoking increases rectal cancer risk to the same extent in women as in men: results from a Norwegian cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking has recently been established as a risk factor for rectal cancer. We examined whether the smoking-related increase in rectal cancer differed by gender. Methods We followed 602,242 participants (49% men), aged 19 to 67 years at enrollment from four Norwegian health surveys carried out between 1972 and 2003, by linkage to Norwegian national registries through December 2007. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by fitting Cox proportional hazard models and adjusting for relevant confounders. Heterogeneity by gender in the effect of smoking and risk of rectal cancer was tested with Wald ?2. Results During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 1,336 men and 840 women developed invasive rectal cancer. Ever smokers had a significantly increased risk of rectal cancer of more than 25% for both men (HR?=?1.27, 95% CI?=?1.11-1.45) and women (HR?=?1.28, 95%?CI?=?1.11-1.48) compared with gender-specific never smokers. Men smoking ?20 pack-years had a significantly increased risk of rectal cancer of 35% (HR?=?1.35, 95% CI?=?1.14-1.58), whereas for women, it was 47% (HR?=?1.47, 95% CI?=?1.13-1.91) compared with gender-specific never smokers. For both men and women, we observed significant dose–response associations between the risk of rectal cancer for four variables [Age at smoking initiation in years (both ptrend <0.05), number of cigarettes smoked per day (both ptrend <0.0001), smoking duration in years (ptrend <0.05, <0.0001) and number of pack-years smoked (both ptrend <0.0001)]. The test for heterogeneity by gender was not significant between smoking status and the risk of rectal cancer (Wald ?2, p -value; current smokers?=?0.85; former smokers?=?0.87; ever smokers?=?1.00). Conclusions Smoking increases the risk of rectal cancer to the same extent in women as in men. PMID:24884601

  2. Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, part I: simulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guan; Piao, Daqing; Musgrove, Cameron H; Bunting, Charles F; Dehghani, Hamid

    2008-10-27

    We investigate the feasibility of trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate using an endo-rectal near-infrared (NIR) applicator that is to be integrated with a trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe. Integration with TRUS ensures accurate endo-rectal positioning of the NIR applicator and the utility of using TRUS spatial prior information to guide NIR image reconstruction. The prostate NIR image reconstruction is challenging even with the use of spatial prior owing to the anatomic complexity of the imaging domain. A hierarchical reconstruction algorithm is developed that implements cascaded initial-guesses for nested domains. This hierarchical image reconstruction method is then applied to evaluating a number of NIR applicator designs for integration with a sagittal TRUS transducer. A NIR applicator configuration feasible for instrumentation development is proposed that contains one linear array of optodes on each lateral side of the sagittal TRUS transducer. The performance of this NIR applicator is characterized for the recovery of single tumor mimicking lesion as well as dual targets in the prostate. The results suggest a strong feasibility of transrectal prostate imaging by use of the endo-rectal NIR/US probe. PMID:18958030

  3. Molecular Genetic Changes Associated With Colorectal Carcinogenesis Are Not Prognostic for Tumor Regression Following Preoperative Chemoradiation of Rectal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zauber, N. Peter [Department of Medicine, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ (United States)], E-mail: pzauber@gmail.com; Marotta, Steven P.; Berman, Errol [Department of Pathology, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ (United States); Grann, Alison [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ (United States); Rao, Maithili; Komati, Naga; Ribiero, Kezia [Department of Medicine, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ (United States); Bishop, D. Timothy [Genetic Epidemiology Division, St. James's University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Preoperative chemotherapy and radiation has become the standard of care for many patients with rectal cancer. The therapy may have toxicity and delays definitive surgery. It would therefore be desirable to identify those cancers that will not regress with preoperative therapy. We assessed a series of rectal cancers for the molecular changes of loss of heterozygosity of the APC and DCC genes, K-ras mutations, and microsatellite instability, changes that have clearly been associated with rectal carcinogenesis. Methods and Materials: Diagnostic colonoscopic biopsies from 53 patients who received preoperative chemotherapy and radiation were assayed using polymerase chain reaction techniques followed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing. Regression of the primary tumor was evaluated using the surgically removed specimen. Results: Twenty-three lesions (45%) were found to have a high degree of regression. None of the molecular changes were useful as indicators of regression. Conclusions: Recognized molecular changes critical for rectal carcinogenesis including APC and DCC loss of heterozygosity, K-ras mutations, and microsatellite instability are not useful as indicators of tumor regression following chemoradiation for rectal carcinoma.

  4. The Role of Robotic Surgery for Rectal Cancer: Overcoming Technical Challenges in Laparoscopic Surgery by Advanced Techniques.

    PubMed

    Park, Seungwan; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2015-07-01

    The conventional laparoscopic approach to rectal surgery has several limitations, and therefore many colorectal surgeons have great expectations for the robotic surgical system as an alternative modality in overcoming challenges of laparoscopic surgery and thus enhancing oncologic and functional outcomes. This review explores the possibility of robotic surgery as an alternative approach in laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer. The da Vinci® Surgical System was developed specifically to compensate for the technical limitations of laparoscopic instruments in rectal surgery. The robotic rectal surgery is associated with comparable or better oncologic and pathologic outcomes, as well as low morbidity and mortality. The robotic surgery is generally easier to learn than laparoscopic surgery, improving the probability of autonomic nerve preservation and genitourinary function recovery. Furthermore, in very complex procedures such as intersphincteric dissections and transabdominal transections of the levator muscle, the robotic approach is associated with increased performance and safety compared to laparoscopic surgery. The robotic surgery for rectal cancer is an advanced technique that may resolve the issues associated with laparoscopic surgery. However, high cost of robotic surgery must be addressed before it can become the new standard treatment. PMID:26130943

  5. A Unique Case of a Patient with Rectal Cancer Who Developed Benign Esophageal Stenosis after Localized Rectal Radiation and Systemic Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Elie; Cheesman, Antonio; Hammami, Muhammad; Taylor, Jason R.; Poddar, Nishant; Garrett, Robert W.; Alkaade, Samer

    2015-01-01

    Acute esophagitis and esophageal strictures typically occur after local radiation therapy to the thoracic field. Toxicity is usually limited to the field of radiation and potentially augmented by concomitant use of chemotherapy, however esophageal stricturing due to chemotherapy alone is exceedingly rare. Gastrointestinal toxicity has been previously reported in the setting of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy with abnormal thymidylate synthase or dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activities. We present a unique case of isolated chemotherapy-induced esophageal stricture in the setting of stage IIIa rectal adenocarcinoma which presented shortly after initiation of treatment with 5-FU-based chemotherapy in a patient with normal thymidylate synthase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase assays. These findings prompt further investigation of pathways and potential risk factors leading to esophageal toxicity in patients treated with 5-FU-based chemotherapy. PMID:25802497

  6. Board of Trustees Administrative

    E-print Network

    Assistant Director of Fiscal Operations Director of Institutional Assessment and Research Academic Projects Director of Development Systems Director of Research Administrative Assistant Data Coordinator DevBoard of Trustees President Administrative Assistant Special Assistant to the President

  7. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Highlights Press Releases Statement by Secretary Jeh C. Johnson on the Confirmation of Peter Neffenger to be TSA Administrator Statement by Secretary Jeh C. Johnson on the Transportation Security Administration Statement By Secretary ...

  8. Principles of administration revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Donaldson; Irene Fafaliou

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – To explore the assumptions underlying the traditional “principles of administration” in the light of the rise of interest in corporate social responsibility, business ethics and corporate governance and to link revised principles to practical stakeholder models, using, for example, modern communications media. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using concepts of “fit” between traditional administrative principles and common problems of business administration,

  9. Administrative morality in Colombia

    E-print Network

    Paez Murcia, Angela Maria

    2013-05-31

    ADMINISTRATIVE MORALITY IN COLOMBIA By Copyright 2013 Angela María Páez Murcia Submitted to the graduate degree program in Public Affairs and Administration and the Graduate... administration by allowing ordinary people to file a lawsuit to challenge governmental corruption. This constitutional reform fostered high hopes of law-­?inspired social change. The...

  10. Invasive amebiasis and ameboma formation presenting as a rectal mass: An uncommon case of malignant masquerade at a western medical center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemarie E Hardin; George S Ferzli; Michael E Zenilman; Pratap K Gadangi; Wilbur B Bowne

    A 54-year-old man presented with rectal pain and bleeding secondary to ulcerated, necrotic rectal and cecal masses that resembled colorectal carcinoma upon colonoscopy. These masses were later determined to be benign amebomas caused by invasive Entamoeba histolytica , which regressed completely with medical therapy. In Western countries, the occurrence of invasive protozoan infection with formation of amebomas is very rare

  11. Fractures of the Sacrum After Chemoradiation for Rectal Carcinoma: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Radiographic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Jo [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)] [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Boland, Patrick J. [Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Meredith, Dennis S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York, New York (United States)] [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York, New York (United States); Lis, Eric [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zhang Zhigang; Shi Weiji [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn A., E-mail: goodmank@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Sacral insufficiency fractures after adjuvant radiation for rectal carcinoma can present similarly to recurrent disease. As a complication associated with pelvic radiation, it is important to be aware of the incidence and risk factors associated with sacral fractures in the clinical assessment of these patients. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2007, a total of 582 patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma received adjuvant chemoradiation and surgical excision. Of these, 492 patients had imaging studies available for review. Hospital records and imaging studies from all 492 patients were retrospectively evaluated to identify risk factors associated with developing a sacral insufficiency fracture. Results: With a median follow-up time of 3.5 years, the incidence of sacral fractures was 7.1% (35/492). The 4-year sacral fracture free rate was 0.91. Univariate analysis showed that increasing age ({>=}60 vs. <60 years), female sex, and history of osteoporosis were significantly associated with shorter time to sacral fracture (P=.01, P=.004, P=.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the time to sacral fracture for patients based on stage, radiotherapy dose, or chemotherapy regimen. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age ({>=}60 vs. <60 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-5.13, P=.01), female sex (HR = 2.64, CI = 1.29-5.38, P=.008), and history of osteoporosis (HR = 3.23, CI = 1.23-8.50, P=.02) were independent risk factors associated with sacral fracture. Conclusions: Sacral insufficiency fractures after pelvic radiation for rectal carcinoma occur more commonly than previously described. Independent risk factors associated with fracture were osteoporosis, female sex, and age greater than 60 years.

  12. The role of postoperative pelvic radiation in stage IV rectal cancer after resection of primary tumor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo Hwan; Jo, In Young; Lee, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Sei Chul; Kim, Yeon-Sil; Choi, Byung Ock; Kim, Jun-Gi; Oh, Seong Taek; Lee, Myeong A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of pelvic radiotherapy (RT) in patients with stage IV rectal cancer treated with resection of primary tumor with or without metastasectomy. Materials and Methods Medical records of 112 patients with stage IV rectal cancer treated with resection of primary tumor between 1990 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-nine patients received synchronous or staged metastasectomy whereas fifty-three patients did not. Twenty-six patients received pelvic radiotherapy. Results Median overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and progression-free survival (PFS) of all patients was 27, 70, and 11 months, respectively. Pathologic T (pT), N (pN) classification and complete metastasectomy were statistically significant factors in OS (p = 0.040, 0.020, and 0.002, respectively). RT did not improve OS or LRFS. There were no significant factors in LRFS. pT and pN classification were also significant prognostic factors in PFS (p = 0.010 and p = 0.033, respectively). In the subgroup analysis, RT improved LRFS in patients with pT4 disease (p = 0.026). The locoregional failure rate of the RT group and the non-RT group were 23.1% and 33.7%, showing no difference in the failure pattern of both groups (p = 0.260). Conclusion Postoperative pelvic RT did not improve LRFS of all metastatic rectal cancer patients; however, it can be recommended to patients with pT4 disease. A complete resection of metastatic masses should be performed if possible. PMID:23346540

  13. Prognostic role of sensitive-to-apoptosis gene expression in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ozden, Sevgi A; Ozyurt, Hazan; Ozgen, Zerrin; Kilinc, Olca; Oncel, Mustafa; Gul, Aylin E; Karadayi, Nimet; Serakinci, Nedime; Kan, Beki; Orun, Oya

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between prognosis of rectal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and expression of sensitive-to-apoptosis (SAG), B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-XL) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak). METHODS: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of proteins of interest, namely SAG, Bcl-XL, Bak and ?-actin, in rectal carcinoma patients who had a follow-up period of 3 years after CRT. Biopsy specimens were excised from the rectal tumor preceding CRT. RESULTS: SAG, Bcl-XL and Bak proteins showed significant correlations with each other. In multivariate analysis, patients with high vs low SAG expression showed a statistically significant difference in 2-year survival rates: 56% vs 73%, respectively (P = 0.056). On the other hand, there were no significant correlations between the expression levels of all three genes and metastatic rates or tumor responses to CRT. Mean overall survival in the patients with elevated SAG expression was 27.1 mo ± 3.9 mo [95% confidence interval (CI): 19.3-34.9], and in patients with reduced expression, it was 32.1 mo ± 2.5 mo (95% CI: 27.3-36.9). The corresponding values for Bcl-XL were 28.0 mo ± 4.1 mo (95% CI: 19.9-36.1) and 31.7 mo ± 2.9 mo (95% CI: 26.0-37.5), and those for Bak were 29.8 mo ± 3.7 mo (95% CI: 22.5-37.2) and 30.6 mo ± 2.4 mo (95% CI: 25.5-35.0), respectively. CONCLUSION: Two-year survival rates significantly correlated with low SAG expression, and SAG may be a candidate gene for good prognosis, independent of therapeutic response of different individuals. PMID:22171132

  14. Interleukin-24 is correlated with differentiation and lymph node numbers in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youngmin; Roh, Mee-Sook; Hong, Young-Seoub; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Hur, Won-Joo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the significance of interleukin (IL)-24 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in lymph-node-positive rectal cancer. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2005, 90 rectal adenocarcinoma patients with lymph node involvement were enrolled. All patients received radical surgery and postoperative pelvic chemoradiotherapy of 50.4-54.0 Gy. Chemotherapy of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin or levamisole was given intravenously during the first and last week of radiotherapy, and then monthly for about 6 mo. Expression of IL-24 and VEGF was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of surgical specimens, and their relations with patient characteristics and survival were analyzed. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 73 mo (range: 52-122 mo). RESULTS: IL-24 expression was found in 81 out of 90 patients; 31 showed weak intensity and 50 showed strong intensity. VEGF expression was found in 64 out of 90 patients. Negative and weak intensities of IL-24 expression were classified as negative expression for analysis. IL-24 expression was significantly reduced in poorly differentiated tumors in comparison with well or moderately differentiated tumors (P = 0.004), N2b to earlier N stages (P = 0.016), and stage IIIc to stage IIIa or IIIb (P = 0.028). The number of involved lymph nodes was also significantly reduced in IL-24-positive patients in comparison with IL-24-negative ones.There was no correlation between VEGF expression and patient characteristics. Expression of IL-24 and VEGF was not correlated with survival, but N stage and stages were significantly correlated with survival. CONCLUSION: IL-24 expression was significantly correlated with histological differentiation, and inversely correlated with the degree of lymph node involvement in stage III rectal cancer. PMID:21448421

