Sample records for rectisol process

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: SOURCE TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT - RECTISOL ACID GAS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of tests of a Rectisol acid gas removal unit at a Texaco refinery. The primary goal was to provide a data base for evaluation of Rectisol performance in entrained coal gasification applications. This Rectisol unit processes gases from the partial oxidatio...

  2. amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2

    E-print Network

    Hong, Deog Ki

    IP [2012] 7 C O 2 (CO2) . CO2 amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2 CO2 .Amine CO2 (functional group) amine amine+ +promoter .Amine CO2 CO2 . . , methanol ether methanol, ether promoter CO2 CO2 H2S, COS CO2 . Methanol rectisol process, di-methylene ether polypropylene glycol selexol (-30oC) . CO2

  3. Scientific Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2007-08-01

    In this interactive activity adapted from NOVA, expand your understanding of the scientific process. Watch two videos featuring animations and interviews with scientists, and notice how the processes unfold and vary from one investigation to the other.

  4. Variational processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Zambrini

    A new class of diffusion processes, the Bernstein processes, is introduced in Theoretical Physics. Their dynamical realization, the Variational processes yields a new probabilistic interpretation of the Heat equation, much closer to quantum mechanics than the other known classical analogies, and also a new constructive variational approach to Stochastic Mechanics.

  5. Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guodace, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation details shuttle processing flow which starts with wheel stop and ends with launching. The flow is from landing the orbiter is rolled into the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), where processing is performed, it is then rolled over to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it is mated with the propellant tanks, and payloads are installed. A different flow is detailed if the weather at Kennedy Space Center requires a landing at Dryden.

  6. Process development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Bickler

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of seven process development activities which were presented at this session. Pulsed excimer laser processing of photovoltaic cells was presented. A different pulsed excimer laser annealing was described using a 50 w laser. Diffusion barrier research focused on lowering the chemical reactivity of amorphous thin film on silicon. In another effort adherent and conductive films were

  7. Peat Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

  8. Transplant Process

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of transplant. Discharge from the hospital Planning to go home The discharge process actually begins weeks before ... you What has to happen before you can go home? For the most part, transplant centers don’ ...

  9. Anodizing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This anodizing process traces its origin to the 1960's when Reynolds Metals Company, under contract with Goddard Space Flight Center, developed a multipurpose anodizing electrolyte (MAE) process to produce a hard protective finish for spacecraft aluminum. MAE produces a high-density, abrasion-resistant film prior to the coloring step, in which the pores of the film are impregnated with a metallic form of salt. Tru-Color product applications include building fronts, railing, curtain walls, doors and windows.

  10. Macdonald processes

    E-print Network

    Borodin, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    Macdonald processes are probability measures on sequences of partitions defined in terms of nonnegative specializations of the Macdonald symmetric functions and two Macdonald parameters q,t in [0,1). We prove several results about these processes, which include the following. (1) We explicitly evaluate expectations of a rich family of observables for these processes. (2) In the case t=0, we find a Fredholm determinant formula for a q-Laplace transform of the distribution of the last part of the Macdonald-random partition. (3) We introduce Markov dynamics that preserve the class of Macdonald processes and lead to new "integrable" 2d and 1d interacting particle systems. (4) In a large time limit transition, and as q goes to 1, the particles of these systems crystallize on a lattice, and fluctuations around the lattice converge to O'Connell's Whittaker process that describe semi-discrete Brownian directed polymers. (5) This yields a Fredholm determinant for the Laplace transform of the polymer partition function...

  11. Process Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This video segment, adapted from ATETV, looks at the Process Technology program at the College of the Mainland and what students will learn in order to succeed in industry. The video explains how the community college accommodates the busy lives of adult non-traditional students while still giving them a well-rounded liberal arts education to make them more marketable to employers. Additionally, the segment explores the various career options for students in process technology programs. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 3:37.

  12. Signal Processing: Introduction Digital Signal Processing

    E-print Network

    Rimon, Elon

    Signal Processing: Introduction Digital Signal Processing Introduction Areas of Applications signals and processing #12;Signal Processing: Introduction DSP in various disciplines Communication, Finance ( Economic models, Stock market) and many more #12;Signal Processing: Introduction DSP

  13. Signal processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Norman

    1991-01-01

    The application of signal processing technology to conventional weapons systems can lower operator workloads and enhance kill probabilities, while automating wide-area surveillance, target search and classification, target tracking, and aimpoint selection. Immediate opportunities exist for automatic target cueing in underwater and over-the-horizon targeting, as well as for airborne multiple-target fire control. By embedding the transit\\/receive electronics into conformal aircraft sensor

  14. Vermicomposting Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence K. Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Kathleen Hung Li

    Vermicomposting is a novel municipal biosolids and solid waste treatment process that uses earthworms (Oligochaete annelids)\\u000a for the biodegradation of the biosolids and\\/or solid waste. This system is alternately called earthworm conversion, vermicomposting,\\u000a vermistabilization, worm composting, or annelidic consumption. The worms maintain aerobic conditions in the organic substances\\u000a while accelerating and enhancing the biological decomposition of the organic substances. The

  15. Renewal Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Siegrist, Kyle

    Created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama-Huntsville, this is an online, interactive lesson on the renewal processes. The resource provides examples, exercises, and applets which include renewal equations and renewal limit theorems. This is the fifteenth of seventeen different statistics lessons presented by Siegrist. This site is broken up much like an online textbook. Each lesson is separable, but together, they form a cohesive look at different aspects of statistics.

  16. Hydropyrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Ullman, Alan Z. (Northridge, CA); Silverman, Jacob (Woodland Hills, CA); Friedman, Joseph (Huntington Beach, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for producing a methane-enriched gas wherein a hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrogen-containing pyrolysis gas at an elevated temperature and pressure to produce a product gas mixture including methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The improvement comprises passing the product gas mixture sequentially through a water-gas shift reaction zone and a gas separation zone to provide separate gas streams of methane and of a recycle gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane for recycle to the process. A controlled amount of steam also is provided which when combined with the recycle gas provides a pyrolysis gas for treatment of additional hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material. The amount of steam used and the conditions within the water-gas shift reaction zone and gas separation zone are controlled to obtain a steady-state composition of pyrolysis gas which will comprise hydrogen as the principal constituent and a minor amount of carbon monoxide, steam and methane so that no external source of hydrogen is needed to supply the hydrogen requirements of the process. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment, conditions are controlled such that there also is produced a significant quantity of benzene as a valuable coproduct.

  17. Signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, David M.

    The application of signal processing technology to conventional weapons systems can lower operator workloads and enhance kill probabilities, while automating wide-area surveillance, target search and classification, target tracking, and aimpoint selection. Immediate opportunities exist for automatic target cueing in underwater and over-the-horizon targeting, as well as for airborne multiple-target fire control. By embedding the transit/receive electronics into conformal aircraft sensor arrays, a 'smart' skin can be created. Electronically scanned phased arrays can be used to yield accurate azimuthal and elevation positions while nullifying EW threats. Attention is given to major development thrusts in algorithm design.

  18. Processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    To implement the analysis techniques and to provide end-to-end processing, a system was designed with the following capabilities: receive and catalog data from many sources; organize the data on mass storage for rapid access; edit for reasonableness; create new data sets by sorting on parameter, averaging and merging; provide statistical analysis and display tools; and distribute data on demand. Consideration was given to developing a flexible system that could meet immediate workshop needs and respond to future requirements. System architecture and data set details implemented are discussed.

  19. Physicochemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Jensen, J.N. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); McGinley, P.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Reed, B.E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1993-06-01

    A variety of waste water treatment processes are reported. Destruction of free and organically bound cyanides by alkaline hydrolysis in a pipeline reactor was studied. A bench-scale pilot system combining coagulation, sedimentation, and ultrafiltration to study treatment of animal wastewater was developed. A pilot limestone contactor was evaluated for its ability to treat a low pH, low alkalinity surface water supply for corrosion control, and as a conditioning step for flocculation. Experiments were conducted with a falling film reactor to determine the potential of freeze concentration to treat municipal wastewater for reuse. The effects of reductants and alkali on the sludge quantity from chromium(VI) wastes and the leachability and physical properties of solidified chromium sludge were investigated. Development and experience with a pilot-scale surfactant washing-flushing system to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated soils was reported.

  20. Hydrogenation process

    SciTech Connect

    Hoxmeier, R.J.

    1990-01-09

    This patent describes a process for selectively hydrogenating the ethylenic unsaturation in a polymer comprising ethylenic unsaturation and cyano groups. It comprises: contacting a polymer comprising polymerized conjugated diene units having ethylenic unsaturation and cyano groups selected from polymerized nitrile units and grafted cyano compounds with hydrogen in a first suitable solvent, and in the presence of a catalyst prepared by combining one or more palladium carboxylates with one or more aluminum compounds, selected from aluminum hydrides and aluminum alkyls, in a second suitable solvent. The second suitable solvent May be the same or different from the first suitable solvent; maintaining the contact for a sufficient period of time permit conversion of at least a portion of the ethylenic unsaturation contained in the polymer; and recovering an at least partially hydrogenated polymer.

  1. Etherification process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1990-08-21

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

  2. Oligomerization process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1991-03-26

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

  3. Oligomerization process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1991-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  4. Etherification process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1990-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  5. Incineration process

    SciTech Connect

    Sosnowski, L.

    1988-06-28

    A process is described for coincinerating sewage sludge or toxic liquid chemical waste and a supplemental fuel comprising the steps of: introducing none-gaseous supplemental fuel into an incineration zone at a point intermediate a vertical length of the incineration zone to produce a flame front intermediate the vertical length of the incineration zone; incinerating the introduced non-gaseous supplemental fuel to achieve a combustion temperature approximately between 1800 to 2300 Fahrenheit; dispersing the sewage sludge or toxic liquid chemical waste in relatively small droplets downwardly over the flame front in the incineration zone to evaporate water in the droplets and to destroy toxicity of toxic waste by combustion in the incineration zone; recovering hot incineration off gases from the incineration zone, wherein the mixture of the sewage sludge or toxic liquid chemical waste and the supplemental fuel comprises about 84% trash, 15% tire chips and 1% sewage sludge or liquid chemical waste.

  6. Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

  7. Dairy processing.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kenneth W

    2003-07-01

    The United States dairy processing sector is dynamic and adaptive to new changes in the market place. Changes in consumer preferences and manufacturing technologies are resulting in new challenges to the processing sector. Consumers want a wider array of quality dairy products. Fluid processors are adapting to changing consumer demands for beverage products by introducing new flavors, providing ultrapasteurization, and using creative packaging. In addition, United States food manufacturers are requesting dairy processors to provide new dairy fractions such as MPC for new nutrition products. United States dairy policy is attempting to adapt to these changes. Federal order reform has resulted in new market-oriented signals for dairy farmers to produce what the market wants; namely, quality milk components. US dairy farmers, however, also wants to maintain programs such as the DPSP that have had the unfortunate consequence of spurring demand for protein imports (i.e., MPCs, casein, and caseinates) and also resulted in a disincentive to produce these new innovative protein products here in the United States. Surplus skim milk solids are now moving into US Government warehouses rather than into commercial markets. The future of the United States dairy industry will clearly be toward producing innovative products that the market wants. There is a strong market for dairy products not only here in the United States but also overseas, which will mean learning to compete on a global scale. The challenge is to modernize our United States milk pricing programs to provide dairy farmers and processors proper price signals while providing a minimum level of support to dairy farmers. The benefit of a greater orientation toward the market place will be stronger rates of growth for United States-produced dairy products. PMID:12951735

  8. Process Technology: Process Maintenance Engineer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, youâ??ll meet Tyrone Walker, who keeps the enormous machines at a Tupperware factory running 24/7/365. Tyrone is a process maintenance engineer. This means he inspects all the parts of a machineâ??s electronics system looking for problems, from the tiniest components to the machine as a whole. Tyrone's community college degree in electronic engineering is key to doing this job, which he loves.The video runs 2:46 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

  9. Hydroformylation process

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.H.

    1986-04-22

    This patent describes a process for the hydroformylation of an olefin oligomerization product obtained by the liquid phase oligomerization of propylene and/or butylene in the presence of a catalyst formed by reacting a nickel compound with a hydrocarbyl aluminum halide. The hydroformylation is carried out by contacting the oligomerization product with syngas in the presence of a hydroformylation catalyst to produce aldehydes or alcohols, the improvement which comprises: contacting at a temperature ranging from about 25/sup 0/C to about 300/sup 0/C least a portion of the oligomerization product with a reforming catalyst comprising pentavalent tantalum, halogen, oxygen and an inorganic oxide substrate wherein at least one valence of tantalum is bound to oxygen which is bound to the substrate, at least one valence of the tantalum is bound to halogen and the remaining tantalum valences are bound to halogen and/or oxygen which oxygen may or may not be bound to the substrate, and then hydroformylating the resultant olefin product to produce an alcohol or aldehyde.

  10. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  11. Communications, and Signal Processing

    E-print Network

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    Area 4 Control, Communications, and Signal Processing (Sensing, processing, coordination, communications and signal processing is concerned with: · how to sense & process data to produce useful communications ECE 464:Wireless communications ECE 469: Optical comm. & networks Signal processing ECE 431

  12. Gaussian process modulated renewal processes Vinayak Rao

    E-print Network

    Rattray, Magnus

    Introduction Renewal processes are stochastic point processes on the real line where intervals between succes: because of age or other time-varying factors, the interevent distribution of the point process may vary

  13. Optimal process capability analysis for process design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angus Jeang

    2010-01-01

    Conventional process capability analysis is used to measure and control the quality level of a production process in real exercises for on-line quality management. There has been a deficiency in this type of management; namely, the defects which occur in the production process are only passively detected and modified afterwards. Additionally, conventional process capability expression has difficulty distinguishing between alternatives

  14. Biosignal Processing Applications for Speech Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Pantazi

    Speech is a biosignal that is amenable to general biosignal processing methodologies such as frequency domain processing. This is supported today by the availability of inexpensive digital multimedia hardware and by the developments of the theoretical aspects of signal processing. However, sound processing must be also regarded through the prism of the psychoacoustic reality of the human hearing system. Speech

  15. Extensible packet processing architecture

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  16. From Process Programming to Process Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley M. Sutton Jr

    \\u000a Osterweil proposed the idea of processes as a kind of software in 1986. It arose from prior work on software tools, tool integration,\\u000a and development environments, and from a desire to improve the specification and control of software development activities.\\u000a The vision of process programming was an inspiring one, directly leading to ideas about process languages, process environments,\\u000a process science

  17. Modern signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailath, T.

    An instructional and reference manual concerning the design and applications of signal processing systems is presented. Among the specific topics addressed are: advanced filter design; speech processing; and communications processing. Attention is also given to: radar and sonar signal processing; image processing; sophisticated analog signal processing devices; and VLSI technologies. The relations between signal processing algorithms, special purpose hardware architectures; and mathematical principles of signal processing techniques are also considered.

  18. BERNSTEIN PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH A MARKOV PROCESS

    E-print Network

    Zambrini, Jean-Claude

    BERNSTEIN PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH A MARKOV PROCESS A. B. CRUZEIRO, LIMING WU, AND J. C. ZAMBRINI in showing that, after the proper analytic continuation 1 #12;2 A. B. CRUZEIRO, LIMING WU, AND J. C. ZAMBRINI

  19. The NJIT Program Review Process:Process

    E-print Network

    Bieber, Michael

    The NJIT Program Review Process:Process: Toward a Cohesive Educational Assessment Framework· NJIT Strategic Plan, 2010-2015 · New Developments· New Developments · The Program Review CriteriaCriteria · Details of the Program ReviewProgram Review Process · Next StepsNext Steps #12;What trends are influencing

  20. Application Review Process APPLICATION REVIEW PROCESS

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Application Review Process - 1 - APPLICATION REVIEW PROCESS While developing and writing or peer reviewers, but it may also include one or more program manager(s), foundation board members, consumer advocates, etc. Applicants should learn as much as possible about the review and selection process

  1. Dynamic Process Capability Indices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Sun

    2002-01-01

    Process capability indices as an important kind of indices are intended to provide single-number assessments of the inherent process capability to meet specification limits on quality characteristic(s) of interest. In this paper the condition for the application of process capability indices is analyzed. On the basis of process capability indices, dynamic process capability indices as a new kind of indices

  2. A Distributed Processing Approach to Word Processing/Data Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Robert D.; Magnuson, Jerry R.

    1980-01-01

    A word processing system developed at the University of Kansas is described. A cost-benefit analysis of the system v standard typewriter, mag-card, and other advanced word processing systems is developed. Intangible benefits such as worker satisfaction and reduced training and editing needs are discussed, and possible uses outlined. (MSE)

  3. Construction work process management

    E-print Network

    Soares, Jorge Barbosa

    1994-01-01

    (TQM) has received considerable attention in the construction industry. A major tenet of TQM is process improvement. In this study, the work process (or process) concept is used as a means to investigate the effect of TQM on construction...

  4. Digital Signal Processing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Digital signal processing is a technique that uses digital methods to process signals. Processing a signal means manipulating it to improve it, change it, or alter it as required for some application. Some examples of processes are filtering, modulation and demodulation, mixing, spectrum analysis, compression and decompression, and many others. In the past, most of these processes have been accomplished with analog techniques and circuits. Today, that has changed. While analog processing has not disappeared, it is slowly being replaced by digital processing in most applications. DSP is now used in almost all electronic equipment and knowledge of its operation is critical to an overall knowledge and understanding of electronics. In digital processing, the analog signal to be processed is first converted to digital then processing is done by a computer. The computer output is then converted back to analog. This module describes this process and outlines the most common applications.

  5. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 17, 32453269 (2003)

    E-print Network

    Owens, Philip

    2003-01-01

    HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 17, 3245­3269 (2003) Published online in Wiley Inter and Tweed basins in the UK over the last 100­150 years D. E. Walling,1 * P. N. Owens,1 I. D. L. Foster2 in the middle and lower reaches of the two river systems) have been used to reconstruct changes in suspended

  6. Conscious processing and the process goal paradox.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Richard; Hardy, Lew

    2010-06-01

    The three experiments reported here examined the process goal paradox, which has emerged from the literature on goal setting and conscious processing. We predicted that skilled but anxious performers who adopted a global movement focus using holistic process goals would outperform those who used part-oriented process goals. In line with the conscious processing hypothesis, we also predicted that performers using part process goals would experience performance impairment in test compared with baseline conditions. In all three experiments, participants performed motor tasks in baseline and test conditions. Cognitive state anxiety increased in all of the test conditions. The results confirmed our first prediction; however, we failed to find unequivocal evidence to support our second prediction. The consistent pattern of the results lends support to the suggestion that, for skilled athletes who perform under competitive pressure, using a holistic process goal that focuses attention on global aspects of a motor skill is a more effective attentional focus strategy than using a part process goal. PMID:20587818

  7. Coal processing: the Exxon donor solvent process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Furlong; E. Effron; L. W. Vernon; E. L. Wilson

    1976-01-01

    The development of the Exxon coal liquefaction process over 10 years is described. Exxon is using lower temperatures and lower pressures (approximately 100 bar) than were used in the Bergius process. The donor solvent is produced in a separate, fixed bed, catalytic hydrogenation step. Early research was broad in scope including, both hydrogenated and unhydrogenated recycle solvent studies. Alternate solids\\/liquids

  8. BERNSTEIN PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH A MARKOV PROCESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. CRUZEIRO; LIMING WU; J. C. ZAMBRINI

    A general description of Bernstein processes, a class of diusion processes, relevant to the probabilistic counterpart of quantum theory known as Euclidean Quantum Mechanics, is given. It is compatible with finite or infinite dimensional state spaces and singular interactions. Although the rela- tions with statistical physics concepts (Gibbs measure, entropy,...) is stressed here, recent developments requiring Feynman's quantum mechanical tools

  9. Unbiased Longitudinal Processing of

    E-print Network

    Reuter, Martin

    Unbiased Longitudinal Processing of Structural MRI Data Longitudinal image processing procedures in longitudinal image processing, focusing on the introduction of bias, and describe the approaches we have taken to avoid them in the FreeSurfer longitudinal processing stream. Compared with cross-sectional studies

  10. The Deposition Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website includes an animation of the chemical vapor deposition process. Objective: Identify the process of chemical vapor deposition. This simulation is from Module 054 of the Process & Equipment I Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

  11. A Modal Process Logic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Guldstrand Larsen; Bent Thomsen

    1988-01-01

    A novel logic is introduced for the introduction of nondeterministic and concurrent processes expressed in a process algebra. For a process algebra to be useful as a process language, it must possess compositionality, i.e. it should be possible to decompose the problem of correctness for a combined system with respect to a given specification of similar and simpler correctness problems

  12. Process Algebra Rance Cleaveland

    E-print Network

    Process Algebra Rance Cleaveland Department of Computer Science P.O. Box 7534 North Carolina State York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, NY 11794-4400 USA April 7, 1999 Abstract Process algebra represents a mathematically rigorous framework for modeling con- current systems of interacting processes. The process-algebraic

  13. Formally Defining Medical Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Christov; Bin Chen; George S. Avrunin; Lori A. Clarke; Leon J. Osterweil; David Brown; Lucinda Cassells; Wilson Mertens

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate a technology-based approach to continu- ously improving the safety of medical processes. Methods: The paper describes the Little-JIL process definition language, origi- nally developed to support software engineering, and shows how it can be used to model medical processes. A Little-JIL model of a chemotherapy process dem- onstrates how this model, and some process analysis technologies that

  14. Process mapping: A user-friendly tool for process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, M.L.; Levine, L.O.

    1993-09-01

    Process maps aid administrative process improvement efforts by documenting processes in a rigorous yet understandable way. Icons, graphics, and text support process documentation, analysis, and improvement.

  15. Processing Natural Language without Natural Language Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Brill

    2003-01-01

    We can still create computer programs displaying only the most rudimentary natural language processing capabilities. One of\\u000a the greatest barriers to advanced natural language processing is our inability to overcome the linguistic knowledge acquisition\\u000a bottleneck. In this paper, we describe recent work in a number of areas, including grammar checker development, automatic\\u000a question answering, and language modeling, where state of

  16. Gas-separation process

    DOEpatents

    Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material.

  17. Shores and Coastal Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smoothstone

    This interactive Flash animation explores coasts and coastal processes. Animations demonstrate processes involving waves, currents, erosion, and deposition. Students are also able to model the effects of building groins, seawalls, and breakwaters on coastal erosion.

  18. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  19. Digital pulse processing

    E-print Network

    McCormick, Martin (Martin Steven)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis develops an exact approach for processing pulse signals from an integrate-and-fire system directly in the time-domain. Processing is deterministic and built from simple asynchronous finite-state machines that ...

  20. The requirements discovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

  1. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  2. A process capability indicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lai K. Chan; T. K. Mak

    1993-01-01

    A new measure of process capability, called process capability indicator and denoted by C1is proposed. It is of the form C1=deviation indicator (DI)+w×variation indicator (VI), where DI and VI, are, respectively, measures of the deviation of the process mean from the target value and the process variation, and both are relative to the tolerance. The weight factor w is used

  3. Statistical Process Control

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Devine, Craig

    Statistical Process Control is a lesson plan which provides an overview of Statistical Process Control, showing the value of collecting and analyzing data that enables people to systematically analyze and improve a process. After completing this module, students should be able to construct and interpret different statistical charts in order to evaluate a process. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

  4. Bolt Manufacture: Process Selection

    E-print Network

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    file · Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 3 D P i ti· 3-D Printing · Light Engineered Net Shaping (LENS Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 20 #12;3D Printing Process (Soligen) ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 21 #12;3D Printing Head (Soligen)3D Printing

  5. Process Education for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berra, Margaret; And Others

    This document is the Process Education for Teachers Package, which was designed to give teachers an understanding of the learning process. The package contains an introductory booklet, a research paper, and 13 modules. The introductory booklet presents a history of the formation of the materials and the rationale for the emphasis on the "process…

  6. Dissection of Kinesin's Processivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Adio; Johann Jaud; Bettina Ebbing; Matthias Rief; Günther Woehlke; Andreas Hofmann

    2009-01-01

    The protein family of kinesins contains processive motor proteins that move stepwise along microtubules. This mechanism requires the precise coupling of the catalytic steps in the two heads, and their precise mechanical coordination. Here we show that these functionalities can be uncoupled in chimera of processive and non-processive kinesins. A chimera with the motor domain of Kinesin-1 and the dimerization

  7. Signal Processing Information Base

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Signal Processing Information Base(SPIB) is a project sponsored by the Signal Processing Society and the National Science Foundation. SPIB is a repository of data, papers, software, newsgroups, bibliographies, and addresses of interest to the signal processing community, as well as links to other relevant repositories.

  8. Comprehension Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

  9. Mechanical Systems Signal Processing

    E-print Network

    Ray, Asok

    Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 21 (2007) 866 and analytical models. This paper attempts to address this inadequacy by taking advantage of advanced signal processing and pattern recognition tools. Since a vast majority of structural components that are prone

  10. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Apelian,Diran

    2002-01-10

    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  11. “Green” PCB production processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Lamprecht; Günter Heinz; Neil Patton; Stephen Kenny; Patrick Brooks

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show production process developments and innovations that resolve many of the issues faced with certain process steps for printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing following “green” practices. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Several key PCB manufacturing processes have been developed or studied with respect to new environmental legislations and practises. Findings – The introduction of

  12. Processes for metal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowersox, David F.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the processing of plutonium at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and operation illustrating concepts that may be applicable to the processing of lunar materials. The toxic nature of plutonium requires a highly closed system for processing lunar surface materials.

  13. Metallurgical processing: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The items in this compilation, all relating to metallurgical processing, are presented in two sections. The first section includes processes which are general in scope and applicable to a variety of metals or alloys. The second describes the processes that concern specific metals and their alloys.

  14. Liquidly process in femtosecond laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Yoshiki; Tsuchida, Kunio; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Furusho, Hirotoshi

    2009-09-01

    Nano-sized water-crown like structure in array was firstly generated on metallic thin film by interfering femtosecond laser processing. We named the structure as "nanocrown". Ridges are standing on the edge of each ablated hole. The shapes of ridges are spike, nano-waterdrop and bead on column. The radius of the top of a spike was just 7 nm, which is far smaller than that of nanobump generated in the previous work. The self-rising in liquidly process result in the generation of mesoscopic nanostructure with the size between nanohorn or nanotube and micron structures processed by machining or lithography. This is a new surface modification technique in top-down technology.

  15. An improved plating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, John C.

    1994-01-01

    An alternative to the immersion process for the electrodeposition of chromium from aqueous solutions on the inside diameter (ID) of long tubes is described. The Vessel Plating Process eliminates the need for deep processing tanks, large volumes of solutions, and associated safety and environmental concerns. Vessel Plating allows the process to be monitored and controlled by computer thus increasing reliability, flexibility and quality. Elimination of the trivalent chromium accumulation normally associated with ID plating is intrinsic to the Vessel Plating Process. The construction and operation of a prototype Vessel Plating Facility with emphasis on materials of construction, engineered and operational safety and a unique system for rinse water recovery are described.

  16. Nonaqueous processing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Coops, M.S.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1984-09-01

    A high-temperature process utilizing molten salt extraction from molten metal alloys has been developed for purification of spent power reactor fuels. Experiments with laboratory-scale processing operations show that purification and throughput parameters comparable to the Barnwell Purex process can be achieved by pyrochemical processing in equipment one-tenth the size, with all wastes being discharged as stable metal alloys at greatly reduced volume and disposal cost. This basic technology can be developed for large-scale processing of spent reactor fuels. 13 references, 4 figures.

  17. Process Technology: Training & Careers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this video excerpted from Pathways to Technology, learn about process technology and career opportunities in this field. Process refers to the steps that chemicals go through to become products, like gasoline or medicine. Process technology is used in just about every manufacturing industry, from pharmaceuticals to automobiles to cosmetics. A process technician keeps the machines that process chemicals running smoothly.The video runs 2:46 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

  18. Biomass process handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  19. Evaluation of steelmaking processes

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Objective of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program is to develop a process for producing steel directly from ore and coal; the process should be less capital intensive, consume less energy, and have higher productivity. A task force was formed to examine available processes: trough, posthearth, IRSID, Electric Arc Furnace, energy optimizing furnace. It is concluded that there is insufficient incentive to replace a working BOF with any of these processes to refine hot metal; however, if new steelmaking capacity is required, IRSID and EOF should be considered. A fully continuous process should not be considered until direct ironmaking and continuous refining are perfected.

  20. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  1. HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol[ Process[ 03\\ 04680478 "1999#

    E-print Network

    Laval, Université

    to wet environments "Tarnocai\\ 0879#[ In Canada these may be classi_ed a bog\\ fen\\ swamp\\ marsh[ WADDINGTON Copyright Þ 1999 John Wiley + Sons\\ Ltd[ Hydrol[ Process[ 03\\ 0468Ð0478 "1999# 0479 include bogs and telluric sources\\ whereas bogs are ombrotrophic\\ receiving water and nutrients only from direct

  2. Soviet optical processing research

    SciTech Connect

    VanderLugt, A.; Attard, A.E.; Cronin-Golomb, M.; Hartman, R.L.; Lee, J.N.; Morris, G.M.; Rhodes, W.T.

