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1

Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process  

SciTech Connect

Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

Not Available

1980-01-01

2

Gas processing handbook  

SciTech Connect

Brief details are given of processes including: BGC-Lurgi slagging gasification, COGAS, Exxon catalytic coal gasification, FW-Stoic 2-stage, GI two stage, HYGAS, Koppers-Totzek, Lurgi pressure gasification, Saarberg-Otto, Shell, Texaco, U-Gas, W-D.IGI, Wellman-Galusha, Westinghouse, and Winkler coal gasification processes; the Rectisol process; the Catacarb and the Benfield processes for removing CO/SUB/2, H/SUB/2s and COS from gases produced by the partial oxidation of coal; the selectamine DD, Selexol solvent, and Sulfinol gas cleaning processes; the sulphur-tolerant shift (SSK) process; and the Super-meth process for the production of high-Btu gas from synthesis gas.

Not Available

1982-04-01

3

Save with Hybrid Refrigeration  

E-print Network

of refrigeration, consisting of an ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) unit and a mechanical compression refrigera tion (MCR) unit, is presented in this article. This paper will briefly describe process configur ation, advantages and utility consumption..., equip ment cost and direct field cost comparisons of such a hybri~ refrigeration unit over its coun terpart, a cascading MCR unit, in a Rectisol application. INTRODUCTION COMBINING REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS can save energy where two levels...

Chung, C. W.

4

Hydrocarbon Processing`s gas processes `98  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarizes 82 processes for natural gas desulfurization, separation, liquefaction, and materials recovery, especially of hydrogen. Each entry describes the application, end products, the process, operating conditions, economics, installations, licensor, and gives references, if appropriate.

NONE

1998-04-01

5

Scientific Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from NOVA, expand your understanding of the scientific process. Watch two videos featuring animations and interviews with scientists, and notice how the processes unfold and vary from one investigation to the other.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-01

6

Hydrocarbon Processing`s petrochemical processes `97  

SciTech Connect

The paper compiles information on numerous petrochemical processes, describing the application, the process, yields, economics, commercial plants, references, and licensor. Petrochemicals which are synthesized include: alkylbenzene, methylamines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, phthalic anhydride, polycaproamide, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, PVC, styrene, terephthalic acid, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers.

NONE

1997-03-01

7

Process Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a webpage with many learning objects concerning Process Control with lessons in Temperature, Level, Pressure, Flow, Analytical, Symbols, Tuning & Calibration, PID Controls and other basic concepts.

2012-10-22

8

Peat Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

1986-01-01

9

Solidification processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solidification processing activities are reported. The following topics are studied: behavior of semisolid metals, purification and strengthening by fractional melting, continuous casting, control of ingot surface quality, and metal matrix composites. Formation of deoxidation products in steels is also investigated. Rapid solidification, crystal growth, experimental and mathematical modeling of solidification processes are explored.

1982-01-01

10

Process description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production of hydrogen from coal by hydrogasification and subsequent steam hydrocarbon reforming was studied. Process heat and power requirements are supplied by an HTGR. The process is examined as a function of a maximum reforming (process) temperature of 922 K (1200 F) to 1367 K (2000 F). The major parameters for the five cases selected are summarized in a table. A fixed thermal capacity of 3000 MW for the HTGR heat source was used as a basis. The resulting hydrogen production rates and the corresponding hydrogen purity are also given in a table.

1975-01-01

11

Process Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from ATETV, learn about the field of process technology and what it takes to work in the field from the perspectives of a student, a community college professor, and an industry specialist.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-07-11

12

COLLAGEN PROCESSING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Collagen dispersions, produced from fibrils recovered from milled bovine collagen, have shown promise in environmental remediation in applications as settling aids, filtration aids, fractionation media, oil drop stabilizers, and water purification aids. Macroporous structures, processed by controll...

13

Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of image processing addresses handling and analysis of images for many purposes using a large number of techniques\\u000a and methods. The applications of image processing range from enhancement of the visibility of certain organs in medical images\\u000a to object recognition for handling by industrial robots and face recognition for identification at airports, but also searching\\u000a for images in

Ferdi van der Heijden; Luuk Spreeuwers; H. M. Blanken; A. P. Vries de; H. E. Blok; L Feng

2007-01-01

14

Runoff Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Runoff Processes module offers a thorough introduction to the runoff processes critical for flood and water supply prediction. Through the use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains key terminology and concepts including paths to runoff, basin and soil properties and runoff modeling. It also provides an introduction to the National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS). As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own or used as a supporting topic to provide factual scientific information to students as they complete the case-based forecasting modules.

Comet

2006-06-13

15

Exhumation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep-seated metamorphic rocks are commonly found in the interior ol many divergent and convergent nrogens. Plate tcctonics can account for high-pressure meta- morphism by subduction and crustal thickening, hut the return of these metamorphosed crustal rocks back to the surface is a more complicated problem. In particular, we scek to know how various processes, such as normal faulting, ductile thinning,

UWE RING; MARK T. BRANDON; SEAN D. WILLETT; G. S. Lister

1999-01-01

16

On Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claims that the product approach to business writing prescribes a way of operating similar to imitation and creates an illusion of a static world when, in reality, the business environment is constantly in flux. Argues that the process approach to writing instruction should be used in business communication classes. (JD)

Waxler, Robert P.

1987-01-01

17

Vector processing  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for adapting a scalar data processor having a cache memory connected between main memory and a central processing unit, for efficient vector processing including: means for defining separate scalar and vector data areas in the cache memory, vector mode selection means for selectively enabling access to either the vector or scalar data areas of the cache memory, cache memory addressing means including separate vector and scalar addressing means responsive to the vector mode selection means and the central processing unit for accessing either the vector or scalar data areas of the cache memory, wherein the central processing unit includes: a pair of operand registers, and a result register, coupling means for providing a data path from the operand registers to an ALU and a further data path from an ALU to the result register, second coupling means for providing a data path from the cache memory to one of the operand registers and to the result register; an output buffer; third coupling means providing a data path from either of the operand registers to the second coupling means and to the output buffer; fourth coupling means providing a data path from the second coupling means or the output buffer to the cache memory; and fifth coupling means providing a data path from the result register to either of the operand registers.

Drimak, E.G.

1986-06-10

18

Image Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Images are prepared from data acquired by the multispectral scanner aboard Landsat, which views Earth in four ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, two visible bands and two infrared. Scanner picks up radiation from ground objects and converts the radiation signatures to digital signals, which are relayed to Earth and recorded on tape. Each tape contains "pixels" or picture elements covering a ground area; computerized equipment processes the tapes and plots each pixel, line be line to produce the basic image. Image can be further processed to correct sensor errors, to heighten contrast for feature emphasis or to enhance the end product in other ways. Key factor in conversion of digital data to visual form is precision of processing equipment. Jet Propulsion Laboratory prepared a digital mosaic that was plotted and enhanced by Optronics International, Inc. by use of the company's C-4300 Colorwrite, a high precision, high speed system which manipulates and analyzes digital data and presents it in visual form on film. Optronics manufactures a complete family of image enhancement processing systems to meet all users' needs. Enhanced imagery is useful to geologists, hydrologists, land use planners, agricultural specialists geographers and others.

1982-01-01

19

Signal processing  

SciTech Connect

Space-variant coordinate transformations may be profitably applied to many signal-processing problems; for example, image convolutions are often computed by multiplying the Fourier transforms of the images rather than by direct methods (i.e., shift, multiply, and add). Some signal-processing algorithms are presently under study that operate on projection-based representations of the function. The best-known projection representation is the Radon transform (Radon, 1917) (Easton, 1986), which is the mathematical basis for several medical imaging techniques, e.g., medical computed tomography (CT or CAT) and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The Radon transform reduces the two-dimensional (2-D) data set to a series of 1-D line-integral projections at each azimuth. 8 refs.

Easton, R.L. Jr.

1990-01-01

20

Signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space-variant coordinate transformations may be profitably applied to many signal processing problems; for example, image convolutions are often computed by multiplying the Fourier transforms of the images rather than by direct methods (i.e., shift, multiply, and add). Some signal processing algorithms are presently under study that operate on projection-based representations of the function. The best known projection representation is the Radon transform (Radon, 1917) (Easton, 1986), which is the mathematical basis for several medical imaging techniques, e.g., medical computed tomography (CT or CAT) and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The Radon transform reduces the 2-D data set to a series of 1-D line integral projections at each azimuth.

Easton, Roger L., Jr.

1990-01-01

21

Radiative processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar radiation and the processes that control its deposition in the Earth atmosphere are considered. The published data obtained since 1978 define a reference solar spectral irradiance for use in atmospheric chemical and dynamical studies, while long term satellite measurements are now providing information on variations in the output of the Sun over a range of time scales. As concerns absorption of solar radiation in the atmosphere, new cross section data for molecular oxygen and ozone are now available. Line-by-line calculations used to predict infrared flux divergences, both as regards assumptions made in radiative transfer calculations and in the spectroscopic parameters used as inputs are examined. Also examined are the influence of radiative processes on planetary scale wave activity, photochemical acceleration of radiative damping, and the breakdown of local thermodynamic equilibrium at mesospheric altitudes.

Frederick, J. E.; Leovy, C.; Anderson, D. E., Jr.; Anderson, G. P.; Dickinson, R. E.; Drayson, S. R.; Fels, S.; Hall, L. A.; Kiehl, J.; Mentall, J. E.

1985-01-01

22

Restoration Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

1979-01-01

23

Fermentation process  

SciTech Connect

Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

Lutzen, N.W.

1982-02-23

24

Renewal Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama-Huntsville, this is an online, interactive lesson on the renewal processes. The resource provides examples, exercises, and applets which include renewal equations and renewal limit theorems. This is the fifteenth of seventeen different statistics lessons presented by Siegrist. This site is broken up much like an online textbook. Each lesson is separable, but together, they form a cohesive look at different aspects of statistics.

Siegrist, Kyle

25

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. (2008)  

E-print Network

Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA 2 Watershed Science for signal processing, snowfall algorithm development and optimal installation in preparation for the 2007 to: Wendy A. Ryan, 1371 General Delivery, Col- orado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523

26

Signal Processing: Introduction Digital Signal Processing  

E-print Network

Signal Processing: Introduction Digital Signal Processing Introduction Areas of Applications signals and processing #12;Signal Processing: Introduction DSP in various disciplines Communication, Finance ( Economic models, Stock market) and many more #12;Signal Processing: Introduction DSP

Rimon, Elon

27

Ceramic Processing  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

EWSUK,KEVIN G.

1999-11-24

28

Cracking process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a cracking process wherein a hydrocarbon-containing feed is contacted with a zeolite-containing cracking catalyst in a cracking zone under cracking conditions and at least a portion of the zeolite-containing catalyst is removed from the cracking zone, contacted with treating fluid comprising steam, and then recycled back to the cracking zone. The improvement described here comprises employing in the treating fluid an organic compound selected from hydrocarbons containing at least 5 carbon atoms per molecule and a molecular weight of no more than 100, in an amount sufficient to reduce the adverse effect that the steam has on the surface of the cracking catalyst.

Bertus, B.J.; Fu, C.M.

1986-12-30

29

Materials & Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by National Aerospace Technical Education Center (SpaceTEC), is centered on materials and processes. The document focuses on the material structure of metal. It mainly focuses on the properties, these being: hardness, brittleness, malleability, ductility, elasticity, toughness, density, fusibility, conductivity, contraction and expansion. After the initial discussion of properties, the topic shifts to metalworking, case hardening and corrosion. Corrosion dominates over half of the presentation. Overall, this is thorough examination of this material. It totals nearly seventy slides in length. Instructors could use this either as a study guide or simply to enhance existing curriculum.

30

Signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of signal processing technology to conventional weapons systems can lower operator workloads and enhance kill probabilities, while automating wide-area surveillance, target search and classification, target tracking, and aimpoint selection. Immediate opportunities exist for automatic target cueing in underwater and over-the-horizon targeting, as well as for airborne multiple-target fire control. By embedding the transit/receive electronics into conformal aircraft sensor arrays, a 'smart' skin can be created. Electronically scanned phased arrays can be used to yield accurate azimuthal and elevation positions while nullifying EW threats. Attention is given to major development thrusts in algorithm design.

Norman, David M.

31

Information Processing – Administrative Data Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm\\u000a University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering\\u000a orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics.\\u000a The third semester aimed to deepen

Janis Bubenko

2009-01-01

32

Etherification process  

DOEpatents

A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1990-08-21

33

Oligomerization process  

DOEpatents

A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1991-03-26

34

Crystallization process  

DOEpatents

An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

Adler, Robert J. (Shaker Heights, OH); Brown, William R. (Brecksville, OH); Auyang, Lun (Highland Heights, OH); Liu, Yin-Chang (Richmond Heights, OH); Cook, W. Jeffrey (Cleveland Heights, OH)

1986-01-01

35

Image Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

1993-01-01

36

Process Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Axiomatics Corporation developed a shunting Dielectric Sensor to determine the nutrient level and analyze plant nutrient solutions in the CELSS, NASA's space life support program. (CELSS is an experimental facility investigating closed-cycle plant growth and food processing for long duration manned missions.) The DiComp system incorporates a shunt electrode and is especially sensitive to changes in dielectric property changes in materials at measurements much lower than conventional sensors. The analyzer has exceptional capabilities for predicting composition of liquid streams or reactions. It measures concentrations and solids content up to 100 percent in applications like agricultural products, petrochemicals, food and beverages. The sensor is easily installed; maintenance is low, and it can be calibrated on line. The software automates data collection and analysis.

1993-01-01

37

Process Technology: Process Maintenance Engineer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, youâ??ll meet Tyrone Walker, who keeps the enormous machines at a Tupperware factory running 24/7/365. Tyrone is a process maintenance engineer. This means he inspects all the parts of a machineâ??s electronics system looking for problems, from the tiniest components to the machine as a whole. Tyrone's community college degree in electronic engineering is key to doing this job, which he loves.The video runs 2:46 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

38

Dynamic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this chapter is to present the results of the dynamics of exciton (polariton)s or more generally of electron-hole pairs. For a recent review of this topic concentrating on quantum wells, see Davies and Jagadish (Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1), 1(2008)). We neither consider the dynamics of carriers, for example, their relaxation time entering in Hall mobility or electrical conductivity, nor the dynamics of phonons or spins, respectively. We give here only a very small selection of references to these topics (Baxter and Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 110:25229, 2006; Queiroz et al. Superlattice Microstruct. 42:270, 2007; Niehaus and Schwarz, Superlattice Microstruct. 42:299, 2007; Lee et al., J. Appl. Phys. 93:4939, 2003; A. K Azad, J. Han, W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88:021103, 2006; Janssen et al., QELS 2008 IEEE 2; D. Lagarde et al., Phys. Stat. Sol. C 4:472, 2007; S. Gosh et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86:232507, 2005; W. K. Liu et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98:186804, 2007). The main characteristic time constants relevant to optical properties close to the fundamental absorption edge are the dephasing time T 2, (i.e. the time after which the polarization amplitude of the optically excited electron-hole pair loses the coherence with the driving light field), the intra band or inter sub band relaxation times T 3 (i.e. the time it takes for the electron-hole pairs to relax from their initial state of excitation to a certain other state e.g. to a thermal distribution with a temperature equal to or possibly still above lattice temperature) and finally the lifetime T 1 (i.e. the time until the electron-hole pairs recombine). The characteristic time constants T 2 and T 1 are also known as transverse and longitudinal relaxation times, respectively. Their inverses are the corresponding rate constants. T 2 is inversely proportional to the homogeneous width ?, and T 1 includes both the radiative and the generally dominating non-radiative recombination (Hauser et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92:211105, 2008). For this point, recall Figs. 6.16 and 6.33. Since the polarisation amplitude is gone in any case after the recombination process, there is an upper limit for T 2 given by T 2 ? 2 T1. The factor of two comes from the fact that T 2 describes the decay of an amplitude and T 1 the decay of a population, which is proportional to the amplitude squared. Sometimes T 2 is subdivided in a term due to recombination described by T 1 and another called 'pure dephasing' called T 2 ? with the relation 1 / T 2 = 1 / 2 T 1 + 1 / T2 ?. The quantity T 2 ? can considerably exceed 2 T 1. In the part on relaxation processes that is on processes contributing to T 3, we give also examples for the capture of excitons into bound, localized, or deep states. For more details on dynamics in semiconductors in general see for example, the (text-) books [Klingshirn, Semiconductor Optics, 3rd edn. (Springer, Berlin, 2006); Haug and Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 4th edn. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2004); Haug and Jauho, Quantum Kinetics in Transport and Optics of Semiconductors, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 123 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 115 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); Schafer and Wegener, Semiconductor Optics and Transport Phenomena (Springer, Berlin, 2002)]. We present selected data for free, bound and localized excitons, biexcitons and electron-hole pairs in an EHP and examples for bulk materials, epilayers, quantum wells, nano rods and nano crystals with the restriction that - to the knowledge of the author - data are not available for all these systems, density ranges and temperatures. Therefore, we subdivide the topic below only according to the three time constants T 2, T 3 and T 1.

Klingshirn, C.

39

Data Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of disease and personalisation of health care [14].

Grangeat, P.

40

Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

Bubenko, Janis

41

Hydrothermal Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater (after C. A. Stein and S. Stein, 1994). The first geochemical evidence for the existence of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor came in the mid-1960s when investigations in the Red Sea revealed deep basins filled with hot, salty water (40-60 °C) and underlain by thick layers of metal-rich sediment (Degens and Ross, 1969). Because the Red Sea represents a young, rifting, ocean basin it was speculated that the phenomena observed there might also prevail along other young MOR spreading centers. An analysis of core-top sediments from throughout the world's oceans ( Figure 2) revealed that such metalliferous sediments did, indeed, appear to be concentrated along the newly recognized global ridge crest (Boström et al., 1969). Another early indication of hydrothermal activity came from the detection of plumes of excess 3He in the Pacific Ocean Basin (Clarke et al., 1969) - notably the >2,000 km wide section in the South Pacific ( Lupton and Craig, 1981) - because 3He present in the deep ocean could only be sourced through some form of active degassing of the Earth's interior, at the seafloor. (62K)Figure 2. Global map of the (Al+Fe+Mn):Al ratio for surficial marine sediments. Highest ratios mimic the trend of the global MOR axis (after Boström et al., 1969). One area where early heat-flow studies suggested hydrothermal activity was likely to occur was along the Galapagos Spreading Center in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (Anderson and Hobart, 1976). In 1977, scientists diving at this location found hydrothermal fluids discharging chemically altered seawater from young volcanic seafloor at elevated temperatures up to 17 °C ( Edmond et al., 1979). Two years later, the first high-temperature (380±30 °C) vent fluids were found at 21° N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) (Spiess et al., 1980) - with fluid compositions remarkably close to those predicted from the lower-temperature Galapagos findings ( Edmond et al., 1979). Since that time, hydrothermal activity has been found at more than 40 locations throughout the Pacific, North Atlanti

German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

2003-12-01

42

Electrotechnologies to process foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

43

Extensible packet processing architecture  

DOEpatents

A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

2013-08-20

44

Device Development Process  

MedlinePLUS

... Development Process The Device Development Process Fast Track, Breakthrough Therapy, Accelerated Approval and Priority Review Learn About ... Development Process The Device Development Process Fast Track, Breakthrough Therapy, Accelerated Approval and Priority Review + Learn About ...

45

Drug Development Process  

MedlinePLUS

... Development Process The Device Development Process Fast Track, Breakthrough Therapy, Accelerated Approval and Priority Review Learn About ... Development Process The Device Development Process Fast Track, Breakthrough Therapy, Accelerated Approval and Priority Review + Learn About ...

46

Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent  

DOEpatents

In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Kang, Dohee (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01

47

Software ProcessSoftware Process Simulation Modelingg  

E-print Network

Process Project environments T h l Project environments in SPSM> People Technology 5/27 KAIST SE LAB view and time- span to answer the key questions related to the objectives process and project SE LAB 2009 #12;Content Part I: Definition of Software Process Simulation M d li (SPSM)Modeling (SPSM

Bae, Doo-Hwan

48

Bolt Manufacture: Process Selection  

E-print Network

Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 6 #12;Powder ProcessingPowder Processing · Cold Dual action press ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 8 #12;Cold / HeadingRolling / Heading · Roll the threads · Upset forge the headg ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes

Colton, Jonathan S.

49

Desalination processes and performance  

SciTech Connect

Different desalination processes are evaluated for feed, capacity, performance, energy requirements, and cost. These include distillation, reverse osmosis, or electrodialysis. Detailed information is given on distillation processes and membrane processes.

Summers, L. J.

1995-06-01

50

Construction work process management  

E-print Network

(TQM) has received considerable attention in the construction industry. A major tenet of TQM is process improvement. In this study, the work process (or process) concept is used as a means to investigate the effect of TQM on construction...

Soares, Jorge Barbosa

2012-06-07

51

From Process Model To Electronic Business Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early nineties business processes have been coming more and more into the focus of ISresearch. As a consequence numerous approaches to process modelling have been developed such asEvent-driven Process Chains (EPCs, ARIS House of Business), Semantic Object Model (SOM), Bonapartand INCOME\\/STAR. Many of these approaches concentrate on the socio-technical dimension of businessprocesses. Hence, apart from technical aspects such

Peter Rittgen

1999-01-01

52

Digital Signal Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital signal processing is a technique that uses digital methods to process signals. Processing a signal means manipulating it to improve it, change it, or alter it as required for some application. Some examples of processes are filtering, modulation and demodulation, mixing, spectrum analysis, compression and decompression, and many others. In the past, most of these processes have been accomplished with analog techniques and circuits. Today, that has changed. While analog processing has not disappeared, it is slowly being replaced by digital processing in most applications. DSP is now used in almost all electronic equipment and knowledge of its operation is critical to an overall knowledge and understanding of electronics. In digital processing, the analog signal to be processed is first converted to digital then processing is done by a computer. The computer output is then converted back to analog. This module describes this process and outlines the most common applications.

53

Coal processing: the Exxon donor solvent process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Exxon coal liquefaction process over 10 years is described. Exxon is using lower temperatures and lower pressures (approximately 100 bar) than were used in the Bergius process. The donor solvent is produced in a separate, fixed bed, catalytic hydrogenation step. Early research was broad in scope including, both hydrogenated and unhydrogenated recycle solvent studies. Alternate solids\\/liquids

L. E. Furlong; E. Effron; L. W. Vernon; E. L. Wilson

1976-01-01

54

Semantic Business Process Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current Business Process Management technologies cover all the process life-cycle but still suffer from many limitations with respect to their complexity, maintainability and degree of automation. Recent research initiatives aim at overcoming these limitations by introducing Semantic technologies in the process life-cycle. One of the steps that can benefit from this approach is the Business Process Analysis, that focuses on

Irene Celino; Ana Karla Alves De Medeiros; Gernot Zeissler; Michael Oppitz; Federico Michele Facca; Stefan Zoeller

2007-01-01

55

Process Algebra Rance Cleaveland  

E-print Network

Process Algebra Rance Cleaveland Department of Computer Science P.O. Box 7534 North Carolina State York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, NY 11794-4400 USA April 7, 1999 Abstract Process algebra represents a mathematically rigorous framework for modeling con- current systems of interacting processes. The process-algebraic

56

Definitions: HACCP: Process 1  

E-print Network

: HACCP: Process 1 Process 1 Foods: Foods that do not require cooling below 5°C (41°F) or heating above. Some foods in this process may be cooled or heated during the preparation step, but in general, process level. Critical Limit (CL): The maximum or minimum value of a physical, biologic, or chemical parameter

57

A Modal Process Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel logic is introduced for the introduction of nondeterministic and concurrent processes expressed in a process algebra. For a process algebra to be useful as a process language, it must possess compositionality, i.e. it should be possible to decompose the problem of correctness for a combined system with respect to a given specification of similar and simpler correctness problems

Kim Guldstrand Larsen; Bent Thomsen

1988-01-01

58

Control of Manufacturing Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course features a complete set of lecture notes and problem sets with solutions. The objective of this subject is to understand the nature of manufacturing process variation and the methods for its control. The key concepts of these lessons are: statistical process control, process optimization and in-process feedback control.

Boning, Duane S.; Hardt, D. E. (David E.)

2009-01-28

59

Experimental Quantum Process Discrimination  

E-print Network

Discrimination between unknown processes chosen from a finite set is experimentally shown to be possible even in the case of non-orthogonal processes. We demonstrate unambiguous deterministic quantum process discrimination (QPD) of non-orthogonal processes using properties of entanglement, additional known unitaries, or higher dimensional systems. Single qubit measurement and unitary processes and multipartite unitaries (where the unitary acts non-separably across two distant locations) acting on photons are discriminated with a confidence of $\\geq97%$ in all cases.

Anthony Laing; Terry Rudolph; Jeremy L. O'Brien

2008-01-24

60

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements  

SciTech Connect

In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

Griebenow, B.

1996-03-01

61

Processing Natural Language without Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We can still create computer programs displaying only the most rudimentary natural language processing capabilities. One of\\u000a the greatest barriers to advanced natural language processing is our inability to overcome the linguistic knowledge acquisition\\u000a bottleneck. In this paper, we describe recent work in a number of areas, including grammar checker development, automatic\\u000a question answering, and language modeling, where state of

Eric Brill

2003-01-01

62

Thermochemical water decomposition processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermochemical processes which lead to the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water without the consumption of any other material have a number of advantages when compared to other processes such as water electrolysis. It is possible to operate a sequence of chemical steps with net work requirements equal to zero at temperatures well below the temperature required for water dissociation in a single step. Various types of procedures are discussed, giving attention to halide processes, reverse Deacon processes, iron oxide and carbon oxide processes, and metal and alkali metal processes. Economical questions are also considered.

Chao, R. E.

1974-01-01

63

Gas-separation process  

DOEpatents

A process for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material.

Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

1994-01-01

64

Test processing system (SEE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SEE data processing system, developed in 1985, manages and process test results. General information is provided on the SEE system: objectives, characteristics, basic principles, general organization, and operation. Full documentation is accessible by computer using the HELP SEE command.

Gaulene, P.

1986-01-01

65

Aerospace Materials and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center presents materials on aerospace materials and processes. Topics discussed include structural materials, metal types, metalworking processes, corrosion and corrosion prevention, fluid lines and composites.

2011-09-22

66

GREENSCOPE: Sustainable Process Modeling  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA researchers are responding to environmental problems by incorporating sustainability into process design and evaluation. EPA researchers are also developing a tool that allows users to assess modifications to existing and new chemical processes to determine whether changes in...

67

Digital pulse processing  

E-print Network

This thesis develops an exact approach for processing pulse signals from an integrate-and-fire system directly in the time-domain. Processing is deterministic and built from simple asynchronous finite-state machines that ...

McCormick, Martin (Martin Steven)

2012-01-01

68

Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

2003-01-01

69

The requirements discovery process  

SciTech Connect

Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-02-01

70

Processes on Complex Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Building on their understanding of graphs, students are introduced to random processes on networks. They walk through an illustrative example to see how a random process can be used to represent the spread of an infectious disease, such as the flu, on a social network of students. This demonstrates how scientists and engineers use mathematics to model and simulate random processes on complex networks. Topics covered include random processes and modeling disease spread, specifically the SIR (susceptible, infectious, resistant) model.

2014-09-18

71

Digital image processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Federal Systems Division of IBM has developed an image processing facility to experimentally process, view, and record digital image data. This facility has been used to support LANDSAT digital image processing investigations and advanced image processing research and development. A brief description of the facility is presented, some techniques that have been developed to correct the image data are discussed, and some results obtained by users of the facility are described.

Bernstein, R.; Ferneyhough, D. G., Jr.

1975-01-01

72

Natural gas liquefaction processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The liquefaction of natural gas using a mixed refrigerant process was first proposed by Kleemenko in 1959 [50]. Mixed refrigerant\\u000a processes were subsequently adopted for the commercial liquefaction of natural gas nearly 40 years ago. Over 95% of the base-load\\u000a LNG plants operate on mixed refrigerant processes, with the remaining few operating on conventional cascade processes. The\\u000a enthalpy of natural

Gadhiraju Venkatarathnam

2008-01-01

73

Business process Modeling Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) specification provides an abstract model for expressing business processes,and supporting entities. BPML defines a formal model for expressing abstract and executable processes,thataddress,all aspects of enterprise business processes, including activities of varying complexity, transactions and their compensation, data management, concurrency, exception handling and operational semantics. BPML also provides a grammar in the form of

A. Arkin

2002-01-01

74

Conventional Thermal Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Thermal desalination processes account for about 50% of the entire desalination market. The remaining market share is dominated\\u000a by the reverse osmosis (RO) process. The main thermal desalination processes include multi-stage flash desalination (MSF),\\u000a multiple-effect distillation (MED), and mechanical vapor compression (MVC). Other thermal desalination processes, e.g., solar\\u000a stills, humidification dehumidification, freezing, etc., are only found on a pilot or

Hisham Ettouney

75

Statistical Process Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistical Process Control is a lesson plan which provides an overview of Statistical Process Control, showing the value of collecting and analyzing data that enables people to systematically analyze and improve a process. After completing this module, students should be able to construct and interpret different statistical charts in order to evaluate a process. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

Devine, Craig; Imre, John; King, John

2010-09-02

76

Comprehension Processes in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

77

Processes for metal extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the processing of plutonium at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and operation illustrating concepts that may be applicable to the processing of lunar materials. The toxic nature of plutonium requires a highly closed system for processing lunar surface materials.