  15. Robotic Low Ligation of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery for Rectal Cancer Using the Firefly Technique

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung Uk; Min, Byung Soh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose By integrating intraoperative near infrared fluorescence imaging into a robotic system, surgeons can identify the vascular anatomy in real-time with the technical advantages of robotics that is useful for meticulous lymphovascular dissection. Herein, we report our initial experience of robotic low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) with real-time identification of the vascular system for rectal cancer using the Firefly technique. Materials and Methods The study group included 11 patients who underwent a robotic total mesorectal excision with preservation of the left colic artery for rectal cancer using the Firefly technique between July 2013 and December 2013. Results The procedures included five low anterior resections and six ultra-low anterior resections with loop ileostomy. The median total operation time was 327 min (226-490). The low ligation time was 10 min (6-20), and the time interval between indocyanine green injection and division of the sigmoid artery was 5 min (2-8). The estimated blood loss was 200 mL (100-500). The median time to soft diet was 4 days (4-5), and the median length of stay was 7 days (5-9). Three patients developed postoperative complications; one patients developed anal stricture, one developed ileus, and one developed non-complicated intraabdominal fluid collection. The median total number of lymph nodes harvested was 17 (9-29). Conclusion Robotic low ligation of the IMA with real-time identification of the vascular system for rectal cancer using the Firefly technique is safe and feasible. This technique can allow for precise lymph node dissection along the IMA and facilitate the identification of the left colic branch of the IMA. PMID:26069127

  16. Quality of life in rectal cancer patients after radical surgery: a survey of Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the impact of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in disease-free survivors after radical surgery for rectal cancer in a Chinese mainland population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey from August 2002 to February 2011 by use of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 questionnaires of 438 patients who underwent curative surgery for rectal cancer. Patients who were followed up for a minimum of 6 months, had no relevant major comorbidities and whose disease had not recurred were asked to complete both questionnaires. The impact of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on HRQoL were compared by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results In total, 285 patients responded to the survey (response rate, 65.1%). Psychological-related HRQoL variables such as emotional function (P?=?0.021) and future perspectives (P?=?0.044) were poorer for younger patients than for older patients; and physiological-related HRQoL was reflected by physical function (P?=?0.039), which was poorer for older patients than for younger patients. In terms of physiologic function and symptoms concerning HRQoL, such as pain (P?=?0.002) and insomnia (P?=?0.018), females had lower values than males. Low education and unemployment were associated with a worse HRQoL. HRQoL was worse for patients with stomas compared to those without, especially in psychosocial areas such as role function (P?=?0.025), social function (P <0.001) and body image (P?=?0.004). Financial HRQoL was worse for younger patients and patients with stoma. Conclusions HRQoL aspects and degrees to which they were impaired after curative surgery for rectal cancer were different when compared by many sociodemographic and clinical factors in Chinese mainland patients. PMID:24886668

  17. Dosimetric evaluation of Tomotherapy and four-box field conformal radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mina; Jang, Hong Seok; Jeon, Dong Min; Cheon, Geum Seong; Lee, Hyo Chun; Chung, Mi Joo; Kim, Sung Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report the results of dosimetric comparison between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using Tomotherapy and four-box field conformal radiotherapy (CRT) for pelvic irradiation of locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and Methods Twelve patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received a short course preoperative chemoradiotherapy (25 Gy in 5 fractions) on the pelvis using Tomotherapy, between July 2010 and December 2010, were selected. Using their simulation computed tomography scans, Tomotherapy and four-box field CRT plans with the same dose schedule were evaluated, and dosimetric parameters of the two plans were compared. For the comparison of target coverage, we analyzed the mean dose, Vn Gy, Dmin, Dmax, radical dose homogeneity index (rDHI), and radiation conformity index (RCI). For the comparison of organs at risk (OAR), we analyzed the mean dose. Results Tomotherapy showed a significantly higher mean target dose than four-box field CRT (p = 0.001). But, V26.25 Gy and V27.5 Gywere not significantly different between the two modalities. Tomotherapy showed higher Dmax and lower Dmin. The Tomotherapy plan had a lower rDHI than four-box field CRT (p = 0.000). Tomotherapy showed better RCI than four-box field CRT (p = 0.007). For OAR, the mean irradiated dose was significantly lower in Tomotherapy than four-box field CRT. Conclusion In locally advanced rectal cancer, Tomotherapy delivers a higher conformal radiation dose to the target and reduces the irradiated dose to OAR than four-box field CRT. PMID:24501715

  18. Role of KRAS mutation as predictor of pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Martellucci, Jacopo; Alemanno, Giovanni; Castiglione, Francesca; Bergamini, Carlo; Valeri, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Individual patient response to neoadjuvant treatment is variable and reproducible biomarkers of response are needed. The role of the V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) in rectal cancer remains equivocal. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of KRAS mutation on outcomes following neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for rectal cancer. A total of 76 stage II-III rectal cancer patients underwent preoperative CRT followed by surgery. In every patient tumor-related features and outcome results were considered for analysis and correlation with KRAS mutations. Forty-four patients (58 %) obtained a downstaging after CRT, and in 7 patients (9 %) a complete pathological response was found. Twenty-six (33 %) mutations of KRAS were found in 26 patients. Nineteen mutations (73 %) were located in codon 12, 6 in codon 13(23 %) and 1 in codon 61. T-level downsizing and tumor downstaging showed no significant association with KRAS mutation status, except for mutation of codon 13(G13D). No correlation between cancer-associated mortality following CRT and surgery and KRAS mutation was observed. No correlation between pelvic recurrence and KRAS mutation was observed. KRAS mutation also failed to correlate with disease-free survival. No patients with a pCR had a local or distant failure. There appears to be no significant difference in pCR, tumor down-staging, T-downsizing or effects on cancer-associated mortality, overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with KRAS mutations except for patients with KRAS codon 13 mutations that seem to be resistant to neoadjuvant CRT and less likely to achieve a pCR. PMID:25702261

  19. Prognostic value of tumor shrinkage versus fragmentation following radiochemotherapy and surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hav, Monirath; Libbrecht, Louis; Geboes, Karen; Ferdinande, Liesbeth; Boterberg, Tom; Ceelen, Wim; Pattyn, Piet; Cuvelier, Claude

    2015-05-01

    Most patients with rectal cancer receive neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT), causing a variable decrease in tumor mass. We evaluated the prognostic impact of pathologic parameters reflecting tumor response to RCT, either directly or indirectly. Seventy-six rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant RCT between 2006 and 2009 were included. We studied the association between disease-free survival (DFS) and the "classical" clinicopathologic features as well as tumor deposits, circumferential resection margin (CRM), Dworak regression grade, and tumor and nodal downstaging. Patients with tumor downstaging had a longer DFS (p?=?0.05), indicating a more favorable prognosis when regression was accompanied by a decrease in tumor infiltrative depth, referred to as tumor shrinkage. Moreover, tumor downstaging was significantly associated with larger CRM and nodal downstaging (p?=?0.02), suggesting that shrinkage of the primary tumor was associated with a decreased nodal tumor load. Higher Dworak grade did not correlate with tumor downstaging, nor with higher CRM or prolonged DFS. This implies that tumor mass decrease was sometimes due to fragmentation rather than shrinkage of the primary tumor. Lastly, the presence of tumor deposits was clearly associated with reduced DFS (p?=?0.01). Assessment of tumor shrinkage after RCT via tumor downstaging and CRM is a good way of predicting DFS in rectal cancer, and shrinkage of the primary tumor is associated with a decreased nodal tumor load. Assessing regression based on the amount of tumor in relation to stromal fibrosis does not accurately discern tumor fragmentation from tumor shrinkage, which is most likely the reason why Dworak grade had less prognostic relevance. PMID:25693669

  20. Comparison between preoperative and postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: an institutional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Won; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Jun-Gi; Oh, Seong Taek; Chung, Hyuk Jun; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Jeong, Song Mi; Yoon, Sei Chul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the treatment outcomes of preoperative versus postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) on locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and Methods Medical data of 114 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with CRT preoperatively (54 patients) or postoperatively (60 patients) from June 2003 to April 2011 was analyzed retrospectively. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) or a precursor of 5-FU-based concurrent CRT (median, 50.4 Gy) and total mesorectal excision were conducted for all patients. The median follow-up duration was 43 months (range, 16 to 118 months). The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary end points were overall survival (OS), locoregional control, toxicity, and sphincter preservation rate. Results The 5-year DFS rate was 72.1% and 48.6% for the preoperative and postoperative CRT group, respectively (p = 0.05, the univariate analysis; p = 0.10, the multivariate analysis). The 5-year OS rate was not significantly different between the groups (76.2% vs. 69.0%, p = 0.23). The 5-year locoregional control rate was 85.2% and 84.7% for the preoperative and postoperative CRT groups (p = 0.98). The sphincter preservation rate of low-lying tumor showed significant difference between both groups (58.1% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.02). Pathologic tumor and nodal down-classification occurred after the preoperative CRT (53.7% and 77.8%, both p < 0.001). Acute and chronic toxicities were not significantly different between both groups (p = 0.10 and p = 0.62, respectively). Conclusion The results confirm that preoperative CRT can be advantageous for improving down-classification rate and the sphincter preservation rate of low-lying tumor in rectal cancer. PMID:24137561

  1. Rectal eversion and double-stapled ileal pouch anal anastomosis in familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aygar, Muhittin; Yeti?ir, Fahri; Salman, Ebru; Y?ld?r?m, Murat Baki; Özdedeo?lu, Mesut; Durak, Do?ukan; Yalç?n, Abdussamet

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Surgery is the only treatment option for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Aim of surgery in FAP is to minimize colorectal cancer risk without need for permanent stoma. There are especially two operation options; Total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) and total proctocolectomy with ileo-pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). We report here a patient with FAP who had resection via rectal eversion just over the dentate line under direct visualization and ileoanal-J pouch anastomosis by double-stapler technique. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 40 yr. old female patient with FAP underwent surgery. Firstly, colon and the rectum mobilized completely, and then from the 10 cm. proximal to the ileo-caecal valve to the recto-sigmoid junction total colectomy was performed. Rectum was everted by a grasping forceps which was introduced through the anus and then resection was performed by a linear stapler just over the dentate line. A stapled J-shaped ileal reservoir construction followed by intraluminal stapler-facilitated ileoanal anastomosis. Follow up at six months anal sphincter function was found normal. DISCUSSION There is only surgical management option for FAP patients up to now. Total colectomy with IRA and restorative proctocolectomy with IPAA is surgical options for FAP patients that avoid the need for a permanent stoma. Anorectal eversion may be used in the surgical treatment of FAP, chronic ulcerative colitis and early stage distal rectal cancer patients. CONCLUSION J-pouch ileoanal anastomosis can safely be performed by rectal eversion and double stapler technique in FAP patients. PMID:25305601

  2. Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer in Patients With Prior Pelvic Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Prajnan, E-mail: PrajDas@mdanderson.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Delclos, Marc E.; Skibber, John M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Feig, Barry W.; Chang, George J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Eng, Cathy [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Bedi, Manpreet; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively determine rates of toxicity, freedom from local progression, and survival in rectal cancer patients treated with reirradiation. Methods and Materials: Between February 2001 and February 2005, 50 patients with a history of pelvic radiotherapy were treated with hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy for primary (n = 2 patients) or recurrent (n = 48 patients) rectal adenocarcinoma. Patients were treated with 150-cGy fractions twice daily, with a total dose of 39 Gy (n = 47 patients) if the retreatment interval was >=1 year or 30 Gy (n = 3) if the retreatment interval was <1 year. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered to 48 (96%) patients. Eighteen (36%) patients underwent surgical resection following radiotherapy. Results: Two patients had grade 3 acute toxicity and 13 patients had grade 3 to 4 late toxicity. The 3-year rate of grade 3 to 4 late toxicity was 35%. The 3-year rate of freedom from local progression was 33%. The 3-year freedom from local progression rate was 47% in patients undergoing surgery and 21% in those not undergoing surgery (p = 0.057). The 3-year overall survival rate was 39%. The 3-year overall survival rate was 66% in patients undergoing surgery and 27% in those not undergoing surgery (p = 0.003). The 3-year overall survival rate was 53% in patients with a retreatment interval of >2 years and 21% in those with a retreatment interval of <=2 years (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Hyperfractionated, accelerated reirradiation was well tolerated, with low rates of acute toxicity and moderate rates of late toxicity. Reirradiation may help improve pelvic control in rectal cancer patients with a history of pelvic radiotherapy.

  3. The Quality-of-Life Effects of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, Joseph M., E-mail: jherma15@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Narang, Amol K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Zalupski, Mark M. [Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Reese, Jennifer B. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Gearhart, Susan L. [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States) [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Azad, Nolifer S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chan, June; Olsen, Leah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Efron, Jonathan E. [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Existing studies that examine the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer on patient quality of life (QOL) are limited. Our goals were to prospectively explore acute changes in patient-reported QOL endpoints during and after treatment and to establish a distribution of scores that could be used for comparison as new treatment modalities emerge. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled at 2 institutions. Validated cancer-specific European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-CR30) and colorectal cancer-specific (EORTC QLQ-CR38 and EORTC QLQ-CR 29) QOL questionnaires were administered to patients 1 month before they began CRT, at week 4 of CRT, and 1 month after they had finished CRT. The questionnaires included multiple symptom scales, functional domains, and a composite global QOL score. Additionally, a toxicity scale was completed by providers 1 month before the beginning of CRT, weekly during treatment, and 1 month after the end of CRT. Results: Global QOL showed a statistically significant and borderline clinically significant decrease during CRT (-9.50, P=.0024) but returned to baseline 1 month after the end of treatment (-0.33, P=.9205). Symptoms during treatment were mostly gastrointestinal (nausea/vomiting +9.94, P<.0001; and diarrhea +16.67, P=.0022), urinary (dysuria +13.33, P<.0001; and frequency +11.82, P=.0006) or fatigue (+16.22, P<.0001). These symptoms returned to baseline after therapy. However, sexual enjoyment (P=.0236) and sexual function (P=.0047) remained persistently diminished after therapy. Conclusions: Rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant CRT may experience a reduction in global QOL along with significant gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms during treatment. Moreover, provider-rated toxicity scales may not fully capture this decrease in patient-reported QOL. Although most symptoms are transient, impairment in sexual function may persist after the completion of therapy and merits further investigation.

