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1

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: SOURCE TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT - RECTISOL ACID GAS REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of tests of a Rectisol acid gas removal unit at a Texaco refinery. The primary goal was to provide a data base for evaluation of Rectisol performance in entrained coal gasification applications. This Rectisol unit processes gases from the partial oxidatio...

2

Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process  

SciTech Connect

Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

Not Available

1980-01-01

3

amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2  

E-print Network

IP [2012] 7 C O 2 (CO2) . CO2 amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2 CO2 .Amine CO2 (functional group) amine amine+ +promoter .Amine CO2 CO2 . . , methanol ether methanol, ether promoter CO2 CO2 H2S, COS CO2 . Methanol rectisol process, di-methylene ether polypropylene glycol selexol (-30oC) . CO2

Hong, Deog Ki

4

Hydrocarbon Processing`s gas processes `96  

SciTech Connect

This review summarizes 71 processes, describing the process, its application, products, operating conditions, economics, installations, and licensor. Processes include desulfurization, CO{sub 2} removal, sulfur recovery, NGL recovery, deoxygenation, hydrogen production and separation, cryogenic separation of hydrocarbon fractions, dehydration, liquefaction of natural gas, LPG recovery, denitrogenation, and synthesis gas production. While most processes apply to natural gas, some are also useful for refinery gas, synthesis gas, coal mine gas, and tail gas from other processes.

NONE

1996-04-01

5

Hydrocarbon Processing`s gas processes `98  

SciTech Connect

The paper summarizes 82 processes for natural gas desulfurization, separation, liquefaction, and materials recovery, especially of hydrogen. Each entry describes the application, end products, the process, operating conditions, economics, installations, licensor, and gives references, if appropriate.

NONE

1998-04-01

6

Hydrocarbon Processing`s environmental processes `96  

SciTech Connect

Summaries of 54 processes are presented, containing descriptions of their application, the process, economics, installations, and licensor. Processes are for air, water, and land pollution abatement and control and remedial action of contaminated sites. Processes include: biodegradation, vapor and solvent recovery, membrane transport, pressure swing adsorption, oxidation, selective catalytic reduction, scrubbing, incineration, steam stripping, activated carbon adsorption, extraction, aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion, desulfurization, and recycling.

NONE

1996-08-01

7

Hydrocarbon Processing`s refining processes `96  

SciTech Connect

The paper compiles information on the following refining processes: alkylation, benzene reduction, benzene saturation, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, coking, crude distillation, deasphalting, deep catalytic cracking, electrical desalting, ethers, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, hydrogenation, hydrotreating, isomerization, resid catalytic cracking, treating, and visbreaking. The application, products, a description of the process, yield, economics, installation, and licensor are given for each entry.

NONE

1996-11-01

8

Process integration: Process change and batch processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of process integration to batch processes and other time-dependent systems (for example, the start-up of a continuous process, a multi-plant complete site, or even a building) is investigated. Methods are described for determining energy targets, for identifying possibilities for heat storage (within or between the batches) and for rescheduling process operations to minimize heat exchange, and for designing heat recovery networks. In addition, consideration is given to the use of process changes in continuous systems that will reduce energy targets (for example, changing a distillator column temperature, adding a pumparound or intermediate boiler, or changing the number of stages in an evaporator). The techniques described are developed and explained through case studies that illustrate their practical application.

1990-12-01

9

Scientific Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from NOVA, expand your understanding of the scientific process. Watch two videos featuring animations and interviews with scientists, and notice how the processes unfold and vary from one investigation to the other.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2007-08-01

10

Hydrocarbon Processing`s petrochemical processes `97  

SciTech Connect

The paper compiles information on numerous petrochemical processes, describing the application, the process, yields, economics, commercial plants, references, and licensor. Petrochemicals which are synthesized include: alkylbenzene, methylamines, ammonia, benzene, bisphenol-A, BTX aromatics, butadiene, butanediol, butyraldehyde, caprolactam, cumene, dimethyl terephthalate, ethanolamines, ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene glycols, ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, maleic anhydride, methanol, olefins, paraxylene, phenol, phthalic anhydride, polycaproamide, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, PVC, styrene, terephthalic acid, urea, vinyl chloride, and xylene isomers.

NONE

1997-03-01

11

Shuttle Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation details shuttle processing flow which starts with wheel stop and ends with launching. The flow is from landing the orbiter is rolled into the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), where processing is performed, it is then rolled over to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it is mated with the propellant tanks, and payloads are installed. A different flow is detailed if the weather at Kennedy Space Center requires a landing at Dryden.

Guodace, Kimberly A.

2010-01-01

12

Process Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objects move, collide, flow, bend, heat up, cool down, stretch, compress . and boil . These and other things that cause changes in objects over time are intuitively characterized as processes . To understand commonsense physical reasoning and make programs that interact with the physical world as well as people do we must understand qualitative reasoning about processes, when they

Kenneth D. Forbus

13

Growth processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Growth Processes activity had four participating countries, Finland, Sweden, UK and USA. The overall objective of the activity was to investigate growth processes of greatest importance in species used and leading to improvement and sustainability in short rotation forestry biomass production. The areas of interest agreed by the participants as topics for further research and information exchange were: canopy

L Sennerby-Forsse

1995-01-01

14

Solidification processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solidification processing activities are reported. The following topics are studied: behavior of semisolid metals, purification and strengthening by fractional melting, continuous casting, control of ingot surface quality, and metal matrix composites. Formation of deoxidation products in steels is also investigated. Rapid solidification, crystal growth, experimental and mathematical modeling of solidification processes are explored.

1982-01-01

15

Peat Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

1986-01-01

16

Processible Polyazomethines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processibility enhanced by incorporating trifluoromethylbenzene units into molecules. Results of two unexpected properties: high solubility in common organic solvents and lack of crystallinity. Properties coupled with ability of this class of polymers to undergo exchange reactions at elevated temperatures allow these materials to moderate their molecular weights during processing, which affects resulting mechanical properties after processing. Fluorinated polyazomethines form amorphous films that have excellent mechanical properties. Used in moisture-free environments as electronic semiconducting films and adhesives, and as matrix resins for advanced structural composites.

Bryant, Robert G.

1993-01-01

17

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. (2011)  

E-print Network

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. (2011) Published online in Wiley Online Library, 55099 Mainz, Germany 3 Earth System Research Center, Mainz, Germany Abstract: A quantitative description-ray computed tomography. Implication of this study for water transport in such discontinuities is addressed

Schmittbuhl, Jean

18

Macdonald processes  

E-print Network

Macdonald processes are probability measures on sequences of partitions defined in terms of nonnegative specializations of the Macdonald symmetric functions and two Macdonald parameters q,t ? [0,1). We prove several results ...

Borodin, Alexei

19

COLLAGEN PROCESSING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Collagen dispersions, produced from fibrils recovered from milled bovine collagen, have shown promise in environmental remediation in applications as settling aids, filtration aids, fractionation media, oil drop stabilizers, and water purification aids. Macroporous structures, processed by controll...

20

Process diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The book contains papers in the areas of combustion and fusion designed to overview major diagnostic techniques (laser-induced fluorescence, spontaneous Raman spectroscopy, interferometry, imaging, Langmuir probes, multiphoton exitation/detection techniques, etc.) as applied to combustion and fusion processes. The materials processing diagnostic papers represent the current state-of-the-art diagnostics in such areas as plasma etching, CVD, PACVD, welding, vacuum arc remelting, metal extrusion, and plasma spraying.

Hays, A.K. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Eckbreth, A.C. (United Technologies Corp., East Hartford, CT (USA). Research Center (USA)); Campbell, G.A. (Plasma Materials Technologies, Burbank, CA (USA))

1988-01-01

21

Process Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ChemScan UV-6100 is a spectrometry system originally developed by Biotronics Technologies, Inc. under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. It is marketed to the water and wastewater treatment industries, replacing "grab sampling" with on-line data collection. It analyzes the light absorbance characteristics of a water sample, simultaneously detects hundreds of individual wavelengths absorbed by chemical substances in a process solution, and quantifies the information. Spectral data is then processed by ChemScan analyzer and compared with calibration files in the system's memory in order to calculate concentrations of chemical substances that cause UV light absorbance in specific patterns. Monitored substances can be analyzed for quality and quantity. Applications include detection of a variety of substances, and the information provided enables an operator to control a process more efficiently.

1994-01-01

22

Runoff Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Runoff Processes module offers a thorough introduction to the runoff processes critical for flood and water supply prediction. Through the use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains key terminology and concepts including paths to runoff, basin and soil properties and runoff modeling. It also provides an introduction to the National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS). As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own or used as a supporting topic to provide factual scientific information to students as they complete the case-based forecasting modules.

2014-09-14

23

Reforming process  

SciTech Connect

A process for reforming a naphtha feedstock is disclosed. The reforming process is effected at reforming conditions in contact with a catalyst comprising a platinum group metal component and a group iv-a metal component composited with an alumina support wherein said support is prepared by admixing an alpha alumina monohydrate with an aqueous ammoniacal solution having a ph of at least about 7.5 to form a stable suspension. A salt of a strong acid, e.g., aluminum nitrate, is commingled with the suspension to form an extrudable paste or dough. On extrusion, the extrudate is dried and calcined to form said alumina support.

Mitsche, R.T.; Pope, G.N.

1981-01-06

24

Process evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is not always easy to conduct a study and implement a systematic policy in the aeronautical paint stripping field. The situations to be studied are complicated by extensive technical data, material conditions and financial unknowns. To these are added demands both in the civil and military fields to increase the performance obtained, optimize cycles, reduce recurrent costs, quickly amortize investments and now increasing respect for the environment. To reply correctly, the various possibilities must be assessed using, if possible, identical criteria and reference systems. The only criterion which applies to all the processes and methods is the overall stripping cost. It is not sufficient for a process to meet the related technical requirements (for example 'IATA guidelines'), it must also be economically justifiable. The overall costs take into account therefore the costs and materials, labor and also the downtime of the aircraft, amortization and maintenance of the installations and processing of waste, etc. For many years now, AEROSPATIALE has undertaken research and development programs to find and evaluate alternatives to the conventional chemical stripping process. This work has led it to carry out comparative analyses from technical elements enhanced as the work progressed.

Malavallon, Olivier

1995-04-01

25

Auditory Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper urges educators to take a renewed view of the problems and implications associated with auditory impairment in the student. Helping a child learn to utilize incoming information efficiently is seen as a problem of management. The processing of auditory information is briefly considered in the determination of what is entailed in the…

Falck, Vilma T.

26

Restoration Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

1979-01-01

27

Process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is given of seven process development activities which were presented at this session. Pulsed excimer laser processing of photovoltaic cells was presented. A different pulsed excimer laser annealing was described using a 50 w laser. Diffusion barrier research focused on lowering the chemical reactivity of amorphous thin film on silicon. In another effort adherent and conductive films were successfully achieved. Other efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Microwave enhanced plasma deposition experiments were performed. An updated version of the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) was presented, along with a life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells. The last presentation was on the evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate encapsulating system.

Bickler, D. B.

1985-01-01

28

Purification process  

SciTech Connect

A process for the removal of hydrogen sulphide from gases or liquid hydrocarbons, comprises contacting the gas or liquid hydrocarbon with an aqueous alkaline solution, preferably having a pH value of 8 to 10, comprising (A) an anthraquinone disulphonic acid or a water-soluble sulphonamide thereof (B) a compound of a metal which can exist in at least two valency states and (C) a sequestering agent.

Marshall, A.

1981-02-17

29

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. (2011)  

E-print Network

resulted in a diurnal cycle of unfrozen water content at the surface. Radiation and energy components on latent heat flux. A surface energy imbalance problem was encountered, and the possible sources of error/thaw process; energy closure budget Received 27 May 2010; Accepted 20 January 2011 INTRODUCTION The Tibetan

2011-01-01

30

Hydropyrolysis process  

DOEpatents

An improved process for producing a methane-enriched gas wherein a hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrogen-containing pyrolysis gas at an elevated temperature and pressure to produce a product gas mixture including methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The improvement comprises passing the product gas mixture sequentially through a water-gas shift reaction zone and a gas separation zone to provide separate gas streams of methane and of a recycle gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane for recycle to the process. A controlled amount of steam also is provided which when combined with the recycle gas provides a pyrolysis gas for treatment of additional hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material. The amount of steam used and the conditions within the water-gas shift reaction zone and gas separation zone are controlled to obtain a steady-state composition of pyrolysis gas which will comprise hydrogen as the principal constituent and a minor amount of carbon monoxide, steam and methane so that no external source of hydrogen is needed to supply the hydrogen requirements of the process. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment, conditions are controlled such that there also is produced a significant quantity of benzene as a valuable coproduct.

Ullman, Alan Z. (Northridge, CA); Silverman, Jacob (Woodland Hills, CA); Friedman, Joseph (Huntington Beach, CA)

1986-01-01

31

Ceramic Processing  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

EWSUK,KEVIN G.

1999-11-24

32

Snowmelt Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module helps the student develop an understanding of the contribution of snowmelt in the hydrologic forecasting process. The module first explains the influences of wind, sun, terrain, and vegetation on snow water distribution and then discusses the evolution of snowpack characteristics. From there, the student will learn about energy exchanges between the snow and the atmosphere and how that affects how quickly and how completely snow will melt. Finally, an explanation is presented of water flow through snow and the fate of that water when it reaches the ground surface. The lesson will be highlighted with brief examples of actual snowmelt cases.

2014-09-14

33

Image Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new spinoff product was derived from Geospectra Corporation's expertise in processing LANDSAT data in a software package. Called ATOM (for Automatic Topographic Mapping), it's capable of digitally extracting elevation information from stereo photos taken by spaceborne cameras. ATOM offers a new dimension of realism in applications involving terrain simulations, producing extremely precise maps of an area's elevations at a lower cost than traditional methods. ATOM has a number of applications involving defense training simulations and offers utility in architecture, urban planning, forestry, petroleum and mineral exploration.

1987-01-01

34

Materials & Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by National Aerospace Technical Education Center (SpaceTEC), is centered on materials and processes. The document focuses on the material structure of metal. It mainly focuses on the properties, these being: hardness, brittleness, malleability, ductility, elasticity, toughness, density, fusibility, conductivity, contraction and expansion. After the initial discussion of properties, the topic shifts to metalworking, case hardening and corrosion. Corrosion dominates over half of the presentation. Overall, this is thorough examination of this material. It totals nearly seventy slides in length. Instructors could use this either as a study guide or simply to enhance existing curriculum.

35

Lithospheric processes  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was to improve understanding of the origin and evolution of the Earth`s lithosphere by studying selected processes, such as deformation and magmatic intrusion during crustal extension, formation and extraction of mantle melts, fluid transport of heat and mass, and surface processes that respond to deep-seated events. Additional objectives were to promote and develop innovative techniques and to support relevant educational endeavors. Seismic studies suggest that underplating of crust by mantle melts is an important crustal-growth mechanism, that low-angle faults can be seismogenic, and that shear deformation creates mantle anisotropy near plate boundaries. Results of geochemical work determined that magmas from oceanic intraplate islands are derived from a uniform depth in the upper mantle, whereas melts erupted at mid-ocean ridges are mixed from a range of depths. The authors have determined the extent and style of fluid infiltration and trace-element distribution in natural magmatic systems, and, finally, investigated {sup 21}Ne as a tool for dating of surficial materials.

Baldridge, W.S.; Wohletz, K.; Fehler, M.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.] [and others

1997-11-01

36

Pyrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

In a process for recovery of values contained in solid carbonaceous material, the solid carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to pyrolysis, in the presence of a solid particulate source of heat in a pyrolysis zone, to form a pyrolysis product stream. The pyrolysis product stream contains a gaseous mixture and particulate solids. The solids are separated from the gaseous mixture to form a substantially solids-free gaseous stream which comprises volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals newly formed by pyrolysis. The solid particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing part of the separated particulate solids. Condensed stabilized hydrocarbons are obtained by quenching the gaseous mixture stream with a quench fluid which contains a capping agent for stabilizing and terminating newly formed volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals. The capping agent is partially depleted of hydrogen by the stabilization and termination reaction. Hydrocarbons of four or more carbon atoms in the gaseous mixture stream are condensed. A liquid stream containing the stabilized liquid product is then treated or separated into various fractions. A liquid containing the hydrogen depleted capping agent is hydrogenated to form a regenerated capping agent. At least a portion of the regenerated capping agent is recycled to the quench zone as the quench fluid. In another embodiment capping agent is produced by the process, separated from the liquid product mixture, and recycled.

Durai-swamy, K.

1983-03-01

37

Crystallization process  

DOEpatents

An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

Adler, Robert J. (Shaker Heights, OH); Brown, William R. (Brecksville, OH); Auyang, Lun (Highland Heights, OH); Liu, Yin-Chang (Richmond Heights, OH); Cook, W. Jeffrey (Cleveland Heights, OH)

1986-01-01

38

Lithospheric processes  

SciTech Connect

The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

Baldridge, W. [and others

2000-12-01

39

Image Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

1993-01-01

40

Oligomerization process  

DOEpatents

A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1991-03-26

41

Etherification process  

DOEpatents

A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1990-01-01

42

Etherification process  

DOEpatents

A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1990-08-21

43

Oligomerization process  

DOEpatents

A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1991-01-01

44

Pyrolysis process  

SciTech Connect

In a process for recovery of values contained in solid carbonaceous material, a solid carbonaceous material is comminuted and then treated at an elevated temperature in a pretreatment zone with a first capping agent which is at treating conditions either a liquid or a gas. The treating conditions are such that the first capping agent is sorbed by the solid particulate carbonaceous material. The solid particulate carbonaceous material containing the sorbed first capping agent is then subjected to pyrolysis in the presence of a second capping agent, and preferably in the presence of a solid particulate source of heat and a transport gas in a transport flash pyrolysis reactor, to form a pyrolysis product stream. The solid particulate carbonaceous feed material is pyrolyzed and newly formed volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals are substantially simultaneously terminated by the sorbed first capping agent, or the second capping agent as such radicals are formed, to form a pyrolysis product stream. The pyrolysis product stream contains a gaseous mixture and particulate solids which are separated from the gaseous mixture to form a substantially particulate solids-free gaseous mixture stream which contains capping agent terminated volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals, hydrogen depleted capping agents, pyrolysis product vapors and a transport gas. Hydrocarbons of four or more carbon atoms in the gaseous mixture stream are condensed. A liquid stream containing the stabilized liquid product is then treated or separated into various fractions. A liquid containing the hydrogen depleted capping agents is hydrogenated to form regenerated capping agents, at least a portion of which is recycled to the pretreatment zone and at least another portion is recycled to the pyrolysis zone. In another embodiment the capping agents are produced by the process , separated from the liquid product mixture, and recycled.

Durai-swamy, K.

1982-04-13

45

Gas processing  

SciTech Connect

A process for the recovery of C[sub 2] components (ethylene and/or ethane) and heavier hydrocarbon components from a gas stream containing a significant quantity of components more volatile than methane (e.g., hydrogen, nitrogen, and/or others) is disclosed. The cooled, partially condensed hydrocarbon bearing gas stream is separated into a vapor containing substantial quantities of the component(s) more volatile than methane and a liquid containing predominantly hydrocarbons. The vapor is expanded to the distillation column pressure and then supplied to the column at an upper mid-column feed position. The liquid is expanded to column pressure and supplied to the column at a lower mid-column feed position. A recycle stream is withdrawn from the column at a point below the upper mid-column feed position where the bulk of the volatile components are supplied to the column. The recycle stream is compressed and cooled so that a substantial portion is condensed and then supplied to the column as reflux at the top column feed position. The major portion of this reflux is liquid methane which allows the recovery of a significant portion of the C[sub 2] and heavier components that are in the vapors in the upper section of the distillation column. The distillation column overhead vapor contains predominantly methane and the more volatile components. The major portion of the desired components is recovered in the distillation column bottom liquid product. 5 figs.

Campbell, R.E.; Wilkinson, J.D.; Hudson, H.M.

1994-01-04

46

Process Technology: Process Maintenance Engineer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, youâ??ll meet Tyrone Walker, who keeps the enormous machines at a Tupperware factory running 24/7/365. Tyrone is a process maintenance engineer. This means he inspects all the parts of a machineâ??s electronics system looking for problems, from the tiniest components to the machine as a whole. Tyrone's community college degree in electronic engineering is key to doing this job, which he loves.The video runs 2:46 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

47

Dynamic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this chapter is to present the results of the dynamics of exciton (polariton)s or more generally of electron-hole pairs. For a recent review of this topic concentrating on quantum wells, see Davies and Jagadish (Laser Photon. Rev. 3(1), 1(2008)). We neither consider the dynamics of carriers, for example, their relaxation time entering in Hall mobility or electrical conductivity, nor the dynamics of phonons or spins, respectively. We give here only a very small selection of references to these topics (Baxter and Schmuttenmaer, J. Phys. Chem. B, 110:25229, 2006; Queiroz et al. Superlattice Microstruct. 42:270, 2007; Niehaus and Schwarz, Superlattice Microstruct. 42:299, 2007; Lee et al., J. Appl. Phys. 93:4939, 2003; A. K Azad, J. Han, W. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88:021103, 2006; Janssen et al., QELS 2008 IEEE 2; D. Lagarde et al., Phys. Stat. Sol. C 4:472, 2007; S. Gosh et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86:232507, 2005; W. K. Liu et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98:186804, 2007). The main characteristic time constants relevant to optical properties close to the fundamental absorption edge are the dephasing time T 2, (i.e. the time after which the polarization amplitude of the optically excited electron-hole pair loses the coherence with the driving light field), the intra band or inter sub band relaxation times T 3 (i.e. the time it takes for the electron-hole pairs to relax from their initial state of excitation to a certain other state e.g. to a thermal distribution with a temperature equal to or possibly still above lattice temperature) and finally the lifetime T 1 (i.e. the time until the electron-hole pairs recombine). The characteristic time constants T 2 and T 1 are also known as transverse and longitudinal relaxation times, respectively. Their inverses are the corresponding rate constants. T 2 is inversely proportional to the homogeneous width ?, and T 1 includes both the radiative and the generally dominating non-radiative recombination (Hauser et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92:211105, 2008). For this point, recall Figs. 6.16 and 6.33. Since the polarisation amplitude is gone in any case after the recombination process, there is an upper limit for T 2 given by T 2 ? 2 T1. The factor of two comes from the fact that T 2 describes the decay of an amplitude and T 1 the decay of a population, which is proportional to the amplitude squared. Sometimes T 2 is subdivided in a term due to recombination described by T 1 and another called 'pure dephasing' called T 2 ? with the relation 1 / T 2 = 1 / 2 T 1 + 1 / T2 ?. The quantity T 2 ? can considerably exceed 2 T 1. In the part on relaxation processes that is on processes contributing to T 3, we give also examples for the capture of excitons into bound, localized, or deep states. For more details on dynamics in semiconductors in general see for example, the (text-) books [Klingshirn, Semiconductor Optics, 3rd edn. (Springer, Berlin, 2006); Haug and Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 4th edn. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2004); Haug and Jauho, Quantum Kinetics in Transport and Optics of Semiconductors, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 123 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 115 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); Schafer and Wegener, Semiconductor Optics and Transport Phenomena (Springer, Berlin, 2002)]. We present selected data for free, bound and localized excitons, biexcitons and electron-hole pairs in an EHP and examples for bulk materials, epilayers, quantum wells, nano rods and nano crystals with the restriction that - to the knowledge of the author - data are not available for all these systems, density ranges and temperatures. Therefore, we subdivide the topic below only according to the three time constants T 2, T 3 and T 1.

Klingshirn, C.

48

Data Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of disease and personalisation of health care [14].

Grangeat, P.

49

Process Modeling for Process Improvement A Process Conformance Approach  

E-print Network

improvement in software development organi- zations. Our approach is based on process modeling, and focuses process improvement with process models, process conformance is es- sential. The thesis develops a theory language is developed. This language is optimizedfor support of processimprovement, and therefore aim

50

Hydrothermal Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater (after C. A. Stein and S. Stein, 1994). The first geochemical evidence for the existence of hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor came in the mid-1960s when investigations in the Red Sea revealed deep basins filled with hot, salty water (40-60 °C) and underlain by thick layers of metal-rich sediment (Degens and Ross, 1969). Because the Red Sea represents a young, rifting, ocean basin it was speculated that the phenomena observed there might also prevail along other young MOR spreading centers. An analysis of core-top sediments from throughout the world's oceans ( Figure 2) revealed that such metalliferous sediments did, indeed, appear to be concentrated along the newly recognized global ridge crest (Boström et al., 1969). Another early indication of hydrothermal activity came from the detection of plumes of excess 3He in the Pacific Ocean Basin (Clarke et al., 1969) - notably the >2,000 km wide section in the South Pacific ( Lupton and Craig, 1981) - because 3He present in the deep ocean could only be sourced through some form of active degassing of the Earth's interior, at the seafloor. (62K)Figure 2. Global map of the (Al+Fe+Mn):Al ratio for surficial marine sediments. Highest ratios mimic the trend of the global MOR axis (after Boström et al., 1969). One area where early heat-flow studies suggested hydrothermal activity was likely to occur was along the Galapagos Spreading Center in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (Anderson and Hobart, 1976). In 1977, scientists diving at this location found hydrothermal fluids discharging chemically altered seawater from young volcanic seafloor at elevated temperatures up to 17 °C ( Edmond et al., 1979). Two years later, the first high-temperature (380±30 °C) vent fluids were found at 21° N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) (Spiess et al., 1980) - with fluid compositions remarkably close to those predicted from the lower-temperature Galapagos findings ( Edmond et al., 1979). Since that time, hydrothermal activity has been found at more than 40 locations throughout the Pacific, North Atlanti

German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

2003-12-01

51

Electrotechnologies to process foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

52

Extensible packet processing architecture  

DOEpatents

A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

2013-08-20

53

Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96  

SciTech Connect

This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

NONE

1996-06-01

54

Process Perspectives: Community Education As Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this collection of papers is to define and explain the concept of process orientation, especially as applied to community education. The major presentation begins by tracing the central importance of process orientation through a review of literature within community education. Then a variety of different perspectives on process

Warden, John W.; And Others

55

Process Technology Student: Chemical & Refinery Process Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, learn about process technology and the career of a process technician, also known as a process operator. Process technology is what turns chemicals into products, from oil and gas to cosmetics and rubber soles for shoes. The process technician keeps the machines that process chemicals running smoothly. Jason Canales is studying to become a process technician. He explains what brought him to this field and why he wants to work at a refinery or a chemical plant after he graduates. Jason visits a factory to better understand how his classwork can be applied in the real world.The video runs 2:51 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

56

Special parallel processing workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

NONE

1994-12-01

57

Computer Word Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The equipment and procedures used in computer word processing (CWP), the merging of word processing with an electronic data processing computer system, are described. Training of personnel to operate the system is briefly discussed. (MS)

Robek, Mary F.

1976-01-01

58

Process Optimization In Laser Material Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers are widely used today for the most different kinds of processing operations of most practical materials. Heat treating, surface melting, welding, drilling, cutting and so on can be realized with a quality responding to industrial requirements. Particularly processing problems difficult or impossible to solve by conventional techniques, e.g. with respect to small size, hardness, brittleness, temperature sensitivity, processing of high volume production requiring extensive automatization are calling for the laser. An extensive process control to evaluate and solve practical problems has been developed. The laser parameters, to realize a desired processing of a given material, can be determined in a first approximation and the corresponding laser system can be specified. A first order economico/technical evaluation of the problem solution can be deduced. An experimental optimization considering all the boundary conditions has to be done only if the first evaluation is favourable. This procedure has been applied successfully to many industrial processing problems of variety of materials.

