Sample records for rectus muscle surgery

  1. Transposition surgery for inferior rectus fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Christiane E; Abdulaal, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles is a rare hereditary strabismus disorder. A case of congenital fibrosis of the inferior rectus muscles with severe chin-up posture and bilateral limitation of up gaze is reported. Bilateral large recessions of the tight inferior rectus muscles provided only partial improvement. Residual head posture and hypotropia were successfully corrected with bilateral horizontal rectus muscle transpositions toward the superior rectus muscles, despite persistently tight inferior rectus muscles at the time of surgery. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2015;52:e1-e3.]. PMID:25735010

  2. Surgical results of the slipped medial rectus muscle after hang back recession surgery

    PubMed Central

    Duranoglu, Yasar; Ilhan, Hatice Deniz; Guler Alis, Meryem

    2014-01-01

    AIM To analyze the surgical results of a slipped medial rectus muscle (MRM) after hang back recession surgery for esotropia. METHODS Twenty-one patients who underwent re-exploration for diagnosed slipped muscle after hang back recession surgery were included in this retrospective study. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed to identify the location of the slipped muscle. Ocular motility was evaluated with assessment with prism and cover test in gaze at cardinal positions. The operations were performed by the same consultant. Intraoperative forced duction test was performed under general anesthesia. The empty sheath of the slipped MRM was resected and the muscle was advanced to the original insertion site in all patients. RESULTS The average age of 21 patients who had consecutive exotropia with a slipped MRM at the time of presentation was 17.4±5.4y (5-50y). The average duration between the first operation and the diagnosis of the slipped muscle was 25mo (12 to 36mo). The mean follow up after the corrective surgery was 28mo. The mean preoperative adduction limitation in the field of action of the slipped muscle was -2.26 (ranging from -1 to -4). All patients had full adduction postoperatively. CONCLUSION The diagnosis of the slipped muscle should be confirmed during the strabismus surgery. The slipped muscle may be caused due to insufficient suture and excessive rubbing of the eye. When divergent strabismus is observed after the recession of the MRM, a slipped muscle should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:25540761

  3. Rectus abdominis muscle strains in tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan P; Kokalj, Antonio M

    2007-01-01

    Rectus abdominis muscle strains are common and debilitating injuries among competitive tennis players. Eccentric overload, followed by forced contraction of the non?dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion is the accepted injury mechanism. A tennis?specific rehabilitation program emphasising eccentrics and plyometric strengthening of the abdominal wall muscles, contributes to the complete functional recovery in tennis players, and could help reduce recurrences. PMID:17957025

  4. [Hypovolemic shock during surgery caused by a rectus sheath hematoma].

    PubMed

    Vidal, M A; López-Escobar, M; Medina, C; García, R; Torres, L M

    2005-10-01

    Prophylactic treatment with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) is currently widely used to prevent thromboembolic events. However, such treatment is not free of risk. Among the possible complications described is rectus sheath hematoma. We report the case of a patient undergoing surgery for a hypophysial adenoma approached by the transsphenoidal route. He received LMWH prophylaxis for thromboembolism and showed a tendency to hypotension during surgery. The patient's condition deteriorated to hypovolemic shock accompanied by episodes of atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. With the transfusion of medications, blood products and plasma volume expanders, the patient was stabilized and surgery was completed. A computed tomography scan then revealed a hematoma occupying the greater part of the left anterior rectus muscle. With conservative wait-and-see treatment the abdominal symptoms disappeared and the hematoma gradually receded until fully resolved. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma is a rare condition. Presentation is quite nonspecific and computed tomography is needed for reaching a firm diagnosis. When a hematoma is large, the initial clinical picture may include hypovolemic shock, which may develop during surgery if the hematoma is not diagnosed early. Intraoperative management will be much more difficult than it would have been if diagnosis and treatment had taken place before the operation. PMID:16281745

  5. [Unilateral congenital ptosis with ipsilateral superior rectus muscle overaction].

    PubMed

    Ben Rayana, N; Knani, L; Touzani, F; Ben Hadj Hamida, F

    2011-09-01

    Congenital ptosis may be frequently accompanied by weakness of the ipsilateral superior rectus muscle. We report a case of ptosis with ipsilateral superior rectus muscle overaction. The 45-year-old patient presented with unilateral congenital ptosis. Ipsilateral superior rectus muscle overaction was found in the upgaze, with an inferior sclera show. This can be found in 40% of congenital ptosis. The authors give two possible causes: either an exaggerated Bell reflex or misdirection innervations of the superior rectus muscle by the superior division of the oculomotor nerve, initially innervating the upper eyelid elevator muscle. Histological or electrophysiological studies can be useful to determine the physiopathology of this association. PMID:21665327

  6. Robotic Harvest of the Rectus Abdominis Muscle: Principles and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Amir E.; Sarhane, Karim A.; Pederson, John C.; Selber, Jesse C.

    2014-01-01

    Harvest of the rectus abdominis muscle requires an abdominal incision as well as violation of the anterior rectus sheath, creating the potential for significant surgical-site morbidity (bulges, hernias, infections, seromas). Laparoscopic or endoscopic techniques, although feasible, have not become popular among plastic surgeons due to multiple technical shortcomings. Robotic surgery on the other hand has an easier learning curve, enhanced precision, tremor elimination, motion scaling, high resolution, three-dimensional optics and an intuitive interface. As a result of these advantages, robotic surgery has permeated into the plastic surgery specialty, assuming a role in the harvest of the latissimus dorsi muscle flap and other reconstructive procedures. In this review, the authors discuss its applicability in the harvest of the rectus abdominis muscle. PMID:24872776

  7. Rectus Abdominis Muscle Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Causing a Large Abdominal Wall Defect: Reconstruction with Biological Mesh

    PubMed Central

    Falidas, Evangelos; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Goudeli, Christina; Mathioulakis, Stavros; Villias, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a common soft tissue sarcoma usually involving limbs and retroperitoneum. MFH of the rectus abdominis muscle is extremely rare. Surgery in similar cases leads to large abdominal wall defects needing reconstruction. Biological and synthetic laminar absorbable prostheses are available for the repair of hernia defects in the abdominal wall. They share the important feature of being gradually degraded in the host, resulting the formation of a neotissue. We herein report the case of an 84-year-old man with MFH of the rectus abdominis muscle which was resected and the large abdominal wall defect was successfully repaired with a biological mesh. PMID:24653854

  8. Aetiology and management of the 'detached' rectus muscle.

    PubMed Central

    MacEwen, C J; Lee, J P; Fells, P

    1992-01-01

    The clinical features and management of 17 cases of detached extraocular muscles are described. They are classified into four groups: (1) the muscle which is cut and lost during squint surgery, (2) the muscle which breaks during squint surgery, (3) the muscle which slips following squint surgery, and (4) the muscle which is damaged during facial or orbital trauma. The prognosis for group 1 is poor whereas groups 2-4 have a good chance of successful muscle relocation. Images PMID:1540554

  9. Does a third head of the rectus femoris muscle exist?

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R S; Stetler, W; Savage, A J; Shoja, M M; Shakeri, A B; Loukas, M; Salter, E G; Oakes, W J

    2006-11-01

    Current anatomical texts describe only two tendinous origins of the rectus femoris muscle. The authors identified one older reference in which a third head of the rectus femoris muscle was briefly described. In order to confirm the existence of this head, 48 adult cadavers (96 sides) underwent detailed dissection of the proximal attachments of the rectus femoris muscle. Of these sides 83% were found to harbour a recognised third head of the rectus femoris muscle. This additional head was found to attach deeply to the iliofemoral ligament and superficially with the tendon of the gluteus minimus muscle as it attached into the femur. This tendon attached to the anterior aspect of the greater trochanter in an inferolateral direction compared to the straight head. The mean length and width of the third head was 2 cm and 4 cm, respectively. The mean thickness was found to be 3 mm. Most commonly this third head was bilaterally absent or bilaterally present. However, 4.2% were found only on left sides and 5.2% were found only on right sides. The angle created between the reflected and third heads was approximately 60 degrees. Two sides (both left sides with one female and one male specimen) were found to have third heads that were bilaminar. These bilaminar third heads had a distinct layer attaching to the underlying iliofemoral ligament and a superficial layer blending with the gluteus minimus tendon to insert onto the greater trochanter. Although the function of such an attachment is speculative, the clinician may wish to consider this structure in the interpretation of imaging or in surgical procedures in this region, as in our study it was present on the majority of sides. PMID:17171618

  10. Ultrastructural organization of muscle fiber types and their distribution in the rat superior rectus extraocular muscle.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Rashed M; El-Alfy, Sherif H

    2012-05-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are unique as they show greater variation in anatomical and physiological properties than any other skeletal muscles. To investigate the muscle fiber types and to understand better the structure-function correlation of the extraocular muscles, the present study examined the ultrastructural characteristics of the superior rectus muscle of rat. The superior rectus muscle is organized into two layers: a central global layer of mainly large-diameter fibers and an outer C-shaped orbital layer of principally small-diameter fibers. Six morphologically distinct fiber types were identified within the superior rectus muscle. Four muscle fiber types, three single innervated fibers (SIFs) and one multiple innervated fiber (MIF), were recognized in the global layer. The single innervated fibers included red, white and intermediate fibers. They differed from one another with respect to diameter, mitochondrial size and distribution, sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrillar size. The orbital layer contained two distinct MIFs in addition to the red and intermediate SIFs. The orbital MIFs were categorized into low oxidative and high oxidative types according to their mitochondrial content and distribution. The highly specialized function of the superior rectus extraocular muscle is reflected in the multiplicity of its fiber types, which exhibit unique structural features. The unique ultrastructural features of the extraocular muscles and their possible relation to muscle function are discussed. PMID:21621253

  11. Horizontal Rectus Muscle Anatomy in Naturally and Artificially Strabismic Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Anita; Tychsen, Lawrence; Poukens, Vadims; Demer, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Structural abnormalities of extraocular muscles (EOMs) or their pulleys are associated with some forms of human strabismus. This experiment was conducted to investigate whether such abnormalities are associated with artificial or naturally occurring strabismus in monkeys. Methods Binocular alignment and grating visual acuities were determined in 10 monkeys representing various species using search coil recording and direct observations. Four animals were orthotropic, two had naturally occurring “A”-pattern esotropia, two had concomitant and one had “V”-pattern esotropia artificially induced by alternating or unilateral occlusion in infancy, and one had “A”-pattern exotropia artificially induced by prism wear. After euthanasia, 16 orbits were examined by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the quasicoronal plane. Paths and sizes of horizontal rectus EOMs were analyzed quantitatively in a standardized coordinate system. Whole orbits were then serially sectioned en bloc in the quasicoronal plane, stained for connective tissue, and compared with MRI. Nerve and EOM features were analyzed quantitatively. Results Quantitative analysis of MRI revealed no significant differences in horizontal rectus EOM sizes or paths among orthotropic or naturally or artificially strabismic monkeys. Histologic examination demonstrated no differences in EOM size, structure, or innervation among the three groups, and no differences in connective tissues in the pulley system. The accessory lateral rectus (ALR) EOM was present in all specimens, but was small, inconsistently located, and sparsely innervated. Characteristics of the ALR did not correlate with strabismus. Conclusions Major structural abnormalities of horizontal rectus EOMs and associated pulleys are unrelated to natural or artificial horizontal strabismus in the monkeys studied. The ALR is unlikely to contribute to horizontal strabismus in primates. However, these findings do not exclude a possible role of pulley abnormalities in disorders such as cyclovertical strabismus. PMID:17525187

  12. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in patients with horizontal rectus muscle recession

    PubMed Central

    Çakmak, Harun; Kocatürk, Tolga; Dündar, Sema Oruç

    2014-01-01

    AIM To compare surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) following horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery between suspension recession with both the “hang-back” technique and conventional recession technique. METHODS Totally, 48 eyes of 24 patients who had undergone horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups. Twelve patients were operated on by the hang-back technique (Group 1), and 12 by the conventional recession technique (Group 2). SIA was calculated on the 1st wk, 1st and in the 3rd mo after surgery using the SIA calculator. RESULTS SIA was statistically higher in the Group 1 all postoperative follow-up. SIA was the highest in the 1st wk, and decreased gradually in both groups. CONCLUSION The suspension recession technique induced much more SIA than the conventional recession technique. This difference also continued in the following visits. Therefore, the refractive power should be checked postoperatively in order to avoid refractive amblyopia. Conventional recession surgery should be the preferred method so as to minimize the postoperative refractive changes in patients with amblyopia. PMID:25161948

  13. Effect of extraocular muscle surgery on corneal topography.

    PubMed

    Kwito, S; Sawusch, M R; McDonnell, P J; Gritz, D C; Moreira, H; Evensen, D

    1991-06-01

    A computerized videokeratoscopy system was used to evaluate changes in corneal topography after muscle surgery in 36 eyes of 18 rabbits. Topographic analysis revealed a significant flattening of the cornea in the superior and superotemporal octants after superior rectus recession (mean +/- SE, -1.78 +/- 0.16 diopters) compared with control eyes undergoing a sham procedure (-0.17 +/- 0.18 D; P less than .05). Excision of all rectus muscles caused a generalized corneal flattening (-1.42 +/- 0.13 D; P less than .001). A computerized, finite element model of the globe, including the rectus muscles, demonstrated corneal deformation as a result of extraocular muscle tension; recession of an extraocular muscle in this model caused corneal flattening in the quadrant of the recessed muscle. These data suggest that corneal topography is affected by extraocular muscle tension, corroborating clinical reports of refractive change after strabismus surgery. PMID:2043078

  14. Inferior oblique anterior transposition for the unilateral hypertropia associated with bilateral inferior rectus muscle aplasia.

    PubMed

    Almahmoudi, Faeeqah; Khan, Arif O

    2014-06-01

    Bilateral inferior rectus muscle aplasia in the absence of craniofacial abnormality is a rare but possibly under-recognized form of strabismus. Unilateral hypertropia in primary position seems to be a recurrent feature of this condition. We report a case of a 20-year-old woman with left hypertropia in primary position who was found on computed tomography to have bilateral inferior rectus muscle aplasia. A unilateral inferior oblique anterior transposition resulted in correction of the vertical deviation in primary position. PMID:24767828

  15. A novel case of superior rectus injury and its subsequent surgery.

    PubMed

    Javed, Ahmed; Wong, Vicki; Young, Jane; Durnian, Jon

    2015-01-01

    We report a presumed damage to the left superior rectus (SR) muscle following a dog bite injury that resulted in a marked weakness of elevation and vertical diplopia. A 30-year-old male presented in October 2010 following a dog bite around his left superotemporal orbit. An ophthalmic examination was unremarkable. The patient immediately complained of vertical diplopia, which did not settle during a period of observation lasting approximately 9 months following the attack. An orthoptist examination confirmed a marked restriction of upgaze. A diagnosis of isolated SR injury, secondary to the dog bite, was suspected. A left Knapp procedure was performed. The surgery was uneventful with scar tissue found around the SR. Three months following his surgery, the patient was orthophoric in both primary positions and in the downgaze with a residual 20-prism dioptre hypotropia in the upgaze. Our patient was unusual in that the bite weakened the SR in isolation. We also show the successful management of this novel case using a simple Knapp procedure. PMID:25759663

  16. A Novel Case of Superior Rectus Injury and Its Subsequent Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Ahmed; Wong, Vicki; Young, Jane; Durnian, Jon

    2015-01-01

    We report a presumed damage to the left superior rectus (SR) muscle following a dog bite injury that resulted in a marked weakness of elevation and vertical diplopia. A 30-year-old male presented in October 2010 following a dog bite around his left superotemporal orbit. An ophthalmic examination was unremarkable. The patient immediately complained of vertical diplopia, which did not settle during a period of observation lasting approximately 9 months following the attack. An orthoptist examination confirmed a marked restriction of upgaze. A diagnosis of isolated SR injury, secondary to the dog bite, was suspected. A left Knapp procedure was performed. The surgery was uneventful with scar tissue found around the SR. Three months following his surgery, the patient was orthophoric in both primary positions and in the downgaze with a residual 20-prism dioptre hypotropia in the upgaze. Our patient was unusual in that the bite weakened the SR in isolation. We also show the successful management of this novel case using a simple Knapp procedure. PMID:25759663

  17. Postoperative Drift in Patients with Thyroid Ophthalmopathy Undergoing Unilateral Inferior Rectus Muscle Recession

    PubMed Central

    Peragallo, Jason H.; Velez, Federico G.; Demer, Joseph L.; Pineles, Stacy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Extraocular muscles of patients with thyroid ophthalmopathy (TO) may respond differently to strabismus surgery than those of other strabismic patients. This study reports postoperative alignment changes in patients with TO compared with patients with non-restrictive strabismus following unilateral inferior rectus muscle recession (IRR). Methods We reviewed records of patients with and without TO who underwent unilateral IRR. Group A had adjustable muscle sutures, while Group B had permanent or semi-adjustable sutures. Controls were patients undergoing adjustable unilateral IRR for other indications. Results Mean preoperative hypotropias were 17 ± 9, 21 ± 7, and 11 ± 4 PD for groups A (n = 13), B (n = 14), and controls (n = 19), respectively. Postoperative day one (POD1) measurements after adjustment were 1.2 ± 2.5, 3.7 ± 4.9, and 0.3 ± 2.4 PD, respectively, representing overall undercorrections in all cases (the preoperative deviation was given a positive (+) value and overcorrections were deemed negative (?) deviations). Dose response from linear regression analysis of thyroid patients compared with control patients for IRR was 3.26 PD/mm (SE 0.18) vs 2.38 PD/mm (SE 0.18) (p = 0.001). Mean final measurements were ?0.7 ± 5.6 (overcorrection), 2.7 ± 5.7, and 1.7 ± 5.7 PD of hypotropia, respectively. Final overcorrections occurred in 23%, 14%, and 16% of patients, for adjustables, permanent sutures, and control subjects, respectively. Drifts from POD1 measurements after adjustment to final measurements were ?1.9 ± 4.3, ?1.0 ± ;4.6, and 1.4 ± 5.9 PD respectively (p = 0.05 for comparison between Group A and controls). Conclusions TO patients with adjustable sutures drift toward postoperative overcorrection. PMID:23477773

  18. Contractile properties and temperature sensitivity of the extraocular muscles, the levator and superior rectus, of the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Frueh, B R; Hayes, A; Lynch, G S; Williams, D A

    1994-01-01

    1. Contractile and fatigue-resistance characteristics, temperature sensitivity (10-37 degrees C) of contraction, and histochemical fibre types were determined for two of the extraocular muscles, the superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris (levator), of the rabbit. 2. The levator displayed similar contractile characteristics (time to peak, half-relaxation time of twitch response, and twitch-tetanus force ratio) to mammalian fast-twitch limb muscle at room temperature (20 degrees C). However, normalized twitch and tetanic force levels were significantly less than those found in limb muscle. The superior rectus displayed the characteristics of even faster contraction than the levator at 20 degrees C, but generated lower maximum force levels than the levator. 3. The twitch response of the superior rectus showed a biphasic relaxation phase. This response was not due to non-twitch (tonic) fibres present in the superior rectus as it was unaffected by propranolol application during muscle stimulation. 4. The superior rectus and levator displayed significantly less fatigue in the tetanic force response than fast-twitch limb muscles did in response to a fatiguing electrical stimulation protocol. The levator was significantly more fatigue resistant than the superior rectus. 5. The force responses of both extraocular muscles displayed a similar dependence on temperature (10-37 degrees C) to limb skeletal muscles. 6. The superior rectus and levator exhibited a high proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibres (type II) as shown by myosin ATPase staining. Succinate dehydrogenase activity indicated that these muscles showed a high oxidative capacity, with a staining intensity typical of type I or type II A fibres of limb muscles. 7. The results emphasize the morphological and functional complexity of mammalian extraocular muscles. The combination of very fast contractile properties with high oxidative capacity make these muscles well suited to their role in eye/eyelid movement. PMID:8021838

  19. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Balius, Ramon; Pedret, Carles; Pacheco, Laura; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Vives, Joan; Escoda, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball. PMID:24198573

  20. Early results of slanted recession of the lateral rectus muscle for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Chun, Bo Young; Kang, Kyung Min

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of slanted recession of the lateral rectus muscle for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency. This prospective study included 31 patients who underwent slanted lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency between June 2010 and June 2012. Following parameters were recorded and analyzed: patient sex, age, preoperative and postoperative near and distance ocular alignment, and changes in stereopsis. The mean age of the patients was 9.2 years. The preoperative mean deviation angle was 32.4?PD at distance and 43.4?PD at near. After 6 months, slanted lateral rectus recession reduced the deviation angles to 2?PD at distance and 3.4?PD at near. In addition, the mean difference between distance and near deviation angles was significantly reduced from 11?PD to 1.4?PD at 6 months postoperatively. Slanted lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency in children successfully reduced the distance and near exodeviations and the near-distance difference without increasing the risk of long-term postoperative esotropia or diplopia. PMID:25688298

  1. Early Results of Slanted Recession of the Lateral Rectus Muscle for Intermittent Exotropia with Convergence Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung Min

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of slanted recession of the lateral rectus muscle for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency. This prospective study included 31 patients who underwent slanted lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency between June 2010 and June 2012. Following parameters were recorded and analyzed: patient sex, age, preoperative and postoperative near and distance ocular alignment, and changes in stereopsis. The mean age of the patients was 9.2 years. The preoperative mean deviation angle was 32.4?PD at distance and 43.4?PD at near. After 6 months, slanted lateral rectus recession reduced the deviation angles to 2?PD at distance and 3.4?PD at near. In addition, the mean difference between distance and near deviation angles was significantly reduced from 11?PD to 1.4?PD at 6 months postoperatively. Slanted lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency in children successfully reduced the distance and near exodeviations and the near-distance difference without increasing the risk of long-term postoperative esotropia or diplopia. PMID:25688298

  2. Orbital paraganglioma presenting as lateral rectus enlargement and its novel management: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Abbas; Aletaha, Maryam; Salour, Hossein; Abdollahi, Asieh; Silbert, David; Rezaei-Kanavi, Mozhgan

    2012-08-01

    Paragangliomas of the orbit are extremely rare. We report on a case of paraganglioma manifesting as enlargement of the lateral rectus muscle. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the orbit showed typical salt and pepper appearance of the mass and pathologic examination was consistent with paraganglioma. The patient underwent surgery with total removal of lateral rectus muscle. Alignment was preserved by a half tendon transposition of the vertical rectus muscles to the insertion of the resected lateral rectus muscle. Isolated lateral rectus enlargement has not been previously reported as a manifestation of paraganglioma. PMID:22681523

  3. Hydatid cyst in rectus abdominis muscle in a child: An unusual occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Chiranjib; Ghosh, Mrinalkanti; Ghosh, Taraknath; Dey, Shamik; Maji, Pallabhi

    2011-01-01

    Hydatid cysts usually involve the liver; extrahepatic localization is reported in 11% of all cases of abdominal hydatid disease. Cyst at unusual localization includes kidney, heart, spleen, pancreas and brain. Isolated involvement of muscle is also rare in children. Here is a case of hydatid cyst in a female child involving the rectus abdominis muscle, which is a very rare presentation. There were no cysts in any other location. Serological tests were negative for cystic echinococcosis. The patient was operated on and the cyst was completely excised. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. PMID:23508209

  4. Hydatid cyst in rectus abdominis muscle in a child: An unusual occurrence.

    PubMed

    Nag, Chiranjib; Ghosh, Mrinalkanti; Ghosh, Taraknath; Dey, Shamik; Maji, Pallabhi

    2011-07-01

    Hydatid cysts usually involve the liver; extrahepatic localization is reported in 11% of all cases of abdominal hydatid disease. Cyst at unusual localization includes kidney, heart, spleen, pancreas and brain. Isolated involvement of muscle is also rare in children. Here is a case of hydatid cyst in a female child involving the rectus abdominis muscle, which is a very rare presentation. There were no cysts in any other location. Serological tests were negative for cystic echinococcosis. The patient was operated on and the cyst was completely excised. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. PMID:23508209

  5. Large Asymmetric Hypertrophy of Rectus Abdominis Muscle in Professional Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Idoate, Fernando; Dorado, Cecilia; Alayón, Santiago; Calbet, Jose A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the musculus rectus abdominis (RA) in professional tennis players. Methods The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 8 professional male tennis players and 6 non-active male control subjects. Results Tennis players had 58% greater RA volume than controls (P?=?0.01), due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (34% greater volume, P?=?0.02) and non-dominant (82% greater volume, P?=?0.01) sides, after accounting for age, the length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI) as covariates. In tennis players, there was a marked asymmetry in the development of the RA, which volume was 35% greater in the non-dominant compared to the dominant side (P<0.001). In contrast, no side-to-side difference in RA volume was observed in the controls (P?=?0.75). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry increased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis (r?=?0.97, P<0.001). Conclusions Professional tennis is associated with marked hypertrophy of the musculus rectus abdominis, which achieves a volume that is 58% greater than in non-active controls. Rectus abdominis hypertrophy is more marked in the non-dominant than in the dominant side, particularly in the more distal regions. Our study supports the concept that humans can differentially recruit both rectus abdominis but also the upper and lower regions of each muscle. It remains to be determined if this disequilibrium raises the risk of injury. PMID:21209832

  6. Using the traditional model to evaluate the active force of the human lateral rectus muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, ZhiPeng; Chen, WeiYi; Jing, Lin; Feng, PengFei; Wu, XiaoGang; Guo, HongMei

    2014-05-01

    The information on the force of extraocular muscles (EOMs) is beneficial for strabismus diagnosis and surgical planning, and a direct and simple method is important for surgeons to obtain these forces. Based on the traditional model, a numerical simulation method was proposed to achieve this aim, and then the active force of the lateral rectus (LR) muscle was successfully simulated when the eye rotated every angle from 0° to 30° in the horizontal plane from the nasal to the temporal side. In order to verify these simulations, the results were compared with the previous experimental data. The comparison shows that the simulation results diverged much more than the experimental data in the range of 0°-10°. The errors were corrected to make the simulation results closer to the experimental data. Finally, a general empirical equation was proposed to evaluate the active force of the LR muscle by fitting these data, which represent the relationship between the simulation forces and the contractive amounts of the LR muscle.

  7. Contractile properties of single skinned fibres from the extraocular muscles, the levator and superior rectus, of the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, G S; Frueh, B R; Williams, D A

    1994-01-01

    1. The superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris (levator), two of the extraocular muscles, were dissected from the rabbit and stored in a glycerol-based solution at -20 degrees C in order to prepare single, skinned fibres. 2. The Ca(2+)- and Sr(2+)-activated isometric contractile properties were determined for individual extraocular muscle fibres. Fibres were separated into discrete groups or fibre types on the basis of their physiological characteristics. The superior rectus and levator muscles were both found to consist of fibres which exhibited similar contractile characteristics to fast- and slow-twitch fibres from other mammalian muscle, including type I, type IIA and type IIB fibres. 3. As well as the existence of the normal, classical fibre types in extraocular muscle there were also a large number of fibres from both muscles which exhibited mixed fast- and slow-twitch contractile characteristics within the single contracting unit. Of the fibres sampled, the mixed fibres comprised the second largest population (7/19, 37%) in the levator and the largest fibre population in the superior rectus (11/31, 35.5%). These results are consistent with histochemical and immunohistochemical reports in the literature which suggest the co-existence of fast and slow myosin along the length of the extraocular muscle fibres. 4. Extraocular muscle fibres exhibited lower absolute maximum forces compared with other mammalian limb muscle fibres. However, when corrected for fibre cross-sectional area, the maximum tension development was within the normal range for mammalian limb muscle fibres, except for one group (type IIA) of fast-twitch fibres which exhibited significantly lower maximal tension. 5. The existence of a large proportion of fibres with composite fast- and slow-twitch characteristics highlights the functional and morphological complexity of these muscles. It is postulated that the functional significance of these mixed fibres may be to provide or enhance the resolution for subtle, precise movements of the eye and eyelid. PMID:8021839

  8. Short vs. long length of rectus femoris during eccentric exercise in relation to muscle damage in healthy males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassilis Paschalis; Yiannis Koutedakis; Vassilios Baltzopoulos; Vassilis Mougios; Athanasios Z. Jamurtas; Giannis Giakas

    2005-01-01

    Background. We investigated the effects of short vs. long length of rectus femoris during eccentric exercise of similar range of motion on selected muscle damage indicators.Methods. Using an isokinetic dynamometer at 1.05rad\\/s, 12 healthy male [mean (standard deviation), 21 (2) years] volunteers randomly underwent two exercise sessions, one on each leg, 14 days apart. During each session, subjects had to

  9. Multiple brain parenchymal neurocysticercosis with extraocular muscle cysticercosis affecting levator palpebral superioris and superior rectus complex: an unusual association

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented to the neurology department with a complaint of insidious onset of left-sided ptosis and restricted elevation of the left eye. A CT scan orbit and brain revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the levator palpebral superioris (LPS) and superior rectus (SR) muscle complex of the left eye and left parietal and right temporal region. She was started on steroid, followed by albendazole with improvement. The LPS/SR complex is the least common site of involvement among extraocular muscles in ocular cysticercosis. Specially, with brain neurocysticercosis (NCC), it is extremely rare. We report an unusual association of multiple brain NCC with ocular cysticercosis involving LPS and SR muscle. PMID:23355567

  10. Predicting outcomes of rectus femoris transfer surgery Jeffrey A. Reinbolt a,

    E-print Network

    Delp, Scott

    and Motion Analysis, Gillette Children's Specialty Healthcare, United States 1. Introduction Stiff knee gait rectus femoris transfer for a six-patient testing set with an 18-patient training set. Kay et al. [17 team. A better understanding of factors that predict outcomes is necessary to refine the clinical

  11. Successful management of recalcitrant infection related to total hip replacement using pedicled rectus femoris or vastus lateralis muscle flaps.