  4. Intrarectal ultrasonography in rectal cancer staging and in the evaluation of pelvic disease. Clinical uses of intrarectal ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Milsom, J W; Graffner, H

    1990-01-01

    Accurate preoperative staging of a rectal cancer patient may impact heavily on subsequent management. This study attempts to evaluate the accuracy of intrarectal ultrasonography (IRUS) in staging rectal cancers compared to clinical and pathologic examination. In addition the accuracy of IRUS was assessed in a group of patients with uncertain pelvic-perirectal disease after a negative physical examination. In a prospective manner, 52 cancer patients were staged with digital exam and IRUS. Accuracy rates were 48% and 83%, respectively, compared to pathologic evaluation in assessing wall penetration, and IRUS identified positive lymph nodes in 12 of 17 cases. In patients with pelvic disease, IRUS corresponded with pathologic diagnosis in 15 of 17 cases and revealed new information in 6 patients. Intrarectal ultrasonography appears to be the most accurate imaging technique for staging rectal cancers and demonstrates promise in the evaluation of perirectal-pelvic disease. Images Figs. 1A and B. Fig. 2. PMID:2241316

  5. Asynchronous teaching of psychomotor skills through VR annotations: evaluation in digital rectal examination.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Mikko J; Kume, Naoto; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Yoshimura, Koji; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Many VR technology based training systems use expert's motion data as the training aid, but would not provide any short-cut to teaching medical skills that do not depend on exact motions. Earlier we presented Annotated Simulation Records (ASRs), which can be used to encapsulate experts' insight on psychomotor skills. Annotations made to behavioural parameters in training simulators enable asynchronous teaching instead of just motion training in a proactive way to the learner. We evaluated ASRs for asynchronous teaching of Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) with 3 urologists and 8 medical students. The ASRs were found more effective than motion-based training with verbal feedback. PMID:18391332

  6. [A case of pathological complete response with neoadjuvant XELOX chemotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Tomohiro; Takemasa, Ichiro; Inoue, Akira; Osawa, Hideki; Miyo, Masaaki; Mokutani, Yukako; Ogawa, Hisataka; Naito, Atsushi; Hamabe, Atsushi; Hiraki, Masayuki; Munakata, Koji; Uemura, Mamoru; Nishimura, Junichi; Hata, Taishi; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2014-11-01

    A 70-year-old man presenting with melena was referred to our clinic. A clinical examination revealed a bulky tumor in the lower rectum. After ileostomy, 4 courses of capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) therapy were administered as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Computed tomography (CT) revealed significant reduction of the tumor. Laparoscopic super-low anterior resection with lateral lymph node dissection was performed. The pathological examination revealed no residual cancer cells, and a diagnosis of pathological complete response was made. The patient has been disease-free for 1 year after the operation. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with XELOX might be promising for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. PMID:25731255

  7. Feasibility study on the design of a probe for rectal cancer detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselm, V. J.; Frazer, R. E.; Lecroisset, D. H.; Roseboro, J. A.; Smokler, M. I.

    1977-01-01

    Rectal examination techniques are considered in terms of detection capability, patient acceptance, and cost reduction. A review of existing clinical techniques are considered in terms of detection capability, patient acceptance, and cost reduction. A review of existing clinical techniques and of relevant aerospace technology included evaluation of the applicability of visual, thermal, ultrasound, and radioisotope modalities of examination. The desired improvements can be obtained by redesigning the proctosigmoidoscope to have reduced size, additional visibility, and the capability of readily providing a color photograph of the entire rectosigmoid mucosa in a single composite view.

  8. Prostate cancer incorrectly diagnosed as a rectal tumor: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIU, ZHI-HUA; LI, CHAO; KANG, LIANG; ZHOU, ZHI-YANG; SITU, SHENG; WANG, JIAN-PING

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in the world. Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common male genitourinary tract malignancy, usually occurring after the age of 60. Prostate adenocarcinoma is a highly metastatic cancer. The common metastatic locations of prostate cancer are the bone, lung and liver. The elective locations are bones. Solitary rectal metastasis of prostate cancer is relatively rare. In the present study we report a case of solitary metastasis of a prostate adenocarcinoma with the prostatic capsule intact, which initially led to an incorrect diagnosis.

  9. Mesorectum localization as a special kind of rectal metastasis from breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Fan; Liu, Zhong-Lin; Zhang, Qing; Kong, Xiang-Nan; Liu, Wen-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer can metastasize to other organs following initial treatment. Bones, liver, and the lung are the most common sites of breast cancer metastases. The digestive tract, on the other hand, is rarely involved. The incidence of mesorectal metastasis (a special category of rectal metastases) from breast cancer has not been described before. The case reported herein concerns a 68-year-old woman who underwent mastectomy. A pelvic mass with no symptoms was subsequently identified by computed tomography in the patient. We ultimately confirmed that this mass was a metastasis from breast cancer located in the mesorectum using surgical exploration and pathology results. PMID:25892895

  10. Dosimetric Implications of an Injection of Hyaluronic Acid for Preserving the Rectal Wall in Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Udrescu, Corina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Tanguy, Ronan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Ruffion, Alain [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France); Sotton, Marie-Pierre [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Devonec, Marian [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Colombel, Marc [Department of Urology, Hopital Edouard Herriot, Lyon (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (France)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the contribution of ahyaluronic acid (HA) injection between the rectum and the prostate to reducing the dose to the rectal wall in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: As part of a phase 2 study of hypofractionated radiation therapy (62 Gy in 20 fractions), the patients received a transperineal injection of 10 cc HA between the rectum and the prostate. A dosimetric computed tomographic (CT) scan was systematically performed before (CT1) and after (CT2) the injection. Two 9-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy-SBRT plans were optimized for the first 10 patients on both CTs according to 2 dosage levels: 5 × 6.5 Gy (PlanA) and 5 × 8.5 Gy (PlanB). Rectal wall parameters were compared with a dose–volume histogram, and the prostate–rectum separation was measured at 7 levels of the prostate on the center line of the organ. Results: For both plans, the average volume of the rectal wall receiving the 90% isodose line (V90%) was reduced up to 90% after injection. There was no significant difference (P=.32) between doses received by the rectal wall on CT1 and CT2 at the base of the prostate. This variation became significant from the median plane to the apex of the prostate (P=.002). No significant differences were found between PlanA without HA and PlanB with HA for each level of the prostate (P=.77, at the isocenter of the prostate). Conclusions: HA injection significantly reduced the dose to the rectal wall and allowed a dose escalation from 6.5 Gy to 8.5 Gy without increasing the dose to the rectum. A phase 2 study is under way in our department to assess the rate of acute and late rectal toxicities when SBRT (5 × 8.5 Gy) is combined with an injection of HA.

  11. Synergistic effects of AKAP95, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, and Cx43 in the development of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Fengjie; Yuan, Yangyang; Zhi, Xuehong; Huang, Qian; Chen, Yuexin; Zhuang, Wenxin; Zhang, Dengcheng; Teng, Bogang; Kong, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yongxing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression of A-kinase anchor protein 95 (AKAP95), Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, and Connexin43 (Cx43) in rectal cancer tissues and assess the associations between each of the proteins and pathological parameters, as well as their inter-relationships. Methods: AKAP95, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1, and Cx43 protein expression rates were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 50 rectal cancer specimens and 16 pericarcinoma tissues. Results: The positive rates of AKAP95, Cyclin E1, and Cyclin D1 proteins were 54.00 vs. 18.75%, 62.00 vs. 6.25%, and 72.00 vs. 31.25% in rectal cancer specimens and pericarcinoma tissues, respectively, representing statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). The positive rate of Cx43 protein expression in rectal cancer tissues was 44.00% and 62.50% in pericarcinoma tissues, and the difference between them was not significant (P > 0.05). No significant associations were found between protein expression of AKAP95, Cyclin E1, Cyclin D1, and Cx43, and the degree of differentiation, histological type, and lymph node metastasis of rectal cancer (P > 0.05). However, significant correlations were obtained between the expression rates of AKAP95 and Cyclin E1, Cyclin E1 and Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1 and Cx43 protein, and Cyclin D1 and Cx43, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: AKAP95, Cyclin E1, and Cyclin D1 protein expression rates were significantly higher in rectal cancer tissues compared with pericarcinoma samples, suggesting an association between these proteins and the development and progression of rectal cancer. In addition, the significant correlations between the proteins (AKAP95 and Cyclin E1, Cyclin E1 and Cyclin D1, Cyclin E1 and Cx43 protein, and Cyclin D1 and Cx43) indicate the possible synergistic effects of these factors in the development and progression of rectal cancer. PMID:25973052

  12. Phased surgical treatment of barium enema-induced rectal injury and retention of barium in the pelvic floor space

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuefei; Xia, Ligang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic injuries caused by barium enema are rarely reported. Following a phased surgical protocol for up to one year, we have successfully treated a patient with rectal injury and severe infection of the pelvic floor space complicated with retention of large amounts of barium and vaginal fistula. In this article, the phased surgery planning for the treatment of rectal injury complicated with vaginal fistula is discussed in terms of the pros and cons, and the observed effect and evolution of barium retained in the pelvic floor space are described. PMID:25405155

  13. SU-E-T-281: Reduction of Treatment Times in CyberKnife Prostate SBRT Using a Water Filled Rectal Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, P; Caroprese, B; McKellar, H [East Texas Medical Center, Tyler, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To illustrate 25% reduction in CyberKnife prostate SBRT treatment times using a water filled rectal balloon. Methods: We perform prostate SBRT using a 3800cGy in 4 fraction regimen prescribed between 51% 59% iso-dose lines to 95% of PTV using a CyberKnife System. The resultant heterogeneous dosimetry is analogous to HDR dosimetry. Our patients are treated in a feet first supine position to decrease treatment couch sag and also to position the prostate anatomy closer to the robot. CT imaging is performed with a Radiadyne Immobiloc rectal balloon filled with 45-50cc water placed firmly inside the patient's rectum. A treatment plan is developed from this CT study using Multiplan. The patient is treated every other day for 4 days using the rectal balloon for each fraction. Gold fiducials previously implanted inside the prostate are used for tracking by the CyberKnife system. Results: Critical structures comprise the usual GU anatomy of bladder, rectum, urethra, femoral-heads along with emphasis on doses to anterior rectal wall and rectal mucosa. The water filled rectal balloon localizes the rectum, which enables the physician to accurately contour both anterior rectal wall, and rectal mucosa. The balloon also has a gas release valve enabling better patient comfort. Rectum localization enables the CyberKnife system to make fewer corrections resulting in fewer treatment interruptions and time lost to re-adjustment for rectal motion, bowel filling and gas creation. Effective treatment times are reduced by 25% to approximately 45 minutes. Adoption of the balloon has required minimal change to our planning strategy and plan evaluation process. Conclusion: Patient follow-up comparisons show no difference in effectiveness of treatment with and without balloons We conclude that rectal balloons enhance patient comfort and decrease effective treatment times.

  14. [Involvement of splenic hemangioma and rectal varices in a patient with klippel: trenaunay syndrome].

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Jung; Jee, Sam Ryong; Park, Kwan Sik; Ryu, Choong Heon; Seo, Hyo Rim; Ha, Seoung In; Lee, Sang Heon; Ok, Kyung Sun

    2011-09-25

    Klippel - Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is characterized by a cutaneous vascular nevus of the involved extremity, bone and soft tissue hypertrophy of the extremity and venous malformations. We present a case of KTS with splenic hemangiomas and rectal varices. A 29-year-old woman was referred for intermittent hematochezia for several years. She had history with a number of operations for cutaneous and soft tissue hamangiomas since the age of one year old and for increased circumference of her left thigh during the last few months. Abdominal CT revealed multiple hemangiomas in the spleen, fusiform aneurysmal dilatation of the deep veins and soft tissue hemangiomas. There was no evidence of hepatosplenomegaly or liver cirrhosis. Colonoscopy revealed hemangiomatous involvement in the rectum. There were rectal varices without evidence of active bleeding. Upon venography of the left leg, we also found infiltrative dilated superficial veins in the subcutaneous tissue and aneurysmal dilatation of the deep veins. The patient was finally diagnosed with KTS, and treated with oral iron supplementation only, which has been tolerable to date. Intervention or surgery is not required. When gastrointestinal varices or hemangiomatous mucosal changes are detected in a young patient without definite underlying cause, KTS should be considered. PMID:21960105

  15. Tumor Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Signaling and Development of Metastatic Disease in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ree, Anne Hansen; Kristensen, Annette Torgunrud; Saelen, Marie Grøn; de Wijn, Rik; Edvardsen, Hege; Jovanovic, Jovana; Abrahamsen, Torveig Weum; Dueland, Svein; Flatmark, Kjersti

    2012-01-01

    Background Recognizing EGFR as key orchestrator of the metastatic process in colorectal cancer, but also the substantial heterogeneity of responses to anti-EGFR therapy, we examined the pattern of composite tumor kinase activities governed by EGFR-mediated signaling that might be implicated in development of metastatic disease. Patients and Methods Point mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA and ERBB2 amplification were determined in primary tumors from 63 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer scheduled for radical treatment. Using peptide arrays with tyrosine kinase substrates, ex vivo phosphopeptide profiles were generated from the same baseline tumor samples and correlated to metastasis-free survival. Results Unsupervised clustering analysis of the resulting phosphorylation of 102 array substrates defined two tumor classes, both consisting of cases with and without KRAS/BRAF mutations. The smaller cluster group of patients, with tumors generating high ex vivo phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-related substrates, had a particularly aggressive disease course, with almost a half of patients developing metastatic disease within one year of follow-up. Conclusion High phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-mediated signaling activity of the primary tumor, rather than KRAS/BRAF mutation status, was identified as a hallmark of poor metastasis-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing radical treatment of the pelvic cavity. PMID:23226389

  16. Predicting complete response: is there a role for non-operative management of rectal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, T. Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Pre-operative chemoradiotherapy followed by a total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard of care for patients with locally advanced (stage II or III) rectal cancer. Approximately 20% of patients may achieve a pathologic complete response after chemoradiation therapy (CRT), which has been shown to be associated with better oncologic outcomes. Whether surgery can be avoided in this population is an area of active investigation. Recent studies demonstrated feasibility and safety of non-operative management in patients with clinical complete response (cCR) after chemoradiotherapy. In this article, we set out to review the current data on non-operative management and to identify areas requiring further investigation, including improvement in imaging for reassessment after CRT and identifying the optimal time frame for restaging. As the field moves forward with non-operative management in select patients with rectal cancer, there continues to be a need to better understand the prognostic factors and biomarkers that may more accurately characterize patients who are qualified for this “wait-and-see” approach and thereby avoid overtreatment, potentially leading to improvements in long-term quality of life. PMID:25830042

  17. N-glycomic Profiling as a Tool to Separate Rectal Adenomas from Carcinomas*

    PubMed Central

    Kaprio, Tuomas; Satomaa, Tero; Heiskanen, Annamari; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Deelder, André M.; Mustonen, Harri; Hagström, Jaana; Carpen, Olli; Saarinen, Juhani; Haglund, Caj

    2015-01-01

    All human cells are covered by glycans, the carbohydrate units of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans. Most glycans are localized to cell surfaces and participate in events essential for cell viability and function. Glycosylation evolves during carcinogenesis, and therefore carcinoma-related glycan structures are potential cancer biomarkers. Colorectal cancer is one of the world's three most common cancers, and its incidence is rising. Novel biomarkers are essential to identify patients for targeted and individualized therapy. We compared the N-glycan profiles of five rectal adenomas and 18 rectal carcinomas of different stages by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Paraffin-embedded tumor samples were deparaffinized, and glycans were enzymatically released and purified. We found differences in glycosylation between adenomas and carcinomas: monoantennary, sialylated, pauci-mannose, and small high-mannose N-glycan structures were more common in carcinomas than in adenomas. We also found differences between stage I–II and stage III carcinomas. Based on these findings, we selected two glycan structures: pauci-mannose and sialyl Lewis a, for immunohistochemical analysis of their tissue expression in 220 colorectal cancer patients. In colorectal cancer, poor prognosis correlated with elevated expression of sialyl Lewis a, and in advanced colorectal cancer, poor prognosis correlated with elevated expression of pauci-mannose. In conclusion, by mass spectrometry we found several carcinoma related glycans, and we demonstrate a method of transforming these results into immunohistochemistry, a readily applicable method to study biomarker expression in patient samples. PMID:25452313

  18. [Beliefs of men from Cali, Colombia, about digital rectal examination: findings of an exploratory study].