Steffen, Jurg

1981-05-01

59

From Process Model To Electronic Business Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early nineties business processes have been coming more and more into the focus of ISresearch. As a consequence numerous approaches to process modelling have been developed such asEvent-driven Process Chains (EPCs, ARIS House of Business), Semantic Object Model (SOM), Bonapartand INCOME\\/STAR. Many of these approaches concentrate on the socio-technical dimension of businessprocesses. Hence, apart from technical aspects such

Peter Rittgen

1999-01-01

60

Digital Signal Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Digital signal processing is a technique that uses digital methods to process signals. Processing a signal means manipulating it to improve it, change it, or alter it as required for some application. Some examples of processes are filtering, modulation and demodulation, mixing, spectrum analysis, compression and decompression, and many others. In the past, most of these processes have been accomplished with analog techniques and circuits. Today, that has changed. While analog processing has not disappeared, it is slowly being replaced by digital processing in most applications. DSP is now used in almost all electronic equipment and knowledge of its operation is critical to an overall knowledge and understanding of electronics. In digital processing, the analog signal to be processed is first converted to digital then processing is done by a computer. The computer output is then converted back to analog. This module describes this process and outlines the most common applications.

61

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 15, 19251938 (2001)  

E-print Network

topographic index of Beven and Kirkby (1979; Hydrological Sciences Bulletin 24: 43­69). Topographic indexHYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 15, 1925­1938 (2001) DOI: 10.1002/hyp.247 Topographic such models. A topographically driven flushing mechanism for nitrate (NO3 ) and dissolved organic carbon has

Kroll, Charles Nathan

62

Coal processing: the Exxon donor solvent process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Exxon coal liquefaction process over 10 years is described. Exxon is using lower temperatures and lower pressures (approximately 100 bar) than were used in the Bergius process. The donor solvent is produced in a separate, fixed bed, catalytic hydrogenation step. Early research was broad in scope including, both hydrogenated and unhydrogenated recycle solvent studies. Alternate solids\\/liquids

L. E. Furlong; E. Effron; L. W. Vernon; E. L. Wilson

1976-01-01

63

Refactoring the Publishing Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper dicusses how the technical book publish- ing process could address time to market and eBook issues through the adaptation of collaborative soft- ware engineering processes to the entire publishing process, from the initial authoring to the final pre- flight stages. We identify where, based on our own observations, the current process is flawed, then explore how it can

Steve Loughran; Erik Hatcher

64

Biomass conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different biomass conversion processes, thermochemical, chemical and biochemical, are reviewed based on the results of some investigations. The important parameters for thermochemical processes are temperature, pressure, time at reaction conditions and added reactants or catalysts, for chemical processes are acid concentration, prehydrolysis, temperature, time at reaction conditions and kind and moisture of used material and for biochemical processes are

M. M. Küçük; A. Demirba?

1997-01-01

65

Process Algebra Rance Cleaveland  

E-print Network

Process Algebra Rance Cleaveland Department of Computer Science P.O. Box 7534 North Carolina State York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, NY 11794-4400 USA April 7, 1999 Abstract Process algebra represents a mathematically rigorous framework for modeling con- current systems of interacting processes. The process-algebraic

66

Unconventional olefin processes  

SciTech Connect

Due to uncertainty in petroleum feedstock, there is a renewed interest in ethanol dehydration. Biomass fermentation or syngas synthesis both produce ethanol. Industrial processes pass ethanol vapor over solid catalysts such as activated alumina and phosphoric acid. In this paper, the C-E Lummus fixed bed process for ethanol dehydration is schematicized. Yeast fermentation processes are also reviewed. Cellulose ethanol projects--such as SSF process, Penn/EG process, Iotech process--are touched upon. The advantages of biomass over fuel mass as the source of ethanol are determined. But the costs of ethanol production are not yet competitive with conventional olefins processes.

Hu, Y.C.

1983-04-01

67

Experimental Quantum Process Discrimination  

E-print Network

Discrimination between unknown processes chosen from a finite set is experimentally shown to be possible even in the case of non-orthogonal processes. We demonstrate unambiguous deterministic quantum process discrimination (QPD) of non-orthogonal processes using properties of entanglement, additional known unitaries, or higher dimensional systems. Single qubit measurement and unitary processes and multipartite unitaries (where the unitary acts non-separably across two distant locations) acting on photons are discriminated with a confidence of $\\geq97%$ in all cases.

Anthony Laing; Terry Rudolph; Jeremy L. O'Brien

2008-07-01

68

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements  

SciTech Connect

In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

Griebenow, B.

1996-03-01

69

Process Technology Student: Oil Refinery Process Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from Pathways to Technology, observe how Sandra Garcia is studying to be a process technician, and learn about the field of process technology. Sandra explains how her love of science brought her to community college after years away from school and how she's looking forward to a career in process technology. Also learn about the mysterious refractometer and how it can keep things running smoothly in a refinery.The video runs 2:31 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

70

Hyperspectral processing in graphical processing units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of the commercial 3D video card in the mid 1990s, we have seen an order of magnitude performance increase with each generation of new video cards. While these cards were designed primarily for visualization and video games, it became apparent after a short while that they could be used for scientific purposes. These Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) are rapidly being incorporated into data processing tasks usually reserved for general purpose computers. It has been found that many image processing problems scale well to modern GPU systems. We have implemented four popular hyperspectral processing algorithms (N-FINDR, linear unmixing, Principal Components, and the RX anomaly detection algorithm). These algorithms show an across the board speedup of at least a factor of 10, with some special cases showing extreme speedups of a hundred times or more.

Winter, Michael E.; Winter, Edwin M.

2011-06-01

71

Processing Natural Language without Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We can still create computer programs displaying only the most rudimentary natural language processing capabilities. One of\\u000a the greatest barriers to advanced natural language processing is our inability to overcome the linguistic knowledge acquisition\\u000a bottleneck. In this paper, we describe recent work in a number of areas, including grammar checker development, automatic\\u000a question answering, and language modeling, where state of

Eric Brill

2003-01-01

72

Construction work process management  

E-print Network

-related activities. The study addresses relationships between selected TQM concepts (TQM tools, training, process focus, and teamwork) and work process management, defined in terms of planning, control, and improvement. The investigation was performed in two...

Soares, Jorge Barbosa

1994-01-01

73

Digital pulse processing  

E-print Network

This thesis develops an exact approach for processing pulse signals from an integrate-and-fire system directly in the time-domain. Processing is deterministic and built from simple asynchronous finite-state machines that ...

McCormick, Martin (Martin Steven)

2012-01-01

74

FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARD  

E-print Network

March 2004 FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARD (FIPS) 199, STANDARDS FOR SECURITY Information Technology Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology A new Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS), recently approved by the Secretary of Commerce, will help federal agencies

75

Natural Language Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

2003-01-01

76

Process evaluation distributed system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

77

Shores and Coastal Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash animation explores coasts and coastal processes. Animations demonstrate processes involving waves, currents, erosion, and deposition. Students are also able to model the effects of building groins, seawalls, and breakwaters on coastal erosion.

Smoothstone

78

Administrative Policy Approval Process  

E-print Network

Administrative Policy Approval Process Faculty Handbook Policy Approval Process Policy idea. Faculty Handbook Committee meets during the academic year to discuss and evaluate proposed changes to Handbook policies. Policy changes approved by the Handbook Committee are forwarded to the President

79

INNOVATIVE THERMAL TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper contains discussions of several innovative thermal processes for treating or destroying hazardous wastes. Processes discussed can be included in the categories wet oxidation, molten glass, fluidized bed incineration, pyrolysis, molten salt, electric reactors, and plasma...

80

The requirements discovery process  

SciTech Connect

Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Systems and Industrial Engineering; Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-02-01

81

Gas-separation process  

DOEpatents

A process for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material.

Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

1994-01-01

82

Aerospace Materials and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from SpaceTEC National Aerospace Technical Education Center presents materials on aerospace materials and processes. Topics discussed include structural materials, metal types, metalworking processes, corrosion and corrosion prevention, fluid lines and composites.

83

GREENSCOPE: Sustainable Process Modeling  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA researchers are responding to environmental problems by incorporating sustainability into process design and evaluation. EPA researchers are also developing a tool that allows users to assess modifications to existing and new chemical processes to determine whether changes in...

84

Processes on Complex Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Building on their understanding of graphs, students are introduced to random processes on networks. They walk through an illustrative example to see how a random process can be used to represent the spread of an infectious disease, such as the flu, on a social network of students. This demonstrates how scientists and engineers use mathematics to model and simulate random processes on complex networks. Topics covered include random processes and modeling disease spread, specifically the SIR (susceptible, infectious, resistant) model.

2014-09-18

85

Biomedical image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomedical image processing is a very broad field; it covers biomedical signal gathering, image forming, picture processing, and image display to medical diagnosis based on features extracted from images. This article reviews this topic in both its fundamentals and applications. In its fundamentals, some basic image processing techniques including outlining, deblurring, noise cleaning, filtering, search, classical analysis and texture analysis

1981-01-01

86

Change Processes in Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on change processes in organizations. "Mid-stream Corrections: Decisions Leaders Make during Organizational Change Processes" (David W. Frantz) analyzes three organizational leaders to determine whether and how they take corrective actions or adapt their decision-making processes when…

1998

87

Metallurgical processing: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The items in this compilation, all relating to metallurgical processing, are presented in two sections. The first section includes processes which are general in scope and applicable to a variety of metals or alloys. The second describes the processes that concern specific metals and their alloys.

1973-01-01

88

The Process of Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper argues that innovation processes can be cognitive, organisational and\\/or economic. They happen in conditions of uncertainty and (in the capitalist system) of competition. Three broad, overlapping sub-processes of innovation are identified: the production of knowledge; the transformation of knowledge into products, systems, processes and services; and the continuous matching of the latter to market needs and demands. The

Keith Pavitt

2003-01-01

89

Polar processing project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this project was to explore the use of polar processing techniques in SIGINT-related signal processing applications. An investigation of ways to apply the CORDIC arithmetic algorithm to signal processing problems, and an application of the TMC2330 Coordinate Transformer chip in a coprocessor or accelerator board for a Sun workstation are covered.

Tom, C. N.; Davies, W. J.; Goycochea, J. F.

1993-09-01

90

Graph Processing Istvn Albert  

E-print Network

Graph Processing István Albert Bioinformatics Consulting Center Huck Institute for Life Sciences #12;Part 1 Representations and Algorithms #12;Graph Processing · Compute some static value for the task #12;Graph Processing Problems · Traversal, shortest paths, longest paths · Simple and strong

Albert, Réka

91

Graph Processing Istvn Albert  

E-print Network

Graph Processing István Albert Bioinformatics Consulting Center Huck Institute for Life Sciences #12;Part 1 Representations and Algorithms #12;Graph Processing · Compute some static value the data structure for the task #12;Graph Processing Problems · Traversal, shortest paths, longest paths

Albert, Réka

92

The Constitutional Amendment Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

Chism, Kahlil

2005-01-01

93

The Natural Learning Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher-educator and researcher Daniel L. Kohut suggests in "Musical Performance: Learning Theory and Pedagogy" that there are many problems that result from the way music teachers often teach. Most teachers focus on the process, not the goal. The Natural Learning Process that Kohut advocates is the same process that young children use when they…

Criss, Ellen

2008-01-01

94

Processes for metal extraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the processing of plutonium at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and operation illustrating concepts that may be applicable to the processing of lunar materials. The toxic nature of plutonium requires a highly closed system for processing lunar surface materials.

Bowersox, David F.

1992-01-01

95

Solvent extraction processes compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent ectraction processes are often difficult to compare. Waste processors need to understand how the process works in order to make a good choice for waste stream applications. The technologies used by Carver-Greenfield Process, B.E.S.T., and NuKEM`s method are described.

Kogut

1994-01-01

96

Solvent extraction processes compared  

SciTech Connect

Solvent ectraction processes are often difficult to compare. Waste processors need to understand how the process works in order to make a good choice for waste stream applications. The technologies used by Carver-Greenfield Process, B.E.S.T., and NuKEM`s method are described.

Kogut, K.E. [Kogut Engineering, Concord, CA (United States)

1994-04-01

97

Acoustic signal processing toolbox for array processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed an acoustic signal processing toolbox (ASPT) for acoustic sensor array processing. The intent of this document is to describe the toolbox and its uses. The ASPT is a GUI-based software that is developed and runs under MATLAB. The current version, ASPT 3.0, requires MATLAB 6.0 and above. ASPT contains a variety of narrowband (NB) and incoherent and coherent wideband (WB) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and beamforming algorithms that have been researched and developed at ARL. Currently, ASPT contains 16 DOA and beamforming algorithms. It contains several different NB and WB versions of the MVDR, MUSIC and ESPRIT algorithms. In addition, there are a variety of pre-processing, simulation and analysis tools available in the toolbox. The user can perform simulation or real data analysis for all algorithms with user-defined signal model parameters and array geometries.

Pham, Tien; Whipps, Gene T.

2003-08-01

98

Biomass process handbook  

SciTech Connect

Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

Not Available

1983-01-01

99

Evaluation of steelmaking processes  

SciTech Connect

Objective of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program is to develop a process for producing steel directly from ore and coal; the process should be less capital intensive, consume less energy, and have higher productivity. A task force was formed to examine available processes: trough, posthearth, IRSID, Electric Arc Furnace, energy optimizing furnace. It is concluded that there is insufficient incentive to replace a working BOF with any of these processes to refine hot metal; however, if new steelmaking capacity is required, IRSID and EOF should be considered. A fully continuous process should not be considered until direct ironmaking and continuous refining are perfected.

Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-01-01

100

Process Technology: Training & Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video excerpted from Pathways to Technology, learn about process technology and career opportunities in this field. Process refers to the steps that chemicals go through to become products, like gasoline or medicine. Process technology is used in just about every manufacturing industry, from pharmaceuticals to automobiles to cosmetics. A process technician keeps the machines that process chemicals running smoothly.The video runs 2:46 and is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

101

The OHZ hydrogen process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oxygen-hydrogen-zeolite (OHZ) hydrogen process, discovered by Rasai and Bishop, represents a truly unique approach to hydrogen production. The ionizing capability of zeolite cations is utilized to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen in two thermally distinct steps, which take place in the same bed of zeolite particles. The evaluation of the OHZ process reported confirms the attractiveness of the process, and identifies key process goals for commercial viability. It is concluded that further development of the OHZ process is warranted.

Silverstein, C. C.

1982-12-01

102

An improved plating process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative to the immersion process for the electrodeposition of chromium from aqueous solutions on the inside diameter (ID) of long tubes is described. The Vessel Plating Process eliminates the need for deep processing tanks, large volumes of solutions, and associated safety and environmental concerns. Vessel Plating allows the process to be monitored and controlled by computer thus increasing reliability, flexibility and quality. Elimination of the trivalent chromium accumulation normally associated with ID plating is intrinsic to the Vessel Plating Process. The construction and operation of a prototype Vessel Plating Facility with emphasis on materials of construction, engineered and operational safety and a unique system for rinse water recovery are described.

Askew, John C.

1994-01-01

103

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

1982-01-01

104

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

1982-07-01

105

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 19, 33573381 (2005)  

E-print Network

into runoff generation processes in subarctic wetland regions of the Mackenzie River basin, a major freshwater and Mackenzie rivers is characterized by extensive subarctic wetlands containing myriad peatlands (fens and bogs catchments ranging in size from 202 to 2050 km2 situated near the confluence of the Liard and Mackenzie

Edwards, Thomas W.D.

106

Processing needs and constraints: neutron data processing  

SciTech Connect

New applications for processed data and increased accuracy requirements have generated needs for change in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF). Some constraints must be removed to allow this growth to take place, but other strong constraints must remain to protect existing users.

MacFarlane, R.E.

1980-01-01

107

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 15, 28932903 (2001)  

E-print Network

, and charring of the organic matter in the soils (Miller, 1994). The unburned forest floor consists of a litter decomposed remnants of the material in the litter layer, O2 soil horizon; Brown and Smith, 2000 process converts the litter and duff layers into ash and charcoal. Ash and small soil particles can seal

108

Statistical Process Control for KSC Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) served as the basis for a research effort into statistical process control for KSC processing. The effort entailed several tasks and goals. The first was to develop a customized statistical process control (SPC) course for the Safety and Mission Assurance Trends Analysis Group. The actual teaching of this course took place over several weeks. In addition, an Internet version of the same course complete with animation and video excerpts from the course when it was taught at KSC was developed. The application of SPC to shuttle processing took up the rest of the summer research project. This effort entailed the evaluation of SPC use at KSC, both present and potential, due to the change in roles for NASA and the Single Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC). Individual consulting on SPC use was accomplished as well as an evaluation of SPC software for KSC use in the future. A final accomplishment of the orientation of the author to NASA changes, terminology, data format, and new NASA task definitions will allow future consultation when the needs arise.

Ford, Roger G.; Delgado, Hector; Tilley, Randy

1996-01-01

109

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 17, 16911710 (2003)  

E-print Network

' biogeochemical reactions may influence water chemistry, and extended hyporheic zones, in which slower) points out, `hyporheic zones influence the biogeochemistry of stream ecosystems by increasing solute for characterizing hyporheic zone influences on stream processes generally require a stream-tracer injection

Gooseff, Michael N.

110

Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

2012-01-01

111

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol. Process. 25, 25312541 (2011)  

E-print Network

. Radiation and energy components and evapotranspiration averaged over four freeze/thaw stages also changed at the surface, has a significant impact on latent heat flux. A surface energy imbalance problem was encountered; soil freeze/thaw process; energy closure budget Received 27 May 2010; Accepted 20 January 2011

2011-01-01

112

Process monitor gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the increasing use of advanced imaging methods to pattern chip features, process windows continue to shrink with decreasing critical dimensions. Controlling the manufacturing process within these shrinking windows requires monitor structures designed to maximize both sensitivity and robustness. In particular, monitor structures must exhibit a large, measurable response to dose and focus changes over the entire range of the critical features process window. Any process variations present fundamental challenges to the effectiveness of OPC methods, since the shape compensation assumes a repeatable process. One particular process parameter which is under increasing scrutiny is focus blur, e.g. from finite laser bandwidth, which can cause such OPC instability, and thereby damage pattern fidelity. We introduce a new type of test target called the Process Monitor Grating (PMG) which is designed for extreme sensitivity to process variation. The PMG design principle is to use assist features to zero out higher diffraction orders. We show via simulation and experiment that such structures are indeed very sensitive to process variation. In addition, PMG targets have other desirable attributes such as mask manufacturability, robustness to pattern collapse, and compatibility with standard CD metrology methods such as scatterometry. PMG targets are applicable to the accurate determination of dose and focus deviations, and in combination with an isofocal grating target, allow the accurate determination of focus blur. The methods shown in this paper are broadly applicable to the characterization of process deviations using test wafers or to the control of product using kerf structures.

Brunner, T. A.; Ausschnitt, C. P.

2007-03-01

113

Pultrusion process characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pultrusion is a process through which high-modulus, lightweight composite structural members such as beams, truss components, stiffeners, etc., are manufactured. The pultrusion process, though a well-developed processing art, lacks a fundamental scientific understanding. The objective here was to determine, both experimentally and analytically, the process parameters most important in characterizing and optimizing the pultrusion of uniaxial fibers. The effects of process parameter interactions were experimentally examined as a function of the pultruded product properties. A numerical description based on these experimental results was developed. An analytical model of the pultrusion process was also developed. The objective of the modeling effort was the formulation of a two-dimensional heat transfer model and development of solutions for the governing differential equations using the finite element method.

Vaughan, James G.; Hackett, Robert M.

1991-01-01

114

Spitzer Telemetry Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

2013-01-01

115

Submesoscale Processes and Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased spatial resolution in recent observations and modeling has revealed a richness of structure and processes on lateral scales of a kilometer in the upper ocean. Processes at this scale, termed submesoscale, are distinguished by order one Rossby and Richardson numbers; their dynamics are distinct from those of the largely quasi-geostrophic mesoscale, as well as fully three-dimensional, small-scale, processes. Submesoscale

Leif N. Thomas; Amit Tandon; Amala Mahadevan

2007-01-01

116

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical engineering analysis of the preliminary process design of a process for producing solar cell grade silicon from dichlorosilane is presented. A plant to produce 1,000 MT/yr of silicon is analyzed. Progress and status for the plant design are reported for the primary activities of base case conditions (60 percent), reaction chemistry (50 percent), process flow diagram (35 percent), energy balance (10 percent), property data (10 percent) and equipment design (5 percent).

1981-01-01

117

A Simulated Metamorphic Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students investigate one aspect of metamorphic activity using an analogous process, and will realize how directed pressure can align mineral grains during metamorphism. They will discover that metamorphism is a complex process with a number of simultaneously interacting and related components; and that heat, pressure, degree and composition of reacting fluids (and chemical composition) all play a role in the metamorphic process.

118

Processing Integrity Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Processing Integrity Challenge makes use of game theory to help students learn how to determine relevant application controls for accounting systems to ensure processing integrity is achieved. It specifically addresses source data, data entry, processing, and output controls. The playing format is an adaptation of the television game show, Jeopardy, which is a novel way to reinforce concepts and provide immediate feedback to confirm students' knowledge.

Susan Moncada

119

Aircraft Sensors Signal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with possibilities and methods of processing of signals from aircraft sensors. Because of a large amount of\\u000a proceeded data the subject of the paper is limited only to data processing from electrical subsystem of aircraft. Designed\\u000a data acquisition and processing avionic system is based on CANaerospace communication network. Primary function of the system\\u000a is to collect all

J. Bajer; R. Byst?ický; R. Jalovecký; P. Jan?

120

Business Process Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process orientation is a powerful instrument in achieving the goals of eBusiness–i.e., a seamless, efficient flow of information,\\u000a goods, and money supported by interorganizational information systems. The idea of employing information systems to support\\u000a business processes is paralleled by the deve- lopment of workflow management systems (WFMS) that possess knowledge about the\\u000a business processes and thus are capable of controlling

Stefan Junginger; Eva Kabel

121

Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

1984-01-01

122

Agile Software Process model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article proposes a new software process model, ASP (Agile Software Process) based on a decade-long evolution of software process models inside a Japanese software factory. The Japanese software factory was a successful model in the development of quality software for large-scale business applications in the 1980s. However, the business climate of software development has dramatically changed in the last

Mikio Aoyama

1997-01-01

123

Bolt Manufacture: Process Selection  

E-print Network

file · Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 3 D P i ti· 3-D Printing · Light Engineered Net Shaping (LENS Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 20 #12;3D Printing Process (Soligen) ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 21 #12;3D Printing Head (Soligen)3D Printing

Colton, Jonathan S.

124

CYCLIN: process waste incinerator  

SciTech Connect

The CYCLIN incinerator is a new concept for processing municipal wastes. The waste incineration system integrates advanced combustion principles and system engineering to develop a high-intensity, cyclonic incinerator that successfully processes ashing and/or slagging materials as well as the more readily processed wastes. The design features and operating principles of the CYCLIN incinerator are discussed as well as the availability of a pilot system for testing in specific applications.

Not Available

1984-01-01

125

Process for LPG recovery  

SciTech Connect

An improved process is described for the separation and recovery of substantially all the propane and heavier hydrocarbon components in a hydrocarbon gaseous feedstream. In this process, the vapor stream from a deethanizer is cooled to liquefaction and contacted with a vapor phase from the hydrocarbon gaseous feedstream. The contact takes place within a direct heat exchanger, and the resulting vapor fraction, which is essentially ethane and methane, is the gaseous product of the process.

Khan, Sh. A.; Haliburton, J.

1985-03-26

126

The process audit.  

PubMed

Few executives question the idea that by redesigning business processes--work that runs from end to end across an enterprise--they can achieve extraordinary improvements in cost, quality, speed, profitability, and other key areas Yet in spite of their intentions and investments, many executives flounder, unsure about what exactly needs to be changed, by how much, and when. As a result, many organizations make little progress--if any at all--in their attempts to transform business processes. Michael Hammer has spent the past five years working with a group of leading companies to develop the Process and Enterprise Maturity Model (PEMM), a new framework that helps executives comprehend, formulate, and assess process-based transformation efforts. He has identified two distinct groups of characteristics that are needed for business processes to perform exceptionally well over a long period of time. Process enablers, which affect individual processes, determine how well a process is able to function. They are mutually interdependent--if any are missing, the others will be ineffective. However, enablers are not enough to develop high-performance processes; they only provide the potential to deliver high performance. A company must also possess or establish organizational capabilities that allow the business to offer a supportive environment. Together, the enablers and the capabilities provide an effective way for companies to plan and evaluate process-based transformations. PEMM is different from other frameworks, such as Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), because it applies to all industries and all processes. The author describes how several companies--including Michelin, CSAA, Tetra Pak, Shell, Clorox, and Schneider National--have successfully used PEMM in various ways and at different stages to evaluate the progress of their process-based transformation efforts. PMID:17432158

Hammer, Michael

2007-04-01

127

Processing Wheat for Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson on wheat processing, including an introduction to the five kinds of wheat grown in the US and the anatomy of wheat. The module then moves through the six steps in wheat processing: cleaning, conditioning, blending, breaking, sieving, and reducing. Each step is animated to help students visualize the process. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

128

Rumor Processes on and Discrete Renewal Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study two rumor processes on , the dynamics of which are related to an SI epidemic model with long range transmission. Both models start with one spreader at site and ignorants at all the other sites of , but differ by the transmission mechanism. In one model, the spreaders transmit the information within a random distance on their right, and in the other the ignorants take the information from a spreader within a random distance on their left. We obtain the probability of survival, information on the distribution of the range of the rumor and limit theorems for the proportion of spreaders. The key step of our proofs is to show that, in each model, the position of the spreaders on can be related to a suitably chosen discrete renewal process.

Gallo, Sandro; Garcia, Nancy L.; Junior, Valdivino Vargas; Rodríguez, Pablo M.

2014-05-01

129

Industrial process surveillance system  

DOEpatents

A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

1998-06-09

130

Industrial process surveillance system  

DOEpatents

A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Wegerich, Stephan W. (Glendale Heights, IL); Singer, Ralph M. (Naperville, IL); Mott, Jack E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01

131

Living olefin polymerization processes  

DOEpatents

Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

2003-08-26

132

Living olefin polymerization processes  

DOEpatents

Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

2006-11-14

133

Polyimide processing additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

Fletcher, James C. (inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

1992-01-01

134

Software testing process improvements  

SciTech Connect

Software process improvement has become a popular pastime, for a variety of reasons. The Software Engineering Institute`s summary of experimental data, which resulted in the Capability Maturity Model, has now had considerable corroboration. There are nearly as many software processes as there are combinations of developers, users, and products. Similarly, there are probably as many software process improvement approaches. However, the meta-process for performing process improvement is quite straightforward. Processes can be represented by a small number of abstractions, with variety supplied through implementation details. The scheme for improvement is almost self-evident: figure out where you are now, use a software process maturity guide to identify shortcomings, plot a change in a direction to eliminate a shortcoming, and go for it. This paper won`t dwell on the meta process and its enactment; the authors simply assume one is in place. Rather, they consider some ways to improve the testing aspects of your software process. These may be changes in what you do for testing as well as in how you do it.

Knirk, D.L.

1996-06-01

135

Living olefin polymerization processes  

DOEpatents

Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

1999-03-30

136

Living olefin polymerization processes  

DOEpatents

Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

Schrock, Richard R. (Winchester, MA); Baumann, Robert (Cambridge, MA)

1999-01-01

137

Central waste processing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new concept for processing spacecraft type wastes has been evaluated. The feasibility of reacting various waste materials with steam at temperatures of 538 - 760 C in both a continuous and batch reactor with residence times from 3 to 60 seconds has been established. Essentially complete gasification is achieved. Product gases are primarily hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. Water soluble synthetic wastes are readily processed in a continuous tubular reactor at concentrations up to 20 weight percent. The batch reactor is able to process wet and dry wastes at steam to waste weight ratios from 2 to 20. Feces, urine, and synthetic wastes have been successfully processed in the batch reactor.

Kester, F. L.

1973-01-01

138

Industrial Process Surveillance System  

DOEpatents

A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Wegerich, Stephan W (Glendale Heights, IL); Singer, Ralph M. (Naperville, IL); Mott, Jack E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2001-01-30

139

Polyimide processing additives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (inventor); Burks, Harold D. (inventor)

1993-01-01

140

Wet Oxidation Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this YouTube video, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), viewers can watch an animation on the wet oxidation process. This animation "illustrates the chemistry of a wet thermal oxidation process that is used to grow silicon dioxide (SiO2) on a silicon (Si) wafer. In a wet oxidation process, water vapor (H2O) interacts with the silicon atoms at the SiO2-Si interface to form SiO2. This process is discussed in more detail in the Deposition Overview for MEMS Learning Module" found on the SCME website.