    PubMed

    Choa, R; Gundle, R; Critchley, P; Giele, H

    2011-06-01

    Deep prosthetic joint infection remains an uncommon but serious complication of total hip replacement. We reviewed 24 patients with recalcitrant hip wounds following infected total hip replacement treated with either pedicled rectus femoris or vastus lateralis muscle flaps between 1998 and 2009. The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years (42 to 86) with ten men and 14 women. There had been a mean of four (1 to 8) previous attempts to close the wound. A total of 20 rectus femoris and five vastus lateralis flaps were used, with one of each type of flap failing and requiring further reconstruction. All patients had positive microbiology. At a mean follow-up of 47 months (9 to 128), 22 patients had a healed wound and two had a persistent sinus. The prosthesis had been retained in five patients. In the remainder it had been removed, and subsequently re-implanted in nine patients. Six patients continued to take antibiotics at final follow-up. This series demonstrates the effectiveness of pedicled muscle flaps in healing these infected wounds. The high number of previous debridements suggests that these flaps could have been used earlier. PMID:21586772

  12. Bilateral simultaneous heterotopic ossification of the reflected head of rectus femoris muscle: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tonbul, Murat; Ozen, Seyma; Tonbul, Ayse Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Lamellar bone formation in an abnormal location is defined as heterotopic ossification. It commonly occurs around the hip joint and most often involves the abductor muscles. It is a benign condition; however, its etiology remains largely unknown. Most previously reported cases have been due to trauma or intramuscular hemorrhage. In this paper, we present a case of bilateral heterotopic ossification of the reflected head of rectus femoris muscle without antecedent trauma or any other known cause, as the first and unique case in the literature. She was treated by excision of the right symptomatic bony mass via a modified Smith-Petersen approach. Postoperatively, she received 75?mg indomethacin daily for six weeks. She was pain-free and obtained full range of motion 3 weeks after the first intervention. PMID:24804132

  13. Distal rectus femoris transfer as part of multilevel surgery in children with spastic diplegia--a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dreher, Thomas; Götze, Marco; Wolf, Sebastian I; Hagmann, Sebastién; Heitzmann, Daniel; Gantz, Simone; Braatz, Frank

    2012-06-01

    The evidence in support of distal rectus femoris transfer (DRFT) as part of single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS) is limited due to inconsistent outcome reports and a lack of randomized studies. The purpose of this prospective randomized trial was to establish whether the results of SEMLS without DRFT are similar to those of a conventional approach that includes DRFT in the SEMLS. In all, 32 children with spastic diplegia (GMFCS I-III) and an indication for DRFT were recruited and randomized into a DRFT (15 children) and a NON-DRFT group (17 children) using a minimization method. During SEMLS, bilateral DRFT was performed only in the DRFT group. Three-dimensional gait analysis and clinical examination were performed before and 1 year after surgery. In both groups a significant increase in range of motion during swing and knee flexion velocity were found, which was significantly higher in the DRFT group. While peak knee flexion in swing (pKFSw) was preserved in the DRFT group and significantly decreased in the NON-DRFT group, pKFSw timing was significantly earlier in both groups. The clinical relevance of the higher overall benefits in the DRFT group is limited, considering that 33% of patients in this group did not benefit from the procedure. Furthermore, 53% of the NON-DRFT patients did not undergo what proved to be an unnecessary DRFT. Subgroup analysis showed benefits for patients with decreased pKFSw, while those with severe flexed-knee gait (normal or increased pKFSw) did not profit from DRFT. This may explain the inconsistent overall results, and DRFT is therefore not recommended as a "prophylactic" procedure in patients with severe flexed-knee gait. PMID:22425637

  14. Adal?1 bioadhesive for sutureless recession muscle surgery: a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mulet, M E; Alió, J L; Mahiques, M M

    2006-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the efficacy and biotolerance of the Adal?1 adhesive for muscle sealing in strabismus surgery. Methods 27 eyes were included in the study: 17 in the control group and 10 in the study group. Surgery was performed on the recession of the horizontal rectus muscles. In the control group the muscle was joined to the sclera by a Vicryl 7/0 suture. In the study group, the Adal?1 adhesive was used instead. The efficacy of the sealing of the muscle to the sclera and the biotolerance of the surrounding tissues were evaluated. Results The muscular recession in the control group was 8.17 (SD 2.38) with displacement of the sealing point of 0.02 (1.7) mm. In the group sealed with adhesive, the muscular recession was 9.09 (3.08) and the displacement was 0.15 (1.56) mm, with no significant differences between the techniques (p<0.05). The inflammation of the surrounding tissues in the immediate postoperative period was greater with the suture technique (p>0.05), but there were no differences in the other postoperative periods (Mann?Whitney U test). Conclusion Adal?1 was an effective and safe alternative to sutures in muscle recession for strabismus surgery in this study. PMID:16424535

  15. Comparison of the gluteus medius and rectus femoris muscle activities during natural sit-to-stand and sit-to-stand with hip abduction in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eun-Mi; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the relative levels of activation of the gluteus medius (Gmed) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles during natural (N) sit-to-stand (STS) and STS with hip abduction (ABD) in young and elderly females. [Subjects] We recruited 15 healthy young females and 15 healthy elderly females. [Methods] The activities of the dominant lower extremity gluteus medius (Gmed) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were measured using a wireless electromyography (EMG) system for natural STS and STS with hip abduction. [Result] In the elderly subjects, the Gmed increased significantly and RF decreased significantly when STS was performed with hip ABD compared with when it was performed naturally. The Gmed in the elderly subjects was significantly increased during natural STS compared with in the young subjects. [Conclusion] These results indicate that the Gmed was recruited to compensate for weakened RF muscle function in the elderly adults. PMID:25729171

  16. Comparison of the gluteus medius and rectus femoris muscle activities during natural sit-to-stand and sit-to-stand with hip abduction in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun-Mi; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the relative levels of activation of the gluteus medius (Gmed) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles during natural (N) sit-to-stand (STS) and STS with hip abduction (ABD) in young and elderly females. [Subjects] We recruited 15 healthy young females and 15 healthy elderly females. [Methods] The activities of the dominant lower extremity gluteus medius (Gmed) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were measured using a wireless electromyography (EMG) system for natural STS and STS with hip abduction. [Result] In the elderly subjects, the Gmed increased significantly and RF decreased significantly when STS was performed with hip ABD compared with when it was performed naturally. The Gmed in the elderly subjects was significantly increased during natural STS compared with in the young subjects. [Conclusion] These results indicate that the Gmed was recruited to compensate for weakened RF muscle function in the elderly adults. PMID:25729171

  17. Two cases of hypotropia and dissociated vertical deviation treated with oblique muscle surgery.

    PubMed

    Niyaz, Leyla; Gursoy, Haluk Huseyin; Basmak, Hikmet

    2014-01-01

    The authors report two cases with vertical deviations. The first patient had right exotropia and hypotropia and left inferior oblique overaction and was treated with left inferior oblique muscle weakening and bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession. The second patient had chin-up posture and right dissociated vertical deviation and was treated with bilateral superior oblique posterior tenotomy. PMID:25490238

  18. Outcome of unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection in primary exotropia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to measure the success rate of unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection in primary exotropia. Methods This is an interventional case series of 55 patients with primary exotropia (degree of deviation 15–85 PD), above the age of 5 years. Patients were treated in the Department of Ophthalmology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan, during the period of July 2009 to March 2010. All the patients underwent surgical procedure i.e., lateral rectus muscle recession (maximum up to 10 mm) and medial rectus muscle resection (up to 6 mm) of one eye, according to the Park’s method. Surgery was done based on prism cover test measurements obtained at 6 m with appropriate optical correction in place. Patients were re evaluated at one day, one month, two months and six months post operatively. Final outcome was considered at the end of six months at which achievement of ?10 PD of exotropia was the success. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 17.0. Results We obtained success (?10 PD) in 42 out of 55 patients (76.4%) and 13 out of 55 patients (23.6%) did not meet our criteria for surgical success (>10 PD). Analysis of success with the type of primary exotropia showed that success was achieved in 22 out of 24 cases of intermittent type (91.6%) and 20 out of 31 cases of constant type (64.5%)(P Value 0.019). The highest percentage of success was achieved in patients with the pre-operative deviation of ?70 PD i.e., 93.3% (42 out of 45 cases), while none of the patients with the pre-operative deviation of >70 PD (10 out of 10 cases) achieved the criteria for success. Conclusion We conclude that pre-operative deviation is one of the strongest predictor for favorable surgical outcome. Therefore, eliminating the factors causing error in the correct determination of pre-operative deviation should improve the success and predictability of the surgical outcome. Despite the obstacles in the surgical management of strabismus, our results are encouraging. PMID:23834953

  19. Evaluation of Risk Factors for Rectus Sheath Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Heena S; Kumar, Rohit; DiNella, Jeannine; Janov, Cheryl; Kaldas, Hoda; Smith, Roy E

    2014-10-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) develops due to rupture of epigastric arteries or the rectus muscle. Although RSH incidence rate is low, it poses a significant diagnostic dilemma. We evaluated the risk factors for RSH, its presentation, management, and outcomes for 115 patients hospitalized with confirmed RSH by computed tomography scan between January 2005 and June 2009. More than three-fourth (77.4%) of the patients were on anticoagulation therapy, 58.3% patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage ?3, 51.3% had abdominal injections, 41.7% were on steroids/immunosuppressant therapy, 37.4% had abdominal surgery/trauma, 33.9% had cough, femoral puncture was performed in 31.3% of patients, and 29.5% were on antiplatelet therapy. Rectus sheath hematoma was not an attributable cause in any of the 17 deaths. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with CKD stage ?3 (P = .03) or who required transfusion (P = .007). Better understanding of RSH risk factors will facilitate early diagnoses and improve management. PMID:25294636

  20. SOD mRNA and MDA Expression in Rectus Femoris Muscle of Rats with Different Eccentric Exercise Programs and Time Points

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Heng; Liu, Jiani; Pan, Shinong; Sun, Yingwei; Li, Qi; Li, Fei; Ma, Li; Guo, Qiyong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) affect Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS), their effects are unclear in rectus femoris muscles (RFM) of rats with different eccentric exercise programs and time points. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the various eccentric exercise programs at different time points on the SOD mRNA expression and MDA using rat as the animal model. Methods 248 male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (CTL, n?=?8), once-only exercise group (OEG, n?=?80), continuous exercise group (CEG, n?=?80), and intermittent exercise group (IEG, n?=?80). Each exercise group was divided into 10 subgroups that exercised 0.5 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 120 h, 144 h, or 168 h. Rats were sacrificed and their SOD mRNA expression, and MDA concentrations of skeletal muscle tissue were measured. Results The specimen in all eccentric exercise programs showed increased RFM SOD1 mRNA expression levels at 0.5 h (P<0.05), and decreased RFM SOD3 mRNA expression at 0.5 h (P<0.05). The continuous eccentric exercise (CE) significantly enhanced muscle SOD2 mRNA level at 0.5 h (P<0.05). After once-only eccentric exercise (OE), SOD1, SOD2, and SOD3 mRNA expression significantly increased at 96 h, whereas MDA concentrations decreased at 96 h. After CE, the correlation coefficients of SOD1, SOD2, SOD3 mRNA expression levels and MDA concentrations were ?0.814, ?0.763, ?0.845 (all P<0.05) at 12 h. Conclusion Regular eccentric exercise, especially CE could enhance SOD1 and SOD2 mRNA expression in acute stage and the SOD2 mRNA expression correlates to MDA concentration in vivo, which may improve the oxidative adaption ability of skeletal muscles. PMID:24058480

  1. Preliminary report: analgesia with Remifentanil for complicated eye muscle surgery.

    PubMed

    Rübsam, B; Schäfer, W D; Schulte, B; Roewer, N

    2000-12-01

    The authors report a new anesthetic technique that is especially suitable for the surgery of complicated disorders of ocular motility. Analgesia is achieved by an intravenous dose of Remifentanil, an opioid that is normally used together with propophol as a form of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) for general anesthesia. The advantage of Remifentanil is a rapid increase (1-2 min.) and decrease (3-4 min.) of the effect. Eye muscle surgery can then be performed on a patient who is free of pain and slightly sedated. After the planned eye muscle surgery, while the patient is still under anesthesia, the muscle sutures are tied provisionally. Afterwards, the squint angle can be measured with a cover test and the patient is questioned about the presence of diplopia. If the position of the eye is not satisfactory, the knots can be loosened and the muscle can be fixated in another position. PMID:11262689

  2. Surgical Outcome of Medial Rectus Resection in Recurrent Exotropia: A Novel Surgical Formula

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Abbie Sheung-Wan; Yam, Jason Cheuk-Sing; Lau, Henry Hing-Wai; Yip, Wilson Wai-Kuen; Young, Alvin Lerrmann

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the surgical outcomes of unilateral or bilateral medial rectus (MR) muscle resection for recurrent exotropia after bilateral lateral rectus (BLR) muscle recession based on a novel surgical formula. Methods. Forty-one consecutive patients with unilateral or bilateral MR muscle resection for recurrent exotropia after BLR muscle recession were included in this retrospective study. All surgeries were performed according to the formula: 1.0?mm MR muscle resection for every 5 prism dioptres (PD) of exotropia, with an addition of 0.5?mm to each MR muscle operated on. Results. The mean recurrent exotropia distant deviation was 28?PD ± 11.2 (range 14 to 55?PD). Overall at postoperative 1 month, 36 (88%) achieved successful outcomes, 4 (10%) had undercorrection, and 1 (2%) had overcorrection. At postoperative 6 months, 29 (71%) achieved successful outcomes, 12 (29%) had undercorrection, and none had overcorrection. Subgroup analysis showed no statistically significant difference in success rates between unilateral and bilateral MR groups. Conclusion. Unilateral or bilateral MR muscle resection using our surgical formula is a safe and effective method for calculating the amount of MR resection in moderate to large angle recurrent exotropia, with a low overcorrection rate.

  3. Changes in the Range of Motion of the Hip Joint and the Muscle Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris of Stroke Patients during Obstacles Crossing on the Ground and Underwater

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung-chul; Han, Seul-ki; Kim, Seung-kyun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine range of motion (ROM) and the muscle activity of stroke patients during obstacle task on the ground and underwater. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were seven stroke patients in a hospital located in Daejeon, South Korea. [Methods] The measurements in this study were conducted in an exercise therapy room and a pool dedicated to underwater exercise (water temperature 33.5?°C, air temperature 27?°C) in the hospital building. The pool’s water depth was determined by considering the levels of the xiphoid process of the study subjects. Ten-centimeter-high obstacles were used. An electrogoniometer was used to examine the ROM of flexion and extension of the hip joints on the affected side. An MP150 system a BioNomadix 2-channel wireless EMG transmitter was used to examine the muscle activity of the rectus femoris and biceps femoris of the affected side. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the unaffected side was supported, that the affected side moved, and that the hip joint was bent more underwater than on the ground. The rectus femoris and bicpes femoris were activated significantly less underwater than on the ground in all sections. PMID:25202169

  4. A novel technique for inferior rectus recession

    PubMed Central

    Gokyigit, Birsen; Akar, Serpil; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To introduce a novel technique of inferior rectus recession operation to allow larger amounts of recession without causing lower lid retraction and to compare this method with the results obtained in standard inferior rectus recession. Material and methods This study included 20 patients operated on in the authors’ clinic. The median age of the patients was 24.5±18.6 (4–73) years and the median follow-up was 9.3±11.8 (3–43) months. Ten patients operated on with the standard method were labeled Group 1 and ten patients operated on with the new method were labeled Group 2. Without exceeding 4 mm, inferior rectus recession to the whole muscle was performed in Group 1 patients. Inferior rectus recession was also performed on patients in Group 2 following the new method. Using a spatula, approximately 10% of the muscle surface fibers were detached intact as a thin layer, and the remaining 90% of deeper fibers were recessed 4–8 mm as planned. Patients’ preoperative deviations and lower lid positions were recorded. The same parameters were checked in the first and third month postoperatively. Both groups were evaluated retrospectively by screening their files, and the Mann–Whitney U test was used for statistical evaluation. Results Lower lid retraction was seen in four patients of Group 1. There was no retraction in Group 2. While there was a need to perform additional vertical muscle procedures for vertical deviations and lower lid retractions in Group 1, it was observed that there was no need for additional procedures in Group 2 patients. There was a statistically meaningful difference between the two procedures (P<0.05). Conclusion This novel technique was found to be an effective surgical method for permitting more recession without the risk of lower lid retraction. PMID:24492531

  5. Predictive Factors Affecting the Short Term and Long Term Exodrift in Patients with Intermittent Exotropia after Bilateral Rectus Muscle Recession and Its Effect on Surgical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Jason C. S.; Chong, Gabriela S. L.; Wu, Patrick K. W.; Wong, Ursula S. F.; Chan, Clement W. N.; Ko, Simon T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the predictive factors that affect short term and long term postoperative drift in intermittent exotropia after bilateral lateral rectus recession and to evaluate its effect on surgical outcome. Methods. Retrospective review of 203 patients with diagnosis of intermittent exotropia, who had surgical corrections with more than 3 years of followup. Different preoperative parameters were obtained and evaluated using Pearson's correlation analysis. Results. The proportion of exodrift increased from 62% at 6 weeks to 84% at 3 years postoperatively. The postoperative drift was 4.3 ± 8.1?PD at 6 weeks, 5.8 ± 8.4?PD at 6 months, 7.2 ± 8.3?PD at 1 year, 7.4 ± 8.4?PD at 2 years, and 7.7 ± 8.5?PD at 3 years. Preoperative deviation and initial overcorrection were significant factors affecting the postoperative drift at 3 years (r = 0.177, P = 0.011, r = ?0.349, and P < 0.001, resp.). Conclusions. Postoperative exodrift along three years occurs in a majority of patients after bilateral lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia. The long term surgical success is significantly affected by this postoperative exodrift. A larger preoperative deviation and a larger initial overcorrection are associated with a larger early and late postoperative exodrift. PMID:25093170

  6. Intraoperative assessment of medial rectus pulley location in strabismus.

    PubMed

    Thouvenin, Dominique; Norbert, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Purpose. Extraocular muscle (EOM) pulleys are important in eye movement physiology and may play a role in the outcome of strabismus surgery. Few studies have evaluated "normal" position of EOM pulleys. We sought to assess intraoperatively medial rectus (MR) pulley location and variations in a prospective observational case series. Methods. A total of 194 consecutive patients with all types of strabismus aged 2 to 64 years had primary surgery on MR. We conducted 357 measures of the distance between scleral insertion of MR and anterior part of the pulley. We compared results to preoperative angle of deviation, age, refraction, and position of eyes under anesthesia. Results. Median location of the anterior part of the MR's pulley is 12.03 mm from scleral insertion, varying from 8 to 15 mm. There is a strong relation with refraction (p=0.005) and with preoperative angle of deviation (p=0.00002) and deviation under anesthesia (p=0.0001). The MR's pulley tends to be more anterior in hyperopic cases and esotropias, and posterior in myopias and exotropias. Conclusions. Our study shows physiologic variations of MR's pulley position with evidence of an adaptation to biometric parameters of the globe, represented by refraction state of the eyes in our study. Elsewhere, strabismus leads to an independent variation of MR's pulley location evaluated relatively to muscle's scleral insertion, but probably not if evaluated relatively to the orbit. We discuss consequences on ocular motility and surgery of these variations. They may explain some unexpected effects of strabismus surgery. Further studies are needed to ascertain their real impact. PMID:22865400

  7. Our experience using the vertical rectus abdominis muscle flap for reconstruction in 12 patients with dehiscence of a median sternotomy wound and mediastinitis.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, James H W; Probst, Fey; Niranjan, Niri S; Meuli, Claudia; Vogt, Paul; Lidman, Disa; Andersson, Lena C

    2003-01-01

    The vertical rectus abdominis (VRAM) flap has been used for reconstruction of sternal defects, particularly in the inferior third, since it was first described 20 years ago. We describe 12 patients with mediastinitis or chronic sternal osteomyelitis after sternotomy treated between 1994 and 1997, nine performed at the Royal Hospitals Trust, London. Sternal osteomyelitis and mediastinitis after median sternotomy is an uncommon (0.4%-8.4%) but often fatal condition. Vascularised pedicles are the treatment of choice, and VRAM flaps were used in all cases. We report good long-term outcome with a follow up of 2-5 years, and no long-term morbidity relating to the VRAM reconstruction. We had only one partial failure of a flap. The operations were largely done in hospitals away from the plastic surgical unit in extremely sick patients, which illustrates the importance of multidisciplinary management to reduce hospital stay, mortality, and morbidity. We argue that early involvement of plastic surgical specialists in the treatment of sternal dehiscence is essential to ensure a successful outcome. PMID:14649684

  8. Contribution of Pain to Inspiratory Muscle Dysfunction after Upper Abdominal Surgery A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THEODOROS VASSILAKOPOULOS; ZAFIRIA MASTORA; PARASKEVI KATSAOUNOU; GEORGE DOUKAS; SERAFIM KLIMOPOULOS; CHARIS ROUSSOS; SPYROS ZAKYNTHINOS

    Upper abdominal surgery causes respiratory muscle dysfunction. Multiple factors have been implicated in the occurrence of such dysfunction; however, the role of pain remains unclear. To eluci- date the role of pain, we studied 50 patients undergoing elective upper abdominal surgery in a randomized, controlled investiga- tion. Inspiratory and expiratory muscle function were assessed through sniff mouth pressure (Psniff) and

  9. Does minimally invasive lumbar disc surgery result in less muscle injury than conventional surgery? A randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark ArtsRonald; Ronald Brand; Bas van der Kallen; Geert Lycklama à Nijeholt; Wilco Peul

    2011-01-01

    The concept of minimally invasive lumbar disc surgery comprises reduced muscle injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate\\u000a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in serum and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the multifidus muscle on magnetic resonance imaging\\u000a as indicators of muscle injury. We present the results of a double-blind randomized trial on patients with lumbar disc herniation,\\u000a in which

  10. Intractable pain due to rectus abdominis intramuscular haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Scozzari, G; Reddavid, R; Conti, L; Trombetta, F; Toppino, M; Sandrucci, S

    2014-08-01

    Haemangiomas are tumours of vascular origin accounting for approximately 7 % of all benign tumours. Three types of haemangioma have been described according to the vessel type involved: capillary, cavernous and mixed. Intramuscular haemangiomas (IMHs) are infrequent, accounting for less than 1 % of all haemangiomas and are mostly located in the extremities and the trunk. Intramuscular haemangiomas of the rectus abdominis muscle are extremely rare, with only one previous case reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. In this report, we present the case of a patient with intractable pain related to IMHs of the rectus abdominis and we analyse diagnostic assessment and surgical management of the condition. PMID:23263560

  11. Dengue Fever With Rectus Sheath Hematoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Bhatia, Sonia; Singh, Rajendra Pratap; Malik, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the Dengue virus. It is associated with a number of complications, which are well documented. However, Dengue fever associated with rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a very rare complication. Only one case report has been published prior supporting the association of Dengue fever with RSH. We report a case of Dengue fever who presented with RSH and was successfully treated conservatively. RSH is also an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear. PMID:25161976

  12. Abdominal wall competence after free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap harvest: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Suominen, S; Asko-Seljavaara, S; Kinnunen, J; Sainio, P; Alaranta, H

    1997-09-01

    A prospective study was designed to evaluate the possible changes in abdominal wall strength following free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap surgery for breast reconstruction. Twenty-two patients were examined 1 day before surgery, and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Trunk muscle strength was measured by the same physiotherapist using an isokinetic dynamometer (Lido Multi Joint II, Loredan Biomedical Inc., Davies, CA). The peak torque and average torque for both flexion and extension at 60 degrees per second angular velocity were recorded from the curves obtained. There was a significant reduction in trunk flexion strength at 3 months postoperatively (peak torque mean, 92% of the preoperative value; p = 0.04), but this was corrected by 6 months (mean, 96%), and improved to 98% by 12 months. The patient's ability to do curled trunk sit-ups was evaluated by the same physiotherapist and graded on a scale from 1 to 6. In 9 of 19 patients the operation had no effect on sit-up performance during follow-up. In 10 of 19 patients there was a reduction of one or two grades at 3 months that did not improve by 12 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdominal wall was performed on 9 patients. The mean area of the upper third of both rectus muscles was measured on the axial images. At 3 months postoperatively the mean area of the upper third of the donor muscle was significantly larger than the contralateral (p = 0.03). There was no difference in size at 6 months, and by 12 months the donor side was smaller. This prospective study shows that harvesting of a free TRAM flap can cause a subclinical reduction in abdominal strength, although this was not noticed by the patients themselves. PMID:9326701

  13. A case report on radiation-induced angiosarcoma of breast post skin-sparing mastectomy and reconstruction with transverse rectus abdominal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Aljarrah, Adil; Nos, Claude; Clough, Krishna B; Lefrere-Belda, Marie Aude; Lecuru, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced angiosarcomas (RIA) are rare tumours that can affect breast cancer patients following treatment with breast conservative surgery and radiotherapy. Their diagnosis is often delayed because of their benign appearance and the difficulty in differentiation from radiation-induced skin changes. We report here a case of RIA which occurred seven years after radiotherapy to highlight awareness of the disease and the role of careful histological evaluation of these tumours. PMID:24605134

  14. Journal of Biomechanics 41 (2008) 23622369 Importance of preswing rectus femoris activity in stiff-knee gait

    E-print Network

    Delp, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Journal of Biomechanics 41 (2008) 2362­2369 Importance of preswing rectus femoris activity in stiff-knee May 2008 Abstract Stiff-knee gait is characterized by diminished and delayed knee flexion during swing. Rectus femoris transfer surgery, a common treatment for stiff-knee gait, is often recommended when

  15. Recovery of muscle strength following multi-level orthopaedic surgery in diplegic cerebral palsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Seniorou; Nicky Thompson; Marian Harrington; Tim Theologis

    2007-01-01

    Muscle strength changes following multi-level surgery in cerebral palsy and the impact of rehabilitation on functional recovery are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify lower limb muscle strength changes in children with spastic diplegia after multi-level orthopaedic surgery and to compare the efficacy of progressive resistance strengthening (RS) versus active exercise (AE).Twenty children with spastic diplegia

  16. The effects of muscle-tendon surgery on dynamic electromyographic patterns and muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Dreher, T; Brunner, R; Vegvari, D; Heitzmann, D; Gantz, S; Maier, M W; Braatz, F; Wolf, S I

    2013-06-01

    During multilevel surgery, muscle-tendon lengthening (MTL) is commonly carried out in children with cerebral palsy. However, it is unclear if MTL also modifies increased muscle tone and if pathologic activation patterns are changed as an indirect effect of the biomechanical changes. Since investigations addressing this issue are limited, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of MTL on muscle tone and activation pattern. Forty-two children with spastic diplegia who were treated by MTL underwent standardized muscle tone testing (modified Ashworth and Tardieu test), dynamic EMG and three-dimensional gait analysis before, one and three years after MTL. For the evaluation of muscle activation patterns the norm-distance of dynamic EMG data was analyzed. Range of motion and joint alignment in clinical examination were found to be significantly improved one year after MTL. However, deterioration of these parameters was noted after three years. Muscle tone was significantly reduced one year postoperatively but showed an increase after three years. Joint kinematics were found significantly closer to reference data of age matched controls initially after surgery, but deteriorated until three years postoperatively. However, the EMG patterns of the muscles which were surgically addressed were found to be unchanged in either follow-up. These findings suggest that despite the influence of MTS on biomechanics and physiology (muscle tone reduction and improvements of joint mobility and gait pattern) MTS does not change abnormal patterns of muscle activation. Recurrence of increased muscle tone and deterioration of kinematic parameters three years after surgery may be attributed to these persistent pathologic activation patterns. PMID:23228624

  17. Evaluation of macular thickness change after inferior oblique muscle recession surgery

    PubMed Central

    Turan-Vural, Ece; Unlu, Cihan; Erdogan, Gurkan; Aykut, Aslan; Bayramlar, Huseyin; Atmaca, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the changes in macular thickness following inferior oblique muscle recession surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight eyes from 21 patients undergoing ocular muscle surgery were included. Patients were grouped into three groups based on the type of surgical intervention: Group I (n = 12), inferior oblique recession surgery alone; Group II (n = 12), inferior oblique plus horizontal muscle surgery; Group III (n = 14), horizontal muscle surgery alone. Each eye was scanned using the optical coherence tomography (OCT) device preoperatively and on the first postoperative day to measure macular thickness. Results: Following surgery, a significant increase in foveal thickness occurred in Group I (P < 0.05) and Group II (P < 0.01). In addition, a statistically significant difference was observed between the groups with regard to the increase in foveal thickness (P = 0.016), with significantly lower changes in Group III. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that inferior oblique muscle recession surgery is associated with an increase in macular thickness. PMID:25005201

  18. Muscle-tendon surgery in diplegic cerebral palsy: functional and mechanical changes.

    PubMed

    Abel, M F; Damiano, D L; Pannunzio, M; Bush, J

    1999-01-01

    A prospective assessment of muscle-tendon (M-T) surgery was conducted on 30 patients with spastic diplegia. Muscle-tendon surgery consisted of recessions or releases to improve gait function by correcting restricted joint motion and joint malalignment. Functional-outcome measures included the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and temporal gait factors. Kinematic gait data were evaluated to determine the mechanical effects. The mean age at surgery was 8.7 years (4-20 years), and 3.5 muscle tendon units per extremity were recessed or released at surgery. The primary kinematic change for the hip and the knee was a shift in the sagittal joint position with minimal effects on overall excursion. Changes in ankle-joint dynamics after gastrocsoleus recessions included a reduction in plantarflexion and a shift in the timing of maximal dorsiflexion to later in stance. Improvements in walking velocity and stride length were evident by 6 month after surgery. Functional changes from M-T surgery included a 25% increase in velocity and an 18% increase in stride length over preoperative values seen at 9 months after surgery. Improvements in these parameters were maintained at 2 years after surgery. The GMFM total score showed minimal change after surgery with improvements occurring primarily in the standing dimension and the walking, running, and jumping dimensions. PMID:10344322

  19. Localization of motoneurons innervating the extraocular muscles in the chameleon ( Chamaeleo chameleon )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. El Hassni; M. Bennis; J. Repérant

    2000-01-01

    The topography and localization of motoneurons innervating the six extraocular muscles in the chameleon (Chamaeleo chameleon) was studied following HRP injection in each of these individual muscles. Four muscles were innervated ipsilaterally: medial\\u000a rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique and lateral rectus. The medial rectus muscle was innervated by the dorsomedial part\\u000a of the oculomotor nucleus. The innervation to the inferior