    PubMed

    Lucumí-Cuesta, Diego Iván; Cabrera-Arana, Gustavo Alonso

    2005-01-01

    This study used the Health Beliefs Model to explore beliefs on digital rectal examination (DRE) to screen for prostrate cancer, prior to intent to submit to the examination, in men 45 to 64 years of age in Cali, Colombia. The 267 participants answered a questionnaire by means of prior selection through proportional sampling by quotas. A univariate and bivariate analysis showed that only 25.8% of the participants had submitted previously to digital rectal examination and that 68.1% intended to do so in the following 12 months. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between a history of DRE and schooling, socioeconomic status, health system coverage, perception of susceptibility to the disease, and perception of barriers and benefits. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between intent to submit to DRE and health system coverage, perception of severity of the disease, and perception of barriers. Given the low level of history of DRE and intent to submit to the examination, the results could help improve strategies to increase this practice at the local level. PMID:16158155

  19. Microwave prostatic hyperthermia: Interest of urethral and rectal applicators combination -- Theoretical study and animal experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Despretz, D.; Camart, J.C.; Michel, C.; Fabre, J.J. [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve D`Ascq (France)] [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve D`Ascq (France); Prevost, B. [Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France)] [Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille (France); Sozanski, J.P. [INSERM, Lille (France)] [INSERM, Lille (France); Chive, M. [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve D`Ascq (France)] [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve D`Ascq (France); [INSERM, Lille (France)

    1996-10-01

    Microwave thermotherapy systems used for benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment generally operate with urethral or rectal applicator to deliver the microwave energy in the prostate. This technique does not allow an efficient heating of all the gland particularly in the case of large adenoma or when the treatment is limited to only one heating session. A solution to this problem is given by using simultaneously the rectal and urethral applicators. A complete 915-MHz microwave thermotherapy system is presented with two applicators which can operate independently or simultaneously to deliver the microwave energy in the prostate. Electromagnetic and thermal modeling have been developed for the applicator antenna optimization, to calculate the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the thermal pattern in the prostate for each applicator alone and when they operate together in phase. Different canine experiments have been performed to prove the interest of using the two applicators simultaneously as compared when they operate alone. Histological examination cuts of the prostate gland after heating have been carried out.

  20. Current status of robotic surgery for rectal cancer: A bird's eye view

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Ajit; Melich, George; Marecik, Slawomir J; Park, John J; Prasad, Leela M

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for rectal cancer is now widely performed via the laparoscopic approach and has been validated in randomized controlled trials to be oncologically safe with better perioperative outcomes than open surgery including shorter length of stay, earlier return of bowel function, better cosmesis, and less analgesic requirement. Laparoscopic surgery, however, has inherent limitations due to two-dimensional vision, restricted instrument motion and a very long learning curve. Robotic surgery with its superb three-dimensional magnified optics, stable retraction platform and 7 degrees of freedom of instrument movement offers significant benefits during Total Mesorectal Excision (TME) including ease of operation, markedly lower conversion rates and better quality of the specimen in addition to shorter (steeper) learning curves. This review summarizes the current evidence for the adoption of robotic TME for rectal cancer with supporting data from the literature and from the authors’ own experience. All relevant articles from PubMed using the search terms listed below and published between 2000 and 2014 including randomized trials, meta-analyses, prospective studies, and retrospective reviews with substantial numbers were included. PMID:25598596

  1. Management of Rectal Cancer: Short- vs. Long-Course Preoperative Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mohiuddin, Mohammed [Geisinger Cancer Institute, Wilkes Barre, PA (United States)], E-mail: mmohiuddin1@geisinger.edu; Marks, John; Marks, Gerald [Main Line Health System, Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, PA (United States)

    2008-11-01

    There is considerable debate on the optimum approach to neoadjuvant therapy in rectal cancer. This review of major published studies of short-course preoperative radiation and the more conventional approach of long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation was undertaken in an effort to understand the potential advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches. Studies were evaluated with regard to patient selection, clinical outcomes, and toxicities. Short-course preoperative radiation has shown a clear advantage over surgery alone in reducing local recurrence rates and improving survival of patients with rectal cancer. However, studies using short-course preoperative treatment have included a significant number of early (30%; Stage I/II) and more proximal cancers yet appear to have higher positive margin rates, higher abdominoperineal resection rates, and lower aggregate survival than patients treated with long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Although long-course preoperative chemoradiation is associated with higher rates of reversible acute toxicity, there appears to be more significant and a higher rate of late gastrointestinal toxicity observed in short-course preoperative radiation studies. Patient convenience and lower cost of treatment, however, can be a significant advantage in using a short-course treatment schedule. Selective utilization of either of these approaches should be based on extent of disease and goals of treatment. Patients with distal cancers or more advanced disease (T3/T4) appear to have better outcomes with neoadjuvant chemoradiation, especially where downstaging of disease is critical for more complete surgical resection and sphincter preservation.

  2. How hot is too hot? Live-trapped gray wolf rectal temperatures and 1-year survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    The ability of physically restrained and anesthetized wolves to thermoregulate is lessened and could lead to reduced survival, yet no information is available about this subject. Therefore, we analyzed rectal temperatures related to survival 1 year post-capture from 173 adult (non-pup) gray wolves (Canis lupus) captured in modified foot-hold traps for radiocollaring during June–August, 1988–2011, in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota, USA. The maximum observed rectal temperature (“maxtemp,” ° F, ° C) in each wolf during capture (x?=?104.0, 40.0; SD?=?2.0, 1.1; min.?=?95.9, 35.5; max.?=?108, 42.2) was not a significant predictor of survival to 1 year post-capture. Although no weather or morphometric variable was a significant predictor of maxtemps, wolves initially anesthetized with ketamine–xylazine rather than telazol®–xylazine averaged higher maxtemps. This information does not fully address possible effects of high body temperatures related to live-capture and handling of wolves, but it does provide a useful waypoint for future assessments of this relationship and a reassurance to wildlife practitioners that the maxtemps observed in our study did not appear to affect 1-year survival.

  3. Preoperative chemoradiation of locally advanced T3 rectal cancer combined with an endorectal boost

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsen, Anders [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, University of Southern Denmark, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)]. E-mail: andjac@vgs.vejleamt.dk; Mortensen, John P. [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, University of Southern Denmark, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Bisgaard, Claus [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, University of Southern Denmark, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Lindebjerg, Jan [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, University of Southern Denmark, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Hansen, Johnny W. [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, University of Southern Denmark, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); Rafaelsen, Soren R. [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, University of Southern Denmark, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect and feasibility of concurrent radiation and chemotherapy combined with endorectal brachytherapy in T3 rectal cancer with complete pathologic remission as end point. Methods and Materials: The study included 50 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. All patients had T3 tumor with a circumferential margin 0-5 mm on a magnetic resonance imaging scan. The radiotherapy was delivered by a technique including two planning target volumes. Clinical target volume 1 (CTV1) received 60 Gy/30 fractions, and CTV2 received 48.6 Gy/27 fractions. The tumor dose was raised to 65 Gy with endorectal brachytherapy 5 Gy/1 fraction to the tumor bed. On treatment days, the patients received uracil and tegafur 300 mg/m2 concurrently with radiotherapy. Results: Forty-eight patients underwent operation. Histopathologic tumor regression was assessed by the Tumor Regression Grade (TRG) system. TRG1 was recorded in 27% of the patients, and a further 27% were classified as TRG2. TRG3 was found in 40%, and 6% had TRG4. The toxicity was low. Conclusion: The results indicate that high-dose radiation with concurrent chemotherapy and endorectal brachytherapy is feasible with a high rate of complete response, but further trials are needed to define its possible role as treatment option.

  4. STED super-resolution microscopy of clinical paraffin-embedded human rectal cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Ilgen, Peter; Stoldt, Stefan; Conradi, Lena-Christin; Wurm, Christian Andreas; Rüschoff, Josef; Ghadimi, B Michael; Liersch, Torsten; Jakobs, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded human tissue resected during cancer surgery is indispensable for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and represents a vast and largely unexploited resource for research. Optical microscopy of such specimen is curtailed by the diffraction-limited resolution of conventional optical microscopy. To overcome this limitation, we used STED super-resolution microscopy enabling optical resolution well below the diffraction barrier. We visualized nanoscale protein distributions in sections of well-annotated paraffin-embedded human rectal cancer tissue stored in a clinical repository. Using antisera against several mitochondrial proteins, STED microscopy revealed distinct sub-mitochondrial protein distributions, suggesting a high level of structural preservation. Analysis of human tissues stored for up to 17 years demonstrated that these samples were still amenable for super-resolution microscopy. STED microscopy of sections of HER2 positive rectal adenocarcinoma revealed details in the surface and intracellular HER2 distribution that were blurred in the corresponding conventional images, demonstrating the potential of super-resolution microscopy to explore the thus far largely untapped nanoscale regime in tissues stored in biorepositories. PMID:25025184

  5. STED Super-Resolution Microscopy of Clinical Paraffin-Embedded Human Rectal Cancer Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, Christian Andreas; Rüschoff, Josef; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Liersch, Torsten; Jakobs, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded human tissue resected during cancer surgery is indispensable for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and represents a vast and largely unexploited resource for research. Optical microscopy of such specimen is curtailed by the diffraction-limited resolution of conventional optical microscopy. To overcome this limitation, we used STED super-resolution microscopy enabling optical resolution well below the diffraction barrier. We visualized nanoscale protein distributions in sections of well-annotated paraffin-embedded human rectal cancer tissue stored in a clinical repository. Using antisera against several mitochondrial proteins, STED microscopy revealed distinct sub-mitochondrial protein distributions, suggesting a high level of structural preservation. Analysis of human tissues stored for up to 17 years demonstrated that these samples were still amenable for super-resolution microscopy. STED microscopy of sections of HER2 positive rectal adenocarcinoma revealed details in the surface and intracellular HER2 distribution that were blurred in the corresponding conventional images, demonstrating the potential of super-resolution microscopy to explore the thus far largely untapped nanoscale regime in tissues stored in biorepositories. PMID:25025184

  6. Probiotics for Rectal Volume Variation During Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ki, Yongkan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wontaek, E-mail: rokwt@hanmail.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Jiho; Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Juhye; Park, Dahl; Jeon, Hosang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Honggu; Kim, Taenam [Department of Urology, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus on the percentage volume change of the rectum (PVC{sub R}), a crucial factor of prostate movement. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer patients managed with tomotherapy as a radical treatment were enrolled in the study to take a probiotic capsule containing 1.0 × 10{sup 8} colony-forming units of L acidophilus or a placebo capsule twice daily. Radiation therapy was performed at a dose of 78 Gy in 39 fractions. The PVC{sub R}, defined as the difference in rectal volume between the planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily megavoltage CT images, was analyzed. Results: Forty patients were randomized into 2 groups. The L acidophilus group showed significantly lower median rectal volume and median PVC{sub R} values than the placebo group. L acidophilus showed a significant reduction effect on the PVC{sub R} (P<.001). However, the radiation therapy fraction number did not significantly influence the PVC{sub R}. Conclusions: L acidophilus was useful in reducing the PVC{sub R}, which is the most important determining factor of prostate position, during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  7. Is rectal indomethacin effective in preventing of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Döbrönte, Zoltán; Szepes, Zoltán; Izbéki, Ferenc; Gervain, Judit; Lakatos, László; Pécsi, Gyula; Ihász, Miklós; Lakner, Lilla; Toldy, Erzsébet; Czakó, László

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of rectally administered indomethacin in the prophylaxis of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis and hyperamylasaemia in a multicentre study. METHODS: A prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled multicentre study in five endoscopic units was conducted on 686 patients randomised to receive a suppository containing 100 mg indomethacin, or an inert placebo, 10-15 min before ERCP. Post-ERCP pancreatitis and hyperamylasaemia were evaluated 24 h following the procedure on the basis of clinical signs and laboratory parameters, and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging findings if required. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were excluded because of incompleteness of their data or because of protocol violation. The results of 665 investigations were evaluated: 347 in the indomethacin group and 318 in the placebo group. The distributions of the risk factors in the two groups did not differ significantly. Pancreatitis developed in 42 patients (6.3%): it was mild in 34 (5.1%) and severe in eight (1.2%) cases. Hyperamylaesemia occurred in 160 patients (24.1%). There was no significant difference between the indomethacin and placebo groups in the incidence of either post-ERCP pancreatitis (5.8% vs 6.9%) or hyperamylasaemia (23.3% vs 24.8%). Similarly, subgroup analysis did not reveal any significant differences between the two groups. CONCLUSION: 100 mg rectal indomethacin administered before ERCP did not prove effective in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis. PMID:25110443

  8. Upregulated Polo-Like Kinase 1 Expression Correlates with Inferior Survival Outcomes in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dissanayake, I. U.; Descallar, J.; Chua, W.; Ng, W.; de Souza, P.; Shin, J-S.; Lee, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) expression has been associated with inferior outcomes in colorectal cancer. Our aims were to analyse PLK1 in rectal cancer, and its association with clinicopathological variables, overall survival as well as tumour regression to neoadjuvant treatment. Methods PLK1 expression was quantified with immunohistochemistry in the centre and periphery (invasive front) of rectal cancers, as well as in the involved regional lymph nodes from 286 patients. Scores were based on staining intensity and percentage of positive cells, multiplied to give weighted scores from 1–12, dichotomised into low (0–5) or high (6–12). Results PLK1 scores in the tumour periphery were significantly different to adjacent normal mucosa. Survival analysis revealed that low PLK1 score in the tumour periphery had a hazard ratio of death of 0.59 in multivariate analysis. Other predictors of survival included age, tumour depth, metastatic status, vascular and perineural invasion and adjuvant chemotherapy. There was no statistically significant correlation between PLK1 score and histological tumour regression in the neoadjuvant cohort. Conclusion Low PLK1 score was an independent predictor of superior overall survival, adjusting for multiple clinicopathological variables including treatment. PMID:26047016

  9. [A case of resection of pancreatic head lymph node metastasis of rectal carcinoid].