141

Dry Thermal Oxidation Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this YouTube video, created by Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), viewers can watch an animation on the dry thermal oxidation process. This animation "illustrates the chemistry of a dry thermal oxidation process that is used to grow silicon dioxide (SiO2) on a silicon (Si) wafer. In a dry oxidation process, oxygen gas (O2) interacts with the silicon atoms at the SiO2 - Si interface to form SiO2. This process is discussed in more detail in the Deposition Overview for MEMS Learning Module" which can be found on the SCME website along with supplementary materials. 

142

Process models for industry  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate how process models developed at BNL are used to analyze industrial energy use. A model of the US pulp and paper industry is described and discussed as a specific application of process modeling methodology. Case study results from the pulp and paper model illustrate how process models can be used to analyze a variety of issues. Applications discussed include projections of energy demand, conservation technology assessment, energy-related tax policies, and sensitivity analysis. A subsequent discussion of these results supports the conclusion that industry process models are versatile and powerful tools for energy end-use modeling and conservation analysis.

Pierce, B.; Hill, D.; Howe, S.O.

1981-01-01

143

Sensory processing disorders.  

PubMed

Most people are able to effectively process and respond to the sensory stimuli of daily life. But people who have sensory processing disorders struggle to form meaningful responses to sensory stimuli. As a result these individuals often exhibit problems with coordination, sensory-seeking or sensory-avoiding behaviors, and sensory modulation. The concept of sensory processing disorders stems from the work of occupational therapist Jean Ayres, Ph.D. Her work has launched a sensory-based treatment approach, primarily practiced by occupational therapists. This article outlines the theories supporting the notion of sensory processing disorders, options for assessment and treatment, and research on the efficacy of treatment. PMID:12498067

Reisman, Judith

2002-11-01

144

Star Formation Processes versus Planet Formation Processes  

E-print Network

The processes of star formation are fundamentally different from those of planet formation. Since the mass of a very-low-mass object alone doesn't allow us to uniquely determine its basic nature, we have to look at its other characteristics, such as its motion, its age, its atmospheric composition, its internal structure and composition, etc., in order to ascertain its formation mechanism.

Shiv S. Kumar

2002-08-20

145

Chemical process hazards analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

NONE

1996-02-01

146

Business Process Modeling for developing Process Oriented IT Systems Track: Business Process Management Tools and Technologies  

E-print Network

solutions. The paradigm of Business Process Management stresses the importance of integrating entireBusiness Process Modeling for developing Process Oriented IT Systems Track: Business Process, the paradigm of Business Process Management contrasts with traditional information system development, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

147

A Textbook Selection Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the problem facing college faculties of choosing textbooks that are both "readable" by students and adequate in content coverage, a text selection process has been developed that can be used with or without the aid of a reading specialist. The first step in the process, a preliminary check, examines each proposed text's publication…

Prosser, Daniel R.; Bondavalli, Bonnie J.

148

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RELATED PROCESSES  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;#12;PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RELATED PROCESSES VOLUME II Part 2 #12;« '«;- py as- b^ Section Research, 7, 288, 1954). #12;PHOTOSYNTHESIS nnd Related Processes By EUGENE I. RABINOWITCH Research Professor, Photosynthesis Research Labora- tory, Department of Botany, University of Illinois. Formerly

Govindjee

149

ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

EDUCATION HAS BEEN SLOW IN FULLY UTILIZING ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT (EDP). EDUCATOR CONFIDENCE IN THE EDP HAS GROWN, HOWEVER, AS A RESULT OF THE SUCCESS OF ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING IN SCIENCE, INDUSTRY, AND OTHER PROFESSIONS. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID STATE TRANSISTORIZED COMPUTERS HAS MADE POWERFUL DESK-SIZE COMPUTERS A REALITY AND…

TONDOW, MURRAY

150

Space processing applications bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This special bibliography lists 724 articles, papers, and reports which discuss various aspects of the use of the space environment for materials science research or for commercial enterprise. The potentialities of space processing and the improved materials processes that are made possible by the unique aspects of the space environment are emphasized. References identified in April, 1978 are cited.

1978-01-01

151

Material Processing Using Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities for developing a new type of material processing using a microbiogenic function are investigated with a microbial corrosion test of metals under the sea. The behavior of microorganisms in the corrosion of metals (mild steel, copper and aluminum sheets) is examined, and their action on these metals is discussed. As a result, three processing methods (biomachining, biodeposition and

Yasushi Kurosaki; Masahito Matsui; Yuichi Nakamura; Kenichi Murai; Toshio Kimura

2003-01-01

152

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks,

Mayberry

1988-01-01

153

Ultrasonic Processing of Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of

Thomas T. Meek; Qingyou Han; Xiaogang Jian; Hanbing Xu

2005-01-01

154

Streamlining the EIS Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new publication service abstracts, indexes, and prepares microfiche of environmental impact statements (EIS). This new service is designed to streamline the EIS process by reducing the cost and time of preparation, by eliminating redundancy of similar statements, and by working with the government to standardize the preparation process. (MA)

Josephson, Julian

1977-01-01

155

HOT GAS CLEANUP PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to identify and classify 22 hot gas cleanup (HGC) processes for desulfurizing reducing gases at above 430 C according to absorbent type into groups employing solid, molten salt, and molten metal absorbents. It describes each process in terms of...

156

Associative list processing unit  

DOEpatents

An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

2013-01-29

157

Foam Processing of Textiles  

E-print Network

Foam processing is an energy-conserving alternative to the conventional wet processing, i.e., dyeing, printing and finishing, of textiles. Where water is ordinarily used as a medium to apply dyes or chemicals to a fabric, up to 75% of the water can...

Bafford, R. A.; Namboodri, C. G.

1984-01-01

158

The Process Specification  

E-print Network

1). For example, such integration occurs in business- process reengineering, where enterprise mod an enterprise often use their own terminology in referring to their business processes. The challenge of in" used by logistics? Is the concept of "throughput" used by the scheduler semantically equivalent

Menzel, Christopher

159

Poisson distribution Poisson process  

E-print Network

' & $ % Lecture 9 Poisson distribution Wombats Poisson process Exponential distribution 1 #12 killing cars wombat Number of up to time t N(t) The process and its axioms · N(t) is the number(k) = pt(k) + pt(k - 1), which is solved by pt(k) = e-t (t)k /k! 7 #12;' & $ % WOMBATS 8 #12;' & $ % P

Adler, Robert J.

160

On Cognizing Cognitive Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report on cognitive processes, a discussion of the rationale and assumptions used by investigators explains the experimental procedures. To determine actual cognitive problem-solving processes, (rather than inferring them from results), subjects in these studies were presented with a problem and allowed to ask a sequence of questions which…

Rimoldi, H. J. A.

161

Processing of plastics  

PubMed Central

An overview is given of the processing of plastic materials from the handling of polymers in the pellet and powder form to manufacturing of a plastic fabricated product. Various types of equipment used and melt processing ranges of various polymer formulations to make the myriad of plastic products that are commercially available are discussed. PMID:1175556

Spaak, Albert

1975-01-01

162

On filter binary processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of calculating the probability density function of the output of an RC filter driven by a binary random process with intervals generated by an equilibrium renewal process is studied. New integral equations, closely related to McFadden's original integral equations, are derived, and solved by a matrix approximation method and by iteration. Transformations of the integral equations into differential

R. F. Pawula; S. O. Rice

1984-01-01

163

Ecofeminism and Process Philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article Carol Christ illustrates the ways in which process philosophy offers dynamic alternatives to dualistic habits of thought. She highlights how the Goddess is the most relational in the process and therefore the most sympathetic to the unfolding of the universe and those who inhabit it, human and non-human alike. Change she asserts is good, indeed divine, a

Carol P. Christ

2006-01-01

164

Hepa filter dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Murphy, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01

165

The Firmware Architecting Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firmware is the ROM-based software that controls a computer between the time it is turned on and the time the primary Operating Environment takes control of the machine. This paper describes the Firmware Architecting Process at Sun Microsystems Company. The process incorporates the sequential stages of firmware project design and review, firmware architecture review, code design and testing, code review,

Michael Milendorf

166

Biofilms in food processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial colonization of surfaces (biofilms) have been documented in many environments. Recently, researchers have suggested that biofilms may be a source of contamination in food processing environments. This review will discuss some historical aspects of biofilms, possible mechanisms for the adherence of bacteria to surfaces, methods for studying biofilms and problems adherent microorganisms may cause in food processing.

S. K. Hood; E. A. Zottola

1995-01-01

167

Microsystem process networks  

DOEpatents

Various aspects and applications or microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Whyatt, Greg A [West Richland, WA

2010-01-26

168

Geophysical signal processing  

SciTech Connect

Draws together a number of areas of knowledge to give unified coverage of the subject: the geophysical applications of digital signal processing. The presentation has a strong applications orientation. The coverage connects and unifies several fields, namely wave propagation, digital signal processing, spectral analysis, and computer methods. The book covers many topics in depth.

Robinson, E.A.; Durrani, T.S.

1986-01-01

169

Algebraic Theory of Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides general and systematic introduction to the semantics of concurrent systems. The author presents his own theory of the behavioral semantics of processes ( testing equivalence ) and original results in example languages for distributed processes. The problems addressed are motivated from the standpoint of computer science, and all the required algebraic concepts are covered.

Matthew Hennessy

1988-01-01

170

Digital image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of digital image processing is reviewed with reference to its origins, progress, current status, and prospects for the future. Consideration is given to the evolution of image processor display devices, developments in the functional components of an image processor display system (e.g. memory, data bus, and pipeline central processing unit), and developments in the software. The major future

B. R. Hunt

1981-01-01

171

The Mentoring Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A powerpoint presentation file from the EB 2002 Mentoring Symposium on the mentoring process: how it starts, how formal it is, how frequently you should be, who can be a mentor/mentee, role of assignments, and whether or not the process should be documented.

Neena Schwartz (Northwestern University)

2002-04-01

172

Positron annihilation processes update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present knowledge concerning the positron annihilation processes is reviewed, with emphasis on the data of the cross sections of the various processes of interest in astrophysical applications. Recent results are presented including results on reaction rates and line widths, the validity of which is verified.

Guessoum, Nidhal; Skibo, Jeffrey G.; Ramaty, Reuven

1997-01-01

173

Landslide Processes in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews the status of knowledge on landslides in Argentina in order to understand their behavior and their implications for landscape evolution. This basic understanding allows an analysis of both the vulnerability of mountain communities and the potential risk for regional society and economies.Slope instability processes are analyzed as related to the Argentinean geological provinces. The main landslide processes

Stella M. Moreiras; Andrea Coronato

2009-01-01

174

HEPA filter dissolution process  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

1992-12-31

175

Microsystem process networks  

DOEpatents

Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of Microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

2007-09-18

176

HEPA filter dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

1994-02-22

177

Secondary Processing Course Outline  

E-print Network

processing of metals. Emphasis will be given to relevant physical metallurgy theories that underpin these processes. These methods will be illustrated with respect to commercial cast irons, magnesium and copper metallurgy and sintering, machining 5-6 Midsession exam Week 8 4 Recrystallization phenomena 7-9 5

New South Wales, University of

178

Initiative Process in Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an introduction to the Seattle University Law Review's Symposium on the initiative process in Washington. In this Symposium, the authors address a variety of issues associated with the initiative process in our state. They examine the specific case of Initiative 695, the role of the courts in reviewing initiatives, the application of the Republican Government Clause in the

Philip A. Talmadge

2001-01-01

179

Contaminated nickel scrap processing  

SciTech Connect

The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

1994-12-01

180

Building Successful Cleaning Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to build a successful cleaning process in order to most effectively maintain school facilities, explaining that the cleaning processes used plays a critical role in productivity. Focuses on: developing a standardized system; making sure that employees have the right tools for the work they perform; training employees; tracking and…

Walker, John P.

2002-01-01

181

Motivational Processes Affecting Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivational processes influence a child's acquisition, transfer, and use of knowledge and skills, yet educationally relevant conceptions of motivation have been elusive. Using recent research within the social-cognitive framework, Dweck describes adaptive and maladaptive motivational patterns and presents a research-based model of motivational processes. This model shows how the particular goals children pursue on cognitive tasks shape their reactions to

Carol S. Dweck

1986-01-01

182

Situation Awareness Unified Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies the process for developing information system for situation awareness application domain and identifies novel process artifacts that need to be introduced along with existing approaches. Appropriately engineered method is an important requirement for successful implementation of any software system targeted at situation awareness. When it comes to information system development (ISD) for dynamic organizations, the method engineering

Vikram Sorathia; Anutosh Maitra

2007-01-01

183

Gas-separation process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material. 6 figures.

Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.; Baker, R.W.

1994-01-25

184

Microsystem process networks  

DOEpatents

Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having exergetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA)

2006-10-24

185

From Signal Information Processing  

E-print Network

information processing systems Encoder a0 X(a0) a1 X(a1) dX (a0,a1) #12;How to choose a distance? o Calculate, but how effectively to they do so? o Systems process information, selectively suppressing irrelevant information and accentuating important information by acting on signals (information filters) o System design

186

Modern gas processing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essentially, all of the gas processing plants being designed today include ethane recovery and most of these plants use a turboexpander process. These expander plants have a wide range of application, both from the standpoint of gas richness and gas volume. Expander plants have been used on gases from one to 2 gpm up to 15 to 20 gpm. The

1976-01-01

187

Runoff Processes: International Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Runoff Processes module offers a thorough introduction to the runoff processes critical for flood and water supply prediction. This module explains key terminology and concepts including the following: types of runoff, paths through which water becomes runoff, basin and soil properties that influence runoff, and numerical runoff modeling. Examples of popular runoff models are also discussed.

COMET

2010-11-09

188

Image processing mini manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent is to provide an introduction to the image processing capabilities available at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Central Scientific Computing Complex (CSCC). Various image processing software components are described. Information is given concerning the use of these components in the Data Visualization and Animation Laboratory at LaRC.

Matthews, Christine G.; Posenau, Mary-Anne; Leonard, Desiree M.; Avis, Elizabeth L.; Debure, Kelly R.; Stacy, Kathryn; Vonofenheim, Bill

1992-01-01

189

CHEMICAL PROCESSES IN SOILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

“Chemical Processes in Soils” edited by Tabatabai and D.L. Sparks (2005) is a key review useful for soil scientists, agronomists, conservationists, environmental scientists and other related professionals who need to understand these processes of chemical reactions and how they may be related to the...

190

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOEpatents

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

1993-09-07

191

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) for producing silicon from dichlorosilane in a 1,000 MT/yr plant was continued. Progress and status for the chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process are reported for the primary process design engineering activities: base case conditions (85%), reaction chemistry (85%), process flow diagram (60%), material balance (60%), energy balance (30%), property data (30%), equipment design (20%) and major equipment list (10%). Engineering design of the initial distillation column (D-01, stripper column) in the process was initiated. The function of the distillation column is to remove volatile gases (such as hydrogen and nitrogen) which are dissolved in liquid chlorosilanes. Initial specifications and results for the distillation column design are reported including the variation of tray requirements (equilibrium stages) with reflux ratio for the distillation.

1981-01-01

192

The Etch Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation which shows the plasma etching of silicon dioxide. In this type of plasma etching process, a chlorine gas and argon gas mixture is used. The chlorine gas neutral charge molecules bond with the surface silicon dioxide molecules and create silicon chloride molecule. Through the bombardment of the plasma charged Argon molecules the silicon chloride molecules are released from the surface layer. The etch continues till the exposed silicon dioxide material is removed. Objective: Describe in detail the etch process. This simulation is from Module 047 of the Process and Equipment II of the MATEC Module Library (MML). You can find this animation under the heading "Process & Equipment II." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtml

193

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOEpatents

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Hu, Zhicheng (Somerville, MA)

1993-01-01

194

Parafoveal processing in reading.  

PubMed

The present review summarizes research investigating how words are identified parafoveally (and foveally) in reading. Parafoveal and foveal processing are compared when no other concurrent task is required (e.g., in single-word recognition tasks) and when both are required simultaneously (e.g., during reading). We first review methodologies used to study parafoveal processing (e.g., corpus analyses and experimental manipulations, including gaze-contingent display change experiments such as the boundary, moving window, moving mask, and fast priming paradigms). We then turn to a discussion of the levels of representation at which words are processed (e.g., orthographic, phonological, morphological, lexical, syntactic, and semantic). Next, we review relevant research regarding parafoveal processing, summarizing the extent to which words are processed at each of those levels of representation. We then review some of the most controversial aspects of parafoveal processing, as they relate to reading: (1) word skipping, (2) parafoveal-on-foveal effects, and (3) n + 1 and n + 2 preview benefit effects. Finally, we summarize two of the most advanced models of eye movements during reading and how they address foveal and parafoveal processing. PMID:22042596

Schotter, Elizabeth R; Angele, Bernhard; Rayner, Keith

2012-01-01

195

Biomedical image processing  

SciTech Connect

Biomedical image processing is a very broad field; it covers biomedical signal gathering, image forming, picture processing, and image display to medical diagnosis based on features extracted from images. This article reviews this topic in both its fundamentals and applications. In its fundamentals, some basic image processing techniques including outlining, deblurring, noise cleaning, filtering, search, classical analysis and texture analysis have been reviewed together with examples. The state-of-the-art image processing systems have been introduced and discussed in two categories: general purpose image processing systems and image analyzers. In order for these systems to be effective for biomedical applications, special biomedical image processing languages have to be developed. The combination of both hardware and software leads to clinical imaging devices. Two different types of clinical imaging devices have been discussed. There are radiological imagings which include radiography, thermography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and CT. Among these, thermography is the most noninvasive but is limited in application due to the low energy of its source. X-ray CT is excellent for static anatomical images and is moving toward the measurement of dynamic function, whereas nuclear imaging is moving toward organ metabolism and ultrasound is toward tissue physical characteristics. Heart imaging is one of the most interesting and challenging research topics in biomedical image processing; current methods including the invasive-technique cineangiography, and noninvasive ultrasound, nuclear medicine, transmission, and emission CT methodologies have been reviewed.

Huang, H.K.

1981-01-01

196

Gaia Data Processing Architecture  

E-print Network

Gaia is ESA's ambitious space astrometry mission the main objective of which is to astrometrically and spectro-photometrically map 1000 Million celestial objects (mostly in our galaxy) with unprecedented accuracy. The announcement of opportunity for the data processing will be issued by ESA late in 2006. The Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) has been formed recently and is preparing an answer. The satellite will downlink close to 100 TB of raw telemetry data over 5 years. To achieve its required accuracy of a few 10s of Microarcsecond astrometry, a highly involved processing of this data is required. In addition to the main astrometric instrument Gaia will host a Radial Velocity instrument, two low-resolution dispersers for multi-color photometry and two Star Mappers. Gaia is a flying Giga Pixel camera. The various instruments each require relatively complex processing while at the same time being interdependent. We describe the overall composition of the DPAC and the envisaged overall architecture of the Gaia data processing system. We shall delve further into the core processing - one of the nine, so-called, coordination units comprising the Gaia processing system.

W. O'Mullane; U. Lammers; C. Bailer-Jones; U. Bastian; A. Brown; R. Drimmel; L. Eyer; C. Huc; F. Jansen; D. Katz; L. Lindegren; D. Pourbaix; X. Luri; F. Mignard; J. Torra; F. van Leeuwen

2006-11-29

197

A Business Process Explorer: Recovering Business Processes from Business Applications  

E-print Network

1 A Business Process Explorer: Recovering Business Processes from Business Applications Jin Guo A business process contains a set of logically related tasks executed to fulfill business goals. Business applications enable organizations to automatically perform their daily operations. Business processes

Zou, Ying

198

The VISAR Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Video Image Stabilization And Registration (VISAR) process is an award winning video image processing software developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. VISAR has a wide variety of application areas where the refinement of digital video is needed. It is used to correct jitter, rotation, and zoom effects by registering and processing on individual image captures that are a part of normal video capturing. Its most prominent uses were the 1996 Olympic Bombing case and in identifying Saddam Hussein during the Iraq war. Based on first-hand knowledge, this paper describes the VISAR process, which consists of several steps designed to refine digital video using VISAR software. The process determines the differences between two video images so that one, or both, of the images can be changed in ways that make them match as well as possible. Corrections include changes in position (horizontal and vertical image shifts), changes in orientation (image rotation), and changes in magnification (image zoom). While much of the VISAR process is automated, in its current embodiment it requires the user to initially identify the area of interest and to reset a threshold parameter if the default gives unacceptable results. The basic process that is used is an old tried and true method that determines how well the two images match. This process is called cross-correlation. It gives a single number, the correlation coefficient, that is equal to 1.0 if the images are perfectly matched, is equal to 0.0 if the images have nothing in common, and is equal to -1.0 if one image is the negative of the other. This basic process is used by many image stabilization methods. With VISAR we use it in a manner that provides statistical information needed to best determine orientation and magnification.

Hathaway, David; Meyer, Paul; Templeton, Gary F.

2003-01-01

199

Chemical Processing Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

Beyerle, F. J.

1972-01-01

200

Ultrasonic Processing of Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

2005-06-30

201

Lubricant Coating Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Peen Plating," a NASA developed process for applying molybdenum disulfide, is the key element of Techniblast Co.'s SURFGUARD process for applying high strength solid lubricants. The process requires two machines -- one for cleaning and one for coating. The cleaning step allows the coating to be bonded directly to the substrate to provide a better "anchor." The coating machine applies a half a micron thick coating. Then, a blast gun, using various pressures to vary peening intensities for different applications, fires high velocity "media" -- peening hammers -- ranging from plastic pellets to steel shot. Techniblast was assisted by Rural Enterprises, Inc. Coating service can be performed at either Techniblast's or a customer's facility.

1989-01-01

202

Carbon wastewater treatment process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new powdered-carbon treatment process is being developed for the elimination of the present problems, associated with the disposal of biologically active sewage waste solids, and with water reuse. This counter-current flow process produces an activated carbon, which is obtained from the pyrolysis of the sewage solids, and utilizes this material to remove the adulterating materials from the water. Additional advantages of the process are the elimination of odors, the removal of heavy metals, and the potential for energy conservation.

Humphrey, M. F.; Simmons, G. M.; Dowler, W. L.

1974-01-01

203

Rapid solidification processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid solidification in materials was studied. Crystalline and noncrystalline metals, polymers, ceramics, solidification mechanism and resulting structure, innovative processing techniques, properties and applications are investigated. The following programs are outlined: alloys which offer high strength at elevated temperatures, and processing methods necessary to achieve these goals; structure and structure property relations in ferrous alloys; Corrosion related aspects and high temperature oxidation resistance of fine grained alloys; relation of solidification theory to structures produced, on innovative processes for rapid solidification, and on solidification at high undercoolings. Studies on rapid solidification of polymeric materials are demonstrated.

1982-01-01

204

Material Selection and Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Cambridge Department of Engineering operates a very informative site on material selection and processing. Its purpose is "to aid good practice in the selection of materials for product design." Of the many features offered on the site, a particularly valuable section is the Process Encyclopedia. This has a long list of manufacturing processes with detailed descriptions and illustrations. Extensive information about common materials and properties are also given. Interactive material selection charts show the relationship between various physical parameters. Product analysis case studies, tutorials, and many more items make this a very comprehensive resource.

205

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

Mayberry, J.L.

1988-04-13

206

Theory by Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theories defined in a process model are formalized and studied. A theory in a process calculus is a set of perpetually available processes with finite interactability, each can be regarded as a service, an agent behind the scene or an axiom. The operational and observational semantics of the theories are investigated. The power of the approach is demonstrated by interpreting the asynchronous ?-calculus as a theory, the asynchronous theory, in the ?-calculus. A complete axiomatic system is constructed for the asynchronous theory, which gives rise to a proof system for the weak asynchronous bisimilarity of the asynchronous ?.

Fu, Yuxi

207

Spectator processes and baryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectator processes which are in thermal equilibrium during the period of baryogenesis influence the final baryon asymmetry. We study this effect quantitatively for thermal leptogenesis where we find a suppression by a factor O(1).

W. Buchmüller; M. Plümacher

2001-01-01

208

Automating DNA processing  

E-print Network

and resources must be spent in laboratory research to determine the genetic structure of the relevant organisms. DNA processing is riddled with time intensive laboratory techniques that must be improved or replaced if genotyping large numbers of samples...

Wienen, Michael Jan

1994-01-01

209

MODELING TREE LEVEL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

An overview of three main types of simulation approach (explanatory, abstraction, and estimation) is presented, along with a discussion of their capabilities limitations, and the steps required for their validation. A process model being developed through the Forest Response Prog...

210

Petroleum Processing Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

Baker, D. A.

1978-01-01

211

CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

212

Presenting the Scientific Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a course titled Scientific Process, the authors introduce undergraduates to the philosophy and practice of science and initiate them into a 2-year undergraduate research track. Engaging exercises and discussions help students understand the scientific

Mason Meers

2003-12-01

213

Process makes perfect  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a software architecture for developing art and design tools that automatically capture the artist's interaction and records the entire creative process. The software uses the artist's interaction with ...

Schwartz, Marc (Marc S.)

2005-01-01

214

Magnetoelastic processes in steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnetoelastic model described previously has been computer programmed to allow averaging over polycrystalline grain orientations and integration of susceptibility to predict magnetization changes. In magnetoelastic (field and stress, H-?) processes, Brown's effective field due to stress on 90° domain walls has been extended with the differential susceptibility to describe magnetization changes in ?H, ??¯H, H?˜, and HH¯?˜ processes for coercive fields and stresses: magnetization in the ?H process initially exceeds and then drops below that due to H alone. Susceptibility in the ??¯H process is predicted and was observed to be first higher and then lower than for H alone. Magnetoelastic sensitivity, H(??¯)n, was observed to increase with magnetization as predicted by this model and by Bozorth. No Villari reversal was observed.

Schneider, C. S.; Charlesworth, Melanie

1985-04-01

215

Cooperative processing data bases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

Hasta, Juzar

1991-01-01

216

Quantum Stochastic Processes  

SciTech Connect

We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

Spring, William Joseph [Quantum Information and Probability Group, School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

2009-04-13

217

Associative list processing unit  

DOEpatents

An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

2014-04-01

218

ORGANIZING THE APPLICATION PROCESS  

E-print Network

ORGANIZING THE APPLICATION PROCESS #12;Where should I apply? · Pick 510 schools based on your of time to meet application deadlines ­ (3 weeks or more) · Provide stamped and addressed envelopes · Don

219

Data Access Request Process  

Cancer.gov

This page contains instructions for submitting a Data Access Request for dataset(s) under the purview of the Extramural National Cancer Institute (NCI) Data Access Committee (DAC) and an overview of the review process.

220

Direct coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

Rindt, John R. (Grand Forks, ND); Hetland, Melanie D. (Grand Forks, ND)

1993-01-01

221

Direct coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300 C to 400 C for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.

1993-10-26

222

Picture Processing by Computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for processing pictorial information by computer are surveyed. The topics covered include efficient encoding and approximation; position-invariant operations and applications; picture properties useful for pattern recognition; picture segmentation and geometrical properties of picture subsets; picture descrlptmn and \\

Azriel Rosenfeld

1969-01-01

223

Phenol removal pretreatment process  

DOEpatents

A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO)

2004-04-13

224

FDA -- Electronic Submission Process  

Cancer.gov

Food and Drug Administration – E lectronic Submission Process Stephen E. Wilson, DrPH (Biostatistics) Deputy Direct or Division of Biometrics II, CDER, FDA Member, CDER Electronic Submissions Working Group NIH Cancer Imaging Informatics Workshop Bethesda

225

Microwave processing of ceramics  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the following topics on microwave processing of ceramics: Microwave-material interactions; anticipated advantage of microwave sintering; ceramic sintering; and ceramic joining. 24 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

Katz, J.D.

1989-01-01

226

LIDC - Data Collection Process  

Cancer.gov

Slide 2Principle GoalsTo establish standard formats and processes for managing thoracic CT scans and related technical and clinical data for use in the development and testing of computer-aided diagnostic algorithms.

227

Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

Goldberg, Robert B.

1988-01-01

228

Modeling of ultrasonic processing  

E-print Network

This paper presents a finite element analysis (FEA) of ultrasonic processing of an aerospace-grade carbon-epoxy composite laminate. An ultrasonic (approximately 30 kHz) loading horn is applied to a small region at the ...

Zhao, Wenguang, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01

229

Drug Development Process  

MedlinePLUS

... in the laboratory. More Information arrow Step 2 Preclinical Research Preclinical Research Drugs undergo laboratory and animal testing to answer ... Process Step 1: Discovery and Development Step 2: Preclinical Research Step 3: Clinical Research Step 4: FDA Review ...

230

LIDC - Reader Marking Process  

Cancer.gov

Slide 1LIDC Radiologists' MarkingsA Multiple Reader/ Multiple Session Process Blinded Read Each Radiologist reads independently (Blinded to other readers' markings) Unblinded Read Each Radiologist re-reads, but is shown their own blinded read markings

231

Sculpture as process  

E-print Network

Sculpture as process is rooted in the historical development of movement as a theme of art in general and of sculpture in particular since 1900. The impact of the industrial revolution and the subsequent scientific/technological ...

Kracke, Bernd

1981-01-01

232

The Diffusion Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation which illustrates the diffusion process. The two models that have been developed to explain the mechanism for the diffusion of dopants into silicon are the Vacancy model and the Interstitial model. It is the different bonding characteristics of the dopants with silicon that determine the diffusion mechanism. Although each model is based on these differences, they are not mutually exclusive. Objective: Explain the difference between the Vacancy and Interstitial diffusion models. You can find this animation under the heading "Process & Equipment III." This simulation is from Module 019 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

233

LIMB PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report covers basic and applied studies concerned with three Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) process objectives: (1) avoiding degradation of collection efficiency in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) during LIMB, (2) achieving satisfactory sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

234

Hallmarks, Processing nutrients: Hanahan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancer cells require a source of nutrients and oxygen, which is supplied through new blood vessel growth � the process of angiogenesis, which is critical for almost all cancers.

2009-12-26

235

Bank Record Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

1982-01-01

236

Textile composite processing science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-dimensional model of the Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process was developed for the prediction of the infiltration behavior of a resin into an anisotropic fiber preform. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) was developed for in-situ monitoring of the RTM process. Flow visualization and mold filling experiments were conducted to verify sensor measurements and model predictions. Test results indicated good agreement between model predictions, sensor readings, and experimental data.

Loos, Alfred C.; Hammond, Vincent H.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Hasko, Gregory H.

1993-01-01

237

Symmetric iterative interpolation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a baseb and an even number of knots, we define a symmetric iterative interpolation process. The main properties of this process come from an associated functionF. The basic functional equation forF is thatF(t\\/b)=snF(n\\/b)F(t-n). We prove thatF is a continuous positive definite function. We find almost precisely in which Lipschitz classes derivatives ofF belong. If a functiony is defined only

Gilles Deslauriers; Serge Dubuc

1989-01-01

238

Advanced Polymer Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-25

239

Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

The information contained in this report is intended to supplement the original Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Since the original EIS in 1982, alterations have been made to he conceptual process that reduce the impact to the groundwater. This reduced impact is documented in this report along with an update of the understanding of seismology and geology of the Savannah River Site. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Haselow, J.S.; Wilhite, E.L.; Stieve, A.L.

1990-05-01

240

Microcomputers in Process Control  

E-print Network

the process industries continued utilization of microcomputers throughout the plant, even with the current decrease in the price of oil. Full utilization of the process control computer can only be achieved when it performs the function of the best... transducers, and single loop analog controllers, 2. Electronic analog transmitters and multiplexers, single loop analog controllers, 3. Electronic analog transmitters and multiplexers, single or multiple loop digital controllers, and 4. Electronic...

Vinson, D. R.; Chatterjee, N.

241

Hydrogen recovery process  

DOEpatents

A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

2000-01-01

242

EDITORIAL: Ultrafast magnetization processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is devoted to ultrafast magnetization processes. It reports on the scientific yield of the Priority Programme 1133 'Ultrafast Magnetization Processes' which was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in the period 2002-2008 in three successive two-year funding periods, supporting research of 17-18 groups in Germany. Now, at the end of this

Burkard Hillebrands

2008-01-01

243

Image Processing Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To convert raw data into environmental products, the National Weather Service and other organizations use the Global 9000 image processing system marketed by Global Imaging, Inc. The company's GAE software package is an enhanced version of the TAE, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center to support remote sensing and image processing applications. The system can be operated in three modes and is combined with HP Apollo workstation hardware.

1992-01-01

244

Processing Of Binary Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

Hou, H. S.

1985-07-01

245

Natural Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Text processing represents a preliminary phase to many document content handling tasks aimed at extracting and organizing\\u000a information therein. The computer science disciplines devoted to understanding language, and hence useful for such objectives,\\u000a are Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing. They rely on the availability of suitable linguistic resources (corpora, computational lexica, etc.) and of standard representation\\u000a models of linguistic

Stefano Ferilli

246

Apple Image Processing Educator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

Gunther, F. J.

1981-01-01

247

Commissioning : The Total Process  

E-print Network

with strong central control. The implementation of the "Partnering" process, or team building with common objectives, is often beneficial in accomplishing good commissioning results. The commissioning team should consist of appropriate representatives... documents including commissioning plans. 6. Monitor construction, testing, and commissioning process. 7. Assure the participation of all appropriate personnel in training programs. 8. Operate and maintain the facility in accordance with approved plans...

Kettler, G. J.

1998-01-01

248

Electrotechnologies in Process Industries  

E-print Network

technologies such as radio frequency, microwave, infrared, and ultraviolet heating have found a variety of applications, and more are under development. ElectrOChemical processes for separation and synthesis (such as Chlor-Alkali production..., membrane separation, and adjustable speed drives. In the area of process heating, only a small fraction of the total energy used to heat, cook, soften, melt, distill, cure, and fuse materials is now provided by electricity. However, innovative...

Amarnath, K. R.

249

Worldwide gas processing  

SciTech Connect

Tables are presented on capacity and production in natural gas processing plants by country (by province or by state when appropriate), and by company within each country. Production figures are presented separately for ethane, propane, isobutane, butane, LP-gas mixtures, raw NGL mixtures, debutanized natural gasoline, an other. Another table gives world sulfur production by company within each country. The sulfur production table gives the source of the sulfur, type of process used, and figures for design capacity and production.

Radler, M.

1998-06-08

250

Helium process cycle  

DOEpatents

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2008-08-12

251

Helium process cycle  

DOEpatents

A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

Ganni, Venkatarao (Yorktown, VA)

2007-10-09

252

Laser forming process development  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a summary of the activities performed for the process development of laser thermal forming sheet metal parts in support of rapid prototyping. A 400 watt pulsed Nd:YAG laser and 50 watt desktop CO{sub 2} laser were used during initial process development. Several tool-assisted laser forming approaches were conceived during the development of the process, and simple fixtures for process development/understanding were used throughout all testing. Much of the actual forming was performed with the base material in an unfixtured state. CRES (304) was used for baseline development, but the effort was directed toward forming titanium (e.g., 6Al-4V, 15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al). Several DOE (i.e., Design of Experiment) techniques were employed during development and a Neural Net Computer Model was conceived for process control. This program was a joint effort in cooperation with the American Welding Society under contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). A synopsis of the laser forming process development, future opportunities, and applications are presented.

Blake, R.J. [High Tech Images, Sheridan, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

253

Studsvik Processing Facility Update  

SciTech Connect

Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 3.3 million pounds (1.5 million kgs) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, and activated carbon, which comprised a cumulative total activity of 18,852.5 Ci (6.98E+08 MBq). To date, the highest radiation level for an incoming resin container has been 395 R/hr (3.95 Sv/h). The Studsvik Processing Facility (SPF) has the capability to safely and efficiently receive and process a wide variety of solid and liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) streams including: Ion Exchange Resins (IER), activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents, and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/h). The licensed and heavily shielded SPF can receive and process liquid and solid LLRWs with high water and/or organic content. This paper provides an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing radioactive LLRW from commercial nuclear power plants. Process improvements and lessons learned will be discussed.

Mason, J. B.; Oliver, T. W.; Hill, G. M.; Davin, P. F.; Ping, M. R.

2003-02-25

254

Image Processing Learning Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hypermedia Image Processing Reference (HIPR) offers a wealth of resources for users of image processing and an introduction to hypermedia (through use with Web browsers). HIPR was developed at the Department of Artificial Intelligence in the University of Edinburgh as computer-based tutorial materials for use in courses on image processing and machine vision. The material is available as a package that can easily be shared on a local area network and then made available at any suitably equipped computer connected to that network. The materials cover a wide range of image processing operations and are complemented by an extensive collection of actual digitized images, all organized for easy cross-referencing. Some features include a reference section with information on some of the most common classes of image-processing operations currently used, a section describing how each operation works, and various other instructional tools, such as Java demonstrations; interactive tableau where multiple operators can demonstrate sequences of operations; suggestions for appropriate use of operations; example input and output images for each operation; suggested student exercises; an encyclopedic glossary of common image processing concepts and terms; and other reference information. From the index, visitors can search on a particular topic covered in this website.

255

The Kimberley Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past several decades have seen a growing interest among various social justice organizations into investigating the various origins or manufacturing processes used to create various products and their effects on the people who make these products. One such luxury item that has come under close scrutiny is the diamond. In May 2000, Southern African diamond producing states met in Kimberly, South Africa to come up with a way to stop the trade in conflict diamonds and "to ensure consumers that the diamonds that they purchase have not contributed to violent conflict and human rights abuses in their countries of origin." Some two years later, a number of participants (including national governments and the international diamond industry) developed the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme to assure that these conflict diamonds would not enter legitimate trade. On this compelling site, visitors can learn about the process, read news updates about the process, and read documents related to the process from the World Trade Organization and examine a list of participants in the process.

256

Kennedy Space Center Payload Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the payload processing functions at Kennedy Space Center. It details some of the payloads processed at KSC, the typical processing tasks, the facilities available for processing payloads, and the capabilities and customer services that are available.

Lawson, Ronnie; Engler, Tom; Colloredo, Scott; Zide, Alan

2011-01-01

257

NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PROCESSING  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty nine cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. The neptunium campaign was divided into two parts: Part 1 which consisted of oxide made from H-Canyon neptunium solution which did not require any processing prior to conversion into an oxide, and Part 2 which consisted of oxide made from additional H-Canyon neptunium solutions which required processing to purify the solution prior to conversion into an oxide. The neptunium was received as a nitrate solution and converted to oxide through ion-exchange column extraction, precipitation, and calcination. Numerous processing challenges were encountered in order make a final neptunium oxide product that could be shipped in a 9975 shipping container. Among the challenges overcome was the issue of scale: translating lab scale production into full facility production. The balance between processing efficiency and product quality assurance was addressed during this campaign. Lessons learned from these challenges are applicable to other processing projects.

Jordan, J; Watkins, R; Hensel, S

2009-05-27

258

Processing anomalous anaphors.  

PubMed

Previous researchers have demonstrated that readers may engage in shallow, or incomplete, processing when the semantic overlap between current information and previously encountered information is high. The present study investigated whether these effects would occur during processing of unambiguous noun phrase anaphors, for which there was only a single possible antecedent. Participants read passages containing anaphors that were correct, incorrect but highly related, or incorrect and low-related, with respect to previously encountered information. The time required to process the anaphor was a function of the goodness of fit between the anaphor and the antecedent; anaphors that were incorrect but highly related to the antecedent were processed more quickly than those that were incorrect and low-related. This occurred regardless of the distance between the anaphor and the antecedent. However, reading times results from a spillover sentence indicated that readers subsequently validated the anaphor against the information in memory, resulting in continued processing difficulty for both the incorrect-high- and -low-related anaphor conditions. The results are consistent with a three-stage comprehension model in which information is activated, integrated on the basis of its goodness of fit with the contents of working memory, and then validated against information in long-term memory. PMID:24796775

Cook, Anne E

2014-10-01

259

Disk processes in MR.  

PubMed

Disk processes can be differentiated in MR with the introduction of high resolution coils and the use of a multi slice technique with a minimal slice thickness of 5 mm. By using a sensitive double echo sequence we found that in the 80 patients examined the size and extent of the posterior herniation could be well demonstrated. Sagittal slices show the relationship of the herniation to the spinal cord. The pathomechanical parts of a disk process such as ruptured or preserved anulus fibrosus, perforated or intact posterior longitudinal ligament can be differentiated. For lateral lying processes in connection with the foramen intervertebral and the spinal roots an axial slice parallel to the intervertebral space is recommended. All CT findings especially in the cervical spine region were shown and further qualified. PMID:3699039

Heller, H; Braitinger, S; Petsch, R; Dörnemann, H

1986-02-01

260

Isothermal separation processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isothermal processes of membrane separation, supercritical extraction and chromatography were examined using availability analysis. The general approach was to derive equations that identified where energy is consumed in these processes and how they compare with conventional separation methods. These separation methods are characterized by pure work inputs, chiefly in the form of a pressure drop which supplies the required energy. Equations were derived for the energy requirement in terms of regular solution theory. This approach is believed to accurately predict the work of separation in terms of the heat of solution and the entropy of mixing. It can form the basis of a convenient calculation method for optimizing membrane and solvent properties for particular applications. Calculations were made on the energy requirements for a membrane process separating air into its components.

England, C.

1982-01-01

261

Magnetic Particle Process Improvement  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic particle testing process is performed to find linear, surface and near surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic test materials. A wet fluorescent method is used at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). This method employs a liquid carrier mixed with iron oxide particles in suspension, and the particles used in the method are coated with a fluorescent dye to make them visible under a black light. The process in its current state employs the use of a tank of liquid solution of a mineral oil carrier with iron oxide particles in suspension. The change to the use of an aerosol delivery system with the same material reduces the amount of waste involved in the process while preserving the sensitivity of the testing, shortens the flowtime for the test, and saves labor and material costs.

Hubert, R.R.

2002-08-13

262

Process improvement: wet reads.  

PubMed

Through a four month Clinical Process Improvement Leadership Program, professionals at North Shore Medical Center in Massachusetts developed a process improvement to gain efficiency in communicating urgently requested x-ray results, or "wet reads." The initial steps included summoning a diverse team, mapping the process in detail, and clearly defining the problem. Once the problem was defined, the team brainstormed potential solutions and constructed a priority/pay-off matrix. By using the Plan Do Study Act (PDSA) system, a repeating cycle of activity that tests the new experimental work flow by tracking, adjusting, tweaking, and tracking again, efforts were built upon until the goal was met.The average wet read turnaround time went from 44 minutes to 15 minutes, a reduction of 66%. PMID:24605443

Tobey, Mary Ellen; Yamamoto, Alvin; Robertson, Dawn

2014-01-01

263

Acoustic Levitation Containerless Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research program consists of the development of acoustic containerless processing systems with applications in the areas of research in material sciences, as well as the production of new materials, solid forms with novel and unusual microstructures, fusion target spheres, and improved optical fibers. Efforts have been focused on the containerless processing at high temperatures for producing new kinds of glasses. Also, some development has occurred in the areas of containerlessly supporting liquids at room temperature, with applications in studies of fluid dynamics, potential undercooling of liquids, etc. The high temperature area holds the greatest promise for producing new kinds of glasses and ceramics, new alloys, and possibly unusual structural shapes, such as very uniform hollow glass shells for fusion target applications. High temperature acoustic levitation required for containerless processing has been demonstrated in low-g environments as well as in ground-based experiments. Future activities include continued development of the signals axis acoustic levitator.

Whymark, R. R.; Rey, C. A.

1985-01-01

264

Quartz resonator processing system  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

Peters, Roswell D. M. (Rustburg, VA)

1983-01-01

265

Titanium Process Technologies  

SciTech Connect

Titanium has a unique set of properties: low density, high specific strength, high temperature strength, and exceptional resistance to corrosion. Titanium is the fourth most common structural metal in the earth's crust. Only iron, aluminum, and magnesium are more abundant. More titanium is available than nickel, copper, chromium, lead, tin, and zinc put together. However, the current titanium production system is extremely labor and capital intensive. Titanium is expensive only because the current process for refining the ore to metal is a multi-step, high temperature batch process. This article will first describe current titanium technology, and will then discuss four of the most promising approaches to reduce the cost of titanium. These include the Kroll, Hunter, Cambridge, and Armstrong processes.

Steven J. Gerdemann

2001-07-01

266

Cantilever epitaxial process  

DOEpatents

A process of growing a material on a substrate, particularly growing a Group II-VI or Group III-V material, by a vapor-phase growth technique where the growth process eliminates the need for utilization of a mask or removal of the substrate from the reactor at any time during the processing. A nucleation layer is first grown upon which a middle layer is grown to provide surfaces for subsequent lateral cantilever growth. The lateral growth rate is controlled by altering the reactor temperature, pressure, reactant concentrations or reactant flow rates. Semiconductor materials, such as GaN, can be produced with dislocation densities less than 10.sup.7 /cm.sup.2.

Ashby, Carol I.; Follstaedt, David M.; Mitchell, Christine C.; Han, Jung

2003-07-29

267

Exclusion processes with avalanches.  

PubMed

In an exclusion process with avalanches, when a particle hops to a neighboring empty site which is adjacent to an island the particle on the other end of the island immediately hops, and if it joins another island this triggers another hop. There are no restrictions on the length of the islands and the duration of the avalanche. This process is well defined in the low-density region ? < 1/2. We describe the nature of steady states (on a ring) and determine all correlation functions. For the asymmetric version of the process, we compute the steady state current, and we describe shock and rarefaction waves which arise in the evolution of the step-function initial profile. For the symmetric version, we determine the diffusion coefficient and examine the evolution of a tagged particle. PMID:25122277

Bhat, Uttam; Krapivsky, P L

2014-07-01

268

A complementary MOS process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complete sequence used to manufacture complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits is described. The fixed-gate array concept is presented as a means of obtaining CMOS integrated circuits in a fast and reliable fashion. Examples of CMOS circuits fabricated by both the conventional method and the fixed-gate array method are included. The electrical parameter specifications and characteristics are given along with typical values used to produce CMOS circuits. Temperature-bias stressing data illustrating the thermal stability of devices manufactured by this process are presented. Results of a preliminary study on the radiation sensitivity of circuits manufactured by this process are discussed. Some process modifications are given which have improved the radiation hardness of our CMOS devices. A formula description of the chemicals and gases along with the gas flow rates is also included.

Jhabvala, M. D.

1977-01-01

269

Innate face processing.  

PubMed

Recent monkey studies provide intriguing information for an open question whether face processing is a special perceptual process and is organized as such at birth, or has its origin in a more general system that becomes specialized with experience. Before seeing any faces or face-like objects, macaque monkeys showed a preference for faces rather than nonface objects. Furthermore, they showed remarkable face processing abilities both for human and monkey faces. It was also shown that macaque newborns are able to imitate human facial gestures, indicating the ability to match their own facial movements to observed facial gestures. Taken together, it seems very likely that newborns can acquire the knowledge about the basic structure of their own face, presumably through proprioception, so that facial structure would become a familiar and attractive visual object without the experience of the face itself. PMID:19339171

Sugita, Yoichi

2009-02-01

270

NTP comparison process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

Corban, Robert

1993-01-01

271

Process Damping Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of process damping as a stabilising effect in milling has been encountered by machinists since milling and turning began. It is of great importance when milling aerospace alloys where maximum surface speed is limited by excessive tool wear and high speed stability lobes cannot be attained. Much of the established research into regenerative chatter and chatter avoidance has focussed on stability lobe theory with different analytical and time domain models developed to expand on the theory first developed by Trusty and Tobias. Process damping is a stabilising effect that occurs when the surface speed is low relative to the dominant natural frequency of the system and has been less successfully modelled and understood. Process damping is believed to be influenced by the interference of the relief face of the cutting tool with the waveform traced on the cut surface, with material properties and the relief geometry of the tool believed to be key factors governing performance. This study combines experimental trials with Finite Element (FE) simulation in an attempt to identify and understand the key factors influencing process damping performance in titanium milling. Rake angle, relief angle and chip thickness are the variables considered experimentally with the FE study looking at average radial and tangential forces and surface compressive stress. For the experimental study a technique is developed to identify the critical process damping wavelength as a means of measuring process damping performance. For the range of parameters studied, chip thickness is found to be the dominant factor with maximum stable parameters increased by a factor of 17 in the best case. Within the range studied, relief angle was found to have a lesser effect than expected whilst rake angle had an influence.

Turner, Sam

2011-12-01

272

NTP comparison process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

Corban, Robert

273

Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

274

Modular Containerless Processing Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Modular Containerless Processing Facility (MCPF) of the Space Station Freedom, being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is described. The MCPF will be capable of positioning, manipulating, and performing processing operations on samples completely free of container walls. It will be comprised of a host facility and a series of interchangeable plug-in modules. Initial iterations of MCPF modules will be flown on the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory (USML) series of Shuttle flights. The Drop Physics Module schedualed to fly on USML-1 in March 1992 is also considered.

Morrison, Andrew D.

1990-01-01

275

Actinide metal processing  

DOEpatents

A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

1992-03-24

276

Geology and image processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital image processing for geological applications will be integrated with geographic information systems and data base management systems. While multiband data sets from radar and multispectral scanners will make extreme demands on memory, bus and processor architectures, it is expected that array processors and VLSI/VHSIC dedicated function chips will allow the use of fast Fourier transform and classification algorithms. It is anticipted that, as processor power increases, the weakest link of a processing system will become the analyst who uses it. Human engineering of systems is therefore recommended for the most effective utilization of remotely sensed geologic data.

Daily, M.

1982-01-01

277

Processing of tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to an improved process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands comprising first heating the raw tar sands with steam at a temperature sufficient to visbreak a portion of the bitumen without significant thermal cracking thereby producing a vaporous distillate product mixed with steam and lowering the viscosity and specific gravity of the residual bitumen on the heat treated tar sands. The distillate product and steam are cooled and condensed and mixed the heat treated tar sands containing residual beneficiated bitumen to form a slurry. Bitumen is then recovered from the slurry by a hot-water separation process.

Mitchell, T.O.

1984-01-03

278

Biomass Processing Photolibrary  

DOE Data Explorer

Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

279

Array signal processing  

SciTech Connect

This is the first book to be devoted completely to array signal processing, a subject that has become increasingly important in recent years. The book consists of six chapters. Chapter 1, which is introductory, reviews some basic concepts in wave propagation. The remaining five chapters deal with the theory and applications of array signal processing in (a) exploration seismology, (b) passive sonar, (c) radar, (d) radio astronomy, and (e) tomographic imaging. The various chapters of the book are self-contained. The book is written by a team of five active researchers, who are specialists in the individual fields covered by the pertinent chapters.

Haykin, S.; Justice, J.H.; Owsley, N.L.; Yen, J.L.; Kak, A.C.

1985-01-01

280

Proofs, Programs, Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a realisability interpretation for inductive and coinductive definitions and discuss its application to program extraction from proofs. A speciality of this interpretation is that realisers are given by terms that correspond directly to programs in a lazy functional programming language such as Haskell. Programs extracted from proofs using coinduction can be understood as perpetual processes producing infinite streams of data. Typical applications of such processes are computations in exact real arithmetic. As an example we show how to extract a program computing the average of two real numbers w.r.t. to the binary signed digit representation.

Berger, Ulrich; Seisenberger, Monika

281

Cyclic membrane separation process  

DOEpatents

A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

Nemser, Stuart M.

2005-05-03

282

Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

2007-05-01

283

Stochastic Process Creation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many areas of computer science entities can “reproduce”, “replicate”, or “create new instances”. Paramount examples are threads in multithreaded programs, processes in operating systems, and computer viruses, but many others exist: procedure calls create new incarnations of the callees, web crawlers discover new pages to be explored (and so “create” new tasks), divide-and-conquer procedures split a problem into subproblems, and leaves of tree-based data structures become internal nodes with children. For lack of a better name, I use the generic term systems with process creation to refer to all these entities.

Esparza, Javier

284

Actinide metal processing  

DOEpatents

A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

285

Solar industrial process heat  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

Lumsdaine, E.

1981-04-01

286

Statecharts Via Process Algebra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Statecharts is a visual language for specifying the behavior of reactive systems. The Language extends finite-state machines with concepts of hierarchy, concurrency, and priority. Despite its popularity as a design notation for embedded system, precisely defining its semantics has proved extremely challenging. In this paper, a simple process algebra, called Statecharts Process Language (SPL), is presented, which is expressive enough for encoding Statecharts in a structure-preserving and semantic preserving manner. It is establish that the behavioral relation bisimulation, when applied to SPL, preserves Statecharts semantics

Luttgen, Gerald; vonderBeeck, Michael; Cleaveland, Rance

1999-01-01

287

Teaching Reflection Seismic Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Without pictures, it is difficult to give students a feeling for wave propagation, transmission, and reflection. Even with pictures, wave propagation is still static to many. However, when students use and modify scripts that generate wavefronts and rays through a geologic model that they have modified themselves, we find that students gain a real feeling for wave propagation. To facilitate teaching 2-D seismic reflection data processing (from acquisition through migration) to our undergraduate and graduate Reflection Seismology students, we use Seismic Un*x (SU) software. SU is maintained and distributed by Colorado School of Mines, and it is freely available (at www.cwp.mines.edu/cwpcodes). Our approach includes use of synthetic and real seismic data, processing scripts, and detailed explanation of the scripts. Our real data were provided by Gregory F. Moore of the University of Hawaii. This approach can be used by any school at virtually no expense for either software or data, and can provide students with a sound introduction to techniques used in processing of reflection seismic data. The same software can be used for other purposes, such as research, with no additional expense. Students who have completed a course using SU are well equipped to begin using it for research, as well. Scripts for each processing step are supplied and explained to the students. Our detailed description of the scripts means students do not have to know anything about SU to start. Experience with the Unix operating system is preferable but not necessary -- our notes include Computer Hints to help the beginner work with the Unix operating system. We include several examples of synthetic model building, acquiring shot gathers through synthetic models, sorting shot gathers to CMP gathers, gain, 1-D frequency filtering, f-k filtering, deconvolution, semblance displays and velocity analysis, flattening data (NMO), stacking the CMPs, and migration. We use two real (marine) data sets. One of these is very easy to process, yet provides an extraordinary example of the importance of migration after stack. The other data set is a challenge to process, due to contamination by multiples. Students who complete the SU exercises learn the structure of reflection seismic data, the fundamentals of seismic data processing, and gain an introduction to signal processing, providing them with the tools required to make appropriate career choices and/or to continue their research.

Forel, D.; Benz, T.; Pennington, W. D.

2004-12-01

288

Crow process modeling  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (wRI) has developed a numerical model (TCROW) to describe CROW{sup TM} processing of contaminated aquifers. CROW is a patented technology for the removal of contaminant organics from water-saturated formations by injection of hot water or low- temperature steam. TCROW is based on a fully implicit, thermal, compositional model (TSRS) previously developed by wRI. TCROW`s formulation represents several enhancements and simplifications over TSRS and results in a model specifically tailored to model the CROW process.

NONE

1997-04-01

289

Retinex Image Processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Retinex Image Processing technology, developed by NASA, is used to compensate for the effect of poor lighting in recorded images. Shadows, changes in the color of illumination, and several other factors can cause image quality to be highly variable. Using an advanced system that sharpens images and efficiently renders colors, a much more constant image quality can be achieved regardless of the lighting. Retinex technology is described in several online publications that can be downloaded from this Web site. Additionally, some example pictures of scenes taken with and without the image processing are shown.

290

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

1981-01-01

291

Research Planning Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation describes the process used to collect, review, integrate, and assess research requirements desired to be a part of research and payload activities conducted on the ISS. The presentation provides a description of: where the requirements originate, to whom they are submitted, how they are integrated into a requirements plan, and how that integrated plan is formulated and approved. It is hoped that from completing the review of this presentation, one will get an understanding of the planning process that formulates payload requirements into an integrated plan used for specifying research activities to take place on the ISS.