    1991-04-01

    Optical processing techniques are used to transform, manipulate, or transmit information. The Soviet Union has vigorously pursued optical processing since the 1960s. This report summarizes Soviet capabilities in hardware, particularly in materials and devices, as well as their capability in applications such as image processing and signal processing/computing. Soviet work in optical signal processing may be characterized as follows: good in terms of fundamental science of materials; capable of producing good materials (often on a par with the West); curious lack of activity with ferroelectric liquid crystals; unique capability in biochrome materials; good capabilities in waveguide devices; good research on spatial light modulators using electro-optic materials; lacking in fabrication techniques for devices; good in terms of statistical analysis of expected system performance; lacking in microelectronic support capabilities; and general lack of innovation for new signal processing architectures. 400 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Computers for symbolic processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wah, Benjamin W.; Lowrie, Matthew B.; Li, Guo-Jie

    1989-01-01

    A detailed survey on the motivations, design, applications, current status, and limitations of computers designed for symbolic processing is provided. Symbolic processing computations are performed at the word, relation, or meaning levels, and the knowledge used in symbolic applications may be fuzzy, uncertain, indeterminate, and ill represented. Various techniques for knowledge representation and processing are discussed from both the designers' and users' points of view. The design and choice of a suitable language for symbolic processing and the mapping of applications into a software architecture are then considered. The process of refining the application requirements into hardware and software architectures is treated, and state-of-the-art sequential and parallel computers designed for symbolic processing are discussed.

  4. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  5. Universal Heliophysical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    The physical processes in the heliospace are a direct consequence of the Sun s mass and electromagnetic emissions. There has been enormous progress in studying these processes since the dawn of the space age half a century ago. The heliospace serves as a great laboratory to study numerous physical processes, using the vast array of ground and spacebased measurements of various physical quantities. The observational capabilities collectively form the Great Observatory to make scientific investigations not envisioned by individual instrument teams. The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program has been promoting scientific investigations on the universality of physical processes such as shocks, particle acceleration, dynamo, magnetic reconnection, magnetic flux ropes, plasma-neutral matter interactions, turbulence, and several other topics. This chapter highlights scientific deliberations on these and related topics that took place during the IAGA session on "Universal Heliophysical Processes" in Sopron, Hungary. The session featured several invited and contributed papers that focused on observations, theory and modeling of the universal heliophysical processes.

  6. CHTN :: Processing Fees

    Cancer.gov

    Since the CHTN is an NCI supported resource, investigators are only charged a LOW processing fee for each sample to offset the costs of collecting, handling and preparing the specimens in accordance with the detailed requirements of the investigator. A sample is defined as one processed piece of a specimen, regardless of the sample size or type of processing. Each investigator is also responsible for all shipping costs.

  7. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The chemical engineering analysis of the preliminary process design of a process for producing solar cell grade silicon from dichlorosilane is presented. A plant to produce 1,000 MT/yr of silicon is analyzed. Progress and status for the plant design are reported for the primary activities of base case conditions (60 percent), reaction chemistry (50 percent), process flow diagram (35 percent), energy balance (10 percent), property data (10 percent) and equipment design (5 percent).

  8. Advanced coolside desulfurization process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Stouffer; W. A. Rosenhoover; J. A. Withum

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a dry sorbent injection SO[sub 2] abatement process with the potential to significantly enhance desulfurization performance over that of existing in-duct injection technology such as the Coolside process. The Advanced Coolside process was developed by CONSOL Inc. and is being tested in a pilot-scale project, partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The goals of

  9. Alternative isotope enrichment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative processes such as gas centrifugation, plasma separation, and laser excited separation are evaluated for use at the ORNL Stable Isotope Enrichment Facility. The applicabiliy of each process to the isotopic enrichment of the calutron feed material and to the selective production of isotopes is determined. The process energy demands are compared to those of the existing facilities. The isotopic enrichment of the feed material prior to a first-pass through the calutrons can result in a significant saving in energy.

  10. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  11. Processing Wheat for Food

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson on wheat processing, including an introduction to the five kinds of wheat grown in the US and the anatomy of wheat. The module then moves through the six steps in wheat processing: cleaning, conditioning, blending, breaking, sieving, and reducing. Each step is animated to help students visualize the process. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

  12. The process audit.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Few executives question the idea that by redesigning business processes--work that runs from end to end across an enterprise--they can achieve extraordinary improvements in cost, quality, speed, profitability, and other key areas Yet in spite of their intentions and investments, many executives flounder, unsure about what exactly needs to be changed, by how much, and when. As a result, many organizations make little progress--if any at all--in their attempts to transform business processes. Michael Hammer has spent the past five years working with a group of leading companies to develop the Process and Enterprise Maturity Model (PEMM), a new framework that helps executives comprehend, formulate, and assess process-based transformation efforts. He has identified two distinct groups of characteristics that are needed for business processes to perform exceptionally well over a long period of time. Process enablers, which affect individual processes, determine how well a process is able to function. They are mutually interdependent--if any are missing, the others will be ineffective. However, enablers are not enough to develop high-performance processes; they only provide the potential to deliver high performance. A company must also possess or establish organizational capabilities that allow the business to offer a supportive environment. Together, the enablers and the capabilities provide an effective way for companies to plan and evaluate process-based transformations. PEMM is different from other frameworks, such as Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), because it applies to all industries and all processes. The author describes how several companies--including Michelin, CSAA, Tetra Pak, Shell, Clorox, and Schneider National--have successfully used PEMM in various ways and at different stages to evaluate the progress of their process-based transformation efforts. PMID:17432158

  13. Central waste processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept for processing spacecraft type wastes has been evaluated. The feasibility of reacting various waste materials with steam at temperatures of 538 - 760 C in both a continuous and batch reactor with residence times from 3 to 60 seconds has been established. Essentially complete gasification is achieved. Product gases are primarily hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. Water soluble synthetic wastes are readily processed in a continuous tubular reactor at concentrations up to 20 weight percent. The batch reactor is able to process wet and dry wastes at steam to waste weight ratios from 2 to 20. Feces, urine, and synthetic wastes have been successfully processed in the batch reactor.

  14. Powder towpreg process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    The process for dry powder impregnation of carbon fiber tows being developed at LaRC overcomes many of the difficulties associated with melt, solution, and slurry prepregging. In the process, fluidized powder is deposited on spread tow bundles and fused to the fibers by radiant heating. Impregnated tows have been produced for preform, weaving, and composite materials applications. Design and operating data correlations were developed for scale up of the process to commercial operation. Bench scale single tow experiments at tow speeds up to 50 cm/sec have demonstrated that the process can be controlled to produce weavable towpreg. Samples were woven and molded into preform material of good quality.

  15. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  16. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  17. Wet Oxidation Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this YouTube video, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), viewers can watch an animation on the wet oxidation process. This animation "illustrates the chemistry of a wet thermal oxidation process that is used to grow silicon dioxide (SiO2) on a silicon (Si) wafer. In a wet oxidation process, water vapor (H2O) interacts with the silicon atoms at the SiO2-Si interface to form SiO2. This process is discussed in more detail in the Deposition Overview for MEMS Learning Module" found on the SCME website.

  18. Dry Thermal Oxidation Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this YouTube video, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), viewers can watch an animation on the dry thermal oxidation process. This animation "illustrates the chemistry of a dry thermal oxidation process that is used to grow silicon dioxide (SiO2) on a silicon (Si) wafer. In a dry oxidation process, oxygen gas (O2) interacts with the silicon atoms at the SiO2 - Si interface to form SiO2. This process is discussed in more detail in the Deposition Overview for MEMS Learning Module" which can be found on the SCME website along with supplementary materials. 

  19. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R. (Winchester, MA); Baumann, Robert (Cambridge, MA)

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  20. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  1. Software testing process improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Knirk, D.L.

    1996-06-01

    Software process improvement has become a popular pastime, for a variety of reasons. The Software Engineering Institute`s summary of experimental data, which resulted in the Capability Maturity Model, has now had considerable corroboration. There are nearly as many software processes as there are combinations of developers, users, and products. Similarly, there are probably as many software process improvement approaches. However, the meta-process for performing process improvement is quite straightforward. Processes can be represented by a small number of abstractions, with variety supplied through implementation details. The scheme for improvement is almost self-evident: figure out where you are now, use a software process maturity guide to identify shortcomings, plot a change in a direction to eliminate a shortcoming, and go for it. This paper won`t dwell on the meta process and its enactment; the authors simply assume one is in place. Rather, they consider some ways to improve the testing aspects of your software process. These may be changes in what you do for testing as well as in how you do it.

  2. Future integrated design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The design process is one of the sources used to produce requirements for a computer system to integrate and manage product design data, program management information, and technical computation and engineering data management activities of the aerospace design process. Design activities were grouped chronologically and explored for activity type, activity interface, data quantity, and data flow. The work was based on analysis of the design process of several typical aerospace products, including both conventional and supersonic airplanes and a hydrofoil design. Activities examined included research, preliminary design, detail design, manufacturing interface, product verification, and product support. The design process was then described in an IPAD environment--the future.

  3. A Business Process Intelligence System for Enterprise Process Performance Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WenAn Tan; Weiming Shen; Lida Xu; Bosheng Zhou; Ling Li

    2008-01-01

    Business process management systems traditionally focused on supporting the modeling and automation of business processes, with the objective of enabling fast and cost-effective process execution. As more and more processes become automated, customers become increasingly interested in managing process execution. This paper presents a set of concepts and a methodology toward business process intelligence (BPI) using dynamic process performance evaluation,

  4. Rumor Processes on and Discrete Renewal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Sandro; Garcia, Nancy L.; Junior, Valdivino Vargas; Rodríguez, Pablo M.

    2014-05-01

    We study two rumor processes on , the dynamics of which are related to an SI epidemic model with long range transmission. Both models start with one spreader at site and ignorants at all the other sites of , but differ by the transmission mechanism. In one model, the spreaders transmit the information within a random distance on their right, and in the other the ignorants take the information from a spreader within a random distance on their left. We obtain the probability of survival, information on the distribution of the range of the rumor and limit theorems for the proportion of spreaders. The key step of our proofs is to show that, in each model, the position of the spreaders on can be related to a suitably chosen discrete renewal process.

  5. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  6. Processes in Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Grayce A.

    This examination of the processes in reading comprehension is divided into seven categories. "Theoretical Foundations" reviews some of the research conducted by Bruner, Piaget, and Bloom in the areas of cognition or comprehension processes of young children. "Development of a Spiraling Reading Curriculum" examines a spiraling taxonomy of reading…

  7. HEPA filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1994-02-22

    A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

  8. HEPA filter dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  9. Space processing applications bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This special bibliography lists 724 articles, papers, and reports which discuss various aspects of the use of the space environment for materials science research or for commercial enterprise. The potentialities of space processing and the improved materials processes that are made possible by the unique aspects of the space environment are emphasized. References identified in April, 1978 are cited.

  10. DRUM RECONDITIONING PROCESS OPTIMIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report completes a three-part EPA program to assess barrel and drum reconditioning processes. The intent of the report is to provide recommendations for upgrading and optimizing drum reconditioning processes to enable facilities to meet rigorous environmental standards. Data...

  11. Laser materials processing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    The laser materials processing facility and its capabilities are described. A CO2 laser with continuous wave, repetitive pulse, and shaped power-time cycles is employed. The laser heated crystal growth station was used to produce metal and metal oxide single crystals and for cutting and shaping experiments using Si3N4 to displace diamond shaping processes.

  12. Interactive Process Quality Improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Marcellus; Maqbool Dada

    1991-01-01

    An ongoing production process produces defective parts at random intervals. Each defective part provides a learning opportunity which the decision maker may use to improve the process by investing resources to identify and remove the causes of the defective. For various cost criteria, it is optimal to invest in learning until the probability of producing a defective becomes sufficiently small.

  13. Bayesian Statistical Process Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Marcellus

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a general Bayesian statistical process control chart. Most previous applications of Bayes' theorem to quality control have either been tied to a rigid optimization model or have used Bayes' theorem to infer the values of structural parameters of the monitored process. The methodology presented differs from both of these approaches. The result is a flexible tool that

  14. Process, Product, and Playmaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maisha T.; Purcell, Susie Spear; May, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This article examines relationships among process, product, and playmaking in a southeastern playwriting and performance program for teen girls, Playmaking for Girls (PFG). The authors have chosen to focus on tensions between process and product. Such tensions are present in the challenges teachers experience when privileging student-centered…

  15. Electronic materials process modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios Maroudasa; Sadasivan Shankar

    1996-01-01

    Summary This report focuses on current needs in the process modeling of materials used in electronic and optoelectronic device fabrication and provides specific recommendations in addressing these needs. The establishment of relationships between materials structure and processing is identified as the critical modeling need in the electronics industry. A hierarchical modeling approach is suggested aiming at the development of efficient

  16. Medical device design process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byron L. Gilman; James E. Brewer; Mark W. Kroll

    2009-01-01

    The current design process is a combination of methods from engineering disciplines, government regulatory agencies (domestic and international) and independent certification and compliance companies. The goal of the processes that have been developed is to be certain that a new product meets the users expectations, is safe and effective in providing its claimed benefits. As products have become more complex

  17. Petroleum processing wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of various processes used in the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. These include the use of regenerated spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst, the activated sludge process, the use of a rotating disc biological system and the use of powdered activated carbon in an activated sludge system. A discussion was presented of the effects of specific chemicals

  18. Environmental Processes&Impacts

    E-print Network

    Burke, Ian

    Environmental Science Processes&Impacts rsc.li/process-impacts ISSN 2050-7887 PAPER W. M. Mayes et the within-channel inventory of potentially ecotoxic metals and metalloids. Environmental impact-rich slurry had major immediate environmental impacts on the receiving water courses. This paper highlights

  19. Hyperspectral image processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  20. Solar information process model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hewett; P. Spewak

    1978-01-01

    The MITRE Solar Information Process Model (SIP) is a computerized model that simulates information processes in solar markets. As such, it represents a useful tool in the formulation of solar information outreach programs. For each market investigated, SIP model outputs include prioritized listings of the information needs of key decision makers and other strategically important market participants, and related information

  1. Foam Processing of Textiles 

    E-print Network

    Bafford, R. A.; Namboodri, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Foam processing is an energy-conserving alternative to the conventional wet processing, i.e., dyeing, printing and finishing, of textiles. Where water is ordinarily used as a medium to apply dyes or chemicals to a fabric, up to 75% of the water can...

  2. Monitoring of operating processes

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, R.F.

    1981-09-29

    Apparatus is described for monitoring the processes of a nuclear reactor to detect off-normal operation of any process and for testing the monitoring apparatus. The processes are evaluated by response to their paramters, such as temperature, pressure, etc. The apparatus includes a pair of monitoring paths or signal processing units. Each unit includes facilities for receiving on a time-sharing basis, a status binary word made up of digits each indicating the status of a process, whether normal or off-normal, and test-signal binary words simulating the status binary words. The status words and test words are processed in succession during successive cycles. During each cycle, the two units receive the same status word and the same test word. The test words simulate the status words both when they indicate normal operation and when they indicate off-normal operation. Each signal-processing unit includes a pair of memories. Each memory receives a status word or a test word, as the case may be, and converts the received word into a converted status word or a converted test word. The memories of each monitoring unit operate into a non-coincidence which signals non-coincidence of the converted word out of one memory of a signal-processing unit not identical to the converted word of the other memory of the same unit.

  3. Biofilms in food processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Hood; E. A. Zottola

    1995-01-01

    Microbial colonization of surfaces (biofilms) have been documented in many environments. Recently, researchers have suggested that biofilms may be a source of contamination in food processing environments. This review will discuss some historical aspects of biofilms, possible mechanisms for the adherence of bacteria to surfaces, methods for studying biofilms and problems adherent microorganisms may cause in food processing.

  4. Advanced Process Heater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Briselden; Chris Parrish

    2005-01-01

    The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: Improved performance of high temperature materials; Improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; Heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer. This Category I award entitled ''Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries

  5. Speech signal processing research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Culler; M. McCammon; J. F. McGill; D. E. Taylor; J. M. Vanderford

    1978-01-01

    Culler\\/Harrison, Inc. has developed a powerful, versatile signal processing capability for ARPA and utilized this capability to perform significant and diverse signal processing experiments. The contract called for construction, operation and maintenance of the CHI SIGNAL SYSTEM, a combination of equipment and software providing a unique marriage of computing power and on-line interactive control of that power. The system has

  6. Speech signal processing research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Culler; M. McCammon; J. F. McGill; D. E. Taylor; J. M. Vanderford

    1975-01-01

    During this period, Culler\\/Harrison, Inc. has developed a powerful, versatile signal processing capability for ARPA and utilized this capability to perform significant and diverse signal processing experiments. The contract called for construction, operation and maintenance of the CHI SIGNAL SYSTEM, a combination of equipment and software providing a unique marriage of computing power and on-line interactive control of that power.

  7. Streamlining the EIS Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1977-01-01

    A new publication service abstracts, indexes, and prepares microfiche of environmental impact statements (EIS). This new service is designed to streamline the EIS process by reducing the cost and time of preparation, by eliminating redundancy of similar statements, and by working with the government to standardize the preparation process. (MA)

  8. Fine coal processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Mishra; R. R. Klimpel

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a survey of the current technology in fine coal processing, covering the major processing options available. The effective utilization of the nation's coal reserves depends on the production of a high quality, low cost product. As a result of overall efforts to curtail mining costs, modern trends toward intensive mechanization and non-selective mining have increased the quantities

  9. Positron annihilation processes update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guessoum, Nidhal; Skibo, Jeffrey G.; Ramaty, Reuven

    1997-01-01

    The present knowledge concerning the positron annihilation processes is reviewed, with emphasis on the data of the cross sections of the various processes of interest in astrophysical applications. Recent results are presented including results on reaction rates and line widths, the validity of which is verified.

  10. Hepa filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Murphy, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  11. Microsystem process networks

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Whyatt, Greg A [West Richland, WA

    2010-01-26

    Various aspects and applications or microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  12. Foam Processing of Textiles

    E-print Network

    Bafford, R. A.; Namboodri, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Foam processing is an energy-conserving alternative to the conventional wet processing, i.e., dyeing, printing and finishing, of textiles. Where water is ordinarily used as a medium to apply dyes or chemicals to a fabric, up to 75% of the water can...

  13. Multichannel ARMA processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ananthram Swami; Georgios Giannakis; Sanyogita Shamsunder

    1994-01-01

    Parametric modeling of multichannel time series is accomplished by using higher (than second) order statistics (HOS) of the observed nonGaussian data. Cumulants of vector processes are defined using a Kronecker product formulation, and consistency of their sample estimators is addressed. Identifiability results in connection with the HOS-based parameter estimation of causal and noncausal multivariate ARMA processes are established. Estimates of

  14. Gas-separation process

    DOEpatents

    Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.; Baker, R.W.

    1994-01-25

    A process is described for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material. 6 figures.

  15. CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Chemical Processes in Soils” edited by Tabatabai and D.L. Sparks (2005) is a key review useful for soil scientists, agronomists, conservationists, environmental scientists and other related professionals who need to understand these processes of chemical reactions and how they may be related to the...

  16. Novel wastewater treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Saber, D.L. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Few fermentation processes are as versatile as anaerobic digestion in terms of utility, application and capability to handle feeds of varied chemical complexity and physical characteristics. The anaerobic digestion process has served the pollution control industry in the US for over 100 years in stabilizing organic sludges and wastewaters; treatment of these high-moisture-content and high-strength aqueous wastes by alternative thermal or aerobic biological processes requires much higher energy inputs than that needed to conduct anaerobic digestion. The anaerobic digestion process has taken on new importance and emphasis in recent years because of its potential application for energy and chemical production from various types of renewable-carbon resources, and because it can be coupled with certain electrochemical, thermochemical and biochemical processes to generate electric power, hydrocarbons, methanol and other high-value products. A number of initiatives have been taken to improve the anaerobic digestion process in keeping with the increasing appreciation for its utility and versatility of application in municipal, industrial and rural settings. Using processes based upon the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes, the Institute of Gas Technology has developed technologies applicable for the treatment of a wide variety of organic wastes. Increased methane gas production and enhanced waste reduction can be achieved through the ACIMET, SOLCON and HIMET Processes, depending upon concentration and characteristics of the incoming organic waste stream. These proprietary IGT waste treatment systems are described.

  17. Process data chemometrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Piovoso; K. A. Kosanovich; J. P. Yuk

    1991-01-01

    Data are gathered in many chemical processes at a very high rate. Unfortunately, much of that data is not often used unless a major problem has occurred. A technique in which data can first be analyzed to determine what is normal variability in the process and a model or models developed which define in a compact way that variability are

  18. Image processing mini manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Christine G.; Posenau, Mary-Anne; Leonard, Desiree M.; Avis, Elizabeth L.; Debure, Kelly R.; Stacy, Kathryn; Vonofenheim, Bill

    1992-01-01

    The intent is to provide an introduction to the image processing capabilities available at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Central Scientific Computing Complex (CSCC). Various image processing software components are described. Information is given concerning the use of these components in the Data Visualization and Animation Laboratory at LaRC.

  19. Algebraic Theory of Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Hennessy

    1988-01-01

    This book provides general and systematic introduction to the semantics of concurrent systems. The author presents his own theory of the behavioral semantics of processes ( testing equivalence ) and original results in example languages for distributed processes. The problems addressed are motivated from the standpoint of computer science, and all the required algebraic concepts are covered.

  20. Parallel processing state alignment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vollaro

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes circuitry in a multiple processor system for aligning the processing states of autonomous processors interconnected by a common communication channel, the circuitry comprising means for generating successive reference signals, means, responsive to the processors, for storing quantities indicative of the next processing states as scheduled by each of the associated processors, and means, coupled to the generating

  1. Process Oriented Power Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Miyakawa; Yutaka Ishikawa

    2007-01-01

    Though modern operating systems have a capable of controlling the power consumption using the DVFS (Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling) mechanism, it is controlled for some duration according to the runtime statistics. Thus, some interactive process suffers its response time when the system is slowed. This paper proposes the Process-Oriented Power Management Mechanism (POPM), that controls the operating speed of

  2. Optical signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses several optical configurations used for signal processing. Electronic-to-optical transducers are outlined, noting fixed window transducers and moving window acousto-optic transducers. Folded spectrum techniques are considered, with reference to wideband RF signal analysis, fetal electroencephalogram analysis, engine vibration analysis, signal buried in noise, and spatial filtering. Various methods for radar signal processing are described, such as phased-array antennas, the optical processing of phased-array data, pulsed Doppler and FM radar systems, a multichannel one-dimensional optical correlator, correlations with long coded waveforms, and Doppler signal processing. Means for noncoherent optical signal processing are noted, including an optical correlator for speech recognition and a noncoherent optical correlator.

  3. TRC olefins process

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, A.F.; Gartside, R.J.; Bowen, C.P.

    1982-03-01

    General results about availability of feedstocks for the production of olefins are followed by a description of the Thermal Regenerative Cracking (TRC) process which is used for the processing of heavy fuel ore. This process, which is based on hot solids contracting with hydrocarbon feedstocks to produce olefins, offers advantages over conventional coil cracking. Its principal feature is its insensitivity to coking, which permits cracking of heavy feedstocks, the recycle cracking of unsaturated coproducts, and operation at higher severities and lower steam dilution. It also offers the ability to use low grade fuels. As a result, the process offers a much wider operating flexibility and lower operating costs than allowed by coil cracking. The economic evaluation of the process substantiates these advantages.

  4. Business Process Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendling, Jan

    The recent progress of Business Process Management (BPM) is reflected by the figures of the related industry. Wintergreen Research estimates that the international market for BPM-related software and services accounted for more than USD 1 billion in 2005 with a tendency towards rapid growth in the subsequent couple of years [457]. The relevance of business process modeling to general management initiatives has been previously studied in the 1990s [28]. Today, Gartner finds that organizations that had the best results in implementing business process management spent more than 40 percent of the total project time on discovery and construction of their initial process model [265]. As a consequence, Gartner considers Business Process Modeling to be among the Top 10 Strategic Technologies for 2008.

  5. Materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Processing-refining of raw materials from extraterrestrial sources is detailed for a space materials handling facility. The discussion is constrained to those steps necessary to separate desired components from raw or altered input ores, semi-purified feedstocks, or process scrap and convert the material into elements, alloys, and consumables. The materials are regarded as originating from dead satellites and boosters, lunar materials, and asteroids. Strong attention will be given to recycling reagent substances to avoid the necessity of transporting replacements. It is assumed that since no aqueous processes exist on the moon, the distribution of minerals will be homogeneous. The processing-refining scenario will include hydrochemical, pyrochemical, electrochemical, and physical techniques selected for the output mass rate/unit plant mass ratio. Flow charts of the various materials processing operations which could be performed with lunar materials are provided, noting the necessity of delivering several alloying elements from the earth due to scarcities on the moon.

  6. Space Shuttle cargo processing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilon, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The spacecraft processing techniques to be used at the Kennedy Space Center for the assembly and check-out of Space Shuttle cargoes are discussed. The processing flow for vertically handled spacecraft, which are inserted into the Shuttle orbiter cargo bay while the orbiter is in the vertical position and often are attached to a separate solid booster stage, includes assembly into unified payloads in the Vertical Processing Facility, followed by Cargo Integration Test Equipment tests to ensure cargo bay compatibility, and transportation to the launch pad. Horizontally handled spacecraft such as Spacelab, which are inserted into the Orbiter cargo bay while it is in the Orbiter Processing Facility in the horizontal position, are assembled and checked out within the Operations and Checkout Building, where the CITE tests are performed and the Spacelab will be disassembled, and then transported to the Orbiter Processing Facility. It is pointed out that during the Space Shuttle era, when the number of spacecraft to be processed simultaneously at Kennedy will double or triple, all spacecraft processing facilities will be required to handle the workload.

  7. Gaia Data Processing Architecture

    E-print Network

    W. O'Mullane; U. Lammers; C. Bailer-Jones; U. Bastian; A. Brown; R. Drimmel; L. Eyer; C. Huc; F. Jansen; D. Katz; L. Lindegren; D. Pourbaix; X. Luri; F. Mignard; J. Torra; F. van Leeuwen

    2006-11-29

    Gaia is ESA's ambitious space astrometry mission the main objective of which is to astrometrically and spectro-photometrically map 1000 Million celestial objects (mostly in our galaxy) with unprecedented accuracy. The announcement of opportunity for the data processing will be issued by ESA late in 2006. The Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been formed recently and is preparing an answer. The satellite will downlink close to 100 TB of raw telemetry data over 5 years. To achieve its required accuracy of a few 10s of Microarcsecond astrometry, a highly involved processing of this data is required. In addition to the main astrometric instrument Gaia will host a Radial Velocity instrument, two low-resolution dispersers for multi-color photometry and two Star Mappers. Gaia is a flying Giga Pixel camera. The various instruments each require relatively complex processing while at the same time being interdependent. We describe the overall composition of the DPAC and the envisaged overall architecture of the Gaia data processing system. We shall delve further into the core processing - one of the nine, so-called, coordination units comprising the Gaia processing system.

  8. Advanced coolside desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Stouffer, M.R.; Rosenhoover, W.A.; Withum, J.A. (CONSOL Inc., Library, PA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes a dry sorbent injection SO[sub 2] abatement process with the potential to significantly enhance desulfurization performance over that of existing in-duct injection technology such as the Coolside process. The Advanced Coolside process was developed by CONSOL Inc. and is being tested in a pilot-scale project, partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The goals of this process development effort are to increase the applicability of sorbent injection technology as a compliance option for coal-fired boilers for the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and to reduce total process SO[sub 2] control costs. Specific performance objectives are to achieve 90% SO[sub 2] removal and 60% sorbent utilization efficiency, while retaining the low-capital cost and retrofit advantages inherent to in-duct sorbent injection technology. The Advanced Coolside process concept involves flue gas humidification to near the adiabatic saturation point combined with fly ash removal using a gas/liquid contacting device, followed by injection of a sorbent into the highly humid flue gas with collection by the existing particulate collector. High SO[sub 2] removal and sorbent utilization efficiency are possible with hydrated lime when the flue gas is nearly saturated with moisture. Sorbent utilization is further improved by recycle, and the potential for improvement by the use of recycle is increased with removal of the fly ash before sorbent injection. Further, testing indicates that pre-treatment of the recycle sorbent before reinjection can improve process performance. Because flue gas is humidified completely before sorbent injection, the existing duct configuration may not limit process retrofit potential. The heat of reaction between SO[sub 2] and Ca(OH)[sub 2] heats the flue gas before the existing particulate collector. Current pilot test data indicate that the Advanced Coolside process performance objectives are achievable. 13 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. The VISAR Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David; Meyer, Paul; Templeton, Gary F.

    2003-01-01

    The Video Image Stabilization And Registration (VISAR) process is an award winning video image processing software developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. VISAR has a wide variety of application areas where the refinement of digital video is needed. It is used to correct jitter, rotation, and zoom effects by registering and processing on individual image captures that are a part of normal video capturing. Its most prominent uses were the 1996 Olympic Bombing case and in identifying Saddam Hussein during the Iraq war. Based on first-hand knowledge, this paper describes the VISAR process, which consists of several steps designed to refine digital video using VISAR software. The process determines the differences between two video images so that one, or both, of the images can be changed in ways that make them match as well as possible. Corrections include changes in position (horizontal and vertical image shifts), changes in orientation (image rotation), and changes in magnification (image zoom). While much of the VISAR process is automated, in its current embodiment it requires the user to initially identify the area of interest and to reset a threshold parameter if the default gives unacceptable results. The basic process that is used is an old tried and true method that determines how well the two images match. This process is called cross-correlation. It gives a single number, the correlation coefficient, that is equal to 1.0 if the images are perfectly matched, is equal to 0.0 if the images have nothing in common, and is equal to -1.0 if one image is the negative of the other. This basic process is used by many image stabilization methods. With VISAR we use it in a manner that provides statistical information needed to best determine orientation and magnification.

  10. Computational modeling of materials processing and processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, T.C.; Zhu, Yuntian; Bingert, J.F. [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Anisotropic mechanical properties of densified BSCCO powders are of paramount importance during thermo-mechanical processing of superconducting tapes and wires. Maximum current transport requires high relative density and a high degree of alignment of the single crystal planes of the BSCCO. Unfortunately this configuration causes high stresses that can lead to cracking, and thus reduce the density, and the conductive properties of the tape. The current work develops a micromechanical material mode to model is calibrated and compared to experimental results, and then employed to analyze the effects of initial texture and confinement pressure and shear strains in the core of oxide powder-in-tube (OPIT) processed tapes are calculated by finite-element analysis. The calculated deformations were then applied as boundary conditions to the micromechanical model. Our calculated results were used to interpret a set of prototypical rolling experiments. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  12. Processing Poultry at Home 

    E-print Network

    Davis, Michael

    2006-01-04

    With hot water for scalding, ice water for chilling, a sharp knife and a little time, poultry can be processed at home for dressed poultry shows or home consumption. A live bird is converted to human food in a series of steps?killing, scalding... The processing area should be clean, free from flies and have an adequate water supply. The process- ing procedure includes three steps: 1) New York dressing?killing, scald- ing, picking, and singeing; 2) evis- cerating?removing head, feet and internal organs...

  13. Processing Poultry at Home

    E-print Network

    Davis, Michael

    2006-01-04

    . The cut is made through this joint. Be sure to cut through the joint and not through the bones. To remove the oil gland, place the carcass, breast side down, on the table and cut toward the rear of the carcass from in front of the oil gland. The oil... processed for sale. Producers are permitted to process their own poultry for their own con- sumption. Producers also may process and sell to consumers without inspection up to 20,000 chickens, turkeys or ducks from their production within Texas...

  14. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

  15. Farm Feed Processing.

    E-print Network

    Allen, W. S.; Sorenson, J. W.; McCune, W. E.

    1961-01-01

    RM FEED PROCESSING GUIPMENT PLANNING- A DESI-N , s ~IiABY mUMENTS DNISfOH A & M COUEGE Of TOW CWfGE STATN)N, ; l- \\.~i - MECHANIZATION OF FEED processing and handling oper- ations should be approached with caution. Mechanization... specialist, the economist and the engineer all can con- tribute to making their plan more complete and satisfactory. This publication has been prepared to assist you in establishing your feed processing and handling require- ments, based on your own...

  16. Precision Heating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A heat sealing process was developed by SEBRA based on technology that originated in work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The project involved connecting and transferring blood and fluids between sterile plastic containers while maintaining a closed system. SEBRA markets the PIRF Process to manufacturers of medical catheters. It is a precisely controlled method of heating thermoplastic materials in a mold to form or weld catheters and other products. The process offers advantages in fast, precise welding or shape forming of catheters as well as applications in a variety of other industries.

  17. Measuring Process Safety Management

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.C. (ARCO Chemical Co., Newtown Square, PA (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Many companies are developing and implementing Process Safety Management (PSM) systems. Various PSM models, including those by the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS), the American Petroleum Institute (API), the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) and OSHA have emerged to guide the design, development and installation of these systems. These models represent distillations of the practices, methods and procedures successfully used by those who believed that a strong correlation exists between sound PSM practices and achieving reductions in the frequency and severity of process incidents. This paper describes the progress of CCPS research toward developing a PSM performance measurement model. It also provides a vision for future CCPS research to define effectiveness indices.

  18. Material Selection and Processing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Cambridge Department of Engineering operates a very informative site on material selection and processing. Its purpose is "to aid good practice in the selection of materials for product design." Of the many features offered on the site, a particularly valuable section is the Process Encyclopedia. This has a long list of manufacturing processes with detailed descriptions and illustrations. Extensive information about common materials and properties are also given. Interactive material selection charts show the relationship between various physical parameters. Product analysis case studies, tutorials, and many more items make this a very comprehensive resource.

  19. Lubricant Coating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    "Peen Plating," a NASA developed process for applying molybdenum disulfide, is the key element of Techniblast Co.'s SURFGUARD process for applying high strength solid lubricants. The process requires two machines -- one for cleaning and one for coating. The cleaning step allows the coating to be bonded directly to the substrate to provide a better "anchor." The coating machine applies a half a micron thick coating. Then, a blast gun, using various pressures to vary peening intensities for different applications, fires high velocity "media" -- peening hammers -- ranging from plastic pellets to steel shot. Techniblast was assisted by Rural Enterprises, Inc. Coating service can be performed at either Techniblast's or a customer's facility.

  20. Robot welding process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  1. Image processing benchmark study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John W. V.; Eddy, C.; Waltz, Frederick M.; Hack, Ralf; Wood, James; Stokes, D.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes the benchmarking of image processing algorithms using high-performance workstations and personal desktop computers. For the various platforms evaluated which included machines from Sun, SGI, Apple, and Gateway, compiler options were varied to obtain the fastest execution times. Algorithms evaluated included typical image processing operations such as derivatives, logical operations, morphology, subtraction, median filter, and the new SKIPSM approach. Data were collected using the different platforms and are presented here in tabular form. The results indicate that the latest generation of personal computers have processing capabilities that are similar to UNIX-based work stations.

  2. Business process simulation: a fundamental step supporting process centered management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Aguilar; Tankred Rautert; A. J. G. Pater

    1999-01-01

    Business processes are increasingly recognised as the key to competitive survival. The important opportunities inherent to this invisible economic asset are the foundations of process-centred management. Simulation of business processes creates added value in understanding, analysing and designing processes by introducing dynamic aspects. It provides decision support by anticipation of future changes in process design and improves understanding of processes.

  3. Applicability of Process Viewing Patterns in Business Process Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Schumm; Tobias Anstett; Frank Leymann; Daniel Schleicher

    2010-01-01

    Process views are an emerging concept for coping with the increasing complexity of process models. We understand a process view as the result of specific transformations applied to a process model. In this paper we discuss concrete scenarios of process view transformations for providing assistance in business process management. We show how elementary patterns of view transformations can be combined

  4. Kennedy Space Center Payload Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Ronnie; Engler, Tom; Colloredo, Scott; Zide, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the payload processing functions at Kennedy Space Center. It details some of the payloads processed at KSC, the typical processing tasks, the facilities available for processing payloads, and the capabilities and customer services that are available.

  5. Formal process ontology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanna Seibt

    2001-01-01

    The paper reports some results of the author's recent work on aprocess-ontological framework called APT. APT is based on thenotion of a free process, a new category in ontology, with Broad's\\/ Sellars' \\

  6. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Rindt, John R. (Grand Forks, ND); Hetland, Melanie D. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1993-01-01

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  7. NASA Space Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andruske, Linda Lee

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Space Shuttle Processing at Kennedy Space Center. A demonstration of the Space Shuttle silica tiles, a description of its High Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI), tile inspections, and tile replacement demonstrations are also presented.

  8. Data Access Request Process

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains instructions for submitting a Data Access Request for dataset(s) under the purview of the Extramural National Cancer Institute (NCI) Data Access Committee (DAC) and an overview of the review process.

  9. Sculpture as process

    E-print Network

    Kracke, Bernd

    1981-01-01

    Sculpture as process is rooted in the historical development of movement as a theme of art in general and of sculpture in particular since 1900. The impact of the industrial revolution and the subsequent scientific/technological ...

  10. Guidance Document Unattended Processes

    E-print Network

    of a comprehensive incident investigation. If you are a lab worker, do not leave processes unattended unless you have. Consider the possibility of fire, explosion or unintended reactions. If appropriate, make arrangements

  11. Petroleum processing wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Hornung; D. A. Baker

    1976-01-01

    Literature on waste treatment technology and water reuse in petroleum processing is reviewed. Subjects include water reuse, ozone wastewater treatment, oil separation, sludge filtration and disposal, and fluidized bed incineration.

  12. The Diffusion Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website includes an animation which illustrates the diffusion process. The two models that have been developed to explain the mechanism for the diffusion of dopants into silicon are the Vacancy model and the Interstitial model. It is the different bonding characteristics of the dopants with silicon that determine the diffusion mechanism. Although each model is based on these differences, they are not mutually exclusive. Objective: Explain the difference between the Vacancy and Interstitial diffusion models. You can find this animation under the heading "Process & Equipment III." This simulation is from Module 019 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

  13. Dissolution processes: Stuffed structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenter, Paul

    2012-03-01

    Understanding oxide dissolution processes on the molecular scale remains a challenge. A study on nanoscale oxides suggests a mechanism for dissolution that proceeds through the formation of oxygen-stuffed metastable structures.

  14. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  15. Commissioning : The Total Process

    E-print Network

    Kettler, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    of the building design, ensure that the building is constructed in accordance with the contract documents, and verify that the building and its systems function according to the design intent documents. The process helps to integrate and organize the design...

  16. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.

    1993-10-26

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300 C to 400 C for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  17. Nepal's Constitutional Process

    E-print Network

    International Crisis Group

    2007-02-26

    NEPAL’S CONSTITUTIONAL PROCESS Asia Report N°128 – 26 February 2007 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................. i I. INTRODUCTION... VIII. CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 31 APPENDICES A. MAP OF NEPAL...

  18. A Gamma Wear Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Abdel-Hameed

    1975-01-01

    Life distribution properties of a device subject to wear occurring randomly in time as a gamma process are related to the corresponding properties of the probability of surviving a specified amount of wear.

  19. Electrotechnologies in Process Industries 

    E-print Network

    Amarnath, K. R.

    1989-01-01

    and efficiency, and conserve energy are actively developed and demonstrated by the Industrial Program. Process Industries such as chemicals, petroleum, paper, textiles, and food are vital to the American economy. These industries consume nearly half of all...

  20. Qualitative Process Theory

    E-print Network

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    1983-05-01

    Things move, collide, flow, bend, heat up, cool down, stretch, break and boil. These and other things that happen to cause changes in objects over time are intuitively characterized as processes. To understand common ...

  1. Qualitative Process Theory

    E-print Network

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    1984-07-01

    Objects move, collide, flow, bend, heat up, cool down, stretch, compress and boil. These and other things that cause changes in objects over time are intuitively characterized as processes. To understand common sense ...

  2. Automating DNA processing

    E-print Network

    Wienen, Michael Jan

    1994-01-01

    and resources must be spent in laboratory research to determine the genetic structure of the relevant organisms. DNA processing is riddled with time intensive laboratory techniques that must be improved or replaced if genotyping large numbers of samples...

  3. Quantum Stochastic Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, William Joseph [Quantum Information and Probability Group, School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-13

    We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

  4. Process for desulfurizing steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Koros; R. G. Petrushka

    1982-01-01

    A process for desulfurizing molten steel includes the formation of a synthetic slag layer, the formation of a cover which occludes the ambient air, and the simultaneous injection of lime and a reactant agent which vaporizes within the molten steel.

  5. MODELING TREE LEVEL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of three main types of simulation approach (explanatory, abstraction, and estimation) is presented, along with a discussion of their capabilities limitations, and the steps required for their validation. A process model being developed through the Forest Response Prog...

  6. CHTN :: New Processing Fees

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content CHTN Home | Admin Login Connect with the CHTN About Us What is the CHTN? Why use the CHTN? CHTN Divisions History of the CHTN Biospecimens We Provide Biospecimen Collection & Type Biospecimen Processing, Preservation & Shipping Quality

  7. Picture Processing by Computer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azriel Rosenfeld

    1969-01-01

    Techniques for processing pictorial information by computer are surveyed. The topics covered include efficient encoding and approximation; position-invariant operations and applications; picture properties useful for pattern recognition; picture segmentation and geometrical properties of picture subsets; picture descrlptmn and \\

  8. Markovian Sequential Replacement Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard M. Taylor

    1965-01-01

    A sequential control process is a dynamic system which is observed periodically and classified into one of a number of possible states. After each observation one of a number of possible decisions is made. These decisions are the \\

  9. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    DOEpatents

    Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO)

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  10. HYDICE postflight data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrich, William S.; Kappus, Mary E.; Resmini, Ronald G.; Mitchell, Peter A.

    1996-06-01

    The hyperspectral digital imagery collection experiment (HYDICE) sensor records instrument counts for scene data, in-flight spectral and radiometric calibration sequences, and dark current levels onto an AMPEX DCRsi data tape. Following flight, the HYDICE ground data processing subsystem (GDPS) transforms selected scene data from digital numbers (DN) to calibrated radiance levels at the sensor aperture. This processing includes: dark current correction, spectral and radiometric calibration, conversion to radiance, and replacement of bad detector elements. A description of the algorithms for post-flight data processing is presented. A brief analysis of the original radiometric calibration procedure is given, along with a description of the development of the modified procedure currently used. Example data collected during the 1995 flight season, but uncorrected and processed, are shown to demonstrate the removal of apparent sensor artifacts (e.g., non-uniformities in detector response over the array) as a result of this transformation.

  11. LIDC - Reader Marking Process

    Cancer.gov

    Slide 1LIDC Radiologists' MarkingsA Multiple Reader/ Multiple Session Process Blinded Read Each Radiologist reads independently (Blinded to other readers' markings) Unblinded Read Each Radiologist re-reads, but is shown their own blinded read markings

  12. Microcomputers in Process Control 

    E-print Network

    Vinson, D. R.; Chatterjee, N.

    1986-01-01

    Computers have been extensively used for process control and optimization since the 1970's. Many articles have been published documenting the benefits of computer control; and in general, energy savings of 5% or greater versus the baseline control...

  13. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  14. Laser tile machining process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Bird

    1991-01-01

    A three-dimensional laser machining process is being developed to cut replacement tiles for the Space Shuttle. The process involves a carbon dioxide laser and a computer-controlled five-axis positioner. To date, successful straight-through cuts, curved-through cuts, and partial cuts have been made by the laser. Felt reusable surface insulation, another component of the Shuttle's thermal protection system, has also been successfully

  15. TATB: water amination process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quinlin

    1977-01-01

    A pilot-plant scale process for animation of sym-trichlorotrinitrobenzene (TCTNB) in the presence of water to produce sym-triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) has been developed. With this process the chlorine content from trapped impurities is reduced from the typical 0.5 to 1.0 percent range fown to about 0.1 percent. This reduction in chlorine is accompanied by a decrease in size of the median particle

  16. Chemical processing monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    Chemical processing highlights for March 1983 are as follows: (1) Implementation of the Safeguards Program Phasing Plan was completed ahead of schedule. Programmatic responsibility for safeguards has been distributed to the KA K1, K4, and K6 end functions. (2) The Process Facility Modification (PFM) Program Management team, including PFM Project Manager - PFM Design, and PFM Project Manager - Systems, were selected. (3) The A, B, C, D shift operation at the PUREX Plant was initiated on March 14.

  17. Textile composite processing science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loos, Alfred C.; Hammond, Vincent H.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Hasko, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-dimensional model of the Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process was developed for the prediction of the infiltration behavior of a resin into an anisotropic fiber preform. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) was developed for in-situ monitoring of the RTM process. Flow visualization and mold filling experiments were conducted to verify sensor measurements and model predictions. Test results indicated good agreement between model predictions, sensor readings, and experimental data.

  18. Processing Of Binary Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  19. Tools for processing materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Theisen

    Tools for processing materials are the key elements in hot and cold forming processes i.e. from the melt (e.g. pressure die\\u000a casting and powder metallurgy), by hot working (e.g. forging and extrusion) and separation (e.g shear cutting and chipping).\\u000a The shape of the tools is preserved by using different hardnesses that depend on the type of application. In practice, this

  20. Controlling the synfuel process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fagenbaum

    1980-01-01

    The three main problem areas for instrumentation used in coal gasification and liquefaction systems are measurement of the density and velocity of the process streams (known as mixed-phase mass-flow monitoring); on-line analysis of the molecular composition of process streams; and measurement of temperatures in combustion and reactor vessels. Intrusive flow meters are ill suited because of the corrosion problem. The

  1. Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Wilhite, E.L.; Stieve, A.L.

    1990-05-01

    The information contained in this report is intended to supplement the original Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Since the original EIS in 1982, alterations have been made to he conceptual process that reduce the impact to the groundwater. This reduced impact is documented in this report along with an update of the understanding of seismology and geology of the Savannah River Site. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Electrotechnologies in Process Industries

    E-print Network

    Amarnath, K. R.

    and demonstrated by the Industrial Program. Process Industries such as chemicals, petroleum, paper, textiles, and food are vital to the American economy. These industries consume nearly half of all the manufacturing industry electricity usage. It is... pinch technology. o Adjustable speed drive applications in paper industry. o Microwave and radio-frequency heating of fruits and other foods. o Infrared heating of textile yarn during the slashing process. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER EPRI recognizes...

  3. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  4. Transparent materials processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetherington, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    A zero gravity processing furnace system was designed that will allow acquisition of photographic or other visual information while the sample is being processed. A low temperature (30 to 400 C) test model with a flat specimen heated by quartz-halide lamps was constructed. A high temperature (400 to 1000 C) test model heated by resistance heaters, utilizing a cylindrical specimen and optics, was also built. Each of the test models is discussed in detail. Recommendations are given.

  5. A bivariate process capability index 

    E-print Network

    Michalski, Susan Lohmer

    1992-01-01

    Process Capability Indices B. Multivariate Processes and C'?Measures II LITERATURE SURVEY . A. C?and C?q Indices B. C?and Its Modifications III OBJECTIVE AND METHODOLOGY A. Objective B. Methodology 1. Properties of Bivariate Normal Processes 2... review process capability indices in general. We will also discuss multivariate processes and the need for the development of a multivariate process capability index. A. Review of Current Process Capability Indices Once a process has been brought...

  6. Virtual Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulgaonkar, Ranjit

    1988-12-01

    Many imaging applications require high speed acquisition, storage, processing and display of large size images (over 10k X 10k pixels). Such applications include remote sensing, medical imaging, electron microscopy, publishing and document/photograph processing. Most existing image processors and special purpose acquisition devices have limitations on the image size being acquired (usually 4096 X 4096 pixels). Storage of these large images, sometimes with multiple bands takes a lot of storage space. The available storage devices that have large storage capacity cannot keep up with the transfer speed requirements. The ideal storage device should provide both high storage capacity and high transfer speeds. Processing these large images requires a large amount of Random Access Memory (RAM), and the image has to be broken into smaller sections (sub-images). The processed image is usually rebuilt from the subimages, resulting in visible boundaries between the subimages. Even though devices that display images of up to 2048 X 2048 in size are available today, they still display only a small portion of a large image at a time. In order to display the entire image, the display window has to be roamed in the image data base. In this paper we will discuss a system architecture suitable for processing such large images. This system performs acquisition, storage, display and processing of large image databases.

  7. Laser forming process development

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R.J. [High Tech Images, Sheridan, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a summary of the activities performed for the process development of laser thermal forming sheet metal parts in support of rapid prototyping. A 400 watt pulsed Nd:YAG laser and 50 watt desktop CO{sub 2} laser were used during initial process development. Several tool-assisted laser forming approaches were conceived during the development of the process, and simple fixtures for process development/understanding were used throughout all testing. Much of the actual forming was performed with the base material in an unfixtured state. CRES (304) was used for baseline development, but the effort was directed toward forming titanium (e.g., 6Al-4V, 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al). Several DOE (i.e., Design of Experiment) techniques were employed during development and a Neural Net Computer Model was conceived for process control. This program was a joint effort in cooperation with the American Welding Society under contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). A synopsis of the laser forming process development, future opportunities, and applications are presented.

  8. The Kimberley Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The past several decades have seen a growing interest among various social justice organizations into investigating the various origins or manufacturing processes used to create various products and their effects on the people who make these products. One such luxury item that has come under close scrutiny is the diamond. In May 2000, Southern African diamond producing states met in Kimberly, South Africa to come up with a way to stop the trade in conflict diamonds and "to ensure consumers that the diamonds that they purchase have not contributed to violent conflict and human rights abuses in their countries of origin." Some two years later, a number of participants (including national governments and the international diamond industry) developed the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme to assure that these conflict diamonds would not enter legitimate trade. On this compelling site, visitors can learn about the process, read news updates about the process, and read documents related to the process from the World Trade Organization and examine a list of participants in the process.

  9. Helium process cycle

    DOEpatents

    Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

    2007-10-09

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  10. Studsvik Processing Facility Update

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J. B.; Oliver, T. W.; Hill, G. M.; Davin, P. F.; Ping, M. R.

    2003-02-25

    Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 3.3 million pounds (1.5 million kgs) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, and activated carbon, which comprised a cumulative total activity of 18,852.5 Ci (6.98E+08 MBq). To date, the highest radiation level for an incoming resin container has been 395 R/hr (3.95 Sv/h). The Studsvik Processing Facility (SPF) has the capability to safely and efficiently receive and process a wide variety of solid and liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) streams including: Ion Exchange Resins (IER), activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents, and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/h). The licensed and heavily shielded SPF can receive and process liquid and solid LLRWs with high water and/or organic content. This paper provides an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing radioactive LLRW from commercial nuclear power plants. Process improvements and lessons learned will be discussed.

  11. Gaia Data Processing Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mullane, W.; Lammers, U.; Bailer-Jones, C.; Bastian, U.; Brown, A. G. A.; Drimmel, R.; Eyer, L.; Huc, C.; Katz, D.; Lindegren, L.; Pourbaix, D.; Luri, X.; Torra, J.; Mignard, F.; van Leeuwen, F.

    2007-10-01

    Gaia is the European Space Agency's (ESA's) ambitious space astrometry mission with a main objective to map astrometrically and spectro-photometrically not less than 1000 million celestial objects in our galaxy with unprecedented accuracy. The announcement of opportunity (AO) for the data processing will be issued by ESA late in 2006. The Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been formed recently and is preparing an answer to this AO. The satellite will downlink around 100 TB of raw telemetry data over a mission duration of 5--6 years. To achieve its required astrometric accuracy of a few tens of microarcseconds, a highly involved processing of this data is required. In addition to the main astrometric instrument Gaia will host a radial-velocity spectrometer and two low-resolution dispersers for multi-color photometry. All instrument modules share a common focal plane consisting of a CCD mosaic about 1 m^2 in size and featuring close to 10^9 pixels. Each of the various instruments requires relatively complex processing while at the same time being interdependent. We describe the composition and structure of the DPAC and the envisaged overall architecture of the system. We shall delve further into the core processing---one of the nine so-called coordination units comprising the Gaia processing system.

  12. Defining the paramedic process.

    PubMed

    Carter, Holly; Thompson, James

    2015-01-01

    The use of a 'process of care' is well established in several health professions, most evidently within the field of nursing. Now ingrained within methods of care delivery, it offers a logical approach to problem solving and ensures an appropriate delivery of interventions that are specifically suited to the individual patient. Paramedicine is a rapidly advancing profession despite a wide acknowledgement of limited research provisions. This frequently results in the borrowing of evidence from other disciplines. While this has often been useful, there are many concerns relating to the acceptable limit of evidence transcription between professions. To date, there is no formally recognised 'process of care'-defining activity within the pre-hospital arena. With much current focus on the professional classification of paramedic work, it is considered timely to formally define a formula that underpins other professional roles such as nursing. It is hypothesised that defined processes of care, particularly the nursing process, may have features that would readily translate to pre-hospital practice. The literature analysed was obtained through systematic searches of a range of databases, including Ovid MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health. The results demonstrated that the defined process of care provides nursing with more than just a structure for practice, but also has implications for education, clinical governance and professional standing. The current nursing process does not directly articulate to the complex and often unstructured role of the paramedic; however, it has many principles that offer value to the paramedic in their practice. Expanding the nursing process model to include the stages of Dispatch Considerations, Scene Assessment, First Impressions, Patient History, Physical Examination, Clinical Decision-Making, Interventions, Re-evaluation, Transport Decisions, Handover and Reflection would provide an appropriate model for pre-hospital practices. PMID:24176226

  13. Ionic liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.; Farnum, S.A.

    1989-07-11

    This patent describes a method of regenerating the solubilizing agent from the process stream of a single stage ionic coal liquefaction process wherein the coal liquefaction is accomplished by reaction of the coal with a polar solvent solubilizing agent and an aqueous solution containing inorganic ionic species where major amounts of the solubilizing agent are selected from the group consisting of aromatic alcohols, phenols, polycyclic phenols and substituted phenols; including o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, catechol, resorcinol, naphthol and mixtures and derivatives thereof; and minor amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, partially-hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fully hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having from 1 to 4 carbon rings such as naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, acenaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, tetralin, gamma-picoline, isoquinoline, dihydronaphthalene, decalin, 9,10-dihydroanthracene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene and mixtures and derivatives thereof, as well as carbonaceous material-derived solvents; and (b) the inorganic ionic species are dissolved in water and include a compound having a cation selected from the group consisting of alkali and alkaline-earth metals comprising the steps after ionic liquefaction of: (1) removing non-condensible gases from the process stream; (2) removing immiscible water from the process stream; (3) removing alkaline compound containing solids from the process stream; (4) removing carbonaceous products from the process stream by the use of methanol; (5) separating methanol from the solubilizing agents; (6) separately hydrotreating the carbonaceous products; (7) recovering methanol; and (8) recovering regenerated solubilizing agent capable of being used directly in a single stage ionic coal liquefaction process.

  14. Hybrid photonic signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghauri, Farzan Naseer

    This thesis proposes research of novel hybrid photonic signal processing systems in the areas of optical communications, test and measurement, RF signal processing and extreme environment optical sensors. It will be shown that use of innovative hybrid techniques allows design of photonic signal processing systems with superior performance parameters and enhanced capabilities. These applications can be divided into domains of analog-digital hybrid signal processing applications and free-space---fiber-coupled hybrid optical sensors. The analog-digital hybrid signal processing applications include a high-performance analog-digital hybrid MEMS variable optical attenuator that can simultaneously provide high dynamic range as well as high resolution attenuation controls; an analog-digital hybrid MEMS beam profiler that allows high-power watt-level laser beam profiling and also provides both submicron-level high resolution and wide area profiling coverage; and all optical transversal RF filters that operate on the principle of broadband optical spectral control using MEMS and/or Acousto-Optic tunable Filters (AOTF) devices which can provide continuous, digital or hybrid signal time delay and weight selection. The hybrid optical sensors presented in the thesis are extreme environment pressure sensors and dual temperature-pressure sensors. The sensors employ hybrid free-space and fiber-coupled techniques for remotely monitoring a system under simultaneous extremely high temperatures and pressures.

  15. Range Process Simulation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  16. Cryogenic process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Panek, J.; Johnson, S.

    1994-01-01

    Combining accurate fluid property databases with a commercial equation-solving software package running on a desktop computer allows simulation of cryogenic processes without extensive computer programming. Computer simulation can be a powerful tool for process development or optimization. Most engineering simulations to date have required extensive programming skills in languages such as Fortran, Pascal, etc. Authors of simulation code have also usually been responsible for choosing and writing the particular solution algorithm. This paper describes a method of simulating cryogenic processes with a commercial software package on a desktop personal computer that does not require these traditional programming tasks. Applications include modeling of cryogenic refrigerators, heat exchangers, vapor-cooled power leads, vapor pressure thermometers, and various other engineering problems.

  17. Modeling input processes

    SciTech Connect

    Iman, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Computer models for various applications are closely scrutinized both from the standpoint of questioning the correctness of the underlying mathematical model with respect to the process it is attempting to model, and from the standpoint of verifying that the computer model correctly implements the underlying mathematical model. A process that receives less scrutiny, but is nonetheless of equal importance, concerns the individual and joint modeling of the inputs. This modeling effort clearly has a great impact on the credibility of results obtained from simulation studies. Model characteristics are reviewed that have a direct bearing on the model input process and reasons are given for using probabilistic based modeling with the inputs. Discussions are presented on how to model distributions for individual inputs and how to model multivariate input structures when dependence and other constraints may be present. 12 refs.

  18. COTS software selection process.

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, William M. (Strike Wire Technologies, Louisville, CO); Lin, Han Wei; McClelland, Kelly (U.S. Security Associates, Livermore, CA); Ullrich, Rebecca Ann; Khanjenoori, Soheil; Dalton, Karen; Lai, Anh Tri; Kuca, Michal; Pacheco, Sandra; Shaffer-Gant, Jessica

    2006-05-01

    Today's need for rapid software development has generated a great interest in employing Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products as a way of managing cost, developing time, and effort. With an abundance of COTS software packages to choose from, the problem now is how to systematically evaluate, rank, and select a COTS product that best meets the software project requirements and at the same time can leverage off the current corporate information technology architectural environment. This paper describes a systematic process for decision support in evaluating and ranking COTS software. Performed right after the requirements analysis, this process provides the evaluators with more concise, structural, and step-by-step activities for determining the best COTS software product with manageable risk. In addition, the process is presented in phases that are flexible to allow for customization or tailoring to meet various projects' requirements.

  19. Process for nitrogen enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Umeki, M.

    1985-01-22

    In a pressure swing adsorption process for the production of nitrogen enriched product gas from air, when the process is halted during a pressure equalization step, that is, with valves open to permit the flow of gas from one vessel to a second vessel, then the gas remaining in the vessels is exhausted to atmosphere by opening a further valve. This results in rapid return to the required purity of nitrogen enriched product gas on start-up of the process. Preferably, subsequent to opening the further valve, another valve is opened, thereby permitting nitrogen-rich product gas from a reservoir to flow through the vessels, thereby purging said vessels with nitrogen enriched product gas.

  20. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  1. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, John D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1988-01-01

    (1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

  2. Quartz resonator processing system

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Roswell D. M. (Rustburg, VA)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  3. Exclusion processes with avalanches.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Uttam; Krapivsky, P L

    2014-07-01

    In an exclusion process with avalanches, when a particle hops to a neighboring empty site which is adjacent to an island the particle on the other end of the island immediately hops, and if it joins another island this triggers another hop. There are no restrictions on the length of the islands and the duration of the avalanche. This process is well defined in the low-density region ? < 1/2. We describe the nature of steady states (on a ring) and determine all correlation functions. For the asymmetric version of the process, we compute the steady state current, and we describe shock and rarefaction waves which arise in the evolution of the step-function initial profile. For the symmetric version, we determine the diffusion coefficient and examine the evolution of a tagged particle. PMID:25122277

  4. Exclusion processes with avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Uttam; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2014-07-01

    In an exclusion process with avalanches, when a particle hops to a neighboring empty site which is adjacent to an island the particle on the other end of the island immediately hops, and if it joins another island this triggers another hop. There are no restrictions on the length of the islands and the duration of the avalanche. This process is well defined in the low-density region ? <1/2. We describe the nature of steady states (on a ring) and determine all correlation functions. For the asymmetric version of the process, we compute the steady state current, and we describe shock and rarefaction waves which arise in the evolution of the step-function initial profile. For the symmetric version, we determine the diffusion coefficient and examine the evolution of a tagged particle.

  5. Hidden visual processes.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, J M

    1983-02-01

    Isoluminant stimulus is an image whose edges are defined only by a change in color, not by change in brightness. The stimulus here is imperfect: the blue parts and the green parts of the image are only as nearly equal in brightness as they can be on the printed page. Moreover, the change in brightness beyond the edge of the page is apparent, and so is the fact that the reader is holding the magazine at reading distance. When such cues are removed under laboratory conditions, subjects faced with an isoluminant stimulus prove unable to bring its edges into focus. This deficiency contributes to making a familiar face hard to recognize. The experiment indicates that the brain process underlying visual accommodation (the focusing of the eyes) cannot "see" color; it is a hidden process distinct from the processes that lead to perception. The image shows Groucho Marx as he appeared in the motion picture Horse Feathers. PMID:6836258

  6. A complementary MOS process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    The complete sequence used to manufacture complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits is described. The fixed-gate array concept is presented as a means of obtaining CMOS integrated circuits in a fast and reliable fashion. Examples of CMOS circuits fabricated by both the conventional method and the fixed-gate array method are included. The electrical parameter specifications and characteristics are given along with typical values used to produce CMOS circuits. Temperature-bias stressing data illustrating the thermal stability of devices manufactured by this process are presented. Results of a preliminary study on the radiation sensitivity of circuits manufactured by this process are discussed. Some process modifications are given which have improved the radiation hardness of our CMOS devices. A formula description of the chemicals and gases along with the gas flow rates is also included.

  7. Acoustic Levitation Containerless Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whymark, R. R.; Rey, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    This research program consists of the development of acoustic containerless processing systems with applications in the areas of research in material sciences, as well as the production of new materials, solid forms with novel and unusual microstructures, fusion target spheres, and improved optical fibers. Efforts have been focused on the containerless processing at high temperatures for producing new kinds of glasses. Also, some development has occurred in the areas of containerlessly supporting liquids at room temperature, with applications in studies of fluid dynamics, potential undercooling of liquids, etc. The high temperature area holds the greatest promise for producing new kinds of glasses and ceramics, new alloys, and possibly unusual structural shapes, such as very uniform hollow glass shells for fusion target applications. High temperature acoustic levitation required for containerless processing has been demonstrated in low-g environments as well as in ground-based experiments. Future activities include continued development of the signals axis acoustic levitator.

  8. The Bosch process.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, H. P.; Reid, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Many previous studies have been carried out to elucidate certain aspects of the Bosch process wherein CO2 is reacted over an iron catalyst to form carbon and water at temperatures around 1100 F. These results are assembled, and with the aid of new experimental data, are used to analyze the various reactions involved. It is shown that CO2 and H2 will not usually react to deposit carbon unless water is removed in a recycle loop. The critical importance of large catalyst areas is stressed relative to catalyst pretreatment processes. It is shown that in most operating Bosch reactions, mass transfer controls the rate of reaction, and it is suggested that the carbon filaments found are the expected result of such a rate limiting process. Typical recycle gas mixtures are considered, and maximum water yields are determined from various cases. A few suggestions are made to improve Bosch reaction performance, and a number of unresolved problems are noted.

  9. Signal Processing:Fourier Signal Processing:Fourier

    E-print Network

    Rimon, Elon

    Signal Processing:Fourier #12;Signal Processing:Fourier Fourier methods · Continous signals FS) signals DFS ­Discrete Fourier Series DFT ­ Discrete Fourier Transform #12;Signal Processing:Fourier #12;Signal Processing:Fourier #12;Signal Processing:Fourier Example: The square wave For this case ao = 0

  10. Business process simulation: a fundamental step supporting process centered management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Aguilar; Tankred Rautert; Alexander J. G. Pater

    1999-01-01

    Business processes are increasingly recognised as the key to competitive survival. The important opportunities inherent to this invisible economic asset are the foundations of process centred management. Simulation of business processes creates added value in understanding, analysing, and designing processes by introducing dynamic aspects. It provides decision support by anticipation of future changes in process design and improves understanding of

  11. Assessing the process capability index for non-normal processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    In recent decades, the concept of process capability has emerged to provide a quantified prediction of process adequacy. Capability indexes have become a popular means of describing the ability of a process to produce products that meet certain specifications. These indexes provide numerical measures on process potential and performance. We consider the large-sample estimation of a capability process index. We

  12. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  13. Process Damping Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Sam

    2011-12-01

    The phenomenon of process damping as a stabilising effect in milling has been encountered by machinists since milling and turning began. It is of great importance when milling aerospace alloys where maximum surface speed is limited by excessive tool wear and high speed stability lobes cannot be attained. Much of the established research into regenerative chatter and chatter avoidance has focussed on stability lobe theory with different analytical and time domain models developed to expand on the theory first developed by Trusty and Tobias. Process damping is a stabilising effect that occurs when the surface speed is low relative to the dominant natural frequency of the system and has been less successfully modelled and understood. Process damping is believed to be influenced by the interference of the relief face of the cutting tool with the waveform traced on the cut surface, with material properties and the relief geometry of the tool believed to be key factors governing performance. This study combines experimental trials with Finite Element (FE) simulation in an attempt to identify and understand the key factors influencing process damping performance in titanium milling. Rake angle, relief angle and chip thickness are the variables considered experimentally with the FE study looking at average radial and tangential forces and surface compressive stress. For the experimental study a technique is developed to identify the critical process damping wavelength as a means of measuring process damping performance. For the range of parameters studied, chip thickness is found to be the dominant factor with maximum stable parameters increased by a factor of 17 in the best case. Within the range studied, relief angle was found to have a lesser effect than expected whilst rake angle had an influence.

  14. NTP comparison process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  15. NTP comparison process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corban, Robert

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  16. AERONET Version 3 processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holben, B. N.; Slutsker, I.; Giles, D. M.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) database has evolved in measurement accuracy, data quality products, availability to the scientific community over the course of 21 years with the support of NASA, PHOTONS and all federated partners. This evolution is periodically manifested as a new data version release by carefully reprocessing the entire database with the most current algorithms that fundamentally change the database and ultimately the data products used by the community. The newest processing, Version 3, will be released in 2015 after the entire database is reprocessed and real-time data processing becomes operational. All V 3 algorithms have been developed, individually vetted and represent four main categories: aerosol optical depth (AOD) processing, inversion processing, database management and new products. The primary trigger for release of V 3 lies with cloud screening of the direct sun observations and computation of AOD that will fundamentally change all data available for analysis and all subsequent retrieval products. This presentation will illustrate the innovative approach used for cloud screening and assesses the elements of V3 AOD relative to the current version. We will also present the advances in the inversion product processing with emphasis on the random and systematic uncertainty estimates. This processing will be applied to the new hybrid measurement scenario intended to provide inversion retrievals for all solar zenith angles. We will introduce automatic quality assurance criteria that will allow near real time quality assured aerosol products necessary for real time satellite and model validation and assimilation. Last we will introduce the new management structure that will improve access to the data database. The current version 2 will be supported for at least two years after the initial release of V3 to maintain continuity for on going investigations.

  17. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

  18. Parallel signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWhirter, John G.

    1989-12-01

    The potential application of parallel computing techniques to digital signal processing for radar is discussed and two types of regular array processor are discussed. The first type of processor is the systolic or wavefront processor. The application of this type of processor to adaptive beamforming is discussed and the joint STL-RSRE adaptive antenna processor test-bed is reviewed. The second type of regular array processor is the SIMD parallel computer. One such processor, the Mil-DAP, is described, and its application to a varied range of radar signal processing tasks is discussed.

  19. Retinex Image Processing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Retinex Image Processing technology, developed by NASA, is used to compensate for the effect of poor lighting in recorded images. Shadows, changes in the color of illumination, and several other factors can cause image quality to be highly variable. Using an advanced system that sharpens images and efficiently renders colors, a much more constant image quality can be achieved regardless of the lighting. Retinex technology is described in several online publications that can be downloaded from this Web site. Additionally, some example pictures of scenes taken with and without the image processing are shown.

  20. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOEpatents

    Nemser, Stuart M.

    2005-05-03

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

  1. Reversible brazing process

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Jim D. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, John J. (Albuquerque, NM); Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  2. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOEpatents

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  3. The Diffusion Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. In an orderly and comprehensive set of lectures, lessons, and laboratory activities, MATEC explicates for your learners the complex process of diffusion. Beginning with an overview of diffusion's purpose in altering a wafer's electrical characteristics, the module then drills down to specifics: process parameters, different techniques of diffusion, the use of a hot probe to evaluate diffusion, and wafer handling. Your learners demonstrate their new knowledge by diffusing selected dopants into a silicon wafer.

  4. Processing of Echellé spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyashko, D. A.; Tsymbal, V. V.; Makaganiuk, V. A.

    2007-10-01

    The current software was developed at the Taurida National University, astronomy department of physics faculty by Lyashko D.A., Tsymbal V.V. This programm comlex can be adapted according namely to individual spectrograph. All spectra processing goes automatically, so in this way it becomes possible to minimize user interaction with programm. It is very convinient and does not require special training for using it. In this case we can exclude human element and so then, output data corruption. The algotithm of processing due to differences between spectrographs is described in this paper.

  5. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Compere; W. L. Griffith; H. W. Hayden; J. S. Jr. Johnson; D. F. Wilson

    1994-01-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include ²³⁴Th, ²³⁴Pa, ¹³⁷Cs, ²³⁹Pu (trace), ⁶°Co, U, ⁹⁹Tc, and ²³⁷Np

  6. Thermal stir welding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A welding method is provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  7. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Ayhan; Metzler, Philipp; Lanzer, Martin; Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; Yildirim, Vedat

    2015-01-01

    Solcoseryl® is a protein-free haemodialysate, containing a broad spectrum of low molecular components of cellular mass and blood serum obtained from veal calves. Solcoseryl® improves the transport of oxygen and glucose to cells that are under hypoxic conditions. It increases the synthesis of intracellular ATP and contributes to an increase in the level of aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. It activates the reparative and regenerative processes in tissues by stimulating fibroblast proliferation and repair of the collagen vascular wall. The formulations of Solcoseryl® are infusion, injection, gel and ointment, and it is also available as a dental paste for inflammatory processes of the mouth cavity, gums and lips. PMID:26169977

  8. Sequential elution process

    DOEpatents

    Kingsley, I.S.

    1987-01-06

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for the separation of complex mixtures of carbonaceous material by sequential elution with successively stronger solvents. In the process, a column containing glass beads is maintained in a fluidized state by a rapidly flowing stream of a weak solvent, and the sample is injected into this flowing stream such that a portion of the sample is dissolved therein and the remainder of the sample is precipitated therein and collected as a uniform deposit on the glass beads. Successively stronger solvents are then passed through the column to sequentially elute less soluble materials. 1 fig.

  9. Yeast nuclear RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jade; Toth, Eric A

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear RNA processing requires dynamic and intricately regulated machinery composed of multiple enzymes and their cofactors. In this review, we summarize recent experiments using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system that have yielded important insights regarding the conversion of pre-RNAs to functional RNAs, and the elimination of aberrant RNAs and unneeded intermediates from the nuclear RNA pool. Much progress has been made recently in describing the 3D structure of many elements of the nuclear degradation machinery and its cofactors. Similarly, the regulatory mechanisms that govern RNA processing are gradually coming into focus. Such advances invariably generate many new questions, which we highlight in this review. PMID:22312453

  10. Stochastic Process Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza, Javier

    In many areas of computer science entities can “reproduce”, “replicate”, or “create new instances”. Paramount examples are threads in multithreaded programs, processes in operating systems, and computer viruses, but many others exist: procedure calls create new incarnations of the callees, web crawlers discover new pages to be explored (and so “create” new tasks), divide-and-conquer procedures split a problem into subproblems, and leaves of tree-based data structures become internal nodes with children. For lack of a better name, I use the generic term systems with process creation to refer to all these entities.

  11. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  12. Research Planning Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofton, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes the process used to collect, review, integrate, and assess research requirements desired to be a part of research and payload activities conducted on the ISS. The presentation provides a description of: where the requirements originate, to whom they are submitted, how they are integrated into a requirements plan, and how that integrated plan is formulated and approved. It is hoped that from completing the review of this presentation, one will get an understanding of the planning process that formulates payload requirements into an integrated plan used for specifying research activities to take place on the ISS.

  13. Actinide metal processing

    DOEpatents

    Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  14. Biomass Processing Photolibrary

    DOE Data Explorer

    Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

  15. Crow process modeling

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Western Research Institute (wRI) has developed a numerical model (TCROW) to describe CROW{sup TM} processing of contaminated aquifers. CROW is a patented technology for the removal of contaminant organics from water-saturated formations by injection of hot water or low- temperature steam. TCROW is based on a fully implicit, thermal, compositional model (TSRS) previously developed by wRI. TCROW`s formulation represents several enhancements and simplifications over TSRS and results in a model specifically tailored to model the CROW process.

  16. Real time SAR processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premkumar, A. B.; Purviance, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    A simplified model for the SAR imaging problem is presented. The model is based on the geometry of the SAR system. Using this model an expression for the entire phase history of the received SAR signal is formulated. From the phase history, it is shown that the range and the azimuth coordinates for a point target image can be obtained by processing the phase information during the intrapulse and interpulse periods respectively. An architecture for a VLSI implementation for the SAR signal processor is presented which generates images in real time. The architecture uses a small number of chips, a new correlation processor, and an efficient azimuth correlation process.

  17. Study of random process theory aids digital data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordner, G. W.

    1967-01-01

    Study of techniques for all random process technology, including stationary, nonstationary, and Gaussian bivariate, aids digital data processing. It presents material on digital filtering, correlation function, optimal spectral smoothing, deterministic data processing, and nonstationary spectrum and correlation analyses.

  18. Process Integration Study of a Poultry Processing Plant 

    E-print Network

    Meffert, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a process integration study of a poultry processing plant. The Pinch Methodology was utilized to set targets for process energy use and to critique previous attempts at energy conservation in poultry plants...

  19. Method of processing tubing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prizzi

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a process for manufacturing zirconium base alloy tubing having a substantially uniform metallic composition throughout the tubing, comprising the steps of: cold pilgering a starting tube to produce an as cold pilgered intermediate tube; intermediate surface annealing the as cold pilgered intermediate tube by rapidly scanning the tube with a rapid heating means to heat a first

  20. Data warehouse process management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panos Vassiliadis; Christoph Quix; Yannis Vassiliou; Matthias Jarke

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has provided metadata models that enable the capturing of the static components of a data warehouse architecture, along with information on different quality factors over these components. This paper complements this work with the modeling of the dynamic parts of the data warehouse. The proposed metamodel of data warehouse operational processes is capable of modeling complex activities, their

  1. The magnetization process: Hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsamel, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The magnetization process, hysteresis (the difference in the path of magnetization for an increasing and decreasing magnetic field), hysteresis loops, and hard magnetic materials are discussed. The fabrication of classroom projects for demonstrating hysteresis and the hysteresis of common magnetic materials is described in detail.

  2. Thermal ash agglomeration process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Bryan; M. J. Khinkis; A. G. Rehmat

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for thermal agglomeration of high melting temperature ashes wherein a carbonaceous material is introduced into a fluidized bed supported upon and maintained fluidized by fluidizing gas introduced through a perforated sloping bed support grid having a density\\/size selective solids withdrawal conduit at a base portion of the bed with upflowing discharge control gas. It comprises:

  3. Immunology as Information Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Forrest; Steven A. Hofmeyr

    2000-01-01

    This chapter describes the behavior of the immune system from an informationprocessing perspective. It reviews a series of projects conducted at the University of New Mexico and the Santa Fe Institute, which have developed and explored the theme "immunology as information processing." The projects cover the spectrum from serious modeling of real immunological phenomena, such as crossreactive responses in animals

  4. Image-Processing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Hull, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    IMAGEP manipulates digital image data to effect various processing, analysis, and enhancement functions. It is keyboard-driven program organized into nine subroutines. Within subroutines are sub-subroutines also selected via keyboard. Algorithm has possible scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications in study of flows in materials, analysis of steels and ores, and pathology, respectively.

  5. Gas scrubbing process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Hakka; J. N. Sarlis

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the removal of sulfur dioxide from a sulfur dioxide-containing gas stream. It comprises contacting the gas stream in a substantially horizontal contact zone with finely-divided droplets of absorbing medium which comprises water in an amount of at least about 1 mole for each mole of sulfur to be absorbed up to about 80 weight

  6. Image processing and reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Chartrand, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-15

    This talk will examine some mathematical methods for image processing and the solution of underdetermined, linear inverse problems. The talk will have a tutorial flavor, mostly accessible to undergraduates, while still presenting research results. The primary approach is the use of optimization problems. We will find that relaxing the usual assumption of convexity will give us much better results.

  7. NASA overhauls grant process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Teo Simarski

    1991-01-01

    A university recently received a NASA grant so quickly that the recipients, used to a long wait for money even after a grant had been approved, assumed a mistake had been made. Such a story has been making the rounds since NASA began to refurbish the procedure by which it issues grants, speeding up and streamlining the process in response

  8. Adiabatic light processing devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Love; Andrew Molloy; Adrian Ankiewicz

    2006-01-01

    The majority of optical processing devices that are employed in optical transmission systems are based on optical fibres or planar optical waveguides that rely on basic physical phenomena such as coupling, interference or Bragg grating reflection for their functionality. These devices include, for example, a wide variety of single- and multi-mode couplers and splitters, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, wavelength filters, dispersion compensators,

  9. Directional fingerprint processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meltem BALLAN

    1998-01-01

    We present fingerprint smoothing, classification and identification based on the singular points (delta and core points) obtained from the directional histograms of a fingerprint. Fingerprints are classified into two main categories that are called Lasso and Wirbel. The process includes directional image formation, directional image block representation, singular point detection and decision, and fingerprint classification and identification, respectively. By matching

  10. Fusion welding process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Jones; M. A. Mcbride; K. C. Thomas

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content

  11. Communication satellite processing repeaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Y. Huang; P. Hooten

    1971-01-01

    Two kinds of processing repeaters which may find application on communication satellites in the near future are described. The type I repeater allows access only if the transmitted signal contains a predetermined code structure. This serves three purposes: first, unauthorized users are excluded, second, co-channel interfering signals are not retransmitted on the downlink, so as not to waste a portion

  12. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  13. Uranium extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, M.A.

    1983-05-03

    Uranium is extracted from wet process phosphoric acid by extraction with a mixture of a diorganophosphate and a neutral phosphorus compound, which is preferably a triorgano phosphine oxide, in the presence of nitrate to form an organic extract layer containing uranium and an aqueous acid layer, which are separated.

  14. Causal Synchrony Distributed Processes

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Baron Chief Judge General Southern Captain Northern Captain Executioner AstrologerPhysicianCook HeadCausal Synchrony in Distributed Processes James P. Crutchfield www.santafe.edu/chaos 21 May 2002 Judge Northern Captain Illegitimate Daughter King's Chaplain Astrologer Mistress Confessor Consultant

  15. Motion signal processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armin Bruderlin; Lance Williams

    1995-01-01

    Techniques from the image and signal processing domain can be successfully applied to designing, modifying, and adapting ani- mated motion. For this purpose, we introduce multiresolution mo- tion filtering, multitarget motion interpolation with dynamic time- warping, waveshaping and motion displacement mapping. The techniques are well-suited for reuse and adaptation of existing mo- tion data such as joint angles, joint coordinates

  16. THE NOZZLE SEPARATION PROCESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. W. Becker; K. Bier; W. Bier; R. Schuette

    1963-01-01

    In the nozzle separation process the addition of a light gas increases ; the density of the pressure diffusion current of a heavy isotope mixture which ; gives rise to a higher separation factor. It is shown experimentally that in a ; mixture of 10 mole% argon and 90 mole% helium the elementary separation effect of ; the argon isotopes

  17. Tertiary oil recovery processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blackwell

    1978-01-01

    A tertiary oil recovery (TOR) process must satisfy several requirements, such as overcoming capillary forces, and contacting as much of the reservoir as possible. Guidelines for selection of TOR candidate methods are listed, using screening parameters to screen their suitability. The parameters are oil viscosity, oil gravity, depth, net zone thickness, temperature, average permeability, salinity of formation brine, oil saturation,

  18. The Creative Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harjo, Joy; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Four Native American poets in easy narrative style tell about some of the aesthetic judgments they make in their work and, in the process, shed some light upon the traditions from which their poetry emerges. Joy Harjo discusses how she wrote "The Woman Hanging from the Thirteenth Floor Window," her use of repetition influenced by music and…

  19. Parastillation Process in Operations 

    E-print Network

    Canfield, F.; Jenkins, O.

    1986-01-01

    The Parastillation process is a new method for multi-stage, counter-current contact between vapor and liquid that results in 33% more ideal stages than distillation for a given tray spacing. Patents have been granted in the U.S.A., U.K., Europe...

  20. Communicating sequential processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. R. Hoare; R. L. Rivest

    1978-01-01

    This paper suggests that input and output are basic primitives of programming and that parallel composition of communicating sequential processes is a fundamental program structuring method. When combined with a development of Dijkstra's guarded command, these concepts are surprisingly versatile. Their use is illustrated by sample solutions of a variety of a familiar programming exercises.

  1. The Performance Appraisal Process

    E-print Network

    Jun, Suckjoon

    attitudes You can't get better than (solid/above expectations) in your first year. Nobody is so good1 The Performance Appraisal Process Danielle G. Schulte Employee Relations Specialist September 11, 2013 UC-San Diego, Human Resources 2 Performance Appraisal Purpose The formal performance appraisal

  2. Intelligent OCR Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Identifies types and distributions of errors in text produced by optical character recognition (OCR) and proposes a process using machine learning techniques to recognize and correct errors in OCR texts. Results of experiments indicating that this strategy can reduce human interaction required for error correction are reported. (25 references)…

  3. Process data chemometrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Piovoso; Karlene A. Kosanovich; James P. Yuk

    1992-01-01

    A data analysis technique successfully applied in spectroscopy to reduce a large quantity of data into meaningful information, called chemometrics, is discussed. Data when properly interpreted by statistical data analysis tools and fundamental and heuristic models yield meaningful information. The use of chemometrics as a multivariate analyzer to provide a composite measurement of the state of a chemical process operation

  4. Software Quality, Software Process,

    E-print Network

    Hamlet, Richard

    de ciencies, can describe the relationship between test measure- ments and product quality;1 Introduction Renewed interest in quality software in the 1990s stems from attention to the development process standards address similar concerns. Schemes like \\total quality management" (TQM) extend to the larger

  5. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  6. SCORIT Response Processing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlen, Michael J.

    SCORIT, a computer program which processes student responses to test items, is described and explained. The method of scoring responses according to an original test design and possible alternate test designs is detailed. The printing and punching of reports in a form suitable for correlational analysis are covered. A program description is…

  7. Tertiary oil production process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Pusch

    1977-01-01

    The status quo in the field of in situ combustion processes in crude oil reservoirs is demonstrated. Special emphasis is laid on the importance of the combination of water and oxygen injection. A step which points to the future of in situ coal gasification. Initial solutions to the safety problem concerning the use of oxygen or oxygen enriched air in

  8. Atmospheric Processes--Radiation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This activity begins with an explanation of the heat transfer processes in general and then focuses on radiation. In the activity, students investigate how different surfaces absorb heat and apply their experience with the surfaces to interpret real-world situations.

  9. Catalyst deoiling process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Olson; R. T. Plichta; D. W. Coyne

    1987-01-01

    A deoiling process is described comprising the steps of: removing a slurry of spent catalyst and oil from an ebullated bed reactor; transporting the slurry of spent catalyst and oil from the reactor to a vessel; cooling the slurry of spent catalyst and oil in the vessel to a temperature below the flash point of the oil; conveying the cooled

  10. Knowledge Processes and Ontologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Staab; Rudi Studer; Hans-peter Schnurr; York Sure

    2001-01-01

    Technology for knowledge management has so far focused on the management of knowledge containers. We present an approach that is oriented towards managing knowledge contents instead by identifying knowledge items at various levels of formality. This is done by providing various types of meta data that are tied to ontologies for conceptual interlinkage. Knowledge items are embedded into knowledge processes,

  11. Robust process capability indices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sameer Prasad; Tom Bramorski

    1998-01-01

    Many organizations are mandating the use of process capability indices to measure and reduce variability. Managers may find the use of such indices as unreliable when the interaction of the dependency structure and outliers mask potential assignable causes of variation. A monitoring procedure is proposed that effectively classifies a series' variability into three components: (1) the underlying correlation structure, (2)

  12. Understanding Process Capability Indices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Steiner; Bovas Abraham; Jock MacKay

    this article is answer such questions by providing an illustration of theimportant issues related to capability indices. In addition, this article makes suggestions regardingthe process information necessary to make appropriate use of capability indices. In the nextsection, the question of which capability index to use is addressed by contrasting the variouscommon indices. It is shown that the index P pk

  13. Separation Process Economics 

    E-print Network

    Barron, T. S.; Wrobel, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    'M Coat Moderate 3. Freeze Crystallization processes Table 4. Curaet.ri.tic. Coat 11...nt H?? a _tal h.at .,,:hanq??urrae. bet....n the proe??a and the r.frig.ra:nt. ? equir?? -.eb.ni.. tor a??pln9 this ."rtae. tr.. he- ice d.po.ita which would...

  14. Process of water electrolyis

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D. E.

    1980-12-23

    Discloses a process of water electrolysis of concentrated alkaline aqueous solutions at temperatures above 60/sup 0/C and at anode current densities of at least about 125 ma/cm2 in which the anode comprises an iron-nickel alloy containing 30% to about 45% nickel.

  15. Laminar soot processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, P. B.; Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    Soot processes within hydrocarbon fueled flames are important because they affect the durability and performance of propulsion systems, the hazards of unwanted fires, the pollutant and particulate emissions from combustion processes, and the potential for developing computational combustion. Motivated by these observations, the present investigation is studying soot processes in laminar diffusion and premixed flames in order to better understand the soot and thermal radiation emissions of luminous flames. Laminar flames are being studied due to their experimental and computational tractability, noting the relevance of such results to practical turbulent flames through the laminar flamelet concept. Weakly-buoyant and nonbuoyant laminar diffusion flames are being considered because buoyancy affects soot processes in flames while most practical flames involve negligible effects of buoyancy. Thus, low-pressure weakly-buoyant flames are being observed during ground-based experiments while near atmospheric pressure nonbuoyant flames will be observed during space flight experiments at microgravity. Finally, premixed laminar flames also are being considered in order to observe some aspects of soot formation for simpler flame conditions than diffusion flames. The main emphasis of current work has been on measurements of soot nucleation and growth in laminar diffusion and premixed flames.

  16. HYNOL PROCESS EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines process alternatives for the optimal use of natural gas and biomass for production of fuel-cell vehicle fuel, emphasizing maximum displacement of petroleum and maximum reduction of overall fuel-cycle carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at least cost. Three routes a...

  17. Superintendent's Evaluation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candoli, I. C.

    It is in the superintendent's best interest to have a well thought out formal evaluation plan in place rather than suffer the reality of an informal evaluation--an evaluation that is often based on whim and fancy. In the evolution of the evaluation process, the primary thrust has moved from personal qualities to input measures to, finally, output…

  18. PETROX - PETROBRAS' PROCESS SIMULATOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Niederberger; Ingrid Alexandra Zech; José Ataíde da Silva; Fabio Takeshi Mizutani; Sousa Aires

    Over the years, Basic Engineering activities have grown in Petrobras since its creation in 1976. It incorporates into the Basic Projects a high degree of technological innovation developed in the Petrobras' Research Center - CENPES and the acquired knowledge in the scientific community and previous projects. A strategic decision made in 1989 was the development of PETROBRAS' own Process Simulator

  19. Materials and Processes II

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This pdf contains a syllabus for a second course on materials and processes as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. Topics include the history of the composite industry, identifying and characterizing composite materials, composite manufacturing, methods of inspection of composite materials, and symptoms and causes of faulty bonds.

  20. Image Processing for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Image Processing for Teaching project provides a powerful medium to excite students about science and mathematics, especially children from minority groups and others whose needs have not been met by traditional teaching. Using professional-quality software on microcomputers, students explore a variety of scientific data sets, including…

  1. Processing eutectics in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, F. C.; Galasso, S. F.

    1975-01-01

    The investigations of directional solidification have indicated the necessity of establishing a secure foundation in earth-based laboratory processing in order to properly assess low-gravity processing. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the regularity of microstructure of the rod-like eutectic Al-Al3Ni obtained under different conditions of growth involving the parameters of thermal gradient, solidification rate, and interfacial curvature. In the case of Al-Al3Ni, where the Al3Ni phase appears as facets rods, solidification rate was determined to be a controlling parameter. Zone melting of thin eutectic films showed that for films of the order of 10 to 20 micrometers thick, the extra surface energy appears to act to stabilize a regular microstructure. The results suggest that the role of low-gravity as provided in space-laboratory processing of materials is to be sought in the possibility of generating a higher thermal gradient in the solidifying ingot for a given power input-output arrangement than can be obtained under normal one-g processes.

  2. Transportation Systems Planning Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ASAD J. KHATTAK; ADIB KANAFANI

    PLANiTS (Planning and Analysis Integration for Intelligent Trans- portation Systems) is a process-based computer system that supports a series of mutually interdependent steps progressing toward developing and programming transportation improvement projects. It is a tool that translates problems and goals to performance measures, examines possible competing and complementary transportation improvement actions, systematically evaluates the impacts of actions using models and

  3. Photonic curvilinear data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Clyde; Quaglio, Thomas; Figueiro, Thiago; Pauliac, Sébastien; Belledent, Jérôme; Fay, Aurélien; Bustos, Jessy; Marusic, Jean-Christophe; Schiavone, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    With more and more photonic data presence in e-beam lithography, the need for efficient and accurate data fracturing is required to meet acceptable manufacturing cycle time. Large photonic based layouts now create high shot count patterns for VSB based tools. Multiple angles, sweeping curves, and non-orthogonal data create a challenge for today's e-beam tools that are more efficient on Manhattan style data. This paper describes techniques developed and used for creating fractured data for VSB based pattern generators. Proximity Effect Correction is also applied during the fracture process, taking into account variable shot sizes to apply for accuracy and design style. Choosing different fracture routines for pattern data on-the-fly allows for fast and efficient processing. Data interpretation is essential for processing curvilinear data as to its size, angle, and complexity. Fracturing complex angled data into "efficient" shot counts is no longer practical as shot creation now requires knowledge of the actual data content as seen in photonic based pattern data. Simulation and physical printing results prove the implementations for accuracy and write times compared to traditional VSB writing strategies on photonic data. Geometry tolerance is used as part of the fracturing algorithm for controlling edge placement accuracy and tuning to different e-beam processing parameters.

  4. Customer requirements process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Yvonne; Falsetti, Christine M.

    1991-01-01

    Customer requirements are presented through three viewgraphs. One graph presents the range of services, which include requirements management, network engineering, operations, and applications support. Another viewgraph presents the project planning process. The third viewgraph presents the programs and/or projects actively supported including life sciences, earth science and applications, solar system exploration, shuttle flight engineering, microgravity science, space physics, and astrophysics.

  5. Process for functionalizing alkanes

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana, R.A.

    1988-05-24

    Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R[sub 1]H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R[sub 1] represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R[sub 2])[sub 3

  6. Modeling the Writing Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William Kroen

    2004-11-01

    This article describes a series of assignments that models the process of writing a manuscript for publication. While completing the assignments, students worked to improve their writing as they graphed, interpreted, and explained patterns in data from a local river. They reviewed published articles and each other's papers to become more critical readers.

  7. Definitions: HACCP: Process 1

    E-print Network

    . Critical Control Point (CCP): A point, step, or procedure at which controls can be applied at critical control points. For more information about critical limits, refer to 7.3.4 through 7 or recipe from your vessel's recipe book. Keep in mind that process 1 foods do not involve heating

  8. Optimising electronic manufacturing processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Doniavi; A. R. Mileham; L. B. Newnes

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for use in electronic manufacturing system optimisation using a systems approach. The framework consists of three phases. Phase 1 is the system-modelling phase where a model of the system to be optimised is created. Phase 2 involves system analysis and control. In this phase, the focus is on identifying manufacturing process areas where analysis and

  9. Building Science Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Anthony V.

    2006-01-01

    A well-designed and executed field trip experience serves not only to enrich and supplement course content, but also creates opportunities to build basic science process skills. The National Science Education Standards call for science teachers "to design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources…

  10. NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PROCESSING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Jordan; R Watkins; S Hensel

    2009-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty nine cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. The neptunium campaign was divided into two parts: Part 1 which consisted of oxide made from H-Canyon neptunium solution which did not require any processing prior to conversion into

  11. Pervaporation process and assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Wynn, Nicholas P. (Redwood City, CA); Huang, Yu (Palo Alto, CA); Aldajani, Tiem (San Jose, CA); Fulton, Donald A. (Fairfield, CA)

    2010-07-20

    The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

  12. Physical process Mechanical mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    1 Physical process Generation · Mechanical mechanisms F = m·a · Electric/Magnetic mechanisms F = B·i·l · Fluid dynamic/Hydraulic mechanisms q, p, ij · Thermal/Optical #12;2 Source unit and source mechanisms ­ Monopoles......volume fluctuations ­ Dipoles ......pressure fluctuations

  13. Fuel conditioning process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. McGill; J. R. Alley; D. W. Coombs

    1985-01-01

    A fuel conditioning process and apparatus for use where natural gas is compressed by a field compressor driven by a natural gas powered engine. The fuel portion of the compressed raw natural gas is passed through an adsorption vessel containing an adsorbent material capable of adsorbing impurities. The outlet gas from the adsorption vessel is accumulated and mixed for averaging

  14. Word Processing Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marcia A.; Kusek, Robert W.

    A combination of facts, examples, models, tools, and sources useful in developing and teaching word processing (WP) programs is provided in this guide. Eight sections are included. Sections 1 and 2 present introductory information on WP (e.g., history, five phases of WP, problems occurring in WP offices, factors of people, procedures, and…

  15. Analyzing medical processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Chen; George S. Avrunin; Elizabeth A. Henneman; Lori A. Clarke; Leon J. Osterweil; Philip L. Henneman

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows how software engineering technologies used to define and analyze complex software systems can also be eective in detecting defects in human-intensive processes used to administer healthcare. The work described here builds upon earlier work demonstrating that healthcare pro- cesses can be defined precisely. This paper describes how finite-state verification can be used to help find defects in

  16. Actinide recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Muscatello, Anthony C. (Arvada, CO); Navratil, James D. (Arvada, CO); Saba, Mark T. (Arvada, CO)

    1987-07-28

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrenedivinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like.

  17. Eclipse Process Framework Description

    E-print Network

    Bae, Doo-Hwan

    Library View Pers- pectives Software Engineering Lab, KAIST 9/18 Configuration view Properties view 2008Eclipse Process Framework Composer 2008. 3.12 SE Lab Chanhee Yi #12;Contents SPEM 2.0 Description Two perspectives Editing space Publishing Demo 2008-3-12 Software Engineering Lab, KAIST 2/18 #12;SPEM

  18. Veterinary Services Process Streamlining

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Select View next to desired record #12;Select to view official lab report #12;Official copy watermarks to Labs module 2) Select Add Test Record #12;1. Complete test information from drop down menus 2. Click;1) Select to process: · Electronically (lab listed on VSPS) ­ official copy · Paper (you enter results

  19. Associative, Multiassociative, and Hybrid Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin C. Herbordty; Charles C. Weems

    Multiassociative processing is the simultaneous associative processing of sets of elements. In the flrst part of this article, we deflne the associative and multiassociative processing models and evaluate their perfor- mance with respect to a class of generic, spatially-mapped, functions. When compared with a conventional, realistic, parallel processing model, it is found that multiassociative processing is superior in many cases

  20. Trace Clustering in Process Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minseok Song; Christian W. Günther; Wil M. P. Van Der Aalst

    2008-01-01

    Process mining has proven to be a valuable tool for analyzing operational process executions based on event logs. Existing techniques perform well on structured processes, but still have problems discovering and visualizing less structured ones. Unfortunately, process mining is most interesting in domains requiring exibilit y. A typical example would be the treatment process in a hospital where it is

  1. Gaia downlink data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, H.; Els, S. G.; Guerra, R.; Cheek, N.; Mora, A.; O'Mullane, W.

    2014-08-01

    The Gaia survey mission, operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and launched on 19 December 2013, will survey approximately 109 stars or 1% of the galactic stellar population over a 5.5 year period. The main purpose of this mission is micro-arcsecond astrometry, that would yield important insights into the kinematics of the galaxy, its evolution, as well as provide important additional findings, including a updated coordinate reference system to that provided by the ICRS. Gaia performs its observations using two telescopes with fields of view separated by 106.5 degrees, spinning around an orthogonal axis at about 6 hours per day. The spin axis itself precesses: it is always oriented at 45 degrees from the sun, and precesses around the sun every 63 days. Thus each part of the sky is observed approximately every 63 days. The 6-hour spin, or scan-rate matches the CCD readout rate. The amount of data to process per day - 50-130 Gigabytes - corresponds to over 30 million stellar sources. To perform this processing, the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) have developed approximately 2 million lines of software, divided into subsystems specific to a given functional need, that are run across 6 different Data Processing Centres (DPCs). The final result being a catalog including the 109 stars observed. Most of the daily processing is performed at the DPC in ESAC, Spain (DPCE), which runs 3 main subsystems, the MOC Interface Task (MIT), the Initial Data Treatment (IDT), and First Look (FL). The MIT ingests the initial data provided by the MOC in the form of binary data and writes (amongst other things) `star packets' containing the raw stellar information needed for IDT, which provides a basic level of processing, including stellar positions, photometry, radial velocities, cross match and catalogue updates. FL determines the payload health (e.g, the health for the 106 CCDs, geometric calibration) and astrometric performance via the one day astrometric solution. This presentation provides an overview of the DPAC software as a whole, and focuses on the daily pipeline processing: the systems used, the teams involved, the challenges during development and operations, and lessons learned.

  2. Biosphere Process Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schmitt

    2000-05-25

    To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor. Collectively, the potential human receptor and exposure pathways form the biosphere model. More detailed technical information and data about potential human receptor groups and the characteristics of exposure pathways have been developed in a series of AMRs and Calculation Reports.

  3. Signals and Images Image processing

    E-print Network

    Lakey, Joseph D.

    Signals and Images Wavelets Image processing Models and Approximations Data driven approximations;Signals and Images Wavelets Image processing Models and Approximations Data driven approximations or transcendental: Joe Lakey Wavelets Minimize Max #12;Signals and Images Wavelets Image processing Models

  4. signal processing and oral communication

    E-print Network

    Penn, Gerald

    SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Computational Linguistics, 5 December 2012 Frank University of Toronto #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication An introduction to SPOClab · SPOClab (Signal Processing and Oral Communication) is a new lab intersecting Computer Science

  5. Normalization of Process Safety Metrics 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Mengtian

    2012-10-19

    This study is aimed at exploring new process safety metrics for measuring the process safety performance in processing industries. Following a series of catastrophic incidents such as the Bhopal chemical tragedy (1984) and Phillips 66 explosion...

  6. Dynamic control of remelting processes

    DOEpatents

    Bertram, Lee A. (Dublin, CA); Williamson, Rodney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Evans, David G. (Clinton, NY)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method of controlling a remelting process by providing measured process variable values to a process controller; estimating process variable values using a process model of a remelting process; and outputting estimated process variable values from the process controller. Feedback and feedforward control devices receive the estimated process variable values and adjust inputs to the remelting process. Electrode weight, electrode mass, electrode gap, process current, process voltage, electrode position, electrode temperature, electrode thermal boundary layer thickness, electrode velocity, electrode acceleration, slag temperature, melting efficiency, cooling water temperature, cooling water flow rate, crucible temperature profile, slag skin temperature, and/or drip short events are employed, as are parameters representing physical constraints of electroslag remelting or vacuum arc remelting, as applicable.

  7. Advanced Process Management and Implementation 

    E-print Network

    Robinson, J.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced Process Management is a method to achieve optimum process performance during the life cycle of a plant through proper design, effective automation, and adequate operator decision support. Developing a quality process model is an effective...

  8. Resampling inhomogeneous marked point processes

    E-print Network

    Garner, William John

    2011-01-01

    Bootstrap for a One-Dimensional Inhomogeneous Poisson Process 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bootstrap for Higher Dimensional Inhomogeneous Poisson Processes IntroductionBootstrap for a One-Dimensional Inhomogeneous Poisson Process Introduction

  9. The Interactive Process: Reasonable Accommodation

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    The Interactive Process: Reasonable Accommodation March 2009 Manager's Guide #12;Table of Contents .......................................................13 #12;3THE INTERACTIVE PROCESS: REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION MANAGER'S GUIDE--March 2009 Overview This Managers' Guide on the Interactive Process: Reasonable Accommodation provides supportive information

  10. Vaccine process technology.

    PubMed

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory perspective, Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT) are important initiatives that can be applied effectively to many types of vaccine processes. Universal demand for vaccines requires that a manufacturer plan to supply tens and sometimes hundreds of millions of doses per year at low cost. To enable broader use, there is intense interest in improving temperature stability to allow for excursions from a rigid cold chain supply, especially at the point of vaccination. Finally, there is progress in novel routes of delivery to move away from the traditional intramuscular injection by syringe approach. PMID:22407777

  11. Process Selection ExamplesProcess Selection Examples ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems

    E-print Network

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    : Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 4 #12;Process choicesProcess choices · Casting ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 6 #12;HIP Pressure VesselHIP Pressure Vessel ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 7 #12;Design

  12. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-five (35) furnace runs were carried out during this quarter, of which 25 produced a total of 120 web crystals. The two main thermal models for the dendritic growth process were completed and are being used to assist the design of the thermal geometry of the web growth apparatus. The first model, a finite element representation of the susceptor and crucible, was refined to give greater precision and resolution in the critical central region of the melt. The second thermal model, which describes the dissipation of the latent heat to generate thickness-velocity data, was completed. Dendritic web samples were fabricated into solar cells using a standard configuration and a standard process for a N(+) -P-P(+) configuration. The detailed engineering design was completed for a new dendritic web growth facility of greater width capability than previous facilities.

  13. High Dynamic Range Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ken

    Deep sky astronomical Images are produced by capturing and building up very faint signals over an extended period of time. Although faint, some objects produce a wide range of signal intensity between the very brightest and the dimmest parts of an image. For instance; capturing bright detail of the surface of the Sun and displaying it alongside the exceedingly fainter prominences on the edge of the solar disk demands expert management of the very high dynamic range of brightness values. Currently, modern digital cameras can manage broad dynamic range in terrestrial scenes by taking several images at different exposure settings and then combining these exposures to make a coherent image. High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging and processing are now the catch terms that refer to imaging and processing techniques that effectively manage high dynamic range data to produce images with high visual and informational impact.

  14. Instabilities in sensory processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  15. The Aluminum Smelting Process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development. PMID:24806722

  16. Processing gapped verbs.

    PubMed

    Kaan, Edith; Overfelt, Carlie; Tromp, Do; Wijnen, Frank

    2013-08-01

    The time course was investigated of the processing of "missing" verbs in gapping constructions, such as John ate the hamburger, and Bill __ the hotdog. Native speakers of Dutch silently read Dutch sentences with and without gapping while their EEG was recorded. A left anterior negativity (LAN) was found at the first possible position at which the gapped verb could be detected, at least, for in participants who performed poorly in an end-of-sentence acceptability judgment task. This suggests that some readers do not anticipate the gapped verb, but infer the gapped verb in a bottom-up fashion, resulting in a LAN. Second, a P600 effect was observed for gapping versus no-gapping conditions, the early part of which was unaffected by plausibility. This suggests that the semantic and syntactic integration of a gapped verb is a relatively late process, and involves mechanisms similar to integrating a wh-phrase object with its verb. PMID:22538968

  17. Nucleic acid isolation process

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  18. Improving staff selection processes.

    PubMed

    Cerinus, Marie; Shannon, Marina

    2014-11-11

    This article, the second in a series of articles on Leading Better Care, describes the actions undertaken in recent years in NHS Lanarkshire to improve selection processes for nursing, midwifery and allied health professional (NMAHP) posts. This is an area of significant interest to these professions, management colleagues and patients given the pivotal importance of NMAHPs to patient care and experience. In recent times the importance of selecting staff not only with the right qualifications but also with the right attributes has been highlighted to ensure patients are well cared for in a safe, effective and compassionate manner. The article focuses on NMAHP selection processes, tracking local, collaborative development work undertaken to date. It presents an overview of some of the work being implemented, highlights a range of important factors, outlines how evaluation is progressing and concludes by recommending further empirical research. PMID:25370266

  19. UCG process data base

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    Process modeling in underground coal gasification (UCG) systems is a useful tool. Often, however, the experimental data necessary to test proposed models and mechanisms is not readily available. To help overcome this problem we describe in this paper a UCG Data Base we are developing to assist in making detailed data from DOE-sponsored field programs easily available. In addition, the data in the current data base are used to summarize the results of the Hoe Creek I, II, and III experiments. A statistical look at these data indicate a general lack of correlation between process variables. A simple gas compositional model is presented and is shown to be consistent with much of the available field data.

  20. River Ice Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2006-11-10

    The “River Ice Processes” module provides information on flooding associated with river ice jams. In this webcast, Dr. Kate White, nationally-recognized expert on river ice, explores basic river ice processes including the formation, growth, breakup, and transport of river ice and how it can become jammed, triggering floods. In addition, Dr. White covers the current, state-of-the-art ice jam forecasting, and current ice-modeling research and development being conducted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own, but it will also be available as a supporting topic providing factual scientific information to support students in completion of the case-based forecasting modules.

  1. Flash Flood Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    According to NOAA’s National Weather Service, a flash flood is a life-threatening flood that begins within 6 hours--and often within 3 hours--of a causative event. That causative event can be intense rainfall, the failure of a dam, levee, or other structure that is impounding water, or the sudden rise of water level associated with river ice jams. The “Flash Flood Processes” module offers an introduction to the distinguishing features of flash floods, the underlying hydrologic influences and the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the differences between flash floods and general floods and examines the hydrologic processes that impact flash flooding risk. In addition, it provides an introduction to the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products including derivation from ThreshR and rainfall-runoff curves as well as current strengths and limitations.

  2. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Holgersson, Georg; Bergqvist, Michael; Koyi, Hirsh; Berglund, Anders; Lambe, Mats; Bergström, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The work-up process for lung cancer patients consists of several steps from suspicion of malignant disease to start of treatment. Delays between these steps should be minimized. Data in the Swedish National Lung Cancer Register show that the work-up times for lung cancer patients vary greatly between different counties in central Sweden. In order to reduce delays, a trial of implementing patient guides (Sw: patientlotsar) for patients referred to the hospital was conducted. When comparing the work-up times before and after implementation of patient guides the median waiting time from suspicion of lung cancer to start of treatment in the region was reduced from 71 to 45 days. Furthermore, the duration of most of the steps in the work-up process were shortened despite more complex investigation procedures, e.g. increased use of PET/CT in the guided patient group. PMID:26035533

  3. Controlling the synfuel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagenbaum, J.

    1980-11-01

    The three main problem areas for instrumentation used in coal gasification and liquefaction systems are measurement of the density and velocity of the process streams (known as mixed-phase mass-flow monitoring); on-line analysis of the molecular composition of process streams; and measurement of temperatures in combustion and reactor vessels. Intrusive flow meters are ill suited because of the corrosion problem. The present paper deals with the development of nonintrusive flowmeters of the electromagnetic, thermal, sonic, and ultrasonic type, the development of capacitive transducers for velocity and density measurements, the use of neutron-induced gamma-ray spectrometry in on-line analysis to obtain the effective density of each constituent, and the use of acoustic techniques (time domain reflectometry) in temperature measurements.

  4. The aluminum smelting process.

    PubMed

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development. PMID:24806722

  5. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Ji?í; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloni?ný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  6. Fractal structures and processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Beard, D.A.; Percival, D.B.; Raymond, G.M. [National Simulation Resource, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Fractals and chaos are closely related. Many chaotic systems have fractal features. Fractals are self-similar or self-affine structures, which means that they look much of the same when magnified or reduced in scale over a reasonably large range of scales, at least two orders of magnitude and preferably more (Mandelbrot, 1983). The methods for estimating their fractal dimensions or their Hurst coefficients, which summarize the scaling relationships and their correlation structures, are going through a rapid evolutionary phase. Fractal measures can be regarded as providing a useful statistical measure of correlated random processes. They also provide a basis for analyzing recursive processes in biology such as the growth of arborizing networks in the circulatory system, airways, or glandular ducts. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Monitoring particle aggregation processes.

    PubMed

    Gregory, John

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of test methods for monitoring particle aggregation processes is reviewed. These include techniques for measuring aggregation rates in fundamental studies and those which are useful in the monitoring and control of practical coagulation/flocculation processes. Most emphasis is on optical methods, including light transmission (turbidity) and light scattering measurements and the fundamentals of these phenomena are briefly introduced. It is shown that in some cases, absolute aggregation rates can be derived. However, even when only relative rates can be obtained, these can still be very useful, for instance in defining optimum flocculation conditions. Some of the methods available for investigating properties of aggregates (flocs), such as size, strength and fractal dimension are also discussed, along with some related properties such as sedimentation rate and filterability of flocculated suspensions. PMID:18930173

  8. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1983-12-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Because palms are an important crop in many areas of Asia, Africa, and South America, considerable attention has been given to palm genetic improvement, with the result that tree palms are one of the most efficient energy crops, providing much better solar energy capture than, for example, sugar cane and cassava. Tree palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization or cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production, including harvest, tree management, and oil pressing are generally suited to village or plantation use, and, for the most part, have been directed toward supplying process energy through the combustion of process waste products, such as palm fruit residue and palm bunch fibers.

  9. Visual Processing Speed

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Older adults commonly report difficulties in visual tasks of everyday living that involve visual clutter, secondary task demands, and time sensitive responses. These difficulties often cannot be attributed to visual sensory impairment. Techniques for measuring visual processing speed under divided attention conditions and among visual distractors have been developed and have established construct validity in that those older adults performing poorly in these tests are more likely to exhibit daily visual task performance problems. Research suggests that computer-based training exercises can increase visual processing speed in older adults and that these gains transfer to enhancement of health and functioning and a slowing in functional and health decline as people grow older. PMID:23231958

  10. Passive fathometer processing.

    PubMed

    Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Siderius, Martin; Huang, Chen-Fen; Harrison, Chris H

    2008-03-01

    Ocean acoustic noise can be processed efficiently to extract Green's function information between two receivers. By using noise array-processing techniques, it has been demonstrated that a passive array can be used as a fathometer [Siderius, et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 1315-1323 (2006)]. Here, this approach is derived in both frequency and time domains and the output corresponds to the reflection sequence. From this reflection sequence, it is possible to extract seabed layering. In the ocean waveguide, most of the energy is horizontally propagating, whereas the bottom information is contained in the vertically propagating noise. Extracting the seabed information requires a dense array, since the resolution of the bottom layer is about half the array spacing. If velocity sensors are used instead of pressure sensors, the array spacing requirement can be relaxed and simulations show that just one vertical velocity sensor is sufficient. PMID:18345818

  11. Neuroimaging the epileptogenic process.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Sandy R; O'Brien, Terence J; Stefanidou, Maria; Kuzniecky, Ruben I

    2014-04-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological conditions worldwide. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) can suppress seizures, but do not affect the underlying epileptic state, and many epilepsy patients are unable to attain seizure control with AEDs. To cure or prevent epilepsy, disease-modifying interventions that inhibit or reverse the disease process of epileptogenesis must be developed. A major limitation in the development and implementation of such an intervention is the current poor understanding, and the lack of reliable biomarkers, of the epileptogenic process. Neuroimaging represents a non-invasive medical and research tool with the ability to identify early pathophysiological changes involved in epileptogenesis, monitor disease progression, and assess the effectiveness of possible therapies. Here we will provide an overview of studies conducted in animal models and in patients with epilepsy that have utilized various neuroimaging modalities to investigate epileptogenesis. PMID:24488707

  12. Adaptive passive fathometer processing.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Martin; Song, Heechun; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Hursky, Paul; Harrison, Chris

    2010-04-01

    Recently, a technique has been developed to image seabed layers using the ocean ambient noise field as the sound source. This so called passive fathometer technique exploits the naturally occurring acoustic sounds generated on the sea-surface, primarily from breaking waves. The method is based on the cross-correlation of noise from the ocean surface with its echo from the seabed, which recovers travel times to significant seabed reflectors. To limit averaging time and make this practical, beamforming is used with a vertical array of hydrophones to reduce interference from horizontally propagating noise. The initial development used conventional beamforming, but significant improvements have been realized using adaptive techniques. In this paper, adaptive methods for this process are described and applied to several data sets to demonstrate improvements possible as compared to conventional processing. PMID:20370000

  13. Extraterrestrial materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    The first year results of a multi-year study of processing extraterrestrial materials for use in space are summarized. Theoretically, there are potential major advantages to be derived from the use of such materials for future space endeavors. The types of known or postulated starting raw materials are described including silicate-rich mixed oxides on the Moon, some asteroids and Mars; free metals in some asteroids and in small quantities in the lunar soil; and probably volatiles like water and CO2 on Mars and some asteroids. Candidate processes for space materials are likely to be significantly different from their terrestrial counterparts largely because of: absence of atmosphere; lack of of readily available working fluids; low- or micro-gravity; no carbon-based fuels; readily available solar energy; and severe constraints on manned intervention. The extraction of metals and oxygen from lunar material by magma electrolysis or by vapor/ion phase separation appears practical.

  14. Laser processed protonic ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. W. Dynys; M. H. Berger; A. Sayir

    2008-01-01

    High temperature protonic conductors of SrCe0.9Y0.1O3??, Sr3Ca1+xNb2?xO9?? and BaCe0.85Y0.15O3?? were fabricated by laser processing. Laser float zone method and pulse laser deposition were used to fabricate dense high temperature protonic ceramic rods and films. Melt growth processing by laser float zone produced textured microstructures with cellular characteristics. Directional solidified SrCe0.9Y0.1O3?? contained an aluminium rich inter-granular phase, whereas Sr3Ca1+xNb2?xO9?? exhibits a

  15. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, Michael A. (Oak Park, IL); Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC); Moore, Edwin N. (Aiken, SC); Holcomb, H. Perry (North Augusta, SC)

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  16. Catalytic dewaxing process improved

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, S.P.; Green, J.R.

    1980-10-27

    Improvements in the Mobil distillate dewaxing (MDDW) process which involves selective cracking of wax inside the pores of a ZSM-5 catalyst, greatly reduce the reactivation requirements and increase the yield of more valuable products. The improved MDDW catalyst requires frequent temperature adjustments during the first few weeks on stream, after which an equilibrium temperature is reached and only small temperature increases are needed to compensate for slow coking of the catalyst. The improved catalyst gives a higher gasoline yield, at the expense of C/sub 3/'s and C/sub 4/'s; produces 88-91 research octane number clear gasoline, compared with approx. 84 with the original catalyst; produces a constant-octane gasoline, since it operates at an almost constant temperature; and produces, rather than consumes, hydrogen in most applications. Also discussed are improvements in processing schemes, including hydrodesulfurization before or after MDDW, and MDDW of cycle oils from catalytic cracking.

  17. Water Treatment Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.

  18. Attentional Processes in Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Goldstein; Cynthia R. Johnson; Nancy J. Minshew

    2001-01-01

    Attentional processes in individuals with high-functioning autism were compared with a matched control group. Participants for the study were 103 children and adults with autism and 103 control subjects. Measures administered corresponded to Mirsky et al.'s (1991) factor analysis of tests of attention. Diminished performance was noted on measures that loaded on the Focus-Execute and Shift factors, but not on

  19. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  20. Corporate Energy Management Process 

    E-print Network

    Geiger, T.

    2013-01-01

    Corporation?s capital and expense projects which consume or generate energy ? Regional platform for global energy expert group Management Commitment BASF Corporate Energy Management Department ESL-IE-13-05-25 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial... leads to Success Energy and Process Optimization Workshops 3 ? 4 year cycle ESL-IE-13-05-25 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 Best Practice and Technology sharing ? Energy...

  1. Parallel processing ITS

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, W.C.; Halbleib, J.A. Sr.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a users` guide for parallel processing ITS on a UNIX workstation network, a shared-memory multiprocessor or a massively-parallel processor. The parallelized version of ITS is based on a master/slave model with message passing. Parallel issues such as random number generation, load balancing, and communication software are briefly discussed. Timing results for example problems are presented for demonstration purposes.

  2. Actinide recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.; Saba, M.T.

    1985-06-13

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrene-divinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like. 2 tabs.

  3. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  4. Processing Texas Broilers.

    E-print Network

    Mountney, G. J.; Gardner, F. A. (Frederick)

    1957-01-01

    of the water, improper adjustment of pick- ers, birds varying in size or too few pickers. Some factors which processors reported might influence feather removal were the breeds and crosses of chickens processed, the moisture content of the body tissues... .itptq the second World War have created many ~lrnl~lerns for processors and caused wide varia- +inllc in output, methods, equipment and labor re- I llirernents among the plants. The phenomenal growth of the broiler indus- I 'ri. encouraged...

  5. Processing Forecasting Queries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songyun Duan; Shivnath Babu

    2007-01-01

    Forecasting future events based on historic data is useful in many domains like system management, adaptive query processing, environmental monitoring, and financial plan- ning. We describe the Fa system where users and appli- cations can pose declarative forecasting queries—both one- time queries and continuous queries—and get forecasts in real-time along with accuracy estimates. Fa supports effi- cient algorithms to generate

  6. Process for coal liquefaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. J. Beukes; L. J. Dry; C. Kleynjan

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the liquefaction of coal. The comminuted coal is slurried in a solvent or pasting oil and digested, normally under hydrogen pressure, e.g. of 50 to 250 atmospheres partial pressure, under catalytic conditions, at temperatures between about 380 and 500°C., preferably 400 to 470°C. And residence times between about 10 and 100 minutes. Solvent or

  7. Water Treatment Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students can follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Stop at each treatment point and unscramble the words to show where the water is along the treatment path. Click on each treatment point on the image to view the unscrambled answer and a little information about that treatment point. The treatment points are: coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, and storage.

  8. Process for producing silicon

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Carleton, Karen L. (Boulder, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  9. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  10. Poultry Processing: Questions & Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... A / Poultry Processing: Questions and Answers Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  11. Atmospheric Processes: Conduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    After participating in this activity, students will be able to explain the process of conduction using a molecular model and explain that different materials conduct at different rates. They will also be able to identify air as a poor heat conductor (an insulator). The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners

  12. Gate etch process control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Krogh; Mark Freeland; Ron Mori; Tito Chowdhury

    2003-01-01

    Studies on photomask Cr and MoSi etch processes were carried out and etch kinetics and modeling were performed. The photomasks were etched using an AMAT Centura II DPS and compared with a Unaxis VLE 770 ICP etcher. Mask metrology to support theoretical suppositions was performed on several tools: a KLA-Tencor P-12 profiler was used for depth measurement, while the KLA-Tencor

  13. Pre-PCR processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Rådström; Rickard Knutsson; Petra Wolffs; Maria Lövenklev; Charlotta Löfström

    2004-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is recognized as a rapid, sensitive, and specific molecular diagnostic tool for the analysis\\u000a of nucleic acids. However, the sensitivity and kinetics of diagnostic PCR may be dramatically reduced when applied directly\\u000a to biological samples, such as blood and feces, owing to PCR-inhibitory components. As a result, pre-PCR processing procedures\\u000a have been developed to remove or

  14. Cooking with Processed Cheese

    E-print Network

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09

    months. Easy Macaroni and Cheese (makes 6 servings, about ? cup each) What you need 1 tablespoon butter or margarine ? cup flour ? teaspoon salt 2 cups milk 1? cups processed... the margarine or butter in a saucepan. 3. Mix in the flour and salt. 4. Add the milk slowly, stirring all the time, and cook it over a medium heat until the sauce starts to boil. 5. Lower the heat and cook until the sauce thickens, about 3 minutes. 6. Add...

  15. Clementine Sensor Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    The design of the DSPSE Satellite Controller (DSC) is baselined as a single-string satellite controller. The DSC performs two main functions: health and maintenance of the spacecraft; and image capture, storage, and playback. The DSC contains two processors: a radiation-hardened Mil-Std-1750, and a commercial R3000. The Mil-Std-1750 processor performs all housekeeping operations, while the R3000 is mainly used to perform the image processing functions associated with the navigation functions, as well as performing various experiments. The DSC also contains a data handling unit (DHU) used to interface to various spacecraft imaging sensors and to capture, compress, and store selected images onto the solid-state data recorder. The development of the DSC evolved from several key requirements; the DSPSE satellite was to do the following: (1) have a radiation-hardened spacecraft control system and be immune to single-event upsets (SEU's); (2) use an R3000-based processor to run the star tracker software that was developed by SDIO (due to schedule and cost constraints, there was no time to port the software to a radiation-hardened processor); and (3) fly a commercial processor to verify its suitability for use in a space environment. In order to enhance the DSC reliability, the system was designed with multiple processing paths. These multiple processing paths provide for greater tolerance to various component failures. The DSC was designed so that all housekeeping processing functions are performed by either the Mil-Std-1750 processor or the R3000 processor. The image capture and storage is performed either by the DHU or the R3000 processor.

  16. Geological processes and evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Head, J.W.; Greeley, R.; Golombek, M.P.; Hartmann, W.K.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Masson, P.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L.E.; Carr, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Geological mapping and establishment of stratigraphic relationships provides an overview of geological processes operating on Mars and how they have varied in time and space. Impact craters and basins shaped the crust in earliest history and as their importance declined, evidence of extensive regional volcanism emerged during the Late Noachian. Regional volcanism characterized the Early Hesperian and subsequent to that time, volcanism was largely centered at Tharsis and Elysium, continuing until the recent geological past. The Tharsis region appears to have been largely constructed by the Late Noachian, and represents a series of tectonic and volcanic centers. Globally distributed structural features representing contraction characterize the middle Hesperian. Water-related processes involve the formation of valley networks in the Late Noachian and into the Hesperian, an ice sheet at the south pole in the middle Hesperian, and outflow channels and possible standing bodies of water in the northern lowlands in the Late Hesperian and into the Amazonian. A significant part of the present water budget occurs in the present geologically young polar layered terrains. In order to establish more firmly rates of processes, we stress the need to improve the calibration of the absolute timescale, which today is based on crater count systems with substantial uncertainties, along with a sampling of rocks of unknown provenance. Sample return from carefully chosen stratigraphic units could calibrate the existing timescale and vastly improve our knowledge of Martian evolution.

  17. Process facility modifications project

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, J.P.; Alaconis, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Process Facility Modification Project (PFM) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) project which is designed to replace the existing head-end of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant at the DOE's Hanford, Washington facilities. The purpose and need for the PFM project are twofold. First, it is desired to recover the plutonium loaned to the DOE's breeder reactor research program by the DOE's Defense Program. This plutonium is being used as fuel in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at Hanford, Washington. The fuel consists of a mixture of PuO/UO clad in stainless steel tubes. There are presently no US facilities which can reprocess stainless-steel-clad fuel. Therefore, to recover this plutonium a new facility which uses a chop/leach process must be constructed. Secondly, it is desired to use more modern reprocessing techniques to reduce the volume of high-level liquid radioactive waste produce by PUREX. By replacing the current Zirflex headed with the chop/leach process, the amount of liquid waste generated when reprocessing N Reactor fuel can be reduced by approx.90%.

  18. Software Process Assessment (SPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda H.; Sheppard, Sylvia B.; Butler, Scott A.

    1994-01-01

    NASA's environment mirrors the changes taking place in the nation at large, i.e. workers are being asked to do more work with fewer resources. For software developers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the effects of this change are that we must continue to produce quality code that is maintainable and reusable, but we must learn to produce it more efficiently and less expensively. To accomplish this goal, the Data Systems Technology Division (DSTD) at GSFC is trying a variety of both proven and state-of-the-art techniques for software development (e.g., object-oriented design, prototyping, designing for reuse, etc.). In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques, the Software Process Assessment (SPA) program was initiated. SPA was begun under the assumption that the effects of different software development processes, techniques, and tools, on the resulting product must be evaluated in an objective manner in order to assess any benefits that may have accrued. SPA involves the collection and analysis of software product and process data. These data include metrics such as effort, code changes, size, complexity, and code readability. This paper describes the SPA data collection and analysis methodology and presents examples of benefits realized thus far by DSTD's software developers and managers.

  19. Process for protein PEGylation.

    PubMed

    Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2014-04-28

    PEGylation is a versatile drug delivery technique that presents a particularly wide range of conjugation chemistry and polymer structure. The conjugated protein can be tuned to specifically meet the needs of the desired application. In the area of drug delivery this typically means to increase the persistency in the human body without affecting the activity profile of the original protein. On the other hand, because of the high costs associated with the production of therapeutic proteins, subsequent operations imposed by PEGylation must be optimized to minimize the costs inherent to the additional steps. The closest attention has to be given to the PEGylation reaction engineering and to the subsequent purification processes. This review article focuses on these two aspects and critically reviews the current state of the art with a clear focus on the development of industrial scale processes which can meet the market requirements in terms of quality and costs. The possibility of using continuous processes, with integration between the reaction and the separation steps is also illustrated. PMID:24531008

  20. The thermoelectric process

    SciTech Connect

    Vining, C.B.

    1997-07-01

    The efficiency of thermoelectric technology today is limited by the properties of available thermoelectric materials and a wide variety of new approaches to developing better materials have recently been suggested. The key goal is to find a material with a large ZT, the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit. However, if an analogy is drawn between thermoelectric technology and gas-cycle engines then selecting different materials for the thermoelements is analogous to selecting a different working gas for the mechanical engine. And an attempt to improve ZT is analogous to an attempt to improve certain thermodynamic properties of the working-gas. An alternative approach is to focus on the thermoelectric process itself (rather than on ZT), which is analogous to considering alternate cycles such as Stirling vs. Brayton vs. Rankine etc., rather than merely considering alternative gases. Focusing on the process is a radically different approach compared to previous studies focusing on ZT. Aspects of the thermoelectric process and alternative approaches to efficient thermoelectric conversion are discussed.

  1. RACORO aerosol data processing

    SciTech Connect

    Elisabeth Andrews

    2011-10-31

    The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

  2. Discrete Wavelets and Image Processing Discrete Wavelets and Image Processing

    E-print Network

    Knaust, Helmut

    Discrete Wavelets and Image Processing Discrete Wavelets and Image Processing Helmut Knaust@utep.edu October 16, 2009 #12;Discrete Wavelets and Image Processing Math 5311: Applied Mathematics Course and Image Processing Math 5311: Applied Mathematics Prerequisites Prerequisites: A thorough understanding

  3. Problem Tools The censored process Results Censored stable processes

    E-print Network

    Problem Tools The censored process Results Censored stable processes Andreas E. Kyprianou1 Juan-Carlos Pardo2 Alex Watson1 1 Unversity of Bath, UK. 2 CIMAT, Mexico. #12;Problem Tools The censored process(Xt 0) will frequently appear as will ^ = 1 - . #12;Problem Tools The censored process Results Stable

  4. The process chemometrics approach to process monitoring and fault detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry M. Wise; Neal B. Gallagher

    1996-01-01

    Chemometrics, the application of mathematical and statistical methods to the analysis of chemical data, is finding ever widening applications in the chemical process environment. This article reviews the chemometrics approach to chemical process monitoring and fault detection. These approaches rely on the formation of a mathematical\\/statistical model that is based on historical process data. New process data can then be

  5. Motor processes 1 Motor Processes in Mental Rotation1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Motor processes 1 Motor Processes in Mental Rotation1 1 M.W. wishes to thank the LPPA for its on motor processes. First, motor rotation that is compatible with mental rotation results in faster times slow down or speed up the mental rotation. Cognition 68, 77-94 (1998) #12;Motor processes 2 Mental

  6. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009)

    E-print Network

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009) Copyright © 2009 John.1790 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  7. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009)

    E-print Network

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009) Copyright © 2009 John.1764 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  8. Mars Aqueous Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berggren, Mark; Wilson, Cherie; Carrera, Stacy; Rose, Heather; Muscatello, Anthony; Kilgore, James; Zubrin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is to establish a flexible process that generates multiple products that are useful for human habitation. Selectively extracting useful components into an aqueous solution, and then sequentially recovering individual constituents, can obtain a suite of refined or semi-refined products. Similarities in the bulk composition (although not necessarily of the mineralogy) of Martian and Lunar soils potentially make MAPS widely applicable. Similar process steps can be conducted on both Mars and Lunar soils while tailoring the reaction extents and recoveries to the specifics of each location. The MAPS closed-loop process selectively extracts, and then recovers, constituents from soils using acids and bases. The emphasis on Mars involves the production of useful materials such as iron, silica, alumina, magnesia, and concrete with recovery of oxygen as a byproduct. On the Moon, similar chemistry is applied with emphasis on oxygen production. This innovation has been demonstrated to produce high-grade materials, such as metallic iron, aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, and calcium oxide, from lunar and Martian soil simulants. Most of the target products exhibited purities of 80 to 90 percent or more, allowing direct use for many potential applications. Up to one-fourth of the feed soil mass was converted to metal, metal oxide, and oxygen products. The soil residue contained elevated silica content, allowing for potential additional refining and extraction for recovery of materials needed for photovoltaic, semiconductor, and glass applications. A high-grade iron oxide concentrate derived from lunar soil simulant was used to produce a metallic iron component using a novel, combined hydrogen reduction/metal sintering technique. The part was subsequently machined and found to be structurally sound. The behavior of the lunar-simulant-derived iron product was very similar to that produced using the same methods on a Michigan iron ore concentrate, which demonstrates that lunar-derived material can be used in a manner similar to conventional terrestrial iron. Metallic iron was also produced from the Mars soil simulant. The aluminum and magnesium oxide products produced by MAPS from lunar and Mars soil simulants exhibited excellent thermal stability, and were shown to be capable of use for refractory oxide structural materials, or insulation at temperatures far in excess of what could be achieved using unrefined soils. These materials exhibited the refractory characteristics needed to support iron casting and forming operations, as well as other thermal processing needs. Extraction residue samples contained up to 79 percent silica. Such samples were successfully fused into a glass that exhibited high light transmittance.

  9. Solar Flares: Magnetohydrodynamic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Kazunari; Magara, Tetsuya

    2011-12-01

    This paper outlines the current understanding of solar flares, mainly focused on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes responsible for producing a flare. Observations show that flares are one of the most explosive phenomena in the atmosphere of the Sun, releasing a huge amount of energy up to about 10^32 erg on the timescale of hours. Flares involve the heating of plasma, mass ejection, and particle acceleration that generates high-energy particles. The key physical processes for producing a flare are: the emergence of magnetic field from the solar interior to the solar atmosphere (flux emergence), local enhancement of electric current in the corona (formation of a current sheet), and rapid dissipation of electric current (magnetic reconnection) that causes shock heating, mass ejection, and particle acceleration. The evolution toward the onset of a flare is rather quasi-static when free energy is accumulated in the form of coronal electric current (field-aligned current, more precisely), while the dissipation of coronal current proceeds rapidly, producing various dynamic events that affect lower atmospheres such as the chromosphere and photosphere. Flares manifest such rapid dissipation of coronal current, and their theoretical modeling has been developed in accordance with observations, in which numerical simulations proved to be a strong tool reproducing the time-dependent, nonlinear evolution of a flare. We review the models proposed to explain the physical mechanism of flares, giving an comprehensive explanation of the key processes mentioned above. We start with basic properties of flares, then go into the details of energy build-up, release and transport in flares where magnetic reconnection works as the central engine to produce a flare.

  10. Revisiting timing in process algebra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Middelburg

    2002-01-01

    We shortly review the framework of process algebras with timing presented by Baeten and Middelburg [Handbook of Process Algebra, Elsevier, 2001, Chapter 10]. In order to cover processes that are capable of performing certain actions at all points in some time interval, we add integration to the process algebra with continuous relative timing from this framework. This extension happens to

  11. Revisiting timing in process algebra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Middelburg

    2003-01-01

    We shortly review the framework of process algebras with timing presented by Baeten and Middelburg [Handbook of Process Algebra, Elsevier, 2001, Chapter 10]. In order to cover processes that are capable of performing certain actions at all points in some time interval, we add integration to the process algebra with continuous relative timing from this framework. This extension happens to

  12. SIMULATION MODELLING OF BUSINESS PROCESSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray J. Paul; Vlatka Hlupic; George M. Giaglis

    Increasingly, organisations need to adapt to new conditions and competitive pressures. Various change management approaches such as business process re- engineering have been developed to meet this perceived need. This paper investigates the potential of simulation modelling for modelling business processes. After a discussion on business processes related issues, an overview of business process modelling methods is presented. The usability

  13. Measuring process capability index C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Abdolshah; Rosnah Mohd. Yusuff; Tang Sai Hong; Aghdas Naimi Sadigh

    2011-01-01

    The index Cpmk is a well-known loss-based process capability index. It can reveal more information about the location of the process mean compared with other classic process capability indices. This index is also more sensitive than other capability indices to any deviations from process mean. When there are some uncertainties in observations, fuzzy logic can be employed to manage these

  14. Controller design for serial processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audun Faanes; Sigurd Skogestad

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we aim at obtaining insight into how a multivariable feedback controller works, with special attention to serial processes. Serial processes are important in the process industry, and the structure of this process makes it simple to classify the different elements of the multivariable controller.In particular, we focus on the difference between the feedforward and feedback parts of

  15. Selecting and Purchasing Food Processing

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    FAPC-102 Selecting and Purchasing Food Processing Equipment Tim Bowser Food Process Engineer electing and purchasing food processing equip- ment can be time consuming and difficult. This fact sheet in Figure 1. The first step in selecting and purchasing food-process- ing equipment is a clear

  16. Computer architecture and parallel processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hwang; A. Faye

    1984-01-01

    The book is intended as a text to support two semesters of courses in computer architecture at the college senior and graduate levels. There are excellent problems for students at the end of each chapter. The authors have divided the use of computers into the following four levels of sophistication: data processing, information processing, knowledge processing, and intelligence processing.

  17. Processing of Honey: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Subramanian; H. Umesh Hebbar; N. K. Rastogi

    2007-01-01

    Thermal processing of honey eliminates the microorganisms responsible for spoilage. Microwave heating, infrared heating, ultrasound processing, and membrane processing have been explored as alternatives to conventional heat processing. Microwave heating provides a rapid method for achieving the desired level of yeast reduction with reduced thermal damage. Infrared heating is not as rapid as microwave heating but desired results are achieved

  18. Processing Poultry at Home.

    E-print Network

    Denton, James H.; Mellor, David B.

    1983-01-01

    the bones. To remove the oil gland, place the carcass, breast side down, on the table and cut toward the rear of the carcass from in front of the oii gland. The oil gland can easily be seen at the base of the tail. Remove the entire gland. Be sure... poultry for their own consumption. Producers also may process and sell to consumers without inspection up to 1 ,000 chickens or ducks or 250 turkeys from their production within Texas, if they obtain an exemption. For exemp tions and current...

  19. Power-processing unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessel, Frank J. (Inventor); Hancock, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Power-processing unit uses AC buses (30, 32) to supply all current dependent needs such as connections (54, 56) to an ion thruster through an inductor (88) and the primary of a transformer (90), to assure limited currents to such loads. Where temperature control is also required, such as to the main discharge vaporizer heater connection (36, 38), switches (100, 102) are serially connected with inductor (96) and the primary of transformer (98). Temperature sensor (104) controls the switches (100, 102) for temperature regulation.

  20. Hydrotreating catalyst and process

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, L.E.; Parrott, S.L.

    1987-11-17

    A process for hydrotreating a substantially liquid hydrocarbon-containing feed stream, which also contains compounds of nickel, vanadium and sulfur, is described, comprising the steps of contacting the hydrocarbon-containing feed stream with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst composition comprising: (a) alumina, (b) zinc titanate, (c) at least one compound of molybdenum, (d) at least one compound containing phosphorus and oxygen, under such hydrotreating conditions as to obtain a hydrocarbon-containing product stream having reduced levels of nickel vanadium and sulfur.

  1. Visible Earth: Coastal Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kevin Ward

    This web page is part of Visible Earth, the National Atmospheric and Space Agency (NASA) web site, a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. Subtopics of Oceans: Coastal Processes are: Barrier Islands, Coral Reefs, Deltas, Estuaries, Fjords, Lagoons, Sea Level Rise, Sea Surface Height, Sediment Transport, Sedimentation, and Shoreline Displacement. At the time of cataloging, most items were images. For the Advanced search, users may search by Sensor (usually a satellite), Location, Other terms, or by Dates; they may also set retrieval for animations only. This database solicits additional material from users.

  2. The Water Filtration Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This demonstration is designed to demonstrate the procedures that municipal water plants use to purify water for drinking. Students will discover that water treatment plants typically clean water by taking it through the processes of aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. They also learn that water in lakes, rivers, and swamps often contains impurities that make it look and smell bad. The water may also contain bacteria and other microbiological organisms that can cause disease. Consequently, water from surface sources must be cleaned before it can be consumed by people.

  3. Chemical processing monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    PUREX operations concentrated on activities required to successfully conduct enhanced readiness testing and systems necessary for hot operations. A large number of startup upgrades were completed. PUREX head end decladding and dissolution tests were completed in B and C cells using unirradiated fuel. Major PFM milestones completed this report period were (1) Interim Fuel Dissolution Report issued; (2) Dissolver Solution Clarification Test completed; (3) General user requirements for Process Control System developed; (4) Conceptual Design for Fuel Transport System completed; and (5) Iodine Removal Engineering Report issued. Construction on Project B-246, Vault Support Facility, was completed on schedule. Roof upgrades at T-Plant and Plutonium Finishing Plant were completed on schedule.

  4. FHR Process Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactors (FHRs) are entering into early phase engineering development. Initial candidate technologies have been identified to measure all of the required process variables. The purpose of this paper is to describe the proposed measurement techniques in sufficient detail to enable assessment of the proposed instrumentation suite and to support development of the component technologies. This paper builds upon the instrumentation chapter of the recently published FHR technology development roadmap. Locating instruments outside of the intense core radiation and high-temperature fluoride salt environment significantly decreases their environmental tolerance requirements. Under operating conditions, FHR primary coolant salt is a transparent, low-vapor-pressure liquid. Consequently, FHRs can employ standoff optical measurements from above the salt pool to assess in-vessel conditions. For example, the core outlet temperature can be measured by observing the fuel s blackbody emission. Similarly, the intensity of the core s Cerenkov glow indicates the fission power level. Short-lived activation of the primary coolant provides another means for standoff measurements of process variables. The primary coolant flow and neutron flux can be measured using gamma spectroscopy along the primary coolant piping. FHR operation entails a number of process measurements. Reactor thermal power and core reactivity are the most significant variables for process control. Thermal power can be determined by measuring the primary coolant mass flow rate and temperature rise across the core. The leading candidate technologies for primary coolant temperature measurement are Au-Pt thermocouples and Johnson noise thermometry. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow measurement, that includes high-temperature tolerant standoffs, is a potential coolant flow measurement technique. Also, the salt redox condition will be monitored as an indicator of its corrosiveness. Both electrochemical techniques and optical spectroscopy are candidate fluoride salt redox measurement methods. Coolant level measurement can be performed using radar-level gauges located in standpipes above the reactor vessel. While substantial technical development remains for most of the instruments, industrially compatible instruments based upon proven technology can be reasonably extrapolated from the current state of the art.

  5. Natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Joshi, A K

    1991-09-13

    Natural language processing (NLP) is the study of mathematical and computational modeling of various aspects of language and the development of a wide range of systems. These include spoken language systems that integrate speech and natural language; cooperative interfaces to databases and knowledge bases that model aspects of human-human interaction; multilingual interfaces; machine translation; and message-understanding systems, among others. Research in NLP is highly interdisciplinary, involving concepts in computer science, linguistics, logic, and psychology. NLP has a special role in computer science because many aspects of the field deal with linguistic features of computation and NLP seeks to model language computationally. PMID:17831443

  6. Laminar Soot Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Image of soot (smoke) plume made for the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment during the Microgravity Sciences Lab-1 mission in 1997. LSP-2 will fly in the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002. The principal investigator is Dr. Gerard Faeth of the University of Michigan. LSP uses a small jet burner, similar to a classroom butane lighter, that produces flames up to 60 mm (2.3 in) long. Measurements include color TV cameras and a temperature sensor, and laser images whose darkness indicates the quantity of soot produced in the flame. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

  7. Laminar Soot Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment under way during the Microgravity Sciences Lab-1 mission in 1997. LSP-2 will fly in the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2001. The principal investigator is Dr. Gerard Faeth of the University of Michigan. LSP uses a small jet burner, similar to a classroom butane lighter, that produces flames up to 60 mm (2.3 in) long. Measurements include color TV cameras and a temperature sensor, and laser images whose darkness indicates the quantity of soot produced in the flame. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

  8. Laminar Soot Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Interior of the Equipment Module for the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP-2) experiment that fly in the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 (LSP-1 flew on Microgravity Sciences Lab-1 mission in 1997). The principal investigator is Dr. Gerard Faeth of the University of Michigan. LSP uses a small jet burner (yellow ellipse), similar to a classroom butane lighter, that produces flames up to 60 mm (2.3 in) long. Measurements include color TV cameras and a radiometer or heat sensor (blue circle), and laser images whose darkness indicates the quantity of soot produced in the flame. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

  9. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  10. Modeling for process control

    SciTech Connect

    Morari, M.

    1991-01-01

    Significant developments have taken place in the control field during the last decade but their impact on industrial control practice has fallen far short of their full potential. One key difficulty that stands in the way of these new techniques is the need for process models. Work to be carried out under this grant aims at the development of a broad range of novel modeling and identification techniques which specifically address both information requirements of the new control analysis and design tools as well as the needs of the practicing control engineer.

  11. Realizability of Point Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kuna; J. L. Lebowitz; E. R. Speer

    2007-01-01

    There are various situations in which it is natural to ask whether a given collection of k functions, ?\\u000a \\u000a j\\u000a (r\\u000a 1,…,r\\u000a \\u000a j\\u000a ), j=1,…,k, defined on a set X, are the first k correlation functions of a point process on X. Here we describe some necessary and sufficient conditions on the ?\\u000a \\u000a j\\u000a ’s for this to be true.

  12. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  13. High processivity polymerases

    SciTech Connect

    Shamoo, Yousif; Sun, Siyang

    2014-06-10

    Chimeric proteins comprising a sequence nonspecific single-stranded nucleic-acid-binding domain joined to a catalytic nucleic-acid-modifying domain are provided. Methods comprising contacting a nucleic acid molecule with a chimeric protein, as well as systems comprising a nucleic acid molecule, a chimeric protein, and an aqueous solution are also provided. The joining of sequence nonspecific single-stranded nucleic-acid-binding domain and a catalytic nucleic-acid-modifying domain in chimeric proteins, among other things, may prevent the separation of the two domains due to their weak association and thereby enhances processivity while maintaining fidelity.

  14. Tablet Process Simulator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET is a Tablet Process Simulator in which visitors set up and run a tablet press in a virtual 3D environment. The tool requires the program to be downloaded and installed, and gives helpful installation instructions. Users will start by downloading a zip file to their computer.

  15. Parastillation Process in Operations

    E-print Network

    Canfield, F.; Jenkins, O.

    than distillation for a given tray spaci.n;J. Patents have been granted in the U.S.A., U.K., Europe and other countries. Perfonnance of the process has been confimm aver the past several years by eat1puter siITU.llation, by laboratory tests... use in cases where applicable. References (1) Canfield, F.B., Chemical Engineering Progress, p. 58, v. 60, February 1984. (2) Jenkins, A.E.O., U.S. Patent 4,496,430, U.K. Patent 2,093,712 and numerous foreign patents. (3) Jenkins, A.E.O., U...

  16. Simpler radioactive wastewater processing.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, José Canga; Luh, Volker

    2011-11-01

    José Canga Rodríguez, key account manager, Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences, EnviroChemie, and Volker Luh, CEO of EnviroDTS, describe the development, and recent successful application, of a new technology for dealing safely and effectively with the radioactive "wastewater" generated by patients who have undergone radiotherapy in nuclear medicine facilities. The BioChroma process provides what is reportedly not only a more flexible means than traditional "delay and decay" systems of dealing with this "by-product" of medical treatment, but also one that requires less plant space, affords less risk of leakage or cross-contamination, and is easier to install. PMID:22368885

  17. Flow process in combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Fluid mechanical effects on combustion processes in steady flow combustors, especially gas turbine combustors were investigated. Flow features of most interest were vorticity, especially swirl, and turbulence. Theoretical analyses, numerical calculations, and experiments were performed. The theoretical and numerical work focused on noncombusting flows, while the experimental work consisted of both reacting and nonreacting flow studies. An experimental data set, e.g., velocity, temperature and composition, was developed for a swirl flow combustor for use by combustion modelers for development and validation work.

  18. Digital processing clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Tthe digital processing clock SG 1157/U is described. It is compatible with the PTTI world where it can be driven by an external cesium source. Built-in test equipment shows synchronization with cesium through 1 pulse per second. It is built to be expandable to accommodate future time-keeping needs of the Navy as well as any other time ordered functions. Examples of this expandibility are the inclusion of an unmodulated XR3 time code and the 2137 modulate time code (XR3 with 1 kHz carrier).

  19. Oilseed extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D. A.

    1985-05-07

    A process is provided for the recovery of a separate lecithin/phosphatide-rich product during the extraction of soybeans with an isopropanol-based solvent. The invention comprises steps for contacting soybeans with solvent to obtain an extracted seed meal and a solvent extract of seedoils and lecithin and related phosphatides, cooling miscella to a temperature in the range from about 30/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ F., phase separating the cooled miscella, recovering from the phase separation an upper solvent-rich phase, an intermediate lecithin/phosphatide-rich phase and a lower crude oil phase, and directly recycling the solvent-rich phase to the extractor.

  20. Process of ether synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Reichl, E.H.

    1985-08-13

    A method for producing fuel comprised of gasoline rich in methanol and methyl ethers derived from coal, which process comprises gasifying the coal to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen, steam shifting the gasification product to produce additional hydrogen, cleaning up the shifted product, catalytically converting the cleaned shifted gas to a mixture of alcohols, separating a methanol fraction from the mixture of alcohols, dehydrating the remaining alcohols to olefins, etherifying the olefin mixture with a portion of the removed methanol fraction, and blending into gasoline the resulting ether mixture and a second portion of the removed methanol fraction.

  1. Chemical processing of lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

  2. Process Correlation Analysis Model for Process Improvement Identification

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sooyong

    2014-01-01

    Software process improvement aims at improving the development process of software systems. It is initiated by process assessment identifying strengths and weaknesses and based on the findings, improvement plans are developed. In general, a process reference model (e.g., CMMI) is used throughout the process of software process improvement as the base. CMMI defines a set of process areas involved in software development and what to be carried out in process areas in terms of goals and practices. Process areas and their elements (goals and practices) are often correlated due to the iterative nature of software development process. However, in the current practice, correlations of process elements are often overlooked in the development of an improvement plan, which diminishes the efficiency of the plan. This is mainly attributed to significant efforts and the lack of required expertise. In this paper, we present a process correlation analysis model that helps identify correlations of process elements from the results of process assessment. This model is defined based on CMMI and empirical data of improvement practices. We evaluate the model using industrial data. PMID:24977170

  3. Difficult to process? Vacuum it!

    SciTech Connect

    Eckles, A.J. [Atlanta Technology Group, GA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Recent improvements in vacuum processing have broadened the technology`s use in the chemical process industries, running the gamut from vacuum distillation and evaporation, degassing, freeze drying, vapor deposition and etching, to vacuum filtrations. The paper discusses process improvements, attaining liquid distribution, medium-vacuum processing, falling-film evaporators, wiped-film evaporators, short-path evaporators, evaporation and crystallization, filtration, drying, refrigeration, freeze drying, degassing, semiconductor processing, pumps and their selection, and leak testing.

  4. Pollution prevention through process integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi

    1998-01-01

    Process integration is a holistic approach to process design and operation. It emphasizes the unity of the process units\\u000a and objectives. Therefore, it provides a unique framework for integrating environmental issues with other process objectives\\u000a such as profitability, yield enhancement, debottlenecking and energy reduction. This paper presents a review of recent advances\\u000a in the area of pollution prevention through process

  5. Polysaccharides and food processing.

    PubMed

    Pilnik, W; Rombouts, F M

    1985-10-01

    The rôle of polysaccharides during processing and for the quality of foods is discussed. Starch is the most important energy source for man. Most other polysaccharides are not metabolized for energy, but play an important rôle as dietary fibres. Pectins, alginates, carrageenans, and galactomannans are discussed as functional food additives in relation to their structure and their rheological behaviour, stability and interactions. Endogenous polysaccharides of fruits and vegetables and in products derived from them are responsible for such phenomena as texture (changes), press yields, ease of filtration and clarification, cloud stability, and mouth feel. To achieve desirable properties, the action of endogenous enzymes on polysaccharides must be inactivated and/or exogenous enzymes added as processing aids. This is also true for overcoming haze phenomena in clear juices or to break down undesirable microbial polysaccharides. Dough properties for bread baking can be improved by enzymic breakdown of a restrictive pentoglycan network. Network formation may come about by oxidative coupling of phenol rings of ferulic acid bound to hemicelluloses by ester links. Gels may be made by inducing oxidative coupling in natural or synthetic systems. Stagnation in development of new polysaccharide food additives is ascribed to difficulties in obtaining government approval for food use. PMID:3000594

  6. NPOESS VIIRS design process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardanuy, Philip E.; Schueler, Carl F.; Miller, Shawn W.; Kealy, Peter M.; Cota, Stephen A.; Haas, Mike; Welsch, Carol

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) design process that achieved exceptional competitive IPO ratings for system optimization, sensor system design, and systems engineering, integration and test (SEIT). A novel aspect of the competition was provision to the sensor competitors of a specification of geophysical measurement requirements called Environmental Data Records (EDRs), rather than a sensor hardware specification. The contractors were required to derive optimal VIIRS hardware specifications from the EDRs and Raytheon's process is the subject of this paper. VIIRS will become the next-generation United States polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (MPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft. Beginning in 2008, the NPOESS VIIRS instrument will be launched into 1370, 1730, and 2130 local-time ascending-node sun-synchronous polar orbits as the single operational source for dozens of civil and defense environmental and weather products, as well as climate research data. VIIRS will replace three different currently operating sensors: the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Line-scan System (OLS), the NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS Terra and Aqua) MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). A critical VIIRS challenge was design optimization to differing requirements from the three user agencies (DoD, NOAA, and NASA) represented by the NPOESS Integrated Program Office.

  7. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  8. Refuse burning process

    SciTech Connect

    Lientz, laC.

    1983-08-23

    A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200 degrees F., especially 700 degrees F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. A burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with oxygen and selectively combusted. Uncarbonized refuse is collected and withdrawn after exiting the furnace. An apparatus is provided for combustion of the refuse in the nonphosgene generating process and includes the rotary furnace. Special seals are provided for the furnace to prevent excess oxygen from entering thereinto. In particular, the seals are utilized between the rotary ends of the furnace and stationary head associated with each end respectively. Each seal includes an upper and lower flap of fire resistant material secured to an end of the furnace and a companion flap of like material is secured to an associated end of the stationary head such that the intermediate flap sealably slides between the upper and lower flaps during rotation of the furnace thereby substantially sealing between the furnace and the stationary head.

  9. EDITORIAL: Industrial Process Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Robert M.

    2004-07-01

    Industrial process tomography remains a multidisciplinary field with considerable interest for many varied participants. Indeed this adds greatly to its appeal. It is a pleasure and a privilege to once again act as guest editor for a special feature issue of Measurement Science and Technology on industrial process tomography, the last being in December 2002. Those involved in the subject appreciate the efforts of Measurement Science and Technology in producing another issue and I thank the journal on their behalf. It can be seen that there are considerable differences in the composition of material covered in this issue compared with previous publications. The dominance of electrical impedance and electrical capacitance techniques is reduced and there is increased emphasis on general utility of tomographic methods. This is encompassed in the papers of Hoyle and Jia (visualization) and Dierick et al (Octopus). Electrical capacitance tomography has been a core modality for industrial applications. This issue includes new work in two very interesting aspects of image reconstruction: pattern matching (Takei and Saito) and simulated annealing (Ortiz-Aleman et al). It is important to take advantage of knowledge of the process such as the presence of only two components, and then to have robust reconstruction methods provided by pattern matching and by simulated annealing. Although crude reconstruction methods such as approximation by linear back projection were utilized for initial work on electrical impedance tomography, the techniques published here are much more advanced. The paper by Kim et al includes modelling of a two-component system permitting an adaption-related approach; the paper by Tossavainen et al models free surface boundaries to enable the estimation of shapes of objects within the target. There are clear improvements on the previous crude and blurred reconstructions where boundaries were merely inferred rather than estimated as in these new developments. Interest in magnetic induction tomography has evolved recently and I am pleased to note the inclusion of new work in that modality by Casanova et al. Note that this work also makes full use of prior information to improve reconstruction results. A modality that is relatively new to industrial applications is featured by Holstein et al, namely acoustic tomography. The novelty is provided by using measurements of the speed of sound in gas (air) to identify temperature distributions. Two well chosen applications illustrate the technique. Hard-field tomography, that is the modalities of x-ray and gamma-ray tomography, has always been of interest for some industrial applications. Often this has been for the high resolution of reconstructions available with these techniques, but there application has been restricted due to concerns about use of ionizing radiation. Cattle et al include an application to a process where the material to be imaged is a gamma emitter, i.e. only passive sources are used. The novelty here is that both source and attenuation information is used concurrently to obtain reconstructions. I thank the authors for a fascinating collection of papers that reflect current interest in the subject of industrial process tomography.

  10. Dynamics of biomolecular processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behringer, Hans; Eichhorn, Ralf; Wallin, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    The last few years have seen enormous progress in the availability of computational resources, so that the size and complexity of physical systems that can be investigated numerically has increased substantially. The physical mechanisms behind the processes creating life, such as those in a living cell, are of foremost interest in biophysical research. A main challenge here is that complexity not only emerges from interactions of many macro-molecular compounds, but is already evident at the level of a single molecule. An exciting recent development in this context is, therefore, that detailed atomistic level characterization of large-scale dynamics of individual bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and DNA, is starting to become feasible in some cases. This has contributed to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of, e.g. protein folding and aggregation, as well as DNA dynamics. Nevertheless, simulations of the dynamical behaviour of complex multicomponent cellular processes at an all-atom level will remain beyond reach for the foreseeable future, and may not even be desirable. Ultimate understanding of many biological processes will require the development of methods targeting different time and length scales and, importantly, ways to bridge these in multiscale approaches. At the scientific programme Dynamics of biomolecular processes: from atomistic representations to coarse-grained models held between 27 February and 23 March 2012, and hosted by the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, new modelling approaches and results for particular biological systems were presented and discussed. The programme was attended by around 30 scientists from the Nordic countries and elsewhere. It also included a PhD and postdoc 'winter school', where basic theoretical concepts and techniques of biomolecular modelling and simulations were presented. One to two decades ago, the biomolecular modelling field was dominated by two widely different and largely independent approaches. On the one hand, computationally convenient and highly simplified lattice models were being used to elucidate the fundamental aspects of biomolecular conformational transitions, such as protein folding. On the other hand, these generic coarse-grained approaches were complemented by atomistic representations of the biomolecules. Physico-chemical all-atom models, often with an explicit representation of the surrounding solvent, were applied to specific protein structures to investigate their detailed dynamical behaviour. Today the situation is strikingly different, as was evident during the programme, where several new efforts were presented that try to combine the atomistic and the generic modelling approaches. The aim is to develop coarse-grained models at an intermediate-level resolution that are detailed enough to study specific biomolecular systems, and yet remain computationally efficient. These attempts are accompanied by the emergence of systematic coarse-graining techniques which bridge the physics of different lengths and timescales in a single simulation dynamically by applying appropriate representations of the associated degrees of freedom. Such adaptive resolution schemes represent promising candidates to tackle systems with an intrinsic multiscale nature, such as hierarchical chains and networks of biochemical reactions on a cellular level, calling for a very detailed description on an atomistic particle (or even quantum) level but simultaneously allowing the investigation of large-scale structuring and transport phenomena. The presentations and discussions during the programme also showed that the numerical evidence from (multiscale) simulations needs to be complemented by analytical and theoretical investigations to provide, eventually, a combined and deepened insight into the properties of biomolecular processes. The contributions from this scientific programme published in this issue of Physica Scripta highlight some of these new developments while also addressing related issues, such as the challenge of achieving efficient confo

  11. The process of process reengineering: simulation for business processes and information systems design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray J. Paul; Alan Serrano

    2003-01-01

    Business Process (BP) literature promotes the value of business processes as essential gearwheels that help organizations to reach their goals. Similarly, many process design approaches claim that Information Technology (IT) is a major enabler of business process, a view also shared by the Information Systems (IS) community. Despite this, BP and IS approaches do not provide clear guidance on how

  12. Sensors in Spray Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents what is our actual knowledge about sensors, used in the harsh environment of spray booths, to improve the reproducibility and reliability of coatings sprayed with hot or cold gases. First are described, with their limitations and precisions, the different sensors following the in-flight hot particle parameters (trajectories, temperatures, velocities, sizes, and shapes). A few comments are also made about techniques, still under developments in laboratories, to improve our understanding of coating formation such as plasma jet temperature measurements in non-symmetrical conditions, hot gases heat flux, particles flattening and splats formation, particles evaporation. Then are described the illumination techniques by laser flash of either cold particles (those injected in hot gases, or in cold spray gun) or liquid injected into hot gases (suspensions or solutions). The possibilities they open to determine the flux and velocities of cold particles or visualize liquid penetration in the core of hot gases are discussed. Afterwards are presented sensors to follow, when spraying hot particles, substrate and coating temperature evolution, and the stress development within coatings during the spray process as well as the coating thickness. The different uses of these sensors are then described with successively: (i) Measurements limited to particle trajectories, velocities, temperatures, and sizes in different spray conditions: plasma (including transient conditions due to arc root fluctuations in d.c. plasma jets), HVOF, wire arc, cold spray. Afterwards are discussed how such sensor data can be used to achieve a better understanding of the different spray processes, compare experiments to calculations and improve the reproducibility and reliability of the spray conditions. (ii) Coatings monitoring through in-flight measurements coupled with those devoted to coatings formation. This is achieved by either maintaining at their set point both in-flight and certain spray parameters (spray pattern, coating temperature…), or defining a good working area through factorial design, or using artificial intelligence based on artificial neural network (ANN) to predict particle in-flight characteristics and coating structural attributes from the knowledge of processing parameters.

  13. Advanced Process Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Briselden, Chris Parrish

    2005-03-07

    The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: Improved performance of high temperature materials; Improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; Heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer. This Category I award entitled ''Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future'' met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) Doubling the heat transfer rates (2) Improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) Improving temperature uniformity by 100 degrees F and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH address EERE's mission priority of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. One component of the APH, the SpyroCorTM, was commercialized by STORM Development's partner, Spinworks LLC. Over 2000 SpyrCorsTM were sold in 2004 resulting in 480 million BTU's of energy savings, 20% reduction in NOx and CO2 levels, and 9 jobs in N.W. Pennsylvania. A second component, the HeatCorTM, a low-cost high-temperature heat exchanger will be demonstrated by Spinworks in 2005 in preparation for commercial sales in 2006. The project occurred in the 21st Congressional District of Pennsylvania. Once fully commercialized, the APH energy savings potential is 339 trillion BTUs annually in the U.S. and will process 1.5 million more tons annually without major capital equipment expenditures. Spinworks will commercialize the APH and add over 100 U.S. workers. To accomplish the objective, STORM Development LLC teamed with Penn State University, SyCore, Inc, Spinworks LLC, and Schunk-INEX, Inc. The project consisted of component engineering and integration of the APH followed by parametric testing. All components of the system were tested in a lab furnace that simulates a full scale industrial installation. The target areas for development include: (1) Scale up STORM's Finned Stabilized Combustion, (2) Optimization of SyCore's SiGr Inserts such that the heat transfer on the exhaust leg will match the high luminosity burner leg., (3) Evaluation of the heat transfer characteristics of Schunk-INEX's finned composite tubes as a heat exchanger, and (4) Design of a system to monitor all components of the APH and control its performance such that the objectives are met.

  14. Interstellar Dust: Physical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dust is formed in stellar environments, and destroyed by sputtering, shattering and vaporization in shock waves due to cloud-cloud collisions and supernova blast waves. Dust is also destroyed during star formation. We review the dust formation and destruction balance. The calculated destruction time-scale is less than or equal to one billion years and the star dust injection time-scale is approx. 2.5 billion years. Hence, the fractions of elemental carbon and silicon locked up in stardust are less than 0.3 and less than 0.15, respectively. An efficient ISM dust formation route is therefore implied. In particular, in dense clouds dust grows; through the processes of coagulation and the accretion of gas phase molecules e.g. H20, CO, CH4. These icy materials may then be photoprocessed to refractory materials in more diffuse regions. The resulting carbonaceous grain mantle may actually be the glue that holds the coagulated grains together.

  15. Processing polymeric powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throne, James L.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of uniformly and continuously depositing and sinter-fusing nominal 0.1 to 40 microns dimensioned electrostatically charged polymer powder particles onto essentially uniformly spread 5 to 20 micron grounded continuous fiber tow to produce a respoolable thermoplastic composite two-preg was formulated at NASA Langley. The process was reduced to practice under a NASA grant at the University of Akron this spring. The production of tow-preg is called phase 1. The production of ultrafine polymer powders from 5 to 10 percent (wt) polymer solids in solvent is considered. This is phase 0 and is discussed. The production of unitape from multi tow-pregs was also considered. This is phase 2 and is also discussed. And another approach to phase 1, also proposed last summer, was scoped. This is phase 1A and is also discussed.

  16. Gas scrubbing process

    SciTech Connect

    Hakka, L.E.; Sarlis, J.N.

    1991-05-21

    This patent describes a process for the removal of sulfur dioxide from a sulfur dioxide-containing gas stream. It comprises contacting the gas stream in a substantially horizontal contact zone with finely-divided droplets of absorbing medium which comprises water in an amount of at least about 1 mole for each mole of sulfur to be absorbed up to about 80 weight percent of the absorbing medium and amine sorbent having at least one amine group which is, when in free form, a group having a pKa in an aqueous medium at 25{degrees} C. of about 4.5 to 6.7, at a temperature up to about 60{degrees} C.

  17. BAOlab: Image processing program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Søren S.

    2014-03-01

    BAOlab is an image processing package written in C that should run on nearly any UNIX system with just the standard C libraries. It reads and writes images in standard FITS format; 16- and 32-bit integer as well as 32-bit floating-point formats are supported. Multi-extension FITS files are currently not supported. Among its tools are ishape for size measurements of compact sources, mksynth for generating synthetic images consisting of a background signal including Poisson noise and a number of pointlike sources, imconvol for convolving two images (a “source” and a “kernel”) with each other using fast fourier transforms (FFTs) and storing the output as a new image, and kfit2d for fitting a two-dimensional King model to an image.

  18. Fractal Poisson processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) and Extreme Value Theory (EVT) study, respectively, the stochastic limit-laws of sums and maxima of sequences of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables via an affine scaling scheme. In this research we study the stochastic limit-laws of populations of i.i.d. random variables via nonlinear scaling schemes. The stochastic population-limits obtained are fractal Poisson processes which are statistically self-similar with respect to the scaling scheme applied, and which are characterized by two elemental structures: (i) a universal power-law structure common to all limits, and independent of the scaling scheme applied; (ii) a specific structure contingent on the scaling scheme applied. The sum-projection and the maximum-projection of the population-limits obtained are generalizations of the classic CLT and EVT results - extending them from affine to general nonlinear scaling schemes.

  19. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  20. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D. (Denver, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  1. The process of leukemogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Irons, R D; Stillman, W S

    1996-01-01

    Leukemias are monoclonal diseases that arise from cells in the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment. Consistent with emerging models of carcinogenesis, leukemogenesis is an evolutionary process that involves multiple independent genetic and epigenetic events. Over the last half-century a predominant paradigm has emerged to describe leukemia developing secondary to alkylating drug therapy or exposure to benzene in which progressive dysplastic changes, accompanied by a distinct pattern of clonal cytogenetic abnormalities, give rise to acute myelogenous leukemia. Characterization of these clonal chromosomal aberrations, together with observed alterations in other growth-promoting genes, provides a useful framework for studying chemical leukemogenesis and for use in understanding the origins and development of leukemia in general. PMID:9118899

  2. Continuous process electrorefiner

    DOEpatents

    Herceg, Joseph E. (Naperville, IL); Saiveau, James G. (Hickory Hills, IL); Krajtl, Lubomir (Woodridge, IL)

    2006-08-29

    A new device is provided for the electrorefining of uranium in spent metallic nuclear fuels by the separation of unreacted zirconium, noble metal fission products, transuranic elements, and uranium from spent fuel rods. The process comprises an electrorefiner cell. The cell includes a drum-shaped cathode horizontally immersed about half-way into an electrolyte salt bath. A conveyor belt comprising segmented perforated metal plates transports spent fuel into the salt bath. The anode comprises the conveyor belt, the containment vessel, and the spent fuel. Uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium (Pu) are oxidized at the anode, and, subsequently, the uranium is reduced to uranium metal at the cathode. A mechanical cutter above the surface of the salt bath removes the deposited uranium metal from the cathode.

  3. Containerless glass fiber processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, E. C.; Naumann, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    An acoustic levitation furnace system is described that was developed for testing the feasibility of containerless fiber pulling experiments. It is possible to levitate very dense materials such as platinum at room temperature. Levitation at elevated temperatures is much more difficult. Samples of dense heavy metal fluoride glass were levitated at 300 C. It is therefore possible that containerless fiber pulling experiments could be performed. Fiber pulling from the melt at 650 C is not possible at unit gravity but could be possible at reduced gravities. The Acoustic Levitation Furnace is described, including engineering parameters and processing information. It is illustrated that a shaped reflector greatly increases the levitation force aiding the levitation of more dense materials.

  4. Pathways of Antigen Processing

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Janice S.; Wearsch, Pamela A.; Cresswell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    T cell recognition of antigen presenting cells depends on their expression of a spectrum of peptides bound to Major Histocompatibility Complex class I (MHC-I) and class II (MHC-II) molecules. Conversion of antigens from pathogens or transformed cells into MHC-I and MHC-II-bound peptides is critical for mounting protective T cell responses, and similar processing of self proteins is necessary to establish and maintain tolerance. Cells use a variety of mechanisms to acquire protein antigens, from translation in the cytosol to variations on the theme of endocytosis, and to degrade them once acquired. In this review we highlight the aspects of MHC-I and MHC-II biosynthesis and assembly that have evolved to intersect these pathways and sample the peptides that are produced. PMID:23298205

  5. Nonadiabatic Processes Near Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Burgdorfer, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Rohringer, N. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Austria; Krstic, Predrag S [ORNL; Reinhold, Carlos O [ORNL

    2004-07-01

    Non-adiabatic processes in the near-adiabatic limit are controlled by the local dynamics near barriers. The barrier can be a feature of a local potential in coordinate space but can also be an effective dynamical barrier along a generalized "reaction" coordinate. Saddle point potentials represent a special and important case in point. Dynamical barriers give rise to hidden and avoided crossings in adiabatic potential curves. The local dynamics of non-adiabatic transitions is therefore often analyzed in terms of hidden crossings (HC) and avoided crossings (AC) models. We will revisit the theory of local barrier dynamics and present two recent diverse applications in atomic and condensed matter physics: the low-velocity limit of inelastic transitions and the levitation problem in Integer Quantum Hall systems.

  6. Catalyst deoiling process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.B.; Plichta, R.T.; Coyne, D.W.

    1987-04-28

    A deoiling process is described comprising the steps of: removing a slurry of spent catalyst and oil from an ebullated bed reactor; transporting the slurry of spent catalyst and oil from the reactor to a vessel; cooling the slurry of spent catalyst and oil in the vessel to a temperature below the flash point of the oil; conveying the cooled slurry at an upward angle of inclination in a screw conveyor in a spiral flow pattern while countercurrently draining oil from the slurry to substantially separate the oil from the spent catalyst; and discharging the spent catalyst from the screw conveyor into a bin after the oil has been substantially separated from the spent catalyst.

  7. Waste treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Jeris, J.S.

    1980-01-08

    A biological process for removing biochemical oxygen demand from waste water by forming a fluidized bed of microorganisms attached to a solid particulate carrier, continuously passing waste water to be treated through said fluidized bed, retaining the waste water in the fluidized bed for a sufficient period of time while controlling other necessary parameters to biologically convert substantially all of the biochemical oxygen demand to be removed from the waste water to methane gas, carbon dioxide and cellular material, and thence withdrawing the biologically converted products. In one form of the invention nitrified effluent is added to the waste water and the mixture is biologically converted to methane gas, carbon dioxide, nitrogen gas and cellular material.

  8. Spectroscopy and nonthermal processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    Stellar spectra are analyzed to determine nonthermal processes for cool stars. A shock wave crossing model is supported by a study of the behavior of absorption and emission spectra. The shock waves are attributed to atmospheric kinetics. Circumstellar spectral lines are studied for information about gaseous circumstellar layers. The description of stellar envelopes is carried on through circumstellar dust. Characteristic properties of polarization in the dust are described in the case of specific stars, emphasizing narrowband observations in Mira, semiregular, and supergiant stars. Finally, the direct approach to measuring the angular diameters of stars and mapping the distribution of circumstellar dust and gas by lunar occultation or interferometry is discussed, using two prototype stars, an M supergiant and a dusty carbon star.

  9. MSHA approval process

    SciTech Connect

    Chirdon, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    The hazardous nature of the underground mining environment necessitates the use of equipment and mining products designed to ensure safe usage in this hostile environment. Title 30, code of federal regulations (30 CFR) includes requirements that all equipment and products intended for use in potentially gassy areas of underground mines be approved by the mine safety and health administration (MSHA). Design and performance requirements for many of the products intended for use in the underground environment are also part of 30 CFR. This paper describes the processes available to potential applicants for obtaining MSHA approval. Emphasis is placed on ventilation-related products. A program available to operators for modifying approved equipment is described. A proposed regulation that would broaden the scope of design standards accepted by MSHA is discussed.

  10. Senior Process Technician Video

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Northeast Biomanufacturing Center and Collaborative (NBC2) has created a series of videos in which technicians describe their job and the preparation they received for it. These videos are great tools for other manufacturing programs to educate current students on options available to them after they graduate and the skills or courses they found most applicable to their real world experience. In this particular video, Senior Process Technician Jen Plouffe discusses her job, the skills she uses, and advice to manufacturing students looking to enter the same of similar professions. The video is 13:43 long, is in Windows Media Video (wmv) format, and can be played with Quicktime or Windows Media Player.

  11. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  12. Physical processes in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.; Huebner, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses physical processes in comets which involve solar and nuclear radial forces that affect the motions of gases and icy grains, gas-phase chemistry very close to the nuclei of large comets near the sun, sublimation of icy grains, dissociation of parent molecules into radicals and of radicals into atoms, and ionization by sunlight and collisions. The composition and dimensions of nuclei are examined along with variations in intrinsic brightness, the nature of volatiles, gas production rates in the coma, characteristics of icy grains in the coma, and the structure of streamers, ion tails, and dust tails. The structure of the coma is described in detail on the basis of spectroscopic observations of several comets. The origin of comets is briefly reviewed together with the relation of comets to earth, the interplanetary complex, and the interstellar medium. Desirable future observations are noted, especially by space missions to comets.

  13. Process for functionalizing alkanes

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana-Pillai, R.A.

    1984-06-12

    Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons with a metal complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/H/sub 2/ in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form a hydridoalkyl complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/RH; (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform CHX/sub 3/ at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) CpRhPMe/sub 3/RX; and (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex with halogen -60 to 25/sup 0/C to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

  14. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving Pu metal is disclosed in which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Pu metal is exposed to a first mixture of 1.0-1.67 M sulfamic acid and 0.0025-0.1 M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to 45-70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the Pu metal but leave a portion of the Pu in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alternatively, nitric acid between 0.05 and 0.067 M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution is diluted with nitrogen.

  15. Fluorination process using catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Hochel, R.C.; Saturday, K.A.

    1983-08-25

    A process is given for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/, AgF/sub 2/ and NiF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/ and AgF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  16. Fluorination process using catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Hochel, Robert C. (Aiken, SC); Saturday, Kathy A. (Aiken, SC)

    1985-01-01

    A process for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3, AgF.sub.2 and NiF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3 and AgF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  17. Time Processing in Dyscalculia

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Freeman, Elliot D.; Butterworth, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    To test whether atypical number development may affect other types of quantity processing, we investigated temporal discrimination in adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). This also allowed us to test whether number and time may be sub-served by a common quantity system or decision mechanisms: if they do, both should be impaired in dyscalculia, but if number and time are distinct they should dissociate. Participants judged which of two successively presented horizontal lines was longer in duration, the first line being preceded by either a small or a large number prime (“1” or “9”) or by a neutral symbol (“#”), or in a third task participants decided which of two Arabic numbers (either “1,” “5,” “9”) lasted longer. Results showed that (i) DD’s temporal discriminability was normal as long as numbers were not part of the experimental design, even as task-irrelevant stimuli; however (ii) task-irrelevant numbers dramatically disrupted DD’s temporal discriminability the more their salience increased, though the actual magnitude of the numbers had no effect; in contrast (iii) controls’ time perception was robust to the presence of numbers but modulated by numerical quantity: therefore small number primes or numerical stimuli seemed to make durations appear shorter than veridical, but longer for larger numerical prime or numerical stimuli. This study is the first to show spared temporal discrimination – a dimension of continuous quantity – in a population with a congenital number impairment. Our data reinforce the idea of a partially shared quantity system across numerical and temporal dimensions, which supports both dissociations and interactions among dimensions; however, they suggest that impaired number in DD is unlikely to originate from systems initially dedicated to continuous quantity processing like time. PMID:22194731

  18. Processes for managing pathogens.

    PubMed

    Godfree, Alan; Farrell, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Wastewater contains human, animal, and plant pathogens capable of causing viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections. There are several routes whereby sewage pathogens may affect human health, including direct contact, contamination of food crops, zoonoses, and vectors. The range and numbers of pathogens in municipal wastewater vary with the level of endemic disease in the community, discharges from commercial activities, and seasonal factors. Regulations to control pathogen risk in the United States and Europe arising from land application of biosolids are based on the concept of multiple barriers to the prevention of transmission. The barriers are (i) treatment to reduce pathogen content and vector attraction, (ii) restrictions on crops grown on land to which biosolids have been applied, and (iii) minimum intervals following application and grazing or harvesting. Wastewater treatment reduces number of pathogens in the wastewater by concentrating them with the solids in the sludge. Although some treatment processes are designed specifically to inactivate pathogens, many are not, and the actual mechanisms of microbial inactivation are not fully understood for all processes. Vector attraction is reduced by stabilization (reduction of readily biodegradable material) and/or incorporation immediately following application. Concerns about health risks have renewed interest in the effects of treatment (on pathogens) and advanced treatment methods, and work performed in the United States suggests that Class A pathogen reduction can be achieved less expensively than previously thought. Effective pathogen risk management requires control to the complete chain of sludge treatment, biosolids handling and application, and post-application activities. This may be achieved by adherence to quality management systems based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) principles. PMID:15647539

  19. Gate etch process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogh, Ole; Freeland, Mark; Mori, Ron; Chowdhury, Tito

    2003-05-01

    Studies on photomask Cr and MoSi etch processes were carried out and etch kinetics and modeling were performed. The photomasks were etched using an AMAT Centura II DPS and compared with a Unaxis VLE 770 ICP etcher. Mask metrology to support theoretical suppositions was performed on several tools: a KLA-Tencor P-12 profiler was used for depth measurement, while the KLA-Tencor 8250XP-R SEM was used for CD metrology and process characterization. The Toshiba EBM3500 50KeV writing system on positive chemically amplified resist was used for pattern creation. Cr and MoSi loading - etch rate equations were theoretically proposed and experimentally tested. It was found that the calculated Cr and MoSi etch rates agreed well with the experimental results. The equations can be used for etch time calculations and endpoint determinations of extremely low Cr load photomasks. Cr and MoSi local etch rates versus local loading on one photomask were studied and kinetic equations were proposed, showing good agreement with experimental results. Cr and MoSi etch CD movements versus local load on one photomask were also investigated. It was found that load effects on Cr and MoSi etch CD movements could be controlled in opposite directions and then a compensation consideration was proposed in MoSi optimization instead of using a point-to-point 3? as the optimization parameter. By using this compensation method, the final MoSi CD unformity of 100-110 nm technology node photomasks is in the range of 8.5 to 10.1 nm. This final CD uniformity is similar to those etched using VLR 770 ICP etcher.

  20. Aeolian processes on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    This review assesses the potential aeolian regime on Venus as derived from spacecraft observations, laboratory simulations, and theoretical considerations. The two requirements for aeolian processes (a supply of small, loose particles and winds of sufficient strength to move them) appear to be met on Venus. Venera 9, 10, 13, and 14 images show particles considered to be sand and silt size on the surface. In addition, dust spurts (grains 5 to 50 microns in diameter) observed via lander images and inferred from the Pioneer-Venus nephalometer experiments suggest that the particles are loose and subject to movement. Although data on near surface winds are limited, measurements of 0.3 to 1.2 m/sec from the Venera lander and Pioneer-Venus probes appear to be well within the range required for sand and dust entrainment. Aeolian activity involves the interaction of the atmosphere, lithosphere, and loose particles. Thus, there is the potential for various physical and chemical weathering processes that can effect not only rates of erosion, but changes in the composition of all three components. The Venus Simulator is an apparatus used to simulate weathering under venusian conditions at full pressure (to 112 bars) and temperature (to 800 K). In one series of tests, the physical modifications of windblown particles and rock targets were assessed and it was shown that particles become abraded even when moved by gentle winds. However, little abrasion occurs on the target faces. Thus, compositional signatures for target rocks may be more indicative of the windblown particles than of the bedrock. From these and other considerations, aeolian modifications of the venusian surface may be expected to occur as weathering, erosion, transportation, and deposition of surficial materials. Depending upon global and local wind regimes, there may be distinctive sources and sinks of windblown materials. Radar imaging, especially as potentially supplied via the Magellan mission, may enable the identification of such areas on Venus.

  1. Great Plains Gasification Project process stream design data. [Lurgi Process

    SciTech Connect

    Honea, F.I.

    1985-09-01

    The Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant (GPGP) is the first commercial coal-to-synthetic natural gas plant constructed and operated in the United States. This process stream design data report provides non-proprietary information to the public on the major GPGP process streams. The report includes a simplified plant process block flow diagram, process input/output diagrams, and stream design data sheets for 161 major GPGP process and effluent streams. This stream design data provides an important base for evaluation of plant and process performance and for verification of the Department of Energy's ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) computer simulation models of the GPGP processes. 8 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010)

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010) Copyright © 2010 John at the global scale, whether by agriculture or by more direct earth-moving operations (e.g. Hooke, 2000

  3. Optimal Process Tolerance Balancing Based on Process Capabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Gao; M. Huang

    2003-01-01

    An optimal approach for process tolerance balancing is presented. The new approach is based on process capabilities and is\\u000a to be used in the stage of process planning. A nonlinear programming model is used to simultaneously optimise process tolerances\\u000a of required operations. In the optimisation model, the objective function is to minimise the total manufacturing cost with\\u000a different weighting factors.

  4. Fuzzy Design of Process Tolerances to Maximise Process Capability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeong-Hoang Lee; Chiu-Chi Wei; Ching-Liang Chang

    1999-01-01

    A novel formulation for designing process tolerances to maximise the process capability index is presented in this study.\\u000a The proposed model simultaneously optimises the process capability of each operation, and is consolidated into a single objective\\u000a fuzzy programming. A step fuzzy membership function is employed to represent the lower and upper bounds of the process capability\\u000a index, the problem is

  5. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, U.B.; Gazula, G.K.M.; Hasham, A.

    1996-06-18

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements. 6 figs.

  6. Modular Process Patterns Supporting an Evolutionary Software Development Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Gnatz; Frank Marschall; Gerhard Popp; Andreas Rausch; Wolfgang Schwerin

    2001-01-01

    Change and evolution of business and technology imply change and evolution of development processes. Besides that for a certain enterprise and\\/or project we will usually integrate elements from a variety of existing process models, comprising generic standards as well as specific development methods. In this paper we propose a Process Framework which is modularly structured on the basis of the

  7. Intelligent process supervision for predicting tool wear in machining processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodolfo E Haber; A Alique

    2003-01-01

    An intelligent supervisory system supported on a model-based approach is presented herein. The application for predicting tool wear in machining processes is selected as a case study. A model created using artificial neural networks and able to predict the process output is introduced as a means of dealing with the characteristics of such an ill-defined process as machining. This model

  8. Reflected appraisal process 1 Running head: REFLECTED APPRAISAL PROCESS3

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Reflected appraisal process 1 1 2 Running head: REFLECTED APPRAISAL PROCESS3 4 5 6 Parents' appraisals, reflected appraisals, and children's self-appraisals of sport7 competence: A yearlong study.8 9 Psychology 17 (2005) 273-289" #12;Reflected appraisal process 2 Abstract1 This study investigated

  9. Process and enterprise improvement: effective uses of business process simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Greasley

    2000-01-01

    This paper evaluates a number of tools for the redesign of processes through the use of two case studies based in the UK Police Service. There is a particular emphasis on the use of Business Process Simulation in conjunction with Activity Based Costing and Activity Based Budgeting within the context of a Business Process Reengineering approach. The use of a

  10. Visual Processing Speed: Effects of Auditory Input on Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to process simultaneously presented auditory and visual information is a necessary component underlying many cognitive tasks. While this ability is often taken for granted, there is evidence that under many conditions auditory input attenuates processing of corresponding visual input. The current study investigated infants' processing…

  11. Processing polymers with cyclodextrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Brandon Robert

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic starch molecules that have the unique ability to include a variety of small molecules and polymers inside their cavities, forming "Inclusion Complexes" (ICs). While much work has been done to understand the formation and behavior of these ICs, far less is known about the fundamental property changes that can occur when CD is used to alter polymer chain morphology. The goal of my graduate research has been to discover different ways to improve upon existing polymer properties through CD processing, as well as explore the possibility of creating a novel type of IC using non-traditional forms of cyclodextrin. Poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) was processed with alpha-CD to form an IC. The cyclodextrin was then stripped away to yield a PCL with elongated, unentangled, and constrained polymer chains, a process referred to as coalescence. The physical and rheological property changes resulting from this coalescence were then examined. It was found that reorganizing PCL in this manner resulted in an increase in the melt crystallization temperature of up to 25°C. Coalescence also decreased the tan delta of the material and increased the average hardness and Young's modulus by 33 and 53%, respectively. Non-stoichiometric ICs (NS-ICs), or ICs with at least parts of some polymer chains uncovered, were formed between poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and gamma-CD as well as a synthesized poly(?-caprolactone)-poly(propylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL-PPG-PCL) triblock copolymer and beta-CD. The property changes of the non-complexed polymer chains were then studied. The PMMA/gamma-CD NS-IC samples were determined to be extremely heterogeneous, however glass transition temperature increases of up to 27°C above that of as-received PMMA were observed. Diffraction data for the PMMA NS-ICs suggests slight crystallinity at partial coverage, with a similar crystal structure to that of the fully covered IC. XRD, DSC and FTIR data revealed an almost total disruption of the PCL crystallinity upon complexation of the PCL-PPG-PCL triblock, suggesting possible miscibility of PCL blocks and PPG blocks threaded with beta-CD or partial coverage of the PCL blocks by the beta-CD. A non-crystalline and unreactive modified CD, diethylamine-terminated monochloro-triazinyl-beta-CD (DEAMCT), was synthesized from an industrially available beta-CD derivative. DEAMCT was complexed with poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) as well as a poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(propylene glycol)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PPG-PEG) triblock copolymer (trade name Pluronic). The IC's formed between these polymers and the non-crystalline cyclodextrin derivative were studied with a variety of techniques. Two-dimensional ROESY 1H-NMR demonstrated through-space spin coupling interactions between backbone protons of the PPG and two of the inward-facing cavity protons in the beta-CD cavity, strong evidence for IC formation between these materials. Unexpectedly, these IC's displayed clear X-ray observed crystalline behavior, with long-range order that was comparable for both the DEAMTC- and beta-CD-ICs formed with guest Pluronics. The IC formation with the Pluronic material resulted in the complete disruption of the PEG block crystallinity in a fashion similar to the PCL-PPG-PCL triblock copolymer. Unexpectedly, the aqueous solubility for both the Pluronic and PPG homopolymer decreased upon low-coverage DEAMCT inclusion.

  12. The Process of Shale Extraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This website introduces the preliminary process to prepare a well site for drilling before the fracking operations commence. Videos and illustrations offer detail descriptions of the hydraulic fracturing process and the many components involved.

  13. Productivity enhancement through process integration 

    E-print Network

    Alotaibi, Meteab Aujian

    2006-10-30

    A hierarchical procedure is developed to determine maximum overall yield of a process and optimize process changes to achieve such a yield. First, a targeting procedure is developed to identify an upper bound of the overall ...

  14. Image processing in precision agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragoljub Pokrajac; A. Lazarevic; S. Vucetic; T. Fiez; Z. Obradovic

    1999-01-01

    A brief review of our signal and image processing application in precision agriculture is presented. A method for determining sampling frequency for agriculture data is proposed, and some initial results based on data simulation and image processing are reported

  15. Voyager image processing at the Image Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jepsen, P. L.; Mosher, J. A.; Yagi, G. M.; Avis, C. C.; Lorre, J. J.; Garneau, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses new digital processing techniques as applied to the Voyager Imaging Subsystem and devised to explore atmospheric dynamics, spectral variations, and the morphology of Jupiter, Saturn and their satellites. Radiometric and geometric decalibration processes, the modulation transfer function, and processes to determine and remove photometric properties of the atmosphere and surface of Jupiter and its satellites are examined. It is exhibited that selected images can be processed into 'approach at constant longitude' time lapse movies which are useful in observing atmospheric changes of Jupiter. Photographs are included to illustrate various image processing techniques.

  16. PROCESS YIELD AND CAPABILITY INDICES DANIEL GRAU

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . An application on high-tech paint is also presented. KEYWORDS Asymmetric tolerances, Process capability indices, Process centering, Process yield 1. INTRODUCTION Process capability indices are widely used

  17. Space processing of chalcogenide glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, D. C.; Ali, M. I.

    1977-01-01

    The manner in which the weightless, containerless nature of in-space processing can be successfully utilized to improve the quality of infrared transmitting chalcogenide glasses is determined. The technique of space processing chalcogenide glass was developed, and the process and equipment necessary to do so was defined. Earthbound processing experiments with As2S3 and G28Sb12Se60 glasses were experimented with. Incorporated into these experiments is the use of an acoustic levitation device.

  18. View-Based Process Visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Bobrik; Manfred Reichert; Thomas Bauer

    2007-01-01

    In large organizations different users or user roles have distinguished perspectives over business processes and related data.\\u000a Personalized views of the managed processes are needed. Existing BPM tools, however, do not provide adequate mechanisms for\\u000a building and visualizing such views. Very often processes are displayed to users in the same way as drawn by the process designer.\\u000a To tackle this

  19. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    A barrier crucible design which consistently maintains melt stability over long periods of time was successfully tested and used in long growth runs. The pellet feeder for melt replenishment was operated continuously for growth runs of up to 17 hours. The liquid level sensor comprising a laser/sensor system was operated, performed well, and meets the requirements for maintaining liquid level height during growth and melt replenishment. An automated feedback loop connecting the feed mechanism and the liquid level sensing system was designed and constructed and operated successfully for 3.5 hours demonstrating the feasibility of semi-automated dendritic web growth. The sensitivity of the cost of sheet, to variations in capital equipment cost and recycling dendrites was calculated and it was shown that these factors have relatively little impact on sheet cost. Dendrites from web which had gone all the way through the solar cell fabrication process, when melted and grown into web, produce crystals which show no degradation in cell efficiency. Material quality remains high and cells made from web grown at the start, during, and the end of a run from a replenished melt show comparable efficiencies.

  20. Meiotic process and aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect

    Grell, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    The process of meiosis is analyzed by dissecting it into its component parts using the early oocyte of Drosophila as a model. Entrance of the oocytes into premeiotic interphase signals initiation of DNA replication which continues for 30 h. Coincidentally, extensive synaptonemal complexes appear, averaging 50 ..mu..m (132 h), peaking at 75 ..mu..m (144 h) and continuing into early vitellarial stages. Recombinational response to heat, evidenced by enhancement or induction of exchange, is limited to the S-phase with a peak at 144 h coinciding with maximal extension of the SC. Coincidence of synapsis and recombination response with S at premeiotic interphase is contrary to their conventional localization at meiotic prophase. The interrelationship between exchange and nondisjunction has been clarified by the Distributive Pairing Model of meiosis. Originally revealed through high frequencies of nonrandom assortment of nonhomologous chromosomes, distributive pairing has been shown to follow and to be noncompetitive with exchange, to be based on size-recognition, not homology, and as a raison d'etre, to provide a segregational mechanism for noncrossover homologues. Rearrangements, recombination mutants and aneuploids may contribute noncrossover chromosomes to the distributive pool and so promote the nonhomologous associations responsible for nondisjunction of homologues and regular segregation of nonhomologues. 38 references, 15 figures. (ACR)

  1. Adiabatic light processing devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, John D.; Molloy, Andrew; Ankiewicz, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The majority of optical processing devices that are employed in optical transmission systems are based on optical fibres or planar optical waveguides that rely on basic physical phenomena such as coupling, interference or Bragg grating reflection for their functionality. These devices include, for example, a wide variety of single- and multi-mode couplers and splitters, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, wavelength filters, dispersion compensators, arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs), resonators, etc. In addition to these devices, there is a further range of devices that rely solely on their geometrical design for their functionality and involve none of the above physical phenomena. Simple examples of these devices include velocity couplers, null couplers, Y-junctions and tapers. Each of these devices relies on the approximately adiabatic propagation of each of its modes along the length of the device. A key feature of such propagation is that each mode essentially conserves both its power and field symmetry. Recent work has demonstrated that it is possible to switch modes passively with wavelength using the approximately adiabatic transformation of one mode into a mode with dissimilar field symmetry. This transformation is achieved through appropriate geometrical design of the device. For example, it is possible to transform the symmetric fundamental mode into the first odd mode of a planar waveguide by employing a two-mode asymmetric Y-junction. Using this and other mode transformations, it is possible to design compact planar devices that will combine or separate 2 or 3 channels in a coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) system.

  2. Pipeline Processing for VISTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. R.; Irwin, M.; Bunclark, P.

    2010-12-01

    The VISTA telescope is a 4 metre instrument which has recently been commissioned at Paranal, Chile. Equipped with an infrared camera, 16 2Kx2K Raytheon detectors and a 1.7 square degree field of view, VISTA represents a huge leap in infrared survey capability in the southern hemisphere. Pipeline processing of IR data is far more technically challenging than for optical data. IR detectors are inherently more unstable, while the sky emission is over 100 times brighter than most objects of interest, and varies in a complex spatial and temporal manner. To compensate for this, exposure times are kept short, leading to high nightly data rates. VISTA is expected to generate an average of 250 GB of data per night over the next 5-10 years, which far exceeds the current total data rate of all 8m-class telescopes. In this presentation we discuss the pipelines that have been developed to deal with IR imaging data from VISTA and discuss the primary issues involved in an end-to-end system capable of: robustly removing instrument and night sky signatures; monitoring data quality and system integrity; providing astrometric and photometric calibration; and generating photon noise-limited images and science-ready astronomical catalogues.

  3. Antimatter Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Werf, D. P.; Andresen G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; Wilding, D.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Alpha Collaboration

    2010-07-01

    The comparison of the 1S-2S energy levels of hydrogen and antihydrogen will yield a stringent test of CPT conservation. Necessarily, the antihydrogen atoms need to be trapped to perform high precision spectroscopy measurements. Therefore, an approximately 1 T deep neutral trap, about 0.7 K for ground state (anti)hydrogen atoms, has been superimposed on a Penning-Malmberg trap in which the antiatoms are formed. The antihydrogen atoms, which are required to have a low enough kinetic energy to be trapped, are produced following a number of steps. A bunch of antiprotons from the CERN Antiproton Decelerator are caught in a Penning-Malmberg trap and subsequently sympathetically cooled down and then compressed using rotating wall electric fields. A positron plasma, formed in a separate accumulator, is transported to the main system and also compressed. Antihydrogen atoms are then formed by mixing the antiprotons and positrons. The velocity of the antiatoms, and their binding energies, will strongly depend on the initial conditions of the constituent particles, for example their temperatures and densities, and on the details of the mixing process. In this talk the complete lifecycle of antihydrogen atoms will be presented, starting with the production of the constituent particles and the description of the manipulations necessary to prepare positrons and antiprotons appropriately for antihydrogen formation. The latter will also be described, as will the possible fates of the antiatoms.

  4. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

    2003-11-04

    The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

  5. Cellular Processing of Myocilin

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ye; Shen, Xiang; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Yue, Beatrice Y. J. T.; Ying, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Myocilin (MYOC) is a gene linked directly to juvenile- and adult-onset open angle glaucoma. Mutations including Pro370Leu (P370L) and Gln368stop (Q368X) have been identified in patients. In the present study, we investigated the processing of myocilin in human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells as well as in inducible, stable RGC5 cell lines. Methodology/Principal Findings The turnover and photoactivation experiments revealed that the endogenous myocilin in human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells was a short-lived protein. It was found that the endogenous myocilin level in TM cells was increased by treatment of lysosomal and proteasomal inhibitors, but not by autophagic inhibitor. Multiple bands immunoreactive to anti-ubiquitin were seen in the myocilin pull down, indicating that myocilin was ubiquitinated. In inducible cell lines, the turnover rate of overexpressed wild-type and mutant P370L and Q368X myocilin-GFP fusion proteins was much prolonged. The proteasome function was compromised and autophagy was induced. A decreased PSMB5 level and an increased level of autophagic marker, LC3, were demonstrated. Conclusions/Significance The current study provided evidence that in normal homeostatic situation, the turnover of endogenous myocilin involves ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal pathways. When myocilin was upregulated or mutated, the ubiquitin-proteasome function is compromised and autophagy is induced. Knowledge of the degradation pathways acting on myocilin can help in design of novel therapeutic strategies for myocilin-related glaucoma. PMID:24732711

  6. Image Processing Diagnostics: Emphysema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Alex

    2009-10-01

    Currently the computerized tomography (CT) scan can detect emphysema sooner than traditional x-rays, but other tests are required to measure more accurately the amount of affected lung. CT scan images show clearly if a patient has emphysema, but is unable by visual scan alone, to quantify the degree of the disease, as it appears merely as subtle, barely distinct, dark spots on the lung. Our goal is to create a software plug-in to interface with existing open source medical imaging software, to automate the process of accurately diagnosing and determining emphysema severity levels in patients. This will be accomplished by performing a number of statistical calculations using data taken from CT scan images of several patients representing a wide range of severity of the disease. These analyses include an examination of the deviation from a normal distribution curve to determine skewness, a commonly used statistical parameter. Our preliminary results show that this method of assessment appears to be more accurate and robust than currently utilized methods which involve looking at percentages of radiodensities in air passages of the lung.

  7. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Worni, Andreas; Mericske-Stern, Regina; Iizuka, Tateyuki; Büttner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This case report illustrates a rare complex of symptoms leading to limited mouth opening in a young woman. The 28-year old suffered from a progressively limited mouth opening over several years that finally resulted in restricted alimentation and made dental treatment impossible. Clinical findings suggest a structural alteration, including a hyperplastic mandibular angle and marked hypertrophy of the masseter muscle. Further radiologic investigations reveal a thickened aponeurosis of the masticatory muscles and hyperplastic coronoid processes that are not interfering with the zygomatic bone. Primary therapeutic options for such conditions are mainly surgical, including reduction of the masseter muscles volume and aponeurorectomy as well as bony reductions, such as coronoidectomy and mandibular angle reduction. With this treatment, the outcome and prognosis are good. Long-term results depend on concomitant physical therapy. A uniform nomenclature for this condition is yet lacking and propositions such as ?masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia? have been made. However, knowledge of this condition and its typical clinical signs can make the diagnosis and treatment straightforward, thus leading to an improved quality of life of affected patients. PMID:25253540

  8. Liquefied natural gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Rambo, C.L.; Wilkinson, J.D.; Hudson, H.M.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes improvement in a process for the separation of liquefied natural gas containing methane, C{sub 2} components, C{sub 3} components and heavier hydrocarbon components. The improvement comprises a distillation stream is withdrawn from an upper region of the fractionation column and thereafter divided into the more volatile fraction and a recycle stream; the recycle stream is directed in heat exchange relation with at least a portion of the liquefied natural gas whereby the compressed recycle stream is cooled sufficiently to substantially condense it, while the liquefied natural gas portion is heated; the substantially condensed compressed recycle stream is supplied to the fractionation column at a top column feed position; the heated liquefied natural gas portion is supplied to the fractionation column at a mid-column feed position; and the quantity and pressure of the compressed recycle stream and the temperatures of the feed streams to the fractionation column are effective to maintain column overhead temperature at a temperature whereby the major portion of the C{sub 2} components, C{sub 3} components and heavier hydrocarbon components is recovered in the relatively less volatile fraction.

  9. Processing of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy. PMID:19878858

  10. MEGARA optical manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, E.; Páez, G.; Granados, F.; Percino, E.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Avilés, J. L.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Cedazo, R.

    2014-07-01

    MEGARA is the future visible integral-field and multi-object spectrograph for the GTC 10.4-m telescope located in La Palma. INAOE is a member of the MEGARA Consortium and it is in charge of the Optics Manufacturing work package. MEGARA passed the Optics Detailed Design Review in May 2013, and the blanks of the main optics have been already ordered and their manufacturing is in progress. Except for the optical fibers and microlenses, the complete MEGARA optical system will be manufactured in Mexico, shared between the workshops of INAOE and CIO. This includes a field lens, a 5-lenses collimator, a 7-lenses camera and a complete set of volume phase holographic gratings with 36 flat windows and 24 prisms, being all these elements very large and complex. Additionally, the optical tests and the complete assembly of the camera and collimator subsystems will be carried out in Mexico. Here we describe the current status of the optics manufacturing process.

  11. Food Processing Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    When NASA started plarning for manned space travel in 1959, the myriad challenges of sustaining life in space included a seemingly mundane but vitally important problem: How and what do you feed an astronaut? There were two main concerns: preventing food crumbs from contaminating the spacecraft's atmosphere or floating into sensitive instruments, and ensuring complete freedom from potentially catastrophic disease-producing bacteria, viruses, and toxins. To solve these concerns, NASA enlisted the help of the Pillsbury Company. Pillsbury quickly solved the first problem by coating bite-size foods to prevent crumbling. They developed the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) concept to ensure against bacterial contamination. Hazard analysis is a systematic study of product, its ingredients, processing conditions, handling, storage, packing, distribution, and directions for consumer use to identify sensitive areas that might prove hazardous. Hazard analysis provides a basis for blueprinting the Critical Control Points (CCPs) to be monitored. CCPs are points in the chain from raw materials to the finished product where loss of control could result in unacceptable food safety risks. In early 1970, Pillsbury plants were following HACCP in production of food for Earthbound consumers. Pillsbury's subsequent training courses for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) personnel led to the incorporation of HACCP in the FDA's Low Acid Canned Foods Regulations, set down in the mid-1970s to ensure the safety of all canned food products in the U.S.

  12. Vacuum-injection-molding processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    An improved processing technique for the manufacture of glass or glass-ceramic headers has been developed. Vacuum-injection molding is a relatively easy processing technique that has been used successfully in the fabrication of several different advantages in certain applications over the present fabrication process which uses glass preforms.

  13. READING, WRITING. AND WORD PROCESSING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shelley B. Wepner

    1987-01-01

    In the past, reading, writing, and word processing were researched independently. Currently, we see research regarding important connections between reading and writing as well as between writing and word processing. However, critical connections exist between all three areas. In order to have classrooms that promote literacy, we need to use word processing and its accompanying tools as students engage in

  14. Guest Editorial Color image processing

    E-print Network

    Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.

    Guest Editorial Color image processing 1. Background and motivation The perception of color and recognize objects of interest, and convey information. Color image processing and anal- ysis deal with the manipulation of digital color images through the utilization of signal processing techniques. Like most

  15. The Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Key; Stanley Sander; Annmarie Eldering; Charles Miller; Christian Frankenberg; Vijay Natraj; David Rider; Jean-Francois Blavier; Dmitriy Bekker; Yen-Hung Wu

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper (GCPM) is an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. The measurement strategy delivers a process based understanding of the carbon cycle that is accurate and extensible from city to regional and continental scales. This understanding comes from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide

  16. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  17. Process Algebra with Nonstandard Timing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kees Middelburg

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of two or more actions to be performed con- secutively at the same point in time is not excluded in the process al- gebras from the framework of process algebras with timing presented by Baeten and Middelburg (Handbook of Process Algebra, Elsevier, 2001, Chapter 10). This possibility is useful in practice when describing and analyzing systems in which

  18. MODELING THE WET MILLING PROCESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process engineering and cost models for a conventional corn wet milling process have been developed to aid research being conducted by the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center. Information on the corn wet milling process was obtained from various technical sources i...

  19. Differential Equations for Dyson Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig A. Tracy; Harold Widom

    2004-01-01

    We call a Dyson process any process on ensembles of matrices in which the entries undergo diffusion. We are interested in the distribution of the eigenvalues (or singular values) of such matrices. In the original Dyson process it was the ensemble of n× n Hermitian matrices, and the eigenvalues describe n curves. Given sets X 1,..., X m the probability

  20. Process Alignment for Strategic Implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie McIlrath; Tim Kotnour

    The contribution of this paper is a methodology for aligning processes to the strategic plan. An organization must be able to align itself with the strategic plan to ensure effective implementation. A key factor for successful strategic implementation is aligning processes to the strategic plan. Once processes are aligned to the strategic plan, objectives, goals, and measures can be utilized