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Hiroyoshi; Uemura, Yoshio; Aoki, Taro; Tsujimura, Naoto; Nakao, Eiichiro; Otsuru, Toru; Watanabe, Risa; Matsumoto, Takashi; Nishioka, Kiyonori; Takachi, Ko; Iijima, Shohei; Kobayashi, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    An 80-year-old woman was treated with low anterior resection and D3 lymph node dissection for rectal carcinoid in August 2007. Pathological diagnosis was a tumor 23 × 22 mm in size with muscularis propria invasion, ly1, v0, n1 (No. 251[1/12]). Partial hepatectomy was performed for liver metastasis in March 2010 and September 2011. In June 2013, an isolated tumor of 17 mm in diameter was detected between the inferior vena cava and the stomach using abdominal ultrasonography. The tumor was diagnosed as pancreatic head lymph node metastasis using abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and positron emission tomography (PET); fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake was noted at the site of the tumor, but not at other parts of the body. Curative resection was the chosen treatment option. Open surgery was performed in September 2013, and a tumor 30 mm in diameter located at the ventral side of the inferior vena cava, lateral side of the portal vein, and cranial side of duodenum was resected. No surrounding tissue infiltration was found. Pathological analysis of the resected specimen indicated lymph node metastasis of the rectal carcinoid. The patient has been disease free for 9 months after surgery. PMID:25731345

  10. Predictive Factors of the Response of Rectal Cancer to Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Spolverato, Gaya; Pucciarelli, Salvatore; Bertorelle, Roberta; De Rossi, Anita; Nitti, Donato

    2011-01-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancer is currently treated with pre-operative radiochemotherapy (pRCT), but the response is not uniform. Identification of patients with higher likelihood of responding to pRCT is clinically relevant, as patients with resistant tumors could be spared exposure to radiation or DNA-damaging drugs that are associated with adverse side effects. To highlight predictive biomarkers of response to pRCT, a systematic search of PubMed was conducted with a combination of the following terms: “rectal”, “predictive”, “radiochemotherapy”, “neoadjuvant”, “response” and “biomarkers”. Genetic polymorphisms in epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) genes, the expression of several markers, such as EGFR, bcl-2/bax and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and circulating biomarkers, such as serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, are promising as predictor markers, but need to be further evaluated. The majority of the studies did not support the predictive value of p53, while the values of Ki-67, TS and p21 is still controversial. Gene expression profiles of thousands of genes using microarrays, microRNA studies and the search for new circulating molecules, such as human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA and cell-free DNA, are providing interesting results that might lead to the identification of new useful biomarkers. Evaluation of biomarkers in larger, prospective trials are required to guide therapeutic strategies. PMID:24212803

  11. Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for Distal Rectal Cancer: 5-Year Updated Results of a Randomized Phase 2 Study of Neoadjuvant Combined Modality Chemoradiation for Distal Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mohiuddin, Mohammed, E-mail: asemuddin@gmail.com [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)] [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Paulus, Rebecca [RTOG Statistical Department, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [RTOG Statistical Department, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mitchell, Edith [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hanna, Nader [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Yuen, Albert [Reading Hospital and Medical Center, Reading, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Reading Hospital and Medical Center, Reading, Pennsylvania (United States); Nichols, Romaine [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)] [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Yalavarthi, Salochna [Ingalls Memorial Hospital, Harvey, Illinois (United States)] [Ingalls Memorial Hospital, Harvey, Illinois (United States); Hayostek, Cherie [Santa Fe Cancer Center, Santa Fe, New Mexico (United States)] [Santa Fe Cancer Center, Santa Fe, New Mexico (United States); Willett, Christopher [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)] [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of 2 different approaches to neoadjuvant chemoradiation for distal rectal cancers. Methods and Materials: One hundred six patients with T3/T4 distal rectal cancers were randomized in a phase 2 study. Patients received either continuous venous infusion (CVI) of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), 225 mg/m{sup 2} per day, 7 days per week plus pelvic hyperfractionated radiation (HRT), 45.6 Gy at 1.2 Gy twice daily plus a boost of 9.6 to 14.4 Gy for T3 or T4 cancers (Arm 1), or CVI of 5-FU, 225 mg/m{sup 2} per day, Monday to Friday, plus irinotecan, 50 mg/m{sup 2} once weekly × 4, plus pelvic radiation therapy (RT), 45 Gy at 1.8 Gy per day and a boost of 5.4 Gy for T3 and 9 Gy for T4 cancers (Arm 2). Surgery was performed 4 to 10 weeks later. Results: All eligible patients (n=103) are included in this analysis; 2 ineligible patients were excluded, and 1 patient withdrew consent. Ninety-eight of 103 patients (95%) underwent resection. Four patients did not undergo surgery for either disease progression or patient refusal, and 1 patient died during induction chemotherapy. The median time of follow-up was 6.4 years in Arm 1 and 7.0 years in Arm 2. The pathological complete response (pCR) rates were 30% in Arm 1 and 26% in Arm 2. Locoregional recurrence rates were 16% in Arm 1 and 17% in Arm 2. Five-year survival rates were 61% and 75% and Disease-specific survival rates were 78% and 85% for Arm1 and Arm 2, respectively. Five second primaries occurred in patients on Arm 1, and 1 second primary occurred in Arm 2. Conclusions: High rates of disease-specific survival were seen in each arm. Overall survival appears affected by the development of unrelated second cancers. The high pCR rates with 5-FU and higher dose radiation in T4 cancers provide opportunity for increased R0 resections and improved survival.

  12. Evaluation of the Granada Agar Plate for Detection of Vaginal and Rectal Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. GARCIA GIL; M. C. RODRIGUEZ; R. BARTOLOME; B. BERJANO; L. CABERO; A. ANDREU

    1999-01-01

    Granada medium was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in vaginal and rectal swabs compared with selective Columbia blood agar and selective Lim broth. From May 1996 to March 1998, 702 pregnant women (35 to 37 weeks of gestation) participated in this three-phase study; 103 (14.7%) of these women carried GBS. In the first phase of the

  13. Radicality of Resection and Survival After Multimodality Treatment is Influenced by Subsite of Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miranda Kusters; Raphaëla C. Dresen; Hendrik Martijn; Grard A. Nieuwenhuijzen; Hetty A. van den Berg; Regina G. H. Beets-Tan; Harm J. T. Rutten

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze results of multimodality treatment in relation to subsite of locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC). Method and Materials: A total of 170 patients with LRRC who underwent treatment between 1994 and 2008 were studied. The basic principle of multimodality treatment was preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy, intended radical surgery, and intraoperative radiotherapy. The subsites of LRRC were classified as presacral, posterolateral,

  14. Effects of ileo-rectal anastomosis on cholesterol metabolism in pigs fed either casein or extruded soya beans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ofélia P. Bento; José M. Martins; Maria J. Lança; Manuel C. de Abreu; Ana M. Viegas-Crespo; João P. B. Freire; José A. A. Almeida; Michel Riottot

    2004-01-01

    The importance of legume proteins in cholesterol metabolism has been recognised, but the hindgut contribution is still unclear. The present work was undertaken to address the role of the caecum - colon in cholesterol metabolism in intact (I) and ileo-rectal anastomosed (IRA) pigs fed with casein or extruded soyabean (ES) diets. Four groups of six growing pigs were assigned to

  15. Temperament influences endotoxin-induced changes in rectal temperature, sickness behavior, and plasma epinephrine concentrations in bulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole C Burdick; Jeffery A Carroll; Lindsey E Hulbert; Jeffery W Dailey; Michael A Ballou; Ronald D Randel; Scott T Willard; Rhonda C Vann; Thomas H Welsh

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the influence of temperament on endotoxin-induced changes in body temperature, sickness behavior, and stress hormone concentrations in cattle. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score measured 28 d prior to weaning. In dwelling recording devices were used to monitor rectal temperature, and jugular catheters were used to collect blood samples to determine cortisol

  16. Optical Imaging of Prostate CancerOptical Imaging of Prostate Cancer TransRectal UltraSound Coupled Optical Tomography

    E-print Network

    Piao, Daqing

    Optical Imaging of Prostate CancerOptical Imaging of Prostate Cancer TransRectal UltraSound Coupled Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 #12;OutlineOutline · Motivation prostate cancer and why modeltransmissible venereal tumor · In vivo TRUST imaging results · Future directions #12;Prostate Cancer Facts · 2nd

  17. Safety and efficacy of buccal midazolam versus rectal diazepam for emergency treatment of seizures in children: a randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John McIntyre; Sue Robertson; Elizabeth Norris; Richard Appleton; William P Whitehouse; Barbara Phillips; Tim Martland; Kathleen Berry; Jacqueline Collier; Stephanie Smith; Imti Choonara

    2005-01-01

    Methods A multicentre, randomised controlled trial was undertaken to compare buccal midazolam with rectal diazepam for emergency-room treatment of children aged 6 months and older presenting to hospital with active seizures and without intravenous access. The dose varied according to age from 2·5 to 10 mg. The primary endpoint was therapeutic success: cessation of seizures within 10 min and for

  18. Risk Factors of Permanent Stomas in Patients with Rectal Cancer after Low Anterior Resection with Temporary Stomas

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul Min; Park, Yoon Ah; Cho, Yong Beom; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to identify risk factors influencing permanent stomas after low anterior resection with temporary stomas for rectal cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 2528 consecutive rectal cancer patients who had undergone low anterior resection were retrospectively reviewed. Risk factors for permanent stomas were evaluated among these patients. Results Among 2528 cases of rectal cancer, a total of 231 patients had a temporary diverting stoma. Among these cases, 217 (93.9%) received a stoma reversal. The median period between primary surgery and stoma reversal was 7.5 months. The temporary and permanent stoma groups consisted of 203 and 28 patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that independent risk factors for permanent stomas were anastomotic-related complications (p=0.001) and local recurrence (p=0.001). The 5-year overall survival for the temporary and permanent stoma groups were 87.0% and 70.5%, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusion Rectal cancer patients who have temporary stomas after low anterior resection with local recurrence and anastomotic-related complications may be at increased risk for permanent stoma. PMID:25683994

  19. Relationships Between Temperament and Transportation With Rectal Temperature and Serum Concentrations of Cortisol and Epinephrine in Bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated whether temperament influences rectal temperature and serum concentrations of cortisol and epinephrine in response to transportation. Brahman bulls were selected based on temperament score (average of exit velocity, EV, and pen score, PS) measured 28 days prior to weaning wit...

  20. Impact of computed tomography vs . intrarectal ultrasound on the diagnosis, resectability, and prognosis of locally recurrent rectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Romano; L. Esercizio; M. Santangelo; G. Vallone

    1993-01-01

    The use of modern techniques of imaging in the postoperative follow-up is reported to allow an earlier diagnosis of local recurrence in patients operated on with anterior resection for rectal cancer and, consequently, to allow a higher percentage of local recurrence resection to be performed. Although intrarectal ultrasound (IU) has proved highly reliable in preoperative staging, its value in relapse

  1. Frequency and characteristics of selected enteropathogens in fecal and rectal specimens from childhood diarrhea in Trinidad: 1998-2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zobida Khan-Mohammed; Abiodun A. Adesiyun; William H. Swanston; Dave D. Chadee

    2005-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and characteristics of selected enteric pathogens in diarrheic children in six counties of the island of Trinidad. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1998 through March 2000. Fecal or rectal swab specimens from children (< 12 years) were collected and then processed, using standard methods, to detect Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enteropathogenic Es-

  2. Phase II dose escalation study of image-guided adaptive radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Use of dose-volume constraints to achieve rectal isotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Yan Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kestin, Larry L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Krauss, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Lockman, David M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Brabbins, Donald S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Martinez, Alvaro A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)]. E-mail: amartinez@beaumont.edu

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: In our Phase II prostate cancer Adaptive Radiation Therapy (ART) study, the highest possible dose was selected on the basis of normal tissue tolerance constraints. We analyzed rectal toxicity rates in different dose levels and treatment groups to determine whether equivalent toxicity rates were achieved as hypothesized when the protocol was started. Methods and Materials: From 1999 to 2002, 331 patients with clinical stage T1 to T3, node-negative prostate cancer were prospectively treated with three-dimensional conformal adaptive RT. A patient-specific confidence-limited planning target volume was constructed on the basis of 5 CT scans and 4 sets of electronic portal images after the first 4 days of treatment. For each case, the rectum (rectal solid) was contoured in its entirety. The rectal wall was defined by use of a 3-mm wall thickness (median volume: 29.8 cc). The prescribed dose level was chosen using the following rectal wall dose constraints: (1) Less than 30% of the rectal wall volume can receive more than 75.6 Gy. (2) Less than 5% of the rectal wall can receive more than 82 Gy. Low-risk patients (PSA < 10, Stage {<=} T2a, Gleason score < 7) were treated to the prostate alone (Group 1). All other patients, intermediate and high risk, where treated to the prostate and seminal vesicles (Group 2). The risk of chronic toxicity (NCI Common Toxicity Criteria 2.0) was assessed for the different dose levels prescribed. HIC approval was acquired for all patients. Median follow-up was 1.6 years. Results: Grade 2 chronic rectal toxicity was experienced by 34 patients (10%) (9% experienced rectal bleeding, 6% experienced proctitis, 3% experienced diarrhea, and 1% experienced rectal pain) at a median interval of 1.1 year. Nine patients (3%) experienced grade 3 or higher chronic rectal toxicity (1 Grade 4) at a median interval of 1.2 years. The 2-year rates of Grade 2 or higher and Grade 3 or higher chronic rectal toxicity were 17% and 3%, respectively. No significant difference by dose level was seen in the 2-year rate of Grade 2 or higher chronic rectal toxicity. These rates were 27%, 15%, 14%, 17%, and 24% for dose levels equal to or less than 72, 73.8, 75.6, 77.4, and 79.2 Gy, respectively (p = 0.3). Grade 2 or higher chronic rectal bleeding was significantly greater for Group 2 than for Group 1, 17% vs. 8% (p = 0.035). Conclusions: High doses (79.2 Gy) were safely delivered in selected patients by our adaptive radiotherapy process. Under the rectal dose-volume histogram constraints for the dose level selection, the risk of chronic rectal toxicity is similar among patients treated to different dose levels. Therefore, rectal chronic toxicity rates reflect the dose-volume cutoff used and are independent of the actual dose levels. On the other hand, a larger PTV will increase the rectal wall dose and chronic rectal toxicity rates. PTV volume and dose constraints should be defined, considering their potential benefit.