  20. Artificial muscles for a novel simulator in minimally invasive spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Hollensteiner, Marianne; Fuerst, David; Schrempf, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are commonly used minimally invasive methods to treat vertebral compression fractures. Novice surgeons gather surgical skills in different ways, mainly by "learning by doing" or training on models, specimens or simulators. Currently, a new training modality, an augmented reality simulator for minimally invasive spine surgeries, is going to be developed. An important step in investigating this simulator is the accurate establishment of artificial tissues. Especially vertebrae and muscles, reproducing a comparable haptical feedback during tool insertion, are necessary. Two artificial tissues were developed to imitate natural muscle tissue. The axial insertion force was used as validation parameter. It appropriates the mechanical properties of artificial and natural muscles. Validation was performed on insertion measurement data from fifteen artificial muscle tissues compared to human muscles measurement data. Based on the resulting forces during needle insertion into human muscles, a suitable material composition for manufacturing artificial muscles was found. PMID:25570007

  1. Review: minimally invasive strabismus surgery.

    PubMed

    Mojon, D S

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the principles and different techniques used to perform minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS). This term is used for strabismus surgeries minimizing tissue disruption. Muscles are not accessed through one large opening, but using several keyhole openings placed where needed for the surgical steps. If necessary, tunnels are created between cuts, which will allow performing additional surgical steps. To keep the keyhole openings small, transconjunctival suturing techniques are used. The cuts are always placed as far away from the limbus as feasible. This will reduce the risk for postoperative corneal complications and it will ensure that all cuts will be covered by the eyelids, minimizing postoperative visibility of surgery and patient discomfort. Benefits from minimizing anatomical disruption between the muscle and the surrounding tissue are a better preservation of muscle function, less swelling, and pain, and more ease to perform reoperations. MISS openings allow to perform all types of strabismus surgeries, namely rectus muscle recessions, resections, plications, reoperations, retroequatorial myopexias, transpositions, oblique muscle recessions, or plications, and adjustable sutures, even in the presence of restricted motility. PMID:25431106

  2. Combined Muscle Motor and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials for Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumour Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Il; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kang, Joong-Koo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) with combined muscle motor evoked potentials (mMEPs) and somatosensory evoked potentials is useful for more aggressive and safe resection in intramedullary spinal cord tumour (IMSCT) surgery. Materials and Methods We reviewed data from consecutive patients who underwent surgery for IMSCT between 1998 and April 2012. The patients were divided into two groups based on whether or not IONM was applied. In the monitored group, the procedures were performed under IONM using 75% muscle amplitude decline weaning criteria. The control group was comprised of patients who underwent IMSCT surgery without IONM. The primary outcome was the rate of gross total excision of the tumour on magnetic resonance imaging at one week after surgery. The secondary outcome was the neurologic outcome based on the McCormick Grade scale. Results The two groups had similar demographics. The total gross removal tended to increase when intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring was used, but this tendency did not reach statistical significance (76% versus 58%; univariate analysis, p=0.049; multivariate regression model, p=0.119). The serial McCormick scale score was similar between the two groups (based on repeated measure ANOVA). Conclusion Our study evaluated combined IONM of trans-cranial electrical (Tce)-mMEPs and SEPs for IMSCT. During IMSCT surgery, combined Tce-mMEPs and SEPs using 75% muscle amplitude weaning criteria did not result in significant improvement in the rate of gross total excision of the tumour or neurologic outcome. PMID:24954338

  3. Simultaneous Prosthetic Mesh Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Abdominoplasty for Ventral Hernia and Severe Rectus Diastasis Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Cheesborough, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard abdominoplasty rectus plication techniques may not suffice for severe cases of rectus diastasis. In the authors’ experience, prosthetic mesh facilitates the repair of severe rectus diastasis with or without concomitant ventral hernias. Methods: A retrospective review of all abdominal wall surgery patients treated in the past 8 years by the senior author (G.A.D.) was performed. Patients with abdominoplasty and either rectus diastasis repair with mesh or a combined ventral hernia repair were analyzed. Results: Thirty-two patients, 29 women and three men, underwent mesh-reinforced midline repair with horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty. Patient characteristics included the following: mean age, 53 years; mean body mass index, 26 kg/m2; average width of diastasis or hernia, 6.7 cm; and average surgery time, 151 minutes. There were no surgical-site infections and two surgical-site occurrences—two seromas treated with drainage in the office. After an average of 471 days’ follow-up, none of the patients had recurrence of a bulge or a hernia. Conclusions: For patients with significant rectus diastasis, with or without concomitant hernias, the described mesh repair is both safe and durable. Although this operation requires additional dissection and placement of prosthetic mesh in the retrorectus plane, it may be safely combined with standard horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty skin excision techniques to provide an aesthetically pleasing overall result. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:25539311

  4. Effectiveness of selective muscle-release surgery for children with cerebral palsy: longitudinal and stratified analysis.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Izumi; Hosokawa, Kanoko; Iwata, Manabu; Oda, Atsushi; Nomura, Tadao; Ikeda, Keiichi; Asagai, Yoshimi; Kohzaki, Tomokazu; Nishimura, Hitoshi

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of muscle-release surgery for children with cerebral palsy (CP) using longitudinal and stratified analysis. Twenty-five children with CP (15 females, 10 males; age range 4 to 16 years; mean age 8 years 2 months, SD 3 years 2 months) were selected from five treatment centres in Japan. Twenty-two children had spastic diplegia, two had spastic quadriplegia, and one had athetospastic quadriplegia. Motor function for each child was assessed using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). Assessment was conducted on eight separate occasions: 1 month and 1 week before surgery, and 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Participants' motor function before surgery was classified using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Six children were classified at level I, three at level II, six at level III, and 10 at level IV. A significant difference was found after surgery in the GMFCS levels III and IV groups (p<0.05). Improvement in GMFM scores between 1 week before surgery and 12 months after surgery were 1, 5, 8.5, and 8.5 for GMFCS levels I to IV respectively. Results indicate that this treatment is advantageous for improving motor function in children within GMFCS levels III and IV. PMID:15287245

  5. Contribution of the skin, rectus abdominis and their sheaths to the structural response of the abdominal wall ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Tran, D; Mitton, D; Voirin, D; Turquier, F; Beillas, P

    2014-09-22

    A better understanding of the abdominal wall biomechanics could help designing new treatments for incisional hernia. In the current study, an experimental protocol was developed to evaluate the contributions of the abdominal wall components to the structural response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall. The specimens underwent 3 dissections (removal of (1) skin and subcutaneous fat, (2) anterior rectus sheath, (3) rectus abdominis muscles). After each dissection, they were subjected to air pressure up to 3 kPa. Ultrasound images and associated elastographic maps were collected at 0, 2 and 3 kPa in the intact state and strains on the internal surface were calculated using stereo-correlation in all states. Strains on the rectus abdominis and linea alba were analyzed. After the dissection of the anterior sheath of the rectus abdominis, longitudinal strain was found significantly different on the linea alba (5% at 3 kPa) and on the rectus abdominis area (11% at 3 kPa). The current results highlight the importance of the rectus sheath in the structural response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall ex vivo. Geometrical characteristics such as thicknesses and radii of curvature and mechanical properties (shear modulus of the rectus abdominis, e.g. at 0 pressure the average value is 14 kPa) were provided in order to facilitate future modeling efforts. PMID:25065730

  6. Reduction in primary genu recurvatum gait after aponeurotic calf muscle lengthening during multilevel surgery.

    PubMed

    Klotz, M C M; Wolf, S I; Heitzmann, D; Krautwurst, B; Braatz, F; Dreher, T

    2013-11-01

    Knee hyperextension (genu recurvatum, GR) is often seen in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Primary GR appears essential without previous treatment. As equinus deformity is suspected to be one of the main factors evoking primary GR, the purpose of this study was to determine whether lengthening the calf muscles to decrease equinus would decrease coexisting GR in children with bilateral spastic CP. In a retrospective study, 19 CP patients with primary GR (mean age: 9.4 years, 13 male, 6 female, 26 involved limbs) in whom an aponeurotic calf muscle lengthening procedure was performed during single-event multilevel surgery were included and investigated using three-dimensional gait analysis before and at a mean follow-up of 14 months after the procedure according to a standardized protocol. After calf muscle lengthening, a significant improvement in ankle dorsiflexion (9.5°) and a significant reduction (10.5°) in knee hyperextension (p<0.001) were found during mid-stance of the gait cycle. Six limbs (23%) showed no improvement concerning knee hyperextension and were designated as nonresponders. In these patients no significant improvement in ankle dorsiflexion was found after surgery either. Improvement in ankle dorsiflexion and reduction in knee hyperextension in stance phase correlated significantly (r=0.46; p=0.019). These findings indicate that equinus deformity is a Major underlying factor in Primary GR and that calf muscle lengthening can effectively reduce GR in patients with CP. PMID:24029800

  7. The spinal accessory nerve plexus, the trapezius muscle, and shoulder stabilization after radical neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H; Burns, S; Kaiser, C W

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and anatomic study of the spinal accessory, the eleventh cranial nerve, and trapezius muscle function of patients who had radical neck cancer surgery was conducted. This study was done not only to document the indispensibility of the trapezius muscle to shoulder-girdle stability, but also to clarify the role of the eleventh cranial nerve in the variable motor and sensory changes occurring after the loss of this muscle. Seventeen male patients, 49-69 years of age, (average of 60 years of age) undergoing a total of 23 radical neck dissections were examined for upper extremity function, particularly in regard to the trapezius muscle, and for subjective signs of pain. The eleventh nerve, usually regarded as the sole motor innervation to the trapezius, was cut in 17 instances because of tumor involvement. Dissection of four fresh and 30 preserved adult cadavers helped to reconcile the motor and sensory differences in patients who had undergone loss of the eleventh nerve. The dissections and clinical observations corroborate that the trapezius is a key part of a "muscle continuum" that stabilizes the shoulder. Variations in origins and insertions of the trapezius may influence its function in different individuals. As regards the spinal accessory nerve, it is concluded that varying motor and sensory connections form a plexus with the eleventh nerve, accounting, in part, for the variations in motor innervation and function of the trapezius, as well as for a variable spectrum of sensory changes when the eleventh nerve is cut. For this reason, it is suggested that the term "spinal accessory nerve plexus" be used to refer to the eleventh nerve when it is considered in the context of radical neck cancer surgery. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3056289

  8. Control of a Six Degree-of-Freedom Prosthetic Arm after Targeted Muscle Reinnervation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laura A.; Lipschutz, Robert D.; Stubblefield, Kathy A.; Lock, Blair A.; Huang, He; Williams, T. Walley; Weir, Richard F.; Kuiken, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To fit and evaluate the control of a complex prosthesis for a shoulder disarticulation level amputee subject with targeted muscle reinnervation. Design One participant who had targeted muscle reinnervation surgery was fit with an advanced prosthesis and usage with this device was compared to the device used in the home setting. Setting The experiments were completed within a laboratory setting. Participants The first recipient of targeted muscle reinnervation: a bilateral shoulder disarticulation level amputee. Interventions Two years after surgery, the subject was fit with a 6 degree of freedom (DOF) prosthesis (shoulder flexion, humeral rotation, elbow flexion, wrist rotation, wrist flexion, and hand control). Control of this device was compared to his commercially available 3 DOF system (elbow, wrist rotation, and powered hook terminal device). Main Outcome Measure In order to assess performance, movement analysis and timed movement tasks were executed. Results The subject was able to independently operate all 6 arm functions with good control. He could simultaneously operate 2 DOF of several different joint combinations with relative ease. He operated up to 4 DOF simultaneously, but with poor control. Work space was markedly increased and some timed-tasks were faster with the 6-DOF system. Conclusions This proof-of-concept study shows that advances in control of shoulder disarticulation level prostheses can improve the quality of movement. Additional control sources may spur the development of more advanced and complex componentry for these amputees. PMID:18996233

  9. Anatomical Analysis of Intraorbital Structures Regarding Sinus Surgery Using Multiplanar Reconstruction of Computed Tomography Scans

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Se Hwan; Park, Chan Soon; Cho, Jin Hee; Kim, Soo Whan; Kim, Byung Guk

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the anatomy of the intraorbital structures regarding to endoscopic sinus surgery and external frontal sinus surgery analyzing computer tomography (CT) scans. Methods The CT scans of 100 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The anatomic relationships between the intraorbital structures and paranasal structures were measured using multiplanar reconstruction of the CT scan. Results The mean distances from the medial orbital floor (MOF) to the intraorbital structures were measured at the depth of the anterior ethmoid (AE), basal lamella (BL), and midportion of posterior ethmoid (PE) in the coronal planes respectively. The mean distances from the MOF to the medial rectus muscle and inferior rectus muscle at the depth of AE were approximately 8 mm and those distances in the BL and PE decreased rapidly. The mean distances from the MOF to the infraorbital nerve at the depth of the AE and BL were approximately more than 10 mm. The mean distances from the vertical axis, which passed through the MOF, to the superior oblique muscle and optic nerve at the depth of the PE were approximately 5 mm medially and 1 mm laterally. In addition, the mean distance from the midline to the trochlea of the superior oblique muscle was approximately 15 mm. Conclusions Those measurements provide spatial information on the placements of the extraocular muscles within the orbit. The measurements will contribute to the avoidance of orbital complications during sinus surgery. PMID:23526177

  10. The functional effect of a distal rectus femoris tenotomy in adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Drefus, Lisa C; Buckland, Melanie A; Backus, Sherry I; Root, Leon

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a distal rectus femoris tenotomy on function and gait in adults with cerebral palsy who had diminished knee flexion during swing. A stiff knee gait pattern is commonly seen in individuals with cerebral palsy and frequently leads to tripping and falling. Five subjects, 25-51 years, (34.6±10.3 years) participated in the study; each individual had the surgery after the age of 18. Four of the five subjects underwent bilateral distal rectus femoris tenotomies for a total of nine limbs being studied. Four of the five subjects had a single procedure of a distal rectus femoris tenotomy and one subject also had bilateral adductor tenotomies. All individuals underwent a pre-operative and post-operative, (3.28±1.6 years) three-dimensional gait analysis. Pre-operative gait revealed diminished peak knee flexion and out of phase rectus femoris activity with a quiet vastus lateralis during swing in all subjects. Significant findings after a distal rectus femoris tenotomy included: improved peak swing knee flexion, improved peak stance hip extension, and increased total knee excursion without loss in knee extension strength. During swing, knee flexion angle improved on average 11° which correlated with subjective report of less shoe wear, tripping, and falling due to improved clearance. In conclusion, a distal rectus femoris tenotomy should be considered a surgical option for adults with cerebral palsy and a stiff knee gait pattern to improve mobility, function, and quality of life. PMID:24742707

  11. Effects of ACL reconstruction surgery on muscle activity of the lower limb during a jump-cut maneuver in males and females

    PubMed Central

    Coats-Thomas, Margaret S.; Miranda, Daniel L.; Badger, Gary J.; Fleming, Braden C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared muscle activity of the quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscles when ACL-intact (ACLINT) and ACL-reconstructed (ACLREC) male and female subjects performed a jump-cut task. Surface electromyography sensors were used to evaluate time to peak muscle activity and muscle activity ratios. Rectus femoris (RF) and vastus medialis (VM) peak timing was 71 ms and 78 ms earlier in ACLINT than in ACLREC subjects, respectively. Biceps femoris (BF) peak timing was 90 ms earlier in ACLINT than in ACLREC subjects and 75 ms earlier in females than in males. Medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle peak timing was 77 ms earlier in ACLINT than in ACLREC subjects. Lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and MG muscle peak times were 106 ms and 87 ms earlier in females than in males, respectively. The RF, VM, BF and MG peaked later in ACLREC than in ACLINT subjects. There was evidence suggesting that the loading phase quadriceps:hamstring (quad:ham) muscle activity ratio was greater in ACLREC than in ACLINT subjects. Finally, the injury risk phase quad:ham muscle activity ratio was found to be 4.8 times greater in females than in males. In conclusion, there are differences in muscle activity related to ACL status and sex that could potentially help explain graft failure risk and the sex bias. PMID:23966333

  12. Role of calf muscle stimulation in the prevention of DVT in Indian patients undergoing surgeries for fractures around the hip

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Aman; Arora, Sumit; Batra, Sumit; Sharma, Rohit; Mittal, Mahesh Kumar; Sharma, Vinod K

    2012-01-01

    Background: The venous stasis of soleal vein during surgery may be an important factor in the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The stimulation of calf muscle during surgery may help in preventing DVT. The present study is conducted to evaluate the role of peroperative calf muscle electrostimulation in prevention of DVT in patients undergoing surgeries around the hip joint. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 200 patients undergoing surgeries around the hip joint. The patients having risk factors (such as previous myocardial infarction, malignancies, paraplegia or lower limb monoplegia, previous history of DVT or varicose veins, etc.) for the development of DVT were excluded. They were randomized into two groups: 100 cases were given peroperative calf muscle electrostimulation for DVT prophylaxis (Group A) and the remaining 100 patients were taken as controls without any prophylaxis (Group B). The color Doppler ultrasound was performed to exclude pre-existing DVT and on 7th day postoperative to find out the incidence of DVT in both the groups. Results: Two patients among Group A and six patients among Group B demonstrated DVT on ultrasonography, but the difference was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.279). None of the patients had any clinical evidence of DVT. Conclusion: The role of peroperative calf muscle electrostimulation for DVT prophylaxis remains controversial. The risk of developing DVT in patients undergoing surgeries around the hip joint is very less in patients analysed in our series. PMID:23162147

  13. Corneal topographic changes following strabismus surgery in Grave's disease.

    PubMed

    Kwitko, S; Feldon, S; McDonnell, P J

    1992-01-01

    A computerized topographic analysis system was used to evaluate corneal changes after strabismus surgery in eight eyes of five patients with Graves' disease. All patients underwent inferior rectus muscle recession; three eyes also had medial rectus recession. Corneal topographic analysis revealed that, postoperatively, corneas steepened inferiorly and inferotemporally at 1.5 mm from corneal apex (p less than 0.05). The opposite effect was observed in the superior quadrant (average flattening of 1.20 +/- 0.32 D at 1.5 mm from corneal apex, and 1.08 +/- 0.39 D at 3.0 mm from corneal apex; p less than 0.05). Superotemporally, the cornea flattened by an average of 0.65 +/- 0.26 D at 3.0 mm from corneal apex, and superonasally 0.72 +/- 0.19 D at 3.0 mm from corneal apex (p less than 0.05). Central, nasal, and temporal cornea did not show statistically significant changes. Spherical equivalent did not change significantly after surgery. The amount of restriction and upgaze measured preoperatively was correlated weakly with inferior corneal steepening (r2 = 0.44; p = 0.046). These results are indicative that corneal topography may be influenced by strabismus surgery for Graves' disease through alteration of extraocular muscle tension or intraocular pressure. PMID:1559345

  14. Knee extensor muscle oxygen consumption in relation to muscle activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Kooistra; M. E. Blaauboer; J. R. Born; C. J. de Ruiter; A. de Haan

    2006-01-01

    Recently, fatigability and muscle oxygen consumption (mVO2) during sustained isometric contractions were found to be less at shorter (30° knee angle; 0° = full extension) compared to longer knee extensor muscle lengths (90°) and, at low torques, less in the rectus femoris (RF) muscle than in the vastus lateralis and medialis. In the present study we hypothesized that these findings could be

  15. Characteristics of Back Muscle Strength in Patients with Scheduled for Lumbar Fusion Surgery due to Symptomatic Lumbar Degenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Won Hah; Lee, Chong Suh; Kang, Kyung Chung

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Cross sectional study. Purpose To evaluate characteristics of back muscle strength in patients scheduled for lumbar fusion surgery. Overview of Literature Little is known regarding muscle strength in patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases who require fusion surgery. Methods Consecutive 354 patients scheduled for posterior lumbar interbody fusion due to symptomatic degenerative diseases were approached for participation. 316 patients were enrolled. Before surgery, muscle strength was assessed by measuring maximal isometric extension strength at seven angular positions (0°, 12°, 24°, 36°, 48°, 60°, and 72°) and mean isometric strength was calculated. The Oswestry Disability Index (0-100) and visual analogue scale (0-100) for back pain were recorded. Muscle strength was compared according to gender, age (<60, 60-70, and ?70 years) and scheduled fusion level (short, <3; long, ?3). Results Isometric strength was significantly decreased compared with previously reported results of healthy individuals, particularly at extension positions (0°-48°, p<0.05). Mean isometric strength was significantly lower in females (p<0.001) and older patients (p<0.05). Differences of isometric strength between short and long level fusion were not significantly different (p>0.05). Isometric strengths showed significant, but weak, inverse correlations with age and Oswestry Disability Index (r<0.4, p<0.05). Conclusions In patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases, back muscle strength significantly decreased, particularly at lumbar extension positions, and in females and older patients. PMID:25346820

  16. Rectus sheath hematoma: diagnostic classification by CT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Berná; V. Garcia-Medina; J. Guirao; J. Garcia-Medina

    1996-01-01

    .   A method of classification for hematomas of the rectus abdominis sheath (RSH) is proposed based on findings observed in CT\\u000a in the 13 cases of RSH in the present study. Type I hematomas (five cases) are slight and do not require hospitalization.\\u000a Type II (three cases) and type III (five cases) are moderate and severe hematomas, respectively, and do

  17. Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for ENews Home > Lung Disease > COPD > Treating COPD Surgery Some COPD patients with very severe symptoms may ... lung surgery. Are You a Candidate for Lung Surgery? Some people with COPD have improved lung function ...

  18. Use of the Anterolateral Thigh and Vertical Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flaps as Utility Flaps in Reconstructing Large Groin Defects

    PubMed Central

    Aslim, Edwin Jonathan; Rasheed, Mohamed Zulfikar; Lin, Fangbo; Ong, Yee-Siang

    2014-01-01

    Background Groin dissections result in large wounds with exposed femoral vessels requiring soft tissue coverage, and the reconstructive options are diverse. In this study we reviewed our experience with the use of the pedicled anterolateral thigh and vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps in the reconstruction of large groin wounds. Methods Groin reconstructions performed over a period of 10 years were evaluated, with a mean follow up of two years. We included all cases with large or complex (involving perineum) defects, which were reconstructed with the pedicled anterolateral thigh musculocutaneous or the vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (VRAM) flaps. Smaller wounds which were covered with skin grafts, locally based flaps and pedicled muscle flaps were excluded. Results Twenty-three reconstructions were performed for large or complex groin defects, utilising the anterolateral thigh (n=10) and the vertical rectus abdominis (n=13) pedicled musculocutaneous flaps. Femoral vein reconstruction with a prosthetic graft was required in one patient, and a combination flap (VRAM and gracilis muscle flap) was performed in another. Satisfactory coverage was achieved in all cases without major complications. No free flaps were used in our series. Conclusions The anterolateral thigh and vertical rectus abdominis pedicled musculocutaneous flaps yielded consistent results with little morbidity in the reconstruction of large and complex groin defects. A combination of flaps can be used in cases requiring extensive cover. PMID:25276649

  19. [Spontaneous hematoma of the musculus rectus sheath].

    PubMed

    Mandarano, R; Sereni, P; Ceccherini, E; Ciccone, A

    1990-10-31

    Spontaneous haematoma of the musculus rectus is a rare event and can lead to a clinical picture comparable to what is seen in acute abdomen, thus posing a differential diagnosis problem. Three personally observed cases are reported, stress being laid on the fact that echography, in the light of clinical and laboratory data, made correct diagnosis possible. On the basis of clinical and echographic findings, one patient was subjected to surgical treatment and the others to conservative medical treatment because of the small dimensions of haematoma. PMID:2150543

  20. Effects of short-term, high intensity ( Sprint ) training on some contractile and metabolic characteristics of fast and slow muscle of the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans W. Staudte; Gerhard U. Exner; Dirk Pette

    1973-01-01

    Effects of a three weeks lasting short-term, high intensity training (sprint training) upon contractile parameters and selected enzyme activities of energy-supplying metabolism in slow soleus and fast rectus femoris muscle were investigated in female rats. Isometric twitch contraction time decreased in the soleus muscle. Maximum tetanic tension was found increased in soleus and rectus femoris muscle. Increases in hexokinase and

  1. The extensile rectus snip exposure in revision of total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Meek, R M D; Greidanus, N V; McGraw, R W; Masri, B A

    2003-11-01

    Revision of a total knee arthroplasty may require an extensile approach to permit a satisfactory exposure without compromising the attachment of the patellar tendon. It has been assumed that a rectus snip is a relatively benign form of release, but the effect of using this approach on function, pain and patient satisfaction is not known. From January 1997 to December 1999, 107 patients who underwent revision of total knee arthroplasty were followed up at a minimum of two years (mean 40.5 months) and assessed by the Oxford Hip Score, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Short-Form (SF)-12 and patient satisfaction. Co-morbidity, surgical exposure, the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee scores and the range of movement were also used. A standard medial parapatellar approach was used in 57 patients and the rectus snip in 50. The two groups were equivalent for age, sex and co-morbidity scores. The WOMAC function, pain, stiffness and satisfaction scores demonstrated no statistical difference. The use of a rectus snip as an extensile procedure has no effect on outcome. PMID:14653591

  2. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  3. Muscle contributions to support and progression during single-limb stance in crouch gait.

    PubMed

    Steele, Katherine M; Seth, Ajay; Hicks, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Michael S; Delp, Scott L

    2010-08-10

    Pathological movement patterns like crouch gait are characterized by abnormal kinematics and muscle activations that alter how muscles support the body weight during walking. Individual muscles are often the target of interventions to improve crouch gait, yet the roles of individual muscles during crouch gait remain unknown. The goal of this study was to examine how muscles contribute to mass center accelerations and joint angular accelerations during single-limb stance in crouch gait, and compare these contributions to unimpaired gait. Subject-specific dynamic simulations were created for ten children who walked in a mild crouch gait and had no previous surgeries. The simulations were analyzed to determine the acceleration of the mass center and angular accelerations of the hip, knee, and ankle generated by individual muscles. The results of this analysis indicate that children walking in crouch gait have less passive skeletal support of body weight and utilize substantially higher muscle forces to walk than unimpaired individuals. Crouch gait relies on the same muscles as unimpaired gait to accelerate the mass center upward, including the soleus, vasti, gastrocnemius, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and gluteus maximus. However, during crouch gait, these muscles are active throughout single-limb stance, in contrast to the modulation of muscle forces seen during single-limb stance in an unimpaired gait. Subjects walking in crouch gait rely more on proximal muscles, including the gluteus medius and hamstrings, to accelerate the mass center forward during single-limb stance than subjects with an unimpaired gait. PMID:20493489

  4. Rectus sheath hematoma: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hatjipetrou, Athanasios; Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Kastanakis, Miltiades

    2015-01-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a relatively rare clinical condition, strongly associated among others, with abdominal trauma and anticoagulation. Although well documented over the years, it still seems to be often misdiagnosed. Estimations of further increase in incidence are made, based on the increasing use of anticoagulants. Thus it was of interest to us to perform a literature review on the available literature of this entity with the aim to facilitate a better understanding and management in primary and secondary care settings. This review intends to present a synthesis on the main topics of this condition such as pathophysiology, epidemiology, predisposing factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and basic treatment instructions. The initial search resulted in 146 articles. Additional citations from the reference list of the relevant publication were also included. Every physician in the field of primary/emergency medicine and surgery must be familiar with it, as misdiagnosis may lead to unnecessary laparotomy or death. In contrast, faster and more accurate diagnosis can lead to mortality rate reduction and cost containment. PMID:25529279

  5. The versatility of the pedicled vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in oncologic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrien Daigeler; Maria Simidjiiska-Belyaeva; Daniel Drücke; Ole Goertz; Tobias Hirsch; Christian Soimaru; Marcus Lehnhardt; Hans-Ulrich Steinau

    Purpose  The vertical rectus abdominis muscle (VRAM) flap is considered a safe and simple option to cover defects of the trunk and\\u000a proximal thigh. Detailed long-time follow-up studies in oncologic patients including complications and donor site morbidity\\u000a are rare. In this study, complications and donor site morbidity were analysed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data of 78 consecutive patients with oncologic disease, having received VRAM flaps,

  6. Responses of Medial Rectus Motoneurons in Monkeys with Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anand C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Monkeys reared under conditions of alternating monocular occlusion during their first few months of life show large horizontal strabismus, “A” patterns, and dissociated vertical deviation. “A” patterns manifest as an inappropriate horizontal component in the deviated eye during vertical eye movements (cross-axis movement). The objective of this study was to investigate response properties of medial rectus motoneurons (MRMNs) in relation to strabismus properties. Methods. Burst-tonic activity of 21 MRMNs in the oculomotor nucleus were recorded from two monkeys with exotropia as they performed horizontal and vertical smooth pursuit (0.2 Hz, ±10°) under monocular viewing conditions. Neuronal responses and horizontal component of eye movements were used to identify regression coefficients in a first-order model for each tracking condition. Results. Comparison of position, velocity, and constant parameter coefficients, estimated from horizontal tracking data with either eye viewing, showed no significant differences (P > 0.07), indicating that neuronal activity could account for the horizontal misalignment. Comparison of the position, velocity, and constant parameter coefficients estimated from horizontal tracking and the cross-axis condition showed no significant differences (P > 0.07), suggesting that motoneuron activity could account for most of the inappropriate horizontal cross-axis movement observed in the covered eye during vertical smooth pursuit. Conclusions. These data suggest that, in animals with sensory-induced strabismus, central innervation to extraocular muscles is responsible for setting the state of strabismus. Mechanical factors such as muscle length adaptation (for horizontal misalignment) and pulley heterotopy or static torsion (for “A” patterns) likely do not play a major role in determining properties in a sensory-induced strabismus. PMID:21743010

  7. Muscles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-06

    Tendons are rope-like fibers that join muscles to bones. Muscles contract and lengthen and muscles get shorter when they contract. A ligament is a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects the bones and binds the joints together. They connect bones to bones and they sometimes act as guides for tendons.