Bowersox, David F.

1992-01-01

78

Chemical Process Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Process synthesis is the specification of chemical and physical operations and the selection and interconnection of equipment to implement these operations to effect desired chemical processing transformations. Optimization and evolutionary and systematic generation process synthesis approaches are described. (Author/SK)

Siirola, J. J.

1982-01-01

79

The Constitutional Amendment Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

Chism, Kahlil

2005-01-01

80

Signal Processing Information Base  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Signal Processing Information Base(SPIB) is a project sponsored by the Signal Processing Society and the National Science Foundation. SPIB is a repository of data, papers, software, newsgroups, bibliographies, and addresses of interest to the signal processing community, as well as links to other relevant repositories.

81

Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

Apelian,Diran

2002-01-10

82

The Process of Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper argues that innovation processes can be cognitive, organisational and\\/or economic. They happen in conditions of uncertainty and (in the capitalist system) of competition. Three broad, overlapping sub-processes of innovation are identified: the production of knowledge; the transformation of knowledge into products, systems, processes and services; and the continuous matching of the latter to market needs and demands. The

Keith Pavitt

2003-01-01

83

Guidance Document Unattended Processes  

E-print Network

Guidance Document Unattended Processes The overnight or unattended operation of laboratory of a comprehensive incident investigation. If you are a lab worker, do not leave processes unattended unless you have lubricated. #12; Consider the storage of apparatus and chemicals in close proximity to the unattended process

84

The Vitrifix process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vitrifix process solves the problems of nonbiodegradability and the legal liability for asbestos in a landfill by totally destroying the asbestos and converting it into a safe, useful product-glass. The process uses well-established glass technology in a unique fashion. The use of an existing technology gives great reliability, and the way it is applied makes the process intrinsically safe.

D. Roberts

1989-01-01

85

The plasma hearth process: Process residuals characterization  

SciTech Connect

The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature waste treatment process being developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Department of Energy (DOE) that destroys hazardous organics while stabilizing radionuclides and hazardous metals in a vitreous slag waste form. The PHP has potential application for the treatment of a wide range of mixed waste types in both the low-level and transuranic (TRU) mixed waste categories. DOE, through the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is conducting a three phase development project to ready the PHP for implementation in the DOE complex.

Leatherman, G.L.; Geimer, R.; Batdorf, J.; Hassel, G.; Wolfe, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carney, K.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-12-31

86

An improved plating process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative to the immersion process for the electrodeposition of chromium from aqueous solutions on the inside diameter (ID) of long tubes is described. The Vessel Plating Process eliminates the need for deep processing tanks, large volumes of solutions, and associated safety and environmental concerns. Vessel Plating allows the process to be monitored and controlled by computer thus increasing reliability, flexibility and quality. Elimination of the trivalent chromium accumulation normally associated with ID plating is intrinsic to the Vessel Plating Process. The construction and operation of a prototype Vessel Plating Facility with emphasis on materials of construction, engineered and operational safety and a unique system for rinse water recovery are described.

Askew, John C.

1994-01-01

87

Evaluation of steelmaking processes  

SciTech Connect

Objective of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program is to develop a process for producing steel directly from ore and coal; the process should be less capital intensive, consume less energy, and have higher productivity. A task force was formed to examine available processes: trough, posthearth, IRSID, Electric Arc Furnace, energy optimizing furnace. It is concluded that there is insufficient incentive to replace a working BOF with any of these processes to refine hot metal; however, if new steelmaking capacity is required, IRSID and EOF should be considered. A fully continuous process should not be considered until direct ironmaking and continuous refining are perfected.

Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-01-01

88

Process Technology: Training & Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video excerpted from Pathways to Technology, learn about process technology and career opportunities in this field. Process refers to the steps that chemicals go through to become products, like gasoline or medicine. Process technology is used in just about every manufacturing industry, from pharmaceuticals to automobiles to cosmetics. A process technician keeps the machines that process chemicals running smoothly.The video runs 2:46 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

89

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

1982-01-01

90

Quantum process nonclassicality.  

PubMed

We propose a definition of nonclassicality for a single-mode quantum-optical process based on its action on coherent states. If a quantum process transforms a coherent state to a nonclassical state, it is verified to be nonclassical. To identify nonclassical processes, we introduce a representation for quantum processes, called the process-nonclassicality quasiprobability distribution, whose negativities indicate nonclassicality of the process. Using this distribution, we derive a relation for predicting nonclassicality of the output states for a given input state. We experimentally demonstrate our method by considering the single-photon addition as a nonclassical process and predicting nonclassicality of the output state for an input thermal state. PMID:23679584

Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh; Kiesel, Thomas; Vogel, Werner; Grandi, Samuele; Zavatta, Alessandro; Bellini, Marco

2013-04-19

91

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 19, 265283 (2005)  

E-print Network

on contemporary processes of river erosion and sedimentation, and river mechanics D. H. de Boer,1 * M. A. Hassan,2 rivers; cohesive sediment transport; turbulent flow structure and sediment transport; and bed material; sediment transport; channel morphology; turbulent flow; Canada; river ice; bed material transport

92

Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

2012-01-01

93

Processing needs and constraints: neutron data processing  

SciTech Connect

New applications for processed data and increased accuracy requirements have generated needs for change in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF). Some constraints must be removed to allow this growth to take place, but other strong constraints must remain to protect existing users.

MacFarlane, R.E.

1980-01-01

94

2Laser Materials Processing LISI Process  

E-print Network

and a common delimitation failure point in laser clad material. The LISI process is somewhere in between surface treatment and laser cladding. In LISI a metal or metal/ceramic mixture is pre effects experienced in cladding and welding operations. Laser Induced Surface Improvement (LISI

Davis, Lloyd M.

95

Poisson branching point processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule-Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers.

Matsuo, Kuniaki; Teich, Malvin Carl; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.

1984-07-01

96

Poisson branching point processes  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers.

Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

1984-07-01

97

Future Steelmaking Processes  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing demand for an ironmaking process with lower capital cost, energy consumption and emissions than a blast furnace. It is the hypothesis of the present work that an optimized combination of two reasonable proven technologies will greatly enhance the overall process. An example is a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) linked to a smelter (e.g., AISI, HIsmelt). The objective of this research is to select promising process combinations, develop energy, materials balance and productivity models for the individual processes, conduct a limited amount of basic research on the processes and evaluate the process combinations. Three process combinations were selected with input from the industrial partners. The energy-materials and productivity models for the RHF, smelter, submerged arc furnace and CIRCOFER were developed. Since utilization of volatiles in coal is critical for energy and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, basic research on this topic was also conducted. The process models developed are a major product developed in this research. These models can be used for process evaluation by the industry. The process combinations of an RHF-Smelter and a simplified CIRCOFER-Smelter appear to be promising. Energy consumption is reduced and productivity increased. Work on this project is continuing using funds from other sources.

Prof. R. J. Fruehan

2004-09-20

98

Spitzer Telemetry Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

2013-01-01

99

Pultrusion process characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pultrusion is a process through which high-modulus, lightweight composite structural members such as beams, truss components, stiffeners, etc., are manufactured. The pultrusion process, though a well-developed processing art, lacks a fundamental scientific understanding. The objective here was to determine, both experimentally and analytically, the process parameters most important in characterizing and optimizing the pultrusion of uniaxial fibers. The effects of process parameter interactions were experimentally examined as a function of the pultruded product properties. A numerical description based on these experimental results was developed. An analytical model of the pultrusion process was also developed. The objective of the modeling effort was the formulation of a two-dimensional heat transfer model and development of solutions for the governing differential equations using the finite element method.

Vaughan, James G.; Hackett, Robert M.

1991-01-01

100

Digital signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signal and image processing research projects are described. Topics include: (1) modeling underwater acoustic propagation; (2) image restoration; (3) signal reconstruction; (4) speech enhancement; (5) pitch detection; (6) spectral analysis; (7) speech synthesis; (8) speech enhancement; (9) autoregressive spectral estimation; (10) knowledge based array processing; (11) speech analysis; (12) estimating the degree of coronary stenosis with image processing; (13) automatic target detection; and (14) video conferencing.

Oppenheim, A. V.; Baggeroer, A. B.; Lim, J. S.; Musicus, B. R.; Mook, D. R.; Duckworth, G. L.; Bordley, T. E.; Curtis, S. R.; Deadrick, D. S.; Dove, W. P.

1984-01-01

101

Materials processing in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief overview of the current Materials Processing in Space Program is given, including a tentative schedule of flight experiments. Some recent results of processing materials (e.g., polymers and eutectic materials) in a microgravity environment are given, along with a discussion on additional proposed flight experiments. Ground-based results and the rationale for flight experimentation will be presented for other materials processes, including crystal growth.

Oran, W. A.

1982-01-01

102

TEP process flow diagram  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

103

Processing Integrity Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Processing Integrity Challenge makes use of game theory to help students learn how to determine relevant application controls for accounting systems to ensure processing integrity is achieved. It specifically addresses source data, data entry, processing, and output controls. The playing format is an adaptation of the television game show, Jeopardy, which is a novel way to reinforce concepts and provide immediate feedback to confirm students' knowledge.

Moncada, Susan

104

Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

1984-01-01

105

A Simulated Metamorphic Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students investigate one aspect of metamorphic activity using an analogous process, and will realize how directed pressure can align mineral grains during metamorphism. They will discover that metamorphism is a complex process with a number of simultaneously interacting and related components; and that heat, pressure, degree and composition of reacting fluids (and chemical composition) all play a role in the metamorphic process.

106

NASA Hazard Analysis Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

Deckert, George

2010-01-01

107

Process heat applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conversion of solar energy into industrial process heat is discussed. The demand for industrial process heat energy exhibits distinct regimes of maximum usage: at medium temperatures, i.e., 300 C, and 1150 C. Solar radiation converted to process heat energy can be used as fuel saver but also for solar unique applications: direct absorption, uncommonly high temperatures, and photocatalytic promotion of thermochemical reactions. The fluctuating input causes logistics and materials problems. Thermochemical reactions under consideration for pilot tests are mentioned.

Sizmann, R.

1985-11-01

108

Containerless processing technology analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on acoustic levitation, air-jet levitation, and heat transfer from molten samples is reported. The goal was to obtain a better understanding and improving the quality of containerless processing systems. These systems are applied to the processing of materials in situations in which contact with a container must be avoided, and have potential application in both ground based and orbiting laboratories. Containerless processing is reviewed. The development of glasses from materials which normally crystallize upon cooling, are studied.

Rush, J. E.

1982-01-01

109

Electrotechnologies in Process Industries  

E-print Network

IETe CONFERENCE ELECTROTECHNOLOGIES IN PROCESS INDUSTRIES K. R. AMARNATH Project Manager, Process Industries Electric Power Research Institute Palo Alto, California INTRODUCTION The Industrial Program at the Electric Power Research... and demonstrated by the Industrial Program. Process Industries such as chemicals, petroleum, paper, textiles, and food are vital to the American economy. These industries consume nearly half of all the manufacturing industry electricity usage. It is...

Amarnath, K. R.

110

Industrial process surveillance system  

DOEpatents

A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

1998-06-09

111

Software testing process improvements  

SciTech Connect

Software process improvement has become a popular pastime, for a variety of reasons. The Software Engineering Institute`s summary of experimental data, which resulted in the Capability Maturity Model, has now had considerable corroboration. There are nearly as many software processes as there are combinations of developers, users, and products. Similarly, there are probably as many software process improvement approaches. However, the meta-process for performing process improvement is quite straightforward. Processes can be represented by a small number of abstractions, with variety supplied through implementation details. The scheme for improvement is almost self-evident: figure out where you are now, use a software process maturity guide to identify shortcomings, plot a change in a direction to eliminate a shortcoming, and go for it. This paper won`t dwell on the meta process and its enactment; the authors simply assume one is in place. Rather, they consider some ways to improve the testing aspects of your software process. These may be changes in what you do for testing as well as in how you do it.

Knirk, D.L.

1996-06-01

112

Living olefin polymerization processes  

DOEpatents

Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

Schrock, Richard R. (Winchester, MA); Baumann, Robert (Cambridge, MA)

1999-01-01

113

Living olefin polymerization processes  

DOEpatents

Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

1999-03-30

114

Dry Thermal Oxidation Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this YouTube video, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), viewers can watch an animation on the dry thermal oxidation process. This animation "illustrates the chemistry of a dry thermal oxidation process that is used to grow silicon dioxide (SiO2) on a silicon (Si) wafer. In a dry oxidation process, oxygen gas (O2) interacts with the silicon atoms at the SiO2 - Si interface to form SiO2. This process is discussed in more detail in the Deposition Overview for MEMS Learning Module" which can be found on the SCME website along with supplementary materials. 

2014-07-08

115

Wet Oxidation Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this YouTube video, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), viewers can watch an animation on the wet oxidation process. This animation "illustrates the chemistry of a wet thermal oxidation process that is used to grow silicon dioxide (SiO2) on a silicon (Si) wafer. In a wet oxidation process, water vapor (H2O) interacts with the silicon atoms at the SiO2-Si interface to form SiO2. This process is discussed in more detail in the Deposition Overview for MEMS Learning Module" found on the SCME website.

2014-07-07

116

Industrial Process Surveillance System  

DOEpatents

A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Wegerich, Stephan W (Glendale Heights, IL); Singer, Ralph M. (Naperville, IL); Mott, Jack E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-30

117

Future integrated design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design process is one of the sources used to produce requirements for a computer system to integrate and manage product design data, program management information, and technical computation and engineering data management activities of the aerospace design process. Design activities were grouped chronologically and explored for activity type, activity interface, data quantity, and data flow. The work was based on analysis of the design process of several typical aerospace products, including both conventional and supersonic airplanes and a hydrofoil design. Activities examined included research, preliminary design, detail design, manufacturing interface, product verification, and product support. The design process was then described in an IPAD environment--the future.

Meyer, D. D.

1980-01-01

118

Polyimide processing additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

Fletcher, James C. (inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

1992-01-01

119

Industrial process surveillance system  

DOEpatents

A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Wegerich, Stephan W. (Glendale Heights, IL); Singer, Ralph M. (Naperville, IL); Mott, Jack E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01

120

RNA Processing and Export  

PubMed Central

Messenger RNAs undergo 5' capping, splicing, 3'-end processing, and export before translation in the cytoplasm. It has become clear that these mRNA processing events are tightly coupled and have a profound effect on the fate of the resulting transcript. This processing is represented by modifications of the pre-mRNA and loading of various protein factors. The sum of protein factors that stay with the mRNA as a result of processing is modified over the life of the transcript, conferring significant regulation to its expression. PMID:20961978

Hocine, Sami; Singer, Robert H.; Grünwald, David

2010-01-01

121

Fluidized bed heat processing  

SciTech Connect

A review of fluidized-bed processing and the general nature of heat transfer versus gas velocity in a fluidized bed includes comparisons of heating rates and descriptions of applications. Among the latter, are batch units for hardening and tempering. The fast process times possible with fluidized beds make them particularly suitable for continuous heat treating such as the processing of wire and hardening of small parts. Future directions include increasing the maximum operating temperature to 1300 degrees C. for atmosphere furnaces through the use of special non-metallic retorts for the processing high-speed tool steels and the increased usage of fluidized beds in scrap metal reclamation. 10 figures.

Fennell, A.G.

1985-08-01

122

Chemical process hazards analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

NONE

1996-02-01

123

Mindfulness: Method and Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the processes and principles that underlie mindfulness is a needed step, because this method enters into the armamentarium of empirical clinical psychology. Mindfulness is closely related to several procedures, in- cluding acceptance, cognitive defusion, and exposure. Although each of these procedures seems to target dif- ferent behavioral processes, they are all interrelated, be- cause ultimately all of them target

Steven C. Hayes; Kelly G. Wilson

2003-01-01

124

Ecofeminism and Process Philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article Carol Christ illustrates the ways in which process philosophy offers dynamic alternatives to dualistic habits of thought. She highlights how the Goddess is the most relational in the process and therefore the most sympathetic to the unfolding of the universe and those who inhabit it, human and non-human alike. Change she asserts is good, indeed divine, a

Carol P. Christ

2006-01-01

125

DRUM RECONDITIONING PROCESS OPTIMIZATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This report completes a three-part EPA program to assess barrel and drum reconditioning processes. The intent of the report is to provide recommendations for upgrading and optimizing drum reconditioning processes to enable facilities to meet rigorous environmental standards. Data...

126

Laser-ablation processes  

SciTech Connect

The various mechanisms by which ablation of materials can be induced with lasers are discussed in this paper. The various ablation processes and potential applications are reviewed from the threshold for ablation up to fluxes of about 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, with emphasis on three particular processes; namely, front-surface spallation, two-dimensional blowoff, and contained vaporization.

Dingus, R.S.

1992-01-01

127

Laser-ablation processes  

SciTech Connect

The various mechanisms by which ablation of materials can be induced with lasers are discussed in this paper. The various ablation processes and potential applications are reviewed from the threshold for ablation up to fluxes of about 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, with emphasis on three particular processes; namely, front-surface spallation, two-dimensional blowoff, and contained vaporization.

Dingus, R.S.

1992-05-01

128

Algebraic Theory of Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides general and systematic introduction to the semantics of concurrent systems. The author presents his own theory of the behavioral semantics of processes ( testing equivalence ) and original results in example languages for distributed processes. The problems addressed are motivated from the standpoint of computer science, and all the required algebraic concepts are covered.

Matthew Hennessy

1988-01-01

129

Hepa filter dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Murphy, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01

130

RDV Processing using Fourfit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fringing of RDV sessions, previously done using AIPS, is now being done using fourfit. Both AIPS and fourfit processing was done for five RDV sessions in 2011. Comparison of the two processing methods shows a clear increase in sensitivity for the fourfit versions, with no systematic differences in delays or geodetic results.

Gordon, D.; Cappallo, R.; Titus, M.

2012-12-01

131

Digital image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of digital image processing is reviewed with reference to its origins, progress, current status, and prospects for the future. Consideration is given to the evolution of image processor display devices, developments in the functional components of an image processor display system (e.g. memory, data bus, and pipeline central processing unit), and developments in the software. The major future

B. R. Hunt

1981-01-01

132

Processing of plastics  

PubMed Central

An overview is given of the processing of plastic materials from the handling of polymers in the pellet and powder form to manufacturing of a plastic fabricated product. Various types of equipment used and melt processing ranges of various polymer formulations to make the myriad of plastic products that are commercially available are discussed. PMID:1175556

Spaak, Albert

1975-01-01

133

Visualization Image Processing  

E-print Network

Keywords Visualization Image Processing » Prof. Dr. Gerik Scheuermann Visualization transforms in biotechnology and biomedicine, visualization re- ceives increasing interest. Image processing transforms images with the goal of supporting human vi- sion or automatic visual analysis. The research group does basic re

Schüler, Axel

134

Word Processing Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that people tend to use only five percent of the capabilities available in word processing software. The major objective of this study was to determine to what extent word processing was used by businesses, what competencies were required by those businesses, and how those competencies were being learned in Mid-South states. A…

Gatlin, Rebecca; And Others

135

Hyperspectral image processing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

136

A Textbook Selection Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the problem facing college faculties of choosing textbooks that are both "readable" by students and adequate in content coverage, a text selection process has been developed that can be used with or without the aid of a reading specialist. The first step in the process, a preliminary check, examines each proposed text's publication…

Prosser, Daniel R.; Bondavalli, Bonnie J.

137

Relational Processing Following Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

2013-01-01

138

Medical device design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current design process is a combination of methods from engineering disciplines, government regulatory agencies (domestic and international) and independent certification and compliance companies. The goal of the processes that have been developed is to be certain that a new product meets the users expectations, is safe and effective in providing its claimed benefits. As products have become more complex

Byron L. Gilman; James E. Brewer; Mark W. Kroll

2009-01-01

139

Space processing applications bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This special bibliography lists 724 articles, papers, and reports which discuss various aspects of the use of the space environment for materials science research or for commercial enterprise. The potentialities of space processing and the improved materials processes that are made possible by the unique aspects of the space environment are emphasized. References identified in April, 1978 are cited.

1978-01-01

140

Museum as Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's thriving art museums--and the various processes that deliver both their overt and covert missions--are likely to have a greater impact on society than ever before. With such potential, it seems especially important at this juncture to examine critically the art museum as process; to deconstruct that which has been "constructed as a symbol…

Jeffers, Carol S.

2003-01-01

141

Contaminated nickel scrap processing  

SciTech Connect

The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

1994-12-01

142

Associative list processing unit  

DOEpatents

An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

2013-01-29

143

HEPA filter dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

1994-02-22

144

Microsystem process networks  

DOEpatents

Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having exergetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

2006-10-24

145

Microsystem process networks  

SciTech Connect

Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of Microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

2007-09-18

146

Image processing mini manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent is to provide an introduction to the image processing capabilities available at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Central Scientific Computing Complex (CSCC). Various image processing software components are described. Information is given concerning the use of these components in the Data Visualization and Animation Laboratory at LaRC.

Matthews, Christine G.; Posenau, Mary-Anne; Leonard, Desiree M.; Avis, Elizabeth L.; Debure, Kelly R.; Stacy, Kathryn; Vonofenheim, Bill

1992-01-01

147

Plasma processing and chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing field of applications of plasma as deposition, etching, surface modification and chemical conversion has stimulated a renewed interest in plasma science in the atomic physical chemistry regime. The necessity to optimize the various plasma processing techniques in terms of rates, and material properties has made it mandatory to take a new look at the various processes, as fragmentation,

D C Schram; J A M van der Mullen; M C M van de Sanden

1994-01-01

148

Ion Exchange Membrane Processes  

SciTech Connect

Techniques were developed, and promising preliminary tests were completed in an exploratory study of the applicability of ion exchange membrane processes to such chemical operations as the separation of plutonium from uranium, the separation of americium from curium, the isolation of individual rare earths, the removal of strontium from process waste streams. This report discusses results of those tests.

Wallace, R.M.

2002-10-30

149

Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recent trends in research in natural language processing and discusses some applications of this research to the solution of information management problems. The article emphasizes that the importance of natural language processing systems is reflected in their frequent use in support of other computer programs. (71 references) (CK)

Rindflesch, Thomas C.

1996-01-01

150

Wiener Process Ito's Lemma  

E-print Network

-Scholes Solving Black-Scholes Ecient Market Hypothesis Past history is fully reected in the present price, howeverWiener Process Ito's Lemma Derivation of Black-Scholes Solving Black-Scholes Introduction Model 22M:303:002 #12;Wiener Process Ito's Lemma Derivation of Black-Scholes Solving Black-Scholes Stock

Wang, Lihe

151

The Firmware Architecting Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firmware is the ROM-based software that controls a computer between the time it is turned on and the time the primary Operating Environment takes control of the machine. This paper describes the Firmware Architecting Process at Sun Microsystems Company. The process incorporates the sequential stages of firmware project design and review, firmware architecture review, code design and testing, code review,

Michael Milendorf

152

ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EDUCATION HAS BEEN SLOW IN FULLY UTILIZING ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT (EDP). EDUCATOR CONFIDENCE IN THE EDP HAS GROWN, HOWEVER, AS A RESULT OF THE SUCCESS OF ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING IN SCIENCE, INDUSTRY, AND OTHER PROFESSIONS. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID STATE TRANSISTORIZED COMPUTERS HAS MADE POWERFUL DESK-SIZE COMPUTERS A REALITY AND…

TONDOW, MURRAY

153

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RELATED PROCESSES  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;#12;PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RELATED PROCESSES VOLUME II Part 2 #12;« '«;- py as- b^ Section Research, 7, 288, 1954). #12;PHOTOSYNTHESIS nnd Related Processes By EUGENE I. RABINOWITCH Research Professor, Photosynthesis Research Labora- tory, Department of Botany, University of Illinois. Formerly

Govindjee

154

HOT GAS CLEANUP PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to identify and classify 22 hot gas cleanup (HGC) processes for desulfurizing reducing gases at above 430 C according to absorbent type into groups employing solid, molten salt, and molten metal absorbents. It describes each process in terms of...

155

Hybrid quantum information processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

Furusawa, Akira

2014-12-01

156

Process Writing with Hawthorne.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers can use the process writing format for many assignments to teach and refine more skills than are often incorporated in older methods, and this is exemplified by a teaching unit comparing two short stories by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Peer conferences and peer editing in the revision stages, which are features of the process model, can lead to…

Edwards, Lita R.

157

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOEpatents

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Hu, Zhicheng (Somerville, MA)

1993-01-01

158

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) for producing silicon from dichlorosilane in a 1,000 MT/yr plant was continued. Progress and status for the chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process are reported for the primary process design engineering activities: base case conditions (85%), reaction chemistry (85%), process flow diagram (60%), material balance (60%), energy balance (30%), property data (30%), equipment design (20%) and major equipment list (10%). Engineering design of the initial distillation column (D-01, stripper column) in the process was initiated. The function of the distillation column is to remove volatile gases (such as hydrogen and nitrogen) which are dissolved in liquid chlorosilanes. Initial specifications and results for the distillation column design are reported including the variation of tray requirements (equilibrium stages) with reflux ratio for the distillation.

1981-01-01

159

The Etch Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation which shows the plasma etching of silicon dioxide. In this type of plasma etching process, a chlorine gas and argon gas mixture is used. The chlorine gas neutral charge molecules bond with the surface silicon dioxide molecules and create silicon chloride molecule. Through the bombardment of the plasma charged Argon molecules the silicon chloride molecules are released from the surface layer. The etch continues till the exposed silicon dioxide material is removed. Objective: Describe in detail the etch process. This simulation is from Module 047 of the Process and Equipment II of the MATEC Module Library (MML). You can find this animation under the heading "Process & Equipment II." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtml

160

Biomedical image processing  

SciTech Connect

Biomedical image processing is a very broad field; it covers biomedical signal gathering, image forming, picture processing, and image display to medical diagnosis based on features extracted from images. This article reviews this topic in both its fundamentals and applications. In its fundamentals, some basic image processing techniques including outlining, deblurring, noise cleaning, filtering, search, classical analysis and texture analysis have been reviewed together with examples. The state-of-the-art image processing systems have been introduced and discussed in two categories: general purpose image processing systems and image analyzers. In order for these systems to be effective for biomedical applications, special biomedical image processing languages have to be developed. The combination of both hardware and software leads to clinical imaging devices. Two different types of clinical imaging devices have been discussed. There are radiological imagings which include radiography, thermography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and CT. Among these, thermography is the most noninvasive but is limited in application due to the low energy of its source. X-ray CT is excellent for static anatomical images and is moving toward the measurement of dynamic function, whereas nuclear imaging is moving toward organ metabolism and ultrasound is toward tissue physical characteristics. Heart imaging is one of the most interesting and challenging research topics in biomedical image processing; current methods including the invasive-technique cineangiography, and noninvasive ultrasound, nuclear medicine, transmission, and emission CT methodologies have been reviewed.

Huang, H.K.

1981-01-01

161

Gaia Data Processing Architecture  

E-print Network

Gaia is ESA's ambitious space astrometry mission the main objective of which is to astrometrically and spectro-photometrically map 1000 Million celestial objects (mostly in our galaxy) with unprecedented accuracy. The announcement of opportunity for the data processing will be issued by ESA late in 2006. The Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been formed recently and is preparing an answer. The satellite will downlink close to 100 TB of raw telemetry data over 5 years. To achieve its required accuracy of a few 10s of Microarcsecond astrometry, a highly involved processing of this data is required. In addition to the main astrometric instrument Gaia will host a Radial Velocity instrument, two low-resolution dispersers for multi-color photometry and two Star Mappers. Gaia is a flying Giga Pixel camera. The various instruments each require relatively complex processing while at the same time being interdependent. We describe the overall composition of the DPAC and the envisaged overall architecture of the Gaia data processing system. We shall delve further into the core processing - one of the nine, so-called, coordination units comprising the Gaia processing system.

W. O'Mullane; U. Lammers; C. Bailer-Jones; U. Bastian; A. Brown; R. Drimmel; L. Eyer; C. Huc; F. Jansen; D. Katz; L. Lindegren; D. Pourbaix; X. Luri; F. Mignard; J. Torra; F. van Leeuwen

2006-11-29

162

Processes in Lingua Cosmica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a sequence of papers on the topic of message construction for interstellar communication by means of a cosmic language, representations of various kinds of concepts of reality in a Lingua Cosmica system [1]. Those studied were logic relations of a static character. The present contribution contains an important, fundamental extension: groundwork is done for the purpose of interpreting (dynamic) proc esses of various sorts in the linguistic system. Individual processes are abstracted in a logic sense and provided with basic properties as termination and communication functions. They can be combined into kinds of processes: sequential and parallel ones represented by only one inductive definition in logic. Based on concepts from the so-called process algebra, processes are provided with channel s mapping them to their states. State vectors are introduced to represent states of conglomerates of processes. Communication between processes (locally or globally) is effectuated by means of state transitions. Together with a programmed arb itration function, state vectors play a crucial role in representing communication. With these ingredients possibilities for general interpretations of a wide range of processes in the Lingua Cosmica system come in view.