Lofton, Rodney

2010-01-01

292

Hybrid information processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum algorithms and computational models primarily focus on processing quantum states via qubit manipulations and measurements. While this allows for hardware independent algorithm development, it does not necessarily reflect the full capabilities of even imperfect physical implementations - which typically have access to additional degrees of freedom not routinely considered in quantum algorithm development. In analogy with electrical mixed-signal (analog and digital) processing, here we investigate the prospects of incorporating the strengths of the native physical platform into the quantum information processor. Although the treatment here will be limited to optical systems the general approach should apply to other physical systems as well.

Jacobs, Bryan C.

2010-08-01

293

Image Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) is using a digital image processing system which employs NASA-developed technology. MIR's computer system is the largest radiology system in the world. It is used in diagnostic imaging. Blood vessels are injected with x-ray dye, and the images which are produced indicate whether arteries are hardened or blocked. A computer program developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory known as Mini-VICAR/IBIS was supplied to MIR by COSMIC. The program provides the basis for developing the computer imaging routines for data processing, contrast enhancement and picture display.

1986-01-01

294

Planetary geological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this introduction to planetary geology, we review the major geologic processes affecting the solid bodies of the solar system, namely volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion. We illustrate the interplay of these processes in different worlds, briefly reviewing how they affect the surfaces of the Earth's Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars, then focusing on two very different worlds: Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active object in the solar system, and Saturn's moon Titan, where the interaction between a dense atmosphere and the surface make for remarkably earth-like landscapes despite the great differences in surface temperature and composition.

Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Solomonidou, Anezina

2014-11-01

295

Sequential elution process  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus are disclosed for the separation of complex mixtures of carbonaceous material by sequential elution with successively stronger solvents. In the process, a column containing glass beads is maintained in a fluidized state by a rapidly flowing stream of a weak solvent, and the sample is injected into this flowing stream such that a portion of the sample is dissolved therein and the remainder of the sample is precipitated therein and collected as a uniform deposit on the glass beads. Successively stronger solvents are then passed through the column to sequentially elute less soluble materials. 1 fig.

Kingsley, I.S.

1987-01-06

296

The Diffusion Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. In an orderly and comprehensive set of lectures, lessons, and laboratory activities, MATEC explicates for your learners the complex process of diffusion. Beginning with an overview of diffusion's purpose in altering a wafer's electrical characteristics, the module then drills down to specifics: process parameters, different techniques of diffusion, the use of a hot probe to evaluate diffusion, and wafer handling. Your learners demonstrate their new knowledge by diffusing selected dopants into a silicon wafer.

297

Processing Texas Broilers.  

E-print Network

for short periods less labor is required to haul and hold them in wooden crates than to transfer and hold them in batteries. The speed of the dressing and eviscerating line generally sets the pace for the en- tire processing operation. Removing... ibmilers in Texas processing plants are: (1) to unlnatl and slaughter the birds immediately, com- monly called "tail gating" and (2) to hold them as long as 2 days in batteries. Most plants hoth methods. With either method, live broil- must be handled...

Mountney, G. J.; Gardner, F. A. (Frederick)

1957-01-01

298

Cyclic membrane separation process  

SciTech Connect

A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

Bowser, John

2004-04-13

299

Gas purification process  

SciTech Connect

Ciba-Geigy claims that anthraquinone sulfonamides have equal or better activity than the anthraquinone disulfonic acids used in the removal of hydrogen sulfide as sulfur from gases by such methods as the Stretford process. Examples of the preferred compounds are N,N'-disulfomethylanthraquinone-2,6-disulfonamide and N,N'-dicarboxymethylanthraquinone-2,7-disulfonamide.

Randell, D.R.; Phillips, E.

1981-02-17

300

Immunology as Information Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter describes the behavior of the immune system from an informationprocessing perspective. It reviews a series of projects conducted at the University of New Mexico and the Santa Fe Institute, which have developed and explored the theme "immunology as information processing." The projects cover the spectrum from serious modeling of real immunological phenomena, such as crossreactive responses in animals

Stephanie Forrest; Steven A. Hofmeyr

2000-01-01

301

Image processing and reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

This talk will examine some mathematical methods for image processing and the solution of underdetermined, linear inverse problems. The talk will have a tutorial flavor, mostly accessible to undergraduates, while still presenting research results. The primary approach is the use of optimization problems. We will find that relaxing the usual assumption of convexity will give us much better results.

Chartrand, Rick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-15

302

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes municipal waste materials processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass

Mayberry

1989-01-01

303

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for processing municipal waste, the waste including ferrous materials, nonferrous noncombustible materials and combustible materials. It comprises: means for crushing most of the nonferrous noncombustible waste materials into noncombustible pieces which are smaller than a first size in which no dimension is greater than a selected length, and crushing most of the combustible materials into

Mayberry

1988-01-01

304

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger,

Mayberry

1987-01-01

305

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger,

Mayberry; John L

1989-01-01

306

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger,

Mayberry; John L

1988-01-01

307

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for processing municipal waste, the waste including ferrous materials, nonferrous noncombustible materials and combustible materials comprising: means for crushing most of the nonferrous noncombustible waste materials into noncombustible pieces which are smaller than a first size in which no dimension is greater than a selected length, and crushing most of the combustible materials into combustible

Mayberry

1988-01-01

308

Performance Improvement Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance improvement processes. In "Never the Twain Shall Meet?: A Glimpse into High Performance Work Practices and Downsizing" (Laurie J. Bassi, Mark E. Van Buren) evidence from a national cross-industry of more than 200 establishments is used to demonstrate that high-performance work…

1997

309

The Scientific Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore how they can use the processes of science to learn about events that occurred in the past. They make observations, develop a hypothesis, and use evidence to test their hypothesis to see how well it holds up in light of their evidence.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2005-12-17

310

Snowmelt Processes: International Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Snowmelt is an integral component of the hydrologic forecasting process in many parts of the world. Here, we examine the influences of environmental conditions on snowfall distribution, snowpack structure, snowpack-environment energy exchange, and finally, the rate and amount of snowmelt itself. The fate of snowmelt water after it reaches the ground is also explored.

COMET

2011-01-04

311

The task force process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way

Applegate

1995-01-01

312

Laminar soot processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soot processes within hydrocarbon fueled flames are important because they affect the durability and performance of propulsion systems, the hazards of unwanted fires, the pollutant and particulate emissions from combustion processes, and the potential for developing computational combustion. Motivated by these observations, the present investigation is studying soot processes in laminar diffusion and premixed flames in order to better understand the soot and thermal radiation emissions of luminous flames. Laminar flames are being studied due to their experimental and computational tractability, noting the relevance of such results to practical turbulent flames through the laminar flamelet concept. Weakly-buoyant and nonbuoyant laminar diffusion flames are being considered because buoyancy affects soot processes in flames while most practical flames involve negligible effects of buoyancy. Thus, low-pressure weakly-buoyant flames are being observed during ground-based experiments while near atmospheric pressure nonbuoyant flames will be observed during space flight experiments at microgravity. Finally, premixed laminar flames also are being considered in order to observe some aspects of soot formation for simpler flame conditions than diffusion flames. The main emphasis of current work has been on measurements of soot nucleation and growth in laminar diffusion and premixed flames.

Sunderland, P. B.; Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.

1995-01-01

313

Data warehouse process management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has provided metadata models that enable the capturing of the static components of a data warehouse architecture, along with information on different quality factors over these components. This paper complements this work with the modeling of the dynamic parts of the data warehouse. The proposed metamodel of data warehouse operational processes is capable of modeling complex activities, their

Panos Vassiliadis; Christoph Quix; Yannis Vassiliou; Matthias Jarke

2001-01-01

314

Space variant image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a graph-based approach to image processing, intended for use with images obtained from sensors having space variant sampling grids. The connectivity graph (CG) is presented as a fundamental framework for posing image operations in any kind of space variant sensor. Partially motivated by the observation that human vision is strongly space variant, a number of research groups

Richard S. Wallace; Ping-wen Ong; Benjamin B. Bederson; Eric L. Schwartz

1994-01-01

315

Change Process in Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on the change process in organizations moderated by John Redding at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Corporate Culture: Friend or Foe of Change?" (Joanne Burgess) reports a study of the characteristics of corporate culture that facilitate…

1996

316

Recidivism as a Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approaches recidivism from the perspective of ethnomethdology and views recidivism as the product of various decisions and interactions. Consequently, rehabilitation and measures of its success or failure must be considered as a process. An example is presented of the use of failure rate analysis in analyzing recidivism. (JAC)

Boudouris, James

1984-01-01

317

Processing Materials in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suggested program of material processing experiments in space described in 81 page report. For each experiment, report discusses influence of such gravitational effects as convection, buoyancy, sedimentation, and hydrostatic pressure. Report contains estimates of power and mission duration required for each experiment. Lists necessary equipment and appropriate spacecraft.

Zoller, L. K.

1982-01-01

318

Egg Processing Plant Sanitation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

319

Software process assessments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software process assessments (SPA's) are part of an ongoing program of continuous quality improvements in AT&T. Their use was found to be very beneficial by software development organizations in identifying the issues facing the organization and the actions required to increase both quality and productivity in the organization.

Miller, Sharon E.; Tucker, George T.; Verducci, Anthony J., Jr.

1992-01-01

320

Catalytic cracking process  

DOEpatents

Processes and apparatus for providing improved catalytic cracking, specifically improved recovery of olefins, LPG or hydrogen from catalytic crackers. The improvement is achieved by passing part of the wet gas stream across membranes selective in favor of light hydrocarbons over hydrogen.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2001-01-01

321

Corona discharge processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of corona discharge induced plasmas and unipolar ions are reviewed. Corona process applications emphasize one of two aspects of the discharge: the ions produced or the energetic electrons producing the plasma. The ion identities depend on the polarity of the discharge and the characteristics of the gas mixture, specifically on the electron attaching species. The electron energies depend on

J.-S. Chang; P. A. Lawless; T. Yamamoto

1991-01-01

322

Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

Seager, Robert D.

2014-01-01

323

Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical engineering analysis was continued for the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) in which solar cell silicon is produced in a 1,000 MT/yr plant. Progress and status are reported for the primary engineering activities involved in the preliminary process engineering design of the plant base case conditions (96%), reaction chemistry (96%), process flow diagram (85%), material balance (85%), energy balance (60%), property data (60%), equipment design (40%), major equipment list (30%) and labor requirements (10%). Engineering design of the second distillation column (D-02, TCS column) in the process was completed. The design is based on a 97% recovery of the light key (TCS, trichlorosilane) in the distillate and a 97% recovery of the heavy key (TET, silicon tetrachloride) in the bottoms. At a reflux ratio of 2, the specified recovery of TCS and TET is achieved with 20 trays (equilibrium stages, N=20). Respective feed tray locations are 9, 12 and 15 (NF sub 1 = 9, NF sub 2 = 12,, and NF sub 3 = 15). A total condenser is used for the distillation which is conducted at a pressure of 90 psia.

1982-01-01

324

Appraising the Instructional Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper the most effective use of instructional time is discussed. In evaluating the efficient use of teaching time, the following questions are examined: (1) Is the instruction process proceeding toward a perceivable objective? (2) Is the instructional objective at the right level of difficulty for the learners who are investing time? (3)…

Hunter, Madeline

325

Causal Synchrony Distributed Processes  

E-print Network

subcollectives? Is the collective smarter than its agents? I'll show how a theory of intrinsic computation can-agent coordination in terms of that hidden dynamics. Applications to synchronization in neurobiological processes Baron Chief Judge General Southern Captain Northern Captain Executioner AstrologerPhysicianCook Head

California at Davis, University of

326

Image Processing for Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Image Processing for Teaching project provides a powerful medium to excite students about science and mathematics, especially children from minority groups and others whose needs have not been met by traditional teaching. Using professional-quality software on microcomputers, students explore a variety of scientific data sets, including…

Greenberg, R.; And Others

1993-01-01

327

Image-Processing Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IMAGEP manipulates digital image data to effect various processing, analysis, and enhancement functions. It is keyboard-driven program organized into nine subroutines. Within subroutines are sub-subroutines also selected via keyboard. Algorithm has possible scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications in study of flows in materials, analysis of steels and ores, and pathology, respectively.

Roth, D. J.; Hull, D. R.

1994-01-01

328

Physical process Mechanical mechanisms  

E-print Network

1 Physical process Generation · Mechanical mechanisms F = m·a · Electric/Magnetic mechanisms F = B·i·l · Fluid dynamic/Hydraulic mechanisms q, p, ij · Thermal/Optical #12;2 Source unit and source mechanisms ­ Monopoles......volume fluctuations ­ Dipoles ......pressure fluctuations

Berlin,Technische Universität

329

Streamlining the Hiring Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, education employees have been hired after a process that consists of these steps: Determining the need for a position, posting the vacancy, paper-screening applications, an interview with a panel or committee, background check, reference calling, and finally the selection of a candidate. This is a very time-consuming and costly…

DePrater, Karen

2011-01-01

330

Word Processing Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A combination of facts, examples, models, tools, and sources useful in developing and teaching word processing (WP) programs is provided in this guide. Eight sections are included. Sections 1 and 2 present introductory information on WP (e.g., history, five phases of WP, problems occurring in WP offices, factors of people, procedures, and…

Anderson, Marcia A.; Kusek, Robert W.

331

Catalyst deoiling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deoiling process is described comprising the steps of: removing a slurry of spent catalyst and oil from an ebullated bed reactor; transporting the slurry of spent catalyst and oil from the reactor to a vessel; cooling the slurry of spent catalyst and oil in the vessel to a temperature below the flash point of the oil; conveying the cooled

C. B. Olson; R. T. Plichta; D. W. Coyne

1987-01-01

332

Photonic curvilinear data processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With more and more photonic data presence in e-beam lithography, the need for efficient and accurate data fracturing is required to meet acceptable manufacturing cycle time. Large photonic based layouts now create high shot count patterns for VSB based tools. Multiple angles, sweeping curves, and non-orthogonal data create a challenge for today's e-beam tools that are more efficient on Manhattan style data. This paper describes techniques developed and used for creating fractured data for VSB based pattern generators. Proximity Effect Correction is also applied during the fracture process, taking into account variable shot sizes to apply for accuracy and design style. Choosing different fracture routines for pattern data on-the-fly allows for fast and efficient processing. Data interpretation is essential for processing curvilinear data as to its size, angle, and complexity. Fracturing complex angled data into "efficient" shot counts is no longer practical as shot creation now requires knowledge of the actual data content as seen in photonic based pattern data. Simulation and physical printing results prove the implementations for accuracy and write times compared to traditional VSB writing strategies on photonic data. Geometry tolerance is used as part of the fracturing algorithm for controlling edge placement accuracy and tuning to different e-beam processing parameters.

Browning, Clyde; Quaglio, Thomas; Figueiro, Thiago; Pauliac, Sébastien; Belledent, Jérôme; Fay, Aurélien; Bustos, Jessy; Marusic, Jean-Christophe; Schiavone, Patrick

2014-10-01

333

Modeling the Writing Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a series of assignments that models the process of writing a manuscript for publication. While completing the assignments, students worked to improve their writing as they graphed, interpreted, and explained patterns in data from a local river. They reviewed published articles and each other's papers to become more critical readers.

William Kroen

2004-11-01

334

Actinide recovery process  

DOEpatents

Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrenedivinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like.

Muscatello, Anthony C. (Arvada, CO); Navratil, James D. (Arvada, CO); Saba, Mark T. (Arvada, CO)

1987-07-28

335

Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation process  

DOEpatents

A process for the production of a mono-olefin from a gaseous paraffinic hydrocarbon having at least two carbon atoms or mixtures thereof comprising reacting said hydrocarbons and molecular oxygen in the presence of a platinum catalyst. The catalyst consist essentially of platinum supported on alumina or zirconia monolith, preferably zirconia and more preferably in the absence of palladium, rhodium and gold.

Schmidt, Lanny D. (Minneapolis, MN); Huff, Marylin (St. Paul, MN)

2002-01-01

336

PROCESSES AROUND A TBM  

Microsoft Academic Search

better understanding is now apparent. In order to structure this paper, we 'walk' along the TBM. We start with a process at the front of the TBM: the creation and stability of the tunnel face under the influence of excess pore pressures. The paper then discusses what happens next to the TBM. The last part of the paper deals with

A. BEZUIJEN; A. M. TALMON DELTARES

2008-01-01

337

Technological innovation processes revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is part of an inquiry into the causes of the small occurrence of innovations in the Brazilian society. It was based on a retrospective analysis of cases experienced by the author, as well as on the study of certain industries. The systemic model of the technological innovation process presented here, while revisiting the models in the literature, emphasizes

Antonio Cantisani

2006-01-01

338

Clinical image processing engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our group provides clinical image processing services to various institutes at NIH. We develop or adapt image processing programs for a variety of applications. However, each program requires a human operator to select a specific set of images and execute the program, as well as store the results appropriately for later use. To improve efficiency, we design a parallelized clinical image processing engine (CIPE) to streamline and parallelize our service. The engine takes DICOM images from a PACS server, sorts and distributes the images to different applications, multithreads the execution of applications, and collects results from the applications. The engine consists of four modules: a listener, a router, a job manager and a data manager. A template filter in XML format is defined to specify the image specification for each application. A MySQL database is created to store and manage the incoming DICOM images and application results. The engine achieves two important goals: reduce the amount of time and manpower required to process medical images, and reduce the turnaround time for responding. We tested our engine on three different applications with 12 datasets and demonstrated that the engine improved the efficiency dramatically.

Han, Wei; Yao, Jianhua; Chen, Jeremy; Summers, Ronald

2009-02-01

339

The Oil Refining Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Learning Centre at the New Zealand Refining Company Ltd., hosts a collection of annotated diagrams and pictures of various stages in the oil refining process. Users can click their way through the site to learn somewhat technical details of oil delivery, storage, and refinement.

The New Zealand Refining Company

340

Multi Channel Sequence Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes some of the current research chal- lenges arising from multi-channel sequence processing. Indeed, multiple real life applications involve simultaneous recording and analysis of mul- tiple information sources, which may be asynchronous, have dierent frame rates, exhibit dierent stationarity properties, and carry comple- mentary (or correlated) information. Some of these problems can already be tackled by one of

Samy Bengio; Hervé Bourlard

2004-01-01

341

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons of the formula: R[sub 1]H wherein H represents a hydrogen atom; and R[sub 1] represents a saturated hydrocarbon radical, with a metal complex of the formula: CpRh[P(R[sub 2])[sub 3

Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana, R.A.

1988-05-24

342

Communicating sequential processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that input and output are basic primitives of programming and that parallel composition of communicating sequential processes is a fundamental program structuring method. When combined with a development of Dijkstra's guarded command, these concepts are surprisingly versatile. Their use is illustrated by sample solutions of a variety of a familiar programming exercises.

C. A. R. Hoare; R. L. Rivest

1978-01-01

343

Computing and data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applications of computers and data processing to astronomy are discussed. Among the topics covered are the emerging national information infrastructure, workstations and supercomputers, supertelescopes, digital astronomy, astrophysics in a numerical laboratory, community software, archiving of ground-based observations, dynamical simulations of complex systems, plasma astrophysics, and the remote control of fourth dimension supercomputers.

Smarr, Larry; Press, William; Arnett, David W.; Cameron, Alastair G. W.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Helfand, David J.; Horowitz, Paul; Kleinmann, Susan G.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Madore, Barry F.

1991-01-01

344

Materials and Processes II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a second course on materials and processes as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. Topics include the history of the composite industry, identifying and characterizing composite materials, composite manufacturing, methods of inspection of composite materials, and symptoms and causes of faulty bonds.

345

Metamorphic Rocks and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 13 questions on the topic of metamorphic rocks and processes, which covers foliation and grades of metamorphism. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users select an answer and are provided immediate feedback.

Timothy Heaton

346

Aerosol Processing of Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in aerosol generation of materials are reviewed. Gas-to-particle and spray processes (spray pyrolysis) for powder generation and various routes for film generation are discussed from the experimental and theoretical perspectives. The range of materials generated by these routes has increased in recent years to include fullerenes and ceramic superconductors. Many metals and various oxide and nonoxide ceramics have

Abhijit Gurav; Toivo Kodas; Tammy Pluym; Yun Xiong

1993-01-01

347

The Big6 Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webquest is designed to introduce students to the stages of the Big6 process. The ideal age group for this webquest would be the middle grades (7-9). The teacher will need to take students to the library media center and assist students in opening the page. Distribute the accompanying handout to students and provide assistance as they go through the process. This lesson will probably take two class periods to complete. The following elements of the Utah Library Media Core Curriculum will be addressed in this lesson: -- Standard 1: Students will define a task and identify information needed. -- Standard 2: Students will identify, evaluate, and select resources. -- Standard 3: Students will locate resources and access information within resources. -- Standard 4: Students will engage and extract information. -- Standard 5: Students will organize, synthesize, and present information. -- Standard 6: Students will evaluate the process and the product. THE BIG6 Every day we face many choices. In order to make the best choice possible, we must solve what is called an "information problem." In other words, we must go through a process in which we consider the various alternatives and select the one we think will be ...

Ms. Sinclair

2009-11-28

348

Pervaporation process and assembly  

DOEpatents

The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

Wynn, Nicholas P. (Redwood City, CA); Huang, Yu (Palo Alto, CA); Aldajani, Tiem (San Jose, CA); Fulton, Donald A. (Fairfield, CA)

2010-07-20

349

Asymmetric inclusion process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites’ occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri

2011-10-01

350

The Modeling Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable interest currently exists in the application of the systems approach to the solution of societal, political, and environmental problems. The essence of this systems approach is modeling, the capability to describe large-scale complicated interactive systems by symbolic representations so that inferences regarding the effects of alternative system configurations can be easily and rapidly structured. The modeling process is itself

G. Arthur Mihramber

1972-01-01

351

Process Metallurgy Course Outline  

E-print Network

MATS4003 Process Metallurgy Advanced Course Outline Session 1, 2014 School of Materials Science Copper smelting 11-12 14 Technology design for light metals 12 Assignment due Week 12, Final exam #12 reactor design. Major technologies in ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy and their development. Assessment

New South Wales, University of

352

Accent processing in dementia  

PubMed Central

Accented speech conveys important nonverbal information about the speaker as well as presenting the brain with the problem of decoding a non-canonical auditory signal. The processing of non-native accents has seldom been studied in neurodegenerative disease and its brain basis remains poorly understood. Here we investigated the processing of non-native international and regional accents of English in cohorts of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n=20) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n=6) in relation to healthy older control subjects (n=35). A novel battery was designed to assess accent comprehension and recognition and all subjects had a general neuropsychological assessment. Neuroanatomical associations of accent processing performance were assessed using voxel-based morphometry on MR brain images within the larger AD group. Compared with healthy controls, both the AD and PNFA groups showed deficits of non-native accent recognition and the PNFA group showed reduced comprehension of words spoken in international accents compared with a Southern English accent. At individual subject level deficits were observed more consistently in the PNFA group, and the disease groups showed different patterns of accent comprehension impairment (generally more marked for sentences in AD and for single words in PNFA). Within the AD group, grey matter associations of accent comprehension and recognition were identified in the anterior superior temporal lobe. The findings suggest that accent processing deficits may constitute signatures of neurodegenerative disease with potentially broader implications for understanding how these diseases affect vocal communication under challenging listening conditions. PMID:22664324

Hailstone, Julia C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Bartlett, Jonathan W.; Goll, Johanna C.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

2012-01-01

353

Improving scrap tire processing  

SciTech Connect

The market for tire-derived materials is growing rapidly, with the largest market being tire-derived fuels. There is therefore a growing demand for higher quality products. This paper describes the processing and removal of steel from scrap tires.

Astafan, C.G. [Columbus McKinnon Corp., Sarasota, FL (United States)

1997-01-01

354

Cross Process Innovations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online guide to cross process machining, which incorporates elements from various conventional and unconventional techniques, is provided here by the Mechanical Engineering Department at Columbia University. Some remarkable and innovative techniques that have surfaced over the past few years are outlined, including underwater laser machining and plasma-assisted machining.

355

The Creative Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four Native American poets in easy narrative style tell about some of the aesthetic judgments they make in their work and, in the process, shed some light upon the traditions from which their poetry emerges. Joy Harjo discusses how she wrote "The Woman Hanging from the Thirteenth Floor Window," her use of repetition influenced by music and…

Harjo, Joy; And Others

1985-01-01

356

The Materials Processing Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the operation of a processing center for the construction and maintenance of Elementary Science Study (ESS) kits in an economically depressed county of Virginia. This small industry provides an important function in the community by creating jobs and by producing school science equipment more cheaply than commercial enterprises. (JR)

Benford, Marie Delores

1973-01-01

357

Thermal plasma processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given of the fundamental aspects involved in material processing using thermal plasma technology. The description of plasma generating devices covers DC plasma torches, DC transferred arcs, RF inductively coupled plasma torches and hybrid combinations of them. Emphasis is given to the identification of the basic energy coupling mechanism in each case and the principal characteristics of the

Maher I. Boulos

1991-01-01

358

Superconducting materials processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of materials processing on the properties and behavior of high temperature yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconductors were investigated. Electrical, magnetic, and structural characteristics of thin films (300 nm) YBA2CU3O(delta) structures grown by pulsed laser deposition on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates were used to evaluate processing. Pole projection and thin film diffraction measurements were used to establish grain orientation and verify structural integrity of the samples. Susceptibility magnetization, and transport measurements were used to evaluate the magnetic and electrical transport properties of the samples. Our results verified that an unfortunate consequence of processing is inherent changes to the internal structure of the material. This effect translates into modifications in the properties of the materials, and undesired feature that makes it very difficult to consistently predict material behavior. The results show that processing evaluation must incorporate a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the materials. Future studies will emphasize microstructural characteristics of the materials, in particular, those microscopic properties that map macroscopic behavior.

Hurley, John S.; Karikari, Emmanuel K.; Hiamang, S. O.; Danjaji, M.; Bassey, Affiong; Morgan, Andre

1995-01-01

359

Approximate Signal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is increasingly important to structure signal processing algorithms and systems to allow fortrading off between the accuracy of results and the utilization of resources in their implementation.In any particular context, there are typically a variety of heuristic approaches to managingthese tradeoffs. One of the objectives of this paper is to suggest that there is the potential fordeveloping a more

S. Hamid Nawab; Alan V. Oppenheim; Anantha P. Chandrakasan; Joseph M. Winograd; Jeffrey T. Ludwig

1997-01-01

360

Radiation Processing -an overview  

E-print Network

1 Radiation Processing - an overview Arne Miller Risø High Dose Reference Laboratory Risø DTU DK of radiation · Facilities ­ Gamma ­ electrons ­ X-ray ­ Safety · Sterilisation of medical devices · Food ­ radiation hardness testing ­ semiconductors ­ microlitography ­ gem stones · Dosimetry · Quality assurance

361

Helium recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a process for the recovery of helium from natural gas by liquefaction of hydrocarbons and separation of gaseous helium, the gaseous mixture containing helium, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and methane is cooled to separate a liquid fraction containing dissolved helium and a helium-enriched gaseous fraction. The helium is stripped from the liquid fraction into an overhead gaseous fraction which is

D. B. Crawford; M. Karafian

1967-01-01

362

Cryogenic expander recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for treating a gaseous hydrocarbon-containing feed stream such as natural gas or refinery gas to leave the ethane in the hydrocarbon gaseous stream and to separate and recover the Câ and heavier hydrocarbon components. Increased recovery is achieved with the expenditure of less power by expanding the hydrocarbon gaseous feed stream in a cryogenic expansion step

J. D. Hammond; E. H. Deng

1981-01-01

363

Hydrocarbon gas process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing of gaseous streams of feed gas containing hydrocarbons, and other gases of similar volatility, to recover components such as ethane, propane and heavier hydrocarbons from a residue gas containing methane, by cooling the incoming raw gas and to separate the desired products by distillation. The cooling action is obtained by expanding the raw feed gas from a high

Gulsby

1984-01-01

364

Solvent recovery process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems caused by seasonal variation in the demand for natural gas can be overcome in part by establishing transmission systems of the type described in which gas is withdrawn from a main transmission line and processed for the removal of high ethane liquid hydrocarbons useful in oil recovery operations. During periods of low gas consumption, the resulting dry gas is

R. C. West; F. H. Hunter

1966-01-01

365

Materials and Processes I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a first course on materials and processes as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. Topics include identifying and characterizing materials and commodities, metallurgy, uses and hazards involved in handling common materials and commodities, corrosion, metal fatigue, and good welding techniques.

366

Radiochemical Radiochemical Processing Laboratory  

E-print Network

the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State, the RPL is being transformed, radioisotope research, reactor dosimetry and radioactive and hazardous waste management. Housed within. This includes extensive experience with Department of Energy tank waste and actinide process streams

367

HYNOL PROCESS EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report examines process alternatives for the optimal use of natural gas and biomass for production of fuel-cell vehicle fuel, emphasizing maximum displacement of petroleum and maximum reduction of overall fuel-cycle carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at least cost. Three routes a...

368

Biomedical image processing.  

PubMed

Biomedical image processing is a very broad field; it covers biomedical signal gathering, image forming, picture processing, and image display to medical diagnosis based on features extracted from images. This article reviews this topic in both its fundamentals and applications. In its fundamentals, some basic image processing techniques including outlining, deblurring, noise cleaning, filtering, search, classical analysis and texture analysis have been reviewed together with examples. The state-of-the-art image processing systems have been introduced and discussed in two categories: general purpose image processing systems and image analyzers. In order for these systems to be effective for biomedical applications, special biomedical image processing languages have to be developed. The combination of both hardware and software leads to clinical imaging devices. Two different types of clinical imaging devices have been discussed. There are radiological imagings which include radiography, thermography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and CT. Among these, thermography is the most noninvasive but is limited in application due to the low energy of its source. X-ray CT is excellent for static anatomical images and is moving toward the measurement of dynamic function, whereas nuclear imaging is moving toward organ metabolism and ultrasound is toward tissue physical characteristics. Heart imaging is one of the most interesting and challenging research topics in biomedical image processing; current methods including the invasive-technique cineangiography, and noninvasive ultrasound, nuclear medicine, transmission, and emission CT methodologies have been reviewed. Two current federally funded research projects in heart imaging, the dynamic spatial reconstructor and the dynamic cardiac three-dimensional densitometer, should bring some fruitful results in the near future. Miscrosopic imaging technique is very different from the radiological imaging technique in the sense that interaction between the operator and the imaging device is very essential. The white blood cell analyzer has been developed to the point that it becomes a daily clinical imaging device. An interactive chromosome karyotyper is being clinical evaluated and its preliminary indication is very encouraging. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to automation of cancer cytology; it is hoped that some prototypes will be available for clinical trials very soon. Automation of histology is still in its infancy; much work still needs to be done in this area. The 1970s have been very fruitful in utilizing the imaging technique in biomedical application; the computerized tomographic scanner and the white blood cell analyzer being the most successful imaging devices... PMID:7023828

Huang, H K

1981-01-01

369

Gaia downlink data processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gaia survey mission, operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) and launched on 19 December 2013, will survey approximately 109 stars or 1% of the galactic stellar population over a 5.5 year period. The main purpose of this mission is micro-arcsecond astrometry, that would yield important insights into the kinematics of the galaxy, its evolution, as well as provide important additional findings, including a updated coordinate reference system to that provided by the ICRS. Gaia performs its observations using two telescopes with fields of view separated by 106.5 degrees, spinning around an orthogonal axis at about 6 hours per day. The spin axis itself precesses: it is always oriented at 45 degrees from the sun, and precesses around the sun every 63 days. Thus each part of the sky is observed approximately every 63 days. The 6-hour spin, or scan-rate matches the CCD readout rate. The amount of data to process per day - 50-130 Gigabytes - corresponds to over 30 million stellar sources. To perform this processing, the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) have developed approximately 2 million lines of software, divided into subsystems specific to a given functional need, that are run across 6 different Data Processing Centres (DPCs). The final result being a catalog including the 109 stars observed. Most of the daily processing is performed at the DPC in ESAC, Spain (DPCE), which runs 3 main subsystems, the MOC Interface Task (MIT), the Initial Data Treatment (IDT), and First Look (FL). The MIT ingests the initial data provided by the MOC in the form of binary data and writes (amongst other things) `star packets' containing the raw stellar information needed for IDT, which provides a basic level of processing, including stellar positions, photometry, radial velocities, cross match and catalogue updates. FL determines the payload health (e.g, the health for the 106 CCDs, geometric calibration) and astrometric performance via the one day astrometric solution. This presentation provides an overview of the DPAC software as a whole, and focuses on the daily pipeline processing: the systems used, the teams involved, the challenges during development and operations, and lessons learned.

Siddiqui, H.; Els, S. G.; Guerra, R.; Cheek, N.; Mora, A.; O'Mullane, W.

2014-08-01

370

Particle processing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been strong demand for the development of novel devices and equipment that support advanced industries including IT/semiconductors, the environment, energy and aerospace along with the achievement of higher efficiency and reduced environmental impact. Many studies have been conducted on the fabrication of innovative inorganic materials with novel individual properties and/or multifunctional properties including electrical, dielectric, thermal, optical, chemical and mechanical properties through the development of particle processing. The fundamental technologies that are key to realizing such materials are (i) the synthesis of nanoparticles with uniform composition and controlled crystallite size, (ii) the arrangement/assembly and controlled dispersion of nanoparticles with controlled particle size, (iii) the precise structural control at all levels from micrometer to nanometer order and (iv) the nanostructural design based on theoretical/experimental studies of the correlation between the local structure and the functions of interest. In particular, it is now understood that the application of an external stimulus, such as magnetic energy, electrical energy and/or stress, to a reaction field is effective in realizing advanced particle processing [1-3]. This special issue comprises 12 papers including three review papers. Among them, seven papers are concerned with phosphor particles, such as silicon, metals, Si3N4-related nitrides, rare-earth oxides, garnet oxides, rare-earth sulfur oxides and rare-earth hydroxides. In these papers, the effects of particle size, morphology, dispersion, surface states, dopant concentration and other factors on the optical properties of phosphor particles and their applications are discussed. These nanoparticles are classified as zero-dimensional materials. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene are well-known one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials, respectively. This special issue also includes two papers on the fabrication of mechanically reliable nanocomposites by dispersing graphene into a ceramic matrix, and on supercapacitors with high energy densities in a Co(OH)2 system decorated with graphene and carbon nanotubes. As a novel preparation method of oxide films, the fabrication of alumina films with laminated structures by ac anodization is reviewed. Moreover a new type of nanosheet has been fabricated by the exfoliation of layered, ternary transition-metal carbide and nitride compounds, known as Mn + 1AXn phases (or MAX phases) where M is an early transition metal, such as Ti or Nb, A is an A group element, such as Si or Al, X is carbon and/or nitrogen and n = 1-3 [4]. Among the MAX phases, those containing Mo have been theoretically calculated by first-principles calculations to be a source for obtaining Mo2C nanosheets with potentially unique properties. As an example of improving bulk ceramic properties, texturing by using a high magnetic field [5] and sintering by the electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS) technology [6] have been demonstrated for ultra-high temperature ceramics with high-temperature strength. A project on the development of materials and particle processing for the field of environment and energy has been ongoing at the National Institute for Materials Science since April 2011. This project employs various core competence technologies for particle processing such as ion beam irradiation for nanoparticle fabrication [7], fullerene nanomaterial processing using liquid-liquid interface precipitation [8], a gas reduction nitridation process to obtain Si3N4-based phosphor materials [9], advanced phosphors via novel processing [10, 11], ultra-high pressure technology for processing and in situ analysis [12, 13], colloidal processing in a high magnetic field to obtain laminated, textured ceramics [1, 3, 5], the ECAS process for nanostructuring ceramics [6] and so forth. Here, I would like to introduce some research achievements that are not covered in this special issue. (1) The evolution of hydrogen by the react

Sakka, Yoshio

2014-02-01

371

Process window and variation characterization of the micro embossing process  

E-print Network

The micro embossing process on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is demonstrated experimentally to be a useful process to produce micro fluidic and optical devices. Because this process is a one step thermoplastic deformation ...

Wang, Qi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

372

Biosphere Process Model Report  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor. Collectively, the potential human receptor and exposure pathways form the biosphere model. More detailed technical information and data about potential human receptor groups and the characteristics of exposure pathways have been developed in a series of AMRs and Calculation Reports.

J. Schmitt

2000-05-25

373

PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

2013-01-01

374

Vaccine process technology.  

PubMed

The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory perspective, Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT) are important initiatives that can be applied effectively to many types of vaccine processes. Universal demand for vaccines requires that a manufacturer plan to supply tens and sometimes hundreds of millions of doses per year at low cost. To enable broader use, there is intense interest in improving temperature stability to allow for excursions from a rigid cold chain supply, especially at the point of vaccination. Finally, there is progress in novel routes of delivery to move away from the traditional intramuscular injection by syringe approach. PMID:22407777

Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

2012-06-01

375

Dynamic control of remelting processes  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of controlling a remelting process by providing measured process variable values to a process controller; estimating process variable values using a process model of a remelting process; and outputting estimated process variable values from the process controller. Feedback and feedforward control devices receive the estimated process variable values and adjust inputs to the remelting process. Electrode weight, electrode mass, electrode gap, process current, process voltage, electrode position, electrode temperature, electrode thermal boundary layer thickness, electrode velocity, electrode acceleration, slag temperature, melting efficiency, cooling water temperature, cooling water flow rate, crucible temperature profile, slag skin temperature, and/or drip short events are employed, as are parameters representing physical constraints of electroslag remelting or vacuum arc remelting, as applicable.

Bertram, Lee A. (Dublin, CA); Williamson, Rodney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Evans, David G. (Clinton, NY)

2000-01-01

376

Advanced Process Management and Implementation  

E-print Network

Advanced Process Management is a method to achieve optimum process performance during the life cycle of a plant through proper design, effective automation, and adequate operator decision support. Developing a quality process model is an effective...

Robinson, J.

377

signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Computational Linguistics, 5 December 2012 Frank University of Toronto #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication An introduction to SPOClab · SPOClab (Signal Processing and Oral Communication) is a new lab intersecting Computer Science

Penn, Gerald

378

Signals and Images Image processing  

E-print Network

Signals and Images Wavelets Image processing Models and Approximations Data driven approximations;Signals and Images Wavelets Image processing Models and Approximations Data driven approximations or transcendental: Joe Lakey Wavelets Minimize Max #12;Signals and Images Wavelets Image processing Models

Lakey, Joseph D.

379

Normalization of Process Safety Metrics  

E-print Network

This study is aimed at exploring new process safety metrics for measuring the process safety performance in processing industries. Following a series of catastrophic incidents such as the Bhopal chemical tragedy (1984) and Phillips 66 explosion...

Wang, Mengtian

2012-10-19

380

Value-driven process management: using value to improve processes.  

PubMed

Every firm can be viewed as consisting of various processes. These processes affect everything that the firm does from accepting orders and designing products to scheduling production. In many firms, the management of processes often reflects considerations of efficiency (cost) rather than effectiveness (value). In this article, we introduce a well-structured process for managing processes that begins not with the process, but rather with the customer and the product and the concept of value. This process progresses through a number of steps which include issues such as defining value, generating the appropriate metrics, identifying the critical processes, mapping and assessing the performance of these processes, and identifying long- and short-term areas for action. What makes the approach presented in this article so powerful is that it explicitly links the customer to the process and that the process is evaluated in term of its ability to effectively serve the customers. PMID:11183388

Melnyk, S A; Christensen, R T

2000-08-01

381

Flash Flood Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to NOAA’s National Weather Service, a flash flood is a life-threatening flood that begins within 6 hours--and often within 3 hours--of a causative event. That causative event can be intense rainfall, the failure of a dam, levee, or other structure that is impounding water, or the sudden rise of water level associated with river ice jams. The “Flash Flood Processes” module offers an introduction to the distinguishing features of flash floods, the underlying hydrologic influences and the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products. Through use of rich illustrations, animations, and interactions, this module explains the differences between flash floods and general floods and examines the hydrologic processes that impact flash flooding risk. In addition, it provides an introduction to the use of flash flood guidance (FFG) products including derivation from ThreshR and rainfall-runoff curves as well as current strengths and limitations.

2014-09-14

382

Process air quality data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

1978-01-01

383

Plutonium dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

Vest, Michael A. (Oak Park, IL); Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC); Moore, Edwin N. (Aiken, SC); Holcomb, H. Perry (North Augusta, SC)

1996-01-01

384

Thin film interconnect processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interconnects and associated photolithography and etching processes play a dominant role in the feature shrinkage of electronic devices. Most interconnects are fabricated by use of thin film processing techniques. Planarization of dielectrics and novel metal deposition methods are the focus of current investigations. Spin-on glass, polyimides, etch-back, bias-sputtered quartz, and plasma-enhanced conformal films are being used to obtain planarized dielectrics over which metal films can be reliably deposited. Recent trends have been towards chemical vapor depositions of metals and refractory metal silicides. Interconnects of the future will be used in conjunction with planarized dielectric layers. Reliability of devices will depend to a large extent on the quality of the interconnects.

Malik, Farid

385

Instabilities in sensory processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

Balakrishnan, J.

2014-07-01

386

Youpi: YOUr processing PIpeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Youpi is a portable, easy to use web application providing high level functionalities to perform data reduction on scientific FITS images. Built on top of various open source reduction tools released to the community by TERAPIX (http://terapix.iap.fr), Youpi can help organize data, manage processing jobs on a computer cluster in real time (using Condor) and facilitate teamwork by allowing fine-grain sharing of results and data. Youpi is modular and comes with plugins which perform, from within a browser, various processing tasks such as evaluating the quality of incoming images (using the QualityFITS software package), computing astrometric and photometric solutions (using SCAMP), resampling and co-adding FITS images (using SWarp) and extracting sources and building source catalogues from astronomical images (using SExtractor). Youpi is useful for small to medium-sized data reduction projects; it is free and is published under the GNU General Public License.

Monnerville, Mathias; Sémah, Gregory

2012-03-01

387

Silicon web process development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirty-five (35) furnace runs were carried out during this quarter, of which 25 produced a total of 120 web crystals. The two main thermal models for the dendritic growth process were completed and are being used to assist the design of the thermal geometry of the web growth apparatus. The first model, a finite element representation of the susceptor and crucible, was refined to give greater precision and resolution in the critical central region of the melt. The second thermal model, which describes the dissipation of the latent heat to generate thickness-velocity data, was completed. Dendritic web samples were fabricated into solar cells using a standard configuration and a standard process for a N(+) -P-P(+) configuration. The detailed engineering design was completed for a new dendritic web growth facility of greater width capability than previous facilities.

Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

1977-01-01

388

EDITORIAL: Ultrafast magnetization processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is devoted to ultrafast magnetization processes. It reports on the scientific yield of the Priority Programme 1133 'Ultrafast Magnetization Processes' which was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in the period 2002-2008 in three successive two-year funding periods, supporting research of 17-18 groups in Germany. Now, at the end of this Priority Programme, the members feel that the achievements made in the course of the programme merit communication to the international scientific community in a concerted way. Therefore, each of the projects of the last funding period presents a key result in a published contribution to this Cluster Issue. The purpose of the funding by a Priority Programme is to advance knowledge in an emerging field of research through collaborative networked support over several locations. Priority Programmes are characterized by their enhanced quality of research through the use of new methods and forms of collaboration in emerging fields, by added value through interdisciplinary cooperation, and by networking. The aim of the Priority Programme 1133 'Ultrafast Magnetization Processes' may be well characterized by the call for projects in June 2001 after the programme was approved by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft: 'The aim of the priority programme is the achievement of a basic understanding of the temporal evolution of fast magnetization processes in magnetically ordered films, multilayers and micro-structured systems. The challenge lies in the advancement of the field of ultrafast magnetization processes into the regime of a few femtoseconds to nanoseconds, a topic not yet well explored. A general aim is to understand the fundamental mechanisms needed for applications in ultrafast magneto-electronic devices. The fundamental topic to be addressed is the response of the magnetization of small structures upon the application of pulsed magnetic fields, laser pulses or injected spin-polarized electron pulses on short time scales, ranging from a small disturbance of the system up to the reversal of the magnetization direction.' Now, seven years later, the subject of ultrafast magnetization processes has grown into a mainstream research direction in modern magnetism. The major international conferences on magnetism, such as the Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (MMM), the INTERMAG, the International Conference of Magnetism, as well as many regional conferences, schedule dedicated sessions to ultrafast magnetization processes, very often several of them. The large share in research in this field from German scientists has been made possible by this Priority Programme. Since its beginning, new developments have been picked up by the Priority Programme 1133 and addressed by projects. Spin torque phenomena in spin dynamics, although foreseen at the time of establishing the Priority Programme, have been taken up. The field of dissipation has been addressed and extended by several groups, with contributions both from theoretical and experimental groups. A first set of contributions addresses ultrafast dynamics and materials. T Roth et al [article 164001] in this issue] study the dynamics of coercivity in ultrafast pump-probe experiments on the femtosecond time scale. They show that an all optical pump-probe technique is, in general, not suitable for gaining access to the time-dependent behaviour of the coercivity, since the switching in a fixed external field is an irreversible process. They comment on the possible mechanisms leading to the observed reduction of the coercivity with increasing pump power and propose a potential solution to clarify the origin of such a behaviour. B Heitkamp et al [164002] discuss the femtosecond spin dynamics of ferromagnetic CoPt thin films and nanodots, which they probe using spin-polarized photoemission electron microscopy. They show by photoelectron spin analysis, that enhanced optical near fields can be used to induce a local demagnetization of the sample following femtosecond laser

Hillebrands, Burkard

2008-09-01

389

Fractal structures and processes  

SciTech Connect

Fractals and chaos are closely related. Many chaotic systems have fractal features. Fractals are self-similar or self-affine structures, which means that they look much of the same when magnified or reduced in scale over a reasonably large range of scales, at least two orders of magnitude and preferably more (Mandelbrot, 1983). The methods for estimating their fractal dimensions or their Hurst coefficients, which summarize the scaling relationships and their correlation structures, are going through a rapid evolutionary phase. Fractal measures can be regarded as providing a useful statistical measure of correlated random processes. They also provide a basis for analyzing recursive processes in biology such as the growth of arborizing networks in the circulatory system, airways, or glandular ducts. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Beard, D.A.; Percival, D.B.; Raymond, G.M. [National Simulation Resource, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

1996-06-01

390

The Aluminum Smelting Process  

PubMed Central

This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development. PMID:24806722

2014-01-01

391

Basic Nanotechnology Processes Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory course is provided by Nano4Me.org, a product of the National Center for Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK Center) which is based at the Penn State College of Engineering and is funded through the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program. These twelve labs focus on basic processes in Nanotechnology. Some of the labs are titled Gold Nucleation Analysis, Introduction to LPCVD and PECVD, Introduction to Plasma-based Processing, Liftoff and Surface Modification, and Intro to Scanning Electron Microscopy. These labs can be used in conjunction in a course, or individually as needed by the teacher. Each lab should include an objective, background information, detailed procedure, charts and tables, and follow-up questions. This resource, along with all resources from the NACK Center, require a fast, easy, free log-in to access their materials.

392

A Logical Process Calculus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

393

Apparatus for processing coal  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

Williams, R.M.

1985-02-12

394

The aluminum smelting process.  

PubMed

This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development. PMID:24806722

Kvande, Halvor

2014-05-01

395

High temperature lubricating process  

DOEpatents

It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Shell, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

396

Coated substrates and process  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a coated substrate and a process for forming films on substrates and for providing a particularly smooth film on a substrate. The method of this invention involves subjecting a surface of a substrate to contact with a stream of ions of an inert gas having sufficient force and energy to substantially change the surface characteristics of said substrate, and then exposing a film-forming material to a stream of ions of an inert gas having sufficient energy to vaporize the atoms of said film-forming material and to transmit the vaporized atoms to the substrate surface with sufficient force to form a film bonded to the substrate. This process is particularly useful commercially because it forms strong bonds at room temperature. This invention is particularly useful for adhering a gold film to diamond and forming ohmic electrodes on diamond, but also can be used to bond other films to substrates.

Chu, Wei-kan (Chapel Hill, NC); Childs, Charles B. (Chapel Hill, NC)

1991-01-01

397

Lump wood combustion process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Ji?í; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloni?ný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

2014-08-01

398

Video image processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current technology projections indicate a lack of availability of special purpose computing for Space Station applications. Potential functions for video image special purpose processing are being investigated, such as smoothing, enhancement, restoration and filtering, data compression, feature extraction, object detection and identification, pixel interpolation/extrapolation, spectral estimation and factorization, and vision synthesis. Also, architectural approaches are being identified and a conceptual design generated. Computationally simple algorithms will be research and their image/vision effectiveness determined. Suitable algorithms will be implimented into an overall architectural approach that will provide image/vision processing at video rates that are flexible, selectable, and programmable. Information is given in the form of charts, diagrams and outlines.

Murray, N. D.

1985-01-01

399

Nucleic acid isolation process  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

400

Integrated palm oil processing  

SciTech Connect

Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Because palms are an important crop in many areas of Asia, Africa, and South America, considerable attention has been given to palm genetic improvement, with the result that tree palms are one of the most efficient energy crops, providing much better solar energy capture than, for example, sugar cane and cassava. Tree palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization or cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production, including harvest, tree management, and oil pressing are generally suited to village or plantation use, and, for the most part, have been directed toward supplying process energy through the combustion of process waste products, such as palm fruit residue and palm bunch fibers.

Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

1983-12-01

401

Processes in relativistic plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The establishment and maintenance of a Boltzmann distribution in particle kinetic energies is investigated for a plasma with theta = KTe/mc-squared much greater than unity, where m is the electron mass. It is shown that thermalization of the electron gas by binary collisions is not sufficiently effective to maintain the equilibrium distribution when other processes that perturb the equilibrium are taken into account. Electron-positron pair production in electron-electron and electron-ion collisions, and perturbations of a Boltzmann distribution by nonthermal processes are evaluated. Thermalization by means of other mechanisms, such as interaction with plasma waves is discussed, and the opacity of a relativistic plasma is computed for Compton scattering, pair production in the fields of electrons and ions, inverse bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron self-absorption.

Gould, R. J.

1982-01-01

402

Extraterrestrial materials processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first year results of a multi-year study of processing extraterrestrial materials for use in space are summarized. Theoretically, there are potential major advantages to be derived from the use of such materials for future space endeavors. The types of known or postulated starting raw materials are described including silicate-rich mixed oxides on the Moon, some asteroids and Mars; free metals in some asteroids and in small quantities in the lunar soil; and probably volatiles like water and CO2 on Mars and some asteroids. Candidate processes for space materials are likely to be significantly different from their terrestrial counterparts largely because of: absence of atmosphere; lack of of readily available working fluids; low- or micro-gravity; no carbon-based fuels; readily available solar energy; and severe constraints on manned intervention. The extraction of metals and oxygen from lunar material by magma electrolysis or by vapor/ion phase separation appears practical.

Steurer, W. H.

1982-01-01

403

River Ice Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The “River Ice Processes” module provides information on flooding associated with river ice jams. In this webcast, Dr. Kate White, nationally-recognized expert on river ice, explores basic river ice processes including the formation, growth, breakup, and transport of river ice and how it can become jammed, triggering floods. In addition, Dr. White covers the current, state-of-the-art ice jam forecasting, and current ice-modeling research and development being conducted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. As a foundation topic for the Basic Hydrologic Science course, this module may be taken on its own, but it will also be available as a supporting topic providing factual scientific information to support students in completion of the case-based forecasting modules.

COMET

2006-11-10

404

Attentional processes and meditation.  

PubMed

Visual attentional processing was examined in adult meditators and non-meditators on behavioral measures of change blindness, concentration, perspective-shifting, selective attention, and sustained inattentional blindness. Results showed that meditators (1) noticed more changes in flickering scenes and noticed them more quickly, (2) counted more accurately in a challenging concentration task, (3) identified a greater number of alternative perspectives in multiple perspectives images, and (4) showed less interference from invalid cues in a visual selective attention task, but (5) did not differ on a measure of sustained inattentional blindness. Together, results show that regular meditation is associated with more accurate, efficient, and flexible visual attentional processing across diverse tasks that have high face validity outside of the laboratory. Furthermore, effects were assessed in a context separate from actual meditation practice, suggesting that meditators' better visual attention is not just immediate, but extends to contexts separate from meditation practice. PMID:20430650

Hodgins, Holley S; Adair, Kathryn C

2010-12-01

405

Atmospheric Processes : Conduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After participating in this activity, students will be able to explain the process of conduction using a molecular model and explain that different materials conduct at different rates. They will also be able to identify air as a poor heat conductor (an insulator). The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners

2007-12-12

406

Process safety management  

SciTech Connect

Unexpected releases of toxic, reactive, or flammable liquids and gases in processes involving highly hazardous chemicals have been reported for many years. Incidents continue to occur in various industries that use highly hazardous chemicals which may be toxic, reactive, flammable, or explosive, or may exhibit a combination of these properties. Regardless of the industry that uses these highly hazardous chemicals, there is a potential for an accidental release anytime they are not properly controlled. This, in turn creates the possibility of disaster.

NONE

1994-12-31

407

Aluminum powder metallurgy processing  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

Flumerfelt, J.F.

1999-02-12

408

Process for producing silicon  

DOEpatents

A process of producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

Olson, J.M.; Carleton, K.L.

1982-06-10

409

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students can follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Stop at each treatment point and unscramble the words to show where the water is along the treatment path. Click on each treatment point on the image to view the unscrambled answer and a little information about that treatment point. The treatment points are: coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, and storage.

410

Processing of boron carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing of boron carbide powder including sintering optimization, green body optimization and sintering behavior of nano-sized boron carbide was investigated for the development of complex shaped body armor. Pressureless sintered B4C relative densities as high as 96.7% were obtained by optimizing the soak temperature, and holding at that temperature for the minimum time required to reach terminal density. Although

Namtae Cho

2006-01-01

411

Parallel processing ITS  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a users` guide for parallel processing ITS on a UNIX workstation network, a shared-memory multiprocessor or a massively-parallel processor. The parallelized version of ITS is based on a master/slave model with message passing. Parallel issues such as random number generation, load balancing, and communication software are briefly discussed. Timing results for example problems are presented for demonstration purposes.

Fan, W.C.; Halbleib, J.A. Sr.

1996-09-01

412

Actinide recovery process  

DOEpatents

Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrene-divinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like. 2 tabs.

Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.; Saba, M.T.

1985-06-13

413

Cooking with Processed Cheese  

E-print Network

E-87 12/08 Cooking with Processed Cheese Cheese is a source of protein, which helps our bodies grow and stay healthy. Another nutrient found in cheese is calcium, which helps keep our bones and teeth strong. Uses There are many ways to enjoy... cheese, cut into 1-inch cubes 1? cups skim milk 3 cups cooked macaroni How to make it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. Melt...

Anding, Jenna

2008-12-09

414

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.

415

Femtosecond laser materials processing  

SciTech Connect

Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area. Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to precision cuts in composites are possible by using this technology. For material removal at reasonable rates, we have developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

Stuart, B

1998-08-05

416

Pyrolysis process and apparatus  

DOEpatents

This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

Lee, Chang-Kuei (Sewell, NJ)

1983-01-01

417

The Preclinical Research Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The preclinical research process extends from early assessments of feasibility of pharmaceutical development to providing\\u000a regulatory authorities and clinical trial units with information necessary for administering the product to human subjects.\\u000a Chief concerns include safety, which is evaluated in well-defined preclinical toxicology programs, and efficacy, which must\\u000a be defined in appropriate in vitro systems and animal models prior to entering

James S. Hutchison

418

NASA Oceanic Processes Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This, the Sixth Annual Report for NASA's Oceanic Processes Program, provides an overview of recent accomplishments, present activities, and future plans. Although the report was prepared for Fiscal Year 1985 (October 1, 1984 to September 30, 1985), the period covered by the Introduction extends into June 1986. Sections following the Introduction provide summaries of current flight projects and definition studies, brief descriptions of individual research activities, and a bibliography of refereed journal articles appearing within the past two years.

1986-01-01

419

(Pro)Insulin processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin, the major secreted product of the ?-cells of the islets of Langerhans, is initially synthesized as a precursor (preproinsulin),\\u000a from which the mature hormone is excised by a series of proteolytic cleavages. This review provides a personal narrative of\\u000a some of the key research projects leading to the identification of the central processing enzymes as proprotein convertase\\u000a 1, proprotein

Howard W. Davidson

2004-01-01

420

The Change Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter gives a comprehensive outline of the change process needed for transforming the project manager of yesterday\\u000a into the project leader of tomorrow. Business strategies reinforced by corporate values and new leadership principles drive\\u000a project challenges that are new to most project managers today. New knowledge and enhanced project management skills are required,\\u000a but often rejected by managers claiming

Asbjørn Rolstadås; Per Willy Hetland; George Farage Jergeas; Richard E. Westney

421

Kroll process beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-purity beryllium metal was prepared on a laboratory scale by Kroll process procedures in which sodium was used as a reductant.\\u000a Crude beryllium chloride, purchased from commercial sources, was purified by vacuum sublimation and fused-salt scrubbing.\\u000a Purified beryllium chloride was vaporized and reacted at a controlled rate with molten sodium at temperatures ranging from\\u000a 650° to 750°C to form beryllium

Thomas T. Campbell; R. E. Mussler; F. E. Block

1970-01-01

422

Kroll process beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-purity beryllium metal was prepared on a laboratory scale by Kroll process procedures in which sodium was used as a reductant. Crude beryllium chloride, purchased from commercial sources, was purified by vacuum sublimation and fused-salt scrubbing. Purified beryllium chloride was vaporized and reacted at a controlled rate with molten sodium at temperatures ranging from 650° to 750°C to form beryllium

Thomas T. Campbell; R. E. Mussler; F. E. Block

1970-01-01

423

Carbon dioxide removal process  

DOEpatents

A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

2003-11-18

424

Rapid Tooling Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sand casting is one of several near net shape manufacturing processes. In near net shape manufacturing, multiple copies of\\u000a the product are produced by imprinting the shape of the tool or die on a suitable working material. Typically, the working\\u000a material starts out as a liquid, powder, or pliable material that is eventually solidified or hardened after being formed\\u000a by

Wanlong Wang; Henry W. Stoll; James G. Conley

425

Dynamic Statistical Process Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although some control techniques such as Shewhart and CUSUM Control Charts are not new, their application in industry for process control is relatively new. In recent years manufacturing industries have begun to discover and appreciate the power and efficiency of statistical process control techniques. These charts have been successfully used in some areas and have created confusion in others. The confusion is normally due to incorrect application of the methods and lack of sufficient understanding of the theory and assumptions underlying these charts. One of the important assumptions in using Shewhart and CUSUM charts is that the individual measurements are statistically independent. In many industrial situations this assumption is not valid. Namely, the measurements are correlated. As a result the application of the above techniques ends in incorrect conclusions and hence, confusion. The purpose of this paper is to discuss appropriate methods for dealing with these situations. Time series modeling will be discussed. It will be shown how the correlations in data can be used for more precisely predicting and controlling a process.

Azari, Rahman; Khorasani, Fred; Bickerstaff, Cynthia

1988-01-01

426

Software Process Assessment (SPA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's environment mirrors the changes taking place in the nation at large, i.e. workers are being asked to do more work with fewer resources. For software developers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the effects of this change are that we must continue to produce quality code that is maintainable and reusable, but we must learn to produce it more efficiently and less expensively. To accomplish this goal, the Data Systems Technology Division (DSTD) at GSFC is trying a variety of both proven and state-of-the-art techniques for software development (e.g., object-oriented design, prototyping, designing for reuse, etc.). In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these techniques, the Software Process Assessment (SPA) program was initiated. SPA was begun under the assumption that the effects of different software development processes, techniques, and tools, on the resulting product must be evaluated in an objective manner in order to assess any benefits that may have accrued. SPA involves the collection and analysis of software product and process data. These data include metrics such as effort, code changes, size, complexity, and code readability. This paper describes the SPA data collection and analysis methodology and presents examples of benefits realized thus far by DSTD's software developers and managers.

Rosenberg, Linda H.; Sheppard, Sylvia B.; Butler, Scott A.

1994-01-01

427

Monolith electroplating process  

DOEpatents

An electroplating process for preparing a monolith metal layer over a polycrystalline base metal and the plated monolith product. A monolith layer has a variable thickness of one crystal. The process is typically carried in molten salts electrolytes, such as the halide salts under an inert atmosphere at an elevated temperature, and over deposition time periods and film thickness sufficient to sinter and recrystallize completely the nucleating metal particles into one single crystal or crystals having very large grains. In the process, a close-packed film of submicron particle (20) is formed on a suitable substrate at an elevated temperature. The temperature has the significance of annealing particles as they are formed, and substrates on which the particles can populate are desirable. As the packed bed thickens, the submicron particles develop necks (21) and as they merge into each other shrinkage (22) occurs. Then as micropores also close (23) by surface tension, metal density is reached and the film consists of unstable metal grain (24) that at high enough temperature recrystallize (25) and recrystallized grains grow into an annealed single crystal over the electroplating time span. While cadmium was used in the experimental work, other soft metals may be used.

Agarrwal, Rajev R. (1410 S. Busse Rd., 2K, Mt. Prospect, IL 60056)

2001-01-01

428

Laminar Soot Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soot formation within hydrocarbon-fueled flames is an important unresolved problem of combustion science for several reasons: soot emissions are responsible for more deaths than any other combustion pollutant, thermal loads due to continuum radiation from soot limit the durability of combustors, thermal radiation from soot is mainly responsible for the growth and spread of unwanted fires, carbon monoxide associated with soot emissions is responsible for most fire deaths, and limited understanding of soot processes is a major impediment to the development of computational combustion. Thus, soot processes within laminar nonpremixed (diffusion) flames are being studied, emphasizing space-based experiments at microgravity. The study is limited to laminar flames due to their experimental and computational tractability, noting the relevance of these results to practical flames through laminar flamelet concepts. The microgravity environment is emphasized because buoyancy affects soot processes in laminar diffusion flames whereas effects of buoyancy are small for most practical flames. Results discussed here were obtained from experiments carried out on two flights of the Space Shuttle Columbia. After a brief discussion of experimental methods, results found thus far are described, including soot concentration measurements, laminar flame shapes, laminar smoke points and flame structure. The present discussion is brief.

Lin, K. -C.; Dai, Z.; Faeth, G. M.

1999-01-01

429

Priority in Process Algebras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper surveys the semantic ramifications of extending traditional process algebras with notions of priority that allow for some transitions to be given precedence over others. These enriched formalisms allow one to model system features such as interrupts, prioritized choice, or real-time behavior. Approaches to priority in process algebras can be classified according to whether the induced notion of preemption on transitions is global or local and whether priorities are static or dynamic. Early work in the area concentrated on global pre-emption and static priorities and led to formalisms for modeling interrupts and aspects of real-time, such as maximal progress, in centralized computing environments. More recent research has investigated localized notions of pre-emption in which the distribution of systems is taken into account, as well as dynamic priority approaches, i.e., those where priority values may change as systems evolve. The latter allows one to model behavioral phenomena such as scheduling algorithms and also enables the efficient encoding of real-time semantics. Technically, this paper studies the different models of priorities by presenting extensions of Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) with static and dynamic priority as well as with notions of global and local pre- emption. In each case the operational semantics of CCS is modified appropriately, behavioral theories based on strong and weak bisimulation are given, and related approaches for different process-algebraic settings are discussed.

Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Natarajan, V.

1999-01-01

430

Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and implementation of a system for the acquisition, processing, and analysis of signal data is described. The initial application for the system is the development and analysis of algorithms for excision of interfering tones from direct sequence spread spectrum communication systems. The system is called the Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed (ASPT) and is an integrated hardware and software system built around the TMS320C30 chip. The hardware consists of a radio frequency data source, digital receiver, and an adaptive signal processor implemented on a Sun workstation. The software components of the ASPT consists of a number of packages including the Sun driver package; UNIX programs that support software development on the TMS320C30 boards; UNIX programs that provide the control, user interaction, and display capabilities for the data acquisition, processing, and analysis components of the ASPT; and programs that perform the ASPT functions including data acquisition, despreading, and adaptive filtering. The performance of the ASPT system is evaluated by comparing actual data rates against their desired values. A number of system limitations are identified and recommendations are made for improvements.

Parliament, Hugh A.

1991-09-01

431

RACORO aerosol data processing  

SciTech Connect

The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

Elisabeth Andrews

2011-10-31

432

Process for protein PEGylation.  

PubMed

PEGylation is a versatile drug delivery technique that presents a particularly wide range of conjugation chemistry and polymer structure. The conjugated protein can be tuned to specifically meet the needs of the desired application. In the area of drug delivery this typically means to increase the persistency in the human body without affecting the activity profile of the original protein. On the other hand, because of the high costs associated with the production of therapeutic proteins, subsequent operations imposed by PEGylation must be optimized to minimize the costs inherent to the additional steps. The closest attention has to be given to the PEGylation reaction engineering and to the subsequent purification processes. This review article focuses on these two aspects and critically reviews the current state of the art with a clear focus on the development of industrial scale processes which can meet the market requirements in terms of quality and costs. The possibility of using continuous processes, with integration between the reaction and the separation steps is also illustrated. PMID:24531008

Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo

2014-04-28

433

Process for purification of solids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for purifying solids, especially silicon, by melting and subsequent resolidification, is described. Silicon used in solar cell manufacturing is processed more efficiently and cost effectively.

Herzer, H.; Rath, H. J.; Schmidt, D.

1981-01-01

434

Individual differences in sentence processing  

E-print Network

This thesis aims to elucidate shared mechanisms between retrieval in sentence processing and memory retrieval processes in nonlinguistic domains using an individual differences approach. Prior research in individual ...

Troyer, Melissa L

2012-01-01

435

Upconversion laser processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pump processes that produce upconversion laser emission in trivalent rare earth ion-doped gain media are described, and the performance of upconversion lasers pumped by these processes is reviewed. Sequential two-photon absorption upconversion, cooperative energy transfer upconversion and photon avalanche upconversion are discussed in relation to the production of visible laser emission. Using Er:YALO as an example, the specific energy flow pathways for each of these pump processes are described in detail. Experimental results are presented for laser emission in Er:YALO pumped by sequential two-photon absorption, cooperative energy transfer and photon avalanche upconversion. The spectral and temporal dependence of upconversion emission is reviewed and experimental evidence for photon avalanche upconversion in Er:YALO is presented. The laser oscillation conditions including gain and loss are related to upconversion lasers using a three-level ion kinetics model. Rate equations are presented that illustrate the impact of various competing pump processes on the upconversion laser output. Upconversion laser emission under Q-switched operation is discussed and equations for optimum output coupling are presented. The design considerations for efficient upconversion laser resonators and pump optics are addressed. Upconversion laser results obtained over the past three decades are reviewed. The laser performance obtained for crystals doped with trivalent Pr, Nd, Er and Tm ions is discussed. Sensitized upconversion using Yb ion co-doping is described and results obtained for Yb-Er and Yb-Ho upconversion lasers are summarized. Upconversion fiber laser development is also reviewed and details are presented for room temperature upconversion laser emission using ZBLAN fibers doped with trivalent Pr, Nd, Ho, Er and Tm ions. The effect of upconversion processes on the efficiency and operation of conventional lasers is discussed. Upconversion pumping involving the upper laser level is shown to increase the laser threshold power and lower the optical conversion efficiency. Upconversion pumping involving the lower laser level of a self-terminating transition lowers the terminal level lifetime. The conditions are described under which upconversion pumping can enable cw laser operation on a self-terminating transition.

Scheps, Richard

436

Mars Aqueous Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is to establish a flexible process that generates multiple products that are useful for human habitation. Selectively extracting useful components into an aqueous solution, and then sequentially recovering individual constituents, can obtain a suite of refined or semi-refined products. Similarities in the bulk composition (although not necessarily of the mineralogy) of Martian and Lunar soils potentially make MAPS widely applicable. Similar process steps can be conducted on both Mars and Lunar soils while tailoring the reaction extents and recoveries to the specifics of each location. The MAPS closed-loop process selectively extracts, and then recovers, constituents from soils using acids and bases. The emphasis on Mars involves the production of useful materials such as iron, silica, alumina, magnesia, and concrete with recovery of oxygen as a byproduct. On the Moon, similar chemistry is applied with emphasis on oxygen production. This innovation has been demonstrated to produce high-grade materials, such as metallic iron, aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, and calcium oxide, from lunar and Martian soil simulants. Most of the target products exhibited purities of 80 to 90 percent or more, allowing direct use for many potential applications. Up to one-fourth of the feed soil mass was converted to metal, metal oxide, and oxygen products. The soil residue contained elevated silica content, allowing for potential additional refining and extraction for recovery of materials needed for photovoltaic, semiconductor, and glass applications. A high-grade iron oxide concentrate derived from lunar soil simulant was used to produce a metallic iron component using a novel, combined hydrogen reduction/metal sintering technique. The part was subsequently machined and found to be structurally sound. The behavior of the lunar-simulant-derived iron product was very similar to that produced using the same methods on a Michigan iron ore concentrate, which demonstrates that lunar-derived material can be used in a manner similar to conventional terrestrial iron. Metallic iron was also produced from the Mars soil simulant. The aluminum and magnesium oxide products produced by MAPS from lunar and Mars soil simulants exhibited excellent thermal stability, and were shown to be capable of use for refractory oxide structural materials, or insulation at temperatures far in excess of what could be achieved using unrefined soils. These materials exhibited the refractory characteristics needed to support iron casting and forming operations, as well as other thermal processing needs. Extraction residue samples contained up to 79 percent silica. Such samples were successfully fused into a glass that exhibited high light transmittance.

Berggren, Mark; Wilson, Cherie; Carrera, Stacy; Rose, Heather; Muscatello, Anthony; Kilgore, James; Zubrin, Robert

2012-01-01

437

Video and Image Processing in Multimedia Systems (Video Processing)  

E-print Network

and retrieval techniques 8. Video scene analysis and video segmentation 9. Video processing using compressedCOT 6930 Video and Image Processing in Multimedia Systems (Video Processing) Instructor: Borko. Content-based image and video indexing and retrieval. Video processing using compressed data. Course

Furht, Borko

438

MGSC 485 Business Process Management Fall 2007 BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

MGSC 485 Business Process Management Fall 2007 MGSC 485 BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT COURSE SYLLABUS, and customer calls processing in call centers. Organizations now, more than ever, value managers with a cross and manage efficient and effective operations and processes will be covered. The importance of balancing #12

Almor, Amit

439

Thinning spatial point processes into Poisson processes Jesper Mller1  

E-print Network

, Denmark. 2 Department of Statistics, 8125 Math-Science Building, University of California, Los Angeles, CA thinning of a spatial birth-and-death process, where clans of ancestors as- sociated with the original point process, Papangelou conditional intensity, Poisson process, spatial birth-and-death process

Schoenberg, Frederic Paik (Rick)

440

Interoperative end-user process modelling for process collaborative manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As business environments change rapidly, the ability to quickly set up a collaborative automated business processes is desirable. Collaborative business processes are increasingly driven by business agility, adaptability and flexibility, particularly in a modern manufacturing enterprise environment. Traditionally, collaborative business processes are used among big organisations. Many of collaborative business process systems are designed for a long-term use with central

Lai Xu; Paul de Vrieze; Keith Phalp; Sheridan Jeary; Peng Liang

2012-01-01

441

Concatenable Graph Processes: Relating Processes and Derivation Traces  

E-print Network

Concatenable Graph Processes: Relating Processes and Derivation Traces Paolo Baldan, Andrea for the algebraic double- pushout approach to graph rewriting, namely the derivation trace and the graph process semantics. The notion of concatenable graph process is introduced and then the category of concatenable

Baldan, Paolo

442

Statistical Process Control: Analyzing a Space Shuttle Onboard Software Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for increased software process efficiency and effectiveness places measurement demands on the software engineering community beyond those traditionally practiced. Statistical- and process-thinking principles lead to the use of statistical process control (SPC) methods to determine the consistency and capability of the processes used to develop software. The authors use data and analysis from a collaborative effort between the Software

William A. Florac; Anita D. Carleton; Julie R. Barnard

2000-01-01

443

Organizing the Information Management Process in Process-based Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the management of the information management process in process organizations. Throughout the 1990s there is evidence that some organizations have transformed themselves from functionally oriented to process-based entities. The information management process is critical in supporting a process enterprise and this study looks at how it may be organized. The study focuses on in-depth qualitative data that

Philip Seltsikas

2001-01-01

444

Solar Flares: Magnetohydrodynamic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines the current understanding of solar flares, mainly focused on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes responsible for producing a flare. Observations show that flares are one of the most explosive phenomena in the atmosphere of the Sun, releasing a huge amount of energy up to about 10^32 erg on the timescale of hours. Flares involve the heating of plasma, mass ejection, and particle acceleration that generates high-energy particles. The key physical processes for producing a flare are: the emergence of magnetic field from the solar interior to the solar atmosphere (flux emergence), local enhancement of electric current in the corona (formation of a current sheet), and rapid dissipation of electric current (magnetic reconnection) that causes shock heating, mass ejection, and particle acceleration. The evolution toward the onset of a flare is rather quasi-static when free energy is accumulated in the form of coronal electric current (field-aligned current, more precisely), while the dissipation of coronal current proceeds rapidly, producing various dynamic events that affect lower atmospheres such as the chromosphere and photosphere. Flares manifest such rapid dissipation of coronal current, and their theoretical modeling has been developed in accordance with observations, in which numerical simulations proved to be a strong tool reproducing the time-dependent, nonlinear evolution of a flare. We review the models proposed to explain the physical mechanism of flares, giving an comprehensive explanation of the key processes mentioned above. We start with basic properties of flares, then go into the details of energy build-up, release and transport in flares where magnetic reconnection works as the central engine to produce a flare.

Shibata, Kazunari; Magara, Tetsuya

2011-12-01

445

Discovery as a process  

SciTech Connect

The three great myths, which form a sort of triumvirate of misunderstanding, are the Eureka! myth, the hypothesis myth, and the measurement myth. These myths are prevalent among scientists as well as among observers of science. The Eureka! myth asserts that discovery occurs as a flash of insight, and as such is not subject to investigation. This leads to the perception that discovery or deriving a hypothesis is a moment or event rather than a process. Events are singular and not subject to description. The hypothesis myth asserts that proper science is motivated by testing hypotheses, and that if something is not experimentally testable then it is not scientific. This myth leads to absurd posturing by some workers conducting empirical descriptive studies, who dress up their study with a ``hypothesis`` to obtain funding or get it published. Methods papers are often rejected because they do not address a specific scientific problem. The fact is that many of the great breakthroughs in silence involve methods and not hypotheses or arise from largely descriptive studies. Those captured by this myth also try to block funding for those developing methods. The third myth is the measurement myth, which holds that determining what to measure is straightforward, so one doesn`t need a lot of introspection to do science. As one ecologist put it to me ``Don`t give me any of that philosophy junk, just let me out in the field. I know what to measure.`` These myths lead to difficulties for scientists who must face peer review to obtain funding and to get published. These myths also inhibit the study of science as a process. Finally, these myths inhibit creativity and suppress innovation. In this paper I first explore these myths in more detail and then propose a new model of discovery that opens the supposedly miraculous process of discovery to doser scrutiny.

Loehle, C.

1994-05-01

446

Tablet Process Simulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET is a Tablet Process Simulator in which visitors set up and run a tablet press in a virtual 3D environment. The tool requires the program to be downloaded and installed, and gives helpful installation instructions. Users will start by downloading a zip file to their computer.

447

Process for making diamonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of a device and process for making industrial diamonds. The device is composed of an exponential horn tapering from a large end to a small end, with a copper plate against the large end. A magnetic hammer abuts the copper plate. The copper plate and magnetic hammer function together to create a shock wave at the large end of the horn. As the wave propagates to the small end, the extreme pressure and temperature caused by the wave transforms the graphite, present in an anvil pocket at the small end, into diamonds.

Rasquin, J. R.; Estes, M. F. (inventors)

1973-01-01

448

High processivity polymerases  

SciTech Connect

Chimeric proteins comprising a sequence nonspecific single-stranded nucleic-acid-binding domain joined to a catalytic nucleic-acid-modifying domain are provided. Methods comprising contacting a nucleic acid molecule with a chimeric protein, as well as systems comprising a nucleic acid molecule, a chimeric protein, and an aqueous solution are also provided. The joining of sequence nonspecific single-stranded nucleic-acid-binding domain and a catalytic nucleic-acid-modifying domain in chimeric proteins, among other things, may prevent the separation of the two domains due to their weak association and thereby enhances processivity while maintaining fidelity.

Shamoo, Yousif; Sun, Siyang

2014-06-10

449

Monitoring the metropolitanization process.  

PubMed

Alternative approaches have led to different interpretations of the metropolitanization process in the United States. We identify and illustrate several methods and procedures for monitoring metropolitan-nonmetropolitan population change using the 1950-1980 U.S. decennial censuses. Two basic approaches are compared: constant area approaches and component methods. In addition, we assess the effects of changing metropolitan definitions on metropolitan-nonmetropolitan growth. The results clearly reveal that the underlying mechanics of metropolitanization not only are complex but have changed substantially during the 1950-1980 period. We conclude with observations regarding the use of these procedures in future research. PMID:3169313

Fuguitt, G V; Heaton, T B; Lichter, D T

1988-02-01

450

Advanced deformation process modeling  

SciTech Connect

Progress was made in achieving a comprehensive and coherent description of material behavior in deformation processing. The materials included were metals, alloys, intermetallic compounds, arbitrary lattice structure, and metal matrix composites. Aspects of behavior modeled included kinetics of flow and strain hardening, as well as recrystallization and the various anisotropies of strength and compliance. Highlights include a new prediction of the limiting strength of materials at high temperature, a new understanding of the generation of new grain boundaries during forming operations, and a quantitatively verified computer simulation of texture development and the resulting behavioral anisotropies.

Kocks, U.F.; Embury, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Beaudoin, A.J. [Reynolds Metals (United States); Dawson, P.R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); MacEwen, S.R. [Alcan (Canada); Mecking, H.J. [Hamburg Technic (Germany)

1997-08-01

451

Process for fullerene functionalization  

DOEpatents

Di-addended and tetra-addended Buckminster fullerenes are synthesized through the use of novel organoborane intermediates. The C{sub 60}, C{sub 70}, or higher fullerene is reacted with a borane such as BH{sub 3} in a solvent such as toluene to form an organoborane intermediate. Reaction of the organoborane such as hydrolysis with water or alcohol results in the product di-addended and tetra-addended fullerene in up to 30% yields. Dihydrofullerenes and tetrahydrofullerenes are produced by the process of the invention. 7 figs.

Cahill, P.A.; Henderson, C.C.

1995-12-12

452

Process for fullerene functionalization  

DOEpatents

Di-addended and tetra-addended Buckminster fullerenes are synthesized through the use of novel organoborane intermediates. The C.sub.60, C.sub.70, or higher fullerene is reacted with a borane such as BH.sub.3 in a solvent such as toluene to form an organoborane intermediate. Reaction of the organoborane such as hydrolysis with water or alcohol results in the product di-addended and tetra-addended fullerene in up to 30% yields. Dihydrofullerenes and tetrahydrofullerenes are produced by the process of the invention.

Cahill, Paul A. (Albuquerque, NM); Henderson, Craig C. (Dublin, CA)

1995-01-01

453

Plasma processing of biomaterials.  

PubMed

Surface properties of biomaterials can easily be modified by glow-discharge plasma processing for very diverse biomedical applications. Activated carbon granules can be coated with a very thin polymeric membrane by plasma polymerization to improve their blood compatibilities without changing their adsorption capabilities. The problems associated with the microporous polypropylene oxygenator membranes can be eliminated by coating with a nonporous thin polymeric film in a glow-discharge reactor. Cell attachment and growth on polystyrene microcarriers can significantly be increased by alkylamine plasma treatment. Physical and chemical properties of polyurethane biomaterials can be tailor-made by plasma modification. PMID:1463701

Piskin, E

1992-01-01

454

Biotechnology: Upstream Processing Associate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 2:31 video excerpted from Pathways to Technology, youâ??ll learn about the role biotechnology plays in the fight against cancer. Roya Dirin is an upstream processing associate who works with cells, looking for proteins that can help treat cancer. Her first career was as a midwife, but she decided to switch fields because she wanted to help cure diseases. Roya explains how her community college biotechnology degree is just the first step in her new career. The video is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment, and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can download the video as well.

455

Reinventing the process  

SciTech Connect

Reinventing the government is the avowed goal of the Clinton administration. Making the federal government work for the people is the intended product of Vice President Al Gore`s National Performance Review. All federal agencies are expected to participate. How would the world of hydropower licensing look if the goal of all state and federal resource agencies and FERC was a cooperative effort to license good hydropower projects in the best interest of the nation? FERC is working to reinvent the licensing process, but progress is limited by the lack of a clear customer focus and lack of a cooperative attitude and common goal among the resource agencies.

Hunt, R.; Hunt, J.M.

1994-11-01

456

Mask fabrication process  

DOEpatents

A method for fabricating masks and reticles useful for projection lithography systems. An absorber layer is conventionally patterned using a pattern and etch process. Following the step of patterning, the entire surface of the remaining top patterning photoresist layer as well as that portion of an underlying protective photoresist layer where absorber material has been etched away is exposed to UV radiation. The UV-exposed regions of the protective photoresist layer and the top patterning photoresist layer are then removed by solution development, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plasma etch and strip and chances for damaging the surface of the substrate or coatings.

Cardinale, Gregory F. (Oakland, CA)

2000-01-01

457

Parastillation Process in Operations  

E-print Network

and in ccmnercial installations. INrRODUCrION 'llle Parastillation sm process (1, 2, 3, 4) is a new rrethod for multistage, counter-current contact between vapor and liquid. Like distillation, liquid is contacted stage-by-stage with risi.n;J vapor as Sh... use in cases where applicable. References (1) Canfield, F.B., Chemical Engineering Progress, p. 58, v. 60, February 1984. (2) Jenkins, A.E.O., U.S. Patent 4,496,430, U.K. Patent 2,093,712 and numerous foreign patents. (3) Jenkins, A.E.O., U...

Canfield, F.; Jenkins, O.

458

The Water Filtration Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration is designed to demonstrate the procedures that municipal water plants use to purify water for drinking. Students will discover that water treatment plants typically clean water by taking it through the processes of aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. They also learn that water in lakes, rivers, and swamps often contains impurities that make it look and smell bad. The water may also contain bacteria and other microbiological organisms that can cause disease. Consequently, water from surface sources must be cleaned before it can be consumed by people.

459

Fischer-Tropsch process  

DOEpatents

A Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing a product selective and stable catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Orefield, PA); Withers, Howard P. (Douglassville, PA)

1987-01-01

460

Municipal waste processing apparatus  

DOEpatents

Municipal waste materials are processed by crushing the materials so that pieces of noncombustible material are smaller than a selected size and pieces of combustible material are larger than the selected size. The crushed materials are placed on a vibrating mesh screen conveyor belt having openings which pass the smaller, noncombustible pieces of material, but do not pass the larger, combustible pieces of material. Consecutive conveyors may be connected by an intermediate vibratory plate. An air knife can be used to further separate materials based on weight.

Mayberry, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1989-01-01

461

Coal liquefaction process  

DOEpatents

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

Wright, C.H.

1986-02-11

462

signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

SPOClab signal processing and oral communication #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Introduction 2 #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Hey everybody! My name's James Institute of Health) #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication · Types of dysarthria are related

Penn, Gerald

463

Integrated decontamination process for metals  

DOEpatents

An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

Snyder, Thomas S. (Oakmont, PA); Whitlow, Graham A. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01

464

The Supply Chain Management Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, supply chain management is being recognized as the management of key business processes across the network of organizations that comprise the supply chain. While many have recognized the benefits of a process approach to managing the business and the supply chain, most are vague about what processes are to be considered, what sub-processes and activities are contained in each

Keely L. Croxton; Sebastián J. García-Dastugue; Douglas M. Lambert; Dale S. Rogers

2001-01-01

465

Selecting and Purchasing Food Processing  

E-print Network

FAPC-102 Selecting and Purchasing Food Processing Equipment Tim Bowser Food Process Engineer electing and purchasing food processing equip- ment can be time consuming and difficult. This fact sheet in Figure 1. The first step in selecting and purchasing food-process- ing equipment is a clear

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

466

Unified P4 (PowerUnified P4 (Power--PerformancePerformance--ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic)ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic)  

E-print Network

Unified P4 (PowerUnified P4 (Power--PerformancePerformance-- ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic)ProcessProcess--Parasitic)Parasitic t It iprediction is challenging due to many parasitic effects. It is crucial to be able to predict parasitic effects for accurate performance. (Parasitic) GLSVLSI 2009 performance. (Parasitic) 5/12/2009 3 #12;Novel

Mohanty, Saraju P.

467

Formalizing Rework in Software Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper indicates how effective software-process programming lan- guages can lead to improved understandings of critical software processes, as well as improved process performance. In this paper we study the commonly mentioned, but seldom defined, rework process. We note that rework is gener- ally understood to be a major software development activity, but note that it is poorly defined and

Aaron G. Cass; Stanley M. Sutton Jr.; Leon J. Osterweil

2003-01-01

468

Process Variables in Writing Instruction Using Word Processing, Word Processing with Voice Synthesis, and No Word Processing in Second Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study at a small southwestern suburban school examined specific process variables which occurred as children were taught composition skills using word processing, word processing with voice synthesis, and no word processing. Subjects were 45 second grade students, who were divided into three groups on the basis of scores on a reading…

Kurth, Ruth Justine

469

Chemical processing of lunar materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper highlights recent work on the general problem of processing lunar materials. The discussion covers lunar source materials, refined products, motivations for using lunar materials, and general considerations for a lunar or space processing plant. Attention is given to chemical processing through various techniques, including electrolysis of molten silicates, carbothermic/silicothermic reduction, carbo-chlorination process, NaOH basic-leach process, and HF acid-leach process. Several options for chemical processing of lunar materials are well within the state of the art of applied chemistry and chemical engineering to begin development based on the extensive knowledge of lunar materials.

Criswell, D. R.; Waldron, R. D.

1979-01-01

470

Grating Coupled Emission Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uncorrelated emission from individual electrons in a beam moving over a diffraction grating is a spontaneous emission, or shot noise, process. When spontaneous emission is the dominant mechanism, the total power is given by the product of the electron charge, the beam current, and a radiation resistance. However, beams with current density above a certain threshold, or beams with pulsed structure may yield power levels which exceed the shot noise limit by orders of magnitude.(J. Urata et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 516 (1998).) Although a detailed theoretical description of these processes is expected to be quite complex, it is possible to capture the essential details of grating coupled emission with a simple but fundamentally based set of scaling relations. These constraints relate the beam voltage, current, and ``quality'' parameters (energy spread and emittance) with the operating wavelength limit and gain threshold conditions. This talk will compare scaling law predictions with results from ongoing experiments with high brightness beams of both low energy and highly relativistic electrons.

Walsh, J. E.; Brownell, J. H.; Kimmitt, M. F.; Swartz, J. C.; Trotz, S. R.; Fernow, R.; Kirk, H.

1998-11-01

471

TRANSIENT QUANTUM MECHANICAL PROCESSES  

SciTech Connect

Our principal objective has centered on the development of sophisticated computational techniques to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation that governs the evolution of quantum mechanical systems. We have perfected two complementary methods, discrete variable representation and real space product formula, that show great promise in solving these complicated temporal problems. We have applied these methods to the interaction of laser light with molecules with the intent of not only investigating the basic mechanisms but also devising schemes for actually controlling the outcome of microscopic processes. Lasers now exist that produce pulses of such short duration as to probe a molecular process many times within its characteristic period--allowing the actual observation of an evolving quantum mechanical system. We have studied the potassium dimer as an example and found agreement with experimental changes in the intermediate state populations as a function of laser frequency--a simple control prescription. We have also employed elaborate quantum chemistry programs to improve the accuracy of basic input such as bound-bound and bound-free coupling moments. These techniques have far-ranging applicability; for example, to trapped quantum systems at very low temperatures such as Bose-Einstein condensates.

L. COLLINS; J. KRESS; R. WALKER

1999-07-01

472

Thermal processes in ringholes  

SciTech Connect

Ringholes are space-time tunnelings connecting two asymptotically flat regions by means of a throat with the topology of a torus. This paper considers the processes of semiclassical thermal emission from ringholes and the accretion of dark energy onto them by adapting the results previously obtained for wormholes to toroidal topology. It is shown that at or near the throat the ringholes can be characterized as a mixture of two thermal sources, one at positive temperature and the other at negative temperature which, respectively, emit usual black body radiation and phantomlike radiation, leading after completion of thermal emission to two possible limiting situations, one similar to a wormhole in that it behaves just like a diverging lens, and the other similar to a black hole in that it behaves only as a converging lens. These two limiting situations, though described at rather diverging sizes, are also the final consequences from the accretion processes of quintessential and phantom vacuum energies. Finally, a brief discussion is added on the ringhole thermodynamics and its associated laws which are nothing but the extension to toroidal geometry from the thermodynamic laws which were recently established for wormholes.

Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

2010-08-15

473

Large forging manufacturing process  

DOEpatents

A process for forging large components of Alloy 718 material so that the components do not exhibit abnormal grain growth includes the steps of: a) providing a billet with an average grain size between ASTM 0 and ASTM 3; b) heating the billet to a temperature of between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; c) upsetting the billet to obtain a component part with a minimum strain of 0.125 in at least selected areas of the part; d) reheating the component part to a temperature between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; e) upsetting the component part to a final configuration such that said selected areas receive no strains between 0.01 and 0.125; f) solution treating the component part at a temperature of between 1725.degree. F. and 1750.degree. F.; and g) aging the component part over predetermined times at different temperatures. A modified process achieves abnormal grain growth in selected areas of a component where desirable.

Thamboo, Samuel V. (Latham, NY); Yang, Ling (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01

474

Business process optimization for RHIOs.  

PubMed

Implementation of an electronic health record (EHR) network entails significant changes in the business processes of participating organizations. Business process management, increased automation, process optimization, user training and end-user adoption together form the keys to success with an EHR. Redesigned processes should be mapped to benefit lines and performance indicators, and monitored continuously to identify improvement opportunities. It is important the new business work flows should match, if not exceed, the existing benchmarks for performance. Business process redesign is all the more challenging in the context of regional health information organizations (RHIOs), as the business processes of the EHR network have to be aligned with existing process flows of several organizations, each with its own preferences and specific requirements. Even so, most of the discrete individual processes have to be converged, streamlined, assimilated and optimized in the redesigned business processes. This paper proposes a methodology for business process redesign and optimization for RHIOs. PMID:17299924

Soti, Praveen; Pandey, Seema

2007-01-01

475

Microgravity Control Integration Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To verify that the International Space Station (ISS) payload facility racks do not disturb the microgravity environment of neighboring facility racks during any ISS microgravity period, a control integration process must be followed. Currently no facility racks have taken this process from start to finish. The authors are assisting the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Fluids Combustion Facility (FCF) in this process. The major topics to be addressed in this paper are: 1) ISS Program Microgravity Requirements, 2) Rack Microgravity Control Approaches, 3) Integration Process Flow, 4) Required ISS Program Inputs, 5) Facility Analytical Work, 6) Facility Testing Work, 7) Facility Output to ISS Program, and 8) Verification &Validation Process. The ISS payload microgravity requirements are given in PIRN 110H to the ISS Program document SSP 57000. These requirements are based on being a "good neighbor" by limiting the payload disturbances on the environment of adjacent rack payloads during ISS microgravity periods. The ARIS PIRN, which is still pending ISS Program approval, addresses onboard rack disturbances being transmitted to offboard locations and specific ARIS items such as rack sway space and accelerometer saturation. To meet the facilities' microgravity requirements, various active or passive isolation approaches can be utilized. These include the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS), the Passive Rack Isolation System (PaRIS), damping material inserted into the four external ARIS snubber cups, or local isolation at the individual onboard rack disturbers. ARIS utilizes a controller specifically tuned for the facility and eight pushrods, which will coordinate the racks movement in the low frequency range (.01 Hz to 2 Hz). PaRIS utilizes eight spring / dampers to isolate the rack from the ISS module structure at frequencies above 0.5 Hz. Local onboard rack isolation approaches involve the use of damping materials, isolation grommets, or wire rope isolators for substantial disturbers located within the rack. The assessment of the microgravity levels at various points in the rack requires the use of several analytical tools and models. An on-orbit NASTRAN model of an International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) is required to accurately model the facility payload rack. Care must be exercised to accurately model both disturber locations and critical science locations. MATLAB Simulink is utilized to determine transfer functions at specific locations in the rack. Offboard rack disturbances are obtained from the 1999 ISS Program Non-Isolated Rack Assessment (NIRA99) predictions for assessment of sway space and ARIS accelerometer saturation. Onboard rack disturbances are input into the Simulink model from either an ISS Program library of typical disturbers or from Microgravity Emission Laboratory (MEL) data for the actual disturber. The ISS module to rack umbilicals are included in the models. Umbilical NASTRAN models or stiffness test data needs to be provided from the ISS Program. These umbilicals are major elements in determining the payload facility rack microgravity performance. Once the facility payload rack and disturbers are properly modeled, an assessment can be made as to whether the ISS Program microgravity levels are achieved. The predicted levels can then be verified by additional ground testing of either a subrack assembly or a facility rack, which can be further verified by on-orbit acceleration measurements.

Heese, J.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.

2002-01-01

476

Dynamics of biomolecular processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last few years have seen enormous progress in the availability of computational resources, so that the size and complexity of physical systems that can be investigated numerically has increased substantially. The physical mechanisms behind the processes creating life, such as those in a living cell, are of foremost interest in biophysical research. A main challenge here is that complexity not only emerges from interactions of many macro-molecular compounds, but is already evident at the level of a single molecule. An exciting recent development in this context is, therefore, that detailed atomistic level characterization of large-scale dynamics of individual bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and DNA, is starting to become feasible in some cases. This has contributed to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of, e.g. protein folding and aggregation, as well as DNA dynamics. Nevertheless, simulations of the dynamical behaviour of complex multicomponent cellular processes at an all-atom level will remain beyond reach for the foreseeable future, and may not even be desirable. Ultimate understanding of many biological processes will require the development of methods targeting different time and length scales and, importantly, ways to bridge these in multiscale approaches. At the scientific programme Dynamics of biomolecular processes: from atomistic representations to coarse-grained models held between 27 February and 23 March 2012, and hosted by the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, new modelling approaches and results for particular biological systems were presented and discussed. The programme was attended by around 30 scientists from the Nordic countries and elsewhere. It also included a PhD and postdoc 'winter school', where basic theoretical concepts and techniques of biomolecular modelling and simulations were presented. One to two decades ago, the biomolecular modelling field was dominated by two widely different and largely independent approaches. On the one hand, computationally convenient and highly simplified lattice models were being used to elucidate the fundamental aspects of biomolecular conformational transitions, such as protein folding. On the other hand, these generic coarse-grained approaches were complemented by atomistic representations of the biomolecules. Physico-chemical all-atom models, often with an explicit representation of the surrounding solvent, were applied to specific protein structures to investigate their detailed dynamical behaviour. Today the situation is strikingly different, as was evident during the programme, where several new efforts were presented that try to combine the atomistic and the generic modelling approaches. The aim is to develop coarse-grained models at an intermediate-level resolution that are detailed enough to study specific biomolecular systems, and yet remain computationally efficient. These attempts are accompanied by the emergence of systematic coarse-graining techniques which bridge the physics of different lengths and timescales in a single simulation dynamically by applying appropriate representations of the associated degrees of freedom. Such adaptive resolution schemes represent promising candidates to tackle systems with an intrinsic multiscale nature, such as hierarchical chains and networks of biochemical reactions on a cellular level, calling for a very detailed description on an atomistic particle (or even quantum) level but simultaneously allowing the investigation of large-scale structuring and transport phenomena. The presentations and discussions during the programme also showed that the numerical evidence from (multiscale) simulations needs to be complemented by analytical and theoretical investigations to provide, eventually, a combined and deepened insight into the properties of biomolecular processes. The contributions from this scientific programme published in this issue of Physica Scripta highlight some of these new developments while also addressing related issues, such as the challenge of achieving efficient confo

Behringer, Hans; Eichhorn, Ralf; Wallin, Stefan

2013-05-01

477

Critical branching processes with immigration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we give a survey on some results concerning critical and nearly critical Galton–Watson branching processes with\\u000a immigration. As a byproduct of a general limit theorem for weak convergence of step processes of martingale differences towards\\u000a a diffusion process, functional limit theorems can be proved for different models. The limit process is either a squared Bessel\\u000a process or

Márton Ispány; Gyula Pap

478

Advanced Process Heater  

SciTech Connect

The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: Improved performance of high temperature materials; Improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; Heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer. This Category I award entitled ''Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future'' met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) Doubling the heat transfer rates (2) Improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) Improving temperature uniformity by 100 degrees F and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH address EERE's mission priority of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. One component of the APH, the SpyroCorTM, was commercialized by STORM Development's partner, Spinworks LLC. Over 2000 SpyrCorsTM were sold in 2004 resulting in 480 million BTU's of energy savings, 20% reduction in NOx and CO2 levels, and 9 jobs in N.W. Pennsylvania. A second component, the HeatCorTM, a low-cost high-temperature heat exchanger will be demonstrated by Spinworks in 2005 in preparation for commercial sales in 2006. The project occurred in the 21st Congressional District of Pennsylvania. Once fully commercialized, the APH energy savings potential is 339 trillion BTUs annually in the U.S. and will process 1.5 million more tons annually without major capital equipment expenditures. Spinworks will commercialize the APH and add over 100 U.S. workers. To accomplish the objective, STORM Development LLC teamed with Penn State University, SyCore, Inc, Spinworks LLC, and Schunk-INEX, Inc. The project consisted of component engineering and integration of the APH followed by parametric testing. All components of the system were tested in a lab furnace that simulates a full scale industrial installation. The target areas for development include: (1) Scale up STORM's Finned Stabilized Combustion, (2) Optimization of SyCore's SiGr Inserts such that the heat transfer on the exhaust leg will match the high luminosity burner leg., (3) Evaluation of the heat transfer characteristics of Schunk-INEX's finned composite tubes as a heat exchanger, and (4) Design of a system to monitor all components of the APH and control its performance such that the objectives are met.

Tom Briselden, Chris Parrish

2005-03-07

479

Sensors in Spray Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents what is our actual knowledge about sensors, used in the harsh environment of spray booths, to improve the reproducibility and reliability of coatings sprayed with hot or cold gases. First are described, with their limitations and precisions, the different sensors following the in-flight hot particle parameters (trajectories, temperatures, velocities, sizes, and shapes). A few comments are also made about techniques, still under developments in laboratories, to improve our understanding of coating formation such as plasma jet temperature measurements in non-symmetrical conditions, hot gases heat flux, particles flattening and splats formation, particles evaporation. Then are described the illumination techniques by laser flash of either cold particles (those injected in hot gases, or in cold spray gun) or liquid injected into hot gases (suspensions or solutions). The possibilities they open to determine the flux and velocities of cold particles or visualize liquid penetration in the core of hot gases are discussed. Afterwards are presented sensors to follow, when spraying hot particles, substrate and coating temperature evolution, and the stress development within coatings during the spray process as well as the coating thickness. The different uses of these sensors are then described with successively: (i) Measurements limited to particle trajectories, velocities, temperatures, and sizes in different spray conditions: plasma (including transient conditions due to arc root fluctuations in d.c. plasma jets), HVOF, wire arc, cold spray. Afterwards are discussed how such sensor data can be used to achieve a better understanding of the different spray processes, compare experiments to calculations and improve the reproducibility and reliability of the spray conditions. (ii) Coatings monitoring through in-flight measurements coupled with those devoted to coatings formation. This is achieved by either maintaining at their set point both in-flight and certain spray parameters (spray pattern, coating temperature…), or defining a good working area through factorial design, or using artificial intelligence based on artificial neural network (ANN) to predict particle in-flight characteristics and coating structural attributes from the knowledge of processing parameters.

Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.

2010-06-01

480

Hydrocarbon desulfurization process  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for converting a sour hydrocarbon feedstock having a relatively high sulfur content to a hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content comprising the steps of: (a) hydrodesulfurizing the feedstock having a relatively high sulfur contact with hydrogen to produce the hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content and hydrogen sulfide gas; (b) contacting the hydrogen sulfide gas with an anthraquinone dissolved in a polar organic solvent having a polarity greater than about 3 Debye units to produce sulfur and an anthrahydroquinone in the solvent; (c) regenerating the anthraquinone from the anthrahydroquinone upon contact with air to produce the anthraquinone and hydrogen peroxide; (d) recycling the anthraquinone to step (b); (e) reducing the hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water; (f) partially oxidizing a hydrocarbon fuel with the oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and hydrogen; and (g) recycling the hydrogen to step (a).

Plummer, M.A.; Zimmerman, C.C. Jr.

1986-04-08

481

Processing Visual Images  

SciTech Connect

The back of the eye is lined by an extraordinary biological pixel detector, the retina. This neural network is able to extract vital information about the external visual world, and transmit this information in a timely manner to the brain. In this talk, Professor Litke will describe a system that has been implemented to study how the retina processes and encodes dynamic visual images. Based on techniques and expertise acquired in the development of silicon microstrip detectors for high energy physics experiments, this system can simultaneously record the extracellular electrical activity of hundreds of retinal output neurons. After presenting first results obtained with this system, Professor Litke will describe additional applications of this incredible technology.

Litke, Alan (UC Santa Cruz) [UC Santa Cruz

2006-03-27

482

Field Geology/Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

1996-01-01

483

Epoxidation catalyst and process  

DOEpatents

Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

Linic, Suljo (Ann Arbor, MI); Christopher, Phillip (Ann Arbor, MI)

2010-10-26

484

Progressing batch hydrolysis process  

DOEpatents

A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

Wright, J.D.

1985-01-10

485

Catalyst Alloys Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

Tan, Xincai

2014-10-01

486

Pathways of antigen processing.  

PubMed

T cell recognition of antigen-presenting cells depends on their expression of a spectrum of peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and class II (MHC-II) molecules. Conversion of antigens from pathogens or transformed cells into MHC-I- and MHC-II-bound peptides is critical for mounting protective T cell responses, and similar processing of self proteins is necessary to establish and maintain tolerance. Cells use a variety of mechanisms to acquire protein antigens, from translation in the cytosol to variations on the theme of endocytosis, and to degrade them once acquired. In this review, we highlight the aspects of MHC-I and MHC-II biosynthesis and assembly that have evolved to intersect these pathways and sample the peptides that are produced. PMID:23298205

Blum, Janice S; Wearsch, Pamela A; Cresswell, Peter

2013-01-01

487

Electro Processing Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electroprocessing which is concerned with fluid dynamics of the electroreduction process to determine how it may be modified to improve the quality of the deposit was studied. Experimental techniques are used in this research. These techniques include laser Schlieren photography, laser Doppler velocimetry, and frequency spectrum analysis. Projects involve fluid flow studies of zinc plating in aqueous and molten salt electrolytes, study of cell design for magnesium chlorides electrolysis, digital signal analysis of manganese electrodeposition in molten chlorides, and electroplating of molybdenum from low melting salts. It is anticipated that the use of refractory metals as constructed materials in engineering will increase. Their electrodeposition from molten salt electrolytes is important in the extraction metallurgy of refractory metals.

1982-01-01

488

Continuous process electrorefiner  

DOEpatents

A new device is provided for the electrorefining of uranium in spent metallic nuclear fuels by the separation of unreacted zirconium, noble metal fission products, transuranic elements, and uranium from spent fuel rods. The process comprises an electrorefiner cell. The cell includes a drum-shaped cathode horizontally immersed about half-way into an electrolyte salt bath. A conveyor belt comprising segmented perforated metal plates transports spent fuel into the salt bath. The anode comprises the conveyor belt, the containment vessel, and the spent fuel. Uranium and transuranic elements such as plutonium (Pu) are oxidized at the anode, and, subsequently, the uranium is reduced to uranium metal at the cathode. A mechanical cutter above the surface of the salt bath removes the deposited uranium metal from the cathode.

Herceg, Joseph E. (Naperville, IL); Saiveau, James G. (Hickory Hills, IL); Krajtl, Lubomir (Woodridge, IL)

2006-08-29

489

Paretian Poisson Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many random populations can be modeled as a countable set of points scattered randomly on the positive half-line. The points may represent magnitudes of earthquakes and tornados, masses of stars, market values of public companies, etc. In this article we explore a specific class of random such populations we coin ` Paretian Poisson processes'. This class is elemental in statistical physics—connecting together, in a deep and fundamental way, diverse issues including: the Poisson distribution of the Law of Small Numbers; Paretian tail statistics; the Fréchet distribution of Extreme Value Theory; the one-sided Lévy distribution of the Central Limit Theorem; scale-invariance, renormalization and fractality; resilience to random perturbations.

Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

2008-05-01

490

Catalyst deoiling process  

SciTech Connect

A deoiling process is described comprising the steps of: removing a slurry of spent catalyst and oil from an ebullated bed reactor; transporting the slurry of spent catalyst and oil from the reactor to a vessel; cooling the slurry of spent catalyst and oil in the vessel to a temperature below the flash point of the oil; conveying the cooled slurry at an upward angle of inclination in a screw conveyor in a spiral flow pattern while countercurrently draining oil from the slurry to substantially separate the oil from the spent catalyst; and discharging the spent catalyst from the screw conveyor into a bin after the oil has been substantially separated from the spent catalyst.

Olson, C.B.; Plichta, R.T.; Coyne, D.W.

1987-04-28

491

Foam process models.  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level foam processing computational model suitable for predicting the self-expansion of foam in complex geometries. The model is based on a finite element representation of the equations of motion, with the movement of the free surface represented using the level set method, and has been implemented in SIERRA/ARIA. An empirically based time- and temperature-dependent density model is used to encapsulate the complex physics of foam nucleation and growth in a numerically tractable model. The change in density with time is at the heart of the foam self-expansion as it creates the motion of the foam. This continuum-level model uses an homogenized description of foam, which does not include the gas explicitly. Results from the model are compared to temperature-instrumented flow visualization experiments giving the location of the foam front as a function of time for our EFAR model system.

Moffat, Harry K.; Noble, David R.; Baer, Thomas A. (Procter & Gamble Co., West Chester, OH); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Mondy, Lisa Ann

2008-09-01

492

Physics as Information Processing  

SciTech Connect

I review some recent advances in foundational research at Pavia QUIT group. The general idea is that there is only Quantum Theory without quantization rules, and the whole Physics - including space-time and relativity - is emergent from the quantum-information processing. And since Quantum Theory itself is axiomatized solely on informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms: this is the It from bit of J. A. Wheeler.The review is divided into four parts: a) the informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; b) how space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from quantum computation; c) what is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and of ({h_bar}/2{pi}), and how the quantum field emerges; d) an observational consequence of the new quantum field theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will conclude with the research lines that will follow in the immediate future.

D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica 'A. Volta', 27100 Pavia (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia (Italy)

2011-03-28

493

Spectroscopy and nonthermal processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stellar spectra are analyzed to determine nonthermal processes for cool stars. A shock wave crossing model is supported by a study of the behavior of absorption and emission spectra. The shock waves are attributed to atmospheric kinetics. Circumstellar spectral lines are studied for information about gaseous circumstellar layers. The description of stellar envelopes is carried on through circumstellar dust. Characteristic properties of polarization in the dust are described in the case of specific stars, emphasizing narrowband observations in Mira, semiregular, and supergiant stars. Finally, the direct approach to measuring the angular diameters of stars and mapping the distribution of circumstellar dust and gas by lunar occultation or interferometry is discussed, using two prototype stars, an M supergiant and a dusty carbon star.

Querci, Monique

1987-01-01

494

Containerless glass fiber processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic levitation furnace system is described that was developed for testing the feasibility of containerless fiber pulling experiments. It is possible to levitate very dense materials such as platinum at room temperature. Levitation at elevated temperatures is much more difficult. Samples of dense heavy metal fluoride glass were levitated at 300 C. It is therefore possible that containerless fiber pulling experiments could be performed. Fiber pulling from the melt at 650 C is not possible at unit gravity but could be possible at reduced gravities. The Acoustic Levitation Furnace is described, including engineering parameters and processing information. It is illustrated that a shaped reflector greatly increases the levitation force aiding the levitation of more dense materials.

Ethridge, E. C.; Naumann, R. J.

1986-01-01

495

Reforming and isomerization process  

SciTech Connect

A reformate lean oil absorber is used in the downstream processing facilities of a reformer unit to remove isobutane and heavier components from a separator overhead vapor, part of which is reformer recycle gas. Stabilized reformate may be employed as lean oil in the absorber, and the fat oil is recycled to the stabilizer for recovery of isobutane and normal butane as overhead product and C/sub 5//sup +/ liquid as bottoms product. The mixed butanes are separated, and the isobutane employed as alkylation feedstock. The n-butane is recycled with the naphtha to the reformer unit, the absence of butanes in the recycle gas considerably enhancing the amount of isobutane produced in the reforming unit.

Swart, G.S.; O'Connor, R.P.

1984-02-21

496

Electrowinning apparatus and process  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

2012-06-19

497

Plutonium dissolution process  

DOEpatents

A two-step process for dissolving Pu metal is disclosed in which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Pu metal is exposed to a first mixture of 1.0-1.67 M sulfamic acid and 0.0025-0.1 M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to 45-70 C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the Pu metal but leave a portion of the Pu in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alternatively, nitric acid between 0.05 and 0.067 M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution is diluted with nitrogen.

Vest, M.A.; Fink, S.D.; Karraker, D.G.; Moore, E.N.; Holcomb, H.P.

1994-01-01

498

Progressing batch hydrolysis process  

DOEpatents

A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

Wright, John D. (Denver, CO)

1986-01-01

499

The process of leukemogenesis.  

PubMed Central

Leukemias are monoclonal diseases that arise from cells in the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment. Consistent with emerging models of carcinogenesis, leukemogenesis is an evolutionary process that involves multiple independent genetic and epigenetic events. Over the last half-century a predominant paradigm has emerged to describe leukemia developing secondary to alkylating drug therapy or exposure to benzene in which progressive dysplastic changes, accompanied by a distinct pattern of clonal cytogenetic abnormalities, give rise to acute myelogenous leukemia. Characterization of these clonal chromosomal aberrations, together with observed alterations in other growth-promoting genes, provides a useful framework for studying chemical leukemogenesis and for use in understanding the origins and development of leukemia in general. PMID:9118899

Irons, R D; Stillman, W S

1996-01-01

500

Process for functionalizing alkanes  

DOEpatents

Process for functionalizing saturated hydrocarbons selectively in the terminal position comprises: (a) reacting said saturated hydrocarbons with a metal complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/H/sub 2/ in the presence of ultraviolet radiation at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form a hydridoalkyl complex CpRhPMe/sub 3/RH; (b) reacting said hydridoalkyl complex with a haloform CHX/sub 3/ at -60/sup 0/ to -17/sup 0/C to form the corresponding haloalkyl complex of step (a) CpRhPMe/sub 3/RX; and (c) reacting said haloalkyl complex with halogen -60 to 25/sup 0/C to form a functional haloalkyl compound.

Bergman, R.G.; Janowicz, A.H.; Periana-Pillai, R.A.

1984-06-12