  8. Purification and Characterization ofCampylobacter rectus Surface Layer Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Nitta; Stanley C. Holt; Andjeffrey L. Ebersole

    Campylobacter rectus is a putative periodontopathogen which expresses a proteinaceous surface layer (S- layer) external to the outer membrane. S-layers are considered to play a protective role for the microorganism in hostile environments. The S-layer proteins from six different C. rectus strains (five human isolates and a nonhuman primate (NHP) isolate) were isolated, purified, and characterized. The S-layer proteins of

  9. Anatomical mapping of the nasal muscles and application to cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Konschake, Marko; Fritsch, Helga

    2014-11-01

    We present an anatomical mapping of the most important muscles influencing the nose, incorporating constant anatomical structures, and their spatial correlations. At our disposal were the midfaces of 18 bodies of both sexes, obtained by informed consent from body donors aged between 60 and 80 years. Macroscopically, we dissected the nasal regions of eight corpses, six midfaces were prepared according to plastination histology, four by creating plastinated slices. On their way from their periosteal origin to the edge of the skin, the muscles of the nose cross the subcutaneous adipose tissue, dividing it into superficial and deep layers. The individual muscle fibers insert into the skin directly at the reticular corium. Sometimes, they reach the border of the epidermis which represents a special arrangement of corial muscle attachments. The course of the anatomical fibers of individual nasal muscles presented macroscopically and microscopically in this study offers surgeons a detailed overview of the anatomically important muscular landmarks of the midface. PMID:24863980

  10. Skeletal muscle mitochondria exhibit decreased pyruvate oxidation capacity and increased ROS emission during surgery-induced acute insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Hagve, Martin; Gjessing, Petter Fosse; Fuskevåg, Ole Martin; Larsen, Terje S; Irtun, Øivind

    2015-04-15

    Development of acute insulin resistance represents a negative factor after surgery, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the postoperative changes in insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial function, enzyme activities, and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle and liver in pigs on the 2nd postoperative day after major abdominal surgery. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed by d-[6,6-(2)H2]glucose infusion and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic step clamping. Surgical trauma elicited a decline in peripheral insulin sensitivity (?34%, P < 0.01), whereas hepatic insulin sensitivity remained unchanged. Intramyofibrillar (IFM) and subsarcolemma mitochondria (SSM) isolated from skeletal muscle showed a postoperative decline in ADP-stimulated respiration (VADP) for pyruvate (?61%, P < 0.05, and ?40%, P < 0.001, respectively), whereas VADP for glutamate and palmitoyl-l-carnitine (PC) was unchanged. Mitochondrial leak respiration with PC was increased in SSM (1.9-fold, P < 0.05) and IFM (2.5-fold, P < 0.05), indicating FFA-induced uncoupling. The activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) was reduced (?32%, P < 0.01) and positively correlated to the decline in peripheral insulin sensitivity (r = 0.748, P < 0.05). All other mitochondrial enzyme activities were unchanged. No changes in mitochondrial function in liver were observed. Mitochondrial H2O2 and O2 (·-) emission was measured spectrofluorometrically, and H2O2 was increased in SSM, IFM, and liver mitochondria (?2.3-, ?2.5-, and ?2.3-fold, respectively, all P < 0.05). We conclude that an impairment in skeletal muscle mitochondrial PDC activity and pyruvate oxidation capacity arises in the postoperative phase along with increased ROS emission, suggesting a link between mitochondrial function and development of acute postoperative insulin resistance. PMID:25670828

  11. One hundred fascia-sparing myocutaneous rectus abdominis flaps: An update.

    PubMed

    Rufer, Mirjam; Plock, Jan A; Erni, Dominique

    2011-02-01

    Major efforts have been undertaken to reduce donor-site morbidity after abdominal flaps, which eventually culminated in the introduction of the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap. However, due to anatomical variations (absence of dominant perforators) and the risk of ischaemic complications, the selection of patients qualifying for a DIEP flap is limited. Furthermore, DIEP flaps can only be used as free flaps. We present our long-term experience with a dissection technique of rectus abdominis myocutaneous (RAM) flaps that was developed to circumvent these drawbacks. The dissection is characterised by preventing to sacrifice any perforators nourishing the flap and by fully preserving the anterior rectus sheath, but not the muscle. The study comprises a consecutive series of prospectively assessed patients, treated between February 2000 and April 2008. A total of 100 fascia-sparing RAM flaps were operated on 97 patients (age 22-84 years, median 64 years). Free flaps were mainly used for breast reconstruction (47 flaps/24 patients), and cranially (34) or caudally (19) pedicled flaps for soft-tissue coverage after sternectomy, urogenital tumour resection or rectum amputation. Eighty patients had a total of 213 risk factors, such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking or steroid medication. Partial tissue loss (skin or fat necrosis) occurred in 13 flaps, out of which seven required surgical revision. The ischaemic complications were evenly distributed between the patient subsets. At a follow-up of 2-89 months (median 20 months), one patient showed a flap harvest-related abdominal bulge after bilateral-free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap. We conclude that the present dissection technique provides maximal perforator-related perfusion and minimal donor-site morbidity even in pedicled flaps and high-risk patients. In free flaps, it may, therefore, be recommended as an alternative to the DIEP flap. PMID:20554489

  12. Long-term postoperative outcomes of bilateral lateral rectus recession vs unilateral recession-resection for intermittent exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xian; Man, Teng-Teng; Tian, Qiao-Xia; Zhao, Gui-Qiu; Kong, Qing-Lan; Meng, Yan; Gao, Yan; Ning, Mei-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    AIM To discuss the long-term postoperative results of bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR) and unilateral lateral rectus recession-medial rectus resection (RR) in therapy of intermittent exotropia. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 213 cases of intermittent exotropia who underwent surgery between 2008 and 2010. The patients were grouped into BLR group and RR group. Motor outcomes were divided into three groups on the basis of the angle of deviation after surgery: overcorrection (esotropia/phoria >5?), orthophoria (esotropia/phoria ?5? to exotropia/phoria ?10?), and undercorrection/recurrence (exotropia/phoria >10?). Titmus test was used to evaluate stereoacuity, the stereoacuity <800s of arc meaned the patients had stereopsis. Surgical outcome including motor criteria and sensory status were compared at postoperative 6, 12, 24mo and at 36mo examination between groups. RESULTS At 12, 24mo after surgery, the motor outcomes had no difference (P>0.05) between groups. However, the motor outcomes at 6, 36mo were signally different in each group, indicating the success rate in RR group at 6mo was higher than that in BLR group (83.02% vs 82.24%, P<0.05) but the result was contrary at the 3y examination (60.75% vs 43.40%, P<0.05). No statistical significance were found in the sensory outcomes between the groups at mean of 3.7y follow-up. CONCLUSION The motor outcomes in RR group were better than in BLR group at 6mo after surgery, while the 3y outcomes were better in BLR group. This may be due to the recurrence rate of the BLR was lower than the RR group's. PMID:25540763

  13. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  14. Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma in the Elderly: An Unusual Case and Update on Proper Management

    PubMed Central

    Galyfos, George; Karantzikos, Georgios; Palogos, Konstantinos; Sianou, Argiri; Filis, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (SRSH) is an uncommon medical emergency in the elderly. We present a case of SRSH with an atypical clinical presentation and discuss literature regarding diagnosis and proper management. A 75-year-old female patient was transferred to the emergency department due to acute dyspnoea and confusion. Her medical history revealed a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, and no coughing or use of anticoagulants. The clinical examination showed tenderness of the left lower abdomen, although palpation was misleading due to patient's obesity. Laboratory investigations showed light anaemia. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a large rectus sheath hematoma of the left abdominal wall. Despite further deterioration of the patient, conservative management including bed rest, fluid replacement, blood products transfusion, and proper analgesia was successful. No surgical intervention was needed. Prompt diagnosis and management of SRSH plays significant role in the prognosis, especially in elder patients. Independently of size and severity, conservative management remains the first therapeutic choice. Only by failure of supportive management, progressive and large hematoma or uncontrollable hemodynamic patients, interventional management including surgery or less invasive newer techniques is indicated. PMID:24839570

  15. Workhorse Flaps in Chest Wall Reconstruction: The Pectoralis Major, Latissimus Dorsi, and Rectus Abdominis Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Karim; Mardini, Samir; Evans, Karen K.; Carlsen, Brian T.; Arnold, Phillip G.

    2011-01-01

    Large and life-threatening thoracic cage defects can result from the treatment of traumatic injuries, tumors, infection, congenital anomalies, and radiation injury and require prompt reconstruction to restore respiratory function and soft tissue closure. Important factors for consideration are coverage with healthy tissue to heal a wound, the potential alteration in respiratory mechanics created by large extirpations or nonhealing thoracic wounds, and the need for immediate coverage for vital structures. The choice of technique depends on the size and extent of the defect, its location, and donor site availability with consideration to previous thoracic or abdominal operations. The focus of this article is specifically to describe the use of the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and rectus abdominis muscle flaps for reconstruction of thoracic defects, as these are the workhorse flaps commonly used for chest wall reconstruction. PMID:22294942

  16. Heart Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgery for adults is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). During CABG, a healthy artery or vein from the body ... rich blood to flow to the heart muscle. CABG can relieve chest pain and may lower your ...

  17. Muscles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This health education program reviews the types of muscles, how they function, and the various injuries and diseases that can harm them. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  18. Growth hormone, alone and in combination with insulin, increases whole body and skeletal muscle protein kinetics in cancer patients after surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, R S; Harrison, L E; Pearlstone, D B; Burt, M; Brennan, M F

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of growth hormone, alone and in combination with insulin, on the protein kinetics of patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancer who have undergone surgery and are receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Patients with malignancies of the upper GI tract are at increased risk for malnutrition and perioperative death and complications. Standard nutritional support has not significantly altered outcome. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin have been shown to have some benefit in patients with cancer; however, their action in patients undergoing resection has not previously been studied. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing surgery for upper GI tract malignancies were prospectively randomized into one of three nutritional support groups after surgery: 10 patients received standard TPN, 10 received TPN plus daily injections of GH, and 10 received daily GH, systemic insulin, and TPN. The patients underwent a protein kinetic radiotracer study on the fifth day after surgery to determine whole body and skeletal muscle protein kinetics. RESULTS: Patients who received standard TPN only were in a state of negative skeletal muscle protein net balance. Those who received GH and insulin had improved skeletal muscle protein net balance compared with the TPN only group. Whole body protein net balance was improved in the GH and the GH and insulin groups compared with the TPN only group. GH and insulin combined did not improve whole body net balance more than GH alone. GH administration significantly increased serum IGF-1 and GH levels. Insulin infusion significantly increased serum insulin levels and the insulin/glucagon ratio. CONCLUSION: Growth hormone and GH plus insulin regimens improve protein kinetic parameters in patients with upper GI tract cancer who are receiving TPN after undergoing surgery. PMID:9923794

  19. Isometric training of rats — Effects upon fast and slow muscle and modification by an anabolic hormone (Nandrolone Decanoate)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Ulrich Exner; Hans W. Staudte; Dirk Pette

    1973-01-01

    Some effects of isometric exercise were studied in fast rectus femoris muscle and slow soleus muscle of the female rat. Isometric twitch contraction time shortened by 20% in fast and prolonged by 20% in slow muscle. Maximum tetanic tension increased by 20% in the fast muscle. Changes in the enzyme activity pattern of energy supplying metabolism differed in the two

  20. Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, I H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with overcorrected strabismus (and several patients with undercorrection after extraocular muscle resection) underwent exploration of previously operated muscles, with the intention of advancing their tendons to prevent the need for surgery on additional muscles. Unexpectedly, it was found that, in many cases, an elongated scar segment of variable length was interposed between the muscle and its insertion site on the sclera. Laboratory investigations were carried out to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) and to create an animal model of the disorder. METHODS: Lengthened scars were repaired on 198 muscles during 134 procedures performed on 123 patients. The scars consisted of amorphous connective tissue interposed between the globe and normal tendon. Repair was accomplished by excision of the scar and reattachment of the muscle to sclera, using absorbable sutures in 64 cases and nonabsorbable sutures in 70 cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on 82 clinical specimens, and tissue culture studies were performed on 7 specimens. To develop an animal model, 10 New Zealand white rabbits underwent bilateral superior rectus resection. Half of the eyes received sub-Tenon's injections of collagenase over the operative site during weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6 postoperatively; the other half received saline solution injections on the same schedule. At 10 weeks, half the sites were studied histologically, and the other half underwent collagen creep analysis. In a second study, the use of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures was compared in the rabbit model. RESULTS: In the clinical cases, the mean length of the elongated scar segments was 4.2 mm. A total of 105 of the 134 repair procedures were judged successful. Thirty-one procedures resulted in recurrence of the original overcorrection; 7 of these had documented restretches. Factors that distinguished patients with stretched scars from patients with classic slipped muscles included minimal or no limitation of versions, less separation of the tendons from sclera, and thicker appearance of the scar segments. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in the repair procedure reduced the recurrence rate. Histologic examination of the clinical stretched scar specimens showed dense connective tissue that was less well organized compared with normal tendon. In the tissue culture studies, cells cultured from the stretched scar specimens grew rapidly and were irregularly shaped. A high-molecular-weight protein was identified in the culture medium. By contrast, cells cultured from normal tendon (controls) grew more slowly and regularly, stopped growing at 4 days, and produced less total protein than cultured stretched scar specimens. In the animal model studies, the collagenase-treated sites showed elongated scars with increased collagen between the muscle and the sclera, as well as increased collagen creep rates, compared with the saline-treated controls. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in collagenase-treated animal model surgery sites was associated with shorter, thicker scars compared with similar sites sutured with absorbable sutures. CONCLUSIONS: A lengthened or stretched, remodeled scar between an operated muscle tendon and sclera is a common occurrence and is a factor contributing to the variability of outcome after strabismus repair, even years later. This abnormality may be revealed by careful exploration of previously operated muscles. Definitive repair requires firm reattachment of tendon to sclera with nonabsorbable suture support. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 53 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 55 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 63

  1. Fatal and other major complications of endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Maniglia, A J

    1991-04-01

    Endoscopic sinus surgery has become an acceptable technique for the treatment of chronic sinus disease. This report analyzes five complications which came to my attention. Two cases were orbital:1 bilateral blindness due to damage of the optic nerves, and 1 damage of medial rectus muscle. The other 3 cases were intracranial:two cribriform plate damage with frontal lobe injury and hematoma, and 1 damage of the anterior cerebral artery, resulting in death. This rather novel technique, especially when used by less-experienced surgeons, has major complications similar to what has been reported with the traditional intranasal sphenoethmoidectomy. Knowledge of anatomy, good training, and meticulous surgical technique are very important. Endoscopic sinus surgery in patients with extensive pathology should be used with caution, especially if general anesthesia is selected or if excessive bleeding occurs. It would be beneficial to otolaryngologists to have previous experience in the traditional technique before adopting endoscopic sinus surgery to their armamentarium. Even then, major complications may occur in the hands of very experienced surgeons. Early recognition and proper management of these complications are of utmost importance in order to minimize disability or prevent death. PMID:1895848

  2. Muscle soreness-induced reduction in force generation is accompanied by increased nitric oxide content and DNA damage in human skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zsolt Radák; Jozsef Pucsok; Sandor Mecseki; Tamas Csont; Peter Ferdinandy

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effect of exercise-induced muscle soreness on maximal force generation, tissue nitric oxide (NO) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content in human skeletal muscle. Female volunteers were assigned to control (C) and muscle soreness (MS) groups (n = 6 in each). MS group performed 200 eccentric muscle actions of the rectus femoris to induce muscle soreness. Maximal force generation was

  3. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... best performed by a trained surgeon with specialized education and training. Click here to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, ...

  4. Septic Cavernous Thrombosis Due to Campylobacter Rectus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bolger, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a rare but serious disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early recognition and prompt treatment is necessary to improve patient outcomes in this potentially fatal disease. Case Report: A 55-year-old man visiting from mainland China with no significant past medical history presented with eight days of headache. One day prior to admission, the patient developed diplopia and ptosis of his left eye. Physical examination revealed a fixed, dilated left pupil and left third, fourth, and sixth nerve palsies with loss of sensation in the left supraorbital region. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed fullness of the left cavernous sinus and dilated left superior ophthalmic vein consistent with cavernous sinus thrombosis. Treatment was initiated with broad spectrum antibiotics, high-dose corticosteroids, and anticoagulants. Hours after admission, he developed new proptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and marked chemosis of his right eye. Bilateral carotid artery angiogram ruled out indirect or direct carotid cavernous fistula. Computed tomography (CT) angiogram of the neck showed right internal jugular vein thrombosis extending into the right sigmoid sinus, while CT of the chest revealed solid and cavitary pulmonary nodules consistent with septic pulmonary emboli. Repeat MRI two days later showed progression of thrombosis to the contralateral cavernous sinus and superior ophthalmic vein. MRI venogram showed decreased, and in some portions, lack of flow in the right transverse, sigmoid sinuses and visualized internal jugular vein. Blood cultures eventually grew Campylobacter rectus identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Additional history revealed that the patient had an uncomplicated tooth extraction of a decayed upper left molar 3 months ago. As Campylobacter rectus is a member of the human oral flora associated with human periodontal disease, we hypothesized that the patient's infection likely started from left upper molar removal causing bacteremia and resulting in left cavernous sinus and right internal jugular vein thromboses with septic pulmonary emboli. The patient's condition improved and he was discharged from hospital to continue medical care in China. Discussion: Despite the very few cases of invasive Campylobacter rectus infections reported in literature, this case illustrates that Campylobacter rectus can be pathogenic. Dental infections may result in serious complications and an odontogenic source of infection should always be considered in patients with cavernous sinus thrombosis.

  5. [Smile "forced" smile versus "spontaneous": comparison of 3 techniques of reconstructive surgery of the face. Myoplasty temporal muscle, hypoglossal facial anastomosis and gracilis muscle free flap].

    PubMed

    Lheureux-Portmann, A; Lapalus-Curtoud, Q; Robert, M; Tankéré, F; Disant, F; Pasche, P; Lamas, G; Gatignol, P

    2013-01-01

    The facial palsy cause serious consequences for patients. Studies have also shown that in these patients, the inability to produce an appropriate and spontaneous smile would be a key factor of depression. When facial palsy is considered complete and the nerve cannot be repaired, the patient can benefit from palliative surgery to regain a better quality of life in the aesthetic, functional, and psychological aspects. The hypoglossal-facial anastomosis (AHF), temporal myoplasty (MAT) and gracilis transposition (TG) are the major surgeries currently used for this purpose. The aim of our study is to assess quantitatively and qualitatively the effects of each of these surgeries on the lip mobility and production of smile. From this perspective, we proposed a protocol of an evaluation of facial motricity, of quality of life, and more particularly on the quality and the analysis of the smile. The results underline that there is no significant difference in the recovery of the facial motricity according to the surgery. Only the slower, deferred deadline of recovery at the patients AHF and TG who have to wait several months, it is for the same levels as that of the patients' MAT. A premature and intensive rehabilitation such as the patients of our protocol benefited from it what is nevertheless essential to a good recovery whatever is the surgery. PMID:25252585

  6. Trunk muscle activity in healthy subjects during bridging stabilization exercises

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Veerle K; Bouche, Katie G; Mahieu, Nele N; Coorevits, Pascal L; Vanderstraeten, Guy G; Danneels, Lieven A

    2006-01-01

    Background Trunk bridging exercises are often used as therapeutic exercises for lumbopelvic stabilization. These exercises focus on the retraining of muscle coordination patterns in which optimal ratios between local segmental stabilizing and global torque producing muscle activity are assumed to be essential. However, a description of such ratios is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate both relative (as a percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction) muscle activity levels and ratios of local to global muscle activity, during bridging stabilization exercises. Methods Thirty healthy university students (15 men, 15 women) with a mean age of 19.6 year volunteered to perform 3 bridging exercises (single bridging, ball bridge and unilateral bridging). The surface electromyographic activity of different trunk muscles was evaluated on both sides. Results During all bridging exercises, the ratio of the internal oblique to the rectus abdominis was very high due to minimal relative activity of the rectus abdominis. In general, the ratio of the internal/external abdominal oblique activity was about 1. However, during the unilateral bridging exercise, the ipsilateral internal/external abdominal oblique activity ratio was 2.79 as a consequence of the significant higher relative activity of the internal oblique compared to the external oblique. The relative muscle activity and the ratios of the back muscles demonstrated similar activity levels for all back muscles, resulting in ratios about 1. Conclusion Both the minimal relative activity of the rectus abdominis and the high internal oblique to the rectus abdominis activity ratio reported in the present study are in accordance with results of other trunk stabilization exercises. The relative muscle activity and the ratio of the abdominal obliques seem to alter depending on the task and the presumable need for stability. The findings concerning the relative muscle activity and the ratios of the back muscles support the assumption that during these bridging exercises, all back muscles contribute in a similar way to control spine positions and movements in a healthy population. PMID:16987410

  7. Free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction of a massive lumbosacral defect using superior gluteal artery perforator vessels.

    PubMed

    Gaster, Richard S; Bhatt, Kirit A; Shelton, Andrew A; Lee, Gordon K

    2012-07-01

    Despite significant advances in reconstructive surgery, the repair of massive lumbosacral defects poses significant challenges. When the extent of soft tissue loss, tumor resection, and/or radiation therapy preclude the use of traditional local options, such as gluteal advancement flaps or pedicled thigh flaps, then distant flaps are required. We report a case of a 64-year-old male who presented with a large sacral Marjolin's ulcer secondary to recurrent pilonidal cysts and ulcerations. The patient underwent wide local composite resection, which resulted in a wound measuring 450 cm(2) with exposed rectum and sacrum. The massive defect was successfully covered with a free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap, providing a well-vascularized skin paddle and obviating the need for a latissimus flap with skin graft. The free-TRAM flap proved to be a very robust flap in this situation and would be one of our flaps of choice for similar defects. PMID:22473859

  8. [A case of vesicovaginal fistula repair with rectus abdominus myofascial interposition flap after radical hysterectomy and radiation therapy].

    PubMed

    Endo, Yuki; Iigaya, Shigeki; Nishimura, Taiji; Ishii, Naohiro; Kitaoka, Yoshihisa; Kawashima, Toshifumi; Ohara, Chiharu; Hamasaki, Tsutomu; Kondo, Yukihiro

    2014-10-01

    Vesicovaginal fistulas (VVFs) caused after radiation are difficult to repair and require interposition of non-irradiated, well-vascularized tissue between urinary bladder and vagina. A 48-year-old female suffered cervical cancer and underwent radical hysterectomy followed by radiation therapy which caused VVF. The initial surgical repair performed 3 months after development of VVF, was unsuccessful because of the absence of peritoneum or omentum to interpose between urinary bladder and vagina probably due to history of cesarean section and radical hysterectomy. The second surgical repair was performed 15 months after the first surgery utilizing a rectus abdominus myofascial (RAM) interposition flap. Fifteen months after the second operation, she remains free from incontinence. This case suggests that RAM is useful even for postradiation VVF. PMID:25391781

  9. Effects of Barbell Deadlift Training on Submaximal Motor Unit Firing Rates for the Vastus Lateralis and Rectus Femoris

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Matt S.; Thompson, Brennan J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age ?=?24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n?=?15) or control (n?=?9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d?=?.70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units. PMID:25531294

  10. Motor unit recruitment strategy of knee antagonist muscles in a step-wise, increasing isometric contraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bernardi; M. Solomonow; J. H. Sanchez; R. V. Baratta; G. Nguyen

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if differences exist between the control strategies of two antagonist thigh muscles during knee flexion and extension muscular coactivation. Surface myoelectric signal (MES) of the quadriceps (rectus femoris) and the hamstrings (semitendinosus) were obtained from both muscles while performing step-wise increasing contractions during flexion and extension with the knee at 1.57 rad

  11. Spatial, temporal and muscle action patterns of Tai Chi gait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ge Wu; Wei Liu; Juvena Hitt; Debra Millon

    2004-01-01

    This study was to quantitatively characterize the spatial, temporal, and neuromuscular activation patterns of Tai Chi gait (TCG). Ten healthy young subjects were tested. The kinematics of TCG and normal gait (NG) were measured using a marker-based motion analysis system and two biomechanical force plates. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from six left-side muscles: tibialis anterior, soleus, peronaeus longus, rectus

  12. Skeletal muscle metastasis from breast cancer: management and literature review.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle metastasis from breast cancer is a very rare clinical entity. We describe an extremely rare case of breast cancer metastasis to the rectus abdominis muscle. Our patient, who had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer four years ago, presented with a painful abdominal mass. Computed tomography scans showed a rim-enhancing mass with central hypoatennuation within the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle. A Fine needle aspiration biopsy was initially performed and the findings were suggestive of malignancy. The muscle lesion was then resected and the histopathological analysis showed metastasis of breast cancer. Through our review of the literature, we found that only two cases of rectus abdominis muscle metastasis from breast cancer have been reported so far. This case highlights the need to rule out muscle metastatic lesions in patients with history of breast cancer presenting with these clinical and imaging characteristics. Differentiation from primary sarcoma is of paramount importance. Skeletal muscle metastases usually indicate an advanced disease associated with poor prognosis. Treatment should be individualized depending on the patient's clinical condition. PMID:25159186

  13. Comparative study of Y-split recession versus bilateral medial rectus recession for surgical management of infantile esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Nermeen; Hegazy, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Aim This prospective study compares the results of bilateral medial rectus recession versus (vs) Y-split recession of medial recti techniques for surgical management of essential infantile esotropia. Patients and methods Thirty patients were included in this study and had preoperative infantile esotropia with large angles (ie, >30 prism diopters [PD]). Patients were divided into Group A, which underwent bilateral medial rectus (BMR) recession and Group B, which underwent bilateral Y-split recession of medial recti muscles. All patients were subjected to complete ophthalmologic examination and met the criteria for inclusion in this study. The degrees of BMR recessions performed ranged from 6.0–7.5 mm. All operations were performed under general anesthesia. Follow-up visits were conducted at 1 and 2 weeks, and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Rates of reoperation for residual esotropia and consecutive exotropia were determined. Results The patients’ preoperative angles of deviation ranged from 30–80 PD. Group A consumed 57% less operative time than Group B. Immediately postoperatively, the Y-splitting technique showed satisfactory results (ie, orthotropic or residual angles ?15 PD) in 73% of patients vs 67% only for the BMR recession patients. By the end of six months of follow up; 13% of the BMR technique patients vs 27% of the Y-splitting technique patients showed negative change of PD but without reoperation. Conclusion Our results suggest that, although the Y-splitting technique is more difficult and time consuming, both procedures are effective and have shown comparable results for the correction of horizontal deviation ?70 PD. PMID:24920880

  14. Histological, physical, and chemical factors of various lamb muscles

    E-print Network

    Tschirhart, Tara Elizabeth

    2004-09-30

    values for total collagen content as well as highest percentage of soluble collagen when compared to the M. rectus femoris, M. gluteobiceps, M. semitendinosus, and M. semimembranosus (Cross et al., 1973). However, Longissimus dorsi muscles were rated... significant effect on tenderness in beef M. sternomandibularis muscle. However, toughening increased rapidly after this point until it reached its peak shear point at 40% shortening. As shortening increased to 55 to 60%, samples became more tender and 8...