Ollongren, Alexander

2012-02-01

163

Pressure Sensor Process Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This page provides instructor and participant guides for the Pressure Sensor Process Activity and Kit. An order form is provided to order this kit complete with several small boxes with each box containing a "chip" that represents the outcome of one step of a ten step pressure sensor process. Participants are asked to study each chip and then arrange the ten chips in the correct process order. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-10-11

164

Hydrocarbon processing symposium 1990  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Hydrocarbon Processing Symposium at the Energy-Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition deals with two particular areas of hydrocarbon processing - considerations in waste processing and cogeneration applications. Several papers address solid and liquid waste disposal from the environmental point of view. In a session on waste-to-energy, papers on polymer reprocessing, wood waste and waste solvents offer new ideas on waste minimization and resource recovery maximization. The predominant issue in the cogeneration area is the experience gained from the design and installation of actual systems. These papers discuss a variety of issues including the experience of design and development, feasibility studies and size and site considerations.

Kundu, N.K.; Somasundaram, S. (eds.)

1990-01-01

165

Chemical Processing Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

Beyerle, F. J.

1972-01-01

166

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

Mayberry, J.L.

1988-04-13

167

WEAVE core processing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WEAVE is an approved massive wide field multi-object optical spectrograph (MOS) currently entering its build phase, destined for use on the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope (WHT). It will be commissioned and begin survey operations in 2017. This paper describes the core processing system (CPS) system being developed to process the bulk data flow from WEAVE. We describe the processes and techniques to be used in producing the scientifically validated 'Level 1' data products from the WEAVE data. CPS outputs will include calibrated one-d spectra and initial estimates of basic parameters such as radial velocities (for stars) and redshifts (for galaxies).

Walton, Nicholas A.; Irwin, Mike; Lewis, James R.; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo; Dalton, Gavin; Trager, Scott; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Benn, Chris R.; Abrams, Don Carlos; Picó, Sergio; Middleton, Kevin; Lodi, Marcello; Bonifacio, Piercarlo

2014-07-01

168

Lasers in chemical processing  

SciTech Connect

The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

Davis, J.I.

1982-04-15

169

The Universal Troubleshooting Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Universal Troubleshooting Process (UTP) is an abbreviated version of the book Troubleshooting Techniques of the Successful Technologist by Steve Litt. UTP consists of ten steps designed to help modern workers diagnose the system in question and ultimately repair it. The process is very general and can be applied to virtually any well-defined system. Each step of the process is carefully outlined and can be easily followed. The Web site also has links to applicable articles from Steve Litt's online Troubleshooting Professional Magazine. UTP is a clever and original approach to troubleshooting technical systems.

Litt, Steve.

1996-01-01

170

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

DOEpatents

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01

171

Advances in metals processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on metals processing being conducted to develop improved forming and joining methods with the potential of reducing the weight and cost of future aerospace structures is discussed. The approach followed is to assess the state of the art for fabricating a given structural system, define candidate methods for improving processing, evaluate the merits of each, fabricate and test subelement components, and then scale up the process to demonstrate validity. The development and the state of the art of weldbrazing, superplastic forming (SPF), superplastic forming and codiffusion bonding and superplastic forming and weldbrazing for titanium and the SPF of aluminum is discussed.

Bales, T. T.; Royster, D. M.

1982-01-01

172

LIGA Micromachining Process Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), provides an overview of the LIGA micromachining process. Here, viewers will learn about the functionality of this process, including how its use for the "fabrication of high aspect ratio micro-sized components. This animation was produced by the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education and based on a process overview by HT Microanalytical." Further resources can be found on the SCME website in the MEMS Micromachining Overview, and select Educational Materials to access more learning modules.

2014-08-04

173

Support for the Process Engineer: The Spearmint Approach to Software Process Definition and Process Guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The software development process and its related activities are described, implemented, analyzed, and changed by so-called\\u000a Process Engineers. Process Engineers provide descriptions of software development processes to Process Performers. Because\\u000a the processes usually are complex, support is needed for both Process Engineers and Process Performers. This paper reports\\u000a the development and application of the process modeling environment Spearmint1. The architecture

Ulrike Becker-kornstaedt; Dirk Hamann; Ralf Kempkens; Peter Rösch; Martin Verlage; Richard Webby; Jörg Zettel

1999-01-01

174

LIDC - Data Collection Process  

Cancer.gov

Slide 2Principle GoalsTo establish standard formats and processes for managing thoracic CT scans and related technical and clinical data for use in the development and testing of computer-aided diagnostic algorithms.

175

Vocal process granuloma.  

PubMed

Vocal process granuloma or contact ulcer is uncommon disease in which there is chronic irritation and granulation tissue formation at the posterior third of the vocal folds. Thirteen patients (11 men and two women) with vocal process granuloma were enrolled in this study; cases of intubation granuloma were excluded. The most frequent complaints were throat irritation, frequent throat clearing and voice change. Forty-seven percent of patients had a recurrence two to four months after surgery. Computed tomography (CT) of the larynx in four patients showed arytenoid sclerosis on the involved side and disclosed moderate enhancement of the vocal fold granuloma after contrast injection in one. Three patients had hyperacidity and four had hyperfunctioning granulomas: two used their voices excessively and the other two had bilateral sulcus vocalis. To our knowledge this is the first report of sulcus vocalis with vocal process granuloma, and of enhanced vocal process granuloma. PMID:9210804

al-Dousary, S

1997-06-01

176

Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

Goldberg, Robert B.

1988-01-01

177

Relational processing following stroke.  

PubMed

The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three levels of relational complexity. Relational processing was impaired in the stroke groups. This was due mainly to items at the intermediate ternary-relational level of complexity. Less complex binary-relational items and more complex quaternary-relational items (the latter are difficult for adults generally) were less sensitive to stroke status. Impairment was greater in frontal than non-frontal stroke patients. Positive inter-correlations among measures supported the domain-general nature of relational processing. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. PMID:23174427

Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

2013-02-01

178

The Tenure Review Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the tenure review process faced by geographers at U.S. universities from the perspectives of successful and unsuccessful candidates, a department chair, and a member of a tenure review committee. (Author/BSR)

Holcomb, Briavel; And Others

1987-01-01

179

Sculpture as process  

E-print Network

Sculpture as process is rooted in the historical development of movement as a theme of art in general and of sculpture in particular since 1900. The impact of the industrial revolution and the subsequent scientific/technological ...

Kracke, Bernd

1981-01-01

180

Quantum Stochastic Processes  

SciTech Connect

We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

Spring, William Joseph [Quantum Information and Probability Group, School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

2009-04-13

181

Computer processed LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background information and exercises are provided to: (1) establish or expand understanding of the concepts, methods, and terminology of computer processing of image producing data; (2) develop insight into the advantages of computer based image processing compared with the photointerpretation approach for processing, classifying, interpreting, and applying remote sensing data; (3) foster a broad perspective on the principal of the main techniques for image enhancement, pattern recognition, and thematic classification; (4) appreciate the pros and cons of batch and interactive modes of image analysis; (5) examine and evaluate some specific computer generated products for subscenes in Pennsylvania and New Jersey; and (6) interrelate these particular examples of output with more theoretical explanations of computer processing strategies and procedures.

1982-01-01

182

Presenting the Scientific Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a course titled Scientific Process, the authors introduce undergraduates to the philosophy and practice of science and initiate them into a 2-year undergraduate research track. Engaging exercises and discussions help students understand the scientific

Meers, Mason; Savarese, Michael; Demers, Nora E.

2003-12-01

183

LIDC - Reader Marking Process  

Cancer.gov

Slide 1LIDC Radiologists' MarkingsA Multiple Reader/ Multiple Session Process Blinded Read Each Radiologist reads independently (Blinded to other readers' markings) Unblinded Read Each Radiologist re-reads, but is shown their own blinded read markings

184

Dissolution processes: Stuffed structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding oxide dissolution processes on the molecular scale remains a challenge. A study on nanoscale oxides suggests a mechanism for dissolution that proceeds through the formation of oxygen-stuffed metastable structures.

Fenter, Paul

2012-03-01

185

Microwave processing of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the following topics on microwave processing of ceramics: Microwave-material interactions; anticipated advantage of microwave sintering; ceramic sintering; and ceramic joining. 24 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

Katz, J.D.

1989-01-01

186

CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

187

Direct coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

Rindt, John R. (Grand Forks, ND); Hetland, Melanie D. (Grand Forks, ND)

1993-01-01

188

Processing composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fabrication of several composite structural articles including DC-10 upper aft rudders, L-1011 vertical fins and composite biomedical appliances are discussed. Innovative composite processing methods are included.

Baucom, R. M.

1982-01-01

189

Phenol removal pretreatment process  

DOEpatents

A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO)

2004-04-13

190

LIMB PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers basic and applied studies concerned with three Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) process objectives: (1) avoiding degradation of collection efficiency in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) during LIMB, (2) achieving satisfactory sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

191

MODELING TREE LEVEL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

An overview of three main types of simulation approach (explanatory, abstraction, and estimation) is presented, along with a discussion of their capabilities limitations, and the steps required for their validation. A process model being developed through the Forest Response Prog...

192

Manufacturing Processes and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, created by Jonathan S. Colton of the Georgia Institute of Technology, contains class notes for a senior-level course on manufacturing processes and engineering. This site contains assignments, solutions, course requirements, syllabi, quizzes, and manufacturing videos.

Colton, Jonathan S.

2009-12-29

193

Associative list processing unit  

DOEpatents

An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

2014-04-01

194

FDA -- Electronic Submission Process  

Cancer.gov

Food and Drug Administration – E lectronic Submission Process Stephen E. Wilson, DrPH (Biostatistics) Deputy Direct or Division of Biometrics II, CDER, FDA Member, CDER Electronic Submissions Working Group NIH Cancer Imaging Informatics Workshop Bethesda

195

Symmetric iterative interpolation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a baseb and an even number of knots, we define a symmetric iterative interpolation process. The main properties of this process come from an associated functionF. The basic functional equation forF is thatF(t\\/b)=snF(n\\/b)F(t-n). We prove thatF is a continuous positive definite function. We find almost precisely in which Lipschitz classes derivatives ofF belong. If a functiony is defined only

Gilles Deslauriers; Serge Dubuc

1989-01-01

196

UNSATURATED ZONE PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vadose zone, i.e., the part of subsurface above thewater table, is home to a number of key processes that control the\\u000a mass and energy exchanges between the subsurface and the atmosphere. Vadose zone hydrology provides boundary conditions for\\u000a both atmospheric processes, including micro-meteorology and climatic changes, and subsurface water migration, with strong\\u000a implications in water resources management. The rates,

Giorgio Cassiani; Andrew Binley; Ty P. A. Ferré

197

Spherical nitroguanidine process  

DOEpatents

A process of preparing spherical high bulk density nitroguanidine by dissing low bulk density nitroguanidine in N-methyl pyrrolidone at elevated temperatures and then cooling the solution to lower temperatures as a liquid characterized as a nonsolvent for the nitroguanidine is provided. The process is enhanced by inclusion in the solution of from about 1 ppm up to about 250 ppm of a metal salt such as nickel nitrate, zinc nitrate or chromium nitrate, preferably from about 20 to about 50 ppm.

Sanchez, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Roemer, Edward L. (Los Alamos, NM); Stretz, Lawrence A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

198

Bank Record Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

1982-01-01

199

Image Processing Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To convert raw data into environmental products, the National Weather Service and other organizations use the Global 9000 image processing system marketed by Global Imaging, Inc. The company's GAE software package is an enhanced version of the TAE, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center to support remote sensing and image processing applications. The system can be operated in three modes and is combined with HP Apollo workstation hardware.

1992-01-01

200

Image Processing Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ames digital image velocimetry technology has been incorporated in a commercially available image processing software package that allows motion measurement of images on a PC alone. The software, manufactured by Werner Frei Associates, is IMAGELAB FFT. IMAGELAB FFT is a general purpose image processing system with a variety of other applications, among them image enhancement of fingerprints and use by banks and law enforcement agencies for analysis of videos run during robberies.

1990-01-01

201

Hybrid image processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Partly-digital, partly-optical 'hybrid' image processing attempts to use the properties of each domain to synergistic advantage: while Fourier optics furnishes speed, digital processing allows the use of much greater algorithmic complexity. The video-rate image-coordinate transformation used is a critical technology for real-time hybrid image-pattern recognition. Attention is given to the separation of pose variables, image registration, and both single- and multiple-frame registration.

Juday, Richard D.

1990-01-01

202

Microcomputers in Process Control  

E-print Network

M1CROCOMPUTERS IN PROCESS CONTROL ", D. R. Vinson and N. Chatterjee (?)Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Allentown, Pennsylvania Computers have been extensively used for process control and optimization since the 1970's. Many articles have.... Vinson and N. Chatterjee, "Computer Control of Unattended Plants," Sixth Annual Industrial Energy Conservation lechno10gy Conference, Houston, TX, April 1984. 2. S. L. Russek, T. M. Beckowski, and D. R. Vinson, "Computer Automated Start? up...

Vinson, D. R.; Chatterjee, N.

203

Biological Process Linkage Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe traditional approach to studying complex biological networks is based on the identification of interactions between internal components of signaling or metabolic pathways. By comparison, little is known about interactions between higher order biological systems, such as biological pathways and processes.We propose a methodology for gleaning patterns of interactions between biological processes by analyzing protein-protein interactions, transcriptional co-expression and genetic

Dikla Dotan-Cohen; Stan Letovsky; Avraham A. Melkman; Simon Kasif; Rodolfo Aramayo

2009-01-01

204

Contracts for Mobile Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Theories identifying well-formed systems of processes—those,that lack communication,errors and enjoy strong properties such as deadlock freedom— are based either on session types, which are inhabited by channels, or on con- tracts, which are inhabited by processes. Current session type theories impose overly restrictive disciplines while contract theories only work for networks with fixed topology. Here we fill the gap

Giuseppe Castagna; Luca Padovani

2009-01-01

205

Of Processors and Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital signal processing is a stealth technology. It is the core enabling technology in everything from your cellphone to the Mars Rover. It goes much further than just enabling a one-time breakthrough product. It provides ever-increasing capability; compare the performance gains made by dial-up modems with the recent performance gains of DSL and cable modems. Remarkably, digital signal processing has

Gene Frantz; Ray Simar

2004-01-01

206

Probabilistic Declarative Process Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The management of business processes is receiving much attention, since it can support significant efficiency improvements\\u000a in organizations. One of the most interesting problems is the representation of process models in a language that allows to\\u000a perform reasoning on it.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Various knowledge-based languages have been lately developed for such a task and showed to have a high potential due to

Elena Bellodi; Fabrizio Riguzzi; Evelina Lamma

2010-01-01

207

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

1985-01-01

208

Module 5: Process Synchronization  

E-print Network

[outIx]; outIx = (outIx + 1) % BUFFER_SIZE; count--; // consume the item in nextConsumed } So, does it work will then depend on the order in which their execution is interleaved ­ race condition § Let us abstract the danger. Progress - If there exist some processes wishing to enter their CS and no process is in their CS, then one

Stojmenovic, Ivan

209

The Dynamo Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These pages describe a dynamo process that creates the magnetic fields of the Earth and the Sun. Flows of electrically conducting material through existing magnetic fields produces electric currents, which maintain the magnetic field. Dynamos in the Earth's core reverse their north-south polarity, a process recorded by sea-floor magnetization, which confirms the slow motion of continents. Includes translations to Spanish, French and German.

Stern, David

2004-05-19

210

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

A low-cost digital acquisition unit for a CARY-210 spectrophotometer has been designed and constructed. The data-flow is controlled by a 6809 microprocessor driving four parallel interface adapters. Two RS232-C serial links are provided for communication with a terminal and a mass storage unit. The acquired data are processed by a personal computer. Included are several software modules, based on powerful signal-processing algorithms, which are highly useful in kinetic studies. PMID:18964634

Meyer, J J; Paumard, J L; Milin, D; Levoir, P; Fontaine, J C

1988-11-01

211

PALSAR ground data processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upcoming launches of new satellites like ALOS, Envisat, Radarsat2 and ECHO will pose a significant challenge for many ground stations, namely to integrate new SAR processing software into their existing systems. Vexcel Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has built a SAR processing system, named APEX -Suite, for spaceborne SAR satellites that can easily be expanded for the next generation of SAR satellites. APEX-Suite includes an auto-satellite-detecting Level 0 Processor that includes bit-error correction, data quality characterization, and as a unique feature, a sophisticated and very accurate Doppler centroid estimator. The Level 1 processing is divided into the strip mode processor FOCUST, based on the well-proven range-Doppler algorithm, and the SWATHT ScanSAR processor that uses the Chirp Z Trans-form algorithm. A high-accuracy ortho-rectification processor produces systematic and precision corrected Level 2 SAR image pro ducts. The PALSAR instrument is an L-band SAR with multiple fine and standard resolution beams in strip mode, and several wide-swath ScanSAR modes. We will address the adaptation process of Vexcel's APEX-Suite processing system for the PALSAR sensor and discuss image quality characteristics based on processed simulated point target phase history data.

Frick, Heinrich; Palsetia, Marzban; Carande, Richard; Curlander, James C.

2002-02-01

212

Laser forming process development  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a summary of the activities performed for the process development of laser thermal forming sheet metal parts in support of rapid prototyping. A 400 watt pulsed Nd:YAG laser and 50 watt desktop CO{sub 2} laser were used during initial process development. Several tool-assisted laser forming approaches were conceived during the development of the process, and simple fixtures for process development/understanding were used throughout all testing. Much of the actual forming was performed with the base material in an unfixtured state. CRES (304) was used for baseline development, but the effort was directed toward forming titanium (e.g., 6Al-4V, 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al). Several DOE (i.e., Design of Experiment) techniques were employed during development and a Neural Net Computer Model was conceived for process control. This program was a joint effort in cooperation with the American Welding Society under contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). A synopsis of the laser forming process development, future opportunities, and applications are presented.

Blake, R.J. [High Tech Images, Sheridan, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

213

Polycrystalline semiconductor processing  

DOEpatents

A process for forming large-grain polycrystalline films from amorphous films for use as photovoltaic devices. The process operates on the amorphous film and uses the driving force inherent to the transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state as the force which drives the grain growth process. The resultant polycrystalline film is characterized by a grain size that is greater than the thickness of the film. A thin amorphous film is deposited on a substrate. The formation of a plurality of crystalline embryos is induced in the amorphous film at predetermined spaced apart locations and nucleation is inhibited elsewhere in the film. The crystalline embryos are caused to grow in the amorphous film, without further nucleation occurring in the film, until the growth of the embryos is halted by imgingement on adjacently growing embryos. The process is applicable to both batch and continuous processing techniques. In either type of process, the thin amorphous film is sequentially doped with p and n type dopants. Doping is effected either before or after the formation and growth of the crystalline embryos in the amorphous film, or during a continuously proceeding crystallization step.

Glaeser, Andreas M. (Scituate, MA); Haggerty, John S. (Lincoln, MA); Danforth, Stephen C. (Winchester, MA)

1983-01-01

214

Polycrystalline semiconductor processing  

DOEpatents

A process is described for forming large-grain polycrystalline films from amorphous films for use as photovoltaic devices. The process operates on the amorphous film and uses the driving force inherent to the transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state as the force which drives the grain growth process. The resultant polycrystalline film is characterized by a grain size that is greater than the thickness of the film. A thin amorphous film is deposited on a substrate. The formation of a plurality of crystalline embryos is induced in the amorphous film at predetermined spaced apart locations and nucleation is inhibited elsewhere in the film. The crystalline embryos are caused to grow in the amorphous film, without further nucleation occurring in the film, until the growth of the embryos is halted by impingement on adjacently growing embryos. The process is applicable to both batch and continuous processing techniques. In either type of process, the thin amorphous film is sequentially doped with p and n type dopants. Doping is effected either before or after the formation and growth of the crystalline embryos in the amorphous film, or during a continuously proceeding crystallization step. 10 figs.

Glaeser, A.M.; Haggerty, J.S.; Danforth, S.C.

1983-04-05

215

Image Processing Learning Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hypermedia Image Processing Reference (HIPR) offers a wealth of resources for users of image processing and an introduction to hypermedia (through use with Web browsers). HIPR was developed at the Department of Artificial Intelligence in the University of Edinburgh as computer-based tutorial materials for use in courses on image processing and machine vision. The material is available as a package that can easily be shared on a local area network and then made available at any suitably equipped computer connected to that network. The materials cover a wide range of image processing operations and are complemented by an extensive collection of actual digitized images, all organized for easy cross-referencing. Some features include a reference section with information on some of the most common classes of image-processing operations currently used, a section describing how each operation works, and various other instructional tools, such as Java demonstrations; interactive tableau where multiple operators can demonstrate sequences of operations; suggestions for appropriate use of operations; example input and output images for each operation; suggested student exercises; an encyclopedic glossary of common image processing concepts and terms; and other reference information. From the index, visitors can search on a particular topic covered in this website.

216

Helium process cycle  

DOEpatents

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2008-08-12

217

Kennedy Space Center Payload Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the payload processing functions at Kennedy Space Center. It details some of the payloads processed at KSC, the typical processing tasks, the facilities available for processing payloads, and the capabilities and customer services that are available.

Lawson, Ronnie; Engler, Tom; Colloredo, Scott; Zide, Alan

2011-01-01

218

Processing anomalous anaphors.  

PubMed

Previous researchers have demonstrated that readers may engage in shallow, or incomplete, processing when the semantic overlap between current information and previously encountered information is high. The present study investigated whether these effects would occur during processing of unambiguous noun phrase anaphors, for which there was only a single possible antecedent. Participants read passages containing anaphors that were correct, incorrect but highly related, or incorrect and low-related, with respect to previously encountered information. The time required to process the anaphor was a function of the goodness of fit between the anaphor and the antecedent; anaphors that were incorrect but highly related to the antecedent were processed more quickly than those that were incorrect and low-related. This occurred regardless of the distance between the anaphor and the antecedent. However, reading times results from a spillover sentence indicated that readers subsequently validated the anaphor against the information in memory, resulting in continued processing difficulty for both the incorrect-high- and -low-related anaphor conditions. The results are consistent with a three-stage comprehension model in which information is activated, integrated on the basis of its goodness of fit with the contents of working memory, and then validated against information in long-term memory. PMID:24796775

Cook, Anne E

2014-10-01

219

Thermal spray processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC's for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

Herman, H.; Berndt, C. C.

1995-01-01

220

Range Process Simulation Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

2005-01-01

221

Process of timbral composing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, I discuss the techniques and processes of timbral organization I developed while writing my chamber work, Afterimage. I compare my techniques with illustrative examples by other composers to place my work in historical context. I examine three elements of my composition process. The first is the process of indexing and cataloging basic sonic materials. The second consists of the techniques and mechanics of manipulating and assembling these collections into larger scale phrases, textures, and overall form in a musical work. The third element is the more elusive, and often extra-musical, source of inspiration and motivation. The evocative power of tone color is both immediately evident yet difficult to explain. What is timbre? This question cannot be answered solely in scientific terms; subjective factors affect our perception of it.

Withrow, Sam

222

Acoustic Levitation Containerless Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research program consists of the development of acoustic containerless processing systems with applications in the areas of research in material sciences, as well as the production of new materials, solid forms with novel and unusual microstructures, fusion target spheres, and improved optical fibers. Efforts have been focused on the containerless processing at high temperatures for producing new kinds of glasses. Also, some development has occurred in the areas of containerlessly supporting liquids at room temperature, with applications in studies of fluid dynamics, potential undercooling of liquids, etc. The high temperature area holds the greatest promise for producing new kinds of glasses and ceramics, new alloys, and possibly unusual structural shapes, such as very uniform hollow glass shells for fusion target applications. High temperature acoustic levitation required for containerless processing has been demonstrated in low-g environments as well as in ground-based experiments. Future activities include continued development of the signals axis acoustic levitator.

Whymark, R. R.; Rey, C. A.

1985-01-01

223

Quartz resonator processing system  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

Peters, Roswell D. M. (Rustburg, VA)

1983-01-01

224

Exclusion processes with avalanches.  

PubMed

In an exclusion process with avalanches, when a particle hops to a neighboring empty site which is adjacent to an island the particle on the other end of the island immediately hops, and if it joins another island this triggers another hop. There are no restrictions on the length of the islands and the duration of the avalanche. This process is well defined in the low-density region ? < 1/2. We describe the nature of steady states (on a ring) and determine all correlation functions. For the asymmetric version of the process, we compute the steady state current, and we describe shock and rarefaction waves which arise in the evolution of the step-function initial profile. For the symmetric version, we determine the diffusion coefficient and examine the evolution of a tagged particle. PMID:25122277

Bhat, Uttam; Krapivsky, P L

2014-07-01

225

Isothermal separation processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isothermal processes of membrane separation, supercritical extraction and chromatography were examined using availability analysis. The general approach was to derive equations that identified where energy is consumed in these processes and how they compare with conventional separation methods. These separation methods are characterized by pure work inputs, chiefly in the form of a pressure drop which supplies the required energy. Equations were derived for the energy requirement in terms of regular solution theory. This approach is believed to accurately predict the work of separation in terms of the heat of solution and the entropy of mixing. It can form the basis of a convenient calculation method for optimizing membrane and solvent properties for particular applications. Calculations were made on the energy requirements for a membrane process separating air into its components.

England, C.

1982-01-01

226

Containerless processing technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A partial description of the technology, hardware, and facilities developed by NASA in support of space-based containerless processing experiments in the early 1970s is presented, along with recent results. Supercooling was necessary, at a rate of 500 K over a 400 ft span, in early drop tower and molten sample experiments. Placing an electromagnetic levitation coil/chamber at the top of the tube avoided contamination of the sample by guide wires. Recent tests have been performed in attempts to produce metastable bulk A-15 Nb3Ge. The use of copper coils for levitation is suspected to have induced stirring motions in samples. Aerodynamic levitation, needed for nonconducting materials, has been employed to process glass beads at temperatures over 1000 K. An electromagnetic levitation device used to process a gram of BeO on a sounding rocket flight will be carried on a Shuttle flight, as will an acoustic suspension system.

Oran, W. A.

1983-01-01

227

Magnetic Particle Process Improvement  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic particle testing process is performed to find linear, surface and near surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic test materials. A wet fluorescent method is used at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). This method employs a liquid carrier mixed with iron oxide particles in suspension, and the particles used in the method are coated with a fluorescent dye to make them visible under a black light. The process in its current state employs the use of a tank of liquid solution of a mineral oil carrier with iron oxide particles in suspension. The change to the use of an aerosol delivery system with the same material reduces the amount of waste involved in the process while preserving the sensitivity of the testing, shortens the flowtime for the test, and saves labor and material costs.

Hubert, R.R.

2002-08-13

228

Reasoning about continuous processes  

SciTech Connect

Overcoming the disadvantages of equidistant discretization of continuous actions, we introduce an approach that separates time into slices of varying length bordered by certain events. Such events are points in time at which the equations describing the system`s behavior that is, the equations which specify the ongoing processes-change. Between two events the system`s parameters stay continuous. A high-level semantics for drawing logical conclusions about dynamic systems with continuous processes is presented, and we have developed an adequate calculus to automate this reasoning process. In doing this, we have combined deduction and numerical calculus, offering logical reasoning about precise, quantitative system information. The scenario of multiple balls moving in 1-dimensional space interacting with a pendulum serves as demonstration example of our method.

Herrmann, C.S. [FG Intellektik, Darmstadt (Germany); Thielscher, M. [International Computer Science Inst., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

229

COTS software selection process.  

SciTech Connect

Today's need for rapid software development has generated a great interest in employing Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products as a way of managing cost, developing time, and effort. With an abundance of COTS software packages to choose from, the problem now is how to systematically evaluate, rank, and select a COTS product that best meets the software project requirements and at the same time can leverage off the current corporate information technology architectural environment. This paper describes a systematic process for decision support in evaluating and ranking COTS software. Performed right after the requirements analysis, this process provides the evaluators with more concise, structural, and step-by-step activities for determining the best COTS software product with manageable risk. In addition, the process is presented in phases that are flexible to allow for customization or tailoring to meet various projects' requirements.

Watkins, William M. (Strike Wire Technologies, Louisville, CO); Lin, Han Wei; McClelland, Kelly (U.S. Security Associates, Livermore, CA); Ullrich, Rebecca Ann; Khanjenoori, Soheil; Dalton, Karen; Lai, Anh Tri; Kuca, Michal; Pacheco, Sandra; Shaffer-Gant, Jessica

2006-05-01

230

Powder treatment process  

DOEpatents

(1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA)

1988-01-01

231

Powder treatment process  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

Weyand, J.D.

1988-02-09

232

A complementary MOS process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complete sequence used to manufacture complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits is described. The fixed-gate array concept is presented as a means of obtaining CMOS integrated circuits in a fast and reliable fashion. Examples of CMOS circuits fabricated by both the conventional method and the fixed-gate array method are included. The electrical parameter specifications and characteristics are given along with typical values used to produce CMOS circuits. Temperature-bias stressing data illustrating the thermal stability of devices manufactured by this process are presented. Results of a preliminary study on the radiation sensitivity of circuits manufactured by this process are discussed. Some process modifications are given which have improved the radiation hardness of our CMOS devices. A formula description of the chemicals and gases along with the gas flow rates is also included.

Jhabvala, M. D.

1977-01-01

233

Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

234

NTP comparison process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

Corban, Robert

1993-01-01

235

Array signal processing  

SciTech Connect

This is the first book to be devoted completely to array signal processing, a subject that has become increasingly important in recent years. The book consists of six chapters. Chapter 1, which is introductory, reviews some basic concepts in wave propagation. The remaining five chapters deal with the theory and applications of array signal processing in (a) exploration seismology, (b) passive sonar, (c) radar, (d) radio astronomy, and (e) tomographic imaging. The various chapters of the book are self-contained. The book is written by a team of five active researchers, who are specialists in the individual fields covered by the pertinent chapters.

Haykin, S.; Justice, J.H.; Owsley, N.L.; Yen, J.L.; Kak, A.C.

1985-01-01

236

Statecharts Via Process Algebra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statecharts is a visual language for specifying the behavior of reactive systems. The Language extends finite-state machines with concepts of hierarchy, concurrency, and priority. Despite its popularity as a design notation for embedded system, precisely defining its semantics has proved extremely challenging. In this paper, a simple process algebra, called Statecharts Process Language (SPL), is presented, which is expressive enough for encoding Statecharts in a structure-preserving and semantic preserving manner. It is establish that the behavioral relation bisimulation, when applied to SPL, preserves Statecharts semantics

Luttgen, Gerald; vonderBeeck, Michael; Cleaveland, Rance

1999-01-01

237

Hybrid information processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum algorithms and computational models primarily focus on processing quantum states via qubit manipulations and measurements. While this allows for hardware independent algorithm development, it does not necessarily reflect the full capabilities of even imperfect physical implementations - which typically have access to additional degrees of freedom not routinely considered in quantum algorithm development. In analogy with electrical mixed-signal (analog and digital) processing, here we investigate the prospects of incorporating the strengths of the native physical platform into the quantum information processor. Although the treatment here will be limited to optical systems the general approach should apply to other physical systems as well.

Jacobs, Bryan C.

2010-08-01

238

Coking and gasification process  

DOEpatents

An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank F. (Baytown, TX)

1986-01-01

239

Reversible brazing process  

DOEpatents

A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

Pierce, Jim D. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, John J. (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01

240

Subroutines For Image Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image Processing Library computer program, IPLIB, is collection of subroutines facilitating use of COMTAL image-processing system driven by HP 1000 computer. Functions include addition or subtraction of two images with or without scaling, display of color or monochrome images, digitization of image from television camera, display of test pattern, manipulation of bits, and clearing of screen. Provides capability to read or write points, lines, and pixels from image; read or write at location of cursor; and read or write array of integers into COMTAL memory. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Faulcon, Nettie D.; Monteith, James H.; Miller, Keith W.

1988-01-01

241

Process for beneficiating coal  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for beneficiating coal which process comprises contacting the coal in two different stages with an aqueous ammonium salt solution wherein the stages are characterized as follows: stage 1 is conducted at pH in the range of about 5 to 9 in the presence of an aqueous ammonium salt solution; stage 2 being conducted at a pH in the range of about 0.5 to 5 or about 9 to 12 in the presence of an organic solvent at a temperature in the range of about 0/sup 0/C to about 300/sup 0/C for an effective amount of time.

Siskin, M.; Brons, G.B.

1986-03-18

242

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

1981-01-01

243

Thermal stir welding process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A welding method is provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

2012-01-01

244

Solar industrial process heat  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

Lumsdaine, E.

1981-04-01

245

Proofs, Programs, Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a realisability interpretation for inductive and coinductive definitions and discuss its application to program extraction from proofs. A speciality of this interpretation is that realisers are given by terms that correspond directly to programs in a lazy functional programming language such as Haskell. Programs extracted from proofs using coinduction can be understood as perpetual processes producing infinite streams of data. Typical applications of such processes are computations in exact real arithmetic. As an example we show how to extract a program computing the average of two real numbers w.r.t. to the binary signed digit representation.

Berger, Ulrich; Seisenberger, Monika

246

Crow process modeling  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (wRI) has developed a numerical model (TCROW) to describe CROW{sup TM} processing of contaminated aquifers. CROW is a patented technology for the removal of contaminant organics from water-saturated formations by injection of hot water or low- temperature steam. TCROW is based on a fully implicit, thermal, compositional model (TSRS) previously developed by wRI. TCROW`s formulation represents several enhancements and simplifications over TSRS and results in a model specifically tailored to model the CROW process.

NONE

1997-04-01

247

Actinide metal processing  

DOEpatents

A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

1992-03-24

248

Biomass Processing Photolibrary  

DOE Data Explorer

Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

249

Parallel signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential application of parallel computing techniques to digital signal processing for radar is discussed and two types of regular array processor are discussed. The first type of processor is the systolic or wavefront processor. The application of this type of processor to adaptive beamforming is discussed and the joint STL-RSRE adaptive antenna processor test-bed is reviewed. The second type of regular array processor is the SIMD parallel computer. One such processor, the Mil-DAP, is described, and its application to a varied range of radar signal processing tasks is discussed.

McWhirter, John G.

1989-12-01

250

Slowing the aging process.  

PubMed

Research into the aging process is very new. For many years aging was thought to be the natural and inevitable consequence of a life of wear and tear. The idea that aging could be influenced by the genetic code and had a modifiable biologic component is less than 20 years old. During this time, aging has come to be understood as a complex biologic process controlled by signaling pathways and transcription factors. Similar attitudes pervade the field of nephrology. Whether a decline in renal function with age represents normal aging or kidney disease is the subject of much debate. PMID:23849016

Wiggins, Jocelyn; Bitzer, Markus

2013-08-01

251

Modular Containerless Processing Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular Containerless Processing Facility (MCPF) of the Space Station Freedom, being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is described. The MCPF will be capable of positioning, manipulating, and performing processing operations on samples completely free of container walls. It will be comprised of a host facility and a series of interchangeable plug-in modules. Initial iterations of MCPF modules will be flown on the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory (USML) series of Shuttle flights. The Drop Physics Module schedualed to fly on USML-1 in March 1992 is also considered.

Morrison, Andrew D.

1990-01-01

252

Stochastic Process Creation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many areas of computer science entities can “reproduce”, “replicate”, or “create new instances”. Paramount examples are threads in multithreaded programs, processes in operating systems, and computer viruses, but many others exist: procedure calls create new incarnations of the callees, web crawlers discover new pages to be explored (and so “create” new tasks), divide-and-conquer procedures split a problem into subproblems, and leaves of tree-based data structures become internal nodes with children. For lack of a better name, I use the generic term systems with process creation to refer to all these entities.

Esparza, Javier

253

Actinide metal processing  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

1991-04-05

254

Parastillation Process in Operations  

E-print Network

PARASTII.IMICN PIO:ESS rn OPERATIONS Frank canfield ChenShare Coq:oration Houston, Texas The Parastillation process is a new rrethod for ITU.11ti-stage, counter-current contact between vapor and liquid that results in 33% rrore ideal stages... than distillation for a given tray spaci.n;J. Patents have been granted in the U.S.A., U.K., Europe and other countries. Perfonnance of the process has been confimm aver the past several years by eat1puter siITU.llation, by laboratory tests...

Canfield, F.; Jenkins, O.

255

ATIC Flight Data Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first flight of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment from McMurdo, Antarctica lasted for 16 days, starting on December 28, 2000. The ATIC instrument consists of a fully active 320-crystal, 960-channel Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter, 202 scintillator strips (808 channels) in 3 hodoscopes, interleaved with graphite target layers, and a 4480-pixel silicon matrix charge detector. We have developed an object-oriented data processing package based on ROOT. In this paper, we describe the data processing scheme used in handling the accumulated 45 GB of flight data. We discuss calibration issues, particularly the time-dependence of housekeeping information.

Ahn, H. S.; ATIC Collaboration

2001-08-01

256

Actinide metal processing  

DOEpatents

A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

257

A Process Model for RFID based Business Process Analysis  

E-print Network

A Process Model for RFID based Business Process Analysis Thomas Neubauer, Gernot Goluch, Stefan to automatically monitor their business processes. This paper introduces RFID based Business Process Analysis (RBPA; Business Process Analysis I. INTRODUCTION Today enterprises face a very dynamic and agile market [4

258

Communicating sequential processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that input and output are basic primitives of programming and that parallel composition of communicating sequential processes is a fundamental program structuring method. When combined with a development of Dijkstra's guarded command, these concepts are surprisingly versatile. Their use is illustrated by sample solutions of a variety of a familiar programming exercises.

C. A. R. Hoare; R. L. Rivest

1978-01-01

259

Readily Processable Polyimide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polymer exhibits resistance to hydraulic fluid, excellent processability, and extremely high adhesive strength. Synthesis involves reaction of new diamine, 1,3-bis 2-ethyl ether, with 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride to form polyamic acid and subsequent conversion to polyimide.

Hergenrother, Paul M.; Harris, Frank W.; Beltz, Mark W.

1988-01-01

260

Catalytic cracking process  

DOEpatents

Processes and apparatus for providing improved catalytic cracking, specifically improved recovery of olefins, LPG or hydrogen from catalytic crackers. The improvement is achieved by passing part of the wet gas stream across membranes selective in favor of light hydrocarbons over hydrogen.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2001-01-01

261

Pervaporation process and assembly  

DOEpatents

The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

Wynn, Nicholas P. (Redwood City, CA); Huang, Yu (Palo Alto, CA); Aldajani, Tiem (San Jose, CA); Fulton, Donald A. (Fairfield, CA)

2010-07-20

262

Immunology as Information Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes the behavior of the immune system from an informationprocessing perspective. It reviews a series of projects conducted at the University of New Mexico and the Santa Fe Institute, which have developed and explored the theme "immunology as information processing." The projects cover the spectrum from serious modeling of real immunological phenomena, such as crossreactive responses in animals

Stephanie Forrest; Steven A. Hofmeyr

2000-01-01

263

Processing Speechread Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three methods by which hearing adults process speechread information are discussed: selective adaptation, immediate memory, and repetition priming. Also discussed are mental representations of speech by hearing-impaired and hearing children, infants' responses to speechread stimuli compared to other stimuli, infants' speechreading of a foreign…

Dodd, Barbara; Burnham, Denis

1988-01-01

264

Materials and Processes Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional resource guide is intended to assist the industrial arts (IA) teacher in implementing a comprehensive materials and Processes Technology program at the technical level in Virginia high schools. The course is designed to help students make informed educational and occupational choices and prepare them for advanced technical or…

Ritz, John M.; And Others

265

Image-Processing Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IMAGEP manipulates digital image data to effect various processing, analysis, and enhancement functions. It is keyboard-driven program organized into nine subroutines. Within subroutines are sub-subroutines also selected via keyboard. Algorithm has possible scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications in study of flows in materials, analysis of steels and ores, and pathology, respectively.

Roth, D. J.; Hull, D. R.

1994-01-01

266

Image Processing for Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Image Processing for Teaching project provides a powerful medium to excite students about science and mathematics, especially children from minority groups and others whose needs have not been met by traditional teaching. Using professional-quality software on microcomputers, students explore a variety of scientific data sets, including…

Greenberg, R.; And Others

1993-01-01

267

HYNOL PROCESS EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report examines process alternatives for the optimal use of natural gas and biomass for production of fuel-cell vehicle fuel, emphasizing maximum displacement of petroleum and maximum reduction of overall fuel-cycle carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at least cost. Three routes a...

268

Improved compression molding process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified compression molding process produces plastic molding compounds that are strong, homogeneous, free of residual stresses, and have improved ablative characteristics. The conventional method is modified by applying a vacuum to the mold during the molding cycle, using a volatile sink, and exercising precise control of the mold closure limits.

Heier, W. C.

1967-01-01

269

Improving scrap tire processing  

SciTech Connect

The market for tire-derived materials is growing rapidly, with the largest market being tire-derived fuels. There is therefore a growing demand for higher quality products. This paper describes the processing and removal of steel from scrap tires.

Astafan, C.G. [Columbus McKinnon Corp., Sarasota, FL (United States)

1997-01-01

270

Ammonia utilization process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for gasification of organic carbonaceous materials in a hydrogen forming gasifier. The improvement consists of: separating ammonia from product gas of the gasifier by dissolving in an aqueous liquid forming sour water; separating the sour water from the gasifier product gas; separating gaseous ammonia from the sour water; and recycling the gaseous ammonia to the

1987-01-01

271

Cross Process Innovations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online guide to cross process machining, which incorporates elements from various conventional and unconventional techniques, is provided here by the Mechanical Engineering Department at Columbia University. Some remarkable and innovative techniques that have surfaced over the past few years are outlined, including underwater laser machining and plasma-assisted machining.

2013-05-24

272

Mechanical Systems Signal Processing  

E-print Network

­171 Multivariate statistics process control for dimensionality reduction in structural assessment L.E. Mujicaa,�, J) for reducing dimensionality in damage identification problem, in particular, detecting and locating impacts in a part of a commercial aircraft wing flap. It is shown that applying MPCA and MPLS is convenient

Verleysen, Michel

273

Intelligent OCR Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies types and distributions of errors in text produced by optical character recognition (OCR) and proposes a process using machine learning techniques to recognize and correct errors in OCR texts. Results of experiments indicating that this strategy can reduce human interaction required for error correction are reported. (25 references)…

Sun, Wei; And Others

1992-01-01

274

Materials and Processes I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a first course on materials and processes as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. Topics include identifying and characterizing materials and commodities, metallurgy, uses and hazards involved in handling common materials and commodities, corrosion, metal fatigue, and good welding techniques.

275

Highly concurrent scalar processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

High speed scalar processing is an essential characteristic of high performance general purpose computer systems. Highly concurrent execution of scalar code is difficult due to data dependencies and conditional branches. This paper proposes an architectural concept called guarded instructions to reduce the penalty of conditional branches in deeply pipelined processors. A code generation heuristic, the decision tree scheduling technique, reorders

Peter Y.-T. Hsu; Edward S. Davidson

1986-01-01

276

Scan Processing Tamy Boubekeur  

E-print Network

of geometry processing and rendering techniques on unstruc- tured point clouds acquired with 3D scanners) Scanner (b) Rotating-Table (c) Chart (d) Workstation Figure 2: The Harware Pipeline. Scanner. Our 3D scanner is a Minolta Vivid VI 300. It is a Laser Range Scanner, which produces a 400x400 color resolution

Boubekeur, Tamy

277

The Big6 Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webquest is designed to introduce students to the stages of the Big6 process. The ideal age group for this webquest would be the middle grades (7-9). The teacher will need to take students to the library media center and assist students in opening the page. Distribute the accompanying handout to students and provide assistance as they go through the process. This lesson will probably take two class periods to complete. The following elements of the Utah Library Media Core Curriculum will be addressed in this lesson: -- Standard 1: Students will define a task and identify information needed. -- Standard 2: Students will identify, evaluate, and select resources. -- Standard 3: Students will locate resources and access information within resources. -- Standard 4: Students will engage and extract information. -- Standard 5: Students will organize, synthesize, and present information. -- Standard 6: Students will evaluate the process and the product. THE BIG6 Every day we face many choices. In order to make the best choice possible, we must solve what is called an "information problem." In other words, we must go through a process in which we consider the various alternatives and select the one we think will be ...

Ms. Sinclair

2009-11-28

278

Actinide recovery process  

DOEpatents

Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrenedivinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like.

Muscatello, Anthony C. (Arvada, CO); Navratil, James D. (Arvada, CO); Saba, Mark T. (Arvada, CO)

1987-07-28

279

The Oil Refining Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Learning Centre at the New Zealand Refining Company Ltd., hosts a collection of annotated diagrams and pictures of various stages in the oil refining process. Users can click their way through the site to learn somewhat technical details of oil delivery, storage, and refinement.

The New Zealand Refining Company

280

The magnetization process: Hysteresis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetization process, hysteresis (the difference in the path of magnetization for an increasing and decreasing magnetic field), hysteresis loops, and hard magnetic materials are discussed. The fabrication of classroom projects for demonstrating hysteresis and the hysteresis of common magnetic materials is described in detail.

Balsamel, Richard

1990-01-01

281

Unconscious orientation processing.  

PubMed

Recent findings have shown that certain attributes of visual stimuli, like orientation, are registered in cortical areas when the stimulus is unresolvable or perceptually invisible; however, there is no evidence to show that complex forms of orientation processing (e.g., modulatory effects of orientation on the processing of other features) could occur in the absence of awareness. To address these questions, different psychophysical paradigms were designed in six experiments to probe unconscious orientation processing. First we demonstrated orientation-selective adaptation and color-contingent orientation adaptation for peripheral unresolvable Gabor patches. The next experiments showed the modulatory effects of perceptually indiscriminable orientations on apparent motion processing and attentional mechanisms. Finally we investigated disappearance patterns of unresolvable Gabor stimuli during motion-induced blindness (MIB). Abrupt changes in local unresolvable orientations truncated MIB; however, orientation-based grouping failed to affect the MIB pattern when the orientations were unresolvable. Overall results revealed that unresolvable orientations substantially influence perception at multiple levels. PMID:14980213

Rajimehr, Reza

2004-02-19

282

Change Process in Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on the change process in organizations moderated by John Redding at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Corporate Culture: Friend or Foe of Change?" (Joanne Burgess) reports a study of the characteristics of corporate culture that facilitate…

1996

283

Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

Seager, Robert D.

2014-01-01

284

Reading: Process and Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Broad and major concerns dealing with reading are set forth in this monograph to provoke discussion and examination by both researchers and practitioners. In Part 1, Kenneth S. Goodman presents a psycholinguistic view of language and reading (within a transformational-generative framework) as essentially a set of processes of recoding, decoding,…

Goodman, Kenneth S.; Niles, Olive S.

285

Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation process  

DOEpatents

A process for the production of a mono-olefin from a gaseous paraffinic hydrocarbon having at least two carbon atoms or mixtures thereof comprising reacting said hydrocarbons and molecular oxygen in the presence of a platinum catalyst. The catalyst consist essentially of platinum supported on alumina or zirconia monolith, preferably zirconia and more preferably in the absence of palladium, rhodium and gold.

Schmidt, Lanny D. (Minneapolis, MN); Huff, Marylin (St. Paul, MN)

2002-01-01

286

Technological innovation processes revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is part of an inquiry into the causes of the small occurrence of innovations in the Brazilian society. It was based on a retrospective analysis of cases experienced by the author, as well as on the study of certain industries. The systemic model of the technological innovation process presented here, while revisiting the models in the literature, emphasizes

Antonio Cantisani

2006-01-01

287

Metamorphic Rocks and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 13 questions on the topic of metamorphic rocks and processes, which covers foliation and grades of metamorphism. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users select an answer and are provided immediate feedback.

Heaton, Timothy

288

The Clinical Trials Process  

Cancer.gov

Cancer Clinical Trials In-Depth Information 2 The Drug Development and Approval Process 1. Early research and preclinical testing 2. IND application filed with FDA 3. Clinical trials (phases 1, 2, and 3) 4. NDA filed with FDA 5. FDA validates claim and

289

Point processes, spatialtemporal  

E-print Network

­time or spatio-temporal point process) is a random collection of points, where each point rep- resents the time and location of an event. Examples of events include incidence of disease, sightings or births of a species County, CA, recorded by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works (times of the events not shown

Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

290

PETROX - PETROBRAS' PROCESS SIMULATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years, Basic Engineering activities have grown in Petrobras since its creation in 1976. It incorporates into the Basic Projects a high degree of technological innovation developed in the Petrobras' Research Center - CENPES and the acquired knowledge in the scientific community and previous projects. A strategic decision made in 1989 was the development of PETROBRAS' own Process Simulator

Jacques Niederberger; Ingrid Alexandra Zech; José Ataíde da Silva; Fabio Takeshi Mizutani; Sousa Aires

291

Image processing and reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

This talk will examine some mathematical methods for image processing and the solution of underdetermined, linear inverse problems. The talk will have a tutorial flavor, mostly accessible to undergraduates, while still presenting research results. The primary approach is the use of optimization problems. We will find that relaxing the usual assumption of convexity will give us much better results.

Chartrand, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-15

292

Accent processing in dementia  

PubMed Central

Accented speech conveys important nonverbal information about the speaker as well as presenting the brain with the problem of decoding a non-canonical auditory signal. The processing of non-native accents has seldom been studied in neurodegenerative disease and its brain basis remains poorly understood. Here we investigated the processing of non-native international and regional accents of English in cohorts of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n=20) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n=6) in relation to healthy older control subjects (n=35). A novel battery was designed to assess accent comprehension and recognition and all subjects had a general neuropsychological assessment. Neuroanatomical associations of accent processing performance were assessed using voxel-based morphometry on MR brain images within the larger AD group. Compared with healthy controls, both the AD and PNFA groups showed deficits of non-native accent recognition and the PNFA group showed reduced comprehension of words spoken in international accents compared with a Southern English accent. At individual subject level deficits were observed more consistently in the PNFA group, and the disease groups showed different patterns of accent comprehension impairment (generally more marked for sentences in AD and for single words in PNFA). Within the AD group, grey matter associations of accent comprehension and recognition were identified in the anterior superior temporal lobe. The findings suggest that accent processing deficits may constitute signatures of neurodegenerative disease with potentially broader implications for understanding how these diseases affect vocal communication under challenging listening conditions. PMID:22664324

Hailstone, Julia C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Bartlett, Jonathan W.; Goll, Johanna C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

2012-01-01

293

Communication satellite processing repeaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of processing repeaters which may find application on communication satellites in the near future are described. The type I repeater allows access only if the transmitted signal contains a predetermined code structure. This serves three purposes: first, unauthorized users are excluded, second, co-channel interfering signals are not retransmitted on the downlink, so as not to waste a portion

R. Y. Huang; P. Hooten

1971-01-01

294

Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

295

Radiation Processing -an overview  

E-print Network

· - not making something radioactive Radioactive · Substance emitting radiation Ionising Radiation · Radiation Different microorganisms have different resistances to radiation #12;36 Sterilization Definition1 Radiation Processing - an overview Arne Miller Risø High Dose Reference Laboratory Risø DTU DK

296

Building Science Process Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A well-designed and executed field trip experience serves not only to enrich and supplement course content, but also creates opportunities to build basic science process skills. This article describes an onsite trip to the Bronx Zoo that allowed collaborating students to develop acquisitive and organizational skills while exploring rain forest habitat characteristics and species diversity.

Anthony V. DeFina

2006-01-01

297

EGG PROCESSING PLANT SANITATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

298

Egg Processing Plant Sanitation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

299

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R[sub 1]H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R[sub 1] represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R[sub 2])[sub 3

Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana, R.A.

1988-05-24

300

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1983-01-01

301

Processing eutectics in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigations of directional solidification have indicated the necessity of establishing a secure foundation in earth-based laboratory processing in order to properly assess low-gravity processing. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the regularity of microstructure of the rod-like eutectic Al-Al3Ni obtained under different conditions of growth involving the parameters of thermal gradient, solidification rate, and interfacial curvature. In the case of Al-Al3Ni, where the Al3Ni phase appears as facets rods, solidification rate was determined to be a controlling parameter. Zone melting of thin eutectic films showed that for films of the order of 10 to 20 micrometers thick, the extra surface energy appears to act to stabilize a regular microstructure. The results suggest that the role of low-gravity as provided in space-laboratory processing of materials is to be sought in the possibility of generating a higher thermal gradient in the solidifying ingot for a given power input-output arrangement than can be obtained under normal one-g processes.

Douglas, F. C.; Galasso, S. F.

1975-01-01

302

Catalyst deoiling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deoiling process is described comprising the steps of: removing a slurry of spent catalyst and oil from an ebullated bed reactor; transporting the slurry of spent catalyst and oil from the reactor to a vessel; cooling the slurry of spent catalyst and oil in the vessel to a temperature below the flash point of the oil; conveying the cooled

C. B. Olson; R. T. Plichta; D. W. Coyne

1987-01-01

303

Gaia downlink data processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gaia survey mission, operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and launched on 19 December 2013, will survey approximately 109 stars or 1% of the galactic stellar population over a 5.5 year period. The main purpose of this mission is micro-arcsecond astrometry, that would yield important insights into the kinematics of the galaxy, its evolution, as well as provide important additional findings, including a updated coordinate reference system to that provided by the ICRS. Gaia performs its observations using two telescopes with fields of view separated by 106.5 degrees, spinning around an orthogonal axis at about 6 hours per day. The spin axis itself precesses: it is always oriented at 45 degrees from the sun, and precesses around the sun every 63 days. Thus each part of the sky is observed approximately every 63 days. The 6-hour spin, or scan-rate matches the CCD readout rate. The amount of data to process per day - 50-130 Gigabytes - corresponds to over 30 million stellar sources. To perform this processing, the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) have developed approximately 2 million lines of software, divided into subsystems specific to a given functional need, that are run across 6 different Data Processing Centres (DPCs). The final result being a catalog including the 109 stars observed. Most of the daily processing is performed at the DPC in ESAC, Spain (DPCE), which runs 3 main subsystems, the MOC Interface Task (MIT), the Initial Data Treatment (IDT), and First Look (FL). The MIT ingests the initial data provided by the MOC in the form of binary data and writes (amongst other things) `star packets' containing the raw stellar information needed for IDT, which provides a basic level of processing, including stellar positions, photometry, radial velocities, cross match and catalogue updates. FL determines the payload health (e.g, the health for the 106 CCDs, geometric calibration) and astrometric performance via the one day astrometric solution. This presentation provides an overview of the DPAC software as a whole, and focuses on the daily pipeline processing: the systems used, the teams involved, the challenges during development and operations, and lessons learned.

Siddiqui, H.; Els, S. G.; Guerra, R.; Cheek, N.; Mora, A.; O'Mullane, W.

2014-08-01

304

Particle processing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been strong demand for the development of novel devices and equipment that support advanced industries including IT/semiconductors, the environment, energy and aerospace along with the achievement of higher efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Many studies have been conducted on the fabrication of innovative inorganic materials with novel individual properties and/or multifunctional properties including electrical, dielectric, thermal, optical, chemical and mechanical properties through the development of particle processing. The fundamental technologies that are key to realizing such materials are (i) the synthesis of nanoparticles with uniform composition and controlled crystallite size, (ii) the arrangement/assembly and controlled dispersion of nanoparticles with controlled particle size, (iii) the precise structural control at all levels from micrometer to nanometer order and (iv) the nanostructural design based on theoretical/experimental studies of the correlation between the local structure and the functions of interest. In particular, it is now understood that the application of an external stimulus, such as magnetic energy, electrical energy and/or stress, to a reaction field is effective in realizing advanced particle processing [1-3]. This special issue comprises 12 papers including three review papers. Among them, seven papers are concerned with phosphor particles, such as silicon, metals, Si3N4-related nitrides, rare-earth oxides, garnet oxides, rare-earth sulfur oxides and rare-earth hydroxides. In these papers, the effects of particle size, morphology, dispersion, surface states, dopant concentration and other factors on the optical properties of phosphor particles and their applications are discussed. These nanoparticles are classified as zero-dimensional materials. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene are well-known one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials, respectively. This special issue also includes two papers on the fabrication of mechanically reliable nanocomposites by dispersing graphene into a ceramic matrix, and on supercapacitors with high energy densities in a Co(OH)2 system decorated with graphene and carbon nanotubes. As a novel preparation method of oxide films, the fabrication of alumina films with laminated structures by ac anodization is reviewed. Moreover a new type of nanosheet has been fabricated by the exfoliation of layered, ternary transition-metal carbide and nitride compounds, known as Mn + 1AXn phases (or MAX phases) where M is an early transition metal, such as Ti or Nb, A is an A group element, such as Si or Al, X is carbon and/or nitrogen and n = 1-3 [4]. Among the MAX phases, those containing Mo have been theoretically calculated by first-principles calculations to be a source for obtaining Mo2C nanosheets with potentially unique properties. As an example of improving bulk ceramic properties, texturing by using a high magnetic field [5] and sintering by the electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS) technology [6] have been demonstrated for ultra-high temperature ceramics with high-temperature strength. A project on the development of materials and particle processing for the field of environment and energy has been ongoing at the National Institute for Materials Science since April 2011. This project employs various core competence technologies for particle processing such as ion beam irradiation for nanoparticle fabrication [7], fullerene nanomaterial processing using liquid-liquid interface precipitation [8], a gas reduction nitridation process to obtain Si3N4-based phosphor materials [9], advanced phosphors via novel processing [10, 11], ultra-high pressure technology for processing and in situ analysis [12, 13], colloidal processing in a high magnetic field to obtain laminated, textured ceramics [1, 3, 5], the ECAS process for nanostructuring ceramics [6] and so forth. Here, I would like to introduce some research achievements that are not covered in this special issue. (1) The evolution of hydrogen by the react

Sakka, Yoshio

2014-02-01

305

Study of random process theory aids digital data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study of techniques for all random process technology, including stationary, nonstationary, and Gaussian bivariate, aids digital data processing. It presents material on digital filtering, correlation function, optimal spectral smoothing, deterministic data processing, and nonstationary spectrum and correlation analyses.

Bordner, G. W.

1967-01-01

306

5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...writing that the legal process has been appealed, and...enforceability of the legal process. The notification must be accompanied by the documentation and citations to legal...Multiple qualifying legal processes relating to the same...

2012-01-01

307

5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...writing that the legal process has been appealed, and...enforceability of the legal process. The notification must be accompanied by the documentation and citations to legal...Multiple qualifying legal processes relating to the same...

2013-01-01

308

5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...writing that the legal process has been appealed, and...enforceability of the legal process. The notification must be accompanied by the documentation and citations to legal...Multiple qualifying legal processes relating to the same...

2011-01-01

309

5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...writing that the legal process has been appealed, and...enforceability of the legal process. The notification must be accompanied by the documentation and citations to legal...Multiple qualifying legal processes relating to the same...

2010-01-01

310

5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.  

...writing that the legal process has been appealed, and...enforceability of the legal process. The notification must be accompanied by the documentation and citations to legal...Multiple qualifying legal processes relating to the same...

2014-01-01

311

Biosphere Process Model Report  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor. Collectively, the potential human receptor and exposure pathways form the biosphere model. More detailed technical information and data about potential human receptor groups and the characteristics of exposure pathways have been developed in a series of AMRs and Calculation Reports.

J. Schmitt

2000-05-25

312

Introduction to Process Technology Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology presents this free sample module as an introduction to process technology. The interactive module includes 27 slides and provides an overview of process industries and the role of the process technician. Users will gain an understanding of a process technician's duties, responsibilities, expectations and working conditions.

2013-01-10

313

Demonic memory for process histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demonic memory is a form of reconstructive memory for process histories. As a process executes, its states are regularly checkpointed, generating a history of the process at low time resolution. Following the initial generation, any prior state of the process can be reconstructed by starting from a checkpointed state and re-executing the process up through the desired state, thereby exploiting

Paul R. Wilson; Thomas G. Moher

1989-01-01

314

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2001) 8: 401417 Nonlinear Processes  

E-print Network

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2001) 8: 401­417 Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics c European Geophysical Society 2001 Verification of intense precipitation forecasts from single models and ensemble

Boyer, Edmond

315

Vaccine process technology.  

PubMed

The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory perspective, Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT) are important initiatives that can be applied effectively to many types of vaccine processes. Universal demand for vaccines requires that a manufacturer plan to supply tens and sometimes hundreds of millions of doses per year at low cost. To enable broader use, there is intense interest in improving temperature stability to allow for excursions from a rigid cold chain supply, especially at the point of vaccination. Finally, there is progress in novel routes of delivery to move away from the traditional intramuscular injection by syringe approach. PMID:22407777

Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

2012-06-01

316

Normalization of Process Safety Metrics  

E-print Network

This study is aimed at exploring new process safety metrics for measuring the process safety performance in processing industries. Following a series of catastrophic incidents such as the Bhopal chemical tragedy (1984) and Phillips 66 explosion...

Wang, Mengtian

2012-10-19

317

Advanced Process Management and Implementation  

E-print Network

Advanced Process Management is a method to achieve optimum process performance during the life cycle of a plant through proper design, effective automation, and adequate operator decision support. Developing a quality process model is an effective...

Robinson, J.

318

Extraterrestrial materials processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first year results of a multi-year study of processing extraterrestrial materials for use in space are summarized. Theoretically, there are potential major advantages to be derived from the use of such materials for future space endeavors. The types of known or postulated starting raw materials are described including silicate-rich mixed oxides on the Moon, some asteroids and Mars; free metals in some asteroids and in small quantities in the lunar soil; and probably volatiles like water and CO2 on Mars and some asteroids. Candidate processes for space materials are likely to be significantly different from their terrestrial counterparts largely because of: absence of atmosphere; lack of of readily available working fluids; low- or micro-gravity; no carbon-based fuels; readily available solar energy; and severe constraints on manned intervention. The extraction of metals and oxygen from lunar material by magma electrolysis or by vapor/ion phase separation appears practical.

Steurer, W. H.

1982-01-01

319

The nu-process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the core of a massive star collapses to form a neutron star, the flux of neutrinos in the overlying shells of heavy elements becomes so great that, despite the small cross section, substantial nuclear transmutation is induced. Neutrinos excite heavy elements and even helium to particle unbound levels. The evaporation of a single neutron or proton, and the back reaction of these nucleons on other species present, significantly alters the outcome of traditional nucleosynthesis calculations leading to a new process: nu-nucleosynthesis. Modifications to traditional hydrostatic and explosive varieties of helium, carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning are considered. The results show that a large number of rare isotopes, including many of the odd-Z nuclei from boron through copper, owe much of their present abundance in nature to this process.

Woosley, S. E.; Hartmann, D. H.; Hoffman, R. D.; Haxton, W. C.

1990-01-01

320

Process air quality data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

1978-01-01

321

Separation Process Economics  

E-print Network

.J., Separation processes ~ McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971. I (2) Heist, J.A. and T.S. Barron, "Fre~ze Separation Processes - Energy Efficien~y by Flexibility", 5th Annual IECTC, I Houston, TX, April 17, 1983. 31 ESL-IE-85-05-07 Proceedings from the Seventh... reduce h??t tran.r.r. At 11' g~ .ia. eo.t. 52'.41 per 1??? qaUon. ot .olv.nt IftStall.d 'roc.a. Squlpaent r_owed to build .nd o.-rat.. In.rgy r.quir...nt or 191 U'h per 11?? gallon?? Coat (fS aillioQ., 4019") ottered c_rcblly by at 1.aU thr?? tir...

Barron, T. S.; Wrobel, P. J.

322

Fractal structures and processes  

SciTech Connect

Fractals and chaos are closely related. Many chaotic systems have fractal features. Fractals are self-similar or self-affine structures, which means that they look much of the same when magnified or reduced in scale over a reasonably large range of scales, at least two orders of magnitude and preferably more (Mandelbrot, 1983). The methods for estimating their fractal dimensions or their Hurst coefficients, which summarize the scaling relationships and their correlation structures, are going through a rapid evolutionary phase. Fractal measures can be regarded as providing a useful statistical measure of correlated random processes. They also provide a basis for analyzing recursive processes in biology such as the growth of arborizing networks in the circulatory system, airways, or glandular ducts. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Beard, D.A.; Percival, D.B.; Raymond, G.M. [National Simulation Resource, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

1996-06-01

323

Vortices in Atomic Processes  

SciTech Connect

The time-dependent Schrodinger equation describes dynamical processes of one-electron species in terms of a complex wave function. The function is inherently complex, therefore zeros occur only when both the real and imaginary parts of the wave function vanish. If this happens at isolated points rather than on a nodal surface one can show the zero must correspond to a vortex. An imaging theorem is given which shows how such vortices can be seen experimentally. Since the theorem requires time propagation from microscopic to macroscopic scales, a method is developed that does just that. Examples of vortices that emerge in dynamical processes are given. The vortices that we nd are linked to the hydrodynamic interpretation of Schrodinger's time-dependent equation.

Macek, Joseph H [ORNL] ORNL

2012-01-01

324

Flash Flood Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to NOAA’s National Weather Service, a flash flood is a life-threatening flood that begins within 6 hours--and often within 3 hours--of a causative event. That causative event can be intense rainfall, the failure of a dam, levee, or other structure that is impounding water, or the sudden rise of water level associated with river ice jams. The “Flash Flood Processes” module offers an introduction to the distinguishing features of flash floods, the underlying hydrologic influences and the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the differences between flash floods and general floods and examines the hydrologic processes that impact flash flooding risk. In addition, it provides an introduction to the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products including derivation from ThreshR and rainfall-runoff curves as well as current strengths and limitations.

COMET

2006-11-08

325

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirty-five (35) furnace runs were carried out during this quarter, of which 25 produced a total of 120 web crystals. The two main thermal models for the dendritic growth process were completed and are being used to assist the design of the thermal geometry of the web growth apparatus. The first model, a finite element representation of the susceptor and crucible, was refined to give greater precision and resolution in the critical central region of the melt. The second thermal model, which describes the dissipation of the latent heat to generate thickness-velocity data, was completed. Dendritic web samples were fabricated into solar cells using a standard configuration and a standard process for a N(+) -P-P(+) configuration. The detailed engineering design was completed for a new dendritic web growth facility of greater width capability than previous facilities.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

1977-01-01

326

Nucleic acid isolation process  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

327

Process for producing ethanol  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

1993-07-27

328

Video image processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current technology projections indicate a lack of availability of special purpose computing for Space Station applications. Potential functions for video image special purpose processing are being investigated, such as smoothing, enhancement, restoration and filtering, data compression, feature extraction, object detection and identification, pixel interpolation/extrapolation, spectral estimation and factorization, and vision synthesis. Also, architectural approaches are being identified and a conceptual design generated. Computationally simple algorithms will be research and their image/vision effectiveness determined. Suitable algorithms will be implimented into an overall architectural approach that will provide image/vision processing at video rates that are flexible, selectable, and programmable. Information is given in the form of charts, diagrams and outlines.

Murray, N. D.

1985-01-01

329

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

More than half of the so called "laboratory errors" has already happened before the analysis starts in the laboratory and many mistakes are made after the analysis itself. Pre- and post-analytical errors cause 60 to 90 % of all unexpected or erroneous values; only 10 to 15 % are caused by analytical problems. Internal quality control and external quality assessments are a matter of course today while standardisation still could be improved. The pre- and post-analytical processes however are only scarcely supervised. Good patient preparation, reliable patient identification and correct blood draws still cannot be taken for granted - improved training and education are necessary. There is also room for improvement in the communication of the results and the implementation of the consequences thereof. Errors in all phases of the analytical process contain valuable clues for optimisations. An improved culture of failure management would allow tapping the full potential of these clues. PMID:25630293

Savoca, Reto

2015-02-01

330

EDITORIAL: Ultrafast magnetization processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is devoted to ultrafast magnetization processes. It reports on the scientific yield of the Priority Programme 1133 'Ultrafast Magnetization Processes' which was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in the period 2002-2008 in three successive two-year funding periods, supporting research of 17-18 groups in Germany. Now, at the end of this Priority Programme, the members feel that the achievements made in the course of the programme merit communication to the international scientific community in a concerted way. Therefore, each of the projects of the last funding period presents a key result in a published contribution to this Cluster Issue. The purpose of the funding by a Priority Programme is to advance knowledge in an emerging field of research through collaborative networked support over several locations. Priority Programmes are characterized by their enhanced quality of research through the use of new methods and forms of collaboration in emerging fields, by added value through interdisciplinary cooperation, and by networking. The aim of the Priority Programme 1133 'Ultrafast Magnetization Processes' may be well characterized by the call for projects in June 2001 after the programme was approved by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft: 'The aim of the priority programme is the achievement of a basic understanding of the temporal evolution of fast magnetization processes in magnetically ordered films, multilayers and micro-structured systems. The challenge lies in the advancement of the field of ultrafast magnetization processes into the regime of a few femtoseconds to nanoseconds, a topic not yet well explored. A general aim is to understand the fundamental mechanisms needed for applications in ultrafast magneto-electronic devices. The fundamental topic to be addressed is the response of the magnetization of small structures upon the application of pulsed magnetic fields, laser pulses or injected spin-polarized electron pulses on short time scales, ranging from a small disturbance of the system up to the reversal of the magnetization direction.' Now, seven years later, the subject of ultrafast magnetization processes has grown into a mainstream research direction in modern magnetism. The major international conferences on magnetism, such as the Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (MMM), the INTERMAG, the International Conference of Magnetism, as well as many regional conferences, schedule dedicated sessions to ultrafast magnetization processes, very often several of them. The large share in research in this field from German scientists has been made possible by this Priority Programme. Since its beginning, new developments have been picked up by the Priority Programme 1133 and addressed by projects. Spin torque phenomena in spin dynamics, although foreseen at the time of establishing the Priority Programme, have been taken up. The field of dissipation has been addressed and extended by several groups, with contributions both from theoretical and experimental groups. A first set of contributions addresses ultrafast dynamics and materials. T Roth et al [article 164001] in this issue] study the dynamics of coercivity in ultrafast pump-probe experiments on the femtosecond time scale. They show that an all optical pump-probe technique is, in general, not suitable for gaining access to the time-dependent behaviour of the coercivity, since the switching in a fixed external field is an irreversible process. They comment on the possible mechanisms leading to the observed reduction of the coercivity with increasing pump power and propose a potential solution to clarify the origin of such a behaviour. B Heitkamp et al [164002] discuss the femtosecond spin dynamics of ferromagnetic CoPt thin films and nanodots, which they probe using spin-polarized photoemission electron microscopy. They show by photoelectron spin analysis, that enhanced optical near fields can be used to induce a local demagnetization of the sample following femtosecond laser

Hillebrands, Burkard

2008-09-01

331

Illuminating Vertebrate Olfactory Processing  

PubMed Central

The olfactory system encodes information about molecules by spatiotemporal patterns of activity across distributed populations of neurons and extracts information from these patterns to control specific behaviors. Recent studies used in vivo recordings, optogenetics, and other methods to analyze the mechanisms by which odor information is encoded and processed in the olfactory system, the functional connectivity within and between olfactory brain areas, and the impact of spatiotemporal patterning of neuronal activity on higher-order neurons and behavioral outputs. The results give rise to a faceted picture of olfactory processing and provide insights into fundamental mechanisms underlying neuronal computations. This review focuses on some of this work presented in a Mini-Symposium at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in 2012. PMID:23055479

Albeanu, Dinu Florin; Murthy, Venkatesh N.; Rinberg, Dmitry; Uchida, Naoshige; Wachowiak, Matt

2012-01-01

332

Plutonium dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

Vest, Michael A. (Oak Park, IL); Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC); Moore, Edwin N. (Aiken, SC); Holcomb, H. Perry (North Augusta, SC)

1996-01-01

333

High temperature lubricating process  

DOEpatents

It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Shell, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

334

Coated substrates and process  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a coated substrate and a process for forming films on substrates and for providing a particularly smooth film on a substrate. The method of this invention involves subjecting a surface of a substrate to contact with a stream of ions of an inert gas having sufficient force and energy to substantially change the surface characteristics of said substrate, and then exposing a film-forming material to a stream of ions of an inert gas having sufficient energy to vaporize the atoms of said film-forming material and to transmit the vaporized atoms to the substrate surface with sufficient force to form a film bonded to the substrate. This process is particularly useful commercially because it forms strong bonds at room temperature. This invention is particularly useful for adhering a gold film to diamond and forming ohmic electrodes on diamond, but also can be used to bond other films to substrates.

Chu, Wei-kan (Chapel Hill, NC); Childs, Charles B. (Chapel Hill, NC)

1991-01-01

335

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

In our recent work, Monte Carlo Cross Validation Stacked Regression (MCCVSR) is proposed to achieve automatic optimization of spectral interval selection in multivariate calibration. Though MCCVSR performs well in normal conditions, it is still necessary to improve it for more general applications. According to the well-known principle of "garbage in, garbage out (GIGO)", as a precise ensemble method, MCCVSR might be influenced by outlying and very bad submodels. In this paper, a statistical test is designed to exclude the ruinous submodels from the ensemble learning process, therefore, the combination process becomes more reliable. Though completely automated, the proposed method is adjustable according to the nature of the data analyzed, including the size of training samples, resolution of spectra and quantitative potentials of the submodels. The effectiveness of the submodel refining is demonstrated by the investigation of a real standard data. PMID:19547705

Yu, Xiao-Ping; Xu, Lu; Yu, Ru-Qin

2009-01-01

336

Youpi: YOUr processing PIpeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Youpi is a portable, easy to use web application providing high level functionalities to perform data reduction on scientific FITS images. Built on top of various open source reduction tools released to the community by TERAPIX (http://terapix.iap.fr), Youpi can help organize data, manage processing jobs on a computer cluster in real time (using Condor) and facilitate teamwork by allowing fine-grain sharing of results and data. Youpi is modular and comes with plugins which perform, from within a browser, various processing tasks such as evaluating the quality of incoming images (using the QualityFITS software package), computing astrometric and photometric solutions (using SCAMP), resampling and co-adding FITS images (using SWarp) and extracting sources and building source catalogues from astronomical images (using SExtractor). Youpi is useful for small to medium-sized data reduction projects; it is free and is published under the GNU General Public License.

Monnerville, Mathias; Sémah, Gregory

2012-03-01

337

Process for degrading hypochlorite  

SciTech Connect

It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved means and method for the degradation of hypochlorite in alkali waste solutions. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a more effective and less costly method for the degradation of hypochlorite. The foregoing objects and others are accomplished in accordance with the present invention, generally speaking, by providing a process to degrade hypochlorite into chloride and oxygen which includes contacting an aqueous hypochlorite basic solution with a catalyst comprising about 1--10 w/w % cobalt oxide and about 1--15 w/w % molybdenum oxide on a suitable substrate. In another embodiment a similar process for degrading lithium hypochlorite is provided in which waste solution concentration is lowered in order to minimize carbonate precipitation. 6 tabs.

Huxtable, W.P.; Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.

1989-05-12

338

Adaptive passive fathometer processing.  

PubMed

Recently, a technique has been developed to image seabed layers using the ocean ambient noise field as the sound source. This so called passive fathometer technique exploits the naturally occurring acoustic sounds generated on the sea-surface, primarily from breaking waves. The method is based on the cross-correlation of noise from the ocean surface with its echo from the seabed, which recovers travel times to significant seabed reflectors. To limit averaging time and make this practical, beamforming is used with a vertical array of hydrophones to reduce interference from horizontally propagating noise. The initial development used conventional beamforming, but significant improvements have been realized using adaptive techniques. In this paper, adaptive methods for this process are described and applied to several data sets to demonstrate improvements possible as compared to conventional processing. PMID:20370000

Siderius, Martin; Song, Heechun; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Hursky, Paul; Harrison, Chris

2010-04-01

339

Apparatus for processing coal  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

Williams, R.M.

1985-02-12

340

Dry coke quenching process  

SciTech Connect

A escription is given of a dry coke quenching process comprising the steps of preheating said coke to a temperature of not lower than 1200/sup 0/C, cooling said coke to a temperature of not lower than 700/sup 0/C by way of passing therethrough a flow of a mixture consisting essentially of hydrocarbons and water vapor, subsequently cooling said coke to a temperature of not higher than 200/sup 0/C by passing therethrough a flow of inert gas.

Ananievsky, M.; Kulakov, N.; Minasov, A.; Privalov, V.; Silka, A.; Solodkov, V.; Temkin, N.; Todavchich, Z.; Zubilin, I.

1980-07-08

341

Process for producing silicon  

DOEpatents

A process of producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

Olson, J.M.; Carleton, K.L.

1982-06-10

342

The Processing of Nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Manufacturing techniques can have a significant impact on the dielectric properties of nanostructured materials, sometimes\\u000a even larger than the effect of the nanofiller itself. Indeed, the choice of the best nanofiller to improve the electric behavior\\u000a of the final nanocomposite is often frustrated by residual contaminants of the matrix-nanofiller compatibilization process,\\u000a moisture absorption, nanofiller aggregation, etc. Therefore manufacturing techniques should

F. Bellucci; D. Fabiani; G. C. Montanari; L. Testa

343

Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process  

DOEpatents

In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01

344

Corporate Energy Management Process  

E-print Network

of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 ? The world?s leading chemical company ? Serves all major industries ? 380 production facilities including six Verbund sites ? World-class, innovative, high... of sales product by 2020 (baseline 2002) Energy efficiency in production processes by 2020 (baseline 2002) +35% Status 2012: -31.7 % Status 2012: +19.3 % Near Term Performance ? Annual targets set for NA and by individual chemical production...

Geiger, T.

2013-01-01

345

Soft digital signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a framework for low-energy digital signal processing (DSP), where the supply voltage is scaled beyond the critical voltage imposed by the requirement to match the critical path delay to the throughput. This deliberate introduction of input-dependent errors leads to degradation in the algorithmic performance, which is compensated for via algorithmic noise-tolerance (ANT) schemes. The resulting

Rajamohana Hegde; Naresh R. Shanbhag

2001-01-01

346

Clementine Sensor Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the DSPSE Satellite Controller (DSC) is baselined as a single-string satellite controller. The DSC performs two main functions: health and maintenance of the spacecraft; and image capture, storage, and playback. The DSC contains two processors: a radiation-hardened Mil-Std-1750, and a commercial R3000. The Mil-Std-1750 processor performs all housekeeping operations, while the R3000 is mainly used to perform the image processing functions associated with the navigation functions, as well as performing various experiments. The DSC also contains a data handling unit (DHU) used to interface to various spacecraft imaging sensors and to capture, compress, and store selected images onto the solid-state data recorder. The development of the DSC evolved from several key requirements; the DSPSE satellite was to do the following: (1) have a radiation-hardened spacecraft control system and be immune to single-event upsets (SEU's); (2) use an R3000-based processor to run the star tracker software that was developed by SDIO (due to schedule and cost constraints, there was no time to port the software to a radiation-hardened processor); and (3) fly a commercial processor to verify its suitability for use in a space environment. In order to enhance the DSC reliability, the system was designed with multiple processing paths. These multiple processing paths provide for greater tolerance to various component failures. The DSC was designed so that all housekeeping processing functions are performed by either the Mil-Std-1750 processor or the R3000 processor. The image capture and storage is performed either by the DHU or the R3000 processor.

Feldstein, A. A.

1993-01-01

347

Attentional Processes in Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attentional processes in individuals with high-functioning autism were compared with a matched control group. Participants for the study were 103 children and adults with autism and 103 control subjects. Measures administered corresponded to Mirsky et al.'s (1991) factor analysis of tests of attention. Diminished performance was noted on measures that loaded on the Focus-Execute and Shift factors, but not on

Gerald Goldstein; Cynthia R. Johnson; Nancy J. Minshew

2001-01-01

348

Morphological image sequence processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a morphological multi-scale method for image sequence processing, which results in a truly coupled spatio-temporal anisotropic diffusion. The aim of the method is not to smooth the level-sets of single frames but to denoise the whole sequence while retaining geometric features such as spatial edges and highly accelerated motions. This is obtained by an anisotropic spatio-temporal level-set evolution,

Karol Mikula; Tobias Preusser; Martin Rumpf

2004-01-01

349

Studsvik Processing Facility Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 3.3 million pounds (1.5 million kgs) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, and activated carbon, which comprised a cumulative total activity of 18,852.5 Ci (6.98E+08 MBq). To date, the highest radiation level for an incoming resin container

J. B. Mason; T. W. Oliver; G. M. Hill; P. F. Davin; M. R. Ping

2003-01-01

350

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students can follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Stop at each treatment point and unscramble the words to show where the water is along the treatment path. Click on each treatment point on the image to view the unscrambled answer and a little information about that treatment point. The treatment points are: coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, and storage.

351

Hidden Markov processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, An overview of statistical and information-theoretic aspects of hidden Markov processes (HMPs) is presented. An HMP is a discrete-time finite-state homogeneous Markov chain observed through a discrete-time memoryless invariant channel. In recent years, the work of Baum and Petrie on finite-state finite-alphabet HMPs was expanded to HMPs with finite as well as continuous state spaces and a general alphabet.

Yariv Ephraim; Neri Merhav

2002-01-01

352

Farm Feed Processing.  

E-print Network

situation and need. By using the planning sheet, on page 11, you can make a systematic analysis of requirements. Ask some competent individual who is familiar with the equipment requirements you may establish to complete plans for construction... objects, (d) freedom from damage when 3 Figure I. A small hammer mill equipped with an auto- matic mixing device and augers to bring the grain and supplement from storage bins to the mill. Another auger carries the ground mixed feed to a processed...

Allen, W. S.; Sorenson, J. W.; McCune, W. E.

1961-01-01

353

Actinide recovery process  

DOEpatents

Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrene-divinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like. 2 tabs.

Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.; Saba, M.T.

1985-06-13

354

Pre-PCR processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is recognized as a rapid, sensitive, and specific molecular diagnostic tool for the analysis\\u000a of nucleic acids. However, the sensitivity and kinetics of diagnostic PCR may be dramatically reduced when applied directly\\u000a to biological samples, such as blood and feces, owing to PCR-inhibitory components. As a result, pre-PCR processing procedures\\u000a have been developed to remove or

Peter Rådström; Rickard Knutsson; Petra Wolffs; Maria Lövenklev; Charlotta Löfström

2004-01-01

355

Poultry Processing: Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... A / Poultry Processing: Questions and Answers Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

356

Process for producing silicon  

DOEpatents

A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Carleton, Karen L. (Boulder, CO)

1984-01-01

357

Paretian Poisson Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many random populations can be modeled as a countable set of points scattered randomly on the positive half-line. The points\\u000a may represent magnitudes of earthquakes and tornados, masses of stars, market values of public companies, etc. In this article\\u000a we explore a specific class of random such populations we coin ‘Paretian Poisson processes’. This class is elemental in statistical physics—connecting

Iddo Eliazar; Joseph Klafter

2008-01-01

358

Atomic processes in astrophysics.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of particle excitation processes in the solar corona are reviewed, covering electron affinities, negative ion experiments using two-photon laser and drift tube techniques, geometrical hindrance in molecular ion formation, negative ion-molecule reactions, and negative ions in the ionosphere and astrophysics. Aspects of forbidden atomic transitions are also discussed, including the calculation of transition probabilities, the Fe II problem, and magnetic quadrupole radiation in a relativistic approximation.

Garstang, R. H.

1972-01-01

359

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.

360

Monolith electroplating process  

DOEpatents

An electroplating process for preparing a monolith metal layer over a polycrystalline base metal and the plated monolith product. A monolith layer has a variable thickness of one crystal. The process is typically carried in molten salts electrolytes, such as the halide salts under an inert atmosphere at an elevated temperature, and over deposition time periods and film thickness sufficient to sinter and recrystallize completely the nucleating metal particles into one single crystal or crystals having very large grains. In the process, a close-packed film of submicron particle (20) is formed on a suitable substrate at an elevated temperature. The temperature has the significance of annealing particles as they are formed, and substrates on which the particles can populate are desirable. As the packed bed thickens, the submicron particles develop necks (21) and as they merge into each other shrinkage (22) occurs. Then as micropores also close (23) by surface tension, metal density is reached and the film consists of unstable metal grain (24) that at high enough temperature recrystallize (25) and recrystallized grains grow into an annealed single crystal over the electroplating time span. While cadmium was used in the experimental work, other soft metals may be used.

Agarrwal, Rajev R. (1410 S. Busse Rd., 2K, Mt. Prospect, IL 60056)

2001-01-01

361

Optical information processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The title of this work Optical Information Processing reflects the multi-facets of this thesis. In the first three chapters, I look at specific aspects of optical data storage. Enabled by new recording materials, a read-write holographic memory is explored. The memory combines a two-dimensional layered architecture and holography. Recording dynamics are analyzed and compared with conventional memories. A novel multiplexing method, based on the confinement of spherical waves in waveguides, allows the implementation of flat read-only memories with no moving parts. Novel polymer films at low temperatures show extremely selective frequency absorption which yields up to 105 independent frequency channels. This radically different multiplexing scheme is combined with Bragg multiplexing to increase the storage density. Femtosecond pulses can be stored and retrieved in these materials. For further processing, a pulse shaper and an all-optical logic capable of processing Terahertz pulse streams are experimentally demonstrated. The last two chapters look at three-dimensional surface measurements. A profilometer and a wavefront sensor based on the propagation of light in birefringent crystals are investigated. The performance of both sensors is theoretically modeled and experimentally verified. A third sensor is designed for an ophthalmic application.

Moser, Christophe

2001-11-01

362

Process for protein PEGylation.  

PubMed

PEGylation is a versatile drug delivery technique that presents a particularly wide range of conjugation chemistry and polymer structure. The conjugated protein can be tuned to specifically meet the needs of the desired application. In the area of drug delivery this typically means to increase the persistency in the human body without affecting the activity profile of the original protein. On the other hand, because of the high costs associated with the production of therapeutic proteins, subsequent operations imposed by PEGylation must be optimized to minimize the costs inherent to the additional steps. The closest attention has to be given to the PEGylation reaction engineering and to the subsequent purification processes. This review article focuses on these two aspects and critically reviews the current state of the art with a clear focus on the development of industrial scale processes which can meet the market requirements in terms of quality and costs. The possibility of using continuous processes, with integration between the reaction and the separation steps is also illustrated. PMID:24531008

Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo

2014-04-28

363

Laminar Soot Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soot formation within hydrocarbon-fueled flames is an important unresolved problem of combustion science for several reasons: soot emissions are responsible for more deaths than any other combustion pollutant, thermal loads due to continuum radiation from soot limit the durability of combustors, thermal radiation from soot is mainly responsible for the growth and spread of unwanted fires, carbon monoxide associated with soot emissions is responsible for most fire deaths, and limited understanding of soot processes is a major impediment to the development of computational combustion. Thus, soot processes within laminar nonpremixed (diffusion) flames are being studied, emphasizing space-based experiments at microgravity. The study is limited to laminar flames due to their experimental and computational tractability, noting the relevance of these results to practical flames through laminar flamelet concepts. The microgravity environment is emphasized because buoyancy affects soot processes in laminar diffusion flames whereas effects of buoyancy are small for most practical flames. Results discussed here were obtained from experiments carried out on two flights of the Space Shuttle Columbia. After a brief discussion of experimental methods, results found thus far are described, including soot concentration measurements, laminar flame shapes, laminar smoke points and flame structure. The present discussion is brief.

Lin, K. -C.; Dai, Z.; Faeth, G. M.

1999-01-01

364

Software Process Assessment (SPA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's environment mirrors the changes taking place in the nation at large, i.e. workers are being asked to do more work with fewer resources. For software developers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the effects of this change are that we must continue to produce quality code that is maintainable and reusable, but we must learn to produce it more efficiently and less expensively. To accomplish this goal, the Data Systems Technology Division (DSTD) at GSFC is trying a variety of both proven and state-of-the-art techniques for software development (e.g., object-oriented design, prototyping, designing for reuse, etc.). In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques, the Software Process Assessment (SPA) program was initiated. SPA was begun under the assumption that the effects of different software development processes, techniques, and tools, on the resulting product must be evaluated in an objective manner in order to assess any benefits that may have accrued. SPA involves the collection and analysis of software product and process data. These data include metrics such as effort, code changes, size, complexity, and code readability. This paper describes the SPA data collection and analysis methodology and presents examples of benefits realized thus far by DSTD's software developers and managers.

Rosenberg, Linda H.; Sheppard, Sylvia B.; Butler, Scott A.

1994-01-01

365

Processing complete dentures.  

PubMed

The processing of acrylic resin dentures is an exacting art but is relatively simple to carry out to perfection day after day, even when several dentures are processed at the same time. Nine salient factors in the proper processing of acrylic resin dentures were sequentially listed. Unfortunately, a number of these technical procedures are frequently overlooked or shortcuts may be substituted. Herein lie the causes of some hitherto unexplained clinical failures attributed to the acrylic resin denture base material. The acrylic resin denture base materials have been and are currently the best plastic for making dentures. This material has many unique assets and few faults. Its fine properties are often overlooked by the dentist who has several edentulous patients experiencing problems with dentures he made for them. Sore spots, faulty occlusion, looseness, and even breakage are most likely due to inadequate mouth conditioning or poor impressions, incorrect jaw relations, or the dentist's failure to remount the dentures prior to insertion. We have sufficient knowledge and scientific evidence to realize that most, if not all, denture problems are caused by the dentist's technique or by dentist-patient relationship. These problems should not be attributed to the acrylic resin material nor to the hard-working, conscientious dental laboratory technician. I doubt that more than 2 per cent of all complete denture difficulties experienced by frustrated patients would be solved by the introduction and availability of a new perfect denture base material. PMID:321278

Woelfel, J B

1977-04-01

366

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

Reference values are generally used to allow a decision on whether a laboratory value is in the normal range or if it mirrors a pathological process. This decision is especially difficult to take, when the pathological process is just starting and the values are relatively close to the normal range. Particularly in this phase, the decision is extremely important. Harris and later on Fraser have realized that there are two variables that contribute to the credibility and significance of a measured analyte. 1. The imprecision of the measurement itself. These values have become relatively low in recent years: they amount to values between 1 and 5 %. 2. The within person biological variability, which can be 100 % or more. Both variables combined yield the "reference change value" (RCV) to define the minimal significant difference between two measurements at different time points. When using this concept, differences between two measurements can be detected before the normal range is exceeded. For any given patient the reference values of a population is actually not of primary concern. It is important to know that his personal data exceed his personal normal range, which is dependent on RCV. For many analytes in clinical chemistry and hematology the use of RCV rather than the normal range as reference improves the decision making process in a clinical setting. PMID:25630296

Walz, Brigitte; Fierz, Walter

2015-02-01

367

RACORO aerosol data processing  

SciTech Connect

The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

Elisabeth Andrews

2011-10-31

368

Process for purification of solids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for purifying solids, especially silicon, by melting and subsequent resolidification, is described. Silicon used in solar cell manufacturing is processed more efficiently and cost effectively.

Herzer, H.; Rath, H. J.; Schmidt, D.

1981-01-01

369

Mars Aqueous Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is to establish a flexible process that generates multiple products that are useful for human habitation. Selectively extracting useful components into an aqueous solution, and then sequentially recovering individual constituents, can obtain a suite of refined or semi-refined products. Similarities in the bulk composition (although not necessarily of the mineralogy) of Martian and Lunar soils potentially make MAPS widely applicable. Similar process steps can be conducted on both Mars and Lunar soils while tailoring the reaction extents and recoveries to the specifics of each location. The MAPS closed-loop process selectively extracts, and then recovers, constituents from soils using acids and bases. The emphasis on Mars involves the production of useful materials such as iron, silica, alumina, magnesia, and concrete with recovery of oxygen as a byproduct. On the Moon, similar chemistry is applied with emphasis on oxygen production. This innovation has been demonstrated to produce high-grade materials, such as metallic iron, aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, and calcium oxide, from lunar and Martian soil simulants. Most of the target products exhibited purities of 80 to 90 percent or more, allowing direct use for many potential applications. Up to one-fourth of the feed soil mass was converted to metal, metal oxide, and oxygen products. The soil residue contained elevated silica content, allowing for potential additional refining and extraction for recovery of materials needed for photovoltaic, semiconductor, and glass applications. A high-grade iron oxide concentrate derived from lunar soil simulant was used to produce a metallic iron component using a novel, combined hydrogen reduction/metal sintering technique. The part was subsequently machined and found to be structurally sound. The behavior of the lunar-simulant-derived iron product was very similar to that produced using the same methods on a Michigan iron ore concentrate, which demonstrates that lunar-derived material can be used in a manner similar to conventional terrestrial iron. Metallic iron was also produced from the Mars soil simulant. The aluminum and magnesium oxide products produced by MAPS from lunar and Mars soil simulants exhibited excellent thermal stability, and were shown to be capable of use for refractory oxide structural materials, or insulation at temperatures far in excess of what could be achieved using unrefined soils. These materials exhibited the refractory characteristics needed to support iron casting and forming operations, as well as other thermal processing needs. Extraction residue samples contained up to 79 percent silica. Such samples were successfully fused into a glass that exhibited high light transmittance.

Berggren, Mark; Wilson, Cherie; Carrera, Stacy; Rose, Heather; Muscatello, Anthony; Kilgore, James; Zubrin, Robert

2012-01-01

370

event processing technical society event processing technical society  

E-print Network

TypeDefinitions, EventProcessingRules,etc. Design time Events Derived Events Event Producer (Event Source, Event Emitterepts event processing technical society epts event processing technical society Tutorial v1.1 event Software) Catherine Moxey (IBM) Alex Alves (Oracle) Themis Palpanas (University of Trento) Event Processing

Palpanas, Themis

371

Introducing the Oxypro process: A new refinery ethers process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new Oxypro process developed by UOP is a unique, low-cost, refinery-based catalytic process for the production of diisopropyl ether (DIPE) from propylene and water. The ether DIPE has high octane, low vapor pressure, and excellent gasoline blending properties. The Oxypro process is especially well suited for processing propylene derived from the fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) within the refinery.

S. P. Davis; T. L. Marker; R. J. Schmidt; W. H. Keesom

1995-01-01

372

Statistical Process Control: Analyzing a Space Shuttle Onboard Software Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for increased software process efficiency and effectiveness places measurement demands on the software engineering community beyond those traditionally practiced. Statistical- and process-thinking principles lead to the use of statistical process control (SPC) methods to determine the consistency and capability of the processes used to develop software. The authors use data and analysis from a collaborative effort between the Software

William A. Florac; Anita D. Carleton; Julie R. Barnard

2000-01-01

373

Central Limit Theorems for Empirical Processes Based on Stochastic Processes  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we study time-dependent empirical processes, which extend the classical empirical processes to have a time parameter; for example the empirical process for a sequence of independent stochastic processes {Yi : i ? N}: (1) ?_n(t, y...

Yang, Yuping

2013-08-13

374

Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CSR process; and Exxon Gasification process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service\\/Rockwell (CS\\/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the

J. McCarthy; J. Ferrall; T. Charng; J. Houseman

1981-01-01

375

Process Integration Study of a Poultry Processing Plant  

E-print Network

PROCESS INTEGRATION STUDY OF A POULTRY PROCESSING PLANT William A. Meffen, P.E. Research Engineer Georgia Tech Research Institute Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of a process integration study of a poultry... processing plant. The Pinch Methodology was utilized to set targets for process energy use and to critique previous attempts at energy conservation in poultry plants. It was found that not all the energy conservation measures previously implemented...

Meffert, W. A.

376

Deep subsurface microbial processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of other habitats, the study of deep subsurface microbiology is still in its infancy.

Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

1995-01-01

377

Discovery as a process  

SciTech Connect

The three great myths, which form a sort of triumvirate of misunderstanding, are the Eureka! myth, the hypothesis myth, and the measurement myth. These myths are prevalent among scientists as well as among observers of science. The Eureka! myth asserts that discovery occurs as a flash of insight, and as such is not subject to investigation. This leads to the perception that discovery or deriving a hypothesis is a moment or event rather than a process. Events are singular and not subject to description. The hypothesis myth asserts that proper science is motivated by testing hypotheses, and that if something is not experimentally testable then it is not scientific. This myth leads to absurd posturing by some workers conducting empirical descriptive studies, who dress up their study with a ``hypothesis`` to obtain funding or get it published. Methods papers are often rejected because they do not address a specific scientific problem. The fact is that many of the great breakthroughs in silence involve methods and not hypotheses or arise from largely descriptive studies. Those captured by this myth also try to block funding for those developing methods. The third myth is the measurement myth, which holds that determining what to measure is straightforward, so one doesn`t need a lot of introspection to do science. As one ecologist put it to me ``Don`t give me any of that philosophy junk, just let me out in the field. I know what to measure.`` These myths lead to difficulties for scientists who must face peer review to obtain funding and to get published. These myths also inhibit the study of science as a process. Finally, these myths inhibit creativity and suppress innovation. In this paper I first explore these myths in more detail and then propose a new model of discovery that opens the supposedly miraculous process of discovery to doser scrutiny.

Loehle, C.

1994-05-01

378

Radiation signal processing system  

SciTech Connect

An improved signal processing system for radiation imaging apparatus comprises: a radiation transducer producing transducer signals proportional to apparent spatial coordinates of detected radiation events; means for storing true spatial coordinates corresponding to a plurality of predetermined apparent spatial coordinates relative to selected detected radiation events said means for storing responsive to said transducer signal and producing an output signal representative of said true spatial coordinates; and means for interpolating the true spatial coordinates of the detected radiation events located intermediate the stored true spatial coordinates, said means for interpolating communicating with said means for storing.

Bennett, M.; Knoll, G.; Strange, D.

1980-07-08

379

Processing Texas Broilers.  

E-print Network

and shackling birds E. does not include weighing, cleaning or supervision. ' Dressing Procedure Broiler processing plants in Texas usual' operate within two ranges, 1,200 to 1,800 or 2,111 to 3,000 birds per hour. The speed at which t\\ line operates sets... when they reached the killer. All plants which operated at speeds of 2,101 birds per hour or faster used a neck scalder an two plants also used a hock scalder, Figure 9 Variations in labor efficiency were caused prl TABLE 3. LINE SPEED. MAN...

Mountney, G. J.; Gardner, F. A. (Frederick)

1957-01-01

380

Digital processing clock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tthe digital processing clock SG 1157/U is described. It is compatible with the PTTI world where it can be driven by an external cesium source. Built-in test equipment shows synchronization with cesium through 1 pulse per second. It is built to be expandable to accommodate future time-keeping needs of the Navy as well as any other time ordered functions. Examples of this expandibility are the inclusion of an unmodulated XR3 time code and the 2137 modulate time code (XR3 with 1 kHz carrier).

Phillips, D. H.

1982-01-01

381

Simpler radioactive wastewater processing.  

PubMed

José Canga Rodríguez, key account manager, Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences, EnviroChemie, and Volker Luh, CEO of EnviroDTS, describe the development, and recent successful application, of a new technology for dealing safely and effectively with the radioactive "wastewater" generated by patients who have undergone radiotherapy in nuclear medicine facilities. The BioChroma process provides what is reportedly not only a more flexible means than traditional "delay and decay" systems of dealing with this "by-product" of medical treatment, but also one that requires less plant space, affords less risk of leakage or cross-contamination, and is easier to install. PMID:22368885

Rodríguez, José Canga; Luh, Volker

2011-11-01

382

Magnetospheric dynamo processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three processes are examined whereby an effective electromotive force and energy input arise in circuits of magnetospheric currents, even in the absence of time-varying magnetic fields. The first involves currents on 'open' field lines, linking the ionosphere with the solar wind, and it underscores the role of polarization currents. The second may exist on the current filament observed in the vicinity of Jupiter's satellite Io. The third may operate along the high-latitude boundary of the earth's magnetic tail, from where it pumps energy into the plasma sheet.

Stern, D. P.

1984-01-01

383

Process Analytical Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

This review of process analytical chemistry is an update to the previous review on this subject published in 1995(A2). The time period covered for this review includes publications written or published from late 1994 until early 1999, with the addition of a few classic references pointing to background information critical to an understanding of a specific topic area. These older references have been critically included as established fundamental works. New topics covered in this review not previously treated as separate subjects in past reviews include sampling systems, imaging (via optical spectroscopy), and ultrasonic analysis.

Veltkamp, David J. (VISITORS); Doherty, Steve D. (BCO); Anderson, B B. (VISITORS); Koch, Mel (University of Washington); Bond, Leonard J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Burgess, Lloyd W. (VISITORS); Ullman, Alan H. (UNKNOWN); Bamberger, Judith A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Greenwood, Margaret S. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

1999-06-15

384

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1986-01-01

385

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

Wright, C.H.

1986-02-11

386

Biotechnology: Upstream Processing Associate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 2:31 video excerpted from Pathways to Technology, youâ??ll learn about the role biotechnology plays in the fight against cancer. Roya Dirin is an upstream processing associate who works with cells, looking for proteins that can help treat cancer. Her first career was as a midwife, but she decided to switch fields because she wanted to help cure diseases. Roya explains how her community college biotechnology degree is just the first step in her new career. The video is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can download the video as well.

387

Process for fullerene functionalization  

DOEpatents

Di-addended and tetra-addended Buckminster fullerenes are synthesized through the use of novel organoborane intermediates. The C{sub 60}, C{sub 70}, or higher fullerene is reacted with a borane such as BH{sub 3} in a solvent such as toluene to form an organoborane intermediate. Reaction of the organoborane such as hydrolysis with water or alcohol results in the product di-addended and tetra-addended fullerene in up to 30% yields. Dihydrofullerenes and tetrahydrofullerenes are produced by the process of the invention. 7 figs.

Cahill, P.A.; Henderson, C.C.

1995-12-12

388

Fischer-Tropsch process  

DOEpatents

A Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing a product selective and stable catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Orefield, PA); Withers, Howard P. (Douglassville, PA)

1987-01-01

389

Mask fabrication process  

DOEpatents

A method for fabricating masks and reticles useful for projection lithography systems. An absorber layer is conventionally patterned using a pattern and etch process. Following the step of patterning, the entire surface of the remaining top patterning photoresist layer as well as that portion of an underlying protective photoresist layer where absorber material has been etched away is exposed to UV radiation. The UV-exposed regions of the protective photoresist layer and the top patterning photoresist layer are then removed by solution development, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plasma etch and strip and chances for damaging the surface of the substrate or coatings.

Cardinale, Gregory F. (Oakland, CA)

2000-01-01

390

Visible Earth: Coastal Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is part of Visible Earth, the National Atmospheric and Space Agency (NASA) web site, a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. Subtopics of Oceans: Coastal Processes are: Barrier Islands, Coral Reefs, Deltas, Estuaries, Fjords, Lagoons, Sea Level Rise, Sea Surface Height, Sediment Transport, Sedimentation, and Shoreline Displacement. At the time of cataloging, most items were images. For the Advanced search, users may search by Sensor (usually a satellite), Location, Other terms, or by Dates; they may also set retrieval for animations only. This database solicits additional material from users.

Ward, Kevin

391

The Water Filtration Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration is designed to demonstrate the procedures that municipal water plants use to purify water for drinking. Students will discover that water treatment plants typically clean water by taking it through the processes of aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. They also learn that water in lakes, rivers, and swamps often contains impurities that make it look and smell bad. The water may also contain bacteria and other microbiological organisms that can cause disease. Consequently, water from surface sources must be cleaned before it can be consumed by people.

392

Method of processing \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glass ceramic composition, a glass ceramic-to-metal seal, and more specifically a hermetic glass ceramic-to-metal seal prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight percent, SiO.sub.2 (65-80%), LiO.sub.2 (8-16%), Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 (2-8%), K.sub.2 O (1-8%), P.sub.2 O.sub.5 (1-5%), B.sub.2 O.sub.3 (0.5-7%), and ZnO (0-5%) to the following processing steps: 1) heating the glass composition in a belt furnace to

Scott T. Reed; Ronald G. Stone; Howard L. McCollister; Wengert; deceased; Paul R

1998-01-01

393

High processivity polymerases  

SciTech Connect

Chimeric proteins comprising a sequence nonspecific single-stranded nucleic-acid-binding domain joined to a catalytic nucleic-acid-modifying domain are provided. Methods comprising contacting a nucleic acid molecule with a chimeric protein, as well as systems comprising a nucleic acid molecule, a chimeric protein, and an aqueous solution are also provided. The joining of sequence nonspecific single-stranded nucleic-acid-binding domain and a catalytic nucleic-acid-modifying domain in chimeric proteins, among other things, may prevent the separation of the two domains due to their weak association and thereby enhances processivity while maintaining fidelity.

Shamoo, Yousif; Sun, Siyang

2014-06-10

394

Process for making diamonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of a device and process for making industrial diamonds. The device is composed of an exponential horn tapering from a large end to a small end, with a copper plate against the large end. A magnetic hammer abuts the copper plate. The copper plate and magnetic hammer function together to create a shock wave at the large end of the horn. As the wave propagates to the small end, the extreme pressure and temperature caused by the wave transforms the graphite, present in an anvil pocket at the small end, into diamonds.

Rasquin, J. R.; Estes, M. F. (inventors)

1973-01-01

395

Fusion welding process  

DOEpatents

A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

Thomas, Kenneth C. (Export, PA); Jones, Eric D. (Salem, PA); McBride, Marvin A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1983-01-01

396

The Course of Due Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of due process rights for children with disabilities considers common issues leading to due process requests, due process procedures, hearing officers, procedural violations, effects of due process meetings, and areas for improvement (i.e., accountability, paperwork). Tables list categories of procedural violations with examples and…

Getty, Laura A.; Summy, Sarah E.

2004-01-01

397

Unified P4 (PowerUnified P4 (Power--PerformancePerformance--ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic)ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic)  

E-print Network

Unified P4 (PowerUnified P4 (Power--PerformancePerformance-- ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic)ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic t It iprediction is challenging due to many parasitic effects. It is crucial to be able to predict parasitic effects for accurate performance. (Parasitic) GLSVLSI 2009 performance. (Parasitic) 5/12/2009 3 #12;Novel

Mohanty, Saraju P.

398

The Supply Chain Management Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, supply chain management is being recognized as the management of key business processes across the network of organizations that comprise the supply chain. While many have recognized the benefits of a process approach to managing the business and the supply chain, most are vague about what processes are to be considered, what sub-processes and activities are contained in each

Keely L. Croxton; Sebastián J. García-Dastugue; Douglas M. Lambert; Dale S. Rogers

2001-01-01

399

Integrated decontamination process for metals  

DOEpatents

An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

Snyder, Thomas S. (Oakmont, PA); Whitlow, Graham A. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01

400

The anaerobic digestion process  

SciTech Connect

The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

1996-01-01

401

Large forging manufacturing process  

DOEpatents

A process for forging large components of Alloy 718 material so that the components do not exhibit abnormal grain growth includes the steps of: a) providing a billet with an average grain size between ASTM 0 and ASTM 3; b) heating the billet to a temperature of between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; c) upsetting the billet to obtain a component part with a minimum strain of 0.125 in at least selected areas of the part; d) reheating the component part to a temperature between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; e) upsetting the component part to a final configuration such that said selected areas receive no strains between 0.01 and 0.125; f) solution treating the component part at a temperature of between 1725.degree. F. and 1750.degree. F.; and g) aging the component part over predetermined times at different temperatures. A modified process achieves abnormal grain growth in selected areas of a component where desirable.

Thamboo, Samuel V. (Latham, NY); Yang, Ling (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01

402

Tripropellant combustion process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in large rocket booster engines has the potential to enhance the system stability. Programs being conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants at supercritical pressures are described. Combustion instability has been a problem during the development of large hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. At the higher combustion chamber pressures expected for the next generation of booster engines, the effect of unstable combustion could be even more destructive. The tripropellant engine cycle takes advantage of the superior cooling characteristics of hydrogen to cool the combustion chamber and a small amount of the hydrogen coolant can be used in the combustion process to enhance the system stability. Three aspects of work that will be accomplished to evaluate tripropellant combustion are described. The first is laboratory demonstration of the benefits through the evaluation of drop size, ignition delay and burning rate. The second is analytical modeling of the combustion process using the empirical relationship determined in the laboratory. The third is a subscale demonstration in which the system stability will be evaluated. The approach for each aspect is described and the analytical models that will be used are presented.

Kmiec, T. D.; Carroll, R. G.

1988-01-01

403

TRANSIENT QUANTUM MECHANICAL PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

Our principal objective has centered on the development of sophisticated computational techniques to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation that governs the evolution of quantum mechanical systems. We have perfected two complementary methods, discrete variable representation and real space product formula, that show great promise in solving these complicated temporal problems. We have applied these methods to the interaction of laser light with molecules with the intent of not only investigating the basic mechanisms but also devising schemes for actually controlling the outcome of microscopic processes. Lasers now exist that produce pulses of such short duration as to probe a molecular process many times within its characteristic period--allowing the actual observation of an evolving quantum mechanical system. We have studied the potassium dimer as an example and found agreement with experimental changes in the intermediate state populations as a function of laser frequency--a simple control prescription. We have also employed elaborate quantum chemistry programs to improve the accuracy of basic input such as bound-bound and bound-free coupling moments. These techniques have far-ranging applicability; for example, to trapped quantum systems at very low temperatures such as Bose-Einstein condensates.

L. COLLINS; J. KRESS; R. WALKER

1999-07-01

404

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

. Readability and comprehension of guidelines for hand hygiene: a comparison between WHO (2009) and CDC (2002) guidelines. Introduction. Updating clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is a crucial process for maintaining the validity of recommendations. However, the updating process should be explicit and changes made highlighted in the updated text. Aim. To confront and compare two CPGs on hand hygiene (World Health Organization, WHO, 2009 and Centres for Disease Control, CDC 2002), to identify discrepancies and changes made. Results. Although mostly comparable, CDC and WHO guidelines use a different terminology on hand hygiene which could be confounding: in the former handwashing includes the use of plain soap in the latter also the use of an antimicrobial soap. The lack of a glossary may render tricky the interpretation. Some problems in retrieving the evidence base of a recommendation are highlighted. Conclusions. Great attention should be paid before implementing an updated guideline. The need of essential and easy to consult guidelines, where in the updated version the news and modifications are highlighted are stressed. PMID:25532922

Brugnolli, Anna; Carraro, Giancarla; Saiani, Luisa

2014-01-01

405

Dynamics of biomolecular processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last few years have seen enormous progress in the availability of computational resources, so that the size and complexity of physical systems that can be investigated numerically has increased substantially. The physical mechanisms behind the processes creating life, such as those in a living cell, are of foremost interest in biophysical research. A main challenge here is that complexity not only emerges from interactions of many macro-molecular compounds, but is already evident at the level of a single molecule. An exciting recent development in this context is, therefore, that detailed atomistic level characterization of large-scale dynamics of individual bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and DNA, is starting to become feasible in some cases. This has contributed to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of, e.g. protein folding and aggregation, as well as DNA dynamics. Nevertheless, simulations of the dynamical behaviour of complex multicomponent cellular processes at an all-atom level will remain beyond reach for the foreseeable future, and may not even be desirable. Ultimate understanding of many biological processes will require the development of methods targeting different time and length scales and, importantly, ways to bridge these in multiscale approaches. At the scientific programme Dynamics of biomolecular processes: from atomistic representations to coarse-grained models held between 27 February and 23 March 2012, and hosted by the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, new modelling approaches and results for particular biological systems were presented and discussed. The programme was attended by around 30 scientists from the Nordic countries and elsewhere. It also included a PhD and postdoc 'winter school', where basic theoretical concepts and techniques of biomolecular modelling and simulations were presented. One to two decades ago, the biomolecular modelling field was dominated by two widely different and largely independent approaches. On the one hand, computationally convenient and highly simplified lattice models were being used to elucidate the fundamental aspects of biomolecular conformational transitions, such as protein folding. On the other hand, these generic coarse-grained approaches were complemented by atomistic representations of the biomolecules. Physico-chemical all-atom models, often with an explicit representation of the surrounding solvent, were applied to specific protein structures to investigate their detailed dynamical behaviour. Today the situation is strikingly different, as was evident during the programme, where several new efforts were presented that try to combine the atomistic and the generic modelling approaches. The aim is to develop coarse-grained models at an intermediate-level resolution that are detailed enough to study specific biomolecular systems, and yet remain computationally efficient. These attempts are accompanied by the emergence of systematic coarse-graining techniques which bridge the physics of different lengths and timescales in a single simulation dynamically by applying appropriate representations of the associated degrees of freedom. Such adaptive resolution schemes represent promising candidates to tackle systems with an intrinsic multiscale nature, such as hierarchical chains and networks of biochemical reactions on a cellular level, calling for a very detailed description on an atomistic particle (or even quantum) level but simultaneously allowing the investigation of large-scale structuring and transport phenomena. The presentations and discussions during the programme also showed that the numerical evidence from (multiscale) simulations needs to be complemented by analytical and theoretical investigations to provide, eventually, a combined and deepened insight into the properties of biomolecular processes. The contributions from this scientific programme published in this issue of Physica Scripta highlight some of these new developments while also addressing related issues, such as the challenge of achieving efficient confo

Behringer, Hans; Eichhorn, Ralf; Wallin, Stefan

2013-05-01

406

EDITORIAL: Industrial Process Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial process tomography remains a multidisciplinary field with considerable interest for many varied participants. Indeed this adds greatly to its appeal. It is a pleasure and a privilege to once again act as guest editor for a special feature issue of Measurement Science and Technology on industrial process tomography, the last being in December 2002. Those involved in the subject appreciate the efforts of Measurement Science and Technology in producing another issue and I thank the journal on their behalf. It can be seen that there are considerable differences in the composition of material covered in this issue compared with previous publications. The dominance of electrical impedance and electrical capacitance techniques is reduced and there is increased emphasis on general utility of tomographic methods. This is encompassed in the papers of Hoyle and Jia (visualization) and Dierick et al (Octopus). Electrical capacitance tomography has been a core modality for industrial applications. This issue includes new work in two very interesting aspects of image reconstruction: pattern matching (Takei and Saito) and simulated annealing (Ortiz-Aleman et al). It is important to take advantage of knowledge of the process such as the presence of only two components, and then to have robust reconstruction methods provided by pattern matching and by simulated annealing. Although crude reconstruction methods such as approximation by linear back projection were utilized for initial work on electrical impedance tomography, the techniques published here are much more advanced. The paper by Kim et al includes modelling of a two-component system permitting an adaption-related approach; the paper by Tossavainen et al models free surface boundaries to enable the estimation of shapes of objects within the target. There are clear improvements on the previous crude and blurred reconstructions where boundaries were merely inferred rather than estimated as in these new developments. Interest in magnetic induction tomography has evolved recently and I am pleased to note the inclusion of new work in that modality by Casanova et al. Note that this work also makes full use of prior information to improve reconstruction results. A modality that is relatively new to industrial applications is featured by Holstein et al, namely acoustic tomography. The novelty is provided by using measurements of the speed of sound in gas (air) to identify temperature distributions. Two well chosen applications illustrate the technique. Hard-field tomography, that is the modalities of x-ray and gamma-ray tomography, has always been of interest for some industrial applications. Often this has been for the high resolution of reconstructions available with these techniques, but there application has been restricted due to concerns about use of ionizing radiation. Cattle et al include an application to a process where the material to be imaged is a gamma emitter, i.e. only passive sources are used. The novelty here is that both source and attenuation information is used concurrently to obtain reconstructions. I thank the authors for a fascinating collection of papers that reflect current interest in the subject of industrial process tomography.

West, Robert M.

2004-07-01

407

Microgravity Control Integration Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To verify that the International Space Station (ISS) payload facility racks do not disturb the microgravity environment of neighboring facility racks during any ISS microgravity period, a control integration process must be followed. Currently no facility racks have taken this process from start to finish. The authors are assisting the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Fluids Combustion Facility (FCF) in this process. The major topics to be addressed in this paper are: 1) ISS Program Microgravity Requirements, 2) Rack Microgravity Control Approaches, 3) Integration Process Flow, 4) Required ISS Program Inputs, 5) Facility Analytical Work, 6) Facility Testing Work, 7) Facility Output to ISS Program, and 8) Verification &Validation Process. The ISS payload microgravity requirements are given in PIRN 110H to the ISS Program document SSP 57000. These requirements are based on being a "good neighbor" by limiting the payload disturbances on the environment of adjacent rack payloads during ISS microgravity periods. The ARIS PIRN, which is still pending ISS Program approval, addresses onboard rack disturbances being transmitted to offboard locations and specific ARIS items such as rack sway space and accelerometer saturation. To meet the facilities' microgravity requirements, various active or passive isolation approaches can be utilized. These include the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS), the Passive Rack Isolation System (PaRIS), damping material inserted into the four external ARIS snubber cups, or local isolation at the individual onboard rack disturbers. ARIS utilizes a controller specifically tuned for the facility and eight pushrods, which will coordinate the racks movement in the low frequency range (.01 Hz to 2 Hz). PaRIS utilizes eight spring / dampers to isolate the rack from the ISS module structure at frequencies above 0.5 Hz. Local onboard rack isolation approaches involve the use of damping materials, isolation grommets, or wire rope isolators for substantial disturbers located within the rack. The assessment of the microgravity levels at various points in the rack requires the use of several analytical tools and models. An on-orbit NASTRAN model of an International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) is required to accurately model the facility payload rack. Care must be exercised to accurately model both disturber locations and critical science locations. MATLAB Simulink is utilized to determine transfer functions at specific locations in the rack. Offboard rack disturbances are obtained from the 1999 ISS Program Non-Isolated Rack Assessment (NIRA99) predictions for assessment of sway space and ARIS accelerometer saturation. Onboard rack disturbances are input into the Simulink model from either an ISS Program library of typical disturbers or from Microgravity Emission Laboratory (MEL) data for the actual disturber. The ISS module to rack umbilicals are included in the models. Umbilical NASTRAN models or stiffness test data needs to be provided from the ISS Program. These umbilicals are major elements in determining the payload facility rack microgravity performance. Once the facility payload rack and disturbers are properly modeled, an assessment can be made as to whether the ISS Program microgravity levels are achieved. The predicted levels can then be verified by additional ground testing of either a subrack assembly or a facility rack, which can be further verified by on-orbit acceleration measurements.

Heese, J.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.

2002-01-01

408

Process Correlation Analysis Model for Process Improvement Identification  

PubMed Central

Software process improvement aims at improving the development process of software systems. It is initiated by process assessment identifying strengths and weaknesses and based on the findings, improvement plans are developed. In general, a process reference model (e.g., CMMI) is used throughout the process of software process improvement as the base. CMMI defines a set of process areas involved in software development and what to be carried out in process areas in terms of goals and practices. Process areas and their elements (goals and practices) are often correlated due to the iterative nature of software development process. However, in the current practice, correlations of process elements are often overlooked in the development of an improvement plan, which diminishes the efficiency of the plan. This is mainly attributed to significant efforts and the lack of required expertise. In this paper, we present a process correlation analysis model that helps identify correlations of process elements from the results of process assessment. This model is defined based on CMMI and empirical data of improvement practices. We evaluate the model using industrial data. PMID:24977170

Park, Sooyong

2014-01-01

409

Process correlation analysis model for process improvement identification.  

PubMed

Software process improvement aims at improving the development process of software systems. It is initiated by process assessment identifying strengths and weaknesses and based on the findings, improvement plans are developed. In general, a process reference model (e.g., CMMI) is used throughout the process of software process improvement as the base. CMMI defines a set of process areas involved in software development and what to be carried out in process areas in terms of goals and practices. Process areas and their elements (goals and practices) are often correlated due to the iterative nature of software development process. However, in the current practice, correlations of process elements are often overlooked in the development of an improvement plan, which diminishes the efficiency of the plan. This is mainly attributed to significant efforts and the lack of required expertise. In this paper, we present a process correlation analysis model that helps identify correlations of process elements from the results of process assessment. This model is defined based on CMMI and empirical data of improvement practices. We evaluate the model using industrial data. PMID:24977170

Choi, Su-jin; Kim, Dae-Kyoo; Park, Sooyong

2014-01-01

410

Cognition-Driven Decision Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human decision making is naturally a cognitive process conducted within a decision maker’s mind. However, the use of decision\\u000a support systems incorporates IS artifacts into the human cognitive process. In this sense, decision making is an integral\\u000a process comprised of the human cognitive process as well as IS functionality. We use the term cognition-driven decision process (CDDP) to denote such

Li Niu; Jie Lu; Guangquan Zhang

411

Advanced Process Heater  

SciTech Connect

The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: Improved performance of high temperature materials; Improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; Heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer. This Category I award entitled ''Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future'' met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) Doubling the heat transfer rates (2) Improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) Improving temperature uniformity by 100 degrees F and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH address EERE's mission priority of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. One component of the APH, the SpyroCorTM, was commercialized by STORM Development's partner, Spinworks LLC. Over 2000 SpyrCorsTM were sold in 2004 resulting in 480 million BTU's of energy savings, 20% reduction in NOx and CO2 levels, and 9 jobs in N.W. Pennsylvania. A second component, the HeatCorTM, a low-cost high-temperature heat exchanger will be demonstrated by Spinworks in 2005 in preparation for commercial sales in 2006. The project occurred in the 21st Congressional District of Pennsylvania. Once fully commercialized, the APH energy savings potential is 339 trillion BTUs annually in the U.S. and will process 1.5 million more tons annually without major capital equipment expenditures. Spinworks will commercialize the APH and add over 100 U.S. workers. To accomplish the objective, STORM Development LLC teamed with Penn State University, SyCore, Inc, Spinworks LLC, and Schunk-INEX, Inc. The project consisted of component engineering and integration of the APH followed by parametric testing. All components of the system were tested in a lab furnace that simulates a full scale industrial installation. The target areas for development include: (1) Scale up STORM's Finned Stabilized Combustion, (2) Optimization of SyCore's SiGr Inserts such that the heat transfer on the exhaust leg will match the high luminosity burner leg., (3) Evaluation of the heat transfer characteristics of Schunk-INEX's finned composite tubes as a heat exchanger, and (4) Design of a system to monitor all components of the APH and control its performance such that the objectives are met.

Tom Briselden, Chris Parrish

2005-03-07

412

Business Process Modeling for developing Process Oriented IT Systems Track: Business Process Management Tools and Technologies  

E-print Network

challenges have been made to traditional business practices. Rapid market changes such as electronic commerceBusiness Process Modeling for developing Process Oriented IT Systems Track: Business Process, the paradigm of Business Process Management contrasts with traditional information system development, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

413

Non-traditional ProcessingNon traditional Processing ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering  

E-print Network

and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 1 #12;ProcessesProcesses · Chemical machining El h i l hi i Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 2 #12;Chemical MachiningChemical Machining ME 4210: Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 3 #12;Chemical MachiningChemical Machining

Colton, Jonathan S.

414

Uncloaking the Scientific Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since April 2008, NSIDC has offered daily updates of sea ice data on our Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis Web page (http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews). The images provide near-real-time data to the general public and policy makers, accompanied by monthly or more frequent analysis updates. In February 2009, a crucial channel of the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) sensor on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F15 satellite, from which NSIDC was obtaining near-real-time Arctic sea ice data, suddenly failed. The daily image, which is automatically updated, showed a sudden drop in ice extent of over 50,000 square kilometers. Even after taking the images down, skeptical blogs jumped on the event, posting headlines such as “Errors in publicly presented data - Worth blogging about?” and “NSIDC pulls the plug on sea ice data.” In fact, NSIDC data managers and scientists were well aware that the F15 satellite sensor would eventually fail. NSIDC switched to a previously used back-up sensor, F13, and work to transition to a newer sensor on the F17 satellite had been underway for several weeks. While the deluge of questions from readers and bloggers were frustrating to NSIDC communications staff and scientists, they also presented a chance to give readers a window into the scientific process, and specifically into the collection of satellite data. We decided to publish a clear account of the process used to transition between sensors, as well as a basic explanation of the satellites used to measure sea ice data. While most scientists are familiar with the limitations of near-real-time data, the concept is unfamiliar to many in the general public. The Web page includes links to information on near-real-time data, including notes that images sometimes contain missing or erroneous data, and that delays can occur. However, to a skeptical person, the words that scientists use to describe the processing of final data, including “adjustment,” “bias,” and “correction,” can convey a sinister or political motive. How much information is really necessary for the general public? How much should we share about our processes and motives? This poster/presentation will address some of the dangers and opportunities of presenting near-real-time data to the public, and share some of strategies we used to respond to attacks on our data quality. In order to develop effective responses to climate change, it is important for policymakers to focus on complete data records and not short-term variability in near-real-time data, which may not be indicative of long-term trends or, as in the case presented here, may have errors that need to be corrected. NSIDC clearly states that its near-real-time images and data should not be used for significant conclusions about the long-term state of the climate, but are an initial snapshot for informational purposes. Nonetheless, NSIDC did hear from some policymakers that our data was regularly being used in various briefs within governmental agencies. This has led to greater attention to how our data may be used. However, we hope that our transparency and clear explanations will be valuable in guiding how policymakers employ our data and images in the future.

Leitzell, K.; Meier, W.

2009-12-01

415

Microscopy of photoionisation processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is demonstrated which combines the ionisation of free molecules by a sharply focused femtosecond laser beam and projection microscopy in a divergent electric field. The electric field is produced in vacuum between a metallic tip and a flat positionsensitive charged particle detector. The method enables investigation of photoionisation processes in low-density gases with a subdiffraction spatial resolution and can be used as well in profile measurements for sharply focused, intense laser beams. In a demonstration experiment, a femtosecond laser beam with a peak intensity of ~1014 W cm-2 was focused to a 40-?m-diameter waist in vacuum near a millimetre-size tip and ~2-?m spatial resolution was achieved. According to our estimates, the use of a sharper tip will ensure a submicron spatial resolution, which is a crucial condition for the spatial diagnostics of sharply focused short-wavelength VUV radiation and X-rays.

Aseyev, S. A.; Mironov, B. N.; Minogin, V. G.; Cherkun, Aleksandr P.; Chekalin, Sergei V.

2013-04-01

416

Spectroscopy and nonthermal processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stellar spectra are analyzed to determine nonthermal processes for cool stars. A shock wave crossing model is supported by a study of the behavior of absorption and emission spectra. The shock waves are attributed to atmospheric kinetics. Circumstellar spectral lines are studied for information about gaseous circumstellar layers. The description of stellar envelopes is carried on through circumstellar dust. Characteristic properties of polarization in the dust are described in the case of specific stars, emphasizing narrowband observations in Mira, semiregular, and supergiant stars. Finally, the direct approach to measuring the angular diameters of stars and mapping the distribution of circumstellar dust and gas by lunar occultation or interferometry is discussed, using two prototype stars, an M supergiant and a dusty carbon star.

Querci, Monique

1987-01-01

417

Bag molding processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Features, materials, and techniques of vacuum, pressure, and autoclave FRP bag molding processes are described. The bags are used in sealed environments, inflated to flexibly force a curing FRP laminate to conform to a stiff mold form which defines the shape of the finished product. Densification is achieved as the bag presses out the voids and excess resin from the laminate, and consolidation occurs as the plies and adherends are bonded by the bag pressure. Curing techniques nominally involved room temperature or high temperature, and investigations of alternative techniques, such as induction, dielectric, microwave, xenon flash, UV, electron beam, and gamma radiation heating are proceeding. Polysulfone is the most common thermoplastic. Details are given of mold preparations, peel plies or release films and fabrics, bagging techniques, and reusable venting blankets and silicone rubber bags.

Slobodzinsky, A.

418

Fluorination process using catalysts  

DOEpatents

A process is given for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/, AgF/sub 2/ and NiF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/ and AgF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

Hochel, R.C.; Saturday, K.A.

1983-08-25

419

Processing Visual Images  

SciTech Connect

The back of the eye is lined by an extraordinary biological pixel detector, the retina. This neural network is able to extract vital information about the external visual world, and transmit this information in a timely manner to the brain. In this talk, Professor Litke will describe a system that has been implemented to study how the retina processes and encodes dynamic visual images. Based on techniques and expertise acquired in the development of silicon microstrip detectors for high energy physics experiments, this system can simultaneously record the extracellular electrical activity of hundreds of retinal output neurons. After presenting first results obtained with this system, Professor Litke will describe additional applications of this incredible technology.

Litke, Alan (UC Santa Cruz) [UC Santa Cruz

2006-03-27

420

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

There is need for structured evaluation of disability before and after surgery. The patients' subjective aspects of their symptoms should be one part of this evaluation, preferably captured by patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). There are several PROMs, either generic or region-specific questionnaires, but no »gold standard« for foot or ankle evaluation. We translated the Self-reported Foot and Ankle Score (SEFAS) and evaluated the psychometric properties of the score in terms of reliability, validity and responsiveness in patients with a variety of foot and ankle disorders. In this report we recommend a validation process for PROMs and report that SEFAS shows good resuls when doing this. As SEFAS is a PROM, the instrument seems suitable for use in national registers. PMID:25668801

Cöster, Maria; Rosengren, Björn; Carlsson, Åke; Montgomery, Fredrik; Karlsson, Magnus

2015-01-01

421

Epoxidation catalyst and process  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

Linic, Suljo (Ann Arbor, MI); Christopher, Phillip (Ann Arbor, MI)

2010-10-26

422

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons with a metal complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/H/sub 2/ in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form a hydridoalkyl complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/RH; (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform CHX/sub 3/ at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) CpRhPMe/sub 3/RX; and (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex with halogen -60 to 25/sup 0/C to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana-Pillai, R.A.

1984-06-12

423

Hybrid quantum information processing  

E-print Network

The development of quantum information processing has traditionally followed two separate and not immediately connected lines of study. The main line has focused on the implementation of quantum bit (qubit) based protocols whereas the other line has been devoted to implementations based on high-dimensional Gaussian states (such as coherent and squeezed states). The separation has been driven by the experimental difficulty in interconnecting the standard technologies of the two lines. However, in recent years, there has been a significant experimental progress in refining and connecting the technologies of the two fields which has resulted in the development and experimental realization of numerous new hybrid protocols. In this Review, we summarize these recent efforts on hybridizing the two types of schemes based on discrete and continuous variables.

Ulrik L. Andersen; Jonas S. Neergaard-Nielsen; Peter van Loock; Akira Furusawa

2014-09-12

424

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

Early and adequate antimicrobial therapy is lifesaving in patients with bloodstream infections (BSI). Continuous incubation and 24h availability of microbial pathogen identification in clinical microbiology laboratories shortens the time to report. To describe the current status in Swedish clinical microbiology laboratories, a web-based survey was performed. The survey showed major differences in availability both regarding laboratory opening hours and ability to incubate blood culture bottles outside working hours. It also showed differences in what was conveyed verbally to the clinician and in time to report of the bacterial species. Based on this survey, we debate how Swedish healthcare can improve the care of patients with BSI by offering a more rapid diagnostic process. This could be achieved through longer opening hours of the laboratory, better transport systems and blood culture cabinets positioned closer to the patient. PMID:25668800

Åkerlund, Anna; Sundqvist, Martin; Hanberger, Håkan; Åhrén, Christina; Serrander, Lena; Giske, Christian

2015-01-01

425

Hydrocarbon conversion process  

SciTech Connect

1. A combination process is described for producing high octane blending components for gasolines which consists of (a) contacting a mixture of methanol and an olefinic C/sub 4/ cut comprising isobutene, 1-butene, and 2-butenes under etherification conditions to produce methyltertiarybutyl ether and unreacted C/sub 4/ olefinic hydrocarbons, (b) contacting the unreacted C/sub 4/ olefinic hydrocarbons with a molecular sieve to selectively adsorb 2-butenes leaving a stream comprising 1-butene, (c) subjecting at least a portion of the 1-butene stream to skeletal isomerization to form isobutene, (d) subjecting the remainder of the 1-butene stream to double bond isomerization to form 2-butenes, and (e) passing the 2-butenes formed by isomerization and an isoparaffin to alkylation to form alkylate.

Hutson, T. Jr.; Hann, P.D.

1986-04-08

426

Catalyst Alloys Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

Tan, Xincai

2014-10-01

427

Telomere processing in Euplotes.  

PubMed Central

In Euplotes crassus millions of telomeres are synthesized during the sexual phase of the life cycle. Since these newly synthesized telomeres are longer than normal macronuclear telomeres, they must be trimmed to the mature size. We have examined the timing and mechanism of this trimming step. We have shown that a sudden decrease in telomere length takes place at a specific time during macronuclear development. The decrease in telomere length is not caused by incomplete replication of the most terminal DNA sequences; rather it is the result of an active processing event that occurs independently of DNA replication. The developmentally regulated telomere shortening that takes place in Euplotes is reminiscent of the sudden reductions in telomere length which have been observed in other eukaryotes. Images PMID:8265350

Vermeesch, J R; Williams, D; Price, C M

1993-01-01

428

Electro Processing Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electroprocessing which is concerned with fluid dynamics of the electroreduction process to determine how it may be modified to improve the quality of the deposit was studied. Experimental techniques are used in this research. These techniques include laser Schlieren photography, laser Doppler velocimetry, and frequency spectrum analysis. Projects involve fluid flow studies of zinc plating in aqueous and molten salt electrolytes, study of cell design for magnesium chlorides electrolysis, digital signal analysis of manganese electrodeposition in molten chlorides, and electroplating of molybdenum from low melting salts. It is anticipated that the use of refractory metals as constructed materials in engineering will increase. Their electrodeposition from molten salt electrolytes is important in the extraction metallurgy of refractory metals.

1982-01-01

429

Field Geology/Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

1996-01-01

430

Progressing batch hydrolysis process  

DOEpatents

A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

Wright, John D. (Denver, CO)

1986-01-01

431

Senior Process Technician Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northeast Biomanufacturing Center and Collaborative (NBC2) has created a series of videos in which technicians describe their job and the preparation they received for it. These videos are great tools for other manufacturing programs to educate current students on options available to them after they graduate and the skills or courses they found most applicable to their real world experience. In this particular video, Senior Process Technician Jen Plouffe discusses her job, the skills she uses, and advice to manufacturing students looking to enter the same of similar professions. The video is 13:43 long, is in Windows Media Video (wmv) format, and can be played with Quicktime or Windows Media Player.

2009-10-01

432

Foam process models.  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level foam processing computational model suitable for predicting the self-expansion of foam in complex geometries. The model is based on a finite element representation of the equations of motion, with the movement of the free surface represented using the level set method, and has been implemented in SIERRA/ARIA. An empirically based time- and temperature-dependent density model is used to encapsulate the complex physics of foam nucleation and growth in a numerically tractable model. The change in density with time is at the heart of the foam self-expansion as it creates the motion of the foam. This continuum-level model uses an homogenized description of foam, which does not include the gas explicitly. Results from the model are compared to temperature-instrumented flow visualization experiments giving the location of the foam front as a function of time for our EFAR model system.

Moffat, Harry K.; Noble, David R.; Baer, Thomas A. (Procter & Gamble Co., West Chester, OH); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Mondy, Lisa Ann

2008-09-01

433

Shale oil recovery process  

DOEpatents

A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

1980-01-01

434

Physics as Information Processing  

SciTech Connect

I review some recent advances in foundational research at Pavia QUIT group. The general idea is that there is only Quantum Theory without quantization rules, and the whole Physics - including space-time and relativity - is emergent from the quantum-information processing. And since Quantum Theory itself is axiomatized solely on informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms: this is the It from bit of J. A. Wheeler.The review is divided into four parts: a) the informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; b) how space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from quantum computation; c) what is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and of ({h_bar}/2{pi}), and how the quantum field emerges; d) an observational consequence of the new quantum field theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will conclude with the research lines that will follow in the immediate future.

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', 27100 Pavia (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia (Italy)

2011-03-28

435

BAOlab: Image processing program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BAOlab is an image processing package written in C that should run on nearly any UNIX system with just the standard C libraries. It reads and writes images in standard FITS format; 16- and 32-bit integer as well as 32-bit floating-point formats are supported. Multi-extension FITS files are currently not supported. Among its tools are ishape for size measurements of compact sources, mksynth for generating synthetic images consisting of a background signal including Poisson noise and a number of pointlike sources, imconvol for convolving two images (a “source” and a “kernel”) with each other using fast fourier transforms (FFTs) and storing the output as a new image, and kfit2d for fitting a two-dimensional King model to an image.

Larsen, Søren S.

2014-03-01

436

Continuous coal processing method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

Ryason, P. R. (inventor)

1980-01-01

437

Fluorination process using catalyst  

DOEpatents

A process for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3, AgF.sub.2 and NiF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3 and AgF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

Hochel, Robert C. (Aiken, SC); Saturday, Kathy A. (Aiken, SC)

1985-01-01

438

Continuous process electrorefiner  

DOEpatents

A new device is provided for the electrorefining of uranium in spent metallic nuclear fuels by the separation of unreacted zirconium, noble metal fission products, transuranic elements, and uranium from spent fuel rods. The process comprises an electrorefiner cell. The cell includes a drum-shaped cathode horizontally immersed about half-way into an electrolyte salt bath. A conveyor belt comprising segmented perforated metal plates transports spent fuel into the salt bath. The anode comprises the conveyor belt, the containment vessel, and the spent fuel. Uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium (Pu) are oxidized at the anode, and, subsequently, the uranium is reduced to uranium metal at the cathode. A mechanical cutter above the surface of the salt bath removes the deposited uranium metal from the cathode.

Herceg, Joseph E. (Naperville, IL); Saiveau, James G. (Hickory Hills, IL); Krajtl, Lubomir (Woodridge, IL)

2006-08-29

439

Catalyst deoiling process  

SciTech Connect

A deoiling process is described comprising the steps of: removing a slurry of spent catalyst and oil from an ebullated bed reactor; transporting the slurry of spent catalyst and oil from the reactor to a vessel; cooling the slurry of spent catalyst and oil in the vessel to a temperature below the flash point of the oil; conveying the cooled slurry at an upward angle of inclination in a screw conveyor in a spiral flow pattern while countercurrently draining oil from the slurry to substantially separate the oil from the spent catalyst; and discharging the spent catalyst from the screw conveyor into a bin after the oil has been substantially separated from the spent catalyst.

Olson, C.B.; Plichta, R.T.; Coyne, D.W.

1987-04-28

440

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

The reduction of the Fe(II)Fe(II) complex [Fe2(CO)2{P(OMe)3}2(?(2)-IMe-CH2-IMe)(?-CO)(?-pdt)](2+) (2P(2+); pdt = S(CH2)3S), which is a synthetic model of the H cluster of the [FeFe] hydrogenases in its inactive state, has been investigated electrochemically and theoretically (by density functional theory, DFT) in order to determine the mechanisms, intermediates, and products of the related processes. The electrochemical reduction of 2P(2+) occurs according to an ECE-type reaction where the intervening chemical step is the loss of one P(OMe)3 ligand. This outcome, which is based on cyclic voltammetric experiments, is strongly supported by DFT calculations that provide additional information on the intermediates and the energetics of the reactions involved. The electrochemical reoxidation of the neutral product of the reduction follows an EEC process where the chemical step is the binding of P(OMe)3 to a dicationic intermediate. DFT calculations reveal that this intermediate has an unusual geometry wherein one of the two C-H bonds of a side methylene from the pdt group forms an agostic interaction with one Fe center. This interaction is crucial to stabilize the 32e(-) diferrous center and concomitantly to preserve Fe(II) from binding of weakly coordinating species. Nonetheless, it could be displaced by a relatively stronger electron donor such as H2, which could be relevant for the design of new oxidation catalysts. PMID:25496017

Chouffai, Dounia; Capon, Jean-François; De Gioia, Luca; Pétillon, François Y; Schollhammer, Philippe; Talarmin, Jean; Zampella, Giuseppe

2015-01-01

441

Monitoring autocorrelated process: A geometric Brownian motion process approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autocorrelated process control is common in today's modern industrial process control practice. The current practice of autocorrelated process control is to eliminate the autocorrelation by using an appropriate model such as Box-Jenkins models or other models and then to conduct process control operation based on the residuals. In this paper we show that many time series are governed by a geometric Brownian motion (GBM) process. Therefore, in this case, by using the properties of a GBM process, we only need an appropriate transformation and model the transformed data to come up with the condition needs in traditional process control. An industrial example of cocoa powder production process in a Malaysian company will be presented and discussed to illustrate the advantages of the GBM approach.

Li, Lee Siaw; Djauhari, Maman A.

2013-09-01

442

Advanced Reduction Processes - A New Class of Treatment Processes  

E-print Network

A new class of treatment processes called Advanced Reduction Processes (ARP) has been proposed. The ARPs combine activation methods and reducing agents to form highly reactive reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. Batch screening...

Vellanki, Bhanu Prakash

2012-10-19

443

Process-Response Modeling and the Scientific Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the process-response model (PRM) in its theoretical and practical forms. Describes how geologists attempt to reconstruct the process from the response (the geologic phenomenon) being studied. (TW)

Fichter, Lynn S.

1988-01-01

444

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2002) 9: 207220 Nonlinear Processes  

E-print Network

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2002) 9: 207­220 Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics c European Geophysical Society 2002 Granular flow in equilibrium with the bottom: experimental analysis and theoretical

Boyer, Edmond

445

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2003) 10: 275280 Nonlinear Processes  

E-print Network

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2003) 10: 275­280 Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics c European attention in recent years. In the geophysical context the effects of bumps on the core-mantle boundary

Boyer, Edmond

446

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2001) 8: 449465 Nonlinear Processes  

E-print Network

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2001) 8: 449­465 Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics c European Geophysical Society 2001 The predictability of large-scale wind-driven flows A. Mahadevan1,*, J. Lu2, S. P

Boyer, Edmond

447

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2002) 9: 131138 Nonlinear Processes  

E-print Network

Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (2002) 9: 131­138 Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics c European Geophysical Society 2002 Two-dimensional MHD model of the reconnection diffusion region N. V. Erkaev1, V. S

Boyer, Edmond

448

Process Efficiency Measurements in the Laser Engineered Net Shaping Process  

E-print Network

Process Efficiency Measurements in the Laser Engineered Net Shaping Process R.R. UNOCIC and J.N. DuPONT, Columbus, OH 43210. J.N. DuPONT, Associate Professor, is with the Materials Science and Engineering

DuPont, John N.

449

Developing the JPL Engineering Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper briefly recounts the recent history of process reengineering at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with a focus on the engineering processes. The JPL process structure is described and the process development activities of the past several years outlined. The main focus of the paper is on the current process structure, the emphasis on the flight project life cycle, the governance approach that lead to Flight Project Practices, and the remaining effort to capture process knowledge at the detail level of the work group.

Linick, Dave; Briggs, Clark

2004-01-01

450

A Business Process Explorer: Recovering Business Processes from Business Applications  

E-print Network

), business logic and database tiers. Our tool uses static analysis techniques that follow the navigation1 A Business Process Explorer: Recovering Business Processes from Business Applications Jin Guo A business process contains a set of logically related tasks executed to fulfill business goals. Business

Zou, Ying

451

Enabling Personalized Process Schedules with Time-aware Process Views  

E-print Network

into enhanced Gantt charts. Based on this, a method for creating personalized process schedules using process-aware process schema to an extended version of Gantt charts. Note that Gantt charts are well known in project management [10]. In particular, Gantt charts allow users to easily perceive and assess temporal properties

Ulm, Universität

452

Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements.

Pal, Uday B. (Malden, MA); Gazula, Gopala K. M. (Somerville, MA); Hasham, Ali (Karachi, PK)

1996-01-01

453

Video and Image Processing in Multimedia Systems (Video Processing)  

E-print Network

COT 6930 Video and Image Processing in Multimedia Systems (Video Processing) Instructor: Borko. Content-based image and video indexing and retrieval. Video processing using compressed data. Course concepts and structures 4. Classification of compression techniques 5. Image and video compression

Furht, Borko

454

Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements. 6 figs.

Pal, U.B.; Gazula, G.K.M.; Hasham, A.

1996-06-18

455

Process Enactment: A Foundation for Managing Knowledge Intensive Work Processes  

E-print Network

not been as successful as workflow for routine business processes. In part this is due to the dynamic communication and coordination among knowledge workers to disseminate knowledge and process expertise throughout successful for automating repetitive, routine processes, but attempts to extend it to support dynamic

Noll, John

456

Intelligent process supervision for predicting tool wear in machining processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent supervisory system supported on a model-based approach is presented herein. The application for predicting tool wear in machining processes is selected as a case study. A model created using artificial neural networks and able to predict the process output is introduced as a means of dealing with the characteristics of such an ill-defined process as machining. This model

Rodolfo E Haber; A Alique

2003-01-01

457

PROCESS ENGINEERING STUDIES OF THE PERCHLOROETHYLENE COAL CLEANING PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perchloroethylene coal cleaning process has proven to be very effective in removing both organic and pyritic sulfur from high-sulfur coals. The process removes 30%- 70% of the organic sulfur and 90%- 99% of the pyritic sulfur with very little loss (<1.0 wt%) of hydrocarbons and their heating value. The process has been investigated on a bench- scale and a

Kathy L. Fullerton; Sunggyu Lee; Conrad J. Kulik

1991-01-01

458

Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes Jesper Mller1  

E-print Network

Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes Jesper Møller1 and Frederic Paik Schoenberg 90095­1554, USA. Abstract This paper describes methods for randomly thinning certain classes of spatial thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors as- sociated with the original

Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

459

Coal liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

This invention is a process for liquefying coal in at least two stages, comprising (A) heating a slurry comprising a solid particulate coal, and an externally supplied dispersed dissolution catalyst in the presence of hydrogen in a first reaction zone to substantially dissolve the coal and provide a first effluent slurry having a normally liquid portion comprising solvent and dissolved coal and containing undissolved solids and dispersed dissolution catalyst; and (B) contacting at least a portion of said normally liquid portion containing undissolved solids and dispersed dissolution catalyst with hydrogen in a second reaction zone in the presence of a second externally supplied hydrogenation catalyst under hydrogenation conditions, including a temperature lower than the temperature to which said slurry is heated in step (A), to produce a second effluent slurry having a normally liquid portion. Preferably, the dispersed dissolution catalyst in the first hydrogenation zone is added as an emulsion of aqueous soluble compounds of transition elements, E.G. From groups IV-b, V-b, VIb or group VIII of the periodic table.

Dahlberg, A.J.; Rosenthal, J.W.

1983-04-12

460

Aerosol processing of materials  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in aerosol generation of materials are reviewed. Gas-to-particle and spray processes (spray pyrolysis) for powder generation and various routes for film generation are discussed from the experimental and theoretical perspectives. The range of materials generated by these routes has increased in recent years to include fullerenes and ceramic superconductors. Many metals and various oxide and nonoxide ceramics have also been added to the list of materials generated by gas-phase routes. Established aerosol routes such as vapor condensation have found widespread applications for generation of nanophase materials. The formation of quantum dots via aerosol approaches has also been demonstrated. The theoretical understanding of gas-to-particle conversion routes has advanced to include the finite rate of particle fusion or sintering occurring after collisions of particles. The modeling of spray pyrolysis systems has provided insight into the control of particle morphology and reactor design. In this review, these recent developments in aerosol generation of powders and films via gas-phase and spray routes are discussed with an emphasis on the material chemistries involved and the synthesis of nanophase materials. 351 refs., 20 figs.

Gurav, A.; Kodas, T.; Pluym, T.; Xiong, Y. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1993-11-01

461

Microscopy of photoionisation processes  

SciTech Connect

A method is demonstrated which combines the ionisation of free molecules by a sharply focused femtosecond laser beam and projection microscopy in a divergent electric field. The electric field is produced in vacuum between a metallic tip and a flat positionsensitive charged particle detector. The method enables investigation of photoionisation processes in low-density gases with a subdiffraction spatial resolution and can be used as well in profile measurements for sharply focused, intense laser beams. In a demonstration experiment, a femtosecond laser beam with a peak intensity of {approx}10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2} was focused to a 40-{mu}m-diameter waist in vacuum near a millimetre-size tip and {approx}2-{mu}m spatial resolution was achieved. According to our estimates, the use of a sharper tip will ensure a submicron spatial resolution, which is a crucial condition for the spatial diagnostics of sharply focused short-wavelength VUV radiation and X-rays. (extreme light fields and their applications)

Aseyev, S A; Mironov, B N; Minogin, V G; Cherkun, Aleksandr P; Chekalin, Sergei V [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-04-30

462

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

Abstract Mentalization and Theory of Mind. Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children. PMID:25478752

Wyl, Agnes

2014-11-01

463

MEGARA optical manufacturing process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MEGARA is the future visible integral-field and multi-object spectrograph for the GTC 10.4-m telescope located in La Palma. INAOE is a member of the MEGARA Consortium and it is in charge of the Optics Manufacturing work package. MEGARA passed the Optics Detailed Design Review in May 2013, and the blanks of the main optics have been already ordered and their manufacturing is in progress. Except for the optical fibers and microlenses, the complete MEGARA optical system will be manufactured in Mexico, shared between the workshops of INAOE and CIO. This includes a field lens, a 5-lenses collimator, a 7-lenses camera and a complete set of volume phase holographic gratings with 36 flat windows and 24 prisms, being all these elements very large and complex. Additionally, the optical tests and the complete assembly of the camera and collimator subsystems will be carried out in Mexico. Here we describe the current status of the optics manufacturing process.

Carrasco, E.; Páez, G.; Granados, F.; Percino, E.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Avilés, J. L.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Cedazo, R.

2014-07-01

464

Cellular Processing of Myocilin  

PubMed Central

Background Myocilin (MYOC) is a gene linked directly to juvenile- and adult-onset open angle glaucoma. Mutations including Pro370Leu (P370L) and Gln368stop (Q368X) have been identified in patients. In the present study, we investigated the processing of myocilin in human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells as well as in inducible, stable RGC5 cell lines. Methodology/Principal Findings The turnover and photoactivation experiments revealed that the endogenous myocilin in human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells was a short-lived protein. It was found that the endogenous myocilin level in TM cells was increased by treatment of lysosomal and proteasomal inhibitors, but not by autophagic inhibitor. Multiple bands immunoreactive to anti-ubiquitin were seen in the myocilin pull down, indicating that myocilin was ubiquitinated. In inducible cell lines, the turnover rate of overexpressed wild-type and mutant P370L and Q368X myocilin-GFP fusion proteins was much prolonged. The proteasome function was compromised and autophagy was induced. A decreased PSMB5 level and an increased level of autophagic marker, LC3, were demonstrated. Conclusions/Significance The current study provided evidence that in normal homeostatic situation, the turnover of endogenous myocilin involves ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal pathways. When myocilin was upregulated or mutated, the ubiquitin-proteasome function is compromised and autophagy is induced. Knowledge of the degradation pathways acting on myocilin can help in design of novel therapeutic strategies for myocilin-related glaucoma. PMID:24732711

Qiu, Ye; Shen, Xiang; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Yue, Beatrice Y. J. T.; Ying, Hongyu

2014-01-01

465

Advanced Sulfur Control Processing  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of an alternate concept for the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents in which elemental sulfur, instead of SO{sub 2}, is produced. If successful, this concept will eliminate or alleviate problems caused by the highly exothermic nature of the regeneration reaction, the tendency for metal sulfate formation, and the need to treat the regeneration off-gas to prevent atmospheric SO{sub 2}, emissions. Iron and cerium-based sorbents were chosen on the basis of thermodynamic analysis to determine the feasibility of elemental sulfur production. The ability of both to remove H{sub 2}S during the sulfidation phase is less than that of zinc-based sorbents, and a two-stage desulfurization process will likely be required. Preliminary experimental work used electrobalance reactors to compare the relative rates of reaction of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O with FeS. More detailed studies of the regeneration of FeS as well as the sulfidation of CeO{sub 2} and regeneration of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 2}S are being carried out in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor equipped with a unique analytical system which permits semi-continuous analysis of the distribution of elemental sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and SO{sub 2} in the reaction product gas.

Gangwal, S.K.; Portzer, J.W.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1996-12-31

466

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A barrier crucible design which consistently maintains melt stability over long periods of time was successfully tested and used in long growth runs. The pellet feeder for melt replenishment was operated continuously for growth runs of up to 17 hours. The liquid level sensor comprising a laser/sensor system was operated, performed well, and meets the requirements for maintaining liquid level height during growth and melt replenishment. An automated feedback loop connecting the feed mechanism and the liquid level sensing system was designed and constructed and operated successfully for 3.5 hours demonstrating the feasibility of semi-automated dendritic web growth. The sensitivity of the cost of sheet, to variations in capital equipment cost and recycling dendrites was calculated and it was shown that these factors have relatively little impact on sheet cost. Dendrites from web which had gone all the way through the solar cell fabrication process, when melted and grown into web, produce crystals which show no degradation in cell efficiency. Material quality remains high and cells made from web grown at the start, during, and the end of a run from a replenished melt show comparable efficiencies.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

1980-01-01

467

ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

2003-11-04

468

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

In the RN4CAST (Nurse forecasting in Europe) study all 35 participating Swiss hospitals received a study report, which allowed them to anonymously compare findings in relation to structure, process and outcome variables. Thus, this benchmarking allowed the hospitals to identify potentials for improvement and to plan counter measures for developing the quality of their practice environment. We surveyed the RN4CAST hospitals 18 months after submitting the study report and asked chief nursing officers if the results of the RN4CAST study report had been discussed and analysed within their hospitals and if the results had led to any quality improvement or practice development projects. Out of 35 questionnaires 30 were returned (response rate = 85 %). The study report was discussed and analysed in 27 hospitals (90 %), whereby the quality (n = 27) and the usefulness (n = 22) were rated as good or very good. Less then half of the hospitals (41 %) discussed the results with the hospital units. The study report stimulated practice development and quality improvement efforts in view of the nurses' work environment (n = 20) and safety culture/climate (n = 16). Replicating the RN4CAST study in the participating hospital would allow evaluating changes on the measured variables, e. g., due to this quality improvement and practice development projects. PMID:25631959

Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Gehri, Beatrice; De Geest, Sabina; Fierz, Katharina; Schwendimann, René

2015-02-01

469

Polar Sea Ice Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this NASA Earth Science Enterprise-funded project is to increase the use of satellite data in high school and college science classrooms by developing classroom materials linked to guided inquiry computer exercises. This Polar Sea Ice Processes module is one of four Studying Earth's Environment from Space (SEES) modules. Each module consists of three sections: Class Resources, Computer Lab Resources and a Glossary and Acronym List. Class Resources is an electronic lecture viewable by a Web browser. Computer Lab Resources contains an instructor's guide, data and software. The instructor's guide contains exercises for using the data and software. The public domain software, a version of NIH-Image for the Macintosh that was modified by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center especially for SEES, is for data display, analysis and tutorial of satellite data. The software will also work on Windows machines with a Mac emulator. Image2000, a cross-platform Java version of the software, is expected to be available by the end of the year 2000. Each module section can stand-alone (e.g. you don't have to use the Class Resources in order to complete the Computer Lab Resources). Students and instructors may continue their own scientific discovery by accessing archived and current data from various NASA Earth Science data centers.

Smith, Elizabeth; Alfultus, Michael

2000-06-01

470

Climate Processes and Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1997 Kyoto summit on climate change demonstrates the world community's desire to protect future generations from harmful effects induced by the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases. On the other hand, the worldwide impacts of the 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event serve as a reminder of how natural variability can strongly influence weather. In this book, Bryant provides a bird's-eye view of natural climate change over the last 2 million years, rather than the fish's-eye view of the more recent possible anthropogenic global warming.The key feature that sets this text apart is the perspective of climate change on a larger timescale. The author recognizes that climate is not constant, and that only small perturbations are necessary to shift climate into an extreme state. If this is the case, however, anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing may also produce extreme climate change. Climate Processes and Change also differs from other texts by raising the awareness of uncertainties in historical observations, trends, and the complex and nonlinear relationships between observations and theory.

Jenkins, Gregory S.

471

Radioactive waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container.

Nelson, Robert E. (Lombard, IL); Ziegler, Anton A. (Darien, IL); Serino, David F. (Maplewood, MN); Basnar, Paul J. (Western Springs, IL)

1987-01-01

472

Processing of SCRIBE data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SCRIBE experiments were conducted for the purpose of observing the atmospheric infrared emission by using a cryogenic interferometer spectrometer mounted on a balloon-borne platform. The data collected during the flight by the spectrometer were transmitted through the radio telemetry link and were received at the ground station of Holloman AFB where these flights were monitored. They were recorded on analog 1/2 in magnetic tapes running at 60 ips. By playing back these tapes, the telemetry signal transmitted from the balloon-borne package was reporduced at our site for processing efforts to retrieve the interferogram data out of the played-back telemetry signal, and to recover the spectral data corresponding to radiation emitted by the atmosphere were the main objective of this work. In addition to the Holloman tapes, a mobile telemetry signal-receiving unit of AFGL was used to record the flight data on similar analog tapes for the Jul-05-1984 flight launched from Roswell, New Mexico.

Sakai, H.

1985-09-01

473

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

Parents go to see child guidance counselling services for many different reasons. Behavioural problems or rather enraged or aggressive behaviour of children and adolescents towards their siblings or parents is a frequent issue in counselling practice. The current article takes a closer look at the range of problems around defiance, anger and aggression from a developmental and systemic point of view. The meaning of these negative affects within the family system is elaborated. Empirical studies show a clear connection between children's problem behaviour and frequent and destructive interparental conflict. So called spill-over-effects play a crucial role in explaining this connection. From a systemic perspective thus the child is seen as a symptom carrier, which shifts the focus of counselling on the interaction between parents as well. Consequently, family therapeutic sessions on the couple level are often indicated. Do parents succeed in constructively solving their conflicts, typically the aggressive behaviour of the children is reduced, too. On the basis of a compound single case such a process is illustrated. PMID:25609393

Lux, Ulrike; Hudecek, Matthias

2015-01-01

474

Delayed coking process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes improvement in a delayed premium coking process in which an aromatic mineral oil feedstock is heated to elevated temperature and introduced continuously to a coking drum under delayed coking conditions wherein the heated feedstock soaks in its contained heat to convert the feedstock to cracked vapors and premium coke at lower than normal coking temperatures in the range of about 780{degrees} F. to about 895{degrees} F. and in which the introduction of feedstock to the coking drum is discontinued after the coking drum is filled to a desired level. The improvement comprises: introducing additional aromatic mineral oil capable of forming coke admixed with a non-coking material to the coking drum under delayed coking conditions for a sufficient period of time to convert unconverted liquid material to coke wherein the concentration of aromatic mineral oil in the admixture is from 5 to 90 percent, and thereafter subjecting the contents of the coke drum to a heat soak at a temperature greater than the initial coking temperature whereby a premium coke having improved CTE and reduced fluff is obtained.

Shigley, J.K.; Roussel, K.M.; Harris, S.D.

1991-07-02

475

COSS Lesson Creation Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

COSS (Crew On-Orbit System Support) is changing. Designed as computer based in-flight refresher training, it is getting good reviews and the demands on the product can be expected to increase. Last year, the lessons were written using Authorware, which had a number of limitations. The most important one was that the navigation and the layout functions were both in one package that was not easy to learn. The lesson creator had to be good at both programming and design. There were also a number of other problems, as detailed in my report last year. This year the COSS unit made the switch to embrace modularity. The navigation function is handled by a player that was custom-written using Delphi. The layout pages are now standard HTML files that can be created using any number of products. This new system gives new flexibility and unties the process from one product (and one company). The player can be re-written by a programmer without affecting the lesson pages. It is also now possible for anybody with a word-processor to make part of the HTML lesson pages and to use many of the new commercially available tools that are being designed for web pages. This summer I created a computer-based training (CBT) lesson on the IBM ThinkPad 760 ED and 760XD laptop computers that should fly on the International Space Station. I also examined the COSS system, the new player and the other new software products.

Harper, R. Stephen

1999-01-01

476

Epitaxial thinning process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for thinning an epitaxial layer of a wafer that is to be used in producing diodes having a specified breakdown voltage and which also facilitates the thinning process. Current is passed through the epitaxial layer, by connecting a current source between the substrate of the wafer and an electrolyte in which the wafer is immersed. When the wafer is initially immersed, the voltage across the wafer initially drops and then rises at a steep rate. When light is applied to the wafer the voltage drops, and when the light is interrupted the voltage rises again. These changes in voltage, each indicate the breakdown voltage of a Schottky diode that could be prepared from the wafer at that time. The epitaxial layer is thinned by continuing to apply current through the wafer while it is immersed and light is applied, to form an oxide film and when the oxide film is thick the wafer can then be cleaned of oxide and the testing and thinning continued. Uninterrupted thinning can be achieved by first forming an oxide film, and then using an electrolyte that dissolves the oxide about as fast as it is being formed, to limit the thickness of the oxide layer.

Siegel, C. M. (inventor)

1984-01-01

477

Meiotic process and aneuploidy  

SciTech Connect

The process of meiosis is analyzed by dissecting it into its component parts using the early oocyte of Drosophila as a model. Entrance of the oocytes into premeiotic interphase signals initiation of DNA replication which continues for 30 h. Coincidentally, extensive synaptonemal complexes appear, averaging 50 ..mu..m (132 h), peaking at 75 ..mu..m (144 h) and continuing into early vitellarial stages. Recombinational response to heat, evidenced by enhancement or induction of exchange, is limited to the S-phase with a peak at 144 h coinciding with maximal extension of the SC. Coincidence of synapsis and recombination response with S at premeiotic interphase is contrary to their conventional localization at meiotic prophase. The interrelationship between exchange and nondisjunction has been clarified by the Distributive Pairing Model of meiosis. Originally revealed through high frequencies of nonrandom assortment of nonhomologous chromosomes, distributive pairing has been shown to follow and to be noncompetitive with exchange, to be based on size-recognition, not homology, and as a raison d'etre, to provide a segregational mechanism for noncrossover homologues. Rearrangements, recombination mutants and aneuploids may contribute noncrossover chromosomes to the distributive pool and so promote the nonhomologous associations responsible for nondisjunction of homologues and regular segregation of nonhomologues. 38 references, 15 figures. (ACR)

Grell, R.F.

1985-01-01

478

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprising: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R.sub.1 H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R.sub.1 represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R.sub.2).sub.3 ]H.sub.2 wherein Cp represents a cyclopentadienyl or alkylcyclopentadienyl radical; Rh represents a rhodium atom; P represents a phosphorus atom; R.sub.2 represents a hydrocarbon radical; H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of ultraviolet radiation to form a hydridoalkyl complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R.sub.2).sub.3 ](R.sub.1)H (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with an organic halogenating agent such as a tetrahalomethane or a haloform of the formulas: CX'X''X'''X'''' or CHX'X''X''' wherein X', X'', X'", X"" represent halogens selected from bromine, iodine or chlorine atom, at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RX; and, (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex formed in (b) with halogen (X.sub.2) at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to 25.degree. C. (i.e., ambient) to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, Robert G. (Kensington, CA); Janowicz, Andrew H. (Wilmington, DE); Periana, Roy A. (Berkeley, CA)

1988-01-01

479

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprising: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: RH where: H represents a hydrogen atom, and R represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 H.sub.2 where: Cp represents a pentamethylated cyclopentadienyl radical, Rh represents a rhodium atom, P represents a phosphorous atom, Me represents a methyl group, H represents a hydrogen atom, in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at a temperature maintained at about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form a hydridoalkyl complex of the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RH (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform of the formula: CHX.sub.3 where: X represents a bromine, iodine or chlorine atom, at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to -17.degree. C. to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) having the formula: CpRhPMe.sub.3 RX; and, (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex formed in (b) with halogen (X.sub.2) at a temperature in the range of about -60.degree. to 25.degree. C. (i.e. ambient) to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, Robert G. (Kensington, CA); Janowicz, Andrew H. (Wilmington, DE); Periana-Pillai, Roy A. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01

480

): laser processing and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substoichiometric silicon oxide SiOx with x < 2 in form of evaporated or sputtered thin films offers a versatile material basis for laser ablation techniques such as film patterning, laser-induced forward transfer, or laser-induced backside dry etching. Applications in the field of (micro-) optics are favoured strongly by the fact that SiOx can be oxidised to UV-transparent SiO2 by thermal treatment (furnace or laser annealing). On the other hand, with x ? 1, SiOx exhibits an absorption coefficient of >105 cm-1 in the deep UV below 250 nm, comparable to strongly absorbing polymers such as polyimide. This enables precise ablation with, e.g., excimer lasers at moderate fluences. For example, UV-transparent diffractive elements or phase masks are made by laser patterning of an appropriate SiOx film and subsequent oxidation to SiO2. Modifications of the basic film ablation process lead to novel surface topographies such as blister or cup arrays with potential non-optical applications, e.g., in micro-/nanofluidics.

Fricke-Begemann, T.; Meinertz, J.; Weichenhain-Schriever, R.; Ihlemann, J.

2014-10-01

481

Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 1: technology reviews. Final report, December 1982-September 1985  

SciTech Connect

This document is a result of KRSI's activities to support the GRI/Advisors Committee thru the duration of the contract. It provides an overview of the gasification, shift/methanation, acid-gas removal, and sulfur-recovery technologies for use in coal-to SNG plant design. For selected processes in each technology area, Status Summary reports are presented. The non-proprietary information contained in these reports was utilized to assess the characteristics, efficiencies, and other performance variables of each process relative to criteria developed for each ssess the characteristics, efficiencies and other performance variables of each process relative to criteria developed for each technology area. The results of the assessment are presented in tables that can be utilized for selection of a process best suited for a given application. In the coal-gasification area, status summaries were prepared for Lurgi, GKT, Texaco, BGC/Lurgi, Westinghouse (now KRW), Exxon CCG, Shell and U-Gas processes. The Conventional Shift/Methanation, Combined Shift/Methanation, Direct Methanation and Comflux Methanation processes were selected for review of shift/methanation technology. In the acid-gas-removal technology area, evaluation of Selexol, Rectisol, Benfield and CNG processes is presented. For the sulfur-recovery technology area, Claus, Amoco Direct Oxidation, LO-CAT, Selectox, Stretford and Unisulf processes, were selected for assessment.

Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

1986-01-01

482

Image processing in precision agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of our signal and image processing application in precision agriculture is presented. A method for determining sampling frequency for agriculture data is proposed, and some initial results based on data simulation and image processing are reported

Dragoljub Pokrajac; A. Lazarevic; S. Vucetic; T. Fiez; Z. Obradovic

1999-01-01

483

The Process of Shale Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website introduces the preliminary process to prepare a well site for drilling before the fracking operations commence. Videos and illustrations offer detail descriptions of the hydraulic fracturing process and the many components involved.

2012-01-01

484

Towards a Security Engineering Process Model for Electronic Business Processes  

E-print Network

Business process management (BPM) and accompanying systems aim at enabling enterprises to become adaptive. In spite of the dependency of enterprises on secure business processes, BPM languages and techniques provide only little support for security. Several complementary approaches have been proposed for security in the domain of BPM. Nevertheless, support for a systematic procedure for the development of secure electronic business processes is still missing. In this paper, we pinpoint the need for a security engineering process model in the domain of BPM and identify key requirements for such process model.

Eichler, Jörn

2012-01-01

485

Atmospheric Composition Processing System (ACPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atmospheric Composition Processing System (ACPS) is a Community-Oriented Measurement-based Processing System that builds on the heritage mission-based processing used for MODIS, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, and Ozone Monitoring Instrument missions. The ACPS features key changes in scalability, interfaces, and provenance capture that will increase access to NASA's Earth Science data and processing capabilities as well as improve the overall

Curt Tilmes; M. Linda; A. J. Fleig

2009-01-01

486

Correctness criteria for process migration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two correctness criteria, the state consistency criterion and the property consistency criterion for process migration are discussed. The state machine approach is used to model the interactions between a user process and its environment. These criteria are defined in terms of the model. The idea of environment view was introduced to distinguish what a user process observes about its environment from what its environment state really is and argue that a consistent view of the environment must be maintained for every migrating process.

Lu, Chin; Liu, J. W. S.

1987-01-01

487

Numerical simulations supporting the process design of ring rolling processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of radial-axial ring rolling (RAR) the motions of all tools are usually defined prior to simulation in the preprocessing step. However, the real process holds up to 8 degrees of freedom (DOF) that are controlled by industrial control systems according to actual sensor values and preselected control strategies. Since the histories of the motions are unknown before the experiment and are dependent on sensor data, the conventional FEA cannot represent the process before experiment. In order to enable the usage of FEA in the process design stage, this approach integrates the industrially applied control algorithms of the real process including all relevant sensors and actuators into the FE model of ring rolling. Additionally, the process design of a novel process 'the axial profiling', in which a profiled roll is used for rolling axially profiled rings, is supported by FEA. Using this approach suitable control strategies can be tested in virtual environment before processing.

Jenkouk, V.; Hirt, G.; Seitz, J.

2013-05-01

488

Laser processing of siliceous materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser processing of siliceous materials becomes increasingly important. Analogous to the laser processing of conventional materials there are applications in the fields of cleaning, surface processing, cutting, etc. The present paper concerns the state of the art and new applications: (1) Laser cleaning of natural stone surfaces. The good disability allows restoration work to be carried out conveniently, as for

Michael Panzner; Andreas Lenk; Guenter R. Wiedemann; Jan Hauptmann; Hans J. Weiss; Thomas Ruemenapp; Lothar Morgenthal; Eckhard Beyer

2000-01-01

489

Masters Report COMMUNICATING SEQUENTIAL PROCESSES  

E-print Network

Masters Report COMMUNICATING SEQUENTIAL PROCESSES DOMAIN IN PTOLEMY II by Neil Smyth Memorandum No of California, Berkeley 94720 #12;Ptolemy II #12;Masters Report ABSTRACT The Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) domain in Ptolemy II models a system as a network of processes communicating with messages

490

Masters Report COMMUNICATING SEQUENTIAL PROCESSES  

E-print Network

Masters Report COMMUNICATING SEQUENTIAL PROCESSES DOMAIN IN PTOLEMY II by Neil Smyth Memorandum No of California, Berkeley 94720 #12; Ptolemy II #12; Masters Report ABSTRACT The Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) domain in Ptolemy II models a system as a network of processes communicating with messages

491

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BIOLOGICAL DENITRIFICATION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

NRMRL-CIN-1362 SAIC. Demonstration Bulletin: Biological Denitrification Process, Ecomat, Inc.. 2001. EPA/540/MR-01/501. 03/15/2001 EcoMat, Inc. of Hayward, CA has developed a two-stage ex situ anoxic biofilter biodenitrification process. The process is a fixed film bioremedia...

492

MEDICAL IMAGE PROCESSING USING MATLAB  

Microsoft Academic Search

MATLAB and the Image Processing Toolbox provide a wide range of advanced image processing functions and interactive tools for enhancing and analyzing digital images. The interactive tools allowed us to perform spatial image transformations, morphological operations such as edge detection and noise removal, region-of-interest processing, filtering, basic statistics, curve fitting, FFT, DCT and Radon Transform. Making graphics objects semitransparent is

Emilia Dana SELE?CHI

2008-01-01

493

Medical Image Processing using MATLAB  

Microsoft Academic Search

MATLAB and the Image Processing Toolbox provide a wide range of advanced image processing functions and interactive tools for enhancing and analyzing digital images. The interactive tools allowed us to perform spatial image transformations, morphological operations such as edge detection and noise removal, region-of-interest processing, filtering, basic statistics, curve fitting, FFT, DCT and Radon Transform. Making graphics objects semitransparent is

Emilia Dana

494

Semantic Processing of Mathematical Gestures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine whether or not university mathematics students semantically process gestures depicting mathematical functions (mathematical gestures) similarly to the way they process action gestures and sentences. Semantic processing was indexed by the N400 effect. Results: The N400 effect elicited by words primed with mathematical gestures…

Lim, Vanessa K.; Wilson, Anna J.; Hamm, Jeff P.; Phillips, Nicola; Iwabuchi, Sarina J.; Corballis, Michael C.; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Thomas, Michael O. J.

2009-01-01

495

Thematic Mapper geometric correction processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thematic Mapper Image Processing System is described from the point of view of geometric correction. The system performance requirements are discussed, and the Landsat-D flight segment is described. The ground processing and overall geometric system performance is addressed. Those aspects of the Thematic Mapper Image Processing System that differ significantly from those of the MSS System are emphasized.

Beyer, E. P.

1984-01-01

496

Dynamic similarity in erosional processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

Scheidegger, A.E.

1963-01-01

497

Child-Centered Educational Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handbook presents policies and procedures used by the Flour Bluff (Texas) independent school district to identify and provide programs and services for handicapped children. The following areas are addressed: referral process; individual assessment; admission, review, and dismissal committee process; individual educational plan process;…

Kampert, George J.

498

The Source for Processing Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to help professionals differentiate among processing disorders in children in kindergarten through high school so that intervention efforts can become focused and more effective. It explains how to differentiate among processing disorders, discusses the major processing models, explains assessment procedures, and outlines…

Richard, Gail J.

499

Biogasification of papaya processing wastes  

SciTech Connect

Biogasification of papaya processing wastes for pollution control and energy utilization is feasible. The biogasification process with sludge recycling permits smaller reactor volume without any deterioration of CH4 production rate and CH4 content. Appropriate design and operational criteria for biogasification processing of papaya wastes were developed.

Yang, P.Y.; Weitzenhoff, M.H.; Moy, J.H.

1984-01-01

500

The Process Batteries Operations Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes the instruments and procedures for collecting process information (information describing components of the planned educational process) for the Management Information System for Occupational Education (MISOE). The selection of variables and the decision to assess interactive rather than isolated process variables are…

Weinberger, Elizabeth