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1

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: SOURCE TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT - RECTISOL ACID GAS REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of tests of a Rectisol acid gas removal unit at a Texaco refinery. The primary goal was to provide a data base for evaluation of Rectisol performance in entrained coal gasification applications. This Rectisol unit processes gases from the partial oxidatio...

2

ASPEN Sensitivity Study for the Great Plains Gasification Plant Rectisol Section.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A previously developed ASPEN model of the Rectisol portion of the Great Plains Plant has been extensively revised to more closely represent the as-built plant as reflected by the plant control (PMX) diagrams. The revised models have been used to obtain a ...

I. H. Rinard R. J. Farrell

1986-01-01

3

Low-energy process recovers COâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses processes for removal of acid gas constituents from natural gas, which include the alkanolamine processes such as monethanolamine (MEA) and DEA, but also physical solvent processes such as Selexol, Sepasolv MPE, Rectisol, and Purisol. It points out that a key advantage of physical solvent processes is that the solution can be regenerated by flashing rather than by

R. E. Meissner; U. Wagner

1983-01-01

4

Assessment of sulfur removal processes for advanced fuel cell systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance characteristics of potential sulfur removal processes were evaluated and four of these processes, the Selexol process, the Benfield process, the Sulfinol process, and the Rectisol process, were selected for detailed technical and economic comparison. The process designs were based on a consistent set of technical criteria for a grass roots facility with a capacity of 10,000 tons per

G. A. Lorton

1980-01-01

5

Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process  

SciTech Connect

Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

Not Available

1980-01-01

6

Gas processing handbook  

SciTech Connect

Brief details are given of processes including: BGC-Lurgi slagging gasification, COGAS, Exxon catalytic coal gasification, FW-Stoic 2-stage, GI two stage, HYGAS, Koppers-Totzek, Lurgi pressure gasification, Saarberg-Otto, Shell, Texaco, U-Gas, W-D.IGI, Wellman-Galusha, Westinghouse, and Winkler coal gasification processes; the Rectisol process; the Catacarb and the Benfield processes for removing CO/SUB/2, H/SUB/2s and COS from gases produced by the partial oxidation of coal; the selectamine DD, Selexol solvent, and Sulfinol gas cleaning processes; the sulphur-tolerant shift (SSK) process; and the Super-meth process for the production of high-Btu gas from synthesis gas.

Not Available

1982-04-01

7

CNG process, a new approach to physical-absorption acid-gas removal  

SciTech Connect

The CNG acid gas removal process embodies three novel features: (1) scrubbing with liquid carbon dioxide to remove all sulfurous molecules and other trace contaminants; (2) triple-point crystallization of carbon dioxide to concentrate sulfurous molecules and produce pure carbon dioxide; and (3) absorption of carbon dioxide with a slurry of solid carbon dioxide in organic carrier liquid. The CNG process is discussed and contrasted with existing acid gas removal technology as represented by the Benfield, Rectisol, and Selexol acid gas removal processes.

Hise, R.E.; Massey, L.G.; Adler, R.J.; Brosilow, C.B.; Gardner, N.C.; Brown, W.R.; Cook, W.J.; Petrik, M.

1982-01-01

8

Assessment of sulfur removal processes for advanced fuel cell systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance characteristics of potential sulfur removal processes were evaluated and four of these processes, the Selexol process, the Benfield process, the Sulfinol process, and the Rectisol process, were selected for detailed technical and economic comparison. The process designs were based on a consistent set of technical criteria for a grass roots facility with a capacity of 10,000 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal. Two raw gas compositions, based on oxygen blown and air blown Texaco gasification, were used. The bulk of the sulfur was removed in the sulfur removal unit, leaving a small amount of sulfur compounds in the gas. The remaining sulfur compounds were removed by reaction with zinc oxide in the sulfur polishing unit. The impact of COS hydrolysis pretreatment on sulfur removal was evaluated. Comprehensive capital and O and M cost estimates for each of the process schemes were developed.

Lorton, G. A.

1980-01-01

9

Low-energy process recovers CO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses processes for removal of acid gas constituents from natural gas, which include the alkanolamine processes such as monethanolamine (MEA) and DEA, but also physical solvent processes such as Selexol, Sepasolv MPE, Rectisol, and Purisol. It points out that a key advantage of physical solvent processes is that the solution can be regenerated by flashing rather than by the steam stripping used in the conventional alkanolamine processes. A single-stage and two-stage activated MDEA process developed in West Germany for treating high-pressure natural gas is described. The one or two-stage process is also applicable to high pressure natural gas streams containing both H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/.

Meissner, R.E. III; Wagner, U.

1983-02-07

10

Evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants  

SciTech Connect

This interim report satisfies the Task B requirement to define process configurations for systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The configurations studied include entrained, fluidized-bed, gravitating-bed, and molten salt gasifiers, both air and oxygen blown. Desulfurization systems utilizing wet scrubbing processes, such as Selexol and Rectisol II, and dry sorbents, such as iron oxide and dolomite, were chosen for evaluation. Cleanup systems not chosen by DOE's MCFC contractors, General Electric and United Technologies, Inc., for their MCFC power plant work by virtue of the resource requirements of those systems for commercial development were chosen for detailed study in Tasks C and D of this contract. Such systems include Westinghouse fluidized-bed gasification, air and oxygen blown, Rockwell molten carbonate air-blown gasification, METC iron oxide desulfurization, and dolomitic desulfurization. In addition, for comparison, gasification systems such as the Texaco entrained and the British Gas/Lurgi slagging units, along with wet scrubbing by Rectisol II, have also been chosen for detailed study.

Vidt, E.J.; Jablonski, G.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

1981-12-01

11

Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants. Task B interim report  

SciTech Connect

This interim report satisfies the Task B requirement for DOE Contract DE-AC21-81MC16220 to define process configurations for systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants. The information and data necessary for this study were extracted from sources in the public domain, including reports from DOE, EPRI, and EPA; work sponsored in whole or in part by Federal agencies; and from trade journals, MCFC developers, and manufacturers. The configurations include entrained, fluidized-bed, gravitating-bed, and molten salt gasifiers, both air and oxygen blown. Desulfurization systems utilizing wet scrubbing processes, such as Selexol and Rectisol II, and dry sorbents, such as iron oxide and dolomite, were chosen for evaluation.

Not Available

1981-12-01

12

Assessment of selexolVAcid gas removal powers for use with Lurgi gasification  

SciTech Connect

Selexol acid gas removal as used with entrained-bed gasification is less expensive than the Rectisol process configuration generally used with Lurgi gasification. The objective of this study was to determine whether cost savings could be derived from using the Selexol process with Lurgi gasification or whether the Lurgi gas composition required use of a Rectisol clean-up unit. 5 refs.

Apte, A.J.; Fein, H.L.

1981-01-01

13

Sulfur-emission-control technology for coal-conversion plants. [List of 60 processes with uses, brief description and flowsheet; 63 references  

SciTech Connect

The degree of commercialization and the industrial applications of each control technology are summarized in Table 2. The technologies which have been used or planned for coal conversion facilities are listed in Table 3. The Chiyoda Thoroughbred 101 was the most used process for flue gas SO/sub 2/ control, followed by the Citrate process. Both are recovery processes. However, throwaway processes are much more common for flue gas desulfurization. Therefore, both the dual alkali process and a conventional lime/limestone process should be included when evaluating control technology options. Thus, the SO/sub x/ removal processes recommended for further study are: (1) Chiyoda Thoroughbred 101; (2) Citrate; (3) generalized dual-alkali (e.g., CEA-ADL); and (4) conventional lime/limestone scrubbing. From Table 3, the Rectisol, Stretford, Benfield, Selexol, Claus and Amoco sulfur recovery processes were most often chosen for acid gas removal and sulfur recovery. These processes are all widely commercialized. For tail gas clean-up from sulfur recovery plants, the SCOT, IFP, Beavon and W-L SO/sub 2/ recovery processes were most often specified for coal conversion facilities, as shown in Table 3. They are all fully commercialized and applicable technologies, as shown in Table 2. The control technologies selected for further detailed examination cover the general types of sulfur control schemes potentially applicable to coal conversion facilities. Further, they are all commercially available.

Weber, R.C.; Herman, D.R.; Smock, M.E.

1981-10-01

14

Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of a model of language comprehension in which pragmatic biases are integrated with syntactic processing, we show that expectations about upcoming discourse continuations inuence the resolution of local structural ambiguity. An o-line sentence-completion study and an on- line self-paced reading study examined readers' expectations for high\\/low relative clause attachments following implicit-causality and non-implicit- causality verbs (John detests\\/babysits the

Hannah Rohde; Roger Levy; Andrew Kehler

15

Assessment of sulfur removal processes for advanced fuel cell systems  

SciTech Connect

This study consisted of a technical evaluation and economic comparison of sulfur removal processes for integration into a coal gasification-molten carbonate (CGMC) fuel cell power plant. Initially, the performance characteristics of potential sulfur removal processes were evaluated and screened for conformance to the conditions and requirements expected in commercial CGMC power plants. Four of these processes, the Selexol process, the Benfield process, the Sulfinol process, and the Rectisol process, were selected for detailed technical and economic comparison. The process designs were based on a consistent set of technical criteria for a grass roots facility with a capacity of 10,000 tons per day of Illinois No. 6 coal. Two raw gas compositions, based on oxygen-blown and air-blown Texaco gasification, were used. The bulk of the sulfur was removed in the sulfur removal unit, leaving a small amount of sulfur compounds in the gas (1 ppMv or 25 ppMv). The remaining sulfur compounds were removed by reaction with zinc oxide in the sulfur polishing unit. The impact of COS hydrolysis pretreatment on sulfur removal was evaluated. Comprehensive capital and O and M cost estimates for each of the process schemes were developed for the essentially complete removal of sulfur compounds. The impact on the overall plant performance was also determined. The total capital requirement for sulfur removal schemes ranged from $59.4/kW to $84.8/kW for the oxygen-blown cases and from $89.5/kW to $133/kW for the air-blown cases. The O and M costs for sulfur removal for 70% plant capacity factor ranged from 0.82 mills/kWh to 2.76 mills/kWh for the oxygen-blown cases and from 1.77 mills/kWh to 4.88 mills/kWh for the air-blown cases. The Selexol process benefitted the most from the addition of COS hydrolysis pretreatment.

Lorton, G.A.

1980-01-01

16

17 years of gas production from coal. [SASOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant of South African Coal Oil and Gas Corp., Ltd., at Sasolburg was expanded to produce gas for ammonia synthesis and a 500 Btu industrial gas in addition to synthetic liquid hydrocarbons. The plant uses Lurgi coal gasification, Lurgi Rectisol, and Lurgi Phenosolvan processes. Present production of 219 million cu ft\\/day is provided by 11 of the 13 installed

Hoogendom

1972-01-01

17

Process oil manufacturing process  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for producing a naphthenic process oil having reduced sulfur, nitrogen and polynuclear aromatics contents from a naphthenic feed containing same and having an atmospheric boiling range of about 650/sup 0/ to about 1200/sup 0/F. comprising: A. passing the feed into a first hydrotreating stage having a hydrotreating catalyst therein, the stage maintained at a temperature of about 600/sup 0/ to about 750/sup 0/F. and at a hydrogen partial pressure of about 400 to about 1500 psig, to convert at least a portion of the sulfur to hydrogen sulfide and the nitrogen to ammonia; B. passing the hydrotreated feed from the first hydrotreating stage in an intermediate stripping stage wherein hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, or both is removed; C. passing the hydrotreated feed from the intermediate stage into a second hydrotreating stage having therein a hydrotreating catalyst selected from the group consisting of nickel-molybdenum, cobalt-molybdenum, nickel-tungsten and mixtures thereof, the second hydrotreating stage maintained at a temperature lower than that of the first hydrotreating stage and at a hydrogen partial pressure ranging between about 400 and about 1,500 psig; D. monitoring the polynuclear aromatics content, the degree of saturation, or both of the product exiting the second hydrotreating stage; and, E. adjusting the temperature in the second hydrotreating stage to keep the polynuclear aromatics content, the degree of saturation, or both below a limit suitable for process oil.

Corman, B.G.; Korbach, P.F.; Webber, K.M.

1989-01-31

18

Anaerobic processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major review of the status of research and technology of anaerobic processes to convert wastes and biomass to energy. Among the topics covered are: the microbiology of cellulose hydrolysis and ethanol production, acidogenesis and methanogenesis; process characterization; process optimization; and process application. A summary of selected operation and performance data from anaerobic digestion studies is presented. (Refs. 79).

K. F. Fannin; J. R. Conrad; D. E. Jerger; V. Srivastava; S. Ghosh; D. P. Chynoweth

1981-01-01

19

Process integration: Process change and batch processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of process integration to batch processes and other time-dependent systems (for example, the start-up of a continuous process, a multi-plant complete site, or even a building) is investigated. Methods are described for determining energy targets, for identifying possibilities for heat storage (within or between the batches) and for rescheduling process operations to minimize heat exchange, and for designing heat recovery networks. In addition, consideration is given to the use of process changes in continuous systems that will reduce energy targets (for example, changing a distillator column temperature, adding a pumparound or intermediate boiler, or changing the number of stages in an evaporator). The techniques described are developed and explained through case studies that illustrate their practical application.

1990-12-01

20

Parallel processing  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the current techniques of parallel processing, transputers, vector and vector supercomputers and covers such areas as transputer applications, programming models and language design for parallel processing.

Jesshop, C.

1987-01-01

21

Hydrocarbon Processing`s petrochemical processes `97  

SciTech Connect

The paper compiles information on numerous petrochemical processes, describing the application, the process, yields, economics, commercial plants, references, and licensor. Petrochemicals which are synthesized include: alkylbenzene, methylamines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, phthalic anhydride, polycaproamide, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, PVC, styrene, terephthalic acid, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers.

NONE

1997-03-01

22

Process Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a webpage with many learning objects concerning Process Control with lessons in Temperature, Level, Pressure, Flow, Analytical, Symbols, Tuning & Calibration, PID Controls and other basic concepts.

2012-10-22

23

Flotation Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The theory and various types of flotation processes are presented. The topics include: buoyance, air solubility, bubble particle contact, pressure flotation, vacuum flotation, dispersed air flotation, electroflotation, plain flotation, oil-water separatio...

I. J. Kumar W. E. Eustance L. K. Wang

1988-01-01

24

Signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space-variant coordinate transformations may be profitably applied to many signal processing problems; for example, image convolutions are often computed by multiplying the Fourier transforms of the images rather than by direct methods (i.e., shift, multiply, and add). Some signal processing algorithms are presently under study that operate on projection-based representations of the function. The best known projection representation is the

Roger L. Easton Jr.; R. L. Jr

1990-01-01

25

Syngas process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Syngas Process is a 2-stage process for conversion of biomass-type materials or municipal solid wastes into fuel gas with calorific value 350-400 Btu\\/cubic foot. The first stage is essentially a hydrogasification of CHâ production stage where the volatile products are converted in the presence of a H-rich gasifier gas into a CHâ-rich product gas and a char containing residual

H. F. Feldmann; J. Alderstein

1978-01-01

26

Multiphase Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 5 projects in this AFO2000 subgroup focus on field, laboratory and modelling studies of chemistry and micro-physics in aerosol and cloud systems in the troposphere and stratosphere. The FEBUKO-Project aims at a better understanding of the processing of gas phase and aerosol organic constituents by clouds. Ground-based cloud experiments (2 field campaigns) are performed to investigate tropospheric multiphase processes.

S. Wurzler; H. Herrmann; R. Wolke; U. Pöschl; O. Möhler; U. Schurath

2003-01-01

27

Science processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past twenty years, research, curriculum development, and instruction in science education have been influenced by Gagne's conception of science processes. This article reports an investigation of the epistomologic foundations of this conception. The results indicate that a commitment to inductive empiricism pervades the presently held view of science processes. A major tenet of this commitment is that conceptual knowledge results from the application of science processes in understanding natural phenomena and solving problems. Criticism of the commitment in light of recent developments in the philosophy of science reveals that there is limited philosophical support for this view. The implication is that if science educators continue to use the presently held view of science processes, the conception needs to be reformulated. Otherwise, there is a clear danger that students will be presented an inaccurate and inadequate view of science processes. The alternative is to view the exact nature of science processes as being dependent upon the conceptual knowledge that is used to understand a particular phenomena or problem.

Finley, Fred N.

28

Cellulase processivity.  

PubMed

There are two types of processive cellulases, exocellulases and processive endoglucanases. There are also two classes of exocellulases, ones that attack the reducing ends of cellulose chains and ones that attack the nonreducing ends. There are a number of ways of assaying processivity but none of them are ideal. It appears that exocellulases, all of which have their active sites in a tunnel, couple movement along a cellulose chain with cleavage of cellobiose from the end of the cellulose molecule. There are two sets of structures that suggest how an exocellulase might move along a cellulose chain. For family 48 exocellulases there are two different ways that a chain can be bound in the active site while for family 6 exocellulases there are several different ligand-bound structures. Site-directed mutagenesis of Thermobifida fusca exocellulases Cel48A and Cel6B and the processive endoglucanase Cel9A have identified some mutations that increase processivity and some that decrease processivity. In addition a mutation in Cel6B was identified that appears to allow the mutant enzyme to move along a cellulose chain in the absence of cleavage. PMID:22843392

Wilson, David B; Kostylev, Maxim

2012-01-01

29

Runoff Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Runoff Processes module offers a thorough introduction to the runoff processes critical for flood and water supply prediction. Through the use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains key terminology and concepts including paths to runoff, basin and soil properties and runoff modeling. It also provides an introduction to the National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS). As a foundation topic for the upcoming Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own or used as a supporting topic to provide factual scientific information to students as they complete the case-based forecasting modules.

Spangler, Tim

2006-06-13

30

FLUORINATION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

A process for the fluorination of uranium metal is described. It is known that uranium will react with liquid chlorine trifluoride but the reaction proceeds at a slow rate. However, a mixture of a halogen trifluoride together with hydrogen fluoride reacts with uranium at a significantly faster rate than does a halogen trifluoride alone. Bromine trifluoride is suitable for use in the process, but chlorine trifluoride is preferred. Particularly suitable is a mixture of ClF/sub 3/ and HF having a mole ratio (moles

McMillan, T.S.

1957-10-29

31

Fragmentation Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Direct and resonant double-photoionization: from atoms to solids L. Avaldi and G. Stefani; 2. The application of propagation exterior complex scaling to atomic collisions P. L. Bartlett and A. T. Stelbovics; 3. Fragmentation of molecular-ion beams in intense ultra-short laser pulses I. Ben-Itzhak; 4. Atoms with one and two active electrons in strong laser fields I. A. Ivanov and A. S. Kheifets; 5. Experimental aspects of ionization studies by positron and positronium impact G. Laricchia, D. A. Cooke, Á. Kövér and S. J. Brawley; 6. (e,2e) spectroscopy using fragmentation processes J. Lower, M. Yamazaki and M. Takahashi; 7. A coupled pseudostate approach to the calculation of ion-atom fragmentation processes M. McGovern, H. R. J. Walters and C. T. Whelan; 8. Electron Impact Ionization using (e,2e) coincidence techniques from threshold to intermediate energies A. J. Murray; 9. (e,2e) processes on atomic inner shells C. T. Whelan; 10. Spin resolved atomic (e,2e) processes J. Lower and C. T. Whelan; Index.

Whelan, Colm T.

2012-12-01

32

Process evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is not always easy to conduct a study and implement a systematic policy in the aeronautical paint stripping field. The situations to be studied are complicated by extensive technical data, material conditions and financial unknowns. To these are added demands both in the civil and military fields to increase the performance obtained, optimize cycles, reduce recurrent costs, quickly amortize investments and now increasing respect for the environment. To reply correctly, the various possibilities must be assessed using, if possible, identical criteria and reference systems. The only criterion which applies to all the processes and methods is the overall stripping cost. It is not sufficient for a process to meet the related technical requirements (for example 'IATA guidelines'), it must also be economically justifiable. The overall costs take into account therefore the costs and materials, labor and also the downtime of the aircraft, amortization and maintenance of the installations and processing of waste, etc. For many years now, AEROSPATIALE has undertaken research and development programs to find and evaluate alternatives to the conventional chemical stripping process. This work has led it to carry out comparative analyses from technical elements enhanced as the work progressed.

Malavallon, Olivier

1995-04-01

33

SEPARATION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

A process for separating tetravalent plutonium from aqueous solutions and from niobium and zirconium by precipitation on lanthanum oxalate is described. The oxalate ions of the precipitate may be decomposed by heating in the presence of an oxidizing agent, forming a plutonium compound readily soluble in acid. (AEC)

Stoughton, R.W.

1961-10-24

34

Incineration process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for coincinerating sewage sludge or toxic liquid chemical waste and a supplemental fuel comprising the steps of: introducing none-gaseous supplemental fuel into an incineration zone at a point intermediate a vertical length of the incineration zone to produce a flame front intermediate the vertical length of the incineration zone; incinerating the introduced non-gaseous supplemental fuel to

Sosnowski

1988-01-01

35

Process Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over a year ago, the author suffered a spinal cord injury that required surgery, an extended hospital stay, therapy, and a trip into the medical sub-culture. This article looks at process improvement and relates it to the author's experiences recovering f...

P. Kimmerly

2005-01-01

36

Microencapsulation Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microencapsulation by solvent evaporation is a novel technique to enable the controlled delivery of active materials.The controlled release of drugs, for example, is a key challenge in the pharmaceutical industries. Although proposed several decades ago, it remains largely an empirical laboratory process.The Topical Team has considered its critical points and the work required to produce a more effective technology - better control of the process for industrial production, understanding of the interfacial dynamics, determination of the solvent evaporation profile, and establishment of the relation between polymer/microcapsule structures.The Team has also defined how microgravity experiments could help in better understanding microencapsulation by solvent evaporation, and it has proposed a strategy for a collaborative project on the topic.

Whateley, T. L.; Poncelet, D.

2005-06-01

37

Cracking process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a cracking process wherein a hydrocarbon-containing feed is contacted with a zeolite-containing cracking catalyst in a cracking zone under cracking conditions and at least a portion of the zeolite-containing catalyst is removed from the cracking zone, contacted with treating fluid comprising steam, and then recycled back to the cracking zone. The improvement described here comprises employing in

B. J. Bertus; C. M. Fu

1986-01-01

38

Ceramic Processing  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

EWSUK,KEVIN G.

1999-11-24

39

RF processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Loran-C radio frequency processing is discussed. A diagram which generally illustrates the automatic gain control is presented. The augmented differentiator for pulse envelopes adapts conventional communications receiver with wideband AM capability to detect pulse signals such as Loran-C. The circuit enhances reception for surveillance and observation of HF over-the-horizon radar signals or others where time difference estimates between pulse returns are of interest. The high resolution VLF spectrum which receives weak VLF signals by using an HP 3581A wave analyzer detecting signals with a very narrow bandwidth of only 3 Hz is also presented.

Burhans, R. W.

1982-06-01

40

Materials & Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by National Aerospace Technical Education Center (SpaceTEC), is centered on materials and processes. The document focuses on the material structure of metal. It mainly focuses on the properties, these being: hardness, brittleness, malleability, ductility, elasticity, toughness, density, fusibility, conductivity, contraction and expansion. After the initial discussion of properties, the topic shifts to metalworking, case hardening and corrosion. Corrosion dominates over half of the presentation. Overall, this is thorough examination of this material. It totals nearly seventy slides in length. Instructors could use this either as a study guide or simply to enhance existing curriculum.

2009-10-01

41

Alkylation process  

SciTech Connect

In one embodiment of this invention, a process for alkylating C[sub 3]--C[sub 6] alkanes (paraffins) with C[sub 3]--C[sub 6] alkenes (monoolefins) employs a catalyst composition which has been prepared by heating a mixture consisting essentially of aluminum chloride, at least one metal sulfate (CuSO[sub 4], FeSO[sub 4], NiSO[sub 4], MgSO[sub 4], CaSO[sub 4] or combinations thereof), at least one inorganic refractory support material (alumina, silica, silica-alumina, aluminum phosphate, aluminum phosphate/oxide or combinations thereof), and at least one chlorinated hydrocarbon (preferably carbon tetrachloride). In another embodiment of this invention, a process for alkylating C[sub 3]--C[sub 6] alkanes with C[sub 3]--C[sub 6] alkenes employs a catalyst which has been prepared by heating a mixture consisting essentially of aluminum chloride, aluminum phosphate, silica, and at least one chlorinated hydrocarbon (preferably carbon tetrachloride).

Wu, A.H.

1994-01-04

42

Lithospheric processes  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was to improve understanding of the origin and evolution of the Earth`s lithosphere by studying selected processes, such as deformation and magmatic intrusion during crustal extension, formation and extraction of mantle melts, fluid transport of heat and mass, and surface processes that respond to deep-seated events. Additional objectives were to promote and develop innovative techniques and to support relevant educational endeavors. Seismic studies suggest that underplating of crust by mantle melts is an important crustal-growth mechanism, that low-angle faults can be seismogenic, and that shear deformation creates mantle anisotropy near plate boundaries. Results of geochemical work determined that magmas from oceanic intraplate islands are derived from a uniform depth in the upper mantle, whereas melts erupted at mid-ocean ridges are mixed from a range of depths. The authors have determined the extent and style of fluid infiltration and trace-element distribution in natural magmatic systems, and, finally, investigated {sup 21}Ne as a tool for dating of surficial materials.

Baldridge, W.S.; Wohletz, K.; Fehler, M.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.] [and others

1997-11-01

43

Methanation process  

SciTech Connect

A process comprises contacting a sulfur-containing feedstream comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen with a catalytically effective amount of a supported catalyst consisting of at least one of iridium and rhodium under methanation conditions and in the presence of a finite, effective, small amount of steam sufficient to increase methanation activity when said activity is affected by sulfur poisoning so that a predominant amount of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the feedstream is converted to methane. In a process comprising contacting a sulfur-containing feedstream of carbon monoxide and hydrogen with a supported catalyst consisting of at least one of iridium and rhodium under methanation conditions such that said carbon monoxide and hydrogen in said feedstream are converted to methane, and in which there is a loss of methanation activity caused by entry of sulfur into the feed and poisoning of said catalyst, the improvement for restoring methanation activity in situ of the sulfur-poisoned catalyst which comprises contacting said sulfur-poisoned catalyst under methanation conditions with a sulfur-free feed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of steam in an amount ranging from about 1 to about 30 mole percent of the synthesis feed for a period of time sufficient to substantially restore the activity of said catalyst and continuing methanation by contacting said catalyst having restored methanation catalytic activity with carbon monoxide and hydrogen under methanation conditions such that a predominant amount of said carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to methane.

Finch, J.; Poska, F.

1980-07-08

44

WELDING PROCESS  

DOEpatents

A method of joining metal parts for the preparation of relatively long, thin fuel element cores of uranium or alloys thereof for nuclear reactors is described. The process includes the steps of cleaning the surfaces to be jointed, placing the sunfaces together, and providing between and in contact with them, a layer of a compound in finely divided form that is decomposable to metal by heat. The fuel element members are then heated at the contact zone and maintained under pressure during the heating to decompose the compound to metal and sinter the members and reduced metal together producing a weld. The preferred class of decomposable compounds are the metal hydrides such as uranium hydride, which release hydrogen thus providing a reducing atmosphere in the vicinity of the welding operation.

Zambrow, J.; Hausner, H.

1957-09-24

45

Lithospheric processes  

SciTech Connect

The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

Baldridge, W. [and others

2000-12-01

46

Oligomerization process  

DOEpatents

A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1991-01-01

47

Etherification process  

DOEpatents

A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1990-01-01

48

Etherification process  

DOEpatents

A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1990-08-21

49

Crystallization process  

DOEpatents

An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

Adler, Robert J. (Shaker Heights, OH); Brown, William R. (Brecksville, OH); Auyang, Lun (Highland Heights, OH); Liu, Yin-Chang (Richmond Heights, OH); Cook, W. Jeffrey (Cleveland Heights, OH)

1986-01-01

50

Dynamic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this chapter is to present the results of the dynamics of exciton (polariton)s or more generally of electron-hole pairs. For a recent review of this topic concentrating on quantum wells, see Davies and Jagadish (Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1), 1(2008)). We neither consider the dynamics of carriers, for example, their relaxation time entering in Hall mobility or electrical conductivity, nor the dynamics of phonons or spins, respectively. We give here only a very small selection of references to these topics (Baxter and Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 110:25229, 2006; Queiroz et al. Superlattice Microstruct. 42:270, 2007; Niehaus and Schwarz, Superlattice Microstruct. 42:299, 2007; Lee et al., J. Appl. Phys. 93:4939, 2003; A. K Azad, J. Han, W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88:021103, 2006; Janssen et al., QELS 2008 IEEE 2; D. Lagarde et al., Phys. Stat. Sol. C 4:472, 2007; S. Gosh et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86:232507, 2005; W. K. Liu et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98:186804, 2007). The main characteristic time constants relevant to optical properties close to the fundamental absorption edge are the dephasing time T 2, (i.e. the time after which the polarization amplitude of the optically excited electron-hole pair loses the coherence with the driving light field), the intra band or inter sub band relaxation times T 3 (i.e. the time it takes for the electron-hole pairs to relax from their initial state of excitation to a certain other state e.g. to a thermal distribution with a temperature equal to or possibly still above lattice temperature) and finally the lifetime T 1 (i.e. the time until the electron-hole pairs recombine). The characteristic time constants T 2 and T 1 are also known as transverse and longitudinal relaxation times, respectively. Their inverses are the corresponding rate constants. T 2 is inversely proportional to the homogeneous width ?, and T 1 includes both the radiative and the generally dominating non-radiative recombination (Hauser et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92:211105, 2008). For this point, recall Figs. 6.16 and 6.33. Since the polarisation amplitude is gone in any case after the recombination process, there is an upper limit for T 2 given by T 2 ? 2 T1. The factor of two comes from the fact that T 2 describes the decay of an amplitude and T 1 the decay of a population, which is proportional to the amplitude squared. Sometimes T 2 is subdivided in a term due to recombination described by T 1 and another called 'pure dephasing' called T 2 ? with the relation 1 / T 2 = 1 / 2 T 1 + 1 / T2 ?. The quantity T 2 ? can considerably exceed 2 T 1. In the part on relaxation processes that is on processes contributing to T 3, we give also examples for the capture of excitons into bound, localized, or deep states. For more details on dynamics in semiconductors in general see for example, the (text-) books [Klingshirn, Semiconductor Optics, 3rd edn. (Springer, Berlin, 2006); Haug and Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 4th edn. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2004); Haug and Jauho, Quantum Kinetics in Transport and Optics of Semiconductors, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 123 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 115 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); Schafer and Wegener, Semiconductor Optics and Transport Phenomena (Springer, Berlin, 2002)]. We present selected data for free, bound and localized excitons, biexcitons and electron-hole pairs in an EHP and examples for bulk materials, epilayers, quantum wells, nano rods and nano crystals with the restriction that - to the knowledge of the author - data are not available for all these systems, density ranges and temperatures. Therefore, we subdivide the topic below only according to the three time constants T 2, T 3 and T 1.

Klingshirn, C.

51

Data Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of disease and personalisation of health care [14].

Grangeat, P.

52

Assessment of a software process assessment process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The process of software process assessment presented in this paper is based on the software process assessment standard of ISO\\/IEC and practices applied in a software process improvement project with small software developing organizations. A project to establish a software process improvement network in the Satakunta region (SataSPIN) in Western Finland was started in August 1998.

T. Makinen; T. Varkoi; H. Jaakkola

2001-01-01

53

Statistical process control of multivariate processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With process computers routinely collecting measurements on large numbers of process variables, multivariate statistical methods for the analysis, monitoring and diagnosis of process operating performance have received increasing attention. Extensions of traditional univariate Shewhart, CUSUM and EWMA control charts to multivariate quality control situations are based on Hotelling's T2 statistic. Recent approaches to multivariate statistical process control which utilize not

J. F. MacGregor; T. Kourti

1995-01-01

54

Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96  

SciTech Connect

This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

NONE

1996-06-01

55

Extensible packet processing architecture  

DOEpatents

A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

2013-08-20

56

Auditory Processing Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders

57

From Process Programming to Process Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Osterweil proposed the idea of processes as a kind of software in 1986. It arose from prior work on software tools, tool integration,\\u000a and development environments, and from a desire to improve the specification and control of software development activities.\\u000a The vision of process programming was an inspiring one, directly leading to ideas about process languages, process environments,\\u000a process science

Stanley M. Sutton Jr

58

Stochastic Wear Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new class of non-decreasing stochastic processes is characterized. These processes satisfy a generalization of the notion of an increasing failure rate. From physical considerations, these processes seem suitable for describing the process of cumulative...

R. Morey

1965-01-01

59

Software Process Recovery: Recovering Process from Artifacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often stakeholders, such as developers, managers, or buyers, want to find out what software development processes are being followed within a software project. Their reasons include: CMM and ISO 9000 compliance, process validation, management, acquisitions, and business intelligence. Recovering the software development processes from an existing project is expensive if one must rely upon manual inspection of artifacts and interviews

Abram Hindle; David Cheriton

2010-01-01

60

Statistical process control application to weld process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical weld process monitoring system is described. Using data collected while welding, the welding statistical process control (SPC) tool provides weld process quality control by implementing techniques of data trending analysis, tolerance analysis, and sequential analysis. The SPC system computes the mean, standard deviation, and range of each of the parameters sampled by the data collection system. Changes in

George E. Cook; Joseph E. Maxwell; Robert Joel Barnett; Alvin M. Strauss

1997-01-01

61

Qualitative Process Automation vs. Quantitative Process Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new level of process control technology. Associated issues and opportunities are presented relative to accurate sensor measurements (sensor data accuracy), process information derived from temporal changes in sensor measurements (sensor understanding), and information reasoned from a multitude of sensors (fusion of sensor information). Recent research in the area of Artificial Intelligence (AI) based process automation is

Patrick Garrett; C. William Lee; Steven R. LeClair

1987-01-01

62

Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent  

DOEpatents

In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Kang, Dohee (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01

63

Processing Process: The Event of Making Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article takes up the notion of process and artmaking as an event to be understood neither as a singular moment of forces (e.g., artist, artwork, viewer, and/or site) coming together, nor as the "end" of a productive process that is then superseded by another event. Rather, the authors suggest that the artmaking process can be understood as an…

Richardson, Jack; Walker, Sydney

2011-01-01

64

Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent  

SciTech Connect

In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

Givens, E.N.; Kang, D.

1984-07-24

65

Business Process Reengineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Reengineering-the path to change; Information technology as an enabler of process innovation; Implementing process innovation with information technology; Redesign strategies for typical process types; Conclusions; References.

S. Surakka P. Miikkulainen

1995-01-01

66

Signal Processing, Analog,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years the term analog signal processing has been used to distinguish between traditional continuous-time signal-processing techniques and the more recently popularized techniques in digital signal processing. In this chapter, the term analog is ...

W. K. Jenkins

1987-01-01

67

Desalination processes and performance  

SciTech Connect

Different desalination processes are evaluated for feed, capacity, performance, energy requirements, and cost. These include distillation, reverse osmosis, or electrodialysis. Detailed information is given on distillation processes and membrane processes.

Summers, L. J.

1995-06-01

68

Blood Donation Process  

MedlinePLUS

Home > Donating Blood > Donation Process Printable Version Donation Process View Video Getting Ready for Your Donation The ... worry about. Make a Donation Appointment The Donation Process Step by Step Donating blood is a simple ...

69

Special parallel processing workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

NONE

1994-12-01

70

Digital Signal Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital signal processing is a technique that uses digital methods to process signals. Processing a signal means manipulating it to improve it, change it, or alter it as required for some application. Some examples of processes are filtering, modulation and demodulation, mixing, spectrum analysis, compression and decompression, and many others. In the past, most of these processes have been accomplished with analog techniques and circuits. Today, that has changed. While analog processing has not disappeared, it is slowly being replaced by digital processing in most applications. DSP is now used in almost all electronic equipment and knowledge of its operation is critical to an overall knowledge and understanding of electronics. In digital processing, the analog signal to be processed is first converted to digital then processing is done by a computer. The computer output is then converted back to analog. This module describes this process and outlines the most common applications.

2012-12-26

71

Improving the Process is Not Process Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem solving can be characterized as tactical, individual hero based, ad hoc, mistake\\/fix oriented, financially and program driven and high cost. In contrast, process improvement is a management philosophy and strategy to dramatically increase value as defined by the customer. Process improvement can be characterized as strategic, team based, systematic, aggressive, continuous, cross functional, customer driven and low cost. This

Mel Adams; Michael Kinney

72

The Deposition Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation of the chemical vapor deposition process. Objective: Identify the process of chemical vapor deposition. This simulation is from Module 054 of the Process & Equipment I Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

2012-11-08

73

Biogas purification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review on the processes that have been used or are promising for the removal of COâ, HâS, and water vapor from biogas. The process conditions and flow schemes for 16 processes are given. The basic physical mechanisms that are involved in the processes are discussed and include physical absorption into a liquid (dissolution), chemical absorption into a liquid, physical

J. C. Glaub; L. F. Diaz

1981-01-01

74

Business Process Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business Process Management Systems (BPMSs) are software platforms that support the definition, execution, and tracking of business processes. BPMSs have the ability of logging information about the business processes they support. Proper analysis of BPMS execution logs can yield important knowledge and help organizations improve the quality of their business processes and services to their business partners. This paper presents

Daniela Grigoria; Fabio Casati; Malu Castellanos; Umeshwar Dayal; Mehmet Sayal; Ming-Chien Shan

75

Digital Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the basic technological aspects of Digital Image Processing with special reference to satellite image processing. Basically, all satellite image-processing operations can be grouped into three categories: Image Rectification and Restoration, Enhancement and Information Extraction. The former deals with initial processing of raw image data to correct for geometric distortion, to calibrate the data radiometrically and to eliminate

Minakshi Kumar

1981-01-01

76

Control of Manufacturing Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course features a complete set of lecture notes and problem sets with solutions. The objective of this subject is to understand the nature of manufacturing process variation and the methods for its control. The key concepts of these lessons are: statistical process control, process optimization and in-process feedback control.

Hardt, D. E. (David E.); Boning, Duane S.

2009-01-28

77

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements  

SciTech Connect

In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

Griebenow, B.

1996-03-01

78

Process mapping: A user-friendly tool for process improvement  

SciTech Connect

Process maps aid administrative process improvement efforts by documenting processes in a rigorous yet understandable way. Icons, graphics, and text support process documentation, analysis, and improvement.

Carson, M.L.; Levine, L.O.

1993-09-01

79

Personal Software Process (PSP).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Personal Software Process (PSP) provides engineers with a disciplined personal framework for doing software work. The PSP process consists of a set of methods, forms. and scripts that show software engineers how to plan, measure, and manage their work...

W. S. Humphrey

2000-01-01

80

Innovative Thermal Treatment Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper contains discussions of several innovative thermal processes for treating or destroying hazardous wastes. Processes discussed can be included in the categories wet oxidation, molten glass, fluidized bed incineration, pyrolysis, molten salt, elec...

H. M. Freeman

1986-01-01

81

Comparing Case Processing Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information describing Federal criminal case processing is decentralized. Each of the Federal criminal justice agencies collects similar data describing criminal case processing events. However, based on the specific needs and missions of the individual a...

1996-01-01

82

Image Processing Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis introduces a new image processing language (IPL) which is based on the domains and operations required to express common image processing algorithms in a high-level language. IPL is independent of any particular computer architecture. Its impl...

R. C. Hood

1983-01-01

83

Sample Processing Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mobile Sample Processing Facility was designed and successfully operated during Operation Roller Coaster to provide: (1) a unified method of processing and packaging samples, (2) onsite counting of selected samples, and (3) a complete record of all samp...

A. L. Baietti A. Zirkes

1965-01-01

84

GREENSCOPE: Sustainable Process Modeling  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA researchers are responding to environmental problems by incorporating sustainability into process design and evaluation. EPA researchers are also developing a tool that allows users to assess modifications to existing and new chemical processes to determine whether changes in...

85

News: Process intensification  

EPA Science Inventory

Conservation of materials and energy is a major objective to the philosophy of sustainability. Where production processes can be intensified to assist these objectives, significant advances have been developed to assist conservation as well as cost. Process intensification (PI) h...

86

INNOVATIVE THERMAL TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper contains discussions of several innovative thermal processes for treating or destroying hazardous wastes. Processes discussed can be included in the categories wet oxidation, molten glass, fluidized bed incineration, pyrolysis, molten salt, electric reactors, and plasma...

87

Aerospace Materials and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center presents materials on aerospace materials and processes. Topics discussed include structural materials, metal types, metalworking processes, corrosion and corrosion prevention, fluid lines and composites.

2011-09-22

88

Image Processing Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research program, Image Processing Research, has as its primary purpose the analysis and development of techniques and systems for efficiently generating, processing, transmitting, and displaying visual images and two dimensional data arrays. Research...

W. K. Pratt

1975-01-01

89

The Diazo Copying Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an activity which demonstrates an organic-based reprographic method that is used extensively for the duplication of microfilm and engineering drawings. Discussed are the chemistry of the process and how to demonstrate the process for students. (CW)

Osterby, Bruce

1989-01-01

90

Advanced Uranium Enrichment Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three advanced Uranium enrichment processes are dealt with in the report: AVLIS (Atomic Vapour LASER Isotope Separation), MLIS (Molecular LASER Isotope Separation) and PSP (Plasma Separation Process). The description of the physical and technical features...

M. Clerc P. Plurien

1986-01-01

91

The Inductoslag Melting Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bulletin summarizes the results of Bureau of Mines research on the development of the inductoslag melting process. Inductoslag melting is an induction melting technique using a segmented, water-cooled, copper crucible. The process was developed as pa...

P. G. Clites

1982-01-01

92

Generic Drug Review Process  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Generic Drug Review Process. ... Office of Generic Drugs Home Page. The FDA Process for Approving Generic Drugs (free online training course). -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/smallbusinessassistance

93

The requirements discovery process  

SciTech Connect

Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-02-01

94

WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSING  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was made at pilot scale of a variety of processes for dewatering and stabilization of waste activated sludge from a pure oxygen activated sludge system. Processes evaluated included gravity thickening, dissolved air flotation thickening, basket centrifugation, scroll cent...

95

Fuel gas conditioning process  

DOEpatents

A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01

96

Processes on Complex Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Building on their understanding of graphs, students are introduced to random processes on networks. They walk through an illustrative example to see how a random process can be used to represent the spread of an infectious disease, such as the flu, on a social network of students. This demonstrates how scientists and engineers use mathematics to model and simulate random processes on complex networks. Topics covered include random processes and modeling disease spread, specifically the SIR (susceptible, infectious, resistant) model.

Complex Systems Science Laboratory

97

Conventional Thermal Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Thermal desalination processes account for about 50% of the entire desalination market. The remaining market share is dominated\\u000a by the reverse osmosis (RO) process. The main thermal desalination processes include multi-stage flash desalination (MSF),\\u000a multiple-effect distillation (MED), and mechanical vapor compression (MVC). Other thermal desalination processes, e.g., solar\\u000a stills, humidification dehumidification, freezing, etc., are only found on a pilot or

Hisham Ettouney

98

Approximating labelled Markov processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labelled Markov processes are probabilistic versions of labelled transition systems. In general, the state space of a labelled Markov process may be a continuum. In this paper, we study approximation techniques for continuous-state labelled Markov processes.We show that the collection of labelled Markov processes carries a Polish-space structure with a countable basis given by finite-state Markov chains with rational probabilities;

Josee Desharnais; Vineet Gupta; Radha Jagadeesan; Prakash Panangaden

2003-01-01

99

Biogas purification processes  

SciTech Connect

A review on the processes that have been used or are promising for the removal of CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S, and water vapor from biogas. The process conditions and flow schemes for 16 processes are given. The basic physical mechanisms that are involved in the processes are discussed and include physical absorption into a liquid (dissolution), chemical absorption into a liquid, physical absorption onto a solid, chemical conversion to another compound, membrane separation, and condensation.

Glaub, J.C.; Diaz, L.F.

1981-01-01

100

Statistical Process Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistical Process Control is a lesson plan which provides an overview of Statistical Process Control, showing the value of collecting and analyzing data that enables people to systematically analyze and improve a process. After completing this module, students should be able to construct and interpret different statistical charts in order to evaluate a process. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

King, John; Imre, John; Devine, Craig

2010-09-02

101

Business process Modeling Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) specification provides an abstract model for expressing business processes,and supporting entities. BPML defines a formal model for expressing abstract and executable processes,thataddress,all aspects of enterprise business processes, including activities of varying complexity, transactions and their compensation, data management, concurrency, exception handling and operational semantics. BPML also provides a grammar in the form of

A. Arkin

2002-01-01

102

Hidden Process Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis introduces Hidden Process Models (HPMs). HPMs are a probabilistic time series model for data assumed to be generated by a set of processes, where each process is characterized by a unique spatial-temporal signature and a probability distributi...

R. A. Hutchinson

2009-01-01

103

Comprehension Processes in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition" (D. A. Balota); (3)…

Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

104

Procedural Due Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A central issue in litigation arising from adverse employment decisions affecting school personnel is the adequacy of due process procedures. Due process is required only if a teacher is able to establish a protected property or liberty interest. The first section of this chapter accordingly discusses the circumstances under which due process is…

Cambron-McCabe, Nelda H.

105

The Constitutional Amendment Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

Chism, Kahlil

2005-01-01

106

Simple rheocasting processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes two recently invented simple rheocasting processes. One process used a cooling slope and the other low superheat casting in order to generate semisolid slurries with spheroidal microstructures that are amenable to thixoforming. In the former process, A356 aluminum alloy was poured into the lower part of a die and immediately an upper die, containing an internal cavity,

Toshio Haga; P Kapranos

2002-01-01

107

MCPS Comprehensive Planning Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several working papers and a guidebook to the Comprehensive Planning Process of Maryland's Montgomery County Public Schools have been collected to form this document. The process itself was developed in 1979 and will be pilot-tested during the 1981 fiscal year. These materials, therefore, constitute an interim report on a process yet to be cast in…

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

108

Signal Processing Information Base  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Signal Processing Information Base(SPIB) is a project sponsored by the Signal Processing Society and the National Science Foundation. SPIB is a repository of data, papers, software, newsgroups, bibliographies, and addresses of interest to the signal processing community, as well as links to other relevant repositories.

109

Approximating Labeled Markov Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study approximate reasoning about continuous-state labeled Markov processes. We show how to approximate a labeled Markov process by a family offinite-state labeled Markov chains. We show that the collection of labeled Markov processes carries a Polish space structure with a countable basis given by finite state Markov chains with ra- tional probabilities. The primary technical tools that we develop

Josee Desharnais; Vineet Gupta; Radha Jagadeesan; Prakash Panangaden

2000-01-01

110

Polar processing project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to explore the use of polar processing techniques in SIGINT-related signal processing applications. An investigation of ways to apply the CORDIC arithmetic algorithm to signal processing problems, and an application of the TMC2330 Coordinate Transformer chip in a coprocessor or accelerator board for a Sun workstation are covered.

C. N. Tom; W. J. Davies; J. F. Goycochea

1993-01-01

111

Polar processing project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this project was to explore the use of polar processing techniques in SIGINT-related signal processing applications. An investigation of ways to apply the CORDIC arithmetic algorithm to signal processing problems, and an application of the TMC2330 Coordinate Transformer chip in a coprocessor or accelerator board for a Sun workstation are covered.

Tom, C. N.; Davies, W. J.; Goycochea, J. F.

1993-09-01

112

Change Processes in Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on change processes in organizations. "Mid-stream Corrections: Decisions Leaders Make during Organizational Change Processes" (David W. Frantz) analyzes three organizational leaders to determine whether and how they take corrective actions or adapt their decision-making processes when…

1998

113

Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

Apelian,Diran

2002-01-10

114

Process’ and Educational Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intention of this paper is to investigate the use of the term ‘process’ in educational analysis. Drawing on a model proposed by Apple & Weis (1985) for conceptualising ideological reproduction in education, the paper argues that ‘process’ is in greater need of clarification than the terms to which it refers. The claim is that ‘process’ has become a taken?for?granted

Richard Smith

1987-01-01

115

Defense waste processing facility precipitate hydrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

Sodium tetraphenylborate and sodium titanate are used to assist in the concentration of soluble radionuclide in the Savannah River Plant's high-level waste. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility, concentrated tetraphenylborate/sodium titanate slurry containing cesium-137, strontium-90 and traces of plutonium from the waste tank farm is hydrolyzed in the Salt Processing Cell forming organic and aqueous phases. The two phases are then separated and the organic phase is decontaminated for incineration outside the DWPF building. The aqueous phase, containing the radionuclides and less than 10% of the original organic, is blended with the insoluble radionuclides in the high-level waste sludge and is fed to the glass melter for vitrification into borosilicate glass. During the Savannah River Laboratory's development of this process, copper (II) was found to act as a catalyst during the hydrolysis reactions, which improved the organic removal and simplified the design of the reactor.

Doherty, J P; Eibling, R E; Marek, J C

1986-03-01

116

Biomass process handbook  

SciTech Connect

Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

Not Available

1983-01-01

117

Process Technology: Training & Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video excerpted from Pathways to Technology, learn about process technology and career opportunities in this field. Process refers to the steps that chemicals go through to become products, like gasoline or medicine. Process technology is used in just about every manufacturing industry, from pharmaceuticals to automobiles to cosmetics. A process technician keeps the machines that process chemicals running smoothly.The video runs 2:46 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

2012-06-04

118

Evaluation of steelmaking processes  

SciTech Connect

Objective of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program is to develop a process for producing steel directly from ore and coal; the process should be less capital intensive, consume less energy, and have higher productivity. A task force was formed to examine available processes: trough, posthearth, IRSID, Electric Arc Furnace, energy optimizing furnace. It is concluded that there is insufficient incentive to replace a working BOF with any of these processes to refine hot metal; however, if new steelmaking capacity is required, IRSID and EOF should be considered. A fully continuous process should not be considered until direct ironmaking and continuous refining are perfected.

Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-01-01

119

Business Process Redesign: Design the Improved Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis reports the results of a business activity modeling exercise to explore how a functional manager in DoD can best improve and redesign one's business processes. The validity of exercise results was assessed and found to be generally accurate wi...

J. L. Warwick

1993-01-01

120

Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well…

Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

2012-01-01

121

Future Steelmaking Processes  

SciTech Connect

There is an increasing demand for an ironmaking process with lower capital cost, energy consumption and emissions than a blast furnace. It is the hypothesis of the present work that an optimized combination of two reasonable proven technologies will greatly enhance the overall process. An example is a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) linked to a smelter (e.g., AISI, HIsmelt). The objective of this research is to select promising process combinations, develop energy, materials balance and productivity models for the individual processes, conduct a limited amount of basic research on the processes and evaluate the process combinations. Three process combinations were selected with input from the industrial partners. The energy-materials and productivity models for the RHF, smelter, submerged arc furnace and CIRCOFER were developed. Since utilization of volatiles in coal is critical for energy and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, basic research on this topic was also conducted. The process models developed are a major product developed in this research. These models can be used for process evaluation by the industry. The process combinations of an RHF-Smelter and a simplified CIRCOFER-Smelter appear to be promising. Energy consumption is reduced and productivity increased. Work on this project is continuing using funds from other sources.

Prof. R. J. Fruehan

2004-09-20

122

Eigenforms, Discrete Processes and Quantum Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This essay is a discussion of the concept of eigenform, due to Heinz von Foerster, and its relationship with discrete physics and quantum mechanics. We interpret the square root of minus one as a simple oscillatory process - a clock, and as an eigenform. By taking a generalization of this identification of i as a clock and eigenform, we show how quantum mechanics emerges from discrete physics.

Kauffman, Louis H.

2012-05-01

123

Universal Heliophysical Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The physical processes in the heliospace are a direct consequence of the Sun’s mass and electromagnetic emissions. There has\\u000a been enormous progress in studying these processes since the dawn of the space age half a century ago. The heliospace serves\\u000a as a great laboratory to study numerous physical processes, using the vast array of ground and space-based measurements of\\u000a various

Nat Gopalswamy; D. F. Webb

2009-01-01

124

Alternative isotope enrichment processes  

SciTech Connect

Alternative processes such as gas centrifugation, plasma separation, and laser excited separation are evaluated for use at the ORNL Stable Isotope Enrichment Facility. The applicabiliy of each process to the isotopic enrichment of the calutron feed material and to the selective production of isotopes is determined. The process energy demands are compared to those of the existing facilities. The isotopic enrichment of the feed material prior to a first-pass through the calutrons can result in a significant saving in energy.

Terry, J.W.

1983-01-01

125

SWEPOS™ Automated Processing Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

SWEPOS™ is a multi-purpose network of permanent refe- rence stations in Sweden, supplying users with data for both real-time and post-processing on centimetre- to metre-level The Swedish national reference system SWEREF 99 is realised through SWEPOS. In order to facilitate the use of SWEPOS for accurate static post-processing, an automated processing service has been developed. The service uses the Bernese

Tina Kempe; Lotti Jivall

126

TEP process flow diagram  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

Wilms, R Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coons, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kubic, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

127

A Simulated Metamorphic Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students investigate one aspect of metamorphic activity using an analogous process, and will realize how directed pressure can align mineral grains during metamorphism. They will discover that metamorphism is a complex process with a number of simultaneously interacting and related components; and that heat, pressure, degree and composition of reacting fluids (and chemical composition) all play a role in the metamorphic process.

128

Processing Wheat for Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson on wheat processing, including an introduction to the five kinds of wheat grown in the US and the anatomy of wheat. The module then moves through the six steps in wheat processing: cleaning, conditioning, blending, breaking, sieving, and reducing. Each step is animated to help students visualize the process. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

2010-10-07

129

Educational software evaluation process.  

PubMed Central

The Active Digital Library at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center has created and implemented an educational software evaluation process to facilitate the timely recommendation for product acquisition. Using this process, breadth and depth of subject coverage, clarity of presentation, quality of construction, and ease of use are being assessed by content and technical experts. The process uses a team approach, employing a bi-level evaluation instrument based on existing software evaluation forms and system bug reports.

Huber, J T; Giuse, N B

1995-01-01

130

Educational software evaluation process.  

PubMed

The Active Digital Library at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center has created and implemented an educational software evaluation process to facilitate the timely recommendation for product acquisition. Using this process, breadth and depth of subject coverage, clarity of presentation, quality of construction, and ease of use are being assessed by content and technical experts. The process uses a team approach, employing a bi-level evaluation instrument based on existing software evaluation forms and system bug reports. PMID:7496878

Huber, J T; Giuse, N B

131

Transuranium processing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) is a remotely operated, hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. The heart of TRU is a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells housed in a two-story building. Each cell, with its 54-inch-thick walls of a special high-density concrete, has enough shielding to stop the neutrons and gamma radiation from 1 gram of 252\\/sub

1983-01-01

132

Biological Phosphorus Removal Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) processes developed for wastewater treatment are mainly based on the enrichment\\u000a of activated sludge with phosphorus-accumulating organisms under alternative anaerobic–aerobic conditions. According to the\\u000a literature information of the EBPR processes, this chapter attempts to review the biochemical models, microbiology of the\\u000a EBPR processes, and the main operating parameters that may influence the performance of the

Yong-Qiang Liu; Yu Liu; Joo-Hwa Tay; Yung-Tse Hung

133

CHTN :: Processing Fees  

Cancer.gov

Since the CHTN is an NCI supported resource, investigators are only charged a LOW processing fee for each sample to offset the costs of collecting, handling and preparing the specimens in accordance with the detailed requirements of the investigator. A sample is defined as one processed piece of a specimen, regardless of the sample size or type of processing. Each investigator is also responsible for all shipping costs.