  15. Evaluation of endotracheal intubating conditions without the use of muscle relaxants following induction with propofol and sevoflurane in pediatric cleft lip and palate surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Sunil; Gotluru, Priyanka; Andews, Susamma; Paul, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Children with facial clefts are usually difficult to intubate and it is considered safer to keep them spontaneously breathing while securing the airway. This prospective comparative study was conducted to evaluate endotracheal intubating conditions in pediatric patients undergoing cleft surgeries, without the use of muscle relaxants following induction with propofol and sevoflurane. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients aged 1month to 3 years, were randomly allocated into two equal groups. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane 8% in oxygen in group 1 and with propofol 3 mg/kg in group 2. Laryngoscopy and intubation were attempted 150 s after induction in both groups and ease of laryngoscopy, position of vocal cords, degree of coughing, jaw relaxation, and limb movements were assessed and scored. Total score of 5 was considered excellent, 6-10 good, 11-15 poor, and 16-20 bad. Total score ? 10 was considered clinically acceptable, and >10 as clinically unacceptable. Chi-square and Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze data. Results: There was no significant difference between groups when ease of laryngoscopy was compared. Sevoflurane induced patients had significantly better position of vocal cords at intubation and the propofol group had significantly more episodes of coughing. Significantly less number of patients had limb movements in sevoflurane group. There was no significant difference in degree of jaw relaxation between groups. The sevoflurane group had significantly better total scores and clinically acceptable intubating conditions. Conclusion: Sevoflurane 8% in oxygen provides clinically acceptable intubating conditions without use of muscle relaxants in pediatric cleft patients. PMID:25190944

  16. Neurovascular distribution within the abdominal head of the pectoralis major muscle: Application to breast and flap surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Jeon, Anna; Kim, Kyung-Yong; Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Deog-Im; Kim, Yi-Suk; Han, Seung-Ho

    2015-05-01

    The abdominal head of the pectoralis major (AHPM) is important in cosmetic and flap surgeries. Few studies have reported on its neurovascular entry points and distribution patterns. We aimed to determine the entry points and distribution patterns of the neurovascular structures within the AHPM. Thirty-two hemithoraxes were dissected, and the distribution patterns of the neurovascular structures were classified into several categories. The neurovascular entry points were measured at the horizontal line passing through the jugular notch (x-axis) and the midclavicular line (y-axis). The AHPM was innervated by the communication branches of the medial pectoral nerve (MPN) and the lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) in 78.1% of the specimens and of the MPN without the communication branches in 21.9%. All the LPNs had communication branches, which could be classified as independent in 46.9% of the samples, with the MPN in 21.9%, and with the LPN in 9.3%. The blood supply of the AHPM was composed of branches from the lateral thoracic artery (LTA) in 62.5% of the specimens, the thoracoacromial artery (TA) in 15.6%, and the LTA with the TA in 21.9%. The mean distance of the entry point was 6.3 cm?±?1.3 cm lateral to the y-axis, 8.1 cm?±?3.3 cm below the x-axis in the nerves, 6.5 cm?±?1.2 cm lateral to the y-axis, and 8.6 cm?±?3.0 cm below the x-axis in the arteries. This study defined the average neurovascular entry point and distribution pattern in detail using standard lines to enable the AHPM to be better understood. Clin. Anat. 28:520-526, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25693862

  17. [Case of inguinal hernia repair with transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Azuma, Satomi; Hasegawa, Yuko; Mori, Naohiro; Takahashi, Noriko; Oku, Kazunori; Hiramatsu, Runa; Yasumoto, Kazumasa

    2009-10-01

    Transversus abdominis plane block is effective for lower abdominal and inguinal operations, and rectus sheath block is effective for abdominal operations. Recently, ultrasound guided nerve block has been employed, and these techniques can be performed with ultrasound scanning. An 82-year-old man with severe coronary failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was scheduled for inguinal hernia repair. We did not want to select general anesthesia for him, and performed rectus sheath block and transversus abdominis plane block. We achieved good anesthetic management using two peripheral blocks under ultrasound scanning. PMID:19860241

  18. Respiratory-related activation of human abdominal muscles during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Kirk A; Feingold, Howard; Fuller, David D; Jenkins, Megan; Mateika, Jason H; Fregosi, Ralph F

    2002-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that abdominal muscles are active during the expiratory phase of the respiratory cycle during exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) activities of external oblique and rectus abdominis muscles were recorded during incremental exercise to exhaustion and during 30 min of constant work rate exercise at an intensity of 85 % of the peak oxygen consumption rate (V?O2). High amplitude intramuscular EMG activities of both abdominal muscles could be evoked with postural manoeuvres in all subjects. During cycling, respiratory-related activity of the external obliques was evoked in four of seven subjects, whereas rectus abdominis activity was observed in six of the seven subjects. We measured only the activity that was confined exclusively to the expiratory phase of the respiratory cycle. Expiratory activity of both muscles increased with exercise intensity, although peak values averaged only 10-20 or 20-40 % of the peak activity (obtained during maximal, voluntary expiratory efforts) for the external oblique and rectus abdominis muscles, respectively. To estimate how much of the recorded abdominal muscle activity was supporting leg movements during exercise, we compared the activity at the very end of incremental exercise to that recorded during the first five respiratory cycles after the abrupt cessation of exercise, when ventilation was still very high. Although external oblique activity was reduced after exercise stopped, clear expiratory activity remained. Rectus abdominis activity remained high after exercise cessation, showing a gradual decline that approximated the decline in ventilation. During constant work rate exercise, EMG activities increased to 40-50 and 5-10 % of peak in rectus and external oblique muscles, respectively, and then plateaued for the remainder of the bout in spite of a continual upward drift in V?O2 and pulmonary ventilation. Linear regression analysis showed that the rise in respiratory-related expiratory muscle activity during progressive intensity exercise was significantly correlated with ventilation, although weakly. In constant work rate exercise, expiratory EMG activities increased, but the changes were highly variable and did not change as a function of exercise time, even though ventilation drifted significantly with time. These experiments suggest that abdominal muscles play a role in regulating the ventilatory response to progressive intensity bicycle exercise, although some of the observed activity may support postural adjustments or limb movements. The contribution of abdominal muscles to ventilation during constant work rate exercise is variable, and expiratory activity does not ‘drift’ significantly with time. PMID:12042369

  19. Incomitant Strabismus Associated with Instability of Rectus Pulleys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sei Yeul Oh; Robert A. Clark; Federico Velez; Arthur L. Rosenbaum; Joseph L. Demer

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE. Connective tissue pulleys serve as functional mechan- ical origins of the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and are normally stable relative to the orbit during gaze shifts. This study eval- uated pulley stability in incomitant strabismus. METHODS. Contiguous 2- or 3-mm thick magnetic resonance images (MRIs) perpendicular to the orbital axis spanned the anteroposterior extents of 12 orbits of six patients

  20. The time course of retrograde transsynaptic transport of tetanus toxin fragment C in the oculomotor system of the rabbit after injection into extraocular eye muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. E. Horn; J. A. Biittner-Ennever

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal survival time for labelling those neurons that monosynaptically terminate on extraocular motoneurons, i.e. the premotor neurons, after an injection of tetanus toxin fragment C, a retrograde transsynaptic tracer substance, into the eye muscle of the rabbit. Concentrated fragment C was injected into the inferior rectus or inferior oblique muscle and

  1. SCIENTIFIC REPORT Reduction of ocular muscle torque by splitting of the rectus

    E-print Network

    Haslwanter, Thomas

    study, testing the effects of a new surgical technique on strabismus, nystagmus, and visual acuity. 228 patients (aged 6.8 (SD 6.0) years) with variable angle strabismus and nystagmus were treated by splitting later. Results: The operation reduced the strabismus, eliminated or weakened the nystagmus in primary

  2. A Case of Postsurgical Necrotizing Fasciitis Invading the Rectus Abdominis Muscle and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cremona, Antonio; Guidi, Marco; Carusi, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening, soft tissue infection and an early diagnosis is needed to permit a prompt surgical and medical intervention. Due to the high fatal potential of the disease complications, the radiologist should distinguish necrotizing fasciitis from the most common soft tissue infections, in order to permit a prompt surgical and medical treatment. We present a case of a wide necrotizing fasciitis who presented at our emergency department and we also provide the basic tools, through a review of the literature, for the general radiologist to distinguish, with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, necrotizing fasciitis from the most common infections that could present during our routine practice. PMID:24707295

  3. Use of Oral Mucoperiosteal and Pterygo-Masseteric Muscle Flaps as Interposition Material in Surgery of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Anyanechi, CE; Osunde, OD; Bassey, GO

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common complication of surgery for the release of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is relapse of the ankylosis. To prevent re-ankylosis, a variety of interpositional materials have been used. Aim: The aim was to compare the surgical outcome of oral mucoperiosteal flap, not hitherto used as interpositional material, with pterygo-masseteric muscles flap after surgical release of TMJ ankylosis. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective randomized study of all consecutive patients treated for the release of complete TMJ bony ankylosis, from January 2003 to December 2012, at the Oral and Maxillofacial unit of our institution. The patients were randomized into two groups: The pterygo-masseteric group comprises 22 patients while the oral mucoperiosteal group had 23 patients. Information on demographics, clinical characteristics, and postoperative complications over a 5 year follow-up period were obtained, and analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 13, Chicago, IL, USA). A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 15 to 28 mean 20.3 (3.35) years while the duration of ankylosis ranged from 2 to 16 mean 5.1 (3.4) years. The baseline demographic (gender; P = 0.92; side; P = 0.58) and clinical characteristics in terms of etiology (P = 0.60) and age (P = 0.52) were comparable in both treatment groups. All the patients presented with complete bony TMJ ankylosis with a preoperative inter-incisal distance of <0.5 cm. The intraoperative mouth opening achieved ranged from 4 cm to 5 cm, mean 4.6 (0.27) cm and this was not different for either group (P = 0.51). The patients were followed up postoperatively for a period ranging from 3 to 5 years, mean 3.4 (0.62) years. The mouth opening decreased, over the period of postoperative review, from the initial range of 4–5 cm to 2.9–3.6 cm, and this was not different in both groups (P = 0.18). Conclusion: This study suggests that oral mucoperiosteal flap could be an option in the choice of interpositional materials in surgery of TMJ ankylosis.

  4. Rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps for perineal reconstruction: modifications to the technique based on a large single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, DM; Clements, D; Edwards, TJ; Fitton, AR; Douie, WJP

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Perineal wound breakdown with delayed wound healing represents a significant cause of morbidity following surgery and radiotherapy to the perineum. The rectus abdominis myocutaneous (RAM) flap has been used increasingly to reconstruct the perineum with good effect. We describe our six-year experience of reconstruction of the perineum with the RAM flap and share some surgical adjuncts we believe are useful. METHODS We conducted a retrospective case note review of all patients who underwent a reconstruction of the perineum using the RAM flap between August 2003 and October 2009. Indications for the flap, complication rates and outcomes were all observed. RESULTS We conducted 16 RAM flap procedures, 15 of which (94%) were primary repairs and 1 (6%) a secondary repair. Three (19%) developed donor site hernias, two (12.5%) developed minor perineal wound infections, eight (50%) developed minor perineal wound breakdown and in one (6%) flap failure was observed. No perineal hernias were observed. There were no surgical mortalities. CONCLUSIONS The RAM flap has a high success rate and an acceptable morbidity rate and is a useful tool in the reconstruction of complex perineal wounds. Modifications to the standard surgical technique may reduce complications and improve the versatility of this flap. PMID:21943461

  5. Chondrosarcoma from the sternum: Reconstruction with titanium mesh and a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap after subtotal sternal excision

    PubMed Central

    Koto, Kazutaka; Sakabe, Tomoya; Horie, Naoyuki; Ryu, Kazuteru; Murata, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Ishida, Toshihiro; Konishi, Eiichi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Chondrosarcoma arising from the sternum is extremely rare and is often untreatable. Removal of the sternum for malignant tumor results in large defects in bone and soft tissue, causing deformity and paradoxical movement of the chest wall and making subsequent repair of the thorax very important. We report a very rare patient with a chondrosarcoma of the sternum who underwent case chest wall resection, followed by reconstruction using a titanium mesh covered with a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap. Case Report A 63-year-old man was referred to our hospital with progressively enlarged swelling of his anterior chest wall. Physical examination showed a 2.5×2.0 cm mass fixed to the sternum, which was diagnosed as a chondrosarcoma based on clinical findings, imaging characteristics and incision biopsy results. The patient underwent a subtotal sternal and chest wall resection to remove the tumor, followed by reconstruction with a titanium mesh and a TRAM flap. There were no complications associated with surgery. Conclusions We report an extremely rare case of a patient who underwent subtotal sternal resection, followed by reconstruction, for a large chondrosarcoma. The elasticity and rigidity provided by the titanium mesh and the complete coverage of the surgical wound by a TRAM flap suggest that these procedures may be useful in reconstructing large defects in the chest wall. PMID:23018358

  6. Comparison of the Complications in Vertical Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap with Non-Reconstructed Cases after Pelvic Exenteration

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Heechang; You, Hi-Jin; Kim, Hyon-Surk; Lee, Byung-Il; Park, Seung Ha

    2014-01-01

    Background Perineal reconstruction following pelvic exenteration is a challenging area in plastic surgery. Its advantages include preventing complications by obliterating the pelvic dead space and minimizing the scar by using the previous abdominal incision and a vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (VRAM) flap. However, only a few studies have compared the complications and the outcomes following pelvic exenteration between cases with and without a VRAM flap. In this study, we aimed to compare the complications and the outcomes following pelvic exenteration with or without VRAM flap coverage. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of nine patients for whom transpelvic VRAM flaps were created following pelvic exenteration due to pelvic malignancy. The complications and outcomes in these patients were compared with those of another nine patients who did not undergo such reconstruction. Results Flap reconstruction was successful in eight cases, with minor complications such as wound infection and dehiscence. In all cases in the reconstructed group (n=9), structural integrity was maintained and major complications including bowel obstruction and infection were prevented by obliterating the pelvic dead space. In contrast, in the control group (n=9), peritonitis and bowel obstruction occurred in 1 case (11%). Conclusions Despite the possibility of flap failure and minor complications, a VRAM flap can result in adequate perineal reconstruction to prevent major complications of pelvic exenteration. PMID:25396186

  7. [Microscope-integrated intraoperative indocyanine green angiography in plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Holzbach, T; Artunian, N; Spanholtz, T A; Volkmer, E; Engelhardt, T O; Giunta, R E

    2012-04-01

    The knowledge of tissue perfusion has not only a prognostic value in microvascular surgery but also the intraoperative detection of malperfusion can lead to a quick surgical intervention. Indocyanine green (ICG) angiography allows a topographic analysis of perfusion and is used to assess lymphatic drainage pathways and to analyse the depth of burn injuries. Integrating the technique into an operating microscope enables visualisation of the flow over microanastomoses and allows the assessment of the transit time of blood flow between arterial and venous anastomosis. Using this method we analysed 11 microsurgical free flaps (3 latissimus dorsi, 3 rectus abdominis, 1 gracilis muscle, 2 radial forearm, 1 ALT, and 1 DIEP flap). The topographic analysis was performed after the assessment of the microanastomoses. We observed no flap loss or partial flap necrosis. The transit time between arterial inflow and venous outflow was 32.8 s on average. Here we observed distinct differences between muscle flaps (27.7 s) on the one hand and fasciocutaneous and perforator flaps (47.5 s) on the other hand. We detected one venous thrombosis by ICG angiography in a case where the clinical patency test was not distinct. Revision was performed immediately. Particularly for intraoperative assessment, ICG angiography is a useful, reliable and safe technique. The integration into the operating microscope allows an "angiographic patency test" and the analysis of the transit time allows the evaluation of blood flow within the flap. Especially when planning perforator flaps the method of ICG angiography provides a new level of safety in flap design by quickly demonstrating the borders of perfusion. PMID:22495959

  8. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia, prenuclear paresis of contralateral superior rectus, and bilateral ptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bogousslavsky; F. Regli; J. Ghika; J. P. Hungerbühler

    1983-01-01

    A patient with infarction of the paramedian part of the lower mid-brain on the right side is described, in whom internuclear ophthalmoplegia and bilateral ptosis were associated with limitation of elevation of the contralateral eye from paresis of the superior rectus. Supranuclear paresis was suggested by partial dissociation between phasic and tonic components of upward gaze. It is suggested that

  9. Endolymphatic sac surgery versus tenotomy of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles in the management of patients with unilateral definite Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Albu, Silviu; Babighian, Gregorio; Amadori, Maurizio; Trabalzini, Franco

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to compare the outcomes of patients with Meniere's disease submitted to either endolymphatic mastoid shunt (ES) or tenotomy of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles (TSTM). This is a retrospective chart review of patients treated with ES or TSTM between 2000 and 2010 and followed up for at least 12 months. The main outcomes were represented by: (1) vertigo class, hearing stage and functional level according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery criteria; (2) adjustment of dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) and (3) complete and substantial vertigo control using the Kaplan-Meier survival method. Sixty-three patients met the inclusion criteria: 34 underwent ES and 29 TSTM. The baseline demographic characteristics, the hearing stage, the functional level, the DHI and hearing levels were not different between the two groups. No significant difference in vertigo class was demonstrated: 66 % of TSTM patients attained class A compared to 44 % in the ES group (p = 0.14). Kaplan-Meier survival curves specific to class A showed significant differences, favoring TSTM (log-rank test, p = 0.022). TSTM patients demonstrated significantly improved functional level (p = 0.0004) and improved DHI scores (p = 0.001). Eight ES patients (25 %) demanded a second surgical attempt compared to none in the TSTM. Aural fullness was significantly improved in TSTM group (p = 0.01), while the difference in tinnitus improvement was non-significant. Hearing preservation was significantly better in TSTM group (p = 0.001). TSTM is a safe surgical procedure, with significant vertigo control rates, and important hearing preservation rates. More patients and longer follow-up are needed to support our preliminary findings. PMID:25488280

  10. The chemical characteristics of five springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and blesbok (Damaliscus pygarcus phillipsi) muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Hoffman

    Game meat is considered to be a very healthy red meat because of its chemical composition, yet very little is known about the chemical composition of different game muscles. The chemical composition of M. biceps femoris, M. longissimus et lumborum, M. rectus femoris, M. semitendinosus and M. supraspinatus of springbok (n=10) and blesbok (n=10) were determined. The springbok and blesbok

  11. Localization of motoneurons innervating individual abdominal muscles of the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a systematic investigation of the innervation of the cat's individual abdominal muscles. The segmental distribution of the different motor pools was determined by using electrical microstimulation of the ventral horn to produce visible localized muscle twitches and by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase injected into individual muscles. The segmental distribution of each motor pool was as follows: rectus abdominis, T4-L3; external oblique, T6-L3; transverse abdominis, T9-L3; and internal oblique, T13-L3.

  12. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... Robotic surgery is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It can be performed through smaller cuts than open surgery. ...

  13. Effect of prolonged bed rest on the anterior hip muscles.

    PubMed

    Dilani Mendis, M; Hides, Julie A; Wilson, Stephen J; Grimaldi, Alison; Belavý, Daniel L; Stanton, Warren; Felsenberg, Dieter; Rittweger, Joern; Richardson, Carolyn

    2009-11-01

    Prolonged bed rest and inactivity is known to cause muscular atrophy with previous research indicating that muscles involved in joint stabilisation are more susceptible. The anterior hip muscles are important for hip joint function and stability but little is known about the effects of prolonged inactivity on their function. This study investigated the effect of prolonged bed rest on the size of the anterior hip muscles and their pattern of recovery. The effect of resistive vibration exercise (RVE) as a countermeasure to muscle atrophy was also investigated. 12 male participants, randomly assigned to either a control or an exercise group, underwent 8 weeks of bed rest with 6 months follow-up. Changes in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the iliacus, psoas, iliopsoas, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles were measured by magnetic resonance imaging at regular intervals during bed rest and recovery phases. CSAs of iliopsoas and sartorius decreased at the hip joint (p<0.05) during bed rest but iliacus, psoas, and rectus femoris CSAs were unchanged (p>0.05). No significant difference was found between the two groups for all muscles (all p>0.1), suggesting inefficacy of the countermeasure in this sample. These findings suggest that prolonged bed rest can result in the atrophy of specific muscles across the hip joint which may affect its stability and function. PMID:19726188

  14. Optimizing Muscle Parameters in Musculoskeletal Modeling Using Monte Carlo Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Andrea; Reed, Erik; Cavanagh, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts assigned to long-duration missions experience bone and muscle atrophy in the lower limbs. The use of musculoskeletal simulation software has become a useful tool for modeling joint and muscle forces during human activity in reduced gravity as access to direct experimentation is limited. Knowledge of muscle and joint loads can better inform the design of exercise protocols and exercise countermeasure equipment. In this study, the LifeModeler(TM) (San Clemente, CA) biomechanics simulation software was used to model a squat exercise. The initial model using default parameters yielded physiologically reasonable hip-joint forces. However, no activation was predicted in some large muscles such as rectus femoris, which have been shown to be active in 1-g performance of the activity. Parametric testing was conducted using Monte Carlo methods and combinatorial reduction to find a muscle parameter set that more closely matched physiologically observed activation patterns during the squat exercise. Peak hip joint force using the default parameters was 2.96 times body weight (BW) and increased to 3.21 BW in an optimized, feature-selected test case. The rectus femoris was predicted to peak at 60.1% activation following muscle recruitment optimization, compared to 19.2% activation with default parameters. These results indicate the critical role that muscle parameters play in joint force estimation and the need for exploration of the solution space to achieve physiologically realistic muscle activation.

  15. The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of a 6-month-old Crocodylus niloticus (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    PubMed

    Fechner, R; Schwarz-Wings, D

    2013-06-01

    The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of crocodilians play an important role in their ventilatory mechanism. Yet the anatomy and homology of these muscles is poorly understood. To gain new insights into the anatomy of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall, we dissected a specimen of Crocodylus niloticus. Origin and insertion of the muscles, as well as their arrangement relative to each other was examined in great detail. The findings were compared with those of other crocodilian taxa to detect potential variability of the muscles of interest. The homology of the muscles was studied by comparing the muscles of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall with those of other diapsids. In Crocodylus niloticus, the infrapubic abdominal wall consists of four muscles: Musculus truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus, and Mm. rectus abdominis externus and internus. The arrangement of the muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of Crocodylus niloticus is consistent with that found in most other crocodilian taxa. In some crocodilian taxa, an additional muscle, M. ischiopubis, is found. In the remaining diapsids, only M. rectus abdominis is present. The crocodilian M. truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus and, if present, M. ischiopubis appear to be derivates of M. rectus abdominis; the development of those might be related to the evolution of the unique crocodilian ventilatory mechanism. PMID:22909340

  16. Responses of intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal muscle activity during dynamic trunk loading in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Cresswell

    1993-01-01

    Summary  The purpose of this study was to determine and compare interactions between the abdominal musculature and intea-abdominal pressure (IAP) during controlled dynamic and static trunk muscle loading. Myoelectric activity was recorded in six subjects from the rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, obliquus internus, transversus abdominis and erector spinae muscles using surface and intea-muscular fine-wire electrodes. The IAP was recorded intea-gastrically. Trunk

  17. Differential control of abdominal muscles during multi-directional support-surface translations in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark G. Carpenter; Craig D. Tokuno; Alf Thorstensson; Andrew G. Cresswell

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to understand how deep and superficial abdominal muscles are coordinated with respect to activation\\u000a onset times and amplitudes in response to unpredictable support-surface translations delivered in multiple directions. Electromyographic\\u000a (EMG) data were recorded intra-muscularly using fine-wire electrodes inserted into the right rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus\\u000a externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI) and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles. Twelve

  18. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martín, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E; Behm, David G; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p < 0.001). Individually, the suspended push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key PointsCompared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation.A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity.More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation.A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS. PMID:25177174

  19. Trunk muscle coordination in reaction to load-release in a position without vertical postural demand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Martin Eriksson Crommert; Alf Thorstensson

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the coordination between the innermost muscle layer of the ventro-lateral abdominal\\u000a wall, the transversus abdominis (TrA), and other trunk muscles, in reaction to a load-release without the postural demand\\u000a of keeping the trunk upright. Eleven healthy male volunteers participated. Intramuscular fine-wire electromyography (EMG)\\u000a was obtained bilaterally from the TrA, rectus abdominis (RA),

  20. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C.; Martín, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E.; Behm, David G.; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p < 0.001). Individually, the suspended push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key Points Compared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation. A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity. More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation. A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS. PMID:25177174

  1. Successful Treatment of Rectus Femoris Calcification with Ultrasound-guided Injection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Myong Joo; Park, Jeong Ki; Kang, Tai Ug

    2015-01-01

    Painful periarticular calcification most commonly occurs within the rotator cuff of the shoulder and rarely around the elbow, hip, foot, and neck. As acute inflammatory reaction develops, severe pain, exquisite tenderness, local swelling, and limitation of motion with pain occur. In case of calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, it can be easily diagnosed according to the symptoms and with x-ray. However, in lesions of the hip, as it is a rare location and usually involves pain in the posterolateral aspect of the thigh, which can simulate radicular pain from a lumbar intervertebral disc, it could be difficult to diagnose. Hence, physicians usually focus on lumbar lesions; therefore, misdiagnosis is common and leads to a delayed management. Here, we report the case of a 30-year-old female patient with calcific tendinitis of the rectus femoris that was successfully managed with ultrasound-guided steroid injection. This study offers knowledge about the rectus femoris calcification. PMID:25589947

  2. Rectus sheath haematoma: a serious complication of a commonly administered drug

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Fran; Khalid, Usman; Woolgar, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Ten days after an above knee amputation, this 62-year-old woman became acutely anaemic (haemoglobin drop of 10.4 to 6.2). Clinically, she had no obvious source of bleeding; however, on examination, her abdomen was slightly distended and she was tender over the suprapubic area. A CT scan of her abdomen and pelvis was arranged which showed a large haematoma (17×11?cm) arising from the anterior abdominal wall from the deep aspect of the left rectus abdominus, extending across the midline to the right rectus abdominus and deep into the pelvis. This may have been spontaneous or may have been due to direct injury when injecting subcutaneous heparin. PMID:23580671

  3. Arthroscopic treatment of chronically painful calcific tendinitis of the rectus femoris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Relatively large calcific tendinitis with persistent symptoms after extended periods of conservative treatment is an indication for operative therapy. Arthroscopy, as a treatment for calcific tendinitis of the hip abductors and calcinosis circumscripta, has been described previously; however, to our knowledge, the clinical and radiological response to arthroscopic removal of calcific tendinitis of the rectus femoris tendon has not. Methods We present arthroscopic treatment of unusual calcific tendonitis of the origin of the rectus femoris and associated intra-articular lesions in 3 patients with chronic coxa pain. Results Our cases show that hip arthroscopy is an effective therapeutic modality for calcific tendinitis of the hip joint with satisfactory short-term outcomes. Conclusions Calcific tendinitis, although an uncommon clinical entity, should be a part of the differential diagnosis of acute or chronic hip pain. PMID:24266900

  4. Identification and Characterization of a Putative Chemotaxis Protein, CheY, from the Oral Pathogen Campylobacter rectus

    PubMed Central

    LaGier, Michael J.; Bilokopytov, Ihor; Cockerill, Bradley; Threadgill, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter rectus is an understudied oral bacterium that contributes to periodontitis. Processes that contribute to the disease-causing capabilities of pathogens, such as chemotaxis, are largely unknown in C. rectus. The aim of this study was to better understand C. rectus chemotaxis, by examining the C. rectus genome for the presence of a cheY gene. CheY proteins play a part in chemotaxis by acting as two-component response regulators. Significantly, CheY proteins from several pathogens, including the related species Campylobacter jejuni, have been shown to contribute to bacterial virulence. Degenerate PCR, RT-PCR, sequence analyses, and structural modeling showed that C. rectus encodes a gene (Cr-CheY) which shares significant homology with previously characterized CheY proteins. Functional studies of a recombinant form of the protein supports a likely role of Cr-CheY in C. rectus chemotaxis. Cr-CheY is the first CheY characterized from the oral campylobacters. PMID:25598863

  5. Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Tome; Mori, Natsuko; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of age and inactivity due to being chronically bedridden on atrophy of trunk muscles. The subjects comprised 33 young women (young group) and 41 elderly women who resided in nursing homes or chronic care institutions. The elderly subjects were divided into two groups: independent elderly group who were able to perform activities of daily living involving walking independently (n = 28) and dependent elderly group who were chronically bedridden (n = 13). The thickness of the following six trunk muscles was measured by B-mode ultrasound: the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, thoracic erector spinae (longissimus) and lumbar multifidus muscles. All muscles except for the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles were significantly thinner in the independent elderly group compared with those in the young group. The thicknesses of all muscles in the dependent elderly group was significantly smaller than that in the young group, whereas there were no differences between the dependent elderly and independent elderly groups in the muscle thicknesses of the rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles. In conclusion, our results suggest that: (1) age-related atrophy compared with young women was less in the deep antigravity trunk muscles than the superficial muscles in the independent elderly women; (2) atrophy associated with chronic bed rest was more marked in the antigravity muscles, such as the back and transversus abdominis. PMID:21472438

  6. Synergists activation pattern of the quadriceps muscle differs when performing sustained isometric contractions with different EMG biofeedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Matkowski; Alain Martin; Romuald Lepers

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine (1) endurance time and (2) activation pattern of vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles during fatiguing isometric knee extensions performed with different EMG biofeedbacks. Thirteen men (27  5 year) volunteered to participate in three experimental sessions. Each session involved a submaximal isometric contraction held until failure at an

  7. Effect of pelvic suspension on three major leg muscles in the pig carcass and implications for ham manufacture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Fisher; A. Pouros; J. D. Wood; K. Young-Boong; P. R. Sheard

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-two female pigs were slaughtered and their left sides suspended conventionally by the Achilles tendon whilst right sides were suspended from the pelvic bone. The first 16 pigs were used to measure suspension effects on the characteristics of three major leg muscles (m. gluteobiceps, m. semimembranosus and m. rectus femoris) and to assess their suitability for ham manufacture. The remaining

  8. Extraocular Muscle Motor Units Characterized By Spike-Triggered Averaging In Alert Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Gamlin, Paul D.; Miller, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    Single-unit recording in macaque monkeys has been widely used to study extraocular motoneuron behavior during eye movements. However, primate extraocular motor units have only been studied using electrical stimulation in anesthetized animals. To study motor units in alert, behaving macaques, we combined chronic muscle force transducer (MFT) and single-unit extracellular motoneuron recordings. During steady fixation with low motoneuron firing rates, we used motoneuron spike-triggered averaging of MFT signals (STA-MFT) to extract individual motor unit twitches, thereby characterizing each motor unit in terms of twitch force and dynamics. It is then possible, as in conventional studies, to determine motoneuron activity during eye movements, but now with knowledge of underlying motor unit characteristics. We demonstrate the STA-MFT technique for medial rectus motor units. Recordings from 33 medial rectus motoneurons in three animals identified 20 motor units, which had peak twitch tensions of 0.5 – 5.25 mg, initial twitch delays averaging 2.4ms, and time to peak contraction averaging 9.3ms. These twitch tensions are consistent with those reported in unanesthetized rabbits, and with estimates of the total number of medial rectus motoneurons and twitch tension generated by whole-nerve stimulation in monkey, but are substantially lower than those reported for lateral rectus motor units in anesthetized squirrel monkey. Motor units were recruited in order of twitch tension magnitude with stronger motor units reaching threshold further in the muscle’s ON-direction, showing that, as in other skeletal muscles, medial rectus motor units are recruited according to the “size principle”. PMID:22108141

  9. Trunk muscle fatigue during a back extension task in standing.

    PubMed

    Allison, G T; Henry, S M

    2001-11-01

    There is some evidence that the fatiguing characteristics during isometric back extension tasks may assist in identifying differences between individuals with and without low back pain (LBP). During these tasks, especially in standing, other abdominal trunk muscles are also active. The abdominal trunk muscles acting across multiple segments of the lumbar spine function in isolation or in synergy to create flexion torques. It is suggested that co-activation patterns of the trunk muscles are able to control the axis of rotation of the extension torque and also provide multi-segmental stability of the spine. The purpose of this study was to examine the fatigue responses in 4 asymptomatic individuals to a sustained isometric extension task of the trunk muscles evaluating the shifts in the median frequency of the electromyographic (EMG) signal. This study suggests that in asymptomatic subjects, the more superficial abdominal muscles (External Oblique and Rectus Abdominis) increased in activity as the test progressed. There was large inter-individual variation in both amplitude and median frequency changes. Rectus abdominis and the back extensors demonstrated characteristics of fatigue during the task. Studies to test for any characteristic trends in whether specific trunk muscles fatigue in standing is a feature in chronic LBP, invites a formal investigation. PMID:11673932

  10. Optimising muscle parameters in musculoskeletal models using Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Reed, Erik B; Hanson, Andrea M; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The use of musculoskeletal simulation software has become a useful tool for modelling joint and muscle forces during human activity, including in reduced gravity because direct experimentation is difficult. Knowledge of muscle and joint loads can better inform the design of exercise protocols and exercise countermeasure equipment. In this study, the LifeModeler™ (San Clemente, CA, USA) biomechanics simulation software was used to model a squat exercise. The initial model using default parameters yielded physiologically reasonable hip-joint forces but no activation was predicted in some large muscles such as rectus femoris, which have been shown to be active in 1-g performance of the activity. Parametric testing was conducted using Monte Carlo methods and combinatorial reduction to find a muscle parameter set that more closely matched physiologically observed activation patterns during the squat exercise. The rectus femoris was predicted to peak at 60.1% activation in the same test case compared to 19.2% activation using default parameters. These results indicate the critical role that muscle parameters play in joint force estimation and the need for exploration of the solution space to achieve physiologically realistic muscle activation. PMID:24050838

  11. Atlas of the muscle motor points for the lower limb: implications for electrical stimulation procedures and electrode positioning.