  3. Detection of PrP(CWD) in postmortem rectal lymphoid tissues in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) infected with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas L; Balachandran, Aru; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Creekmore, Lynn; Munger, Randy D

    2006-11-01

    Preclinical diagnostic tests for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies have been described for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), using biopsy tissues of palatine tonsil, and for sheep, using lymphoid tissues from palatine tonsil, third eyelid, and rectal mucosa. The utility of examining the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissues to detect chronic wasting disease (CWD) was investigated in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), a species for which there is not a live-animal diagnostic test. Postmortem rectal mucosal sections were examined from 308 elk from two privately owned herds that were depopulated. The results of the postmortem rectal mucosal sections were compared to immunohistochemical staining of the brainstem, retropharyngeal lymph nodes, and palatine tonsil. Seven elk were found positive using the brainstem (dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve), retropharyngeal lymph nodes, and palatine tonsil. Six of these elk were also found positive using postmortem rectal mucosal sections. The remaining 301 elk in which CWD-associated abnormal isoform of the prion protein (PrP(CWD)) was not detected in the brainstem and cranial lymphoid tissues were also found to be free of PrP(CWD) when postmortem rectal mucosal sections were examined. The use of rectal mucosal lymphoid tissues may be suitable for a live-animal diagnostic test as part of an integrated management strategy to limit CWD in elk. PMID:17121082

  4. Hydromorphone Rectal

    MedlinePLUS

    Hydromorphone suppositories are used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Hydromorphone is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Hydromorphone comes as a suppository to insert in the rectum. It is usually inserted once every 6 ...

  5. Rectal Prolapse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgery type depends on both patient factors and procedural factors. Patient factors include the patient’s age, sex, ... prior operations, and severity of associated medical problems. Procedural factors include extent of prolapse, what effect the ...

  6. Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors Associated With the Nonreversal Ileostomy Following Sphincter-Preserving Surgery for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ah; Lee, Gil Jae; Park, Sung Won; Lee, Won-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A loop ileostomy is used to protect an anastomosis after anal sphincter-preserving surgery, especially in patients with low rectal cancer, but little information is available concerning risk factors associated with a nonreversal ileostomy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors of ileostomy nonreversibility after a sphincter-saving resection for rectal cancer. Methods Six hundred seventy-nine (679) patients with rectal cancer who underwent sphincter-preserving surgery between January 2004 and December 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Of the 679, 135 (19.9%) underwent a defunctioning loop ileostomy of temporary intent, and these patients were divided into two groups, that is, a reversal group (RG, 112 patients) and a nonreversal group (NRG, 23 patients) according to the reversibility of the ileostomy. Results In 23 of the 135 rectal cancer patients (17.0%) that underwent a diverting ileostomy, stoma reversal was not possible for the following reasons; stage IV rectal cancer (11, 47.8%), poor tone of the anal sphincter (4, 17.4%), local recurrence (2, 8.7%), anastomotic leakage (1, 4.3%), radiation proctitis (1, 4.3%), and patient refusal (4, 17.4%). The independent risk factors of the nonreversal group were anastomotic leakage or fistula, stage IV cancer, local recurrence, and comorbidity. Conclusion Postoperative complications such as anastomotic leakage or fistula, advanced primary disease (stage IV), local recurrence and comorbidity were identified as risk factors of a nonreversal ileostomy. These factors should be considered when drafting prudential guidelines for ileostomy closure. PMID:26161377

  7. Serial temperature monitoring and comparison of rectal and muscle temperatures in immobilized free-ranging black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

    PubMed

    vdB Morkel, Peter; Miller, Michele; Jago, Mark; Radcliffe, Robin W; du Preez, Pierre; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Sefton, Jennifer; Taft, Arthur; Nydam, Daryl; Gleed, Robin D

    2012-03-01

    Control of body temperature is critical to a successful anesthetic outcome, particularly during field immobilization of wild animals. Hyperthermia associated with exertion can lead to serious and potentially life-threatening complications such as organ damage (including myopathy) and death. Methods for monitoring core body temperature must accurately reflect the physiologic status of the animal in order for interventions to be effective. The goal of this preliminary study was to compare serial rectal and muscle temperatures in field-immobilized black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and evaluate a possible association. Twenty-four free-ranging black rhinoceros were immobilized between February and March of 2010 in Ethosha National Park, Namibia. Pairwise comparisons showed a correlation of 0.73 (95% CI; 0.70-0.75) between rectal and muscle temperature measurements. Results from a multivariable model indicate that muscle temperature readings were, on average, 0.46 degrees C (95% CI; 0.36-0.57 degrees C) higher than rectal temperatures while adjusting for repeated measurements on the same rhinoceros, effect of duration of immobilization, and effect of ambient temperature on rhinoceroses' temperature readings. As immobilization time increased, muscle and rectal temperature values within an individual rhinoceros tended to equilibrate. The overall temperatures decreased by an average of 0.00059 degrees C/min (95% CI; -0.0047 to -0.0035 degrees C/min; P = 0.779). As the ambient temperature at time of immobilization increased by 1 degree C, the average rhinoceros temperature increased by 0.09 degrees C (95% CI; 0.06-0.11 degrees C, P < 0.0001). Higher body temperature creates a potential for cellular damage leading to complications that include myopathy. Methods for monitoring rectal, muscle, and ambient temperatures should be incorporated into anesthetic monitoring protocols for large ungulates, particularly under field conditions. PMID:22448518

  8. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer: Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis on clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Kang; Chen, Nan-Zheng; Zheng, Jian-Bao; He, Sai; Sun, Xue-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the main malignant tumors threatening human health. Surgery plays a pivotal role in treating colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to compare the clinical effect in patients with rectal cancer undergoing laparoscopic versus open surgery by meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the past 20 years. The data showed that 14 RCTs comparing laparoscopic surgery with conventional open surgery for rectal cancer matched the selection criteria and reported on 2,114 subjects, of whom 1,111 underwent laparoscopic surgery and 1,003 underwent open surgery for rectal cancer. Blood loss (P<0.00001), days to passage of flatus (P=0.0003), first bowel movement (P=0.0006), fluids intake (P<0.00001), walking independently (P<0.00001), length of hospital duration (P=0.003) and the rate of wound infection (P=0.04) were all significantly reduced following laparoscopic surgery. The incidence of complications, such as ureteric injury (P=0.33), urinary retention (P=0.43), ileus (P=0.05), anastomotic leakage (P=0.09) and incisional hernia (P=0.88), were not significantly different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in lymph nodes harvested (P=0.88), length of specimen (P=0.60), circumferential resection margin (CRM) (P=0.86), regional recurrence ((P=0.08), port site or wound metastasis (P=0.67), distant metastasis (P=0.12), 3-year overall survival (OS) (P=0.42), 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.44), 5-year OS (P=0.60) and 5-year DFS (P=0.70). Therefore, laparoscopy for the treatment of patients with rectal cancer has the advantage of recovery and the same complications and prognosis as laparotomy, which indicates that laparoscopy may provide a potential survival benefit for patients with rectal cancer. PMID:25279204

  9. Effectiveness of a novel gas-release endorectal balloon in the removal of rectal gas for prostate proton radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Landon S; Kudchadker, Rajat J; Beddar, A Sam; Lee, Andrew K

    2012-01-01

    Endorectal balloons (ERBs) are routinely used in prostate proton radiation therapy to immobilize the prostate and spare the rectal wall. Rectal gas can distend the rectum and displace the prostate even in the presence of ERBs. The purpose of this work was to quantify the effects an ERB with a passive gas release conduit had on the incidence of rectal gas. Fifteen patients who were treated with a standard ERB and 15 with a gas-release ERB were selected for this retrospective study. Location and cross-sectional area of gas pockets and the fraction of time they occurred on 1133 lateral kilovoltage (kV) images were analyzed. Gas locations were classified as trapped between the ERB and anterior rectal wall, between the ERB and posterior rectal wall, or superior to the ERB. For patients using the standard ERB, gas was found in at least one region in 45.8% of fractions. Gas was trapped in the anterior region in 37.1% of fractions, in the posterior region in 5.0% of fractions, and in the sigmoid region in 9.6% of fractions. For patients using the ERB with the gas-release conduit, gas was found in at least one region in 19.7% of fractions. Gas was trapped in the anterior region in 5.6% of fractions, in the posterior region in 8.3% of fractions, and in the sigmoid region in 7.4% of fractions. Both the number of fractions with gas in the anterior region and the number of fractions with gas in at least one region were significantly higher in the former group than in the latter. The cross-sectional area of trapped gas did not differ between the two groups. Thus gas-release balloon can effectively release gas, and may be able to improve clinical workflow by reducing the need for catheterization. PMID:22955660

  10. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Di Renzo, Sara; Ferri, Mario; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Di Girolamo, Marco; Sapori, Alessandra; Ziparo, Vincenzo; David, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Materials and Methods Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. Results The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ? T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). Conclusion MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting. PMID:24497790

  11. Laparoscopic resection of lower rectal cancer with telescopic anastomosis without abdominal incisions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Yong; Chen, Gang; Du, Jun-Feng; Chen, Guang; Wei, Xiao-Jun; Cui, Wei; Zuo, Fu-Yi; Yu, Bo; Dong, Xing; Ji, Xi-Qing; Yuan, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess laparoscopic radical resection of lower rectal cancer with telescopic anastomosis through transanal resection without abdominal incisions. METHODS: From March 2010 to June 2014, 30 patients (14 men and 16 women, aged 36-78 years, mean age 59.8 years) underwent laparoscopic radical resection of lower rectal cancer with telescopic anastomosis through anus-preserving transanal resection. The tumors were 5-7 cm away from the anal margin in 24 cases, and 4 cm in six cases. In preoperative assessment, there were 21 cases of T1N0M0 and nine of T2N0M0. Through the middle approach, the sigmoid mesentery was freed at the root with an ultrasonic scalpel and the roots of the inferior mesenteric artery and vein were dissected, clamped and cut. Following the total mesorectal excision principle, the rectum was separated until the anorectal ring reached 3-5 cm from the distal end of the tumor. For perineal surgery, a ring incision was made 2 cm above the dentate line, and sharp dissection was performed submucosally towards the superior direction, until the plane of the levator ani muscle, to transect the rectum. The rectum and distal sigmoid colon were removed together from the anus, followed by a telescopic anastomosis between the full thickness of the proximal colon and the mucosa and submucosal tissue of the rectum. RESULTS: For the present cohort of 30 cases, the mean operative time was 178 min, with an average of 13 positive lymph nodes detected. One case of postoperative anastomotic leak was observed, requiring temporary colostomy, which was closed and recovered 3 mo later. The postoperative pathology showed T1-T2N0M0 in 19 cases and T2N1M0 in 11 cases. Twelve months after surgery, 94.4% patients achieved anal function Kirwan grade 1, indicating that their anal function returned to normal. The patients were followed up for 1-36 mo, with an average of 23 mo. There was no local recurrence, and 17 patients survived for > 3 years (with a survival rate of 100%). CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic radical resection of lower rectal cancer with telescopic anastomosis through transanal resection without abdominal incisions is safe and feasible. PMID:25945011

  12. Early dynamic transcriptomic changes during preoperative radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Supiot, Stephane; Gouraud, Wilfried; Campion, Loïc; Jezéquel, Pascal; Buecher, Bruno; Charrier, Josiane; Heymann, Marie-Francoise; Mahé, Marc-Andre; Rio, Emmanuel; Chérel, Michel

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To develop novel biomarkers of rectal radiotherapy, we measured gene expression profiles on biopsies taken before and during preoperative radiotherapy. METHODS: Six patients presenting with a locally advanced rectal cancer (T>T2, N0/Nx, M0) eligible for preoperative radiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions) were selected in a pilot study. Six tumor and 3 normal tissues biopsies were taken before and during radiotherapy, after a dose of 7.2 Gy at a median time of 1 h following irradiation (0:27-2:12). Tumor or normal tissue purity was assessed by a pathologist prior to RNA extraction. Mean RNA content was 23 ?g/biopsy (14-37) before radiotherapy and 22.7 ?g/biopsy (12-35) during radiotherapy. After RNA amplification, biopsies were analysed with 54K HG-U133A Plus 2.0 Affymetrix expression micro-arrays. Data were normalized according to MAS5 algorithm. A gene expression ratio was calculated as: (gene expression during radiotherapy - gene expression before radiotherapy)/gene expression before radiotherapy. Were selected genes that showed a ratio higher than ± 0.5 in all 6 patients. RESULTS: Microarray analysis showed that preoperative radiotherapy significantly up-regulated 31 genes and down-regulated 6 genes. According to the Gene Ontology project classification, these genes are involved in protein metabolism (ADAMDEC1; AKAP7; CAPN5; CLIC5; CPE; CREB3L1; NEDD4L; RAB27A), ion transport (AKAP7; ATP2A3; CCL28; CLIC5; F2RL2; NEDD4L; SLC6A8), transcription (AKAP7; CREB3L1; ISX; PABPC1L; TXNIP), signal transduction (CAPN5; F2RL2; RAB27A; TNFRSF11A), cell adhesion (ADAMDEC1; PXDN; SPON1; S100A2), immune response (CCL28; PXDN; TNFRSF11A) and apoptosis (ITM2C; PDCD4; PVT1). Up-regulation of 3 genes (CCL28; CLIC5; PDCD4) was detected by 2 different probes and up-regulation of 2 genes (RAB27A; TXNIP) by 3 probes. CONCLUSION: Micro-arrays can efficiently assess early transcriptomic changes during preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer, and may help better understand tumor radioresistance. PMID:23745026

  13. A Meta-analysis of the Short and Long-Term Results of Randomized Controlled Trials That Compared Laparoscopy-Assisted and Conventional Open Surgery for Rectal Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Ohtani; Yutaka Tamamori; Takashi Azuma; Yoshihiro Mori; Yukio Nishiguchi; Kiyoshi Maeda; Kosei Hirakawa

    Purpose  We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the short- and long-term results of laparoscopy-assisted and open rectal\\u000a surgery for the treatment of patients with rectal cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register for relevant papers published\\u000a between January 1990 and April 2011 by using the search terms “laparoscopy,” “laparoscopy assisted,” “surgery,” “rectal

  14. ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT NO.

    E-print Network

    MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACT FOR THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT NO. DE-AC52-06NA25396 DECEMBER 21, 2005 1943 Today Unofficial Conformed Copy as of 1 OF ENERGY NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NNSA SERVICE CENTER- ALBUQUERQUE M&O CONTRACT SUPPORT

  15. SchoolofBusiness Administration

    E-print Network

    'CONNOR, ASSISTANT DEAN UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS OFFICE 240 SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, 503-725-3712 GRADUATE PROGRAMS OFFICE 230 SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, 503-725-8001 www.sba.pdx.edu/ B.S.--Master of Science in Financial Analysis M.I.M.--Master of International Management Ph.D.--Participating school

  16. COMRADE design administration system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Michael Chernick; Naval Ship

    1973-01-01

    The Design Administration System of COMRADE completes the set of major functions required for integrated design system support. The purpose of the Design Administration (DA) System of COMRADE is • To provide capabilities which allow the manager(s) of a large, computer-aided design effort to control and monitor design activity, and hence, to control and monitor use of their COMRADE subsystem.

  17. Bonneville Power Administrator Compares

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    , hydro plants and electric eneration grid, navigation system and ishery resources of the Columbia BasinBonneville Power Administrator Compares Missouri Basin Reservoirs with Pacific Northwest's by Pat-16 was the dinner speech of a former Nebraskan from Schuyler, James Jura. Now administrator of the Bonneville Power

  18. Administration as ritual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles T. Goodsell

    1997-01-01

    Public administration as an activity possesses in large degree the formal attributes of secular collective ritual, e.g., repetition, role playing, stylization, order, staging, and creation of meaning. Three types of administrative ritual can be identified: explicit rites, such as ceremonies and regularized events; formalistic processes, like budgeting and auditing; and expressive programs, exemplified by anti-drug campaigns and rural free delivery.

  19. NATIONAL AERONAUTICS SPACE ADMINISTRATION

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ********** GUIDEBOOK FOR PROPOSERS RESPONDING. Appendix E.1.2 has been revised as follows: E.1.2 Assurance of Compliance with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Regulations Pursuant to Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs "The

  20. Handbook for Alumni Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Charles H., Ed.

    A definitive look at the field of alumni administration is presented, noting that the subject has until now received little attention. The 34 chapters are divided into nine sections: an overview of alumni administration; alumni as an essential resource; people management; budget and records; programming; communications; alumni education programs…

  1. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  2. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  3. Rectal carcinoma metastasizing to the breast: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tejinder; Premalatha, C S; Satheesh, C T; Lakshmaiah, K C; Suresh, T M; Babu, K Govind; Ramachandra, C

    2009-01-01

    Extramammary breast metastases (from non-breast primaries) are rare, constituting only about 2% of all breast metastases, although autopsy studies show that it may occur in up to 6% of cases. Lymphoma, metastatic melanoma, and bronchial carcinoma are the malignancies that account for the majority of breast metastases. Breast metastases from a colorectal carcinoma have been described in only a small number of cases in the literature. We present a case of a 42-year-old woman with an incidental finding of a breast lump. She had a history of Dukes C rectal carcinoma for which she had undergone an anterior resection 11 months earlier. The breast deposit was the first clinical indication of relapse. The patient subsequently developed liver and brain metastases and deteriorated rapidly; she died 2 months after presenting with the breast mass. PMID:20160374

  4. Why I Cannot Find the Prostate? Behind the Subjectivity of Rectal Exam

    PubMed Central

    Koulikov, Dmitry; Mamber, Ariel; Fridmans, Alon; Abu Arafeh, Wael; Shenfeld, Ofer Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Most physicians use digital rectal examination (DRE) to help detect prostate cancer and to estimate the prostates' size. The accuracy of DRE is known to be limited. We evaluate the ability of doctors to palpate the whole prostate with DRE. Methods. At time of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) the distances from the anus to the apex and base of prostates were measured. The TRUS's distances were compared to the mean index finger length of our clinic doctors. Results. The ability of the urologist to reach and examine the apex, half, three quarters and the whole prostate was in 93.7%, 66.3%, 23.2% and 3.2% of cases respectively. Conclusions. In most cases it was impossible to palpate the whole prostate. Anatomical location and volume of the examined prostate, as well as the length of his own index finger limit DRE and allow the examination of only a small portion of the prostate. PMID:22530153

  5. Invasive rectal cancer treated with a combination of endoscopic submucosal dissection and chemoradiation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kuang I; Konuma, Hironori; Ueyama, Hiroya; Saga, Taiji

    2013-05-01

    A 68-year-old man underwent total colonoscopy because of a positive fecal occult blood test. A polypoid lesion (Is + IIa), 20 mm in size, was detected in the very lower part of the rectum. A large reddish nodule suggesting invasive carcinoma was seen on conventional view. Magnifying chromoendoscopy, however, disclosed a non-invasive pit pattern in that part. Moreover, magnifying narrow band imaging showed a type IIIA capillary pattern. Therefore, endoscopic submucosal dissection was successfully conducted for en bloc resection. Histologically, it was a rectal submucosal invasive carcinoma deeply invading into the submucosal layer with vascular invasion. Although additional surgical treatment was suggested, the patient refused the proposal and received chemoradiation therapy to avoid a permanent colostomy. Periodic evaluation revealed no local or distant metastasis 3 years thereafter. PMID:23617647

  6. Effective treatment of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome using argon plasma coagulation.

    PubMed

    Waniczek, Dariusz; Rdes, Jerzy; Rudzki, Marek K; Piecuch, Jerzy; Rubicz, Nina; Arendt, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is a chronic, multiform, non-cancerous disorder of the rectum, the final diagnosis of which is based upon histopathological criteria. This disorder is often accompanied by latent proctoptosis. We present a patient who (in 1996) was the first case in which argon plasma coagulation (APC) was used for SRUS treatment. In the years 2004-2005 the same patient underwent 15 APC sessions (at monthly intervals) obtaining full recovery from SRUS, although she had been treated unsuccessfully for 17 years prior to that. Six-year observation did not show any relapse. Local therapy with APC seems to be an important alternative in SRUS treatment without prolapse of the rectum and could become a basic method for bleeding treatment in SRUS. PMID:25276257

  7. Simultaneous total laparoscopic curative resection for synchronous gastric, cecal and rectal cancer: Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Kenji; Ogawa, Katsuhiro; Yamamura, Kensuke; Ozaki, Nobuyuki; Sugiyama, Shinichi; Ogata, Kenichi; Doi, Koichi; Baba, Hideo; Takamori, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are often diagnosed simultaneously. Recent technological advances in surgical techniques and devices have enabled the use of laparoscopic approaches for GC and CRC. Laparoscopic resection is expected to increase the number of cases of synchronous gastrointestinal (GI) cancers that meet the indication for laparoscopic surgery, owing to early detection of GI cancers and extended indications for laparoscopic surgery. Presentation of case We herein report a successful simultaneous total laparoscopic curative resection for synchronous early GC, early cecal cancer and advanced rectal cancer. The total time of the operation was 600 min, and the estimated blood loss was 250 ml. The patient was discharged on postoperative day (POD) 10 without postoperative complications. Conclusion Simultaneous total laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive, feasible treatment option for synchronous GI cancers. PMID:25531305

  8. Assessment of Intrafractional Movement and Internal Motion in Radiotherapy of Rectal Cancer Using Megavoltage Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Tournel, Koen [UZ Brussel, Oncologisch Centrum, Department of Radiotherapy, Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: Koen.Tournel@uzbrussel.be; Ridder, Mark de; Engels, Benedikt; Bijdekerke, Paul; Fierens, Yves; Duchateau, Michael; Linthout, Nadine; Reynders, Truus; Verellen, Dirk; Storme, Guy [UZ Brussel, Oncologisch Centrum, Department of Radiotherapy, Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to provide estimates of setup and internal margins of patients treated for rectal carcinoma using helical tomotherapy and to assess possible margin adaptations. Using helical tomotherapy, highly conformal dose distributions can be created, and the integrated megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) modality allows very precise daily patient positioning. In clinical protocols, however, margins originating from traditional setup procedures are still being applied. This work investigates whether this modality can aid in redefining treatment margins. Methods and Materials: Ten patients who were treated with tomotherapy underwent MVCT scanning before and after 10 treatments. Using automatic registration the necessary setup margin was investigated by means of bony landmarks. Internal margins were assessed by delineating and describing the mesorectal movement. Results: Based on bony landmarks, movement of patients during treatments was limited to 2.45 mm, 1.99 mm, and 1.09 mm in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical direction, respectively. Systematic errors were limited to <1 mm. Measured movement of the mesorectal space was -1.6 mm ({+-} 4.2 mm) and 0.1 mm ({+-} 4.0 mm) for left and right lateral direction. In the antero-posterior direction, mean shifts were -2 mm ({+-} 6.8 mm) and -0.4 mm ({+-} 3.8 mm). Mean shifts in the cranio-caudal direction were respectively -3.2 mm ({+-} 5.6 mm) and -3.2 mm ({+-} 6.8 mm). Conclusions: The use of the integrated MVCT on the tomotherapy system can minimize the setup margin for rectal cancer, and can also be used to adequately describe the internal margin allowing for direct treatment margin adaptation.

  9. Bevacizumab, Oxaliplatin, and Capecitabine With Radiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer: Phase I Trial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Czito, Brian G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]. E-mail: czito001@mc.duke.edu; Bendell, Johanna C. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology and Transplantation, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Morse, Michael A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology and Transplantation, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Blobe, Gerard C. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology and Transplantation, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Tyler, Douglas S. [Department of General Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Thomas, John [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Ludwig, Kirk A. [Department of General Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Mantyh, Christopher R. [Department of General Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Ashton, Jill [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology and Transplantation, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Yu Daohai [Department of Biostatistics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Hurwitz, Herbert I. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology and Transplantation, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: The overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is associated with poor outcomes in colorectal cancer patients. Bevacizumab, a VEGF inhibitor, enhances the effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy on tumor cytotoxicity in preclinical models, including colorectal cancer. A Phase I trial was undertaken to evaluate the combination of bevacizumab, capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and radiation therapy in patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the rectum were eligible. Pretreatment staging included computerized tomography, endoscopic ultrasound, and surgical evaluation. Patients received 50.4 Gy of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the tumor in 28 fractions. Capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab were administered concurrently with radiation therapy. After EBRT completion, patients were restaged and evaluated for surgery. Primary endpoints included the determination of dose-limiting toxicity and a recommended Phase II dose, non dose-limiting toxicity, and preliminary radiographic and pathologic response rates. Results: Eleven patients were enrolled. All were evaluable for toxicity and efficacy. Dose level 2 was associated with unacceptable toxicity (primarily diarrhea). Dose level 1 had an acceptable toxicity profile. The recommended Phase II dose in our study was bevacizumab 15 mg/kg Day 1 + 10 mg/kg Days 8 and 22, oxaliplatin 50 mg/m{sup 2} weekly, and capecitabine 625 mg/m{sup 2} bid during radiation days. Six patients had clinical responses. Two patients had a pathologic complete response, and 3 had microscopic disease only. One patient experienced a postoperative abscess, one a syncopal episode during adjuvant chemotherapy, and one a subclinical myocardial infarction during adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions: The combination of bevacizumab, capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and radiation therapy in rectal cancer was tolerable, with encouraging response rates. Further investigation with this regimen is being pursued in a Phase II setting.

  10. Synchronous rectal and gastric cancer in a fighter pilot: aeromedical concerns.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guo-Li; Wei, Xue-Ming; Xu, Xian-Rong; Li, De-Chang; Wang, Shi-Lin; Gu, Jin

    2013-06-01

    Synchronous cancer of the stomach and rectum is very rare. In a special population of pilots, especially fighter pilots, synchronous rectal and gastric cancer is much more uncommon. We herein report a case of synchronous carcinoma of the rectum and stomach. The patient was a 44-year-old male fighter pilot who complained with bloody stool and altered bowel habits. He was diagnosed with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer with a definite family history, and subsequently he underwent simultaneous low anterior resection and distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy. Postoperative pathologic assessment showed a poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with signet ring cell components (pT2N1M0; stage IIb) and a moderately differentiated rectal adenocarcinoma with myxoid components (pT3N0M0; stage IIa). Both tumors showed positive expression of p53, Ki-67, VEGF, carcinoembryonic antigen, MRP, TS, P-gp, and TopoII, and negative expression of c-erbB2, CD34, CD31, D2-40, S-100, FVIII, MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 oncoproteins. Six cycles of XELOX chemotherapy and 50 Gy/25 f radiotherapy were delivered postoperatively. Now, he has returned to his work under medical observation for about 6 months. From this patient's diagnosis and treatment, we think that the gene screening should be used in pilot selection. According to the result of gene screening, we can give pertinence examinations to the target organ of genes. It is very necessary for pilots to keep keen vigilance at gastrointestinal tumors because they have to face many high-risk factors in working. As to pilots, the selection of operation should be individualized. PMID:24426647

  11. Colon and rectal cancer incidence and water trihalomethane concentrations in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is evidence, although inconsistent, that long term exposure to disinfection by products (DBPs) increases the risk of bowel cancer. No study has been conducted in Australia to examine this association and due to difference in the methods of disinfection the risk can vary across geographical regions and. This study was conducted to analyse the association of trihalomethanes (THMs) in water with colon and rectal cancer in NSW Australia. Methods Average yearly concentrations of total and individual species of THMs were obtained for 50 local government areas (LGAs). Indirectly-standardized incidence rates of colon and rectal cancers in LGAs for the period 1995 to 2001 were regressed against mean THM concentrations lagged five years, adjusting for socioeconomic status, high risk drinking, smoking status, usual source of water and year of diagnosis, including local and global random effects within a Bayesian framework. The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in THMs were estimated. Results Using five year lag of exposure there was a positive association between bromoform concentration and CRC in men (IRR?=?1.025, 95% CI 1.010, 1.040) but not in women (IRR?=?1.003, 95% CI 0.987, 1.018). The association in men was mainly found in colon cancer with bromoform (IRR?=?1.035, 95% CI 1.017, 1.053). There was no appreciable association of colorectal cancer with other species of THMs. Sensitivity analyses did not materially change the associations observed. Conclusion A positive association was observed between colon cancer and water bromoform concentrations in men. Given the potential population impact of such an association, further research into the relationship between THMs, particularly brominated species, and colorectal cancer is warranted. PMID:24938491

  12. Translational aspects of rectal evoked potentials: a comparative study in rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Thomas Dahl; Graversen, Carina; Coen, Steven J.; Hultin, Leif; Aziz, Qasim; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2013-01-01

    Inconsistencies between species has stunted the progress of developing new analgesics. To increase the success of translating results between species, improved comparable models are required. Twelve rats received rectal balloon distensions on 2 different days separated by 24.3 (SD 24.6) days. Rectal balloon distensions were also performed in 18 humans (mean age: 34 yr; range: 21–56 yr; 12 men) on two separate occasions, separated by 9.3 (SD 5.5) days. In rats, cerebral evoked potentials (CEPs) were recorded by use of implanted skull-electrodes to distension pressure of 80 mmHg. In humans surface electrodes and individualized pressure, corresponding to pain detection threshold, were used. Comparison of morphology was assessed by wavelet analysis. Within- and between-day reproducibility was assessed in terms of latencies, amplitudes, and frequency content. In rats CEPs showed triphasic morphology. No differences in latencies, amplitudes, and power distribution were seen within or between days (all P ? 0.5). Peak-to-peak amplitude between the first positive and negative potential were the most reproducible characteristic within and between days (evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients, ICC) (ICC = 0.99 and ICC = 9.98, respectively). In humans CEPs showed a triphasic morphology. No differences in latencies, amplitudes, or power distribution were seen within or between days (all P ? 0.2). Latency to the second negative potential (ICC = 0.98) and the second positive potential (ICC = 0.95) was the most reproducible characteristic within and between days. A unique and reliable translational platform was established assessing visceral sensitivity in rats and humans, which may improve the translational process of developing new drugs targeting visceral pain. PMID:23703652

  13. Comparison of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin and capecitabine in preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung Hae [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: khjung@ncc.re.kr; Kim, Tae Hyun [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duck-Woo [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hee Jin [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jun Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hoon [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Seok-Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Tak [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Chang Won [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Dae Kyung [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Seok-Byung [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyo Seong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Jae-Gahb [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To describe our experience with a bolus injection of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (FL) vs. capecitabine in terms of radiologic and pathologic findings in preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods: The study enrolled 278 patients scheduled for preoperative CRT using two protocols with different chemotherapeutic regimens. Pelvic radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) was delivered concurrently with FL (n = 145) or capecitabine (n = 133). Surgery was performed 6 weeks after CRT completion. Tumor responses to CRT were measured using both radiologic and pathologic examination. Magnetic resonance volumetry was performed at the initial workup and just before surgery after completion of preoperative CRT. Post-CRT pathology tests were used to determine tumor stage and regression. Results: Radiologic examination showed that tumor volume decreased by 68.2% {+-} 20.5% in the FL group and 68.3% {+-} 22.3% in the capecitabine group (p = 0.970). Postoperative pathologic T stage determination showed that downstaging occurred in 44.3% of FL and 49.9% of capecitabine patients (p = 0.571). The tumor regression grades after CRT were Grade 1 (minimal response) in 22.6% and 21.0%, Grade 2 (moderate response) in 53.2% and 50.0%, Grade 3 (near-complete response) in 12.9% and 12.9%, and Grade 4 (complete response) in 11.3% and 16.1% of the FL and capecitabine groups, respectively (p = 0.758). Conclusion: In the present study, the radiologic and pathologic findings did not reveal significant differences in short-term tumor responses between preoperative FL and capecitabine CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer. Long-term results and a prospective randomized trial are needed.

  14. Caveolin-1 as a Prognostic Marker for Local Control After Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Roedel, Franz [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, University of Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: franz.roedel@kgu.de; Capalbo, Gianni; Roedel, Claus; Weiss, Christian [Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, University of Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Caveolin-1 is a protein marker for caveolae organelles and has an essential impact on cellular signal transduction pathways (e.g., receptor tyrosine kinases, adhesion molecules, and G-protein-coupled receptors). In the present study, we investigated the expression of caveolin-1 in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma and correlated its expression pattern with the risk for disease recurrences after preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and surgical resection. Methods and Materials: Caveolin-1 mRNA and protein expression were evaluated by Affymetrix microarray analysis (n = 20) and immunohistochemistry (n = 44) on pretreatment biopsy samples of patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum, and were correlated with clinical and histopathologic characteristics as well as with 5-year rates of local failure and overall survival. Results: A significantly decreased median caveolin-1 intracellular mRNA level was observed in tumor biopsy samples as compared with noncancerous mucosa. Individual mRNA levels and immunohistologic staining, however, revealed an overexpression in 7 of 20 patients (35%) and 17 of 44 patients (38.6%), respectively. Based on immunohistochemical evaluation, local control rates at 5 years for patients with tumors showing low caveolin-1 expression were significantly better than for patients with high caveolin-1-expressing carcinoma cells (p = 0.05; 92%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 82-102% vs. 72%, 95% CI = 49-84%). A low caveolin-1 protein expression was also significantly related to an increased overall survival rate (p = 0.05; 45%, 95% CI 16-60% vs. 82%, 95% CI = 67-97%). Conclusion: Caveolin-1 may provide a novel prognostic marker for local control and survival after preoperative CRT and surgical resection in rectal cancer.

  15. The slippery slope: Lubricant Use and Rectal Sexually Transmitted Infections: a newly identified risk

    PubMed Central

    Gorbach, Pamina M.; Weiss, Robert E.; Fuchs, Edward; Jeffries, Robin A.; Hezerah, Marjan; Brown, Stephen; Voskanian, Alen; Robbie, Edward; Anton, Peter; Cranston, Ross D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Use of lubricant products is extremely common during receptive anal intercourse (RAI) yet has not been assessed as a risk for acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods From 2006–2008 a rectal health and behavior study was conducted in Baltimore and Los Angeles as part of the UCLA Microbicide Development Program (NIAID IPCP# #0606414). Participants completed questionnaires and rectal swabs were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis with the Aptima Combo 2 assay and blood was tested for syphilis (for RPR and TPHA with titer) and HIV. Of those reporting lubricant use and RAI, STI results were available for 380 participants. Univariate and multivariate regressions assessed associations of lubricant use in the past month during RAI with prevalent STIs. Results Consistent lubricant use during RAI in the past month was reported by 36% (137/380) of participants. Consistent past month lubricant users had a higher prevalence of STI than inconsistent users (9.5% vs. 2.9%; p=0.006). In a multivariable logistic regression model testing positive for STI was associated with consistent use of lubricant during RAI in the past month (adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 2.98 (95%CI 1.09, 8.15) after controlling for age, gender, study location, HIV status, and numbers of RAI partners in the past month. Conclusions Findings suggest some lubricant products may increase vulnerability to STIs. Because of wide use of lubricants and their potential as carrier vehicles for microbicides, further research is essential to clarify if lubricant use poses a public health risk. PMID:22183849

  16. Dietary manipulation of oncogenic microRNA expression in human rectal mucosa: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Karen J; Conlon, Michael A; Young, Graeme P; Topping, David L; Hu, Ying; Winter, Jean M; Bird, Anthony R; Cobiac, Lynne; Kennedy, Nicholas A; Michael, Michael Z; Le Leu, Richard K

    2014-08-01

    High red meat (HRM) intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk, while resistant starch is probably protective. Resistant starch fermentation produces butyrate, which can alter microRNA (miRNA) levels in colorectal cancer cells in vitro; effects of red meat and resistant starch on miRNA expression in vivo were unknown. This study examined whether a HRM diet altered miRNA expression in rectal mucosa tissue of healthy volunteers, and if supplementation with butyrylated resistant starch (HRM+HAMSB) modified this response. In a randomized cross-over design, 23 volunteers undertook four 4-week dietary interventions; an HRM diet (300 g/day lean red meat) and an HRM+HAMSB diet (HRM with 40 g/day butyrylated high amylose maize starch), preceded by an entry diet and separated by a washout. Fecal butyrate increased with the HRM+HAMSB diet. Levels of oncogenic mature miRNAs, including miR17-92 cluster miRNAs and miR21, increased in the rectal mucosa with the HRM diet, whereas the HRM+HAMSB diet restored miR17-92 miRNAs, but not miR21, to baseline levels. Elevated miR17-92 and miR21 in the HRM diet corresponded with increased cell proliferation, and a decrease in miR17-92 target gene transcript levels, including CDKN1A. The oncogenic miR17-92 cluster is differentially regulated by dietary factors that increase or decrease risk for colorectal cancer, and this may explain, at least in part, the respective risk profiles of HRM and resistant starch. These findings support increased resistant starch consumption as a means of reducing risk associated with an HRM diet. PMID:25092886

  17. Adjuvant therapy sparing in rectal cancer achieving complete response after chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    García-Albéniz, Xabier; Gallego, Rosa; Hofheinz, Ralf Dieter; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Ayuso-Colella, Juan Ramón; Bombí, Josep Antoni; Conill, Carles; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Delgado, Salvadora; Ginés, Angels; Miquel, Rosa; Pagés, Mario; Pineda, Estela; Pereira, Verónica; Sosa, Aarón; Reig, Oscar; Victoria, Iván; Feliz, Luis; María de Lacy, Antonio; Castells, Antoni; Burkholder, Iris; Hochhaus, Andreas; Maurel, Joan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term results of conventional chemoradiotherapy and laparoscopic mesorectal excision in rectal adenocarcinoma patients without adjuvant therapy. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the rectum staged cT3-T4 by endoscopic ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging received neoadjuvant continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil for five weeks and concomitant radiotherapy. Laparoscopic surgery was planned after 5-8 wk. Patients diagnosed with ypT0N0 stage cancer were not treated with adjuvant therapy according to the protocol. Patients with ypT1-2N0 or ypT3-4 or N+ were offered 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant treatment on an individual basis. An external cohort was used as a reference for the findings. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy six patients were treated with induction chemoradiotherapy and 170 underwent total mesorectal excision. Cancer staging of ypT0N0 was achieved in 26/170 (15.3%) patients. After a median follow-up of 58.3 mo, patients with ypT0N0 had five-year disease-free and overall survival rates of 96% (95%CI: 77-99) and 100%, respectively. We provide evidence about the natural history of patients with localized rectal cancer achieving a complete response after preoperative chemoradiation. The inherent good prognosis of these patients will have implications for clinical trial design and care of patients. CONCLUSION: Withholding adjuvant chemotherapy after complete response following standard neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and laparoscopic mesorectal excision might be safe within an experienced multidisciplinary team. PMID:25400468

  18. Voxel-based population analysis for correlating local dose and rectal toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Oscar; Drean, Gael; Ospina, Juan D; Simon, Antoine; Haigron, Pascal; Lafond, Caroline; de Crevoisier, Renaud

    2013-04-21

    The majority of current models utilized for predicting toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy are based on dose-volume histograms. One of their main drawbacks is the lack of spatial accuracy, since they consider the organs as a whole volume and thus ignore the heterogeneous intra-organ radio-sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a dose-image-based framework to reveal the relationships between local dose and toxicity. In this approach, the three-dimensional (3D) planned dose distributions across a population are non-rigidly registered into a common coordinate system and compared at a voxel level, therefore enabling the identification of 3D anatomical patterns, which may be responsible for toxicity, at least to some extent. Additionally, different metrics were employed in order to assess the quality of the dose mapping. The value of this approach was demonstrated by prospectively analyzing rectal bleeding (?Grade 1 at 2 years) according to the CTCAE v3.0 classification in a series of 105 patients receiving 80 Gy to the prostate by intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Within the patients presenting bleeding, a significant dose excess (6 Gy on average, p < 0.01) was found in a region of the anterior rectal wall. This region, close to the prostate (1 cm), represented less than 10% of the rectum. This promising voxel-wise approach allowed subregions to be defined within the organ that may be involved in toxicity and, as such, must be considered during the inverse IMRT planning step. PMID:23528429

  19. Evaluation of preoperative serum markers for individual patient prognosis in stage I-III rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Giessen, Clemens; Nagel, Dorothea; Glas, Maria; Spelsberg, Fritz; Lau-Werner, Ulla; Modest, Dominik Paul; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Stieber, Petra; Schulz, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    Several independent serum biomarkers have been proposed as prognostic and/or predictive markers for colorectal cancer (CRC). To this date, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) remains the only recommended serological CRC biomarker. The present retrospective analysis investigates the prognostic value of several serum markers. A total of 256 patients with rectal cancer underwent surgery for curative intent in a university cancer center between January 1988 and June 2007. Preoperative serum was retrospectively analyzed for albumin, alkaline phosphatase (aP), beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, bilirubin, CA 125, cancer antigen 19-9, cancer antigen 72-4 (CA 72-4), CEA, CRP, CYFRA 21-1, ferritin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutamate oxaloacetate transanunase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, hemoglobin, haptoglobin, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, creatinine, lactate-dehydrogenase, serum amyloid A (SAA), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated. Median follow-up time was 8.4 years. Overall 3- and 5-year CSS was 88.6 and 78.9 %, respectively. DFS rates were 72.8 % (3 years) and 67.5 % (5 years). Univariate analysis of CSS indicated aP, CA 72-4, CEA, and SAA as prognostic factors, while aP, CEA, and SAA were also prognostic with regard to DFS. Multivariate analysis confirmed SAA together with T and N stage as prognostic factors. According to UICC stage, CEA and SAA add prognostic value in stages II and III with regard to DFS and CSS, respectively. The combined use of CEA and SAA is able to identify patients with favorable and poor prognosis. In addition to tumor baseline parameters, routine analysis of SAA together with CEA provided markedly improved prognostic value on CSS and DFS in resected rectal cancer. PMID:25027407

  20. Tax Policy and Administration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    World Bank's new Tax Policy and Administration Website is the seventh site in a series offering in-depth bibliographies of aspects of the public sector. Tax Policy and Administration is divided into five main topics. Each of the five topics provides a collection of readings, papers, and reports. The key reading in the first topic, Institutional Framework of Tax Policy, deals with a comparative analysis of the Korean, US, and Japanese electoral tax cycles. Designing Tax Structure looks at tax design, including theory, practice, and analytic methods. The third section, The Institutional Framework of Tax Administration, examines cultural, social, economic, and legal institutions and their effects on tax administration, such as corruption, incentives, and economic development and reform. Tax administration itself is covered in the fourth topic, and the final theme, Evaluating Tax Policy and Administration, offers a collection of readings providing analysis of tax administration framework. This site's compilation is obviously carefully thought out and researched. While each reading is abstracted, only a handful of them are available in their entirety online.