134

Industrial process surveillance system  

DOEpatents

A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

1998-06-09

135

Parallel processing in Ada  

SciTech Connect

Ada was designed from the beginning with parallel processing applications in mind. Its tasking mechanism is a coherent response to the language issues involved in parallel processing, and carefully balances the often conflicting goals of high-level language features on the one hand and efficient implementation on the other. The purpose of this discussion is to place the design of Ada's parallel processing in its proper historical and technical context. In the process we will show how Ada itself has clarified some issues and thus established trends in language design.

Mundie, D.A.; Fisher, D.A.

1986-08-01

136

Living olefin polymerization processes  

DOEpatents

Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

Schrock, Richard R. (Winchester, MA); Baumann, Robert (Cambridge, MA)

1999-01-01

137

Living olefin polymerization processes  

DOEpatents

Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

1999-03-30

138

Lyophilization process design space.  

PubMed

The application of key elements of quality by design (QbD), such as risk assessment, process analytical technology, and design space, is discussed widely as it relates to freeze-drying process design and development. However, this commentary focuses on constructing the Design and Control Space, particularly for the primary drying step of the freeze-drying process. Also, practical applications and considerations of claiming a process Design Space under the QbD paradigm have been discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:3883-3887, 2013. PMID:23946165

Patel, Sajal Manubhai; Pikal, Michael J

2013-08-14

139

Transuranium processing plant  

SciTech Connect

The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) is a remotely operated, hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. The heart of TRU is a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells housed in a two-story building. Each cell, with its 54-inch-thick walls of a special high-density concrete, has enough shielding to stop the neutrons and gamma radiation from 1 gram of 252/sub Cf/ and associated fission products. Four cells contain chemical processing equipment, three contain equipment for the preparation and inspection of HFIR targets, and two cells are used for analytical chemistry operations. In addition, there are eight laboratories used for process development, for part of the process-control analyses, and for product finishing operations. Although the Transuranium Processing Plant was built for the purpose of recovering transuranium elements from targets irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), it is also a highly versatile facility which has extensive provisions for changing and modifying equipment. Thus, it was a relatively simple matter to install a Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) in one of the TRU chemical processing cells for use in the evaluation and demonstration of solvent extraction flowsheets for the recovery of fissile and fertile materials from irradiated reactor fuels. The equipment in the SETF has been designed for process development and demonstrations and the particular type of mixer-settler contactors was chosen because it is easy to observe and sample.

King, L.J.

1983-01-01

140

EARSEC SAR processing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, the production of high quality Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery has been an area where a potential user would have to expend large amounts of money in either the bespoke development of a processing chain dedicated to his requirements or in the purchase of a dedicated hardware platform adapted using accelerator boards and enhanced memory management. Whichever option the user adopted there were limitations based on the desire for a realistic throughput in data load and time. The user had a choice, made early in the purchase, for either a system that adopted innovative algorithmic manipulation, to limit the processing time of the purchase of expensive hardware. The former limits the quality of the product, while the latter excludes the user from any visibility into the processing chain. Clearly there was a need for a SAR processing architecture that gave the user a choice into the methodology to be adopted for a particular processing sequence, allowing him to decide on either a quick (lower quality) product or a detailed slower (high quality) product, without having to change the algorithmic base of his processor or the hardware platform. The European Commission, through the Advanced Techniques unit of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Institute for Remote Sensing at Ispra in Italy, realizing the limitations on current processing abilities, initiated its own program to build airborne SAR and Electro-Optical (EO) sensor systems. This program is called the European Airborne Remote Sensing Capabilities (EARSEC) program. This paper describes the processing system developed for the airborne SAR sensor system. The paper considers the requirements for the system and the design of the EARSEC Airborne SAR Processing System. It highlights the development of an open SAR processing architecture where users have full access to intermediate products that arise from each of the major processing stages. It also describes the main processing stages in the overall architecture and illustrates the results of each of the key stages in the processor.

Protheroe, Mark; Sloggett, David R.; Sieber, Alois J.

1994-12-01

141

A Business Process Intelligence System for Enterprise Process Performance Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business process management systems traditionally focused on supporting the modeling and automation of business processes, with the objective of enabling fast and cost-effective process execution. As more and more processes become automated, customers become increasingly interested in managing process execution. This paper presents a set of concepts and a methodology toward business process intelligence (BPI) using dynamic process performance evaluation,

WenAn Tan; Weiming Shen; Lida Xu; Bosheng Zhou; Ling Li

2008-01-01

142

Parallel processing state alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes circuitry in a multiple processor system for aligning the processing states of autonomous processors interconnected by a common communication channel, the circuitry comprising means for generating successive reference signals, means, responsive to the processors, for storing quantities indicative of the next processing states as scheduled by each of the associated processors, and means, coupled to the generating

Vollaro

1989-01-01

143

Material processing with vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of controlled atmosphere, especially vacuum, is the integral part of much the materials processing effort involving special materials. The underlying reasons that warrant the presence of vacuum along with high temperatures in these processing schemes are rooted in the thermodynamic properties of the materials particularly in relation to their interaction with gases and other interstitials. Apart from this pressure is also a highly usable process parameter that can be tailored to establish the desired heterogeneous equilibrium, in turn determined by the material to be produced or process to be executed. The range and depth of vacuum metallurgy or vacuum materials processing is vast. The present paper covers a selection of materials processing activities that have been carried out in the Materials Group, BARC involving production of materials, their processing and also basic property determination. A range of vacuum and furnace systems have been used and the practice of designing the process from fundamentals and executing through various batch sizes, and the solution of issues involved are all covered.

Krishnamurthy, N.; Suri, A. K.

2008-05-01

144

Sentences as Biological Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of the speech process was conducted. The process is described as one closely linked to the one involved in the problem of the serial order in behavior. It is pointed out that in the speech of young children the grammatical relations that are properties of elementary underlying sentences appear in the grammatical meanings. Six examples of…

McNeil, David

145

Cognitive Processes and Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

146

Coal conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is processed sequentially over a range of temperatures up to a maximum of 750° F. and preferably considerably less to obtain a clean burning coke, refinable petroleum and bitumen products, fertilizer minerals, combustible gases and water; the process is capable of producing a highly porous, easily crushed coke substantially free of pollutants and almost entirely depleted of oil so

1984-01-01

147

Competency Process Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography consists of resource material used in the formulation and development of "competency process," a collaborative approach to designing and implementing competency based teacher education by energizing creative abilities, developing staff commitment, and utilizing group process and problem solving methodology. The bibliography…

Woodward, Lois K.; And Others

148

Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides insights into the "Applying Mathematical Processes" resources, developed by the Nuffield Foundation. It features Nuffield AMP activities--and related ones from Bowland Maths--that were designed to support the teaching and assessment of key processes in mathematics--representing a situation mathematically, analysing,…

Kathotia, Vinay

2011-01-01

149

Process for coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

In two stage solvent refining of coal by mixing comminuted coal with a solvent produced in the process under hydrogen pressure for initial solubilization and reacting the mixture under hydrogen pressure in a second stage, the overall process is improved by enriching the recycled solvent in hydroaromatic hydrocarbons of fourteen or less carbon atoms.

Farcasiu, M.; Mitchell, T.O.; Whitehurst, D.D.

1983-02-22

150

Duck-Processing Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two duck-processing plants located on Long Island were studied to obtain waste load and water use data for comparison with chicken processing data. Weighted averages for both plants studied indicate water use of 23.6 gallons and waste loads of 0.0419 poun...

G. L. Morris

1965-01-01

151

Powder processing of aluminides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research was carried out to clarify the process variables in producing Nb(sub 3)Al/Nb composite material and to examine the usefulness of Nb phase as a reinforcement in this material. Two processes were investigated and it has been found that the syn...

O. Kanou

1990-01-01

152

Exposing the Programming Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue - probably because the textbook medium is static and therefore ill suited to expose the process of programming.

Jens Bennedsen; Michael E. Caspersen

2008-01-01

153

Scalable Distributed Stream Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stream processing fits a large class of new applications for which conventional DBMSs fall short. Because many stream-oriented systems are inherently geographically distributed and because distribution offers scalable load management and higher availability, future stream processing systems will operate in a distributed fashion. They will run across the Internet on computers typically owned by multiple cooperating administrative domains. This paper

Mitch Cherniack; Hari Balakrishnan; Magdalena Balazinska; Donald Carney; Ugur Çetintemel; Ying Xing

2003-01-01

154

Microsystem process networks  

SciTech Connect

Various aspects and applications or microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Whyatt, Greg A [West Richland, WA

2010-01-26

155

Microsystem process networks  

DOEpatents

Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having exergetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

2006-10-24

156

Microsystem process networks  

DOEpatents

Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of Microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

2007-09-18

157

Gas-separation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material. 6 figures.

L. G. Toy; I. Pinnau; R. W. Baker

1994-01-01

158

CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN SOILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

“Chemical Processes in Soils” edited by Tabatabai and D.L. Sparks (2005) is a key review useful for soil scientists, agronomists, conservationists, environmental scientists and other related professionals who need to understand these processes of chemical reactions and how they may be related to the...

159

Unconscious Orientation Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings have shown that certain attributes of visual stimuli, like orientation, are registered in cortical areas when the stimulus is unresolvable or perceptually invisible; however, there is no evidence to show that complex forms of orientation processing (e.g., modulatory effects of orientation on the processing of other features) could occur in the absence of awareness. To address these questions,

Reza Rajimehr

2004-01-01

160

HF process (hydroforming)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very comprehensive description is presented of the development of the HF process through the pilot-plant stage. The report included many graphs and tables giving data on various aspects of experimentation for the process, including starting materials, temperatures, pressures, throughputs, yields, composition of products, and amount of circulating gases. Preliminary experiments in small, electrically-heated ovens were used to discover which

Welz

1943-01-01

161

Geophysical signal processing  

SciTech Connect

Draws together a number of areas of knowledge to give unified coverage of the subject: the geophysical applications of digital signal processing. The presentation has a strong applications orientation. The coverage connects and unifies several fields, namely wave propagation, digital signal processing, spectral analysis, and computer methods. The book covers many topics in depth.

Robinson, E.A.; Durrani, T.S.

1986-01-01

162

Microgravity Control Integration Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

To verify that the International Space Station (ISS) payload facility racks do not disturb the microgravity environment of neighboring facility racks during any ISS microgravity period, a control integration process must be followed. Currently no facility racks have taken this process from start to finish. The authors are assisting the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Fluids Combustion Facility (FCF) in

J. Heese; Carlos M. Grodsinsky

2002-01-01

163

Mindfulness: Method and Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the processes and principles that underlie mindfulness is a needed step, because this method enters into the armamentarium of empirical clinical psychology. Mindfulness is closely related to several procedures, in- cluding acceptance, cognitive defusion, and exposure. Although each of these procedures seems to target dif- ferent behavioral processes, they are all interrelated, be- cause ultimately all of them target

Steven C. Hayes; Kelly G. Wilson

2003-01-01

164

Relational Processing Following Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

2013-01-01

165

The processes of inference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental models represent possibilities, and the theory of mental models postulates three systems of mental processes underlying inference: (0) the construction of an intensional representation of a premise's meaning – a process guided by a parser; (1) the building of an initial mental model from the intension, and the drawing of a conclusion based on heuristics and the model; and

Sangeet Khemlani; P. N. Johnson-Laird

2012-01-01

166

Adaptable Due Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements of procedural due process must adapt to our constantly changing world. Over thirty years have passed since the Supreme Court in Goldberg v. Kelly and Mathews v. Eldridge adopted what appears to be a dynamic, fact-intensive approach to determining the procedures required by the Due Process Clause. Federal, state, and local government agencies responded by establishing new procedural

Jason Parkin

2012-01-01

167

Collaborative Process Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process evaluations provide multiple opportunities to improve prevention and intervention programs that benefit communities experiencing oppression and marginalization. In order to thwart the negative effects of power and privilege, it is essential that collaborative partnerships with community-based organizations (CBOs) incorporate the voices, experiences, and skills of community members. This article presents a process evaluation that was collaboratively developed and implemented

Gary W. Harper; Richard Contreras; Audrey Bangi; Ana Pedraza

2003-01-01

168

Ion Exchange Membrane Processes  

SciTech Connect

Techniques were developed, and promising preliminary tests were completed in an exploratory study of the applicability of ion exchange membrane processes to such chemical operations as the separation of plutonium from uranium, the separation of americium from curium, the isolation of individual rare earths, the removal of strontium from process waste streams. This report discusses results of those tests.

Wallace, R.M.

2002-10-30

169

Process for preparing radiopharmaceuticals  

DOEpatents

A process for the preparation of technetium-99m labeled pharmaceuticals is disclosed. The process comprises initially isolating technetium-99m pertechnetate by adsorption upon an adsorbent packing in a chromatographic column. The technetium-99m is then eluted from the packing with a biological compound to form a radiopharmaceutical.

Barak, Morton (Walnut Creek, CA); Winchell, Harry S. (Lafayette, CA)

1977-01-04

170

Microwave processing of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

Katz, J.D.

1993-04-01

171

Microwave processing of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

Katz, J.D.

1993-01-01

172

Workflows and Cooperative Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workflows emphasize the partial order of activities, and the flow of data between activities. In contrast, cooperative processes emphasize the sharing of artefact, and its gradual evolution toward the final product, under the cooperative and concurrent activities of all the involved actors. This paper contrasts workflow and cooperative processes and shows that they are more complementary than conflicting and that,

Jacky Estublier; Sergio Garcia

2006-01-01

173

Software process: a roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software process research deals with the methods and technologies used to assess, support, and improve software development activities. The field has grown up during the 80s to address the increasing complexity and criticality of software development activities. This paper aims to briefly present the history and achievements of software process research, some critical evaluation of the results produced so far,

Alfonso Fuggetta

2000-01-01

174

Process, Product, and Playmaking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines relationships among process, product, and playmaking in a southeastern playwriting and performance program for teen girls, Playmaking for Girls (PFG). The authors have chosen to focus on tensions between process and product. Such tensions are present in the challenges teachers experience when privileging student-centered…

Fisher, Maisha T.; Purcell, Susie Spear; May, Rachel

2009-01-01

175

Illuminating the metastatic process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently most studies of metastasis only measured the end point of the process — macroscopic metastases. Although these studies have provided much useful information, the details of the metastatic process remain somewhat mysterious owing to difficulties in studying cell behaviour with high spatial and temporal resolution in vivo. The use of luminescent and fluorescent proteins and developments in optical

Erik Sahai

2007-01-01

176

Vibration in cutting processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any cutting process is accompanied by vibration. With moderate amplitudes, the vibration may be ignored; with considerable amplitudes, stability loss is possible [1]. Much research has focused on eliminating the negative consequences of vibration in cutting processes. Some papers focus on the positive influence of vibration on machining [2]: they basically deal with vibrocutting and cutting accompanied by vibration of

M. P. Kozochkin

2009-01-01

177

Digital image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of digital image processing is reviewed with reference to its origins, progress, current status, and prospects for the future. Consideration is given to the evolution of image processor display devices, developments in the functional components of an image processor display system (e.g. memory, data bus, and pipeline central processing unit), and developments in the software. The major future

B. R. Hunt

1981-01-01

178

Laser-ablation processes  

SciTech Connect

The various mechanisms by which ablation of materials can be induced with lasers are discussed in this paper. The various ablation processes and potential applications are reviewed from the threshold for ablation up to fluxes of about 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, with emphasis on three particular processes; namely, front-surface spallation, two-dimensional blowoff, and contained vaporization.

Dingus, R.S.

1992-05-01

179

Laser-ablation processes  

SciTech Connect

The various mechanisms by which ablation of materials can be induced with lasers are discussed in this paper. The various ablation processes and potential applications are reviewed from the threshold for ablation up to fluxes of about 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, with emphasis on three particular processes; namely, front-surface spallation, two-dimensional blowoff, and contained vaporization.

Dingus, R.S.

1992-01-01

180

Streamlining the EIS Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new publication service abstracts, indexes, and prepares microfiche of environmental impact statements (EIS). This new service is designed to streamline the EIS process by reducing the cost and time of preparation, by eliminating redundancy of similar statements, and by working with the government to standardize the preparation process. (MA)|

Josephson, Julian

1977-01-01

181

The HASS development process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of HASS into the marketplace has enabled scores of manufacturers to dramatically reduce the number of production related failures from being shipped into their customer's hands. HASS is a screening process that uses accelerated techniques to uncover manufactured product weaknesses and flaws. The process requires the use of the HALT results, and other product specific information to design

David Rahe

1999-01-01

182

Drying and dedusting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heating and drying process is disclosed for dedusting heavy oil derived from solid hydrocarbon-containing material, such as oil shale, coal or tar sand, without the use of diluents, solvents, chemical additives or mechanical separators, such as centrifuges and filters. In the process, heavy oil is fed to a dryer, such as a screw conveyor dryer or fluid bed dryer,

E. D. York; P. B. Miller; M. B. Thacker

1983-01-01

183

Processing of plastics  

PubMed Central

An overview is given of the processing of plastic materials from the handling of polymers in the pellet and powder form to manufacturing of a plastic fabricated product. Various types of equipment used and melt processing ranges of various polymer formulations to make the myriad of plastic products that are commercially available are discussed.

Spaak, Albert

1975-01-01

184

Medical device design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current design process is a combination of methods from engineering disciplines, government regulatory agencies (domestic and international) and independent certification and compliance companies. The goal of the processes that have been developed is to be certain that a new product meets the users expectations, is safe and effective in providing its claimed benefits. As products have become more complex

Byron L. Gilman; James E. Brewer; Mark W. Kroll

2009-01-01

185

A Textbook Selection Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the problem facing college faculties of choosing textbooks that are both "readable" by students and adequate in content coverage, a text selection process has been developed that can be used with or without the aid of a reading specialist. The first step in the process, a preliminary check, examines each proposed text's publication…

Prosser, Daniel R.; Bondavalli, Bonnie J.

186

Multicomputer digital processing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a data processing system. It comprises: a first bus; at least two second buses; an input\\/output bus; a testbus with lines for the serial transfer of information; a plurality of computer units connected to the second buses; a first bus control unit; at least one first bus access unit; and a system monitor including processing means for

M. N. Matelan; T. G. Leete; L. Zsohar; M. K. Blanchard; A. Naeini; J. Hsu; D. K. Smith

1989-01-01

187

Gas-separation process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material. 6 figures.

Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.; Baker, R.W.

1994-01-25

188

Fermentation process kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on fermentation process kinetics is potentially valuable for the improvement of batch pro- cess performance; it is essential for continuous process design. An empirical examination of rate patterns in vari- ous fermentations discloses three basic types: (1) 'growth associated' products arising directly from the en- ergy metabolism of carbohydrates supplied, (2) indirect products of carbohydrate metabolism and (3) products

Elmer L. Gaden

2000-01-01

189

Silicon Production Process Evaluations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical engineering analysis of the preliminary process design of a process for producing solar cell grade silicon from dichlorosilane is presented. A plant to produce 1,000 MT/yr of silicon is analyzed. Progress and status for the plant design are r...

1981-01-01

190

Algebraic Theory of Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides general and systematic introduction to the semantics of concurrent systems. The author presents his own theory of the behavioral semantics of processes ( testing equivalence ) and original results in example languages for distributed processes. The problems addressed are motivated from the standpoint of computer science, and all the required algebraic concepts are covered.

Matthew Hennessy

1988-01-01

191

HEPA filter dissolution process  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

1992-12-31

192

Process Writing Checklist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This checklist is designed to help develop writing strategies for English language learners (ELLs), focusing on a variety of linguistic strategies inherent in the writing process. It provides them with a graphical representation of the cognitive process involved in complex writing, promoting self-assessment strategies and integrating oral…

Jenks, Christopher J.

193

Advanced signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A collection of papers on advanced signal processing in radar, sonar, and communications is presented. The topics addressed include: transmitter aerials, high-power amplifier design for active sonar, radar transmitters, receiver array technology for sonar, new underwater acoustic detectors, diversity techniques in communications receivers, GaAs IC amplifiers for radar and communication receivers, integrated optical techniques for acoustooptic receivers, logarithmic receivers, CCD processors for sonar, acoustooptic correlators, designing in silicon, very high performance integrated circuits, and digital filters. Also discussed are: display types, scan converters in sonar, display ergonomics, simulators, high throughput sonar processors, optical fiber systems for signal processing, satellite communications, VLSI array processor for image and signal processing, ADA, future of cryogenic devices for signal processing applications, advanced image understanding, and VLSI architectures for real-time image processing.

Creasey, D. J.

1985-12-01

194

Abatement process for contaminants  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A process for removing a contaminant from a surface. In the first step of this process, a liquid-state composition is applied to a surface comprising a contaminant. Next, the liquid-state composition is allowed to solidify into a solid-state matrix comprising the contaminant, thereby sequestering the contaminant. Finally, the solid-state matrix is removed from the surface, thereby decontaminating the surface. Also provided is a process for cleaning up a contaminant-containing spill in which a liquid-state composition is applied to the spill, physically mixed with the spill, and allowed to form a solid-state matrix. The matrix is then removed, thereby cleaning up the spill. A further process is provided for detecting a contaminant in a surface or spill, in which a contaminant-detecting compound is applied to a surface or spill and is allowed to react with the contaminant to produce a detectable change, thereby detecting the contaminant. A further process is provided for mitigating the toxicity of a contaminant in a surface or spill, in which a toxicity-mitigating compound is applied to a surface or spill and allowed to react with the contaminant to from a compound which is less toxic than the contaminant. Also disclosed is a process for accelerating the formation of a solid-state matrix from a liquid-state composition. In this process, a composition comprising a chemical drying agent is applied to the liquid-state composition.

Grawe; John (New Orleans, LA)

1995-06-06

195

Adventures in SAR processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image formation process associated with coherent imaging sensor is particularly sensitive to and is often corrupted by non-stationary processes. In the case of SAR, non- stationary processes result from motion within the scene, variable radar cross section, multi-path, topographic variations, sensor anomalies, and deficiencies in the image formation processing chain. Conversely, stationary processes result in image signatures that appear literal to the eye, e.g., urban infrastructure, vegetation, and natural terrain. In analyzing SAR signal history two objectives unfold. One is to obtain a well-focused image devoid of distortions and non-literal artifacts. The second objective is the detection and value-added exploitation of the non-stationary signatures. Note that the roles of signal and clutter are reversed for these two objectives. The notion that joint time-frequency (JTF) techniques may prove useful in accomplishing these objectives has spurred limited investigations into the field of coherent radar imaging systems. This paper addresses SAR image formation processing, the complex response function for a point source, and SAR JTF image formation implementations. Each of these topics is described within the context of applying JTF processing to all aspects of SAR image formation and analysis.

Fiedler, Ralph; Jansen, Robert

2000-04-01

196

Auditory Processing Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are at least two main reasons why auditory processing models are constructed: to represent the results from a variety of experiments within one framework and to explain the functioning of the system. Specifically, processing models help generate hypotheses that can be explicitly stated and quantitatively tested for complex systems. The models can also help determine how a deficit in one or more components affects the overall operation of the system. The development of auditory models has been hampered by the complexity of the individual auditory processing stages and their interactions. This resulted in a multiplicity of auditory models described in the literature.

Dau, Torsten

197

The Universal Troubleshooting Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Universal Troubleshooting Process (UTP) is an abbreviated version of the book Troubleshooting Techniques of the Successful Technologist by Steve Litt. UTP consists of ten steps designed to help modern workers diagnose the system in question and ultimately repair it. The process is very general and can be applied to virtually any well-defined system. Each step of the process is carefully outlined and can be easily followed. The Web site also has links to applicable articles from Steve Litt's online Troubleshooting Professional Magazine. UTP is a clever and original approach to troubleshooting technical systems.

Litt, Steve.

2006-01-24

198

Ultrasonic Processing of Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

2005-06-30

199

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

DOEpatents

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01

200

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

Mayberry, J.L.

1988-04-13

201

Cognitive Processing Hardware Elements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research is to identify and develop cognitive information processing systems and algorithms that can be implemented with novel architectures and devices with the goal of achieving high-speed decision making and cognitive responses to s...

B. Widrow V. Eliashberg M. Kamenetsky

2005-01-01

202

Advances in Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

Morrison, David L.; And Others

1982-01-01

203

Direct coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

Rindt, John R. (Grand Forks, ND); Hetland, Melanie D. (Grand Forks, ND)

1993-01-01

204

Presenting the Scientific Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a course titled Scientific Process, the authors introduce undergraduates to the philosophy and practice of science and initiate them into a 2-year undergraduate research track. Engaging exercises and discussions help students understand the scientific

Meers, Mason; Savarese, Michael; Demers, Nora E.

2003-12-01

205

NASA Space Shuttle Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Space Shuttle Processing at Kennedy Space Center. A demonstration of the Space Shuttle silica tiles, a description of its High Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI), tile inspections, and tile replacemen...

L. L. Andruske

2010-01-01

206

IMX Double Direct Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this work is to develop a new explosive based on eutectic blends of ammonium nitrate with ethylenediamine dinitrate and its homologues and to assess the safety and performance characteristics of these formulations. Various processes for mak...

L. J. Vande Kieft W. W. Hillstron E. J. Pacanowsky

1984-01-01

207

Laser in Ceramics Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LASER, an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation have unique properties, Which make it differ from ordinary light such as it is highly coherent, monochromatic, negligible divergence and scattering loss and a intense beam of electromagnetic radiation or light. It also occur in a wide range of wavelength/frequency (from Ultraviolet to Infrared), energy/power and beam-mode/configurations ; Due to these unique properties, it have use in wide application of ceramic processing for industrial manufacturing, fabrication of electronic circuit such as marking, serializing, engraving, cutting, micro-structuring because laser only produces localized heating, without any contact and thermal stress on the any part during processing. So there is no risk of fracturing that occurs during mechanical sawing and also reduce Cost of processing. The discussion in this paper highlight the application of laser in ceramics processing.

Lal, Bajrang; Jain, Pankaj

208

Stochastic Processes in CHEMFETs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methodology for evaluation of the electrochemical parameters of both equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes using fluctuation analysis has been fully developed. This paper describing the basic aspects of this technique in a tutorial form has been s...

J. Janata J. J. Brophy

1987-01-01

209

Parallel processing architecture  

DOEpatents

The parallel processing architecture provides a processor array which accepts input data at a faster rate that its processing elements are able to execute. The main features of this architecture are its programmability, scalability, high bandwidth communication and low cost. It provides high connectivity while maintaining minimum distance between processor elements. This architecture enables construction of a parallel processing with high bandwidth communication in six directions among the neighboring processors. It provides for future growth into more complex and optimized algorithms, and facilitiates incorporation of hardware advances with little effect on currently installed systems. Parallel processing architecture is useful for data sharing in an array, pattern recognition within a data array and sustaining a data input rate which is higher than the pattern recognition algorithm execution time (particle identification in high energy physics).

Crosetto, D.B.

1992-01-01

210

Hallmarks, Processing nutrients: Hanahan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancer cells require a source of nutrients and oxygen, which is supplied through new blood vessel growth âÃÂàthe process of angiogenesis, which is critical for almost all cancers.

2009-12-26

211

Interpersonal processes in depression.  

PubMed

Humans have an intrinsic need for social connection; thus, it is crucial to understand depression in an interpersonal context. Interpersonal theories of depression posit that depressed individuals tend to interact with others in a way that elicits rejection, which increases their risk for future depression. In this review, we summarize the interpersonal characteristics, risk factors, and consequences of depression in the context of the relevant theories that address the role of interpersonal processes in the onset, maintenance, and chronicity of depression. Topics reviewed include social skills, behavioral features, communication behaviors, interpersonal feedback seeking, and interpersonal styles as they relate to depression. Treatment implications are discussed in light of the current research on interpersonal processes in depression, and the following future directions are discussed: developing integrative models of depression, improving measurement of interpersonal constructs, examining the association between interpersonal processes in depression and suicide, and tailoring interventions to target interpersonal processes in depression. PMID:23297787

Hames, Jennifer L; Hagan, Christopher R; Joiner, Thomas E

2013-01-03

212

Phenol removal pretreatment process  

DOEpatents

A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO)

2004-04-13

213

LIDC - Data Collection Process  

Cancer.gov

Slide 2Principle GoalsTo establish standard formats and processes for managing thoracic CT scans and related technical and clinical data for use in the development and testing of computer-aided diagnostic algorithms.

214

Human Planning Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a three-year research project investigating the cognitive processes underlying human planning behavior. The project focused on problems analogous to the naval tactical planning problem: How should the decisionmaker move force units ...

B. Hayes-Roth S. Cammarata S. E. Goldin F. Hayes-Roth S. Rosenschein

1980-01-01

215

Advanced Information Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current text processing techniques fall short of required accuracies. Text retrieval and filtering techniques are still largely based on keywords. Several new techniques and their combinations, can provide far greater accuracy in text retrieval and dissem...

J. M. Pirog

1992-01-01

216

Mixing and Dispersion Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The effect of high slurry concentrations of the stirrer speed for complete suspension; Coagulation processes in a stirred tank; The effect of gas-liquid mass transfer and pore diffusion on the triacyl-glycerol distribution of partially hydrogena...

1987-01-01

217

High intensity laser processes  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on high intensity laser processes. Topics covered include laser particle acceleration, multiphoton ionization and related phenomena, laser-produced plasma x-ray sources, and x-ray lasers.

Alcock, A.J.

1986-01-01

218

The Diffusion Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation which illustrates the diffusion process. The two models that have been developed to explain the mechanism for the diffusion of dopants into silicon are the Vacancy model and the Interstitial model. It is the different bonding characteristics of the dopants with silicon that determine the diffusion mechanism. Although each model is based on these differences, they are not mutually exclusive. Objective: Explain the difference between the Vacancy and Interstitial diffusion models. You can find this animation under the heading "Process & Equipment III." This simulation is from Module 019 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

2012-11-22

219

Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)|

Goldberg, Robert B.

1988-01-01

220

Chemical Processing of Glasses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of chemical processing methods for the fabrication of glass and ceramic shapes for photonic applications is frequently Edisonian in nature. In Part, this is because the numerous variables that must be optimized to obtain a given material w...

R. M. Laine

1992-01-01

221

Word Processing for Architects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper introduces the concept of word processing and its application in an architect's office. The subject is dealt with in a superficial manner to portray a general appreciation of the capability and resourcefulness of this method of document composi...

J. R. Tanton

1981-01-01

222

Qualitative Process Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objects move, collide, flow, bend, heat up, cool down, stretch, compress. and boil. These and other things that cause changes in objects over time are intuitively characterized as processes. To understand commonsense physical reasoning and make programs t...

K. D. Forbus

1984-01-01

223

Aluminum powder metallurgy processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from a...

J. F. Flumerfelt

1999-01-01

224

Coal liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

Skinner, R.W.; Tao, J.C.; Znaimer, S.

1985-04-09

225

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

1985-01-01

226

The physical refining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with influences and optimizing of changing process conditions for physical refining of palm oil. These process\\u000a variables are temperature, pressure, residence time, fluid flow and stripping steam to oil ratio. These parameters influence\\u000a not only finished oil quality, oil yield, energy consumption and running costs, but also content and yield of natural stabilizers\\u000a like tocopherols or color

Hermann Stage

1985-01-01

227

Gas separation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

CNG Research Co.,'s selective acid-gas-removal scheme is particularly suitable for purifying coal-gasification product gases. Additionally, the process can yield pure COâ and relatively concentrated HâS via the crystallization of selected components by freezing. The method is more nearly reversible and requires less net energy input than previous processes, its absorbent losses are minimal, the absorbents have a low viscosity, heat-exchange

R. J. Adler; C. B. Brosilow; W. R. Brown; N. C. Gardner

1981-01-01

228

Intelligent forms processing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an intelligent forms processing system (IFPS) which provides capabilities for automatically indexing\\u000a form documents for storage\\/retrieval to\\/from a document library and for capturing information from scanned form images using\\u000a intelligent character recognition (ICR). The system also provides capabilities for efficiently storing form images. IFPS consists\\u000a of five major processing components: (1) An interactive document analysis stage that

Richard G. Casey; David R. Ferguson; K. Mohiuddin; Eugene Walach

1992-01-01

229

Deploying and Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We’ve discussed deploying and processing cubes a few times, but it’s been a very rote “push this button, hope it works” process\\u000a for you. In this chapter, we’re going to discuss what deploying actually means and the various ways of doing it. We’ll talk a bit about synchronizing databases between servers—similar to\\u000a mirroring for transactional databases. Finally, we’ll talk about

Philo Janus; Guy Fouché

230

Of Processors and Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital signal processing is a stealth technology. It is the core enabling technology in everything from your cellphone to the Mars Rover. It goes much further than just enabling a one-time breakthrough product. It provides ever-increasing capability; compare the performance gains made by dial-up modems with the recent performance gains of DSL and cable modems. Remarkably, digital signal processing has

Gene Frantz; Ray Simar

2004-01-01

231

The Dynamo Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These pages describe a dynamo process that creates the magnetic fields of the Earth and the Sun. Flows of electrically conducting material through existing magnetic fields produces electric currents, which maintain the magnetic field. Dynamos in the Earth's core reverse their north-south polarity, a process recorded by sea-floor magnetization, which confirms the slow motion of continents. Includes translations to Spanish, French and German.

Stern, David

2004-05-19

232

Aerosol processing for nanomanufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in nanoparticle synthesis are opening new opportunities for a broad variety of technologies that exploit the special\\u000a properties of matter at the nanoscale. To realize this potential will require the development of new technologies for processing\\u000a nanoparticles, so as to utilize them in a manufacturing context. Two important classes of such processing technologies include\\u000a the controlled deposition of nanoparticles

Steven L. Girshick

2008-01-01

233

Partial oxidation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous process for preventing the build-up of metals from the hydrocarbonaceous fuel feed in a partial oxidation system in which about 80-100 wt. % of the carbon-soot produced is recycled to the gas generator. By the subject process a significantly large portion of the metals and metal compounds i.e. ash in the soot-water feed stream to the decanter become

R. M. Dille; L. E. Estabrook; H. A. Rhodes; G. N. Richter; J. G. P. Rohner

1984-01-01

234

Analysis of Negotiation Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Communication can be considered to lie “at the heart” of the negotiation process, it ties together the individual decisions\\u000a and choices which, together with communication, form the negotiation process (See the chapter by Kersten and Lai, this volume).\\u000a It encompasses both hard facts as offers or factual questions (See the chapter by Schoop, this volume) as well as soft factors

Sabine T. Koeszegi; Rudolf Vetschera

235

Process Signal Features Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, a phase plane analysis method has been proposed as a new way of analyzing nonstationary signals, based on\\u000a wavelet theory. Some basic concepts are defined to form a theoretical framework of this method. Several possible applications\\u000a are discussed. This approach offers the potential for building new intelligent process signal analysis systems to identifying\\u000a the process “finger prints”,

Xue-dong Dai; B. Joseph; R. L. Motard

236

Vinylidene olefin process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for dimerizing an alpha olefin to a vinylidene olefin. The process comprises contacting the alpha olefin at a temperature ranging between about -60°C. to about 280°C. with a catalyst comprising (a) a metallocene having the general formula (cyclopentadienyl)âMYâ wherein M is zirconium or hafnium and each Y is individually selected from the group consisting of hydrogen,

L. H. Slaugh; G. W. Schoenthal

1987-01-01

237

Process for depositing salts  

SciTech Connect

A process for depositing a salt by applying an electric current or voltage to at least one pair of electrodes placed in a supersaturated aqueous solution or supercolled molten liquid of an inorganic or organic salt, whereby the supersaturation or supercooling can be broken or prevented and the crystallization or solidification of the salt can be efficiently made. The process of the invention is advantageously utilized in an air-conditioning system.

Kotani, Y.; Kashimoto, T.

1985-07-16

238

Hydrogen recovery process  

DOEpatents

A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

2000-01-01

239

Affine processes are regular  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that stochastically continuous, time-homogeneous affine processes on the canonical state space $${\\\\mathbb{R}_{\\\\geq 0}^m \\\\times \\\\mathbb{R}^n}$$ are always regular. In the paper of Duffie et al. (Ann Appl Probab 13(3):984–1053, 2003) regularity was used as a crucial\\u000a basic assumption. It was left open whether this regularity condition is automatically satisfied for stochastically continuous\\u000a affine processes. We now show that the

Martin Keller-Ressel; Walter Schachermayer; Josef Teichmann

2009-01-01

240

Mean residual life processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yang and Hall and Wellner initiated investigations of the asymptotic uniform behaviour of mean residual life (MRL) processes. They obtained results holding true over fixed and expanding compact subintervals of $[0, \\\\infty)$.\\u000a¶ In this exposition we study MRL processes over the whole positive half-line $[0, \\\\infty)$. We describe classes of weight functions which enable us to establish the (a)

Miklós Csörg?; Ri?ardas Zitikis

1996-01-01

241

Business Process Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent progress of Business Process Management (BPM) is reflected by the figures of the related industry. Wintergreen\\u000a Research estimates that the international market for BPM-related software and services accounted for more than USD $1 billion\\u000a in 2005 with a tendency towards rapid growth in the subsequent couple of years [457]. The relevance of business process modeling\\u000a to general management

Jan Mendling

2009-01-01

242

Advanced Polymer Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-25

243

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

Karr, Jr., Clarence (Morgantown, WV)

1977-04-19

244

Furnace dust recovery process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for removing lead oxide which forms a leachable contaminant from zinc oxide in recovered waste dust. The process includes the steps of: heating the waste dust in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature which is sufficient to form lead oxide vapors; separating the lead oxide vapors from the fluid or sinter mass in the oxidizing atmosphere which mass includes zinc oxide; solidifying the lead oxide vapors; and recovering the solidified lead oxide vapors.

Bricmont, F.H.

1987-06-16

245

Process Modelling and Microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the many routes which are used for the processing of high-temperature materials, solidification plays a key role. Several modelling tools are now available for the simulation of the interconnected macroscopic phenomena associated with any casting process (heat exchange, mould filling, convection, stress development, etc.). Based upon finite-difference (FD) or finite-element (FE) techniques, these models solve the continuity equations of

M. Rappaz; Ch.-A. Gandin; A. M. Stoneham; M. McLean; M. S. Loveday

1995-01-01

246

Olefin isomerization process  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for isomerizing the olefinic double bond of a vinylidene olefin containing about 12-20 carbon atoms. The process consists of contacting the vinylidene olefin with a catalytic amount of an iron carbonyl at a temperature of about 150/sup 0/-350/sup 0/C whereby the major isomerization product of the vinylidene olefin is a di-substituted internal olefin.

Peters, B.C.

1986-05-06

247

Polycrystalline semiconductor processing  

DOEpatents

A process is described for forming large-grain polycrystalline films from amorphous films for use as photovoltaic devices. The process operates on the amorphous film and uses the driving force inherent to the transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state as the force which drives the grain growth process. The resultant polycrystalline film is characterized by a grain size that is greater than the thickness of the film. A thin amorphous film is deposited on a substrate. The formation of a plurality of crystalline embryos is induced in the amorphous film at predetermined spaced apart locations and nucleation is inhibited elsewhere in the film. The crystalline embryos are caused to grow in the amorphous film, without further nucleation occurring in the film, until the growth of the embryos is halted by impingement on adjacently growing embryos. The process is applicable to both batch and continuous processing techniques. In either type of process, the thin amorphous film is sequentially doped with p and n type dopants. Doping is effected either before or after the formation and growth of the crystalline embryos in the amorphous film, or during a continuously proceeding crystallization step. 10 figs.

Glaeser, A.M.; Haggerty, J.S.; Danforth, S.C.

1983-04-05

248

The Kimberley Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past several decades have seen a growing interest among various social justice organizations into investigating the various origins or manufacturing processes used to create various products and their effects on the people who make these products. One such luxury item that has come under close scrutiny is the diamond. In May 2000, Southern African diamond producing states met in Kimberly, South Africa to come up with a way to stop the trade in conflict diamonds and "to ensure consumers that the diamonds that they purchase have not contributed to violent conflict and human rights abuses in their countries of origin." Some two years later, a number of participants (including national governments and the international diamond industry) developed the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme to assure that these conflict diamonds would not enter legitimate trade. On this compelling site, visitors can learn about the process, read news updates about the process, and read documents related to the process from the World Trade Organization and examine a list of participants in the process.

249

Studsvik Processing Facility Update  

SciTech Connect

Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 3.3 million pounds (1.5 million kgs) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, and activated carbon, which comprised a cumulative total activity of 18,852.5 Ci (6.98E+08 MBq). To date, the highest radiation level for an incoming resin container has been 395 R/hr (3.95 Sv/h). The Studsvik Processing Facility (SPF) has the capability to safely and efficiently receive and process a wide variety of solid and liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) streams including: Ion Exchange Resins (IER), activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents, and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/h). The licensed and heavily shielded SPF can receive and process liquid and solid LLRWs with high water and/or organic content. This paper provides an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing radioactive LLRW from commercial nuclear power plants. Process improvements and lessons learned will be discussed.

Mason, J. B.; Oliver, T. W.; Hill, G. M.; Davin, P. F.; Ping, M. R.

2003-02-25

250

Soviet gas processing expands  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet gas processing industry expanded with the recent completion of two new gas processing plants, the Krasnoleninskiy and Noyabr'sk plants, both located in West Siberia. Both process associated gas from nearby oil fields to remove valuable liquid hydrocarbons before putting the dry gas into pipelines; previously the gas was flared or vented. These plants represent part of a major program, ongoing since the 1970s, to increase the level of utilization of the tremendous amount of valuable associated gas now being produced in West Siberia. Another major effort to develop gas processing is under way in western Kazakhstan at the Tengiz and Zhanazhol' fields. At Zhanazhol', a small gas recovery plant went into operation in late 1984 in conjunction with a separation plant with a processing capacity of 1 million tons of oil per year. A much larger enterprise to refine oil and process associated gas is under construction at the Tengiz field. This enterprise is different from the major petrochemical operation planned to use feedstocks from Tengiz; the petrochemical operation will be constructed at Kulsary, 120 kilometers from Tengiz, and produce polyethylene, polypropylene, and other plastics.

Sagers, M.J.

1987-09-01

251

Ionic liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of regenerating the solubilizing agent from the process stream of a single stage ionic coal liquefaction process wherein the coal liquefaction is accomplished by reaction of the coal with a polar solvent solubilizing agent and an aqueous solution containing inorganic ionic species where major amounts of the solubilizing agent are selected from the group consisting of aromatic alcohols, phenols, polycyclic phenols and substituted phenols; including o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, catechol, resorcinol, naphthol and mixtures and derivatives thereof; and minor amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, partially-hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fully hydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having from 1 to 4 carbon rings such as naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, acenaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, tetralin, gamma-picoline, isoquinoline, dihydronaphthalene, decalin, 9,10-dihydroanthracene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene and mixtures and derivatives thereof, as well as carbonaceous material-derived solvents; and (b) the inorganic ionic species are dissolved in water and include a compound having a cation selected from the group consisting of alkali and alkaline-earth metals comprising the steps after ionic liquefaction of: (1) removing non-condensible gases from the process stream; (2) removing immiscible water from the process stream; (3) removing alkaline compound containing solids from the process stream; (4) removing carbonaceous products from the process stream by the use of methanol; (5) separating methanol from the solubilizing agents; (6) separately hydrotreating the carbonaceous products; (7) recovering methanol; and (8) recovering regenerated solubilizing agent capable of being used directly in a single stage ionic coal liquefaction process.

Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.; Farnum, S.A.

1989-07-11

252

Due process traditionalism.  

PubMed

In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges. PMID:18595214

Sunstein, Cass R

2008-06-01

253

NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty nine cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. The neptunium campaign was divided into two parts: Part 1 which consisted of oxide made from H-Canyon neptunium solution which did not require any processing prior to conversion into an oxide, and Part 2 which consisted of oxide made from additional H-Canyon neptunium solutions which required processing to purify the solution prior to conversion into an oxide. The neptunium was received as a nitrate solution and converted to oxide through ion-exchange column extraction, precipitation, and calcination. Numerous processing challenges were encountered in order make a final neptunium oxide product that could be shipped in a 9975 shipping container. Among the challenges overcome was the issue of scale: translating lab scale production into full facility production. The balance between processing efficiency and product quality assurance was addressed during this campaign. Lessons learned from these challenges are applicable to other processing projects.

Jordan, J; Watkins, R; Hensel, S

2009-05-27

254

PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

DOEpatents

A process for concentrating fission-product-containing waste solutions from fuel element processing is described. The process comprises the addition of sugar to the solution, preferably after it is made alkaline; spraying the solution into a heated space whereby a dry powder is formed; heating the powder to at least 220 deg C in the presence of oxygen whereby the powder ignites, the sugar is converted to carbon, and the salts are decomposed by the carbon; melting the powder at between 800 and 900 deg C; and cooling the melt. (AEC) antidiuretic hormone from the blood by the liver. Data are summarized from the following: tracer studies on cardiovascular functions; the determination of serum protein-bound iodine; urinary estrogen excretion in patients with arvanced metastatic mammary carcinoma; the relationship between alheroclerosis aad lipoproteins; the physical chemistry of lipoproteins; and factors that modify the effects of densely ionizing radia

Allemann, R.T.; Johnson, B.M. Jr.

1961-10-31

255

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering design of the third distillation column in the process was accomplished. The initial design is based on a 94.35% recovery of dichlorosilane in the distillate and a 99.9% recovery of trichlorosilane in the bottoms. The specified separation is achieved at a reflux ratio of 15 with 20 trays (equilibrium stages). Additional specifications and results are reported including equipment size, temperatures and pressure. Specific raw material requirements necessary to produce the silicon in the process are presented. The primary raw materials include metallurgical grade silicon, silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen, copper (catalyst) and lime (waste treatment). Hydrogen chloride is produced as by product in the silicon deposition. Cost analysis of the process was initiated during this reporting period.

1982-05-01

256

Magnetic Particle Process Improvement  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic particle testing process is performed to find linear, surface and near surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic test materials. A wet fluorescent method is used at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). This method employs a liquid carrier mixed with iron oxide particles in suspension, and the particles used in the method are coated with a fluorescent dye to make them visible under a black light. The process in its current state employs the use of a tank of liquid solution of a mineral oil carrier with iron oxide particles in suspension. The change to the use of an aerosol delivery system with the same material reduces the amount of waste involved in the process while preserving the sensitivity of the testing, shortens the flowtime for the test, and saves labor and material costs.

Hubert, R.R.

2002-08-13

257

URANIUM PRECIPITATION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

A method for the recovery of uranium from sulfuric acid solutions is described. In the present process, sulfuric acid is added to the uranium bearing solution to bring the pH to between 1 and 1.8, preferably to about 1.4, and aluminum metal is then used as a reducing agent to convert hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent state. As the reaction proceeds, the pH rises amd a selective precipitation of uranium occurs resulting in a high grade precipitate. This process is an improvement over the process using metallic iron, in that metallic aluminum reacts less readily than metallic iron with sulfuric acid, thus avoiding consumption of the reducing agent and a raising of the pH without accomplishing the desired reduction of the hexavalent uranium in the solution. Another disadvantage to the use of iron is that positive ferric ions will precipitate with negative phosphate and arsenate ions at the pH range employed.

Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Smith, H.W.; Simard, R.

1957-12-01

258

Process window metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is the third of a series that defines a new approach to in-line lithography control. The first paper described the use of optically measurable line-shortening targets to enhance signal-to-noise and reduce measurement time. The second described the dual-tone optical critical dimension (OCD) measurement and analysis necessary to distinguish dose and defocus. Here we describe the marriage of dual-tone OCD to SEM-CD metrology that comprises what we call 'process window metrology' (PWM), the means to locate each measured site in dose and focus space relative to the allowed process window. PWM provides in-line process tracking and control essential to the successful implementation of low-k lithography.

Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Chu, William; Hadel, Linda M.; Ho, Hok; Talvi, Peter

2000-06-01

259

Process assessment magnetics engineering  

SciTech Connect

A process waste assessment of the Magnetics Engineering laboratory to determine the waste material, identify the hazardous materials usage and waste production, and to target those processes and operations that need to be improved or replaced to promote waste minimization. The purpose of the Magnetics Engineering laboratory is to fabricate and develop and prototype magnetics components and processes to produce the components. Magnetics components are generally fabricated with copper magnet wire, electrical leads or lead wire, electromagnet cores of ferrite or ferrous metals, and epoxy or other encapsulation materials. The hazardous materials utilized in fabricating magnetics include solvents, encapsulation materials, chemical stripper for removing magnet wire insulating films, bonding and coating materials. The materials identified for minimization or elimination include Isovere, a chemical stripper, trichloroethylene, freon, and an epoxy curing agent containing MDA. Programs are in place to eliminate or reduce operator exposure to all of these materials.

Adams, C.J.; Merkel, M.A.

1992-03-10

260

Optimizing process vacuum condensers  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum condensers play a critical role in supporting vacuum processing operations. Although they may appear similar to atmospheric units, vacuum condensers have their own special designs, considerations and installation needs. By adding vacuum condensers, precondensers and intercondensers, system cost efficiency can be optimized. Vacuum-condensing systems permit reclamation of high-value product by use of a precondenser, or reduce operating costs with intercondensers. A precondenser placed between the vacuum vessel and ejector system will recover valuable process vapors and reduce vapor load to an ejector system--minimizing the system`s capital and operating costs. Similarly, an intercondenser positioned between ejector stages can condense motive steam and process vapors and reduce vapor load to downstream ejectors as well as lower capital and operating costs. The paper describes vacuum condenser systems, types of vacuum condensers, shellside condensing, tubeside condensing, noncondensable gases, precondenser pressure drop, system interdependency, equipment installation, and equipment layout.

Lines, J.R.; Tice, D.W. [Graham Mfg. Co., Batavia, NY (United States)

1997-09-01

261

Basic Nanotechnology Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK) Center is an organization committed to supporting twoâÂÂyear degree programs in micro and nanotechnology. The center offers online educational material for curriculum enhancement in this subject field. One of these courses focuses on basic nanotechnology processes. The material is a âÂÂhands-on introduction to the processing involved in âÂÂtop downâÂÂ, âÂÂbottom upâÂÂ, and hybrid nanofabrication.â Downloadable features include topics such as introductions to basic pattern transfer, wet etching and uses of plasmas in processing. Additionally, resources on chemical vapor and physical deposition are available in this unit. The site requires a free log-in for access to the material.

2010-03-05

262

Nanoparticles via nanoprecipitation process.  

PubMed

Various encapsulation approaches have been explored during the last years in order to encapsulate classical active molecules and new synthesized molecules principally for the in vivo therapy as drug delivery nanocarriers and also for the in vivo biomedical diagnostic. These approaches lead to new and versatile systems exhibiting high encapsulation yields of small molecules mainly. Due to the use of biodegradable polymers, the final particles and dispersions exhibit low cytotoxicity and in some cases total biocompatibility. To enhance local targeting efficiency, nanoparticles are chemically grafted using specific antibody for a specific disease. One of the easiest processes leading to rapid particles formation is the nanoprecipitation. Such process is mainly based on polymer transfer from good solvent to poor solvent condition, leading consequently to nanoparticles formation via self-assembly of precipitated polymer chains. The article discussed some of patents associated with Nanoprecipitation Process. PMID:22845041

Minost, Audrey; Delaveau, Jean; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

2012-12-01

263

NTP comparison process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

Corban, Robert

264

GALFACTS Data Processing Pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galactic ALFA Continuum Survey (GALFACTS) is a large-area spectro-polarimetric survey being carried out with the Arecibo Radio Telescope in Puerto Rico. It uses the seven-beam focal plane feed array receiver system (ALFA) recently installed at Arecibo to carry out an imaging survey project of the 12,700 square degrees of sky visible from Arecibo at 1.4 GHz. The raw data produced by the spectrometer creates fifty-six digital data streams (seven beams, four polarization states and two frequency bands) each with 4096 spectral channels sampled at 1 millisecond. The aggregate data rate is 875 MB/s. The data processing pipeline for the GALFACTS observations consists of two parts: (i) the derivation of parameters necessary for processing of the GALFACTS main run data using the calibration observations, and (ii) processing of the main run data to create calibrated spectral image cubes converted to Stokes parameters (I, Q, U, V). Thus, the imaging process consist of mapping the time-frequency observations to sky coordinate-frequency data cubes. This process is computationally expensive, and involves many calibration and transformation steps, which will be discussed here. Being the first such survey ever attempted, the data processing offers significant challenges right from dealing with a very large data-set to the fact that new techniques need to be developed to reduce such a data-set. The multi-beam nature of observations requires significant modifications of the traditional data reduction techniques for single feed, single dish data.

Guram, S. S.; Andrecut, M.; George, S. J.; Taylor, A. R.

2011-07-01

265

Parallel processing state alignment  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes circuitry in a multiple processor system for aligning the processing states of autonomous processors interconnected by a common communication channel, the circuitry comprising means for generating successive reference signals, means, responsive to the processors, for storing quantities indicative of the next processing states as scheduled by each of the associated processors, and means, coupled to the generating means and the storing means, for comparing the number of the generated reference signals to the quantities and for inhibiting the generating means whenever the number is equivalent to any of the quantities.

Vollaro, J.R

1989-05-23

266

Yeast nuclear RNA processing  

PubMed Central

Nuclear RNA processing requires dynamic and intricately regulated machinery composed of multiple enzymes and their cofactors. In this review, we summarize recent experiments using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system that have yielded important insights regarding the conversion of pre-RNAs to functional RNAs, and the elimination of aberrant RNAs and unneeded intermediates from the nuclear RNA pool. Much progress has been made recently in describing the 3D structure of many elements of the nuclear degradation machinery and its cofactors. Similarly, the regulatory mechanisms that govern RNA processing are gradually coming into focus. Such advances invariably generate many new questions, which we highlight in this review.

Bernstein, Jade; Toth, Eric A

2012-01-01

267

Sequential elution process  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus are disclosed for the separation of complex mixtures of carbonaceous material by sequential elution with successively stronger solvents. In the process, a column containing glass beads is maintained in a fluidized state by a rapidly flowing stream of a weak solvent, and the sample is injected into this flowing stream such that a portion of the sample is dissolved therein and the remainder of the sample is precipitated therein and collected as a uniform deposit on the glass beads. Successively stronger solvents are then passed through the column to sequentially elute less soluble materials. 1 fig.

Kingsley, I.S.

1987-01-06

268

Sequential elution process  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for the separation of complex mixtures of carbonaceous material by sequential elution with successively stronger solvents. In the process, a column containing glass beads is maintained in a fluidized state by a rapidly flowing stream of a weak solvent, and the sample is injected into this flowing stream such that a portion of the sample is dissolved therein and the remainder of the sample is precipitated therein and collected as a uniform deposit on the glass beads. Successively stronger solvents are then passed through the column to sequentially elute less soluble materials.

Kingsley, Ilse S. (Bethlehem, PA)

1987-01-01

269

PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM  

DOEpatents

A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

1958-10-01

270

Crow process modeling  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (wRI) has developed a numerical model (TCROW) to describe CROW{sup TM} processing of contaminated aquifers. CROW is a patented technology for the removal of contaminant organics from water-saturated formations by injection of hot water or low- temperature steam. TCROW is based on a fully implicit, thermal, compositional model (TSRS) previously developed by wRI. TCROW`s formulation represents several enhancements and simplifications over TSRS and results in a model specifically tailored to model the CROW process.

NONE

1997-04-01

271

Proofs, Programs, Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a realisability interpretation for inductive and coinductive definitions and discuss its application to program extraction from proofs. A speciality of this interpretation is that realisers are given by terms that correspond directly to programs in a lazy functional programming language such as Haskell. Programs extracted from proofs using coinduction can be understood as perpetual processes producing infinite streams of data. Typical applications of such processes are computations in exact real arithmetic. As an example we show how to extract a program computing the average of two real numbers w.r.t. to the binary signed digit representation.

Berger, Ulrich; Seisenberger, Monika

272

Combinitorial resist processing studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new processing tool, the Thermal Gradient Plate (TGP) is described. The TGP allows for a range of temperatures to be expressed on a wafer or other substrate in a controlled and reproducible manner. Materials coated on a substrate can be baked across a range of temperatures, allowing multiple experiments to be run in parallel. Combining orthogonal TGP bakes creates a matrix of temperature pairs on a single wafer, allowing two bake step processes to be studied in a single experimental run. Experimental results demonstrating a variety of resist studies are described, including resist CD temperature dependence, underlayer cure temperature determination, and two bake step interactions.

Larson, Carl E.; Wallraff, Gregory M.

2004-05-01

273

Array signal processing  

SciTech Connect

This is the first book to be devoted completely to array signal processing, a subject that has become increasingly important in recent years. The book consists of six chapters. Chapter 1, which is introductory, reviews some basic concepts in wave propagation. The remaining five chapters deal with the theory and applications of array signal processing in (a) exploration seismology, (b) passive sonar, (c) radar, (d) radio astronomy, and (e) tomographic imaging. The various chapters of the book are self-contained. The book is written by a team of five active researchers, who are specialists in the individual fields covered by the pertinent chapters.

Haykin, S.; Justice, J.H.; Owsley, N.L.; Yen, J.L.; Kak, A.C.

1985-01-01

274

Teachers' Domain: Scientific Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource features two NOVA videos that depict the scientific process in the framework of two groundbreaking 20th century experiments. The first video depicts the the work of chemist Percy Julian to find a synthetic treatment for glaucoma, and the second features Dr. Judah Folkman's quest to understand how tumors grow. The videos are accompanied by an animated graphic display that shows the steps each scientist is taking along the path of scientific process. The graphics help learners understand that scientists approach and solve problems in unique, non-linear ways. Though both scientists are rigorous and orderly, their approaches do not follow a textbook "scientific method".

2010-10-06

275

Lasers in materials processing  

SciTech Connect

A status report on the uranium Laser Isotope Separation (LIS) Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented. Prior to this status report, process economic analysis is presented so as to understand how the unique properties of laser photons can be best utilized in the production of materials and components despite the high cost of laser energy. The characteristics of potential applications that are necessary for success are identified, and those factors that have up to now frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser induced chemical and physical process for the production of new or existing materials are pointed out.

Davis, J.I.; Rockower, E.B.

1981-01-01

276

URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS  

DOEpatents

In the prior art processing of uranium ores, the ore is flrst digested with nitric acid and filtered, and the uranium values are then extracted tom the filtrate by contacting with an organic solvent. The insoluble residue has been processed separately in order to recover any uranium which it might contain. The improvement consists in contacting a slurry, composed of both solution and residue, with the organic solvent prior to filtration. Tbe result is that uranium values contained in the residue are extracted along with the uranium values contained th the solution in one step.

Yeager, J.H.

1958-08-12

277

The Diffusion Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. In an orderly and comprehensive set of lectures, lessons, and laboratory activities, MATEC explicates for your learners the complex process of diffusion. Beginning with an overview of diffusion's purpose in altering a wafer's electrical characteristics, the module then drills down to specifics: process parameters, different techniques of diffusion, the use of a hot probe to evaluate diffusion, and wafer handling. Your learners demonstrate their new knowledge by diffusing selected dopants into a silicon wafer.

2012-12-05

278

Teaching Reflection Seismic Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Without pictures, it is difficult to give students a feeling for wave propagation, transmission, and reflection. Even with pictures, wave propagation is still static to many. However, when students use and modify scripts that generate wavefronts and rays through a geologic model that they have modified themselves, we find that students gain a real feeling for wave propagation. To facilitate teaching 2-D seismic reflection data processing (from acquisition through migration) to our undergraduate and graduate Reflection Seismology students, we use Seismic Un*x (SU) software. SU is maintained and distributed by Colorado School of Mines, and it is freely available (at www.cwp.mines.edu/cwpcodes). Our approach includes use of synthetic and real seismic data, processing scripts, and detailed explanation of the scripts. Our real data were provided by Gregory F. Moore of the University of Hawaii. This approach can be used by any school at virtually no expense for either software or data, and can provide students with a sound introduction to techniques used in processing of reflection seismic data. The same software can be used for other purposes, such as research, with no additional expense. Students who have completed a course using SU are well equipped to begin using it for research, as well. Scripts for each processing step are supplied and explained to the students. Our detailed description of the scripts means students do not have to know anything about SU to start. Experience with the Unix operating system is preferable but not necessary -- our notes include Computer Hints to help the beginner work with the Unix operating system. We include several examples of synthetic model building, acquiring shot gathers through synthetic models, sorting shot gathers to CMP gathers, gain, 1-D frequency filtering, f-k filtering, deconvolution, semblance displays and velocity analysis, flattening data (NMO), stacking the CMPs, and migration. We use two real (marine) data sets. One of these is very easy to process, yet provides an extraordinary example of the importance of migration after stack. The other data set is a challenge to process, due to contamination by multiples. Students who complete the SU exercises learn the structure of reflection seismic data, the fundamentals of seismic data processing, and gain an introduction to signal processing, providing them with the tools required to make appropriate career choices and/or to continue their research.

Forel, D.; Benz, T.; Pennington, W. D.

2004-12-01

279

Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

2007-05-01

280

Actinide metal processing  

DOEpatents

A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

281

Process integrated of high aspect ratio copper dual damascene process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the manufacturing process in semiconductor determines the overall manufacturability of the process. It has been known that pattern missing and defects could be prevented by optimal the process module tuning. The abnormal pattern collapse observed in this process and numerous defects could be prevented by optimizing the fabrication process module tuning. To successfully integrated sub-micron dual damascene

Chun-Jen Weng

2009-01-01

282

Business process simulation: a fundamental step supporting process centered management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business processes are increasingly recognised as the key to competitive survival. The important opportunities inherent to this invisible economic asset are the foundations of process centred management. Simulation of business processes creates added value in understanding, analysing, and designing processes by introducing dynamic aspects. It provides decision support by anticipation of future changes in process design and improves understanding of

Marc Aguilar; Tankred Rautert; Alexander J. G. Pater

1999-01-01

283

Ghostbusting Transgenerational Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenerational processes contribute to organizing and disorganizing attachment. The past (in all its forms and potentialities) lives on in the present, influencing the affective field of the parent–child intersubjective matrix. In a child's construction of self, he or she may run up against the confounding presence of ghosts: the dissociated, and thereby unreflected upon past of their parents. This implicitly

Laurel Moldawsky Silber

2012-01-01

284

Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation process  

DOEpatents

A process for the production of a mono-olefin from a gaseous paraffinic hydrocarbon having at least two carbon atoms or mixtures thereof comprising reacting said hydrocarbons and molecular oxygen in the presence of a platinum catalyst. The catalyst consist essentially of platinum supported on alumina or zirconia monolith, preferably zirconia and more preferably in the absence of palladium, rhodium and gold.

Schmidt, Lanny D. (Minneapolis, MN); Huff, Marylin (St. Paul, MN)

2002-01-01

285

The Oil Refining Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Learning Centre at the New Zealand Refining Company Ltd., hosts a collection of annotated diagrams and pictures of various stages in the oil refining process. Users can click their way through the site to learn somewhat technical details of oil delivery, storage, and refinement.

Company, The N.

286

Extraterrestrial Materials Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first year results of a multi-year study of processing extraterrestrial materials for use in space are summarized. Theoretically, there are potential major advantages to be derived from the use of such materials for future space endeavors. The types o...

W. H. Steurer

1982-01-01

287

Sulfur recovery process  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for recovering sulfur from a process feed stream mixture of gases comprising sulfur-containing compounds including hydrogen sulfide using the Claus reaction to convert sulfur-containing compounds to elemental sulfur and crystallization to separate sulfur-containing compounds from a tail gas of the Claus reaction for further processing as a recycle stream. It comprises: providing a Claus feed stream containing a stoichiometric excess of hydrogen sulfide, the Claus feed stream including the process feed stream and the recycles stream; introducing the Claus feed stream and an oxidizing agent into a sulfur recovery unit for converting sulfur-containing compounds in the Claus feed stream to elemental sulfur; withdrawing the tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit; separating water from the tail gas to producing a dehydrated tail gas; separating sulfur-containing compounds including carbonyl sulfide from the dehydrated tail gas as an excluded material by crystallization and withdrawing an excluded material-enriched output from the crystallization to produce the recycle stream; and combining the recycle stream with the process feed stream to produce the Claus feed stream.

Hise, R.E.; Cook, W.J.

1991-06-04

288

Process for purifying phosphatides  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A process for purifying phosphatides to obtain transparent phosphatides wherein crude phosphatides are subjected to the combined action of a hydrophobic liquid and water is described. The two liquids are separated and the purified phosphatide product is recovered from the hydrophobic liquid. In this way, a transparent phosphatide product is obtained.

Sietz; Fritz G. (Zwijndrecht, NL)

1979-09-04

289

Motion signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques from the image and signal processing domain can be successfully applied to designing, modifying, and adapting ani- mated motion. For this purpose, we introduce multiresolution mo- tion filtering, multitarget motion interpolation with dynamic time- warping, waveshaping and motion displacement mapping. The techniques are well-suited for reuse and adaptation of existing mo- tion data such as joint angles, joint coordinates

Armin Bruderlin; Lance Williams

1995-01-01

290

Image Processing Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACT: A brief description of astronomical image software is presented. This software was developed in a Digital Micro Vax II Computer System. : St presenta una somera descripci6n del software para procesamiento de imagenes. Este software fue desarrollado en un equipo Digital Micro Vax II. : DATA ANALYSIS - IMAGE PROCESSING

Bosio, M. A.

1990-11-01

291

Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

292

Corona discharge processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of corona discharge induced plasmas and unipolar ions are reviewed. Corona process applications emphasize one of two aspects of the discharge: the ions produced or the energetic electrons producing the plasma. The ion identities depend on the polarity of the discharge and the characteristics of the gas mixture, specifically on the electron attaching species. The electron energies depend on

J.-S. Chang; P. A. Lawless; T. Yamamoto

1991-01-01

293

Towards richer process principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's and tomorrow's complex, interdependent, dynamic systems require richer process principles than the simplistic principles in the Agile Manifesto or in simplistic sequential waterfall or Vee models. The resulting principles should capitalize on the strengths of these while avoiding their weaknesses.

Barry Boehm

2011-01-01

294

Surfactant oil recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfactant oil recovery process is claimed in which an aqueous fluid containing petroleum sulfonate is injected into an oil formation containing water which is naturally fresh or which has been reduced to an acceptable salinity level by a pre-flush with fresh water is disclosed. Optimum oil recovery is achieved by determining the average equivalent weight petroleum sulfonate which produces the

J. T. Carlin; J. H. Park

1978-01-01

295

Materials and Processes II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a second course on materials and processes as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. Topics include the history of the composite industry, identifying and characterizing composite materials, composite manufacturing, methods of inspection of composite materials, and symptoms and causes of faulty bonds.

2011-08-11

296

Femtosecond laser materials processing  

SciTech Connect

The use femtosecond pulses for materials processing results in very precise cutting and drilling with high efficiency. Energy deposited in the electrons is not coupled into the bulk during the pulse, resulting in negligible shock or thermal loading to adjacent areas.

Stuart, B.C.

1997-02-01

297

Color Detection Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the computer operation of coverting raster-scan data to a lineal format for the purposes of cartographic image processing, the accuracy of the output lineal data, compared to the graphic source, is influenced by the quality of the input raster data. Ra...

R. G. Hubbard

1975-01-01

298

Revealing the programming process  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have

Jens Bennedsen; Michael E. Caspersen

2005-01-01

299

Pulsar signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews the principal methods which have been used in searching for and processing pulsar signals, with only a minimum amount of attention given to the physical implications of pulsar data. The fast folding algorithm (FFA) and fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods of period searching are described along with digital dispersion search techniques. The effect of interstellar dispersion on

T. H. Hankins; B. J. Rickett

1975-01-01

300

Chemical waterflood process development  

SciTech Connect

A waterflood process is claimed wherein a slug of biopolymer is injected into a formation, followed by a slug of synthetic polymer. The biopolymer slug protects the synthetic polymer from degradation due to presence of salts or surfactants in the formation.

Chang, H.L.

1980-04-01

301

Secondary oil recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secondary recovery process is described which employs the steps of (1) injecting into the formation via an injection well a solution of a polymerized methacrylate in a water-miscible solvent, and (2) recovering from the formation oil displaced by the injected solution via the production well. Optionally, after step (1), a hydrocarbon fluid can be injected via the injection well

A. Brown; S. F. Hager; M. Chichakli; C. H. Wu

1977-01-01

302

Aeolian processes on Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this pre-Magellan review of aeolian processes on Venus we show that the average rate of resurfacing is less than 2 to 4 km\\/Ga, based on the impact crater size frequency distribution derived from Venera observations, reasonable values of the impact flux, and the assumption of steady state conditions between crater production and obliteration. Viscous relaxation of crater topography, burial

Ronald Greeley; Raymond E. Arvidson

1990-01-01

303

Process for Isotope Separation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process is claimed for isotopic separation applied to isotopes of elements that can be placed in at least a physicochemical form in which the isotopic atoms or the molecules containing these atoms can be easily displaced and for which there are selectiv...

B. F. M. Emile

1983-01-01

304

Building Science Process Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A well-designed and executed field trip experience serves not only to enrich and supplement course content, but also creates opportunities to build basic science process skills. The National Science Education Standards call for science teachers "to design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources…

DeFina, Anthony V.

2006-01-01

305

Delayed coking process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a process for delayed coking of heavy petroleum residue feedstock within a coker heater, a coke drum and a fractionator, wherein the feedstock and recycle material are heated in the heater and then passed to the coke drum to produce coke and overhead vapors, wherein the vapors are fed into a bottom primary section of the fractionator. A heavy

Mallari

1989-01-01

306

The Scientific Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore how they can use the processes of science to learn about events that occurred in the past. They make observations, develop a hypothesis, and use evidence to test their hypothesis to see how well it holds up in light of their evidence.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

307

URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

The separation of uranium from an aqueous solution containing a water soluble uranyl salt is described. The process involves adding an alkali thiocyanate to the aqueous solution, contacting the resulting solution with methyl isobutyl ketons and separating the resulting aqueous and organic phase. The uranium is extracted in the organic phase as UO/sub 2/(SCN)/sub/.

McVey, W.H.; Reas, W.H.

1959-03-10

308

Transportation Systems Planning Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

PLANiTS (Planning and Analysis Integration for Intelligent Trans- portation Systems) is a process-based computer system that supports a series of mutually interdependent steps progressing toward developing and programming transportation improvement projects. It is a tool that translates problems and goals to performance measures, examines possible competing and complementary transportation improvement actions, systematically evaluates the impacts of actions using models and

ASAD J. KHATTAK; ADIB KANAFANI

309

S-Process Chronometers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The radionuclei exp 40 K, exp 81 Kr, exp 87 Rb, exp 93 Zr, exp 107 Pd, exp 147 Sm, exp 176 Lu and exp 205 Pb are built up totally or partially by the s-process. Due to their long half life they are potential chronometers for the age and the development of...

H. Beer

1983-01-01

310

UCG process data base  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process modeling in underground coal gasification (UCG) systems is a useful tool. Often, however, the experimental data necessary to test proposed models and mechanisms is not readily available. To help overcome this problem we describe in this paper a UCG Data Base we are developing to assist in making detailed data from DOE-sponsored field programs easily available. In addition, the

C. B. Thorsness; R. J. Cena

1980-01-01

311

Enchanced gas separation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for the enhanced separation of gases is described comprising: (a) contacting a feed gas stream at an elevated pressure with a permeable membrane capable of selectively permeating a first component thereof, thereby obtaining a first component enriched, second component depleted permeate portion of the feed stream at a reduced pressure, and a second component enriched, first component depleted

Doshi

1987-01-01

312

Gas separation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the removal of sulfur-containing gas molecules from a feed gas stream, comprising precluding the need to distill the feed gas stream by the steps of: (1) contacting the gas stream in countercurrent flow with a liquid carbon dioxide absorbent to absorb and entrain the sulfur-containing molecules; (2) separating a substantially desulfurized residual gas stream from

R. J. Adler; C. B. Brosilow; W. R. Brown; N. C. Gardner

1986-01-01

313

Formalizing the Evolution Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on identifying and formalizing the process under- lying the development of an evolution algorithm. The main argument elabo- rated in this work is that the development of an algorithm dealing with the in- corporation of new knowledge in a logical structure (such as an ontology) is based on a pattern consisting of discrete and well-defined steps which

Giorgos Flouris; George Konstantinidis

314

Array Processing for FORTRAN.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Special Task Force on Cray FORTRAN (STF) was chartered to consider ...new language features to exploit the vector hardware of the CRAY-1 that might also be applicable to other large scientific computers. The new array processing features in STF FORTRA...

C. Wetherell

1980-01-01

315

Immunology as Information Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes the behavior of the immune system from an informationprocessing perspective. It reviews a series of projects conducted at the University of New Mexico and the Santa Fe Institute, which have developed and explored the theme "immunology as information processing." The projects cover the spectrum from serious modeling of real immunological phenomena, such as crossreactive responses in animals

Stephanie Forrest; Steven A. Hofmeyr

2000-01-01

316

Change Process in Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on the change process in organizations moderated by John Redding at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Corporate Culture: Friend or Foe of Change?" (Joanne Burgess) reports a study of the characteristics of corporate culture that facilitate…

1996

317

WASTE RETRIEVAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents a process description for the retrieval of earth-covered, contact handled (CH) suspect transuranic (TRU) waste containers located in the Low Level Burial Grounds (LLBG). To meet the goal of completing retrieval, suspect CH TRU containers will have been moved from the trenches, assayed and vented as necessary, required labeling applied, and stored in a designated treatment, storage,

2004-01-01

318

Highly concurrent scalar processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

High speed scalar processing is an essential characteristic of high performance general purpose computer systems. Highly concurrent execution of scalar code is difficult due to data dependencies and conditional branches. This paper proposes an architectural concept called guarded instructions to reduce the penalty of conditional branches in deeply pipelined processors. A code generation heuristic, the decision tree scheduling technique, reorders

Peter Y.-T. Hsu; Edward S. Davidson

1986-01-01

319

Process - SEER Quality Improvement  

Cancer.gov

The SEER Quality Improvement (QI) process is decentralized. In addition to the QI staff located in the main office at NCI, the SEER program also utilizes QI staff resident in each of the SEER central registries and outside contractors, all under the direction of the NCI SEER QI Manager.

320

HYNOL PROCESS EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report examines process alternatives for the optimal use of natural gas and biomass for production of fuel-cell vehicle fuel, emphasizing maximum displacement of petroleum and maximum reduction of overall fuel-cycle carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at least cost. Three routes a...

321

Cognitive Processes in Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We propose a model of the planning process. Planning is the predetermination of a course of action aimed at achieving a goal. The model assumes that planning comprises the activities of a variety of cognitive 'specialists.' Each specialist can suggest cer...

B. Hayes-Roth F. Hayes-Roth

1978-01-01

322

Cognitive Processes in Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors propose a model of the planning process. Planning is the predetermination of a course of action aimed at achieving a goal. The model assumes that planning comprises the activities of a variety of cognitive 'specialists.' Each specialist can su...

B. Hayes-Roth F. Hayes-Roth

1978-01-01

323

Minimal Processing of Foods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the newest forms of food preservation is minimal processing, including such procedures as, sous-vide cooking and high-pressure technology, the aim of which is to produce products with the attributes of convenience and fresh-like quality. Modern dis...

R. Ahvenainen T. Mattila-Sandholm T. Ohlsson

1994-01-01

324

Catalytic cracking process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catalytic cracking process is described comprising the steps of: (A) contacting (a) an oil feed stream comprising hydrocarbons having more than ten carbon atoms per molecule with (b) a solid cracking catalyst, under such conditions as to obtain (c) gaseous products comprising hydrogen, paraffins having from 1-4 carbon atoms per molecule and olefins having from 2-4 carbon atoms per

1987-01-01

325

Processing high sulfur coal  

SciTech Connect

Coal is fed to a liquefaction process, and a resulting slurry of ash, unconverted coal, and liquids is fed to a delayed coker. Distillates are hydrotreated and stored or recycled, and the coke is calcined at high temperature to reduce the sulfur content.

Sooter, M.C.

1981-09-29

326

Parallel Information Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines parallel computer architecture and the use of parallel processors for text. Topics discussed include parallel algorithms; performance evaluation; parallel information processing; parallel access methods for text; parallel and distributed information retrieval systems; parallel hardware for text; and network models for information…

Rasmussen, Edie M.

1992-01-01

327

Streamline Your Plan Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet complex global challenges, executives face key challenges to set effective strategic visions. Too often the long-term plan itself becomes a lengthy process, thus delaying reaching tangible results. Executives can get bogged down co-ordinating a plan for many diverse parts and functions of their company. For example, linking a focused mission statement to broad environmental or market perspectives is

Reuben J. Sokol

1994-01-01

328

Review of photoconversion processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forward projections from the scientific research base show a prospect for successful developments of three processes becoming economic in the UK at around three or four times the present real cost of energy. This does not include the cost of land. These p...

1993-01-01

329

BIOGAS Process development  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate and commercialize the IGT two-phase BIOGAS Process for optimized methane production from, and simultaneous stabilization of, municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objective of the current program is to conduct a laboratory-scale investigation of simple, cost-effective feed pretreatment techniques and selected digestion reactor designs to optimize methane production from MSW-sludge blends, and to select the best pretreatment and digestion conditions for testing during the subsequent program for process development unit (PDU) operation. A significant portion of the program efforts to date has been directed at evaluating and/or developing feeding, mixing and discharging systems for handling high concentration, large particle size RDF slurries for anaerobic digestion processes. The performance of such processes depends significantly on the operational success of these subsystems. The results of the subsystem testing have been implemented in the design and operation of the 10-L, 20-L, and 125-L digesters. These results will also be utilized to design the CSTR and the upflow digesters of a large two-phase system. Data collected during the initial phase of this research showed in general that methane production from RDF decreased as the loading rate was increased. Thermophilic digestion did not appear to be significantly better than mesophlic digestion. 9 figures, 3 tables.

Ghosh, S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Sajjad, A.; Henry, M.P.

1984-01-01

330

Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

331

Catalytic dewaxing process  

SciTech Connect

An improved process for catalytically hydrodewaxing a petroleum feedstock selected from a petroleum distillate or residual fraction, by contact of the feedstock and hydrogen with a catalyst is disclosed where the catalyst is a synthetic ferrierite zeolite having incorporated therewith at least one metal selected from the group consisting of group vi b, group vii B and group viii metals.

Winquist, B.H.

1982-08-10

332

Mineral Spirits Purification Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discloses a process for purifying mineral spirits which have been used to clean Otto Fuel II propelled torpedoes by heating the mineral spirits to decompose 1,2-propanediol dinitrate and remove hydrogen cyandide and other gaseous d...

D. R. Knudsen S. L. Collignon

1987-01-01

333

Oil refining process. [desulfurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous process for treating oils consists in conducting oil vapours with reducing gases over the oolitic ore minette in the presence of steam and at a temperature of 300° to 450° C. The proportion of reducing gases and steam is so adjusted that released sulfur escapes from the reaction chamber in the form of sulfuretted hydrogen and does not

H. Rostin; K. Schuster

1938-01-01

334

Technological Due Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distinct and complementary procedures for adjudication and rulemaking lie at the heart of twentieth-century administrative law. Due process requires agencies to provide individuals notice and an opportunity to be heard. Through public rulemaking, agencies can foreclose policy issues that individuals might otherwise raise in adjudication. One system allows for focused advocacy; the other features broad participation. Each procedural regime compensates

Danielle Keats Citron

2008-01-01

335

Technological Due Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distinct and complementary procedures for adjudications and rulemaking lie at the heart of twentieth-century administrative law. Due process required agencies to provide individuals notice and an opportunity to be heard. Agencies could foreclose policy issues that individuals might otherwise raise in adjudications through public rulemaking. One system allowed focused advocacy; the other featured broad participation. Each procedural regime compensated for

Danielle Keats Citron

2008-01-01

336

Cross Process Innovations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online guide to cross process machining, which incorporates elements from various conventional and unconventional techniques, is provided here by the Mechanical Engineering Department at Columbia University. Some remarkable and innovative techniques that have surfaced over the past few years are outlined, including underwater laser machining and plasma-assisted machining.

2013-05-24

337

PROCESSES AROUND A TBM  

Microsoft Academic Search

better understanding is now apparent. In order to structure this paper, we 'walk' along the TBM. We start with a process at the front of the TBM: the creation and stability of the tunnel face under the influence of excess pore pressures. The paper then discusses what happens next to the TBM. The last part of the paper deals with

A. BEZUIJEN; A. M. TALMON DELTARES

2008-01-01

338

The retail internationalisation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers the development of international retail thought and the need for an integrated conceptual approach to the process of retail internationalisation. The paper considers the development of international retail thought within the context of international retail activity and subject development and suggests the intellectual influences on the development of retail thought have, at times, constrained the development of a better

Nicholas Alexander; Hayley Myers

2000-01-01

339

Catalytic coal hydroliquefaction process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal in a hydrogen donor solvent in the presence of hydrogen and a co-catalyst combination of iron and a Group VI or Group VIII non-ferrous metal or compounds of the catalysts.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01

340

Catalyst deoiling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deoiling process is described comprising the steps of: removing a slurry of spent catalyst and oil from an ebullated bed reactor; transporting the slurry of spent catalyst and oil from the reactor to a vessel; cooling the slurry of spent catalyst and oil in the vessel to a temperature below the flash point of the oil; conveying the cooled

C. B. Olson; R. T. Plichta; D. W. Coyne

1987-01-01

341

Metamorphic Rocks and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 13 questions on the topic of metamorphic rocks and processes, which covers foliation and grades of metamorphism. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users select an answer and are provided immediate feedback.

Heaton, Timothy

342

Aerosol Processing of Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in aerosol generation of materials are reviewed. Gas-to-particle and spray processes (spray pyrolysis) for powder generation and various routes for film generation are discussed from the experimental and theoretical perspectives. The range of materials generated by these routes has increased in recent years to include fullerenes and ceramic superconductors. Many metals and various oxide and nonoxide ceramics have

Abhijit Gurav; Toivo Kodas; Tammy Pluym; Yun Xiong

1993-01-01

343

THERMALLY PROCESSED KERATIN FILMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Keratin obtained from chicken feathers is modified with glycerol, which acts as a plasticizer. Films are prepared by pressing the modified keratin at temperatures concurrent with typical polymer processing temperatures. The films are completely cohesive as opposed to partially cohesive if pressed ...

344

Laser-ablation processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The various mechanisms by which ablation of materials can be induced with lasers are discussed in this paper. The various ablation processes and potential applications are reviewed from the threshold for ablation up to fluxes of about 10(sup 13) W/cm(sup ...

R. S. Dingus

1992-01-01

345

Thermal plasma processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given of the fundamental aspects involved in material processing using thermal plasma technology. The description of plasma generating devices covers DC plasma torches, DC transferred arcs, RF inductively coupled plasma torches and hybrid combinations of them. Emphasis is given to the identification of the basic energy coupling mechanism in each case and the principal characteristics of the

Maher I. Boulos

1991-01-01

346

Processing Nanostructured Structural Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The processing of ceramic nanopowders into components has been investigated via a series of research projects, each focusing on a different stage of the manufacturing route. As a result of the work performed, progress has been made into the ability to con...

J. Binner

2006-01-01

347

High Temperature Lubricating Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been difficult to provide adequate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475 exp 0 C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface, ...

R. W. Taylor T. E. Shell

1979-01-01

348

Information processing and ptsd  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews a series of studies that have utilized information-processing paradigms with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) populations. The review suggests that pre-trauma measures of intelligence (IQ) are predictive of the development of PTSD symptoms following trauma. There is also evidence of impaired performance on standardized tests of memory (independent of IQ) in PTSD populations. PTSD populations are found to

Todd C. Buckley; Edward B. Blanchard; W. Trammell Neill

2000-01-01

349

Infrared processing of soybeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure on laboratory and industrial scale is described for the production of full-fat soy flour of high nutritive quality and long shelf-life. The procedure involves infrared radiation of soybeans followed by holding in an insulated bin. Production costs are reduced due to the use of relatively low temperatures, elimination of the preconditioning step, and elimination of drying after processing.

M. Kouzeh-Kanani; D. J. van Zuilichem; J. P. Roozen; W. Pilnik; J. R. van Delden; W. Stolp

1983-01-01

350

SETI Signal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, NASA has launched an ambitious program to search for extraterrestrial intelligent life. The program, called Project SETI, involves the development of a very high speed digital signal processing system employing state-of-the-art technology. The system is comprised of a wideband, high resolution digital spectrum analyzer followed by a signal thresholder and system computer. The role of the signal thresholder is

Edgar Satorius; Rachael Brady

1988-01-01

351

Image Processing for Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Image Processing for Teaching project provides a powerful medium to excite students about science and mathematics, especially children from minority groups and others whose needs have not been met by traditional teaching. Using professional-quality software on microcomputers, students explore a variety of scientific data sets, including…

Greenberg, R.; And Others

1993-01-01

352

Righting the Writing Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prompted by the federal No Child Left Behind law and state mandates for improved proficiency in writing and other skills, district leaders have intensified their focus on writing in elementary and middle schools. Many are integrating word-processing software and other technology tools into their curricula to strengthen the instructional and…

Dessoff, Alan

2008-01-01

353

Electrostatic containerless processing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a materials science tool for investigating refractory solids and melts: the electrostatic containerless processing system (ESCAPES). ESCAPES maintains refractory specimens of materials in a pristine state by levitating and heating them in a vacuum chamber, thereby avoiding the contaminating influences of container walls and ambient gases. ESCAPES is designed for the investigation of thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable

Aaron J. Rulison; John L. Watkins; Brian Zambrano

1997-01-01

354

Streamlining the Hiring Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Historically, education employees have been hired after a process that consists of these steps: Determining the need for a position, posting the vacancy, paper-screening applications, an interview with a panel or committee, background check, reference calling, and finally the selection of a candidate. This is a very time-consuming and costly…

DePrater, Karen

2011-01-01

355

Image processing and reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

This talk will examine some mathematical methods for image processing and the solution of underdetermined, linear inverse problems. The talk will have a tutorial flavor, mostly accessible to undergraduates, while still presenting research results. The primary approach is the use of optimization problems. We will find that relaxing the usual assumption of convexity will give us much better results.

Chartrand, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-15

356

Hydraulic fracturing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for hydraulically fracturing a permeable subterranean formation in which the fracture faces are treated to reduce their permeability to the fracturing fluid. Propping agent is placed in the fracture in a conventional manner whereby the bulk of the propping agent is deposited in the fracture at a location remote from the well. Thereafter the fracture faces

Pye

1973-01-01

357

Network Speech Processing Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first Semiannual Technical Summary Report on the Network Speech Processing Program to be submitted to the Defense Communications Agency. It covers the period 1 October 1976 through 31 March 1977 and reports on the following topics: Secure Voic...

B. Gold M. A. Herlin

1977-01-01

358

Urea Process Analytical Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an effort to help determine the feasibility of the Urea process for production of the amine fuels, AFRPL established an in-house program to develop a useful analytical technique for monitoring the critical DMU to UDMH reaction. It was the absence of su...

L. A. Dee S. G. Wax

1976-01-01

359

A painful process.  

PubMed

Selecting and implementing the right electronic health record (EHR) system due diligence by physicians, buy-in by all practitioners and staff, commitment to training, and willingness to start from scratch and learn a new way of documentation. The initial adoption of an EHR may have its challenges, but some groundwork at the start of the process helps ensure a successful transition. PMID:23818220

Zuzek, Crystal

2013-07-01

360

Improving scrap tire processing  

SciTech Connect

The market for tire-derived materials is growing rapidly, with the largest market being tire-derived fuels. There is therefore a growing demand for higher quality products. This paper describes the processing and removal of steel from scrap tires.

Astafan, C.G. [Columbus McKinnon Corp., Sarasota, FL (United States)

1997-01-01

361

Process for Producing Oxygen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention concerns a process for efficiently collecting oxygen from the air. According to the findings of the inventor, if air is brought into contact with natural zeolite whose moisture content has been reduced to lower than 1% by calcination, toget...

T. Furukawa

1983-01-01

362

The Garrett pyrolysis process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Occidental Resource Recovery system is designed to be a low-pollution, low net cost technique for disposal of municipal refuse and recovery of its valuable energy and mineral constituents. Ferrous metals and clean glass cullet are recovered as readily marketable commodities. The flash pyrolisis process converts the organic portion of the refuse into about one barrel of low sulfur liquid

S. Rysman

1977-01-01

363

Atmospheric Processes--Convection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity begins with an explanation of the heat transfer process of convection, the transfer of heat by the actual movement of the heated material. In the activity, students observe convective currents in water and learn that air can behave as as a fluid.

2010-01-01

364

Quo vadis, signal processing?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Light propagates through optical elements (such as lenses), it undergoes a transform. The input and the output data take the form of light and optical elements that perform different mathematical operations on light represent the linear transform. The transform is performed not on the discrete elements of the data but on the whole vector at once, and most significantly, at the speed of light. The great advantages offered by optical processing are that it offers enormous parallelism, operating on all data points simultaneously, very low latency, a high transform rate and low power dissipation. The outcome is enormously increased speed and a reduction in the amount of associated cooling required. The Optical Signal Processor (OSP) increases the speed of processing transforms by many orders of magnitude. The Signal Processor is also reconfigurable and can be dynamically tailored to the required transform type. One advantage of an optical processor is that it allows software designers to work at a much higher level of abstraction. This is because the device executes transforms instead of the ordinary MACs in the case of DSPs. Instead of handling algorithms at individual data points, algorithms for handling the entire vector could be processed, shortening the computational complexity and speeding the time-to-market for new products. An optical filter can be represented as a generic function, the most fundamental of the optical processor. The impulse response of this filter is defined with respect to frequency of light. Any transform on light can be represented as a combination of linear transforms. This is fundamentally the law of optical signal processing. The most important application of an OSP in Optical Networking is Pattern recognition, and this can easily be done by the usual cross-correlation technique that is common in digital signal processing. The OSP can be programmed to autocorrelate against specific temporal reference waveforms, viz. Data. The decoding is done without electronic processing. And of course, the routing of optical signals is based on content. This paper provides insight to this efficient and novel method of computation and signal processing.

Guha, Dipnarayan

2002-07-01

365

Retinomorphic image processing.  

PubMed

The present work is aimed at understanding and explaining some of the aspects of visual signal processing at the retinal level while exploiting the same towards the development of some simple techniques in the domain of digital image processing. Classical studies on retinal physiology revealed the nature of contrast sensitivity of the receptive field of bipolar or ganglion cells, which lie in the outer and inner plexiform layers of the retina. To explain these observations, a difference of Gaussian (DOG) filter was suggested, which was subsequently modified to a Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG) filter for computational ease in handling two-dimensional retinal inputs. Till date almost all image processing algorithms, used in various branches of science and engineering had followed LOG or one of its variants. Recent observations in retinal physiology however, indicate that the retinal ganglion cells receive input from a larger area than the classical receptive fields. We have proposed an isotropic model for the non-classical receptive field of the retinal ganglion cells, corroborated from these recent observations, by introducing higher order derivatives of Gaussian expressed as linear combination of Gaussians only. In digital image processing, this provides a new mechanism of edge detection on one hand and image half-toning on the other. It has also been found that living systems may sometimes prefer to "perceive" the external scenario by adding noise to the received signals in the pre-processing level for arriving at better information on light and shade in the edge map. The proposed model also provides explanation to many brightness-contrast illusions hitherto unexplained not only by the classical isotropic model but also by some other Gestalt and Constructivist models or by non-isotropic multi-scale models. The proposed model is easy to implement both in the analog and digital domain. A scheme for implementation in the analog domain generates a new silicon retina model implemented on a hardware development platform. PMID:18166395

Ghosh, Kuntal; Bhaumik, Kamales; Sarkar, Sandip

2008-01-01

366

Behavior of Mercury during DWPF Chemical Process Cell Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mer...

D. Koopman J. Zamecnik

2012-01-01

367

ON MULTISTAGE STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most products and services today are the results of several process stages and steps. With the current emphasis in industry on improved quality, control charts are widely used in process monitoring. However, conventional statistical process control (SPC) techniques focus mostly on individual stages in a process and do not consider disseminating information throughout the multiple stages of the process. Such

Lianjie Shu; Fugee Tsung

2003-01-01

368

Software Process Themes and Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three main interrelated themes are identified in the work of software process technologists: software process modeling and definition; software process assessment and improvement; and software process support. Within these main themes, many technical problems need to be solved before process technology and the support it provides for industrial production reaches full maturity. Approaches to improving software productivity and product quality

Mark Dowson

1993-01-01

369

Evaluation of process inventory uncertainties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the determination of some of the process inventory uncertainties in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) process line at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Plutonium Processing Facility (TA-55). A brief description of the FFTF process is given, along with a more detailed look at the peroxide precipitation and re-dissolution (PR) process. Emphasis is placed on the

1980-01-01

370

Updating the nursing process.  

PubMed

It's nearly 30 years since I wrote my first book on the 'nursing process'. At the time it was the talking point of nursing and considered to be the way forward for the profession in the UK and Europe. The subject had already been implemented in the USA, and there was some resentment at the time that Britain was going to have to follow America. In fact, Professor Jean McFarlane (the first English Professor of Nursing) had given a seminar in the Department of Nursing at the University of Manchester in 1973, relating to the importance of evaluating nursing practice. As part of her paper she proposed that the department should experiment with the nursing process. This it did, firstly in planning nursing care in its course leading to the Diploma in Advanced Nursing Studies for experienced registered nurses. It was then gradually introduced into the undergraduate programme. PMID:21278665

Castledine, George

371

High temperature lubricating process  

DOEpatents

It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Shell, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

372

High temperature lubricating process  

DOEpatents

It has been difficult to provide adequate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface, such as in an engine being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining the following steps: a gas phase is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant; the gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface; the load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant; and the solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

Taylor, R.W.; Shell, T.E.

1979-10-04

373

Youpi: YOUr processing Pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Youpi is a portable, easy to use web application providing high level functionalities to perform data reduction on scientific FITS images. Built on top of various open source reduction tools released to the community by TERAPIX (http://terapix.iap.fr), Youpi can help organize data, manage processing jobs on a computer cluster in real time (using Condor) and facilitate teamwork by allowing fine-grain sharing of results and data. Youpi is modular and comes with plugins which perform, from within a browser, various processing tasks such as evaluating the quality of incoming images (using the QualityFITS software package), computing astrometric and photometric solutions (using SCAMP), resampling and co-adding FITS images (using SWarp) and extracting sources and building source catalogues from astronomical images (using SExtractor). Youpi is useful for small to medium-sized data reduction projects; it is free and is published under the GNU General Public License.

Monnerville, Mathias; Sémah, Gregory

2012-03-01

374

Plant hydrocarbon recovery process  

SciTech Connect

A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

1982-01-26

375

Adaptive passive fathometer processing.  

PubMed

Recently, a technique has been developed to image seabed layers using the ocean ambient noise field as the sound source. This so called passive fathometer technique exploits the naturally occurring acoustic sounds generated on the sea-surface, primarily from breaking waves. The method is based on the cross-correlation of noise from the ocean surface with its echo from the seabed, which recovers travel times to significant seabed reflectors. To limit averaging time and make this practical, beamforming is used with a vertical array of hydrophones to reduce interference from horizontally propagating noise. The initial development used conventional beamforming, but significant improvements have been realized using adaptive techniques. In this paper, adaptive methods for this process are described and applied to several data sets to demonstrate improvements possible as compared to conventional processing. PMID:20370000

Siderius, Martin; Song, Heechun; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Hursky, Paul; Harrison, Chris

2010-04-01

376

Fluid coking process  

SciTech Connect

A fluid coking process is provided in which the recycling of coke particles of less than about 44 microns in diameter to the coking reactor is minimized by passing the stream of coke withdrawn from the coking reactor to a vessel comprising a fluidized bed of solids separated into two zones. The coke withdrawn from the coker is passed into one zone where seed generation for the process is performed. Coke recycled to the coker is withdrawn from the second zone which is operated as an elutriation zone. The solid fines of less than 44 microns are removed overhead from the vessel with the gaseous effluent of the vessel. This improvement is particularly suitable for oncethrough fluid coking to minimize small fines being present in the coker liquid product.

Metrailer, W.J.

1981-10-20

377

Hydrotreating catalyst and process  

SciTech Connect

Hydrotreating catalysts comprises a hydrogenating component and a support comprising at least one porous refractory inorganic oxide, said catalyst having BET surface area of 150 to about 190 m/sup 2//g, bulk density of at least about 0.2 g/cc, total pore volume of at least about 0.9 cc/g with mercury penetration pore volume of at least about 0.1 cc/g in macropores with radii of 600 to 25,000 A, such surface area, pore size distribution and total pore volume being effective to give an average pore diameter of at least 230 A calculated as 4V/A. Hydrotreating process comprises contacting a hydrocarbon feed with hydrogen in the presence of the aforesaid catalyst under hydrotreating conditions. The catalyst and process are particularly useful in hydrotreating feeds comprising high metals or high metals and sulfur content materials.

Hensley, A.L. Jr.; Quick, L.M.

1984-06-12

378

Photoinduced Charge Transfer Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photoinduced charge transfer process is the fundamental process in a photovoltaic system. Organic photovoltaics contain a donor-acceptor molecular system which undergoes photoinduced charge transfer leading to a large dipole moment. Often the charge transfer properties of such donor-acceptor systems are measured in solution. The dipole moments on the solvent molecules creates a reaction field. To simulate this reaction field we adopt an approach similar to the explicit solvent model proposed by Washel and co-workers. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine various possible solvent structures. We use a carotenoid-porphyrin-C60 molecular triad as the light-harvesting system. This molecular triad has a very large dipole moment (153 Debye) in the charge separated state. The resulting solvent structures and the reaction field as a function of temperature will be presented.

Basurto, Luis; Baruah, Tunna; Zope, Rajendra; Rodriguez, Jose

2011-10-01

379

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to understand coordination as it unfolds in case management practices in the context of integrated care networks devoted to frail elderly individuals. More specifically, we describe practical coordination processes. We conducted a qualitative exploratory study using an embedded case study design. Our study covers three health and social service centers in Québec. We noted that coordination produces convention in case management practices through a process of bringing together different types of compromise in home care situations where multidimensionality appears to be more or less important. We constructed four different types of compromise-producing convention with regard to coordination in case management practices: compromise at the interface, scheduling compromise, compromise of opportunity, and compromising change. PMID:23880440

Carrier, Sébastien

2013-07-23

380

Process for degrading hypochlorite  

DOEpatents

It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved means and method for the degradation of hypochlorite in alkali waste solutions. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a more effective and less costly method for the degradation of hypochlorite. The foregoing objects and others are accomplished in accordance with the present invention, generally speaking, by providing a process to degrade hypochlorite into chloride and oxygen which includes contacting an aqueous hypochlorite basic solution with a catalyst comprising about 1--10 w/w % cobalt oxide and about 1--15 w/w % molybdenum oxide on a suitable substrate. In another embodiment a similar process for degrading lithium hypochlorite is provided in which waste solution concentration is lowered in order to minimize carbonate precipitation. 6 tabs.

Huxtable, W.P.; Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.

1989-05-12

381

Plutonium dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

Vest, Michael A. (Oak Park, IL); Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC); Moore, Edwin N. (Aiken, SC); Holcomb, H. Perry (North Augusta, SC)

1996-01-01

382

Plutonium dissolution process  

SciTech Connect

A two-step process is described for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M--1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M--0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45 C and 70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen. 2 figs.

Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

1996-01-09

383

Integrated palm oil processing  

SciTech Connect

Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Because palms are an important crop in many areas of Asia, Africa, and South America, considerable attention has been given to palm genetic improvement, with the result that tree palms are one of the most efficient energy crops, providing much better solar energy capture than, for example, sugar cane and cassava. Tree palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization or cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production, including harvest, tree management, and oil pressing are generally suited to village or plantation use, and, for the most part, have been directed toward supplying process energy through the combustion of process waste products, such as palm fruit residue and palm bunch fibers.

Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

1983-12-01

384

Sensations and brain processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypothesis on the physiological conditions of consciousness is presented. It is assumed that the occurrence of states of consciousness causally depends on the formation of complex representational structures. Cortical neural networks that exhibit a high representational activity develop higher-order, self-referential representations as a result of self-organizing processes. The occurrence of such states is identical with the appearance of states

Hans Flohr; Michael Lynch

1995-01-01

385

Integrated coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

Effron, Edward (Springfield, NJ)

1978-01-01

386

Services, Daemons, and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A computer is never entirely at rest unless it’s shut down. Even when you move to another room to watch television and your\\u000a computer’s display has gone to sleep, there might be a dozen or more things at work in the background that you can’t immediately\\u000a see happening. The services, daemons, and processes responsible for all of this activity keeps

Charles Edge; William Barker; Beau Hunter; Gene Sullivan

387

Femtosecond laser materials processing  

SciTech Connect

Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to making high-aspect ratio cuts in metals with no heat-affected zone are made possible by this technology For material removal at reasonable rates, we developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

Stuart, B. C., LLNL

1998-06-02

388

Lightweight Structured Text Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text is a popular storage and distribution format for information, partly due to generic text-processing tools like Unix grep and sort. Unfortunately, ex- isting generic tools make assumptions about text format (e.g., each line is a record) that limit their applicability. Custom-built tools are one alterna- tive, but they require substantial time investment and programming expertise. We describe a new

Robert C. Miller; Brad A. Myers

1999-01-01

389

Processing Forecasting Queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forecasting future events based on historic data is useful in many domains like system management, adaptive query processing, environmental monitoring, and financial plan- ning. We describe the Fa system where users and appli- cations can pose declarative forecasting queries—both one- time queries and continuous queries—and get forecasts in real-time along with accuracy estimates. Fa supports effi- cient algorithms to generate

Songyun Duan; Shivnath Babu

2007-01-01

390

Integrated hydrocarbon conversion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated hydrocarbon conversion process is described for converting a heavy hydrocarbon feedstock boiling above 650°F into various valuable products including gasoline, jet fuel, and coke steps. Included are: hydrodesulfurizing the feedstock in a hydrodesulfurization zone; catalytically cracking at least a portion of the fraction from the hydrodesulfurization zone boiling in the range of about 650° to about 1000°F; feeding

Walkey

1975-01-01

391

Pyrolysis process and apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

Lee, Chang-Kuei (Sewell, NJ)

1983-01-01

392

Metabolically Efficient Information Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficient information transmission may be relevant to biological\\u000asensory signal processing as well as to low power electronic devices. We\\u000aexplore its consequences in two different regimes. In an ``immediate'' regime,\\u000awe argue that the information rate should be maximized subject to a power\\u000aconstraint, while in an ``exploratory'' regime, the transmission rate per power\\u000acost should be maximized.

Vijay Balasubramanian; Michael J. Berry

2001-01-01

393

Oil recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-site, in-line process and system is claimed for recovering oil from oil-bearing subterranean formations which involves the production, modification, dilution and injection of a polymer solution, preferably consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of a partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, having injectivity and mobility properties capable of meeting the specific permeability requirements of substantially any subterranean formation to be achieved. The

P. A. Argabright; J. S. Rhudy

1984-01-01

394

PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

DOEpatents

A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

1961-11-14

395

Process for liquefying coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process for manufacturing reformed coal comprises the steps of: (a) dispersing coal into a mixed oil which is comprised of a coal oil having a boiling point between about 150°C and 500°C and a petroleum oil having a boiling point higher than that of kerosene; (b) subjecting the coal and oil dispersion to hydrogenation conditions sufficient to depolymerize the coal;

H. Sugimura; H. Murakami; T. Ohtsubo; K. Fukuda

1978-01-01

396

Process for liquefying coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process for manufacturing reformed coal comprises the steps of (a) dispersing coal into a mixed oil which is comprised of a coal oil having a boiling point between about 150°C and 500°C and a petroleum oil having a boiling point higher than that of kerosene; (b) subjecting the coal and oil dispersion to hydrogenation conditions sufficient to depolymerize the coal;

H. Sugimura; H. Murakami; T. Ohtsubo; K. Fukuda

1978-01-01

397

Delayed coking process  

SciTech Connect

The liquid yield of a delayed coking process is improved by controlling the temperature of the vapor space above the carbonizing mass so that incipient coking and cracking of the vapors is reduced. The temperature is preferably controlled by introducing a quenching liquid into the vapor space; suitable liquids for this purpose include water, coker feedstock and the bottoms fraction derived from the coker products.

Audeh, C.A.; Yan, T.Y.

1983-09-13

398

The Change Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter gives a comprehensive outline of the change process needed for transforming the project manager of yesterday\\u000a into the project leader of tomorrow. Business strategies reinforced by corporate values and new leadership principles drive\\u000a project challenges that are new to most project managers today. New knowledge and enhanced project management skills are required,\\u000a but often rejected by managers claiming

Asbjørn Rolstadås; Per Willy Hetland; George Farage Jergeas; Richard E. Westney

399

BIOGAS Process development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate and commercialize the IGT two-phase BIOGAS Process for optimized methane production from, and simultaneous stabilization of, municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objective of the current program is to conduct a laboratory-scale investigation of simple, cost-effective feed pretreatment techniques and selected digestion reactor designs to optimize methane production from MSW-sludge blends,

S. Ghosh; M. C. Mensinger; A. Sajjad; M. P. Henry

1984-01-01

400

The Processing of Nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Manufacturing techniques can have a significant impact on the dielectric properties of nanostructured materials, sometimes\\u000a even larger than the effect of the nanofiller itself. Indeed, the choice of the best nanofiller to improve the electric behavior\\u000a of the final nanocomposite is often frustrated by residual contaminants of the matrix-nanofiller compatibilization process,\\u000a moisture absorption, nanofiller aggregation, etc. Therefore manufacturing techniques should

F. Bellucci; D. Fabiani; G. C. Montanari; L. Testa

401

Image processing technology  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The primary objective of this project was to advance image processing and visualization technologies for environmental characterization. This was effected by developing and implementing analyses of remote sensing data from satellite and airborne platforms, and demonstrating their effectiveness in visualization of environmental problems. Many sources of information were integrated as appropriate using geographic information systems.

Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Balick, L. [and others

1996-07-01

402

In situ leaching process  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for maintaining a relatively high and constant concentration in the leachate of an in situ leaching operation as the mineral value in the formation is depleted, and without reducing the daily production, by adjusting the pumping rate of lixiviant proportionally to the depletion of the mineral value. A method for achieving this result by increasing the residence time of the leach solution in the formation is also disclosed.

Yan, T.

1982-09-21

403

Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process  

DOEpatents

In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01

404

Biosensors for process monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A short review about the biosensor research activities for bioprocess monitoring in the F.R.G. after its reunification is given. The principles of biosensor applications are presented. In situ sensors and sensors based on the principles of flow injection analysis are studied. Some applications of a four-channel enzyme thermistor, bio-field effect transistors, and immunoanalysis systems for real process monitoring are

Thomas Scheper

1992-01-01

405

Digital Signal Processing Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collection of seven Java applets and associated tutorials are available on this site from the Signals and Systems Group at the University of Edinburgh. The tools illustrate various concepts of digital signal processing, like convolution, correlation, the Fourier transform, and discrete-time applications of each. Seven other applets that demonstrate more advanced concepts are also available, but no documentation or explanation accompanies them. A few conference publications and reports related to these educational materials are presented.

2000-01-01

406

Hydrocarbon conversion process  

SciTech Connect

A process is claimed for conversion of paraffinic base petroleum cracking stocks to high octane motor fuels and petrochemical feedstocks in which paraffinic components are separated from the cracking stock to yield a deparaffined fraction which is hydrotreated and catalytically cracked and a paraffin fraction which is separately catalytically cracked whereby improved yields of normally gaseous olefins and normally liquid products including high octane motor fuel components are obtained.

Bowers, K.W.; Pratt, R.E.; Sayles, S.M.; Scott, R.P.

1983-06-14

407

Family Processes and Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Family is a unique relationship context that influences the contents and processes of identity. The identity of individuals\\u000a emerges, at least in part, from being members of a family. Moreover, the family context influences not only the development\\u000a of one’s personal identity as a family member but also other aspects of personal identity. Family is not a neutral environment\\u000a for

Eugenia Scabini; Claudia Manzi

408

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students can follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Stop at each treatment point and unscramble the words to show where the water is along the treatment path. Click on each treatment point on the image to view the unscrambled answer and a little information about that treatment point. The treatment points are: coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, and storage.

409

Pre-PCR processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is recognized as a rapid, sensitive, and specific molecular diagnostic tool for the analysis\\u000a of nucleic acids. However, the sensitivity and kinetics of diagnostic PCR may be dramatically reduced when applied directly\\u000a to biological samples, such as blood and feces, owing to PCR-inhibitory components. As a result, pre-PCR processing procedures\\u000a have been developed to remove or

Peter Rådström; Rickard Knutsson; Petra Wolffs; Maria Lövenklev; Charlotta Löfström

2004-01-01

410

The negotiation process.  

PubMed

Do you always get what you want? Although none of us do, improving your negotiation skills can help increase your chances. This article discusses the importance of negotiation skills, the need to create a win-win situation, and summarizes the negotiation process: planning negotiations, conducting negotiations, postponing negotiations, and reaching closure, which is followed by an example. This article was written to help you to further develop your negotiation skills so that you can get what you want. PMID:11793523

Lussier, R N

411

Metal deposition process  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Metal is deposited on a substrate containing neutral radicals, radical cations or neutral molecules (the latter being derived from a dication normally stable in aqueous media), by contacting the substrate with an electroless plating solution, optionally after sensitization with a salt of a platinum group metal silver or gold. The use of the process for data recording, particularly for the production of magnetic information carriers e.g. tapes or discs, metallizing plastic foam and for producing printed circuits is described.

1978-01-03

412

Signal processing software tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

A signal processing software system is described which allows the simulation of systems described by block diagrams or signal-flow graphs. Component systems are allowed to be multi-input, multi-output, and to be programmed in any language. A high level dataflow language describes the interconnection of the components. Special display software was written to allow any signal in the system to be

D. Johnson

1984-01-01

413

URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

1958-12-16

414

Processing heavy hydrocarbon oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy hydrocarbon oils are processed by hydrotreatment over a sepiolite supported metal catalyst, described fuller in U.S. Pat. No. 4,152,250, whereby metallic impurities are removed from the oil and its asphaltene content is decreased, and the hydrotreated oil is solvent deasphalted using a propane, butane, pentane, hexane or heptane solvent or mixtures of these to give a deasphalted oil suitable

Inooka

1984-01-01

415

Process for treating spirulina  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The treatment of spirulina by a process which includes placing spirulina that has not been previously heat-sterilized, lactic acid bacteria and sugar in water, then culturing the lactic acid bacteria provides treated spirulina in which the distinctive taste and odor of spirulina are minimized, in which active ingredients such as phycocyanin remain intact, and which contains a reduced level of bacteria other than lactic acid bacteria.

Sakakibara; Masaki (Chiba, JP); Fukuda; Yoshitsugu (Ichihara, JP); Sekiya; Akiko (Kisarazu, JP); Nishihashi; Hideji (Sakura, JP); Hirahashi; Tomohiro (Ichihara, JP)

2008-02-05

416

Atmospheric Processes : Conduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After participating in this activity, students will be able to explain the process of conduction using a molecular model and explain that different materials conduct at different rates. They will also be able to identify air as a poor heat conductor (an insulator). The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners

2007-12-12

417

NORSAR detection processing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Semiannual Technical Summary describes the operation, maintenance and research activities at the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR). Investigations into further potential improvements in the NORSAR array processing system have continued. A new Detection Processor (DP) program has developed and tested in an off-line mode. This program is flexible enough to conduct both NORSAR and NORESS detection processing as is done today, besides incorporating improved algorithms. A wide-band slowness estimation technique has been investigated by processing data from several events from the same location. Ten quarry blasts at a dam construction site in western Russia and sixteen Semipalatinsk nuclear explosions were selected. The major conclusion from this study is that employing a wider frequency band clearly tends to increase the stability of the slowness estimates, provided the signal-to-noise ratio is adequate over the band of interest. The stability was found, particularly for Pn, to be remarkably good for the western Norway quarry blasts when using a fixed frequency band for each phase for all ten events.

Loughran, L. B.

1987-05-01

418

Electrochemical atomic layer processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic layer processing with electrochemical control is discussed. A method for the electrodeposition of compound semiconductors based on the principles of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) is reported, with specific reference to the formation of ZnTe. This method is referred to as electrochemical atomic layer epitaxy (ECALE). A number of II-VI compounds have been formed using this method, including: CdTe, CdSe, CdS, ZnTe, ZnSe, ZnS, and HgSe. Initial studies of GaAs and PbSe have also been pursued. A computer-controlled electrochemical flow deposition system is described. The system has been constructed to form thin films of the compounds listed above using the ECALE methodology. In addition, an analogous digital electrochemical etching procedure has been developed and used to etch CdTe substrates. The etching cycle consists of oxidizing off the top atomic layer of Cd atoms at a relatively positive potential, followed by reducing off the top layer of Te atoms at a relatively negative potential. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image the resulting features. ECALE and the digital electrochemical etching process are both based on selecting potentials where an atomic layer of an element is deposited, or removed, in a surface limited reaction. The potentials used are referred to as underpotentials in the electrochemical literature. The atomic layer deposition process is referred to as underpotential deposition (UPD).

Rhee, Choong K.; Huang, Baoming M.; Wilmer, Elvin M.; Thomas, Sajan; Stickney, John L.

1994-06-01

419

Psychiatric Discharge Process  

PubMed Central

Background. Integration of research evidence into clinical nursing practice is essential for the delivery of high-quality nursing care. Discharge planning is an essential process in psychiatric nursing field, in order to prevent recurrent readmission to psychiatric units. Objective. The purpose of this paper is to perform literature overview on psychiatric discharge planning, in order to develop evidence-based practice guideline of psychiatric discharge plan. Methods. A search of electronic databases was conducted. The search process aimed to locate different levels of evidence. Inclusion criteria were studies including outcomes related to prevention of readmission as stability in the community, studies investigating the discharge planning process in acute psychiatric wards, and studies that included factors that impede discharge planning and factors that aid timely discharge. On the other hand, exclusion criteria were studies in which discharge planning was discussed as part of a multi faceted intervention and was not the main focus of the review. Result. Studies met inclusion criteria were mainly literature reviews, consensus statements, and descriptive studies. All of these studies are considered at the lower levels of evidence. Conclusion. This review demonstrated that discharge planning based on general principles (evidence based principles) should be applied during psychiatric discharge planning to make this discharge more effective. Depending on this review, it could be concluded that effective discharge planning includes main three stages; initial discharge meeting, regular discharge meeting(s), and leaving from hospital and discharge day. Each stage of them has requirements should be accomplished be go to the next stage.

Alghzawi, Hamzah M.

2012-01-01

420

RACORO aerosol data processing  

SciTech Connect

The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

Elisabeth Andrews

2011-10-31

421

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

Jonke, A.A.

1957-10-01

422

The Markov Renewal Branching Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper considers a finite Markov renewal process with an associated sequence of nonnegative random variables, having properties similar to the sizes of successive generations in a branching process. This process is called a Markov renewal branching pro...

M. F. Neuts

1973-01-01

423

Knowledge and Processes in Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our project concerned information processing characterizations of the knowledge and processes involved in design. Design is a complex ill-structured task. By their very nature, such ill-structured tasks involve processes of finding, representing, refining...

P. Pirolli

1992-01-01

424

Process Technologies for Nitrogen Fertilizers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most important processes used for making nitrogen fertilizer materials are summarized in this document. A guide is provided to the selection of process technologies for developing countries interested in initiating efforts in this sector. The processe...

V. S. Pillai

1978-01-01

425

Personality and the Planning Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military planning is a logical, systematic process for conducting problem solving and decision making. The planning process exists to support the commander in making decisions. As a part of the operations process (planning, preparation, execution and asse...

D. A. Danikowski

2001-01-01

426

Evaluation of Process Inventory Uncertainties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the determination of some of the process inventory uncertainties in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) process line at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Plutonium Processing Facility (TA-55). A brief description of the FFTF ...

N. J. Roberts

1980-01-01

427

Running a reproducible plasma process  

SciTech Connect

Although plasma processing has become an indispensable part of modern integrated circuit fabrication, and modern plasma processing equipment has become sophisticated, it is still not a simple matter to run a reproducible plasma process.

Chapman, B.; Gray, D.E. (Lucas Laboratories, San Jose, CA 95131 (USA))

1990-02-05

428

The Image Processing Data Manager.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document describes a model of an image processing data management system called the Image Processing Data Manager. The Data Manager is an interactive program which, using a data base, aids the user in performing selective image processing. It answers ...

R. E. Nimensky J. Bebb

1973-01-01

429

Dynamic control of remelting processes  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of controlling a remelting process by providing measured process variable values to a process controller; estimating process variable values using a process model of a remelting process; and outputting estimated process variable values from the process controller. Feedback and feedforward control devices receive the estimated process variable values and adjust inputs to the remelting process. Electrode weight, electrode mass, electrode gap, process current, process voltage, electrode position, electrode temperature, electrode thermal boundary layer thickness, electrode velocity, electrode acceleration, slag temperature, melting efficiency, cooling water temperature, cooling water flow rate, crucible temperature profile, slag skin temperature, and/or drip short events are employed, as are parameters representing physical constraints of electroslag remelting or vacuum arc remelting, as applicable.

Bertram, Lee A. (Dublin, CA); Williamson, Rodney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Evans, David G. (Clinton, NY)

2000-01-01

430

Process for purification of solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process for purifying solids, especially silicon, by melting and subsequent resolidification, is described. Silicon used in solar cell manufacturing is processed more efficiently and cost effectively.

Herzer, H.; Rath, H. J.; Schmidt, D.

1981-02-01

431

Software process modeling: principles of entity process models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A defined software process is needed to provide organizations with a consistent framework for performing their work and improving the way they do it. An overall framework for modeling simplifies the task of producing process models, permits them to be tailored to individual needs, and facilitates process evolution. This paper outlines the principles of entity process models and suggests ways

Watts S. Humphrey; Marc I. Kellner

1989-01-01

432

A process model for RFID based Business Process Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an agile and dynamic market, companies face the challenge to continually adapt their business processes. Technologies such as RFID allow companies to automatically monitor their business processes. This paper introduces RFID based Business Process Analysis (RBPA). With the usage of RFID transponders and readers, different types of data about existing business processes is acquired and used as input for

Thomas Neubauer; Gernot Goluch; Stefan Jakoubi; Simon Tjoa; Martin Wisser

2009-01-01

433

Statistical Process Control: Analyzing a Space Shuttle Onboard Software Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for increased software process efficiency and effectiveness places measurement demands on the software engineering community beyond those traditionally practiced. Statistical- and process-thinking principles lead to the use of statistical process control (SPC) methods to determine the consistency and capability of the processes used to develop software. The authors use data and analysis from a collaborative effort between the Software

William A. Florac; Anita D. Carleton; Julie R. Barnard

2000-01-01

434

Improvement of software process by process description and benefit estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an actual experience of software process improvement at OMRON corporation. For effective technical transfer, a software engineering process group (SEPG) has set three principal goals as follows: (1) motivate developers to improve on their process, (2) describe and define current software process correctly and in detail, (3) present a feasible action plan for developers to follow. To

Toshifumi Tanaka; Keishi Sakamoto; Shinji Kusumoto; Ken-ichi Matsumoto; Tohru Kikuno

1995-01-01

435

Managing Software Process Improvement (SPI) through Statistical Process Control (SPC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement based software process improvement is nowadays a mandatory activity. This implies continuous process monitoring in order to predict its behavior, highlight its performance variations and, if necessary, quickly react to them. Process variations are due to common causes or assignable ones. The former are part of the process itself while the latter are due to exceptional events that result

Maria Teresa Baldassarre; Nicola Boffoli; Danilo Caivano; Giuseppe Visaggio

2004-01-01

436

PCA based statistical process monitoring of grinding process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate statistical process monitoring (MSPM) has received increasing attention, which is applied to improve process operations by detecting when abnormal process operations exist and diagnosing the sources of the abnormalities. This paper presents a MSPM application method on grinding processes, including principal component analysis (PCA), fault detection and fault diagnosis using the contributions from squared prediction error (SPE) statistic, and

Zhang Lin; Wang Huangang; Xu Wenli; Wang Rui; Zhang Haifeng

2010-01-01

437

The process chemometrics approach to process monitoring and fault detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemometrics, the application of mathematical and statistical methods to the analysis of chemical data, is finding ever widening applications in the chemical process environment. This article reviews the chemometrics approach to chemical process monitoring and fault detection. These approaches rely on the formation of a mathematical\\/statistical model that is based on historical process data. New process data can then be

Barry M. Wise; Neal B. Gallagher

1996-01-01

438

Solar Flares: Magnetohydrodynamic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines the current understanding of solar flares, mainly focused on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes responsible for producing a flare. Observations show that flares are one of the most explosive phenomena in the atmosphere of the Sun, releasing a huge amount of energy up to about 10^32 erg on the timescale of hours. Flares involve the heating of plasma, mass ejection, and particle acceleration that generates high-energy particles. The key physical processes for producing a flare are: the emergence of magnetic field from the solar interior to the solar atmosphere (flux emergence), local enhancement of electric current in the corona (formation of a current sheet), and rapid dissipation of electric current (magnetic reconnection) that causes shock heating, mass ejection, and particle acceleration. The evolution toward the onset of a flare is rather quasi-static when free energy is accumulated in the form of coronal electric current (field-aligned current, more precisely), while the dissipation of coronal current proceeds rapidly, producing various dynamic events that affect lower atmospheres such as the chromosphere and photosphere. Flares manifest such rapid dissipation of coronal current, and their theoretical modeling has been developed in accordance with observations, in which numerical simulations proved to be a strong tool reproducing the time-dependent, nonlinear evolution of a flare. We review the models proposed to explain the physical mechanism of flares, giving an comprehensive explanation of the key processes mentioned above. We start with basic properties of flares, then go into the details of energy build-up, release and transport in flares where magnetic reconnection works as the central engine to produce a flare.

Shibata, Kazunari; Magara, Tetsuya

2011-12-01

439

Deep subsurface microbial processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of other habitats, the study of deep subsurface microbiology is still in its infancy.

Lovley, Derek R.; Chapelle, Francis H.

1995-01-01

440

Hydrocarbon conversion process  

SciTech Connect

A process for the conversion of a hydrocarbon charge stock which comprises contacting said charge stock at hydrocarbon conversion conditions with a catalytic composite comprising a combination of a carrier material, a Group VIB metal component and Group VIII metal component wherein said Group VIB metal component and said Group VIII metal component are incorporated in said catalytic composite by means of a non-aqueous organic solution of a Group VIB metal compound and a Group VIII metal compound, wherein said non-aqueous organic solution comprises dimethylformamide, formamide, diethylformamide, ethylformamide, methylformamide, pyridine, aniline or toluene and wherein said catalytic composite is calcined in a non-oxidizing atmosphere.

O'Hara, M. J.; Johnson, R. W.

1985-02-05

441

Bismuth vanadate process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes the process for the preparation of bismuth vanadate and bismuth vanadate-containing compounds wherein the precursor materials are calcined in the solid state at temperatures sufficient to react the precursor materials to prepare the vanadate compounds. It comprises: wet grinding the calcined product, contacting the calcined product with sufficient alkaline material to provide a pH level of 7.0-13.0 and recovering the treated product, the wet grinding of the calcined product being conducted either in the presence of the alkaline material or prior to the contacting with the alkaline material.

Sullivan, R.M.

1990-06-26

442

Reinventing the process  

SciTech Connect

Reinventing the government is the avowed goal of the Clinton administration. Making the federal government work for the people is the intended product of Vice President Al Gore`s National Performance Review. All federal agencies are expected to participate. How would the world of hydropower licensing look if the goal of all state and federal resource agencies and FERC was a cooperative effort to license good hydropower projects in the best interest of the nation? FERC is working to reinvent the licensing process, but progress is limited by the lack of a clear customer focus and lack of a cooperative attitude and common goal among the resource agencies.

Hunt, R.; Hunt, J.M.

1994-11-01

443

Business development process  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A business development process utilizing a business development database comprises collecting data for ideas from a plurality of sources. One type of collected idea data from said step of collecting is filtered in order to identify potential business opportunities. An opportunity analysis is then performed on said identified potential business opportunities to determine valid business opportunities. Resources are committed to the valid business opportunities, a business proposal is developed. This developed business proposal to a potential buyers. Success of the submission is determined and the business opportunity is executed if the submission is a success.

2008-08-19

444

Process for fullerene functionalization  

DOEpatents

Di-addended and tetra-addended Buckminster fullerenes are synthesized through the use of novel organoborane intermediates. The C.sub.60, C.sub.70, or higher fullerene is reacted with a borane such as BH.sub.3 in a solvent such as toluene to form an organoborane intermediate. Reaction of the organoborane such as hydrolysis with water or alcohol results in the product di-addended and tetra-addended fullerene in up to 30% yields. Dihydrofullerenes and tetrahydrofullerenes are produced by the process of the invention.

Cahill, Paul A. (Albuquerque, NM); Henderson, Craig C. (Dublin, CA)

1995-01-01

445

METAL RECOVERY PROCESS  

DOEpatents

A process is presented for the separation of plutonium from the niobium oxide which is frequently used as a carrier precipitate to separate the plutonium from solutions of dissolved fuel elements. The niobium oxide, plutonium bearing precipitate is treated with hydrogen fluoride converting the niobium to the volatile pentafluoride, while the plutonium is changed into the substantially non- volatile plutonium tetrafluoride. After the niobium has been removed, the plutonium tetrafluoride is reacted with elemental fluorine, converting it to a higher plutonium fluoride and this may in turn be volitilized away from any residual impurities.

Werner, L.B.; Hill, O.F.

1957-12-01

446

NICKEL PLATING PROCESS  

DOEpatents

A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

1959-05-12

447

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Pieces of material which become lodged in the openings of the conveyor belt may be removed by cylindrical deraggers or pressurized air. The crushed materials may be fed onto the conveyor belt by a vibrating feed plate which shakes the materials so that they tend to lie flat.

Mayberry, J.L.

1987-01-15

448

POLONIUM SEPARATION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

A liquid-liquid extraction process is presented for the recovery of polonium from lead and bismuth. According to the invention an acidic aqueous chloride phase containing the polonium, lead, and bismuth values is contacted with a tributyl phosphate ether phase. The polonium preferentially enters the organic phase which is then separated and washed with an aqueous hydrochloric solution to remove any lead or bismuth which may also have been extracted. The now highly purified polonium in the organic phase may be transferred to an aqueous solution by extraction with aqueous nitric acid.

Karraker, D.G.

1959-07-14

449

Statistical Signal Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transfer of acoustic information can be represented as consisting of three parts: the source, the medium, and the receiver. The transmitted information (signal) arrives at the receiver distorted by the medium and corrupted by noise. Thus, even when the signal is deterministic in nature, a complete description of the received signal must be a statistical one. That is to say, any processing carried out on the received energy must contain the best characterization of the distortion by the medium and corruption by the noise that is available, and this can only be done in terms of statistics.

Sullivan, Edmund J.

450

Coking and gasification process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a coking process wherein a normally solid carbonaceous material is coked at a temperature within the range from about 850/sup 0/ to about 1400/sup 0/F and at a pressure within the range from about 5 to about 150 psig and the coke fluidized during the coking operation. The improvement describes a gaseous ammonia or a gaseous ammonia precursor added to the coker in an amount sufficient to provide from about 1 to about 60wt% gaseous ammonia in the coker based on the weight of carbon in the solid carbonaceous material.

Billimoria, R.M.; Tao, F.F.

1986-07-01

451

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

Wright, C.H.

1986-02-11

452

Slurry hydroprocessing process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for hydrotreating a mid-distillate of a hydrocarbonaceous material. It comprises passing the mid-distillate in admixture with a hydrogen containing gas through a hydrotreating zone in contact with a hydrotreating catalyst slurry such that substantial nitrogen removal, hydrodesulfurization and aromatics hydrogenation is carried out and wherein the catalyst comprises catalyst particles 1 micron to 1/8 inch in average diameter and are characterized by a value of about 5 to 125 on an index defined as the excess catalyst index (ECI).

Sawyer, W.H.; Bearden, R. Jr.; Chianelli, R.R.; Winter, W.E. Jr.

1990-08-28

453

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

This paper describes a low-cost 6809 microprocessor-based system designed for the acquisition, analysis, preprocessing and recording of electrochemical kinetic data. Determination of second-order rate constants involves a preliminary calculation of a characteristic parameter of the electro-chemical system investigated, the value of which, computed and displayed by our apparatus, allows checking of the correctness of the experimental conditions. At the end of the experiment the data are recorded on a magnetic tape cartridge and can be transferred from the tape to a minicomputer for further mathematical processing. PMID:18963289

Fontaine, J C; Levoir, P; Meyer, J J

1982-11-01

454

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1986-01-01

455

Discretized diffusion processes  

PubMed

We study the properties of the "rigid Laplacian" operator; that is we consider solutions of the Laplacian equation in the presence of fixed truncation errors. The dynamics of convergence to the correct analytical solution displays the presence of a metastable set of numerical solutions, whose presence can be related to granularity. We provide some scaling analysis in order to determine the value of the exponents characterizing the process. We believe that this prototype model is also suitable to provide an explanation of the widespread presence of power law in a social and economic system where information and decision diffuse, with errors and delay from agent to agent. PMID:11102133

Ciliberti; Caldarelli; De Los Rios P; Pietronero; Zhang

2000-12-01

456

Biotechnology: Upstream Processing Associate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 2:31 video excerpted from Pathways to Technology, youâÂÂll learn about the role biotechnology plays in the fight against cancer. Roya Dirin is an upstream processing associate who works with cells, looking for proteins that can help treat cancer. Her first career was as a midwife, but she decided to switch fields because she wanted to help cure diseases. Roya explains how her community college biotechnology degree is just the first step in her new career. The video is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can download the video as well.

2012-05-23

457

Advanced deformation process modeling  

SciTech Connect

Progress was made in achieving a comprehensive and coherent description of material behavior in deformation processing. The materials included were metals, alloys, intermetallic compounds, arbitrary lattice structure, and metal matrix composites. Aspects of behavior modeled included kinetics of flow and strain hardening, as well as recrystallization and the various anisotropies of strength and compliance. Highlights include a new prediction of the limiting strength of materials at high temperature, a new understanding of the generation of new grain boundaries during forming operations, and a quantitatively verified computer simulation of texture development and the resulting behavioral anisotropies.

Kocks, U.F.; Embury, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Beaudoin, A.J. [Reynolds Metals (United States); Dawson, P.R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); MacEwen, S.R. [Alcan (Canada); Mecking, H.J. [Hamburg Technic (Germany)

1997-08-01

458

Process for synthesizing ammonia  

SciTech Connect

In a continuous ammonia synthesis process in which a synthesis gas mixture containing nitrogen and hydrogen is passed sequentially over two or more catalyst beds containing ammonia synthesis catalyst to produce a gaseous effluent from each of the catalyst beds containing ammonia and unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen, the improvements is described which comprises cooling the gaseous effluent from the first of the catalyst beds, before the effluent enters the second catalyst bed, by heat exchange in a stream superheater to control the temperature of the effluent entering the second catalyst bed to a desired level.

Grotz, B.J.

1988-05-17

459

Processed anthocyanin pigment extracts  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The stability of anthocyanin pigment extracts and food products containing anthocyanin extracts is enhanced by removal from the anthocyanin pigment extracts of nutrients which support yeast growth, constituents which react to produce off-flavor, and constituents which catalyze oxidation. These undesirable materials contained in anthocyanin extracts are removed by subjecting the extracts to ultrafiltration or dialysis to remove low molecular weight components from the extracts. The extracts are also subjected to ion exchange to remove additional of these undesirable constituents. Sufficient of these undesirable constituents can be removed from anthocyanin extracts so that, e.g., carbonated beverages containing the extracts may not support sufficient growth of yeasts to cause the beverages to become hazy and/or have an off-flavor, and so that when the extracts are used to prepare dry beverage powder mixtures after prolonged shelf storage, the mixtures may not obtain an off-flavor. Moreover, the oxidative stability and photostability of the anthocyanin pigment extracts may be enhanced by the process of this invention. Such processed anthocyanin extracts may have higher tinctoral powers, e.g., more brilliant red colors, and are less hygroscopic, and thus they may be suitable for coloring various solid food products including liquid and powder concentrates.

Hilton; Barney W. (Dallas, TX); Lin; Robert I. (Irving, TX); Topor; Michael G. (Farmer's Branch, TX)

1982-03-16

460

Modeling Transient Eruptive Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer models of volcanic eruptions are essential for understanding the physical processes occurring within a volcanic conduit. We are building upon previous modeling efforts in order to simulate two-phase homogeneous flow prior to fragmentation. Our code is designed to track changing pressure, velocity, density, and volatile concentrations within the conduit. Its primary emphasis is the efficient numerical modeling of transient eruptive events. As such, it is possible to model eruption triggers associated with sudden decompression, more gradual diffusive bubble growth, and injection of volatile-rich magma. We alter initial conditions, including volatile distribution, conduit geometry, and magma recharge to quantify how these parameters affect eruption evolution. Our model complements existing numerical approaches for eruption dynamics and incorporates results from experimentalists and observational volcanologists. This enables us to assess the relative impact of various solubility laws, diffusion rates, as well as nucleation and fragmentation criteria. In the process, we address other important questions within the modeling community, such as: When and where does nucleation occur? What kind of boundary conditions should be imposed at the fragmentation front / gas-particle-jet boundary? How do turbulent flow, wall friction, and erosion affect flow? Modeling results are to be compared with observations from contemporaneous eruptions at Colima, Mexico, Santiaguito, Guatemala, and Tungurahua, Ecuador.

Johnson, J. B.; Proussevitch, A.; Sahagian, D.

2004-05-01

461

Refuse burning process  

SciTech Connect

A process is provided for burning refuse containing polyvinyl chloride without the consequent production of phosgene. The refuse is carbonized in a rotary furnace at temperatures below 1200 degrees F., especially 700 degrees F., in an oxygen deficient atmosphere. A burnable gas containing the carbonized refuse is drawn from the furnace by an air jet wherein same is mixed with oxygen and selectively combusted. Uncarbonized refuse is collected and withdrawn after exiting the furnace. An apparatus is provided for combustion of the refuse in the nonphosgene generating process and includes the rotary furnace. Special seals are provided for the furnace to prevent excess oxygen from entering thereinto. In particular, the seals are utilized between the rotary ends of the furnace and stationary head associated with each end respectively. Each seal includes an upper and lower flap of fire resistant material secured to an end of the furnace and a companion flap of like material is secured to an associated end of the stationary head such that the intermediate flap sealably slides between the upper and lower flaps during rotation of the furnace thereby substantially sealing between the furnace and the stationary head.

Lientz, laC.

1983-08-23

462

Navigating the permit process  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) set out an entirely new federal operating permit program. In July 1992 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final regulations to implement the program. Although there have been delays in getting the program started and EPA is still making changes in response to various court challenges, the framework of the program is in place and the permitting process is well underway in some states. EPA estimates more than 34,000 sources will need operating permits which will be issued for five-year terms. The majority of these permit applications will be due during the July 1995 to December 1995 time frame, and many states are requiring submittal of applications well before these dates. In preparing an application there are several critical steps that should be followed to gather the information and draft the document. The price will be high for submitting an inadequate applicaton or failing to apply altogether - civil and criminal penalties could result and there is even the possibility of shutting down the source until it is permitted. Preparing an operating permit application will ba a time-consuming process and will require careful attention to the application requirements. The goal of the application is ultimately to lead to a permit that provides the facility with its maximum flexibility to meet anticipated changes and operate at the desired capacity while staying within the parameters of the plant`s applicable CAA requirements.

Belden, R.S. [Chadbourne & Parke, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-05-01

463

Partial oxidation process  

SciTech Connect

A process is provided for the partial oxidation of a high metals or ash containing liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or a slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel to simultaneously produce saturated and unsaturated raw streams of synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. Two continuous partial oxidation reactions in two separate reaction zones go on simultaneously. The fuel feed to the first partial oxidation zone is said fresh high metals or ash containing fuel. The raw product gas stream from the first partial oxidation zone is split into first and second split gas streams. The first split gas stream may be cooled in a radiant and/or convection type gas cooler without fouling heat exchange surfaces. The fuel feed to the second partial oxidation zone is a pumpable slurry which is prepared from the entrained matter that is separated from said gas streams during quench cooling and cleaning operations and which contains a comparatively high amount of metals and/or ash. The partial oxidation reaction takes place in the second partial oxidation zone in a reducing atmosphere that includes the second split raw product gas stream from the first partial oxidation zone. By the subject process, there is a reduction in the unconverted carbon produced without any significant loss in efficiency. Further, the life of the cooler for the raw product gas stream is increased.

Jahnke, F. C.

1985-10-15

464

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

A process for liquefying a particulate coal feed to produce useful petroleum-like liquid products which comprises contacting; in a series of two or more coal liquefaction zones, or stages, graded with respect to temperature, an admixture of a polar compound; or compounds, a hydrogen donor solvent and particulate coal, the total effluent being passed in each instance from a low temperature zone, or stage to the next succeeding higher temperature zone, or stage, of the series. The temperature within the initial zone, or stage, of the series is maintained about 70.degree. F and 750.degree. F and the temperature within the final zone, or stage, is maintained between about 750.degree. F and 950.degree. F. The residence time within the first zone, or stage, ranges, generally, from about 20 to about 150 minutes and residence time within each of the remaining zones, or stages, of the series ranges, generally, from about 10 minutes to about 70 minutes. Further steps of the process include: separating the product from the liquefaction zone into fractions inclusive of a liquid solvent fraction; hydrotreating said liquid solvent fraction in a hydrogenation zone; and recycling the hydrogenated liquid solvent mixture to said coal liquefaction zones.

Maa, Peter S. (Baytown, TX)

1978-01-01

465

[In Process Citation].  

PubMed

In Germany, discharge planning has been a mandatory part of hospital care since 2012 to ensure continuity of care and to support patients and relatives while crossing the critical interface between hospital and home care. However, it remains unclear how the information and counselling of informal caregivers integrated into this process can be conceptualised. An explorative study using focus groups was carried out aiming at identifying the carers' views and experiences for a needs-based conceptualisation of the information and counselling in discharge planning. The results indicate when, according to the interviewees, information and counselling should be offered and the importance of trust within the consultation process which should reach beyond the hospital setting. In addition to illness- and care-related aspects as well as organisational and administrative issues, carers also expressed needs for support in emotional coping, problem solving, relief of burden and peer support in everyday life. Integrating carers in the conceptualisation of discharge planning will help to develop needs-based information and counselling services. PMID:24088650

Langer, Juliane; Ewers, Michael

2013-10-01

466

Postreinforcement signal processing.  

PubMed

Postreinforcement signal processing by rats was demonstrated in six experiments that used a discrete-trials choice procedure. Experiment 1 assessed the extent to which rats are able to transfer knowledge about associations between postreinforcement signal durations and choice responses to conditions where a particular signal duration preceded the opportunity to make a choice response. In Experiment 2 the generality of the transfer effect was demonstrated by using both signal duration and signal modality as relevant stimulus attributes for the postreinforcement signals. The role of the relative durations of the reinforcement-signal gap and the intertrial interval was investigated in Experiment 3. In order to assess the effects of within-trial and between-trial signal relations on the acquisition of a temporal discrimination, both pre-and postreinforcement signals were presented on each trial in Experiments 4 and 5. The effects of pre- and postreinforcement signal relations on the steady-state performance of a temporal bisection task across three different signal ranges were studied in Experiment 6. The conclusion is that rats readily process various stimulus attributes of postreinforcement signals and that relations between postreinforcement signals, choice responses, and prereinforcement signals are major determinants of choice behavior. PMID:3989476

Meck, W H

1985-01-01

467

Thermal processes in ringholes  

SciTech Connect

Ringholes are space-time tunnelings connecting two asymptotically flat regions by means of a throat with the topology of a torus. This paper considers the processes of semiclassical thermal emission from ringholes and the accretion of dark energy onto them by adapting the results previously obtained for wormholes to toroidal topology. It is shown that at or near the throat the ringholes can be characterized as a mixture of two thermal sources, one at positive temperature and the other at negative temperature which, respectively, emit usual black body radiation and phantomlike radiation, leading after completion of thermal emission to two possible limiting situations, one similar to a wormhole in that it behaves just like a diverging lens, and the other similar to a black hole in that it behaves only as a converging lens. These two limiting situations, though described at rather diverging sizes, are also the final consequences from the accretion processes of quintessential and phantom vacuum energies. Finally, a brief discussion is added on the ringhole thermodynamics and its associated laws which are nothing but the extension to toroidal geometry from the thermodynamic laws which were recently established for wormholes.

Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

2010-08-15

468

Microwave photonic signal processing.  

PubMed

Photonic signal processing offers the advantages of large time-bandwidth capabilities to overcome inherent electronic limitations. In-fibre signal processors are inherently compatible with fibre optic microwave systems that can integrate with wireless antennas, and can provide connectivity with in-built signal conditioning and electromagnetic interference immunity. Recent methods in wideband and adaptive signal processing, which address the challenge of realising programmable microwave photonic phase shifters and true-time delay elements for phased array beamforming; ultra-wideband Hilbert transformers; single passband, widely tunable, and switchable microwave photonic filters; and ultra-wideband microwave photonic mixers, are described. In addition, a new microwave photonic mixer structure is presented, which is based on using the inherent frequency selectivity of the stimulated Brillouin scattering loss spectrum to suppress the carrier of a dual-phase modulated optical signal. Results for the new microwave photonic mixer demonstrate an extremely wide bandwidth operation of 0.2 to 20 GHz and a large conversion efficiency improvement compared to the conventional microwave photonic mixer. PMID:24104178

Minasian, R A; Chan, E H W; Yi, X

2013-09-23

469

Natural gas conversion process  

SciTech Connect

The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

Not Available

1992-01-01

470

EDITORIAL: Industrial Process Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial process tomography remains a multidisciplinary field with considerable interest for many varied participants. Indeed this adds greatly to its appeal. It is a pleasure and a privilege to once again act as guest editor for a special feature issue of Measurement Science and Technology on industrial process tomography, the last being in December 2002. Those involved in the subject appreciate the efforts of Measurement Science and Technology in producing another issue and I thank the journal on their behalf. It can be seen that there are considerable differences in the composition of material covered in this issue compared with previous publications. The dominance of electrical impedance and electrical capacitance techniques is reduced and there is increased emphasis on general utility of tomographic methods. This is encompassed in the papers of Hoyle and Jia (visualization) and Dierick et al (Octopus). Electrical capacitance tomography has been a core modality for industrial applications. This issue includes new work in two very interesting aspects of image reconstruction: pattern matching (Takei and Saito) and simulated annealing (Ortiz-Aleman et al). It is important to take advantage of knowledge of the process such as the presence of only two components, and then to have robust reconstruction methods provided by pattern matching and by simulated annealing. Although crude reconstruction methods such as approximation by linear back projection were utilized for initial work on electrical impedance tomography, the techniques published here are much more advanced. The paper by Kim et al includes modelling of a two-component system permitting an adaption-related approach; the paper by Tossavainen et al models free surface boundaries to enable the estimation of shapes of objects within the target. There are clear improvements on the previous crude and blurred reconstructions where boundaries were merely inferred rather than estimated as in these new developments. Interest in magnetic induction tomography has evolved recently and I am pleased to note the inclusion of new work in that modality by Casanova et al. Note that this work also makes full use of prior information to improve reconstruction results. A modality that is relatively new to industrial applications is featured by Holstein et al, namely acoustic tomography. The novelty is provided by using measurements of the speed of sound in gas (air) to identify temperature distributions. Two well chosen applications illustrate the technique. Hard-field tomography, that is the modalities of x-ray and gamma-ray tomography, has always been of interest for some industrial applications. Often this has been for the high resolution of reconstructions available with these techniques, but there application has been restricted due to concerns about use of ionizing radiation. Cattle et al include an application to a process where the material to be imaged is a gamma emitter, i.e. only passive sources are used. The novelty here is that both source and attenuation information is used concurrently to obtain reconstructions. I thank the authors for a fascinating collection of papers that reflect current interest in the subject of industrial process tomography.

West, Robert M.

2004-07-01

471

Beryllium Manufacturing Processes  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of a number of reports that will be combined into a handbook on beryllium. Each report covers a specific topic. To-date, the following reports have been published: (1) Consolidation and Grades of Beryllium; (2) Mechanical Properties of Beryllium and the Factors Affecting these Properties; (3) Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Beryllium; (4) Joining of Beryllium; (5) Atomic, Crystal, Elastic, Thermal, Nuclear, and other Properties of Beryllium; and (6) Beryllium Coating (Deposition) Processes and the Influence of Processing Parameters on Properties and Microstructure. The conventional method of using ingot-cast material is unsuitable for manufacturing a beryllium product. Beryllium is a highly reactive metal with a high melting point, making it susceptible to react with mold-wall materials forming beryllium compounds (BeO, etc.) that become entrapped in the solidified metal. In addition, the grain size is excessively large, being 50 to 100 {micro}m in diameter, while grain sizes of 15 {micro}m or less are required to meet acceptable strength and ductility requirements. Attempts at refining the as-cast-grain size have been unsuccessful. Because of the large grain size and limited slip systems, the casting will invariably crack during a hot-working step, which is an important step in the microstructural-refining process. The high reactivity of beryllium together with its high viscosity (even with substantial superheat) also makes it an unsuitable candidate for precision casting. In order to overcome these problems, alternative methods have been developed for the manufacturing of beryllium. The vast majority of these methods involve the use of beryllium powders. The powders are consolidated under pressure in vacuum at an elevated temperature to produce vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) blocks and vacuum hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) forms and billets. The blocks (typically cylindrical), which are produced over a wide range of sizes (up to 183 cm dia. by 61 cm high), may be cut or machined into parts or be thermomechanically processed to develop the desired microstructure, properties, and shapes. Vacuum hot-isostatic pressing and cold-isostatic pressing (CIP) followed by sintering and possibly by a final HIP'ing (CIP/Sinter/HIP) are important in their use for the production of near net-shaped parts. For the same starting powder, a HIP'ed product will have less anisotropy than that obtained for a VHP'ed product. A schematic presentation illustrating the difference between VHP'ing and HIP'ing is shown in Figure I-1. The types of powders and the various beryllium grades produced from the consolidated powders and their ambient-temperature mechanical properties were presented in the consolidation report referred to above. Elevated-temperature properties and the effect of processing variables on mechanical properties are described in the mechanical properties report. Beryllium can also be deposited as coatings as well as freestanding forms. The microstructure, properties, and various methods used that are related to the deposition of beryllium are discussed in the report on beryllium coatings.

Goldberg, A

2006-06-30

472

Process integration for submicron CMOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four aspects of submicron CMOS process integration are examined. They are: (1) device and systems goals, (2) unit processes, (3) process interactions, and (4) process modeling and characterization. It is believed that sub-half-micron CMOS technologies offer the potential for realizing electronic systems with a complexity approaching that of the human brain.

Krusius, J. Peter

473

Using simulation in process engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flexible and economic production of goods requires a new level of automation. Workcells integrating manufacturing stations and robots, form the basis of a flexible manufacturing process. The manufacturing process to be performed in such a cell also needs definition. A prerequisite is an adequate process definition environment which uses computer support to define the manufacturing process. The basis of

Gerhard Chroust; Witold Jacak

1993-01-01

474

Commitments for flexible business processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current approaches of specifying business processes describe the implementation of a process rather than the interactions that are expected from the agents that participate in it. This means that the specification is neither flexible, nor reusable. We propose an approach of developing business processes from commitment-based protocols. Our approach results in protocols that are reusable across applications and processes that

Amit K. Chopra; Munindar P. Singh

2004-01-01

475

Commitments for Flexible Business Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current approaches of specifying business processes describe the implementation of a process rather than the interactions that are expected from the agents that participate in it. This means that the specification is neither flexible, nor reusable. We propose an approach of developing business processes from commitment-based protocols. Our approach results in protocols that are reusable across applications and processes that

Amit K. Chopra; Munindar P. Singh

2004-01-01

476

The Course of Due Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of due process rights for children with disabilities considers common issues leading to due process requests, due process procedures, hearing officers, procedural violations, effects of due process meetings, and areas for improvement (i.e., accountability, paperwork). Tables list categories of procedural violations with examples and…

Getty, Laura A.; Summy, Sarah E.

2004-01-01

477

Business process optimization for RHIOs.  

PubMed

Implementation of an electronic health record (EHR) network entails significant changes in the business processes of participating organizations. Business process management, increased automation, process optimization, user training and end-user adoption together form the keys to success with an EHR. Redesigned processes should be mapped to benefit lines and performance indicators, and monitored continuously to identify improvement opportunities. It is important the new business work flows should match, if not exceed, the existing benchmarks for performance. Business process redesign is all the more challenging in the context of regional health information organizations (RHIOs), as the business processes of the EHR network have to be aligned with existing process flows of several organizations, each with its own preferences and specific requirements. Even so, most of the discrete individual processes have to be converged, streamlined, assimilated and optimized in the redesigned business processes. This paper proposes a methodology for business process redesign and optimization for RHIOs. PMID:17299924

Soti, Praveen; Pandey, Seema

2007-01-01

478

Advanced Process Heater  

SciTech Connect

The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: Improved performance of high temperature materials; Improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; Heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer. This Category I award entitled ''Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future'' met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) Doubling the heat transfer rates (2) Improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) Improving temperature uniformity by 100 degrees F and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH address EERE's mission priority of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. One component of the APH, the SpyroCorTM, was commercialized by STORM Development's partner, Spinworks LLC. Over 2000 SpyrCorsTM were sold in 2004 resulting in 480 million BTU's of energy savings, 20% reduction in NOx and CO2 levels, and 9 jobs in N.W. Pennsylvania. A second component, the HeatCorTM, a low-cost high-temperature heat exchanger will be demonstrated by Spinworks in 2005 in preparation for commercial sales in 2006. The project occurred in the 21st Congressional District of Pennsylvania. Once fully commercialized, the APH energy savings potential is 339 trillion BTUs annually in the U.S. and will process 1.5 million more tons annually without major capital equipment expenditures. Spinworks will commercialize the APH and add over 100 U.S. workers. To accomplish the objective, STORM Development LLC teamed with Penn State University, SyCore, Inc, Spinworks LLC, and Schunk-INEX, Inc. The project consisted of component engineering and integration of the APH followed by parametric testing. All components of the system were tested in a lab furnace that simulates a full scale industrial installation. The target areas for development include: (1) Scale up STORM's Finned Stabilized Combustion, (2) Optimization of SyCore's SiGr Inserts such that the heat transfer on the exhaust leg will match the high luminosity burner leg., (3) Evaluation of the heat transfer characteristics of Schunk-INEX's finned composite tubes as a heat exchanger, and (4) Design of a system to monitor all components of the APH and control its performance such that the objectives are met.

Tom Briselden, Chris Parrish

2005-03-07

479

Purification process for plasmid DNA  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods of isolating clinical-grade plasmid DNA from manufacturing processes, including large-scale fermentation regimes, are disclosed which encompass alternatives to two core unit operations common to plasmid DNA purification processes. The novel upstream and downstream purification processes disclosed herein provide for reduced production costs and increase process robustness. Either or both of the purification processes disclosed herein may be used in combination with additional purification steps known in the art that are associated with DNA plasmid purification technology.

2010-08-03

480

PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM  

DOEpatents

A process is described for recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickels copper, and iron is treated with excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitatc the uranium, irons and chromium and convert thc nickel and copper to soluble ammonia complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried, and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/ sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temprrature of about 300 to400 deg C.

MacWood, G.E.; Wilder, C.D.; Altman, D.

1959-03-24

481

Process for producing sialon  

SciTech Connect

A process for producing a sialon powder is described comprising the steps of: introducing a decomposable silicon compound, decomposable aluminum compound and a decomposable carbon compound into a steam-containing hot gas to decompose the decomposable silicon compound, aluminum compound and carbon compound in the hot gas into silicon oxide, aluminum oxide and elemental carbon, respectively, thereby producing a fine solid particle mixture consisting essentially of the silicon oxide, aluminum oxide and elemental carbon dispersed in the gas; collecting the fine solid particle mixture dispersed in the gas from the gas phase by a solid-gas separating technique to obtain a carbon-containing composition consisting essentially of the silicon oxide, aluminum oxide and elemental carbon, and calcining the composition in a nitrogen containing gas atmosphere.

Murakawa, N.; Isogaya, K.; Maruyama, K.; Nakamura, F.

1988-03-15

482

Welding processes for plastics  

SciTech Connect

To make large or complex thermoplastic parts, the most cost-effective method often involves molding two or more parts and joining them together. In such cases, the manufacturer has a variety of joining options, including adhesives, mechanical fastening, and fusion bonding or welding. Welding is particularly attractive for thermoplastic part assembly because joining times are often very short, enabling high throughput. Also, the various fusion processes typically produce strong joints, tolerate contaminated surfaces, and successfully join such difficult-to-bond substrates as polyolefins. They are also useful for joining polymers with low surface energies (such as polyethylene and polypropylene), which require complex surface activation treatments if they are to be adhesively joined.

Grimm, R.A. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-03-01

483

Catalytic coal liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for catalytic solvent refining of coal at an elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of hydrogen and a hydrocarbon solvent to produce liquid hydrocarbons and normally solid solvent-refined coal. The improvement described here comprises using as catalyst a mixture of: (a) from 0.01 to about 5% by weight of a mono- or polycyclic, substituted or unsubstituted 1.4- or 1.2-quinone with respect to coal feed and (b) from 0.01 to about 5% by weight of an ammonium, alkali metal, or alkaline earth metal compound selected from an oxide, hydroxide or salt of a weak acid, with respect to coal feed.

Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

1986-12-02

484

Fluorination process using catalysts  

DOEpatents

A process is given for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/, AgF/sub 2/ and NiF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/ and AgF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

Hochel, R.C.; Saturday, K.A.

1983-08-25

485

Bottoms visbreaking hydroconversion process  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for hydroconverting a hydrocarbon chargestock consisting of: (a) heating the chargestock to produce a minor amount of coke; (b) contacting the coke within the chargestock with a minor effective amount of an oil-soluble metal compound, the metal being selected from the group consisting of Groups IV-B, V-B, VI-B, VII-B and VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements, and mixtures thereof; (c) contacting the metal compound and the coke within the chargestock with a hydrogen-containing gas under conditions to produce a solid catalyst within the chargestock capable of promoting hydroconversion of at least a portion of the (d) contacting the chargestock containing the catalyst with hydrogen under hydroconversion conditions; and (e) recovering a hydroconverted hydrocarbon product.

Grosboll, M.P.; Dittmar, P.H.

1986-04-01

486

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons with a metal complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/H/sub 2/ in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form a hydridoalkyl complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/RH; (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform CHX/sub 3/ at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) CpRhPMe/sub 3/RX; and (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex with halogen -60 to 25/sup 0/C to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana-Pillai, R.A.

1984-06-12

487

Metabolically efficient information processing.  

PubMed

Energy-efficient information transmission may be relevant to biological sensory signal processing as well as to low-power electronic devices. We explore its consequences in two different regimes. In an "immediate" regime, we argue that the information rate should be maximized subject to a power constraint, and in an "exploratory" regime, the transmission rate per power cost should be maximized. In the absence of noise, discrete inputs are optimally encoded into Boltzmann distributed output symbols. In the exploratory regime, the partition function of this distribution is numerically equal to 1. The structure of the optimal code is strongly affected by noise in the transmission channel. The Arimoto-Blahut algorithm, generalized for cost constraints, can be used to derive and interpret the distribution of symbols for optimal energy-efficient coding in the presence of noise. We outline the possibilities and problems in extending our results to information coding and transmission in neurobiological systems. PMID:11255570

Balasubramanian, V; Kimber, D; Berry, M J

2001-04-01

488

Uncloaking the Scientific Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since April 2008, NSIDC has offered daily updates of sea ice data on our Arctic Sea Ice News & Analysis Web page (http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews). The images provide near-real-time data to the general public and policy makers, accompanied by monthly or more frequent analysis updates. In February 2009, a crucial channel of the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) sensor on the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F15 satellite, from which NSIDC was obtaining near-real-time Arctic sea ice data, suddenly failed. The daily image, which is automatically updated, showed a sudden drop in ice extent of over 50,000 square kilometers. Even after taking the images down, skeptical blogs jumped on the event, posting headlines such as “Errors in publicly presented data - Worth blogging about?” and “NSIDC pulls the plug on sea ice data.” In fact, NSIDC data managers and scientists were well aware that the F15 satellite sensor would eventually fail. NSIDC switched to a previously used back-up sensor, F13, and work to transition to a newer sensor on the F17 satellite had been underway for several weeks. While the deluge of questions from readers and bloggers were frustrating to NSIDC communications staff and scientists, they also presented a chance to give readers a window into the scientific process, and specifically into the collection of satellite data. We decided to publish a clear account of the process used to transition between sensors, as well as a basic explanation of the satellites used to measure sea ice data. While most scientists are familiar with the limitations of near-real-time data, the concept is unfamiliar to many in the general public. The Web page includes links to information on near-real-time data, including notes that images sometimes contain missing or erroneous data, and that delays can occur. However, to a skeptical person, the words that scientists use to describe the processing of final data, including “adjustment,” “bias,” and “correction,” can convey a sinister or political motive. How much information is really necessary for the general public? How much should we share about our processes and motives? This poster/presentation will address some of the dangers and opportunities of presenting near-real-time data to the public, and share some of strategies we used to respond to attacks on our data quality. In order to develop effective responses to climate change, it is important for policymakers to focus on complete data records and not short-term variability in near-real-time data, which may not be indicative of long-term trends or, as in the case presented here, may have errors that need to be corrected. NSIDC clearly states that its near-real-time images and data should not be used for significant conclusions about the long-term state of the climate, but are an initial snapshot for informational purposes. Nonetheless, NSIDC did hear from some policymakers that our data was regularly being used in various briefs within governmental agencies. This has led to greater attention to how our data may be used. However, we hope that our transparency and clear explanations will be valuable in guiding how policymakers employ our data and images in the future.

Leitzell, K.; Meier, W.

2009-12-01

489

Continuous process electrorefiner  

DOEpatents

A new device is provided for the electrorefining of uranium in spent metallic nuclear fuels by the separation of unreacted zirconium, noble metal fission products, transuranic elements, and uranium from spent fuel rods. The process comprises an electrorefiner cell. The cell includes a drum-shaped cathode horizontally immersed about half-way into an electrolyte salt bath. A conveyor belt comprising segmented perforated metal plates transports spent fuel into the salt bath. The anode comprises the conveyor belt, the containment vessel, and the spent fuel. Uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium (Pu) are oxidized at the anode, and, subsequently, the uranium is reduced to uranium metal at the cathode. A mechanical cutter above the surface of the salt bath removes the deposited uranium metal from the cathode.

Herceg, Joseph E. (Naperville, IL); Saiveau, James G. (Hickory Hills, IL); Krajtl, Lubomir (Woodridge, IL)

2006-08-29

490

PROCESSING OF MONAZITE SAND  

DOEpatents

A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution. The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. The thorium and uranium containing precipitate is redissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and the two elements are separated by extraction into tributyl phosphate and back extraction with a weakly acidic solution to remove the thorium.

Calkins, G.D.; Bohlmann, E.G.

1957-12-01

491

PROCESS FOR RECOVERYING URANIUM  

DOEpatents

A process useful in recovering uranium from deposits on stainless steel liner surfaces of calutrons is presented. The deposit is removed from the stainless steel surface by washing with aqueous nitric acid. The solution obtained containing uranium, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron is treated with an excess of ammonium hydroxide to precipitnte the uranium, iron, and chromium and convert the nickel and copper to soluble ammonio complexions. The precipitated material is removed, dried and treated with carbon tetrachloride at an elevated temperature of about 500 to 600 deg C to form a vapor mixture of UCl/ sub 4/, UCl/sub 5/, FeCl/sub 3/, and CrCl/sub 4/. The UCl/sub 4/ is separated from this vapor mixture by selective fractional condensation at a temperature of about 500 to 400 deg C.

MacWood, G.E.; Wilder, C.D.; Altman, D.

1959-03-24

492

Species as a process.  

PubMed

Species are generally considered to be the basic units of evolution, and hence to constitute spatio-temporally bounded entities. In addition, it has been argued that species also instantiate a natural kind. Evolution is fundamentally about change. The question then is how species can remain the same through evolutionary change. Proponents of the species qua individuals thesis individuate species through their unique evolutionary origin. Individuals, or spatio-temporally located particulars in general, can be bodies, objects, events, or processes, or a combination of these. It is here argued that species are best understood as open or closed, causally integrated processual systems that also instantiate an historically conditioned homeostatic property cluster natural kind. PMID:18813877

Rieppel, Olivier

2008-09-24

493

Processing complete dentures.  

PubMed

When this procedure is followed carefully, a strip of 0.0005-inch shim stock meets resistance when an attempt is made to withdraw it from between the teeth in occlusion and the incisal pin and its table simultaneously. Therefore, it is possible to process complete dentures by using compression molding and external heat for polymerization. The procedure involves a precise step-by-step method with particular emphasis on (1) investing properly in dental stone, (2) packing only one denture at a time with only one mix of acrylic resin, (3) using minimum packing pressure with maximum flow time, (4) trial packing until no flash is evident, and (5) careful deflasking. PMID:8635618

Rudd, K D

1996-01-01

494

PROCESS FOR COLORING DIAMONDS  

DOEpatents

A process is given for coloring substantially colorless diamonds in the blue to blue-green range and comprises the steps of irradiating the colorless diamonds with electrons having an energy within the range 0.5 to 2 Mev to obtain an integrated electron flux of between 1 and 2 x 10/sup 18/ thc diamonds may be irradiated 1 hr when they take on a blue color with a slight green tint: After being heated at about 500 deg C for half an hour they become pure blue. Electrons within this energy range contam sufficient energy to displace the diamond atoms from their normal lattice sites into interstitial sites, thereby causing the color changes.

Dugdale, R.A.

1960-07-19

495

Reforming and isomerization process  

SciTech Connect

A reformate lean oil absorber is used in the downstream processing facilities of a reformer unit to remove isobutane and heavier components from a separator overhead vapor, part of which is reformer recycle gas. Stabilized reformate may be employed as lean oil in the absorber, and the fat oil is recycled to the stabilizer for recovery of isobutane and normal butane as overhead product and C/sub 5//sup +/ liquid as bottoms product. The mixed butanes are separated, and the isobutane employed as alkylation feedstock. The n-butane is recycled with the naphtha to the reformer unit, the absence of butanes in the recycle gas considerably enhancing the amount of isobutane produced in the reforming unit.

Swart, G.S.; O'Connor, R.P.

1984-02-21

496

Biomass liquefaction process  

SciTech Connect

This invention is directed to a process for the conversion of solid cellulosic biomass materials or lignite to oil. A solid soil slurry is contacted in a reactor with carbon monoxide and water vapor in the presence of an alkali metal and alkaline earth metal carbonate, bicarbonate or formate catalyst at a temperature of from about 250/sup 0/ C. And to about 450/sup 0/ C. At a pressure of from about 2000 psig to about 5000 psig. The gases from the reactor and oil hydrocarbon fuel, preferably a recycled heavy fraction of product oil containing spent catalyst, are burned at a pressure above the reactor pressure with oxygen to provide a carbon monoxide-water vapor gas having a temperature of from about 1100*c. To about 1600* C. Said gas is introduced under surface of the oil slurry in the reactor to provide heat, carbon monoxide, water vapor, and, desirably, regenerated catalyst to said reactor.

Huang, M.W.

1981-05-05

497

Delayed coking process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a delayed cooking process in which a heavy oil coker feedstock is heated to an elevated coking temperature in a furnace and the heated feedstock is subsequently subjected to delayed coking in a coker drum under superatmospheric pressure and the vaporous coking products are removed from the drum and passed to a coker fractionator from which a bottoms fraction is removed. The improvement comprises coking a feed without the addition of the bottoms fraction from the fractionator and adding to the feed to the coker drum a lower boiling hydrocarbon diluent having an end boiling point of not more than 450/sup 0/C, the lower boiling hydrocarbon diluent being added to the heated feedstock after the feedstock has passed through the furnace.

Dabkowski, M.J.; Malladi, M.

1987-04-28

498

Electrowinning apparatus and process  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

2012-06-19

499

Catalyst deoiling process  

SciTech Connect

A deoiling process is described comprising the steps of: removing a slurry of spent catalyst and oil from an ebullated bed reactor; transporting the slurry of spent catalyst and oil from the reactor to a vessel; cooling the slurry of spent catalyst and oil in the vessel to a temperature below the flash point of the oil; conveying the cooled slurry at an upward angle of inclination in a screw conveyor in a spiral flow pattern while countercurrently draining oil from the slurry to substantially separate the oil from the spent catalyst; and discharging the spent catalyst from the screw conveyor into a bin after the oil has been substantially separated from the spent catalyst.

Olson, C.B.; Plichta, R.T.; Coyne, D.W.

1987-04-28

500

Foam process models.  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level foam processing computational model suitable for predicting the self-expansion of foam in complex geometries. The model is based on a finite element representation of the equations of motion, with the movement of the free surface represented using the level set method, and has been implemented in SIERRA/ARIA. An empirically based time- and temperature-dependent density model is used to encapsulate the complex physics of foam nucleation and growth in a numerically tractable model. The change in density with time is at the heart of the foam self-expansion as it creates the motion of the foam. This continuum-level model uses an homogenized description of foam, which does not include the gas explicitly. Results from the model are compared to temperature-instrumented flow visualization experiments giving the location of the foam front as a function of time for our EFAR model system.

Moffat, Harry K.; Noble, David R.; Baer, Thomas A. (Procter & Gamble Co., West Chester, OH); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Mondy, Lisa Ann

2008-09-01