    PubMed

    Botter, Alberto; Oprandi, Gianmosè; Lanfranco, Fabio; Allasia, Stefano; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Minetto, Marco Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the uniformity of the muscle motor point location for lower limb muscles in healthy subjects. Fifty-three subjects of both genders (age range: 18-50 years) were recruited. The muscle motor points were identified for the following ten muscles of the lower limb (dominant side): vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus of the hamstring muscles, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, lateral and medial gastrocnemius. The muscle motor point was identified by scanning the skin surface with a stimulation pen electrode and corresponded to the location of the skin area above the muscle in which an electrical pulse evoked a muscle twitch with the least injected current. For each investigated muscle, 0.15 ms square pulses were delivered through the pen electrode at low current amplitude (<10 mA) and frequency (2 Hz). 16 motor points were identified in the 10 investigated muscles of almost all subjects: 3 motor points for the vastus lateralis, 2 motor points for rectus femoris, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior, 1 motor point for the remaining muscles. An important inter-individual variability was observed for the position of the following 4 out of 16 motor points: vastus lateralis (proximal), biceps femoris (short head), semimembranosus, and medial gastrocnemius. Possible implications for electrical stimulation procedures and electrode positioning different from those commonly applied for thigh and leg muscles are discussed. PMID:21796408

  12. Correlation between Peak Expiratory Flow and Abdominal Muscle Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Kobara, Kenichi; Osaka, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Tadanobu; Ito, Tomotaka; Kurozumi, Chiharu; Watanabe, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether forced expiration is correlated with abdominal muscle thickness. [Subjects] Twenty-three healthy male volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] The peak expiratory flow (PEF) was obtained using a peak flow meter with subjects in the sitting position. The thicknesses of the right rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis muscles were measured using B-mode ultrasonography at the end of a relaxed expiration in the supine position. [Results] Among the abdominal muscles, only the thickness of the external oblique muscle displayed a significant correlation with PEF. [Conclusion] It appears that the thickness of the external oblique muscle might be associated with PEF during forced expiration. PMID:25435702

  13. Influence of exercise training on the oxidative capacity of rat abdominal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uribe, J. M.; Stump, C. S.; Tipton, C. M.; Fregosi, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine if endurance exercise training would increase the oxidative capacity of the abdominal expiratory muscles of the rat. Accordingly, 9 male rats were subjected to an endurance training protocol (1 h/day, 6 days/week, 9 weeks) and 9 litter-mates served as controls. Citrate synthase (CS) activity was used as an index of oxidative capacity, and was determined in the following muscles: soleus, plantaris, costal diaphragm, crural diaphragm, and in all four abdominal muscles: rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique. Compared to their non-trained litter-mates, the trained rats had higher peak whole body oxygen consumption rates (+ 16%) and CS activities in plantaris (+34%) and soleus (+36%) muscles. Thus, the training program caused substantial systemic and locomotor muscle adaptations. The CS activity of costal diaphragm was 20% greater in the trained animals, but no difference was observed in crural diaphragm. The CS activity in the abdominal muscles was less than one-half of that in locomotor and diaphragm muscles, and there were no significant changes with training except in the rectus abdominis where a 26% increase was observed. The increase in rectus abdominis CS activity may reflect its role in postural support and/or locomotion, as none of the primary expiratory pumping muscles adapted to the training protocol. The relatively low levels of CS activity in the abdominal muscles suggests that they are not recruited frequently at rest, and the lack of an increase with training indicates that these muscles do not contribute significantly to the increased ventilatory activity accompanying exercise in the rat.

  14. Does the rectus femoris nerve block improve knee recurvatum in adult stroke patients? A kinematic and electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Gross, R; Delporte, L; Arsenault, L; Revol, P; Lefevre, M; Clevenot, D; Boisson, D; Mertens, P; Rossetti, Y; Luauté, J

    2014-02-01

    Knee recurvatum (KR) during gait is common in hemiplegic patients. Quadriceps spasticity has been postulated as a cause of KR in this population. The aim of this study was to assess the role of rectus femoris spasticity in KR by using selective motor nerve blocks of the rectus femoris nerve in hemiparetic stroke patients. The data from six adult, post-stroke hemiplegic patients who underwent a rectus femoris nerve block for a stiff-knee gait were retrospectively analyzed. An extensive clinical and functional evaluation was performed and gait was assessed by motion analysis (kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic parameters) before and during the block realized using 2% lidocaine injected under a neurostimulation and ultrasonographic targeting procedure. The main outcome measures were the peak knee extension in stance and peak knee extensor moment obtained during gait analysis. No serious adverse effect of the nerve block was observed. The block allowed a reduction of rectus femoris overactivity in all patients. Peak knee extension and extensor moment in stance did not improve in any patient, but peak knee flexion during the swing phase was significantly higher after block (mean: 31.2° post, 26.4 pre, p < 0.05). Our results provide arguments against the hypothesis that the spasticity of the rectus femoris contributes to KR. PMID:24286615

  15. Effect of Different Forefoot and Heel Support Surfaces on the Activities of the RF and HAM Muscles during the Sit-to-stand Task while Wearing High-heel Shoes

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show the effect of different forefoot and heel support surfaces on the activities of the rectus femoris and medial hamstring muscles during the sit-to-stand task while wearing high-heel shoes. [Subjects] Fifteen female subjects were recruited. [Methods] The muscle activities of the rectus femoris and hamstring muscles were recorded using an MP150 system during the sit-to-stand task while wearing various high-heeled shoes. [Results] The activities of the rectus femoris and medial hamstring muscles significantly decreased when subjects wore condition 1 shoes compared with when they wore condition 2, 3 or 4 high-heeled shoes. The activities of the rectus femoris and medial hamstring muscles significantly decreased when subjects wore condition 2 high-heeled shoes compared with condition 3 or 4 high-heeled shoes. [Conclusion] The results can be interpreted as indicating that the size of the forefoot supporting surface can influence the lower extremity muscles of women wearing high-heeled shoes more than the size of the heel supporting surface. PMID:25364105

  16. Rhabdomyosarcoma: Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is rhabdomyosarcoma treated? Next Topic Chemotherapy for rhabdomyosarcoma Surgery for rhabdomyosarcoma Surgery is an important part of ... be done at all. What to expect with surgery The type and extent of surgery can vary ...

  17. Neuroblastoma: Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... neuroblastoma treated? Next Topic Chemotherapy for neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma surgery Surgery can be used both to help diagnose ... long, thin instruments and remove pieces of tumor. Surgery as treatment After neuroblastoma is diagnosed, surgery is ...

  18. Effects of Three Bridging Exercises on Local and Global Muscles of Middle Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ji Kyeng; Lim, Hee Sung; Shin, Sung Rae; Kim, Bo Hyun; Lee, Suk Min

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the muscle activity differences of three different lumbar stabilization exercises in a comparison of middle-aged and young women. [Subjects] Seventeen middle-aged women and fifteen young women were enrolled in this study. Patients with a history of any neurologic disorders, orthopedic disorders, or cardiopulmonary problems that would have affected their lumbar stabilization exercise performance were excluded. [Methods] All subjects performed 3 exercises while the surface electromographic activity was recorded of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, multifidus, and iliocostalis lumbolum. The mean electromyographic amplitudes obtained during the exercise were normalized to the amplitude of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) to produce an inter-individually comparable muscle activity index. [Results] The highest muscle activity of middle-aged women was observed in the ring bridging exercise. The middle-aged women had higher levels of all muscle activaties than the young women, particularly in the multifidus muscle and iliocostalis lumborum. No significant difference in muscle activity ratio was observed between the local muscles and global muscles in the three different exercises, though the muscle activity ratio was the highest in the ring bridging exercise. The young women group showed a higher ratio of the internal oblique/rectus abdominus than the middle aged women in the bridging exercise. [Conclusion] The ring bridging exercise should be used for stabilizing the lumbar area because the young women showed a higher ratio than the middle aged women. PMID:24259869

  19. Reconstruction of full-thickness chest wall defects using rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap: A report of fifteen cases

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Y.; Hattori, T.; Niimoto, M.; Toge, T. (Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

    1986-02-01

    In 15 patients chest walls were excised because of recurrent breast cancer, radiation ulcer, or rib tumor. In most cases the full-thickness defect of the chest wall was about 10 x 10 cm. Reconstruction was performed using only a rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. No patient developed circulation problems in the flap or severe flail chest, and we had successful results in all our cases. These results show that the rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap is quite effective and safe to use in the reconstruction of chest wall defects.

  20. Muscle-tendon lengths according to sagittal knee kinematics in patients with cerebral palsy: differences between recurvatum and crouch knee.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yoon Hae; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Kun Bo

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the differences in muscle-tendon lengths during single limb support between recurvatum and crouch knee in patients with cerebral palsy. Group I consisted of 14 patients who had recurvatum knee, whereas group II consisted of 17 patients who had crouch knee. Compared with group II, group I had decreased ankle power and plantarflexion moment and only the average muscle-tendon lengths of the gluteus medius and vasti was decreased. There were no differences in other muscle-tendon lengths. Recurvatum and crouch knee could occur with similar muscle-tendon lengths of the gastrocnemius, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, and rectus femoris. PMID:23969563

  1. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  2. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePLUS

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  3. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePLUS

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy. Disuse atrophy occurs from a lack of physical activity. In most people, muscle atrophy is caused by not using the ...

  4. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma pregnancy: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tolcher, Mary C; Nitsche, Joshua F; Arendt, Katherine W; Rose, Carl H

    2010-08-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a rare, but important potential cause of acute upper abdominal pain in pregnancy. We report a patient with history of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome who presented with upper abdominal pain, hypotension, elevated hepatic transaminase levels, and a visibly enlarging right costal margin mass at 33 weeks' gestation. She underwent emergent cesarean delivery and upper abdominal exploration with findings of a large hematoma involving the entire right rectus sheath. The current case illustrates that the diagnosis of an RSH in pregnancy can be difficult as its presentation can mimic many common causes of abdominal pain seen outside of pregnancy, as well as many specific to pregnancy. Review of the published cases from the past 20 years shows that correct diagnosis remains difficult in pregnancy despite advances in diagnostic imaging. Although management of an RSH outside of pregnancy is frequently conservative, it is very often treated surgically in pregnant patients and often leads to preterm delivery. PMID:20955630

  5. Trunk muscle activity during bridging exercises on and off a Swissball

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Gregory J; Hoda, Wajid; Oliver, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Background A Swiss ball is often incorporated into trunk strengthening programs for injury rehabilitation and performance conditioning. It is often assumed that the use of a Swiss ball increases trunk muscle activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of a Swiss ball to trunk bridging exercises influences trunk muscle activity. Methods Surface electrodes recorded the myoelectric activity of trunk muscles during bridging exercises. Bridging exercises were performed on the floor as well as on a labile surface (Swiss ball). Results and Discussion During the prone bridge the addition of an exercise ball resulted in increased myoelectric activity in the rectus abdominis and external oblique. The internal oblique and erector spinae were not influenced. The addition of a swiss ball during supine bridging did not influence trunk muscle activity for any muscles studied. Conclusion The addition of a Swiss ball is capable of influencing trunk muscle activity in the rectus abdominis and external oblique musculature during prone bridge exercises. Modifying common bridging exercises can influence the amount of trunk muscle activity, suggesting that exercise routines can be designed to maximize or minimize trunk muscle exertion depending on the needs of the exercise population. PMID:16053529

  6. The Influence of Allogeneic Red Blood Cell Transfusion Compared with 100% Oxygen Ventilation on Systemic Oxygen Transport and Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Tension After Cardiac Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Suttner; Swen N. Piper; Bernhard Kumle; Katrin Lang; Frank Isgro; Joachim Boldt

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion on tissue oxygenation compared with those of 100% oxygen ventilation by us- ing systemic oxygen transport variables and skeletal muscle oxygen tension (Ptio2). Fifty-one volume- resuscitated, mechanically ventilated patients with a nadir hemoglobin concentration in the range from 7.5 to 8.5 g\\/dL after elective coronary artery

  7. Muscles, Muscles Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    This activity helps students learn about the three different types of muscles and how outer space affects astronauts' muscles. They will discover how important it is for astronauts to get adequate exercise both on Earth and in outer space. Also, through the design of their own microgravity exercise machine, students learn about the exercise machines that engineers design specifically for astronaut use.

  8. Functional and morphological variety in trunk muscles of Urodela.

    PubMed

    Omura, Ayano; Anzai, Wataru; Endo, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    Trunk musculature in Urodela species varies by habitat. In this study, trunk musculature was examined in five species of adult salamanders representing three different habitats: aquatic species, Amphiuma tridactylum and Necturus maculosus; semi-aquatic species, Cynops pyrrhogaster; terrestrial species, Hynobius nigrescens and Ambystoma tigrinum. More terrestrial species have heavier dorsal and ventral trunk muscles than more aquatic forms. By contrast, the lateral hypaxial musculature was stronger in more aquatic species. The number of layers of lateral hypaxial musculature varied among Urodela species and did not clearly correlate with their habitats. The M. rectus abdominis was separated from the lateral hypaxial musculature in both terrestrial and semi-aquatic species. In aquatic species, M. rectus abdominis was not separated from lateral hypaxial musculature. Lateral hypaxial musculature differed in thickness among species and was relatively thinner in terrestrial species. In more terrestrial species, dorsal muscles may be used for stabilization and ventral flexing against gravity. Ventral muscle may be used in preventing dorsally concave curvature of the trunk by dorsal muscles and by weight. The lengthy trunk supported by limbs needs muscular forces along the ventral contour line in more terrestrial species. And, the locomotion on well-developed limbs seems to lead to a decrease of the lateral hypaxial musculature. PMID:24065082

  9. Lower trunk muscle activity during the tennis serve.

    PubMed

    Chow, J W; Shim, J H; Lim, Y T

    2003-12-01

    Prior electromyographic (EMG) analyses of the tennis serve have focused on the muscles in the hitting arm and shoulder region. This preliminary study aimed to examine the muscle activation patterns of selected lower trunk muscles during three different types of tennis serve--flat, topspin, and slice. Five male highly skilled tennis players completed 10 trials for each type of serve. Surface EMG electrodes were used to monitor the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and lumbar erector spinae (ES) muscles. For each subject, the two trials with the highest self-reported ratings were analysed. Average EMG levels during each phase of a tennis serve for each muscle were analysed using a non-parametric ANOVA design. No major differences in muscle activation pattern were found across different serve types, and bilateral differences in muscle activation were more pronounced in RA and EO than in IO and ES muscles. The abdominal muscles were more active in the topspin than in the other two types of serves during the upward swing of the racket. An appreciable amount of abdominal/low back and bilateral co-activation was observed during certain phases of the serve. The co-activation of lower trunk muscles may help to stabilise the lumbar spine during the arch back and forward swing phases of the serve. The results reinforce the importance of abdominal and low back exercises in the strength and rehabilitation programs designed for tennis players. PMID:14723400

  10. The influence of sudden perturbations on trunk muscle activity and intra-abdominal pressure while standing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Cresswell; L. Oddsson; A. Thorstensson

    1994-01-01

    Unexpected ventral and dorsal perturbations and expected, self-induced ventral perturbations were delivered to the trunk by suddenly loading a vest strapped to the torso. Six male subjects were measured for intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and intra-muscular electromyography of the transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus abdominis (OI), obliquus externus abominis (OE) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles. Erector spinae (ES) activity was recorded

  11. Lung surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pneumonectomy; Lobectomy; Lung biopsy; Thoracoscopy; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery; VATS ... You will have general anesthesia before surgery. You will be asleep and unable to feel pain. Two common ways to do surgery on your lungs are thoracotomy and video- ...

  12. Operative Treatment of a Complete Rupture of the Origination of the Rectus Femoris

    PubMed Central

    Bottoni, Craig R.; D’Alleyrand, Jean-Claude G.

    2009-01-01

    A 23-year-old male athlete reported both feeling and hearing a pop in his anterior thigh while sprinting. This was followed by immediate pain and an inability to walk. He had swelling and tenderness in his inguinal region. Radiographs were normal. An magnetic resonance imaging revealed a complete avulsion of the rectus femoris from its origin on the anterior inferior iliac spine. Following discussions of his treatment options, the patient chose to undergo operative management of the injury. A surgical repair was performed of the tendon of the direct head to the anterior inferior iliac spine through bone tunnels. He had a full recovery over the next 6 months and subsequently returned to unrestricted active military duty. PMID:23015909

  13. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  14. Change in onset times of the abdominal muscles following functional task in lumbar spinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun Seung; Park, Seong Doo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the onset times of the abdominal muscle following a rapid arm task in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). In total, 32 patients with LSS were recruited from W oriental hospital. Muscle activity onset of the internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG) activity with a rapid arm movement and during the performance of a walking task. The LSS group demonstrated a significantly later onset of the IO, EO, and rectus abdominal (RA) muscles than the normal group. The deltoid reaction time of the normal group demonstrated significantly earlier activations of IO and EO, while the deltoid reaction time of the LSS group demonstrated significantly delayed activations of IO and RA. The EMG measurements of the IO, EO, and RA muscles while standing and walking were reliable and they offer empirical information about the trunk muscle activation of LSS patients. PMID:25426468

  15. Influence of different control strategies on muscle activation patterns in trunk muscles

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Laura; Anders, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adequate training of the trunk muscles is essential to prevent low back pain. Although sit?ups are simple to perform, the perceived high effort is the reason why training the abdominal muscles is seldom continued over a longer period of time. It is well known that the abdominal muscles are inferior to the back muscles in terms of force, but this cannot explain the extreme difference in perceived effort between trunk flexion and extension tasks. Therefore, this study was aimed at the identification of control strategy influences on the muscular stress level. Thirty?nine subjects were investigated. The performed tasks were restricted to the sagittal plane and were implemented with simulated and realized tilt angles. Subjects were investigated in an upright position with their lower bodies fixed and their upper bodies free. Posture?controlled tasks involved graded forward and backward tilting, while force?controlled tasks involved the application of force based on a virtual tilt angle. The Surface EMG (SEMG) was taken from five trunk muscles on both sides. Control strategies seemed to have no systematic influence on the SEMG amplitudes of the back muscles. In contrast, the abdominal muscles exhibited significantly higher stress levels under posture?controlled conditions without relevantly increasing antagonistic co?activation of back muscles. The abdominal muscles' relative differences ranged from an average of 20% for the external oblique abdominal muscle to approximately 40% for the rectus abdominal muscle. The perceived high effort expended during sit?ups can now be explained by the posture?controlled contractions that are required. PMID:25501425

  16. Trunk Muscle Activities During Abdominal Bracing: Comparison Among Muscles and Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank) and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench) exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG) activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax). The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60%) than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%). The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements. Key Points Trunk muscle activities during abdominal bracing was examined with regard to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Abdominal bracing preferentially activates internal oblique muscles even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements. Abdominal bracing should be included in exercise programs when the goal is to improve spine stability. PMID:24149153

  17. Analysis of skeletal muscle has potential value in the assessment of cocaine-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Rees, Kelly A; Seulin, Saskia; Yonamine, Mauricio; Leyton, Vilma; Munoz, Daniel R; Gianvecchio, Victor A P; Pounder, Derrick J; Osselton, M David

    2013-03-10

    This study assesses the interpretive value of cocaine, benzoylecgonine (BZE) and cocaethylene (COET) in skeletal muscle (rectus femoris) in cocaine-using decedents. The distribution of these analytes in cardiac muscle (CM), vitreous humour (VH), femoral blood (FB) and cardiac blood (CB) is also reported. In rectus femoris muscle, the spatial distribution of the analytes was examined across the whole rectus femoris muscle collected from seven fatalities in which cocaine was detected. In six of these cases, death was attributed to trauma and in one case the cause of death was undetermined but suspected to be drug related. In two additional cases analytes were detected in the blood and/or VH but not in the muscle. The muscle was sectioned into 12-15 approximately equal segments, each of which was analysed after homogenisation. Tissue and bio-fluid samples were extracted by solid phase extraction with confirmation and quantification by GC-ion trap-MS/MS. No significant variation was observed in the concentration of any analyte throughout the muscle in the 7 cases analysed. The results reported here are in contrast to a previous study in which great variation in the concentration of some basic drugs (mainly tricyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepines) was observed throughout the thigh muscle bulk (Williams and Pounder, 1997). Analyte concentrations in skeletal muscle (SM) correlated well with those in FB (p<0.01). In general, the concentration of cocaine and COET followed the order VH > CM > SM > FB ? CB. Cocaine concentrations measured in VH were significantly higher than in blood and muscle. Inter-matrix variations in the concentrations of BZE and COET were less marked. The concentration of BZE exceeded that of cocaine in all matrices and in all cases except one where the time between death and drug intake was suspected to be short. In this case, the cocaine to BZE ratio measured in SM (2.66), CM (2.91) and VH (2.19) was higher than that measured in FB (0.97). Given that the concentrations of cocaine and its metabolites were uniformly distributed throughout the muscle and considering the good correlation observed between muscle and blood, muscle could be of interpretive value in cocaine related deaths. Further, since cocaine is known to have greater post-mortem stability in muscle than blood, concentrations measured in muscle may reflect more closely those at the time of death and might be of particular value in cases with an extended period between death and tissue sampling. PMID:23291147

  18. The adaptive changes in muscle coordination following lumbar spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Yun; Pao, Jwo-Luen; Yang, Rong-Sen; Jang, Jyh-Shing Roger; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2015-04-01

    Limited back motion and damage of paraspinal muscles after spinal fusion surgery may lead to abnormal compensatory movements of the body. Whether neuromuscular control changes after surgery remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to identify the muscle activation patterns employed before and after lumbar spinal fusion. Nineteen patients having low back pain and undergoing minimally invasive lumbar spinal fusion were evaluated at 1day before and 1month after fusion surgery. Nineteen matched healthy participants were recruited as controls. Patients' pain severity and daily activity functioning were recorded. All participants were instructed to perform forward reaching, and the muscle activities were monitored using surface electromyography (EMG) with sensors placed on both sides of their trunk and lower limbs. The muscle activation patterns were identified using the principal component analysis (PCA). All patients had significant improvements in pain intensity and daily activity functioning after surgery, but exhibited an adaptive muscle activation pattern during forward reaching movement compared with the controls. Significant loading coefficients in the dominant movement pattern (reflected in the first principal component) were observed in back muscles for controls whereas in leg muscles for patients, both pre- and postoperatively. Despite substantial improvements in pain intensity and daily activity functioning after surgery, the patients exhibited decreased paraspinal muscle activities and adaptive muscle coordination patterns during forward reaching. They appeared to rely mainly on their leg muscles to compensate for their insufficient paraspinal muscle function. Early intervention focusing on training paraspinal muscles should be considered after spinal fusion surgery. PMID:25625813

  19. Determination of passive viscoelastic response of the abdominal muscle and related constitutive modeling: stress-relaxation behavior.

    PubMed

    Calvo, B; Sierra, M; Grasa, J; Muñoz, M J; Peña, E

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the passive viscoelastic properties of rabbit abdominal wall. In vitro strain relaxation tests were performed in the oblique muscle (in two perpendicular directions), the rectus abdominis and the linea alba in the longitudinal direction. Based on experimental data, a model for the viscoelastic mechanical properties of this tissue is presented here. In particular, we used a 3D non-linear viscoelastic model to fit data sets obtained from tissue of the rabbit abdominal wall. Uniaxial relaxation tests were carried out for samples obtained from the abdominal wall. The experimental results clearly demonstrate the anisotropy and nonlinearity of the abdominal tissue. The stress relaxation was higher in the transverse direction (closer to muscle fibers) with an average value of the final stress ratio of 48%, than in the longitudinal direction with around 56% of this ratio for the oblique muscle. These tests, at several stretch levels, presented a different behavior depending on the region where the tissue sample was located. There was no dependence between the stress relaxation ratio and the stretch level for the oblique muscles in their longitudinal or transverse directions (p>0.01). In contrast, for rectus abdominis and linea alba a dependence between the stress relaxation ratio and stretch level was found. Our study revealed an increase in the stress relaxation ratio for the rectus abdominis (p<0.01) and a decrease for the linea alba with higher stretch levels (p<0.01). Overall good predictions ?<0.115 were obtained with the model proposed for the oblique muscle (no dependence on the stretch level) and to reproduce the non-linear viscoelastic response of rectus abdominis and linea alba. PMID:24793173

  20. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  1. Shoulder muscle EMG activity during push up variations on and off a Swiss ball

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Gregory J; MacMillan, Brandon; MacIntyre, Ian; Chivers, Michael; Fluter, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Background Surface instability is a common addition to traditional rehabilitation and strength exercises with the aim of increasing muscle activity, increasing exercise difficulty and improving joint proprioception. The aim of the current study was to determine if performing upper body closed kinetic chain exercises on a labile surface (Swiss ball) influences myoelectric amplitude when compared with a stable surface. Methods Thirteen males were recruited from a convenience sample of college students. Surface electromyograms were recorded from the triceps, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, rectus abdominis and external oblique while performing push up exercises with the feet or hands placed on a bench and separately on a Swiss ball. A push up plus exercise was also evaluated with hands on the support surface. Results and discussion Not all muscles responded with an increase in muscle activity. The pectoralis major muscle was not influenced by surface stability. The triceps and rectus abdominis muscles showed increases in muscle activity only when the hands were on the unstable surface. The external oblique muscle was only influenced by surface stability during the performance of the push up plus exercise. No muscle showed a change in activation level when the legs were supported by the Swiss ball instead of the bench. Conclusion Muscle activity can be influenced by the addition of surface instability however an increase in muscle activity does not influence all muscles in all conditions. The relationship between the participant's center of mass, the location of the unstable surface and the body part contacting the Swiss ball may be important factors in determining the muscle activation changes following changes in surface stability. PMID:16762080

  2. Leg muscles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Uwe Gille (None; )

    2007-07-29

    Like many areas of the body, the legs contain bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. All of these are needed for movement. Muscles contract and lengthen as movement occurs. Muscles become shorter when they contract.

  3. Effects of a Bridging Exercise with Hip Adduction on the EMG Activities of the Abdominal and Hip Extensor Muscles in Females

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun-Mi; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the activities of the abdominal and hip extensor muscles between the bridging exercise (BE) and bridging exercise with hip adduction (BEHA) positions in women using electromyography (EMG). [Subjects] We recruited 14 healthy adult females with no history of low back pain. [Methods] The subjects performed bridging exercises with and without hip adduction. The EMG activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and gluteus maximus (GM) muscles were recorded. [Result] The EMG activities of all muscles were significantly increased during the BEHA compared to the BE. [Conclusion] The bridging exercise with hip adduction produced greater activation of the abdominal and hip extensor muscles. PMID:24259933

  4. Activity analysis of trunk and leg muscles during whole body tilt exercise.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang Ho; Shin, Sun Hye; Jeong, Ho Choon; Go, Deung Young; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the trunk and leg muscle activities during the trunk tilt exercise by a 3D dynamic exercise device capable of active and passive movements, to study the evaluation of Root Mean Squire (RMS), and to investigation the influence of the trunk positions on these muscle activities. Eighteen healthy volunteers were selected. None of the subjects had any history of lumber and trunk muscle problems. Rotation capability was enabled for the investigation of A (anterior), R (right), P (posterior), L (left), AR (anterior right), AL (anterior left), PR (posterior right), PL (posterior left) tilt directions. EMG signals of trunk (rectus abdominis, external obliques, latissimus dorsi, erector spinae) muscles and leg (rectus femoris, Biceps femoris, Tibialis Anterior, gastrocnemius) muscles were taken out. Root Mean Squire (RMS) values were calculated. The results of this study indicate that different exercise patterns can be applied depending on the exercise types, which are appropriate and necessary to each user. We believe that the human body can be maintained in equilibrium through the interaction between the position and movement execution of the human body, contributing to the improvement of body balance control. Further quantitative data collection and analysis related to the development of various spinal stabilization exercise programs is required. In the near future, we will conduct a study concerning the effects of trunk tilt exercise in active and passive modes on the strength of the tilting muscles and postural balancing ability. PMID:24211904

  5. Alteration of Surface EMG amplitude levels of five major trunk muscles by defined electrode location displacement.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Agnes; Faenger, Bernd; Schenk, Philipp; Scholle, Hans-Christoph; Anders, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Exact electrode positioning is vital for obtaining reliable results in Surface EMG. This study aimed at systematically assessing the influence of defined electrode shifts on measured Surface EMG amplitudes of trunk muscles in a group of 15 middle aged healthy male subjects. The following leftsided muscles were investigated: rectus abdominis muscle, internal and external oblique abdominal muscles, lumbar multifidus muscle, and longissimus muscle. In addition to the recommended electrode positions, extra electrodes were placed parallel to these and along muscle fiber direction. Measurements were performed under isometric conditions in upright body position. Gradually changing, but defined loads were applied considering subject's upper body weight. For the abdominal muscles amplitude differences varied considerably depending on load level, magnitude, and direction. For both back muscles amplitudes dropped consistently but rather little for parallel electrode displacements. However, for the longissimus muscle a caudal electrode shift resulted in an amplitude increase of similar extent and independent from load level. Influence of electrode position variations can be proven for all trunk muscles but are more evident in abdominal than back muscles. Those muscle-specific effects confirm the necessity for an exact definition of electrode positioning to allow comparisons between individual subjects, groups of subjects, and studies. PMID:25542505

  6. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of the chest wall: reconstruction with polypropylene mesh using a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Noda, Masafumi; Endo, Chiaki; Hosaka, Tomoko; Sado, Tetsu; Sakurada, Akira; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Okada, Yoshinori; Kondo, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of the chest wall. After resection, the chest wall defect was reconstructed using polypropylene mesh and a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. A 61-year-old woman presented with a 16-year history of a slow-growing mass underneath the right chest wall. After percutaneous biopsy, preoperative cytopathological examination of the large mass revealed dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. The tumor was resected with a wide margin along with the chest wall including skin, the right seventh to tenth ribs, and part of the diaphragm. The chest wall defect was reconstructed with a polypropylene (Marlex) mesh sheet followed by a left-side transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. PMID:21448800

  7. An Uncommon Presentation of Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma with Acute Kidney Injury due to Obstructive Uropathy and Prerenal Azotemia

    PubMed Central

    Mourounoglou, Maria; Sabanis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Rectus Sheath Hematoma (RSH) represents an unusual entity which is characterized by acute abdominal pain and tender palpable abdominal mass usually, among elderly patients receiving anticoagulant therapy. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman admitted to our department due to acute abdominal pain and oligoanuria. The patient had recently been hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and atrial fibrillation (AF) and received both anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapies. The radiological assessments revealed an extended Rectus Sheath Hematoma and bilateral hydronephrosis. Treatment of the hematoma required cessation of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, immobilization, blood and fresh frozen plasma transfusion, and administration of vasopressors. The patient recovered gradually and was discharged home fifteen (15) days later. PMID:25126429

  8. Absence of polyneuronal innervation in cat extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Bach-y-rita, P; Lennerstrand, G

    1975-01-01

    1. Polyneuronal innervation is known to occur in several types of vertebrate muscle, including mammalian muscle spindle (Gray, 1957). Previous work had led to the suggestion that the multiply innervated cat extraocular muscles were similarly polyneuronally innervated. 2. The presence of polyneuronal innervation in fibres that show propagated conduction was explored in the two muscles innervated by the abducens nerve: the lateral rectus (which contains multiply innervated fibres) and the retractor bulbus (which does not). 3. Under conditions of twitch and tetanic stimulation, the sum of individual tensions from the two nerve branches was compared with the tension elicited from the whole nerve. An analysis of variance indicated that the lateral rectus and the retractor bulbus did not differ significantly in terms of tension excess. The twitch condition yielded a small but statistically significant (P smaller than 0-01) amount of tension excess, whereas the tetanic condition did not. 4. Twitches elicited by stimulation of one branch of the abducens nerve showed slight potentiation when preceded by a tetanic stimulation to the other nerve branch. This effect could be ready differentiated from the post-tetanic potentiation elicited by applying both twitch and tetanic stimuli to the whole nerve. 5. Muscle fatigue produced by intensive stimulation of one nerve branch did not decrease the amplitude of the tetanic contraction elicited by stimulation of the other branch. In fact, instead of crossed fatigue, a small but significant (P smaller than 0-05) potentiation was observed. 6. Analysis of the results of the three tests led to the conclusion that polyneuronal innervation could not be demonstrated in cat extraocular muslce fibers that showed propagated conduction. Thus, the end-to-end muscle fibre junctions (Floyd, 1970) apparently do not transmit conducted impulses. PMID:1133773

  9. Extraocular muscle fibers: ultrastructural identification of iontophoretically labeled fibers contracting in response to succinylcholine.

    PubMed

    Bach-y-Rita, P; Lennerstrand, G; Alvarado, J; Nichols, K; McHolm, G

    1977-06-01

    Cat extraocular muscle fibers (from the superior rectus or inferior oblique) were penetrated in vivo with Procion red-filled glass microelectrodes. When stable penetrations were obtained, succinylcholine (Sch), 8 to 20 microng, was injected into the femoral vein. In some fibers, a depolarization-repolarization response was obtained with the same time course (2 min.) as the total muscle contraction. The depolarizing fibers were labeled iontophoretically. The ultrastructural characteristics of five depolarizing fibers and three control (nondepolarizing) fibers were then studied. The fibers that did not depolarize to Sch had the characteristics of singly innervated cells, whereas those sensitive to Sch had morphological characteristics of multi-innervated fibers. PMID:863618

  10. A case of breast reconstruction with bilaterally divided transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps after removal of injected silicone and granuloma.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shimpei; Ogawa, Rei; Takami, Yoshihiro; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of breast reconstruction using bilaterally divided transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flaps after the removal of severe siliconoma. In Japan, we have examined many patients who have had foreign substance injected into the breasts for augmentation. Most of these patients have had delayed complications. We believe that autologous tissue transfer is an ideal procedure for breast reaugmentation in patients who want to have artificial materials removed from the breasts but to maintain breast contour. PMID:22791125

  11. Clinical utility of the Duncan-Ely test for rectus femoris dysfunction during the swing phase of gait.

    PubMed

    Marks, M C; Alexander, J; Sutherland, D H; Chambers, H G

    2003-11-01

    The Ely Test (or Duncan-Ely test) has been accepted as a clinical tool to assess rectus femoris spasticity by passively flexing the knee rapidly while the patient lies prone in a relaxed state. In this retrospective review, patients' dynamic knee range of motion (ROM) during gait and an electromyogram (EMG) were compared with the results of the Ely test. Data for 70 patients (44 males, 26 females; 104 limbs) were included. Mean age of patients was 13 years, SD 9 years, range 4 years 5 months to 54 years. All patients were diagnosed with cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, n = 42; spastic quadriplegia, n = 15, and hemiplegia, n = 13). All patients were ambulatory (50 independent, 20 with assistive devices). A standard matrix was used to calculate sensitivity and specificity of the Ely test as well as its positive and negative predictive value. For the gait variables examined (decreased dynamic knee ROM, timing of peak knee flexion, and abnormal EMG in swing) the sensitivity of the Ely test ranged from 56 to 59% and the specificity ranged from 64 to 85%. For the same variables the positive predictive value ranged from 91 to 98% and the negative predictive value ranged from 4 to 19%. The Ely test was shown to have a good positive predictive value (i.e. the certainty about the presence of rectus spasticity in patients with a positive Ely test result) for rectus femoris dysfunction during gait. PMID:14580132

  12. Slow Expiration Reduces External Oblique Muscle Activity during Maximum Trunk Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Tajima, Saya; Masuno, Riyo; Kogame, Yoshiko; Ando, Suguru; Yokohata, Katsuhiko; Watanabe, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of expiration on abdominal muscle activity during maximum trunk flexion. [Subjects] Twenty-one healthy university students (10 men, 11 women) participated in this study. [Methods] Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify the activity of the right rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique muscles. The paired t-test was used to examine the significance of differences in the abdominal muscles between maximum trunk flexion with breath holding and slow expiration. [Results] There was a significantly lower EMG activity in the external oblique muscle during maximum trunk flexion with slow expiration. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that slow expiration reduces external oblique muscle activity during maximum trunk flexion performed by healthy young subjects. PMID:25540498

  13. Loop myopexy with true muscle transplantation for very large angle heavy eye syndrome patient

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, Jitendra; Amin, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man presenting with complaints of squint for last 20 years. His visual acuity was 20/400 in right eye (RE) and 20/30 in left eye (LE) with glasses. His refraction was RE -16.75/-2.5 D cycl 180 and LE was -14.5/-1.5 D cycl 180. His axial length was 31.23 mm In RE and 29.72 mm in LE. On examination we found he had RE large esotropia with hypotropia measuring 130 pd base out and 40 pd base up in RE. A computerized tomography scan revealed that the superior rectus (SR) was shifted nasally, and lateral rectus (LR) was shifted inferiorly. A RE medial rectus (MR) recession and LR resection with muscle transplantation on the MR was done. A loop myopexy was done to correct the path of the LR and SR. The patient had only 18 pd eso and 20 pd hypo on follow-up after 3 months. Loop myopexy in conjunction with muscle transplantation is a safe and effective procedure for large angle esotropia associated with heavy eye syndrome. PMID:25686070

  14. Loop myopexy with true muscle transplantation for very large angle heavy eye syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Jethani, Jitendra; Amin, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man presenting with complaints of squint for last 20 years. His visual acuity was 20/400 in right eye (RE) and 20/30 in left eye (LE) with glasses. His refraction was RE -16.75/-2.5 D cycl 180 and LE was -14.5/-1.5 D cycl 180. His axial length was 31.23 mm In RE and 29.72 mm in LE. On examination we found he had RE large esotropia with hypotropia measuring 130 pd base out and 40 pd base up in RE. A computerized tomography scan revealed that the superior rectus (SR) was shifted nasally, and lateral rectus (LR) was shifted inferiorly. A RE medial rectus (MR) recession and LR resection with muscle transplantation on the MR was done. A loop myopexy was done to correct the path of the LR and SR. The patient had only 18 pd eso and 20 pd hypo on follow-up after 3 months. Loop myopexy in conjunction with muscle transplantation is a safe and effective procedure for large angle esotropia associated with heavy eye syndrome. PMID:25686070

  15. Use of the SF-36 quality of life scale to assess the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise on aging males who received transurethral prostate surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chen-Pang; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Chang, Chia-Chi; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chen, Chien-Lun; Hsu, Yu-Chao; Tsui, Ke-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We used the Short Form (SF)-36® Health Survey scale to assess the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFE) on aging males who received transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P). Methods From April 2010 to December 2010, a total of 66 patients who underwent TUR-P were enrolled in this study. They were randomized into two groups (with 33 patients in each group) – an experimental group who performed postoperative PFE every day and a control group. Data, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), uroflowmetry study, and the SF-36 quality of life measure, were collected before the operation, and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the operation. We analyzed the differences between the two groups with respect to their IPSS scores, maximal urinary flow rate, residual urine amount, and life quality. Results A total of 61 patients (experimental group: 32 patients, and control group: 29 patients) completed this study. We found that at 12 weeks postop, patients who performed PFE every day had a better maximal urinary flow rate (16.41 ± 6.20 vs 12.41 ± 7.28 mL/min) (P = 0.026) compared with patients in the control group. The experimental group had a much greater decrease in IPSS score (P < 0.001). As for the SF-36 scale, the experimental group had higher scores than did the control group on both the physiological domain (54.86 vs 49.86) (P = 0.029) and the psychological domain (61.88 vs 52.69) (P = 0.005). However, there were no significant differences with respect to the postvoiding residual urine between the two groups (57.24 ± 52.95 vs 64.68 ± 50.63 mL) (P = 0.618). Conclusion Compared with the control group, patients who performed PFE for 12 weeks after TUR-P showed improvement in their maximal urinary flow rate and lower urinary tract symptoms, and had a better quality of life. The immediate initiation of PFE is suggested for patients who undergo TUR-P. PMID:23766642

  16. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... keep in mind if you are thinking about plastic surgery: Talk to your parents or guardians about any ... and is certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery. Some doctors won’t perform certain procedures if ...

  17. Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ... two such treatments. Continue Why Do Teens Get Plastic Surgery? Most teens don't, of course. But ...

  18. Cataract Surgery

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... truck driver from Chandler, Arizona, is having cataract surgery today on his left eye. A month ago ... anesthesia to numb the eye area. With microscopic surgery the surgeon can make a very small incision, ...

  19. Turbinate surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or part of the lower turbinate is taken out. This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  20. Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Anil; Zywiel, Michael G; Ulrich, Slif D; McGrath, Mike S; Seyler, Thorsten M; Marker, David R; Delanois, Ronald E; Mont, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of hip adductor, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris muscle contractures following total hip arthroplasties are quite common, with some patients failing to improve despite treatment with a variety of non-operative modalities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of and patient outcomes of botulinum toxin injections as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty. Methods Ten patients (14 hips) who had hip adductor, abductor, and/or flexor muscle contractures following total arthroplasty and had been refractory to physical therapeutic efforts were treated with injection of botulinum toxin A. Eight limbs received injections into the adductor muscle, 8 limbs received injections into the tensor fascia lata muscle, and 2 limbs received injection into the rectus femoris muscle, followed by intensive physical therapy for 6 weeks. Results At a mean final follow-up of 20 months, all 14 hips had increased range in the affected arc of motion, with a mean improvement of 23 degrees (range, 10 to 45 degrees). Additionally all hips had an improvement in hip scores, with a significant increase in mean score from 74 points (range, 57 to 91 points) prior to injection to a mean of 96 points (range, 93 to 98) at final follow-up. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion Botulinum toxin A injections combined with intensive physical therapy may be considered as a potential treatment modality, especially in difficult cases of muscle tightness that are refractory to standard therapy. PMID:19709429

  1. The hyal and ventral branchial muscles in caecilian and salamander larvae: homologies and evolution.

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    Amphibians (Lissamphibia) are characterized by a bi-phasic life-cycle that comprises an aquatic larval stage and metamorphosis to the adult. The ancestral aquatic feeding behavior of amphibian larvae is suction feeding. The negative pressure that is needed for ingestion of prey is created by depression of the hyobranchial apparatus as a result of hyobranchial muscle action. Understanding the homologies of hyobranchial muscles in amphibian larvae is a crucial step in understanding the evolution of this important character complex. However, the literature mostly focuses on the adult musculature and terms used for hyal and ventral branchial muscles in different amphibians often do not reflect homologies across lissamphibian orders. Here we describe the hyal and ventral branchial musculature in larvae of caecilians (Gymnophiona) and salamanders (Caudata), including juveniles of two permanently aquatic salamander species. Based on previous alternative terminology schemes, we propose a terminology for the hyal and ventral branchial muscles that reflects the homologies of muscles and that is suited for studies on hyobranchial muscle evolution in amphibians. We present a discussion of the hyal and ventral branchial muscles in larvae of the most recent common ancestor of amphibians (i.e. the ground plan of Lissamphibia). Based on our terminology, the hyal and ventral branchial musculature of caecilians and salamanders comprises the following muscles: m. depressor mandibulae, m. depressor mandibulae posterior, m. hyomandibularis, m. branchiohyoideus externus, m. interhyoideus, m. interhyoideus posterior, m. subarcualis rectus I, m. subarcualis obliquus II, m. subarcualis obliquus III, m. subarcualis rectus II-IV, and m. transversus ventralis IV. Except for the m. branchiohyoideus externus, all muscles considered herein can be assigned to the ground plan of the Lissamphibia with certainty. The m. branchiohyoideus externus is either apomorphic for the Batrachia (frogs + salamanders) or salamander larvae depending on whether or not a homologous muscle is present in frog tadpoles. PMID:21374703

  2. The Gross Morphology and Histochemistry of Respiratory Muscles in Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus

    PubMed Central

    Cotten, Pamela B.; Piscitelli, Marina A.; McLellan, William A.; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Dearolf, Jennifer L.; Pabst, D. Ann

    2011-01-01

    Most mammals possess stamina because their locomotor and respiratory (i.e., ventilatory) systems are mechanically coupled. These systems are decoupled, however, in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) as they swim on a breath-hold. Locomotion and ventilation are coupled only during their brief surfacing event, when they respire explosively (up to 90% of total lung volume in approximately 0.3s) (Ridgway et al., 1969). The predominantly slow-twitch fiber profile of their diaphragm (Dearolf, 2003) suggests that this muscle does not likely power their rapid ventilatory event. Based upon Bramble's (1989) biomechanical model of locomotor-respiratory coupling in galloping mammals, it was hypothesized that locomotor muscles function to power ventilation in bottlenose dolphins. It was further hypothesized that these muscles would be composed predominantly of fast-twitch fibers to facilitate the bottlenose dolphin's rapid ventilation. The gross morphology of cranio-cervical (scalenus, sternocephalicus, sternohyoid), thoracic (intercostals, transverse thoracis), and lumbo-pelvic (hypaxialis, rectus abdominis, abdominal obliques) muscles (n=7) and the fiber-type profiles (n=6) of selected muscles (scalenus, sternocephalicus, sternohyoid, rectus abdominis) of bottlenose dolphins were investigated. Physical manipulations of excised thoracic units were carried out to investigate potential actions of these muscles. Results suggest that the cranio-cervical muscles act to draw the sternum and associated ribs cranio-dorsally, which flares the ribs laterally, and increases the thoracic cavity volume required for inspiration. The lumbo-pelvic muscles act to draw the sternum and caudal ribs caudally, which decreases the volumes of the thoracic and abdominal cavities required for expiration. All muscles investigated were composed predominantly of fast-twitch fibers (range 61-88% by area) and appear histochemically poised for rapid contraction. These combined results suggest that dolphins utilize muscles, similar to those used by galloping mammals, to power their explosive ventilation. PMID:18777569

  3. Skeletal muscle responses to unloading in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G.; Tesch, P.; Hather, B.; Adams, G.; Buchanan, P.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the effects of unloading on skeletal muscle structure. Method: Eight subjects walked on crutches for six weeks with a 110 cm elevated sole on the right shoe. This removed weight bearing by the left lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging of both lower limbs and biopsies of the left m. vastus laterallis (VL) were used to study muscle structure. Results: Unloading decreased (P less than 0.05) muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the knee extensors 16 percent. The knee flexors showed about 1/2 of this response (-7 percent, P less than 0.05). The three vasti muscles each showed decreases (P less than 0.05) of about 15 percent. M. rectus femoris did not change. Mean fiber CSA in VL decreased (P less than 0.05) 14 percent with type 2 and type 1 fibers showing reductions of 15 and 11 percent respectively. The ankle extensors showed a 20 percent decrease (P less than 0.05) in CSA. The reduction for the 'fast' m. gastrocnemius was 27 percent compared to the 18 percent decrease for the 'slow' soleus. Summary: The results suggest that decreases in muscle CSA are determined by the relative change in impact loading history because atrophy was (1) greater in extensor than flexor muscles, (2) at least as great in fast as compared to slow muscles or fibers, and (3) not dependent on single or multi-joint function. They also suggest that the atrophic responses to unloading reported for lower mammals are quantitatively but not qualitatively similar to those of humans.

  4. Long-term outcomes of unilateral lateral rectus recession versus recess-resect for intermittent exotropia of 20-25 prism diopters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare surgical outcomes of unilateral lateral rectus recession (ULR) and unilateral recess-resect (RR) for intermittent exotropia of 20-25 prism diopters (PD). Methods In this retrospective study, ULR was performed on 82 patients and RR on 98 patients for the treatment of intermittent exotropia of 20-25 PD with a follow-up period of 24 months or more. The main outcome measures were postoperative exodeviation angles and final success rates. A surgical success was considered to be an alignment within 10 PD. Results The mean follow-up duration after the surgery was 53.8?±?26.4 months in the ULR group and 52.5?±?27.4 months in the RR group (p?=?0.482). The mean deviation angles at postoperative 1 day were -0.49 PD (esodeviation) in the ULR group and -1.98 PD in the RR group. Subsequently, at postoperative 1 week, 1 and 3 months, the deviations became more exotropic in the ULR group than in the RR group (p?

  5. The effects of sling exercise using vibration on trunk muscle activities of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngin; Kang, Hyungkyu

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of sling exercises with and without vibration on the muscular activity of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), and erector spinae (ES) muscles of healthy adults. [Methods] Eleven healthy university students (11 men) with a mean age of 22.8?years were enrolled in this study. Subjects performed supine and prone bridge exercises with the knees flexed using a sling suspension system with and without vibration. The amplitudes of the EMG activities of selected trunk muscles (internal oblique, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, multifidus) were recorded. Two types of exercise conditions were executed in a random sequence for 5 seconds each. The signals detected from the middle 3 seconds (after discarding the signals of the first and the last one seconds) were used in the analysis. A 3-minute break was given after each exercise to minimize muscle fatigue. [Results] During the supine bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES muscles were significantly higher than those of the supine bridge exercise without vibration. Additionally, during the prone bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES were significantly higher than those of the prone bridge exercise without vibration. [Conclusion] Sling exercises with vibration improved the trunk muscle activities of healthy adults compared to the sling exercises without vibration. The information presented here is important for clinicians who use lumbar stabilization exercises as an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise. PMID:24259778

  6. Is muscle coordination affected by loading condition in ballistic movements?

    PubMed

    Giroux, Caroline; Guilhem, Gaël; Couturier, Antoine; Chollet, Didier; Rabita, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of loading on lower limb muscle coordination involved during ballistic squat jumps. Twenty athletes performed ballistic squat jumps on a force platform. Vertical force, velocity, power and electromyographic (EMG) activity of lower limb muscles were recorded during the push-off phase and compared between seven loading conditions (0-60% of the concentric-only maximal repetition). The increase in external load increased vertical force (from 1962 N to 2559 N; P=0.0001), while movement velocity decreased (from 2.5 to 1.6ms(-1); P=0.0001). EMG activity of tibialis anterior first peaked at 5% of the push-off phase, followed by gluteus maximus (35%), vastus lateralis and soleus (45%), rectus femoris (55%), gastrocnemius lateralis (65%) and semitendinosus (75%). This sequence of activation (P=0.67) and the amplitude of muscle activity (P=0.41) of each muscle were not affected by loading condition. However, a main effect of muscle was observed on these parameters (peak value: P<0.001; peak occurrence: P=0.02) illustrating the specific role of each muscle during the push-off phase. Our findings suggest that muscle coordination is not influenced by external load during a ballistic squat jump. PMID:25467546

  7. Gluteal muscle composition differentiates fallers from non-fallers in community dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired balance, loss of mobility and falls are major problems associated with changes in muscle in older adults. However, the extent to which muscle composition and related performance measures for different lower limb muscles are associated with falls in older individuals is unclear. This study evaluated lower limb muscle attenuation, intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) infiltration and muscle performance in older fallers and non-fallers. Methods For this cross-sectional study, fifty-eight community dwelling older individuals (>65 years) were classified into fallers (n?=?15) or non-fallers (n?=?43). Computed tomography (CT) was used to determine muscle attenuation and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) of multiple thigh and hip muscles. Muscle performance was assessed with isokinetic dynamometry. Results For both groups, Rectus Femoris showed the highest muscle attenuation and lowest IMAT infiltration, and Gluteus Maximus and Gluteus Medius/Minimus muscles had the lowest muscle attenuation and highest IMAT infiltration. Fallers exhibited lower muscle attenuation and higher IMAT infiltration than non-faller participants in most muscles, where the gluteal muscles were the most affected (p?muscle composition, with the strongest associations between Gluteus Medius/Minimus and hip abduction strength. Conclusions While fallers were generally differentiated from non-fallers by muscle composition, the most affected muscles were the proximal gluteal muscles of the hip joint accompanied by lower hip abduction strength, which may contribute to impaired balance function and increased risk for falls. PMID:24666603

  8. Myofascial force transmission between transferred rat flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and former synergistic palmaris longus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Huub; Huijing, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We investigated the extent of mechanical interaction between rat flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and palmaris longus (PL) muscles following transfer of FCU to the distal tendons of extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus (ECRB/L) muscles. Five weeks after recovery from surgery, isometric forces exerted at the distal tendons of FCU and PL were quantified at various FCU lengths. PL was kept at a constant length. Changing the muscle-tendon complex length of transferred FCU (by maximally 3.5 mm) decreased PL force significantly (by 7%). A linear relationship was found between changes in FCU muscle belly length, being a measure of muscle relative positions, and PL force. These results indicate that despite transfer of FCU muscle to the extensor side of the forearm, changing FCU length still affects force transmission of its, now, antagonistic PL muscle. We conclude that a transferred muscle may still be mechanically linked to its former synergistic muscles. PMID:23738260

  9. Myofascial force transmission between transferred rat flexor carpi ulnaris muscle and former synergistic palmaris longus muscle.

    PubMed

    Maas, Huub; Huijing, Peter A

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the extent of mechanical interaction between rat flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and palmaris longus (PL) muscles following transfer of FCU to the distal tendons of extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus (ECRB/L) muscles. Five weeks after recovery from surgery, isometric forces exerted at the distal tendons of FCU and PL were quantified at various FCU lengths. PL was kept at a constant length. Changing the muscle-tendon complex length of transferred FCU (by maximally 3.5 mm) decreased PL force significantly (by 7%). A linear relationship was found between changes in FCU muscle belly length, being a measure of muscle relative positions, and PL force. These results indicate that despite transfer of FCU muscle to the extensor side of the forearm, changing FCU length still affects force transmission of its, now, antagonistic PL muscle. We conclude that a transferred muscle may still be mechanically linked to its former synergistic muscles. PMID:23738260

  10. Chiton myogenesis: perspectives for the development and evolution of larval and adult muscle systems in molluscs.

    PubMed

    Wanninger, Andreas; Haszprunar, Gerhard

    2002-02-01

    We investigated muscle development in two chiton species, Mopalia muscosa and Chiton olivaceus, from embryo hatching until 10 days after metamorphosis. The anlagen of the dorsal longitudinal rectus muscle and a larval prototroch muscle ring are the first detectable muscle structures in the early trochophore-like larva. Slightly later, a ventrolaterally situated pair of longitudinal muscles appears, which persists through metamorphosis. In addition, the anlagen of the putative dorsoventral shell musculature and the first fibers of a muscular grid, which is restricted to the pretrochal region and consists of outer ring and inner diagonal muscle fibers, are generated. Subsequently, transversal muscle fibers form underneath each future shell plate and the ventrolateral enrolling muscle is established. At metamorphic competence, the dorsoventral shell musculature consists of numerous serially repeated, intercrossing muscle fibers. Their concentration into seven (and later eight) functional shell plate muscle bundles starts after the completion of metamorphosis. The larval prototroch ring and the pretrochal muscle grid are lost at metamorphosis. The structure of the apical grid and its atrophy during metamorphosis suggests ontogenetic repetition of (parts of) the original body-wall musculature of a proposed worm-shaped molluscan ancestor. Moreover, our data show that the "segmented" character of the polyplacophoran shell musculature is a secondary condition, thus contradicting earlier theories that regarded the Polyplacophora (and thus the entire phylum Mollusca) as primarily eumetameric (annelid-like). Instead, we propose an unsegmented trochozoan ancestor at the base of molluscan evolution. PMID:11748697

  11. Muscle aches

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common cause of muscle aches and pain is fibromyalgia , a condition that includes tenderness in your muscles ... Electrolyte imbalances like too little potassium or calcium Fibromyalgia Infections, including influenza (the flu), Lyme disease , malaria , ...

  12. Pelvic floor muscle training in males: practical applications.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Andrew L

    2014-07-01

    The pelvic floor muscles are vital to male genitourinary health. Pelvic floor muscle training may prove helpful in a variety of clinical circumstances: stress urinary incontinence that follows prostate surgery, overactive bladder, postvoid dribbling, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation issues including premature ejaculation, and pelvic pain due to levator muscle spasm. PMID:24821468

  13. Muscle fibers, ubiquinone and exercise capacity in effort angina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Karlsson; Sigurd Gunnes; Bjarne Semb

    1996-01-01

    Seventeen male patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and effort angina performed OBLA exercise stress tests (set to 2.0 mmol × 1-1). They had muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle the day before coronary by-pass grafting, and from the internal and external intercostal, diaphragm and gastrocnemius muscles during surgery. They had a low WOBLA (83 ± 6 W, mean

  14. Timing of Muscle Response to a Sudden Leg Perturbation: Comparison between Adolescents and Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Maria Stella; Cioni, Matteo; Pisasale, Mariangela; Pantò, Maria Rosita; Casabona, Antonino

    2013-01-01

    Movement disturbances associated with Down syndrome reduce mechanical stability, worsening the execution of important tasks such as walking and upright standing. To compensate these deficits, persons with Down syndrome increase joint stability modulating the level of activation of single muscles or producing an agonist-antagonist co-activation. Such activations are also observed when a relaxed, extended leg is suddenly released and left to oscillate passively under the influence of gravity (Wartenberg test). In this case, the Rectus femoris of adults with Down syndrome displayed peaks of activation after the onset of the first leg flexion. With the aim to verify if these muscular reactions were acquired during the development time and to find evidences useful to give them a functional explanation, we used the Wartenberg test to compare the knee joint kinematics and the surface electromyography of the Rectus femoris and Biceps femoris caput longus between adolescents and adults with Down syndrome. During the first leg flexion, adolescents and adults showed single Rectus femoris activations while, a restricted number of participants exhibited agonist-antagonist co-activations. However, regardless the pattern of activation, adults initiated the muscle activity significantly later than adolescents. Although most of the mechanical parameters and the total movement variability were similar in the two groups, the onset of the Rectus femoris activation was well correlated with the time of the minimum acceleration variability. Thus, in adolescents the maximum mechanical stability occurred short after the onset of the leg fall, while adults reached their best joint stability late during the first flexion. These results suggest that between the adolescence and adulthood, persons with Down syndrome explore a temporal window to select an appropriate timing of muscle activation to overcome their inherent mechanical instability. PMID:24278374

  15. Stretching Skeletal Muscle: Chronic Muscle Lengthening through Sarcomerogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zöllner, Alexander M.; Abilez, Oscar J.; Böl, Markus; Kuhl, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09m to 3.51m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance treatment for patients with ill proportioned limbs, tendon lengthening, tendon transfer, tendon tear, and chronically retracted muscles. PMID:23049683

  16. Your Muscles

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as large, but they are capable of some pretty amazing things: Try rotating your head around, back and forth, and up and down to feel the power of the muscles in your neck. These muscles also hold your head high. Back Continue Face Muscles You may not think of it as ...

  17. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  18. [Cosmetic eyelid surgery].

    PubMed

    Ruban, J-M; Barbier, J; Malet, T; Baggio, E

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetic eyelid surgery is becoming increasingly popular. It can rejuvenate the patient's appearance with relatively minor side effects. Its risk/benefit ratio is one of the best in facial cosmetic surgery. However, the patient does not always accurately assess the aesthetic appearance of his or her eyelids. This underscores the importance of clinical examination in order to determine the patient's wishes, and then make an accurate diagnosis and potential surgical plan. We currently oppose, in general, surgical techniques involving tissue removal (skin-muscle and/or fat) in favor of those involving tissue repositioning and grafting (autologous fat pearl transposition, obtained by liposuction, and lipostructure). Furthermore, the place of adjuvant therapies to blepharoplasty is steadily increasing. They mainly include surface treatments (peels and lasers), dermal fillers and anti-wrinkle botulinum toxin injections. They are also increasingly used in isolation in novel ways. In all cases, a perfect knowledge of anatomy and relevant skills and experience remain necessary. PMID:24275517

  19. Muscle Activation Patterns When Passively Stretching Spastic Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Bar-On, Lynn; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2014-01-01

    The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n?=?35/19; 10.8±3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n?=? 32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I–IV) of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG) compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01). The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between incremental position zones during low velocity stretches was found to be the most sensitive in categorizing muscles into activation patterns (p<0.01). Future studies should investigate whether muscles with different patterns react differently to treatment. PMID:24651860

  20. Whole Body Muscle Activity during the FIFA 11+ Program Evaluated by Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nakase, Junsuke; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Toratani, Tatsuhiro; Kosaka, Masahiro; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Taki, Junichi; Yahata, Tetsutaro; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the effect of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program on whole body muscle activity using positron emission tomography. Methods Ten healthy male volunteers were divided into a control group and a group that performed injury prevention exercises (The 11+). The subjects of the control group were placed in a sitting position for 20 min and 37 MBq of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was injected intravenously. The subjects then remained seated for 45 min. The subjects of the exercise group performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, after which FDG was injected. They then performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, and rested for 25 min in a sitting position. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography images were obtained 50 min after FDG injection in each group. Regions of interest were defined within 30 muscles. The standardized uptake value was calculated to examine the FDG uptake of muscle tissue per unit volume. Results FDG accumulation within the abdominal rectus, gluteus medius and minimus were significantly higher in the exercise group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The hip abductor muscles and abdominal rectus were active during part 2 of the FIFA 11+ program. PMID:24066082

  1. Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises.

    PubMed

    Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce

    2013-03-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility. PMID:22580983

  2. Trunk muscle activation during sub-maximal extension efforts.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael W

    2010-02-01

    Neuromuscular fatigue of the trunk musculature, particularly lumbar paraspinal and abdominal muscles, is important in when evaluating motor control of the trunk. Activation of agonists and antagonists trunk muscles was hypothesized to change during sub-maximal isometric trunk extension efforts. Thirteen women were positioned in 30 degrees of trunk flexion and performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction in trunk extension against an isokinetic dynamometer. One of two sub-maximal efforts (50% and 70%) was performed to induce neuromuscular fatigue on two different days. Surface electromyography of the lumbar paraspinal (LP), rectus abdominis, and external oblique muscles was recorded during each session. Torque output, median frequency of the power density spectrum, and normalized integrated electromyography were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance to evaluate trends in the data over time. Paraspinal muscles showed signs of fatigue in both conditions (p<0.05) Abdominal activity did not increase during the 70% condition, but showed a non-significant trend (p=0.07), coinciding with the reduced median frequency of LP muscles. The neuromuscular system modulates its motor control strategy to identify the muscle activation levels necessary to maintain force output. This information is necessary in the evaluation of contributing mechanisms to trunk stability in furthering preventative and rehabilitative treatments. PMID:19716741

  3. Mechanisms of cell-mediated myotoxicity. Morphological observations in muscle grafts and in muscle exposed to sensitized spleen cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mastaglia, F L; Papadimitriou, J M; Dawkins, R L

    1975-07-01

    Fragments of rectus abdominis muscle or diaphragm from AKR or Prince Henry mice were transplanted beneath the skin of the anterior abdominal wall of BALB/C mice and were examined by light and electron microscopy 1-23 days after transplantation. Observations were made on the mode of entry of lymphoid cells into grafts, the nature of the inflammatory cells present in grafts and the interactions between mononuclear cells and regenerating muscle fibres during the rejection phase 7-14 days after transplantation. Lymphoid cells were found to migrate through the endothelium of venules and to enter the space between the basement lamina and the plasma membrane of muscle fibres to make contacts of varying degrees of complexity with the muscle cell membrane. Evidence of penetration of lymphoid cells into muscle fibres (emperipolesis) was found and was usually associated with signs of damage to the muscle fibre. Interactions between mononuclear cells and mature muscle fibres were studied after inoculation of sensitized spleen cells into the musculature of the tongue in mice. Both lymphoid cells and mononuclear phagocytes were found to invade muscle fibres by penetrating the basement lamina. The muscle cell membrane was usually broken down in zones of invasion by mononuclear cells but generally remained intact at sites of invasion by lymphoid cells. PMID:1159446

  4. A Micromechanical Model of Skeletal Muscle to Explore the Effects of Fiber and Fascicle Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Sharafi, Bahar; Blemker, Silvia S.

    2010-01-01

    Computational models of muscle generally lump the material properties of connective tissue, muscle fibers, and muscle fascicles together into one constitutive relationship that assumes a transversely isotropic microstructure. These models do not take into account how variations in the microstructure of muscle affect its macroscopic material properties. The goal of this work was to develop micromechanical models of muscle to determine the effects of variations in muscle microstructure on the macroscopic constitutive behavior. We created micromechanical models at the fiber and fascicle levels based on histological cross-sections of two rabbit muscles, the rectus femoris (RF) and the soleus, to determine the effects of microstructure geometry (fiber and fascicle shapes) on the along-fiber shear modulus of muscle. The two fiber-level models predicted similar macroscopic shear moduli (within 13.5% difference); however, the two fascicle-level models predicted very different macroscopic shear moduli (up to 161% difference). We also used the micromechanical models to test the assumption that the macroscopic properties of muscle are transversely isotropic about the fiber (or fascicle) direction. The fiber-level models exhibited behavior consistent with the transverse isotropy assumption; however, the fascicle-level models exhibited transversely anisotropic behavior. Micromechanical models, combined with fiber and fiber bundle mechanical experiments, are needed to understand how normal or pathological variations in microstructure give rise to the observed macroscopic behavior of muscle. PMID:20846654

  5. Effectiveness of the Wavelet Transform on the Surface EMG to Understand the Muscle Fatigue During Walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. S.; Mamun, Md.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is the decline in ability of a muscle to create force. Electromyography (EMG) is a medical technique for measuring muscle response to nervous stimulation. During a sustained muscle contraction, the power spectrum of the EMG shifts towards lower frequencies. These effects are due to muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue is often a result of unhealthy work practice. In this research, the effectiveness of the wavelet transform applied to the surface EMG (SEMG) signal as a means of understanding muscle fatigue during walk is presented. Power spectrum and bispectrum analysis on the EMG signal getting from right rectus femoris muscle is executed utilizing various wavelet functions (WFs). It is possible to recognize muscle fatigue appreciably with the proper choice of the WF. The outcome proves that the most momentous changes in the EMG power spectrum are symbolized by WF Daubechies45. Moreover, this research has compared bispectrum properties to the other WFs. To determine muscle fatigue during gait, Daubechies45 is used in this research to analyze the SEMG signal.

  6. Electrical impedance in bovine skeletal muscle as a model for the study of neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Tarulli, Andrew W; Chin, Anne B; Partida, Ramon A; Rutkove, Seward B

    2006-12-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) consists of a set of bioimpedance methods configured for neuromuscular disease assessment, in which high-frequency electrical current is applied to a limb and the consequent surface voltage pattern over a muscle is evaluated. Prior human work has shown that the EIM parameters of resistance, reactance and phase change in different neuromuscular disease states including neurogenic and myopathic conditions. These parameters are also sensitive to the angle at which current is applied and measured relative to muscle fiber direction, a characteristic known as anisotropy. In order to obtain insights into the impedance characteristics of mammalian skeletal muscle without the confounding effects of an overlying skin-fat layer, bone and irregular muscle shape, we performed EIM on three 'nearly ideal' round 16 cm diameter, 1 cm equal thickness pieces of bovine rectus abdominis muscle. Using a standardized tetrapolar electrode array with 50 kHz electrical current, we identified strong anisotropy in the measured reactance and phase, with weaker anisotropy identified for resistance. We also found that increasing amounts of muscle maceration, a rough model of myopathic or traumatic muscle fiber injury, reduced phase and muscle anisotropy when current was injected perpendicular to the muscle fibers. These findings support that EIM parameters, including muscle anisotropy, are likely to be sensitive to the pathological changes that occur in neuromuscular disease states. PMID:17135699

  7. [Reconstruction of quadriceps femoris muscle function with muscle transfer].

    PubMed

    Fansa, H; Meric, C

    2010-08-01

    Femoral nerve palsy, mostly of iatrogen cause, leads to paresis of quadriceps muscle with complete loss of knee extension. Therapeutical options include neurolysis, nerve reconstruction or functional muscle transplantations. Another concept is the transfer of hamstring muscles as described in post polio surgery. We describe our experience of biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscle transfer for reconstruction of knee extension. From 2003 to 2007 seven patients (mean age 43) with complete loss of knee extension after femoral nerve lesion were treated. Nerve palsy was caused by direct lesion, traction, hematoma after collapse, lesion of lumbosacral plexus and an unclear muscle dystrophy. Indication for muscle transfer was due to long standing muscle paresis. All patients received a transfer of biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscle/tendon into the quadriceps tendon. Patients were immobilised in a cast for 6 weeks in extended knee position. Weight bearing started after 8 weeks. Operations went uneventfully. All patients were able to extend the knee postoperatively against gravity and were able to climb stairs without help. 4 Patients had complete knee extension, 2 had a lack of 20 degrees , one of 30 degrees. Daily routine was possible in all cases. No instability of knee joints occurred postoperatively. In a nerve lesion close to the muscle a nerve reconstruction should be aimed. If not performed or with unsuccessful outcome, muscle transfer is a good option to restore function. All recent studies describe good to excellent results with stable knees, allowing the patient to manage daily routine without assistance and to climb stairs up and down. Long term complications such as dislocation of patella or genu recurvatum were not observed in our patients. The latter results as typical complication in polio from weakening knee flexion through biceps femoris transfer, if the gastrocnemius muscle is not forceful enough. However in an isolated femoral nerve lesion this will rarely occur. PMID:20235008

  8. Human soleus muscle: A comparison of fiber composition and enzyme activities with other leg muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip D. Gollnick; Bertil Sjödin; Jan Karlsson; Eva Jansson; Bengt Saltin

    1974-01-01

    The relationship between fiber composition and enzyme profiles as estimated from in vitro enzyme activities has been studied in human skeletal muscle. Samples from the soleus, gastrocnemius, and vastus lateralis muscles were obtained both by biopsying normal subjects and from patients during nonmuscular related general surgery. The samples were analyzed for fiber composition, phosphorylase (a+b), phosphofructokinase, and creatine phosphokinase activities.

  9. Growth hormone mitigates loss of periosteal bone formation and muscle mass in disuse osteopenic rats.

    PubMed

    Grubbe, M-C; Thomsen, J S; Nyengaard, J R; Duruox, M; Brüel, A

    2014-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a potent anabolic agent capable of increasing both bone and muscle mass. The aim was to investigate whether GH could counteract disuse-induced loss of bone and muscle mass in a rat model. Paralysis was induced by injecting 4 IU Botox (BTX) into the muscles of the right hind limb. Sixty female Wistar rats, 14 weeks old, were divided into the following groups: baseline, controls, BTX, BTX+GH, and GH. GH was given at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks. Compared with controls, BTX resulted in lower periosteal bone formation rate (BFR/BS,-79%, P<0.001), bone mineral density (aBMD, -13%, P<0.001), trabecular bone volume (BV/TV, -26%, P<0.05), and mid-femoral bone strength (-12%, P<0.05). In addition, BTX reduced rectus femoris muscle mass (-69%, P<0.001) and muscle cell cross sectional area (CSA) (-73%, P<0.001) compared with controls. GH counteracted disuse-induced losses of periosteal BFR/BS (2-fold increase vs. BTX, P<0.001), whereas no effect on aBMD, trabecular BV/TV, or bone strength was found. In addition, GH partly prevented loss of muscle mass (+29% vs. BTX, P<0.001), and tended to prevent loss of muscle CSA (+11%, P=0.064). In conclusion, GH mitigates disuse-induced loss of periosteal BFR/BS at the mid-femur and rectus femoris muscle mass. PMID:25524973

  10. Sinus Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgery: The sinuses are physically close to the brain, the eye, and major arteries, always areas of concern when a fiber optic tube is inserted into the sinus region. The growing use of a new technology, image guided endoscopic surgery, is alleviating that concern. ...

  11. Unnecessary surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Leape, L L

    1989-01-01

    The extent of unnecessary surgery has been the object of considerable speculation and occasional wild accusation in recent years. Most evidence of the existence of unnecessary surgery, such as information from studies of geographic variations and the results of second surgical opinion programs, is circumstantial. However, results from the few studies that have measured unnecessary surgery directly indicate that for some highly controversial operations the fraction that are unwarranted could be as high as 30 percent. Most unnecessary surgery results from physician uncertainty about the effectiveness of an operation. Elimination of this uncertainty requires more efficient production and dissemination of scientific information about clinical effectiveness. In the absence of adequate data from scientific studies, the use of a consensus of expert opinion, disseminated by means of comprehensive practice guidelines, offers the best opportunity to identify and eliminate unnecessary surgery. PMID:2668237

  12. Surgical Sciences Cardiovascular Surgery, Thoracic Surgery ------------------------------------------------------

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    38 Surgical Sciences Cardiovascular Surgery, Thoracic Surgery ------------------------------------------------------ http://ctstokyo.umin.ne.jp/ We are leading in Japan by annual surgery case volume of 700. New knowledge. ·Clinical research · Brain and spinal cord protection in thoracic aortic surgery · Minimally invasive

  13. How Different Modes of Child Delivery Influence Abdominal Muscle Activities in the Active Straight Leg Raise

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yu-Jeong; Hyung, Eun-Ju; Yang, Kyung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ok

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the activities of the abdominal muscles of women who had experienced vaginal delivery in comparison with those who had experienced Cesarean childbirth. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 subjects (7 vaginal delivery, 7 Cesarean section) performed an active straight leg raise to 20?cm above the ground, and we measured the activities of the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the external oblique abdominal muscle, and the rectus abdominal muscle on both sides using electromyography. The effort required to raise the leg was scored on a Likert scale. Then, the subjects conducted maximum isometric contraction for hip joint flexion with the leg raised at 20?cm, and maximum torque and abdominal muscle activities were measured using electromyography. [Results] During the active straight leg raise, abdominal muscle activities were higher in the Cesarean section subjects. The Likert scale did not show a significant difference. The activities of the abdominal muscles and the maximum torque of the hip joint flexion at maximum isometric contraction were higher in the vaginal delivery subjects. [Conclusion] The abdominal muscles of Cesarean section subjects showed greater recruitment for maintaining pelvic stability during the active straight leg raising, but were relatively weaker when powerful force was required. Therefore, we consider that more abdominal muscle training is necessary for maintaining pelvic stability of Cesarean section subjects. PMID:25202194

  14. Muscle moment arms of the gibbon hind limb: implications for hylobatid locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Channon, Anthony J; Crompton, Robin H; Günther, Michael M; Vereecke, Evie E

    2010-01-01

    Muscles facilitate skeletal movement via the production of a torque or moment about a joint. The magnitude of the moment produced depends on both the force of muscular contraction and the size of the moment arm used to rotate the joint. Hence, larger muscle moment arms generate larger joint torques and forces at the point of application. The moment arms of a number of gibbon hind limb muscles were measured on four cadaveric specimens (one Hylobates lar, one H. moloch and two H. syndactylus). The tendon travel technique was used, utilizing an electro-goniometer and a linear voltage displacement transducer. The data were analysed using a technique based on a differentiated cubic spline and normalized to remove the effect of body size. The data demonstrated a functional differentiation between voluminous muscles with short fascicles having small muscle moment arms and muscles with longer fascicles and comparatively smaller physiological cross-sectional area having longer muscle moment arms. The functional implications of these particular configurations were simulated using a simple geometric fascicle strain model that predicts that the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles are more likely to act primarily at their distal joints (knee and ankle, respectively) because they have short fascicles. The data also show that the main hip and knee extensors maintain a very small moment arm throughout the range of joint angles seen in the locomotion of gibbons, which (coupled to voluminous, short-fascicled muscles) might help facilitate rapid joint rotation during powerful movements. PMID:20447251

  15. Strabismus Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgery? The type of anesthesia depends on age/health and patient preference. Most children undergo general anesthesia. Adults typically have general anesthesia, conscious sedation or local anesthesia. The procedure is usually ...

  16. Brain surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  17. Maze Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some cases, on the morning of surgery. Small metal disks called electrodes will be attached to your ... throat, into your stomach. This tube will stop liquid and air from collecting in your stomach, so ...

  18. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... done to tell the difference between nerve and muscle disorders. A muscle that has recently been injured, such as by an EMG needle, or is affected by a pre-existing condition, such as nerve compression, is not a good choice for a biopsy.

  19. Bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, Shahzeer; Stoklossa, Carlene Johnson; Sharma, Arya; Stadnyk, Janet; Christiansen, Sandra; Cottreau, Danielle; Birch, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the management of bariatric surgical patients. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, as well as PubMed US National Library, from January 1950 to December 2009. Evidence was levels I, II, and III. MAIN MESSAGE Bariatric surgery should be considered for obese patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality who have not achieved adequate weight loss with lifestyle and medical management and who are suffering from the complications of obesity. Bariatric surgery can result in substantial weight loss, resolution of comorbid conditions, and improved quality of life. The patient’s weight-loss history; his or her personal accountability, responsibility, and comprehension; and the acceptable level of risk must be taken into account. Complications include technical failure, bleeding, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, excess loose skin, bowel obstruction, ulcers, and anastomotic stricture. Lifelong monitoring by a multidisciplinary team is essential. CONCLUSION Limited long-term success of behavioural and pharmacologic therapies in severe obesity has led to renewed interest in bariatric surgery. Success with bariatric surgery is more likely when multidisciplinary care providers, in conjunction with primary care providers, assess, treat, monitor, and evaluate patients before and after surgery. Family physicians will play a critical role in counseling patients about bariatric surgery and will need to develop skills in managing these patients in the long-term. PMID:20841586

  20. Elderly oarsmen have larger trunk and thigh muscles and greater strength than age-matched untrained men.

    PubMed

    Asaka, Meiko; Usui, Chiyoko; Ohta, Megumi; Takai, Yohei; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate whether regularly performed rowing exercise affects the trunk muscles size and function, and to examine the effect of rowing exercise on thigh muscle size and function in elderly rowers, we compared the cross-sectional area (CSA) and strength of these muscles in elderly male rowers and in age-matched untrained men. Participants were 16 elderly rowing-trained men (ROW age, 67.8 +/- 2.3 years) and 18 elderly untrained men (CON 66.2 +/- 3.0 years). CSA was measured by MRI in the trunk and thigh muscles. Isometric trunk flexion force and leg extension power were measured. ROW had a 20% larger total trunk muscle CSA than CON (P < 0.01); rectus abdominis was 27% larger, psoas major 64% larger, and erector spinae 14% larger in ROW than in CON (P < 0.05-0.001). Isometric trunk flexion force was related to the CSA of the rectus abdominis (r = 0.777, P < 0.001) and psoas major (r = 0.694, P < 0.001), and was 42% larger in ROW than in CON (P < 0.001). However, force adjusted for the CSA of the muscles did not differ significantly between CON and ROW. In ROW, the CSA was 13% larger in the total thigh muscles (P < 0.01), and leg extension power was 43% higher than in CON (P < 0.001). These results suggest that rowing exercise is a favorable training modality for the trunk muscles, especially psoas major and that it improves thigh muscle size and function in elderly men. PMID:20039055

  1. Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Gland of the Base of Tongue That Required Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Kota; Watanabe, Subaru; Ando, Yuji; Seino, Yoichi; Moriyama, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma of minor salivary gland of the base of tongue is very rare. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common tumor in the base of tongue. We present a patient with gigantic acinic cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. This patient required emergency tracheotomy before surgery, because he had dyspnea when he came to our hospital. We removed this tumor by pull-through method and performed reconstructive surgery using a rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. It was a case that to preserved movement of the tongue and swallowing function by keeping lingual arteries and hypoglossal nerves. This case was an extremely rare case of ACC of the base of tongue that required reconstructive surgery. PMID:23304595

  2. Effect of Muscle Vibration on Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jintae; Kim, Eunjung; Jung, Jaemin; Lee, Junghoon; Sung, Hyeryun; Kim, Jaewoo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle vibration in the lower extremities in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) during walking. [Subjects] Nine patients with PD participated in this study and were tested with and without vibration (vibration at 60?Hz). [Methods] Eight oscillators of vibration were attached to the muscle bellies (tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, and rectus femoris) on both sides of the lower extremities with adhesive tape in this study. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured using a motion analysis system. [Results] Stride length and walking speed with vibration were significantly increased compared with those without vibration in PD patients. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the application of vibration to lower extremity muscles in patients with PD may improve the parkinsonian gait pattern. PMID:24926129

  3. Classification and characterization of beef muscles using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sahar, Amna; Dufour, Eric

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy to identify different muscles and to predict some physicochemical and rheological parameters. Samples were taken from three muscles (Semitendinosus, Rectus abdominis and Infraspinatus) of Charolais breed. Dry matter content, fat content, protein content, texture and collagen content were determined. Moreover emission spectra were recorded in the range of 305-400nm, 340-540nm and 410-700nm by fixing the excitation wavelength at 290, 322 and 382nm, respectively. The results obtained were evaluated by partial least square discriminant analysis and partial least square regression. Results of our research work show that front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometrics offer significant potential for the development of rapid and non-destructive methods for the identification and characterization of muscles. PMID:25306513

  4. Muscle mri in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy carrying mutation c.187+1G>A.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yawen; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Yuan, Yun

    2014-10-31

    Introduction: We describe the clinical and thigh MRI changes in 2 siblings with neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) carrying the mutation c.187+1G>A. Methods: Peripheral blood smears, genetic tests, and muscle biopsies were performed. Thigh MRI was performed to observe fatty replacement, muscle edema, and muscle bulk from axial sections. Results: The siblings showed similarity in fatty infiltration and edema. T1-weighted images of the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus revealed marked and diffuse fatty infiltration. There was asymmetric involvement in biceps femoris and quadriceps. There was extensive fatty infiltration in the quadriceps, except for the rectus femoris. Gracilis and sartorius were relatively spared. Thigh muscle volume was decreased, while the gracilis and sartorius appeared to show compensatory hypertrophy. Conclusions: Compared with previously reported NLSDM, MRI changes in this myopathy tended to be more severe. Asymmetry and relatively selective fatty infiltration were characteristics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25363365

  5. DEHN SURGERY 1. Introduction

    E-print Network

    Hachimori, Masahiro

    DEHN SURGERY 1. Introduction Dehn surgery hyperbolic knot exceptional surgery (§2) link Dehn surgery (§3) 2. Exceptional surgery and boundary slopes hyperbolic knot exceptional surgery ? S3 ( S3 homotopy S3 ) Dehn surgery K S3 knot E(K) = S3 -intN(K) exterior prim- itive class H1(E(K); Z) ( ) m K

  6. Dual encoding of muscle tension and eye position by abducens motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Davis-López de Carrizosa, María A.; Morado-Díaz, Camilo J.; Miller, Joel M.; de la Cruz, Rosa R.; Pastor, Ángel M.

    2011-01-01

    Extraocular muscle tension associated with spontaneous eye movements has a pulse-slide-step profile similar to that of motoneuron firing rate. Existing models only relate motoneuron firing to eye position, velocity and acceleration. We measured and quantitatively compared lateral rectus muscle force and eye position with the firing of abducens motoneurons in the cat to determine fundamental encoding correlations. During fixations (step), muscle force increased exponentially with eccentric eye position, consistent with a model of estimate ensemble motor innervation based on neuronal sensitivities and recruitment order. Moreover, firing rate in all motoneurons tested was better related to eye position than to muscle tension during fixations. In contrast, during the postsaccadic slide phase, the time constant of firing rate decay was closely related to that of muscle force decay, suggesting that all motoneurons encode muscle tension as well. Discharge characteristics of abducens motoneurons formed overlapping clusters of phasic and tonic motoneurons, thus, tonic units recruited earlier and had a larger slide signal. We conclude that the slide signal is a discharge characteristic of the motoneuron that controls muscle tension during the post-saccadic phase and that motoneurons are specialized for both tension and position-related properties. The organization of signal content in the pool of abducens motoneurons from the very phasic to the very tonic units is possibly a result of the differential trophic background received from distinct types of muscle fibers. PMID:21307263

  7. Functional roles of abdominal and back muscles during isometric axial rotation of the trunk.

    PubMed

    Ng, J K; Parnianpour, M; Richardson, C A; Kippers, V

    2001-05-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) studies have shown that a large number of trunk muscles are recruited during axial rotation. The functional roles of these trunk muscles in axial rotation are multiple and have not been well investigated. In addition, there is no information on the coupling torque at different exertion levels during axial rotation. The aim of the study was to investigate the functional roles of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, latissimus dorsi, iliocostalis lumborum and multifidus during isometric right and left axial rotation at 100%, 70%, 50% and 30% maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) in a standing position. The coupling torques in sagittal and coronal planes were measured during axial rotation to examine the coupling nature of torque at different levels of exertions. Results showed that the coupled sagittal torque switches from nil to flexion at maximum exertion of axial rotation. Generally, higher EMG activities were shown at higher exertion levels for all the trunk muscles. Significant differences in activity between the right and left axial rotation exertions were demonstrated in external oblique, internal oblique, latissimus dorsi and iliocostalis lumborum while no difference was shown in rectus abdominis and multifidus. These results demonstrated the different functional roles of trunk muscles during axial rotation. This is important considering that the abdominal and back muscles not only produce torque but also maintain the spinal posture and stability during axial rotation exertions. The changing coupling torque direction in the sagittal plane when submaximal to maximal exertions were compared may indicate the complex nature of the kinetic coupling of trunk muscles. PMID:11398861

  8. Lower Extremity Muscle Thickness During 30-Day 6 degrees Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.; Kirby, L. C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Muscle thickness was measured in 19 Bed-Rested (BR) men (32-42 year) subjected to IsoTonic (ITE, cycle orgometer) and IsoKi- netic (IKE, torque orgometer) lower extremity exercise training, and NO Exercise (NOE) training. Thickness was measured with ultrasonography in anterior thigh-Rectus Femoris (RF) and Vastus Intermadius (VI), and combined posterior log-soleus, flexor ballucis longus, and tibialis posterior (S + FHL +TP) - muscles. Compared with ambulatory control values, thickness of the (S + FHL + TP) decreased by 90%-12% (p less than 0.05) In all three test groups. The (RF) thickness was unchanged in the two exercise groups, but decreased by 10% (p less than 0.05) in the NOE. The (VI) thickness was unchanged In the ITE group, but decreased by 12%-l6% (p less than 0.05) in the IKE and NOE groups. Thus, intensive, alternating, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise training is as effective as intensive, intermittent, isokinetic exercise training for maintaining thicknesses of rectus femoris and vastus lntermedius anterior thigh muscles, but not posterior log muscles, during prolonged BR deconditioning.

  9. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  10. Laparoscopic surgery - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of different procedures can be performed laparoscopically, including gallbladder removal (laparoscopic cholecystectomy), esophageal surgery (laparoscopic fundoplication), colon surgery (lapraoscopic colectomy), and surgery ...

  11. Muscle Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    The Muscle Physiology Lab at the University of California-San Diego provides this comprehensive source of information on the neuromuscular system. The Web site appears as a extensive menu of subtopics, each leading to pages of detailed text and diagrams. Students studying muscle structure and function should find this well-organized and authoritative resource extremely useful. The Web site also includes a search tool for quickly finding pages of interest, and a list of related links for additional information.

  12. Neurophysiological monitoring of cranial nerves during posterior fossa surgery.

    PubMed

    Broggi, G; Scaioli, V; Brock, S; Dones, I

    1995-01-01

    Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring of cranial nerve functions in surgery for microvascular decompression and tumors of the posterior fossa is important for minimizing risk of permanent damage to the nerves. In particular, intraoperative BAEP and the EMG function of muscle innervated by trigeminal and facial muscle have been found useful. We report here our experiences with intraoperative monitoring of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and EMG recorded from muscles supplied by the trigeminal and facial nerves. PMID:8748580

  13. Cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    The psychotherapeutic nature of cosmetic surgery is emphasised by outlining the range of symptoms from which patients suffer and by explaining the sequence of psychological reactions which cause them. The principles which govern the selection of patients are defined. A brief account of each of the main cosmetic operations is given together with notes on their limitations and risks. PMID:2589786

  14. Varicocele Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Varicocele Surgery Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY February 24, 2009 Welcome to this "OR Live" Webcast presentation premiering from Beth Israel ... allowed to shower within three days of the operation and resumes activities usually ... broadcast from the Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City. I hope you’ve ...

  15. Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Allen B.

    2011-01-01

    Well into the first decades of the 20th century, medical opinion held that any surgical attempts to treat heart disease were not only misguided, but unethical. Despite such reservations, innovative surgeons showed that heart wounds could be successfully repaired. Then, extracardiac procedures were performed to correct patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Direct surgery on the heart was accomplished with closed commissurotomy for mitral stenosis. The introduction of the heart-lung machine and cardiopulmonary bypass enabled the surgical treatment of other congenital and acquired heart diseases. Advances in aortic surgery paralleled these successes. The development of coronary artery bypass grafting greatly aided the treatment of coronary heart disease. Cardiac transplantation, attempts to use the total artificial heart, and the application of ventricular assist devices have brought us to the present day. Although progress in the field of cardiovascular surgery appears to have slowed when compared with the halcyon times of the past, substantial challenges still face cardiac surgeons. It can only be hoped that sufficient resources and incentive can carry the triumphs of the 20th century into the 21st. This review covers past developments and future opportunities in cardiac surgery. PMID:22163121

  16. [Laparoscopic surgery in day surgery].

    PubMed

    Micali, S; Bitelli, M; Torelli, F; Valitutti, M; Micali, F

    1998-06-01

    Since ten years laparoscopic techniques have been employed as alternatives of many established open procedures in gynecologic, abdominal and finally urologic surgery. Laparoscopic techniques show significant advantages compared to open surgery, such as less hospitalization, reduced need of analgesic drugs, quick return to daily activities and far a better cosmetic results. Laparoscopic surgery has been advocated for urologic, uro-gynecologic and andrologic diseases. Since 1983 one-day surgery was proposed for only a few gynecologic and abdominal procedures and only recently for laparoscopic renal biopsy and abdominal testis evaluation. In these preliminary experiences the conditions for a correct management of laparoscopic one-day surgery have been clearly pointed out: 1. correct surgical indication; 2. through knowledge of surgical technique; 3. duration of the procedure less than 90 minutes; 4. correct anesthesia. Technique of anesthesia must be adapted to the surgical procedure required, its duration and the physical features of the patient. General anesthesia is usually preferred for either longer and more complex procedures or when a higher abdominal insufflation pressure is needed. Spinal or local anesthesia are preferred for simpler procedures or when only one trocar is required. At date only few urologic procedures seem to be suitable to one-day laparoscopic surgery. 1) Varicocele: although laparoscopic varicocelectomy in one-day surgery has never been reported previously, it can be performed in a short time, only 3 trocars are needed and insufflation pressure can be maintained within 15 mm Hg. 2) Renal biopsy and marsupialization of renal cysts. These are usually managed percutaneously but in some particular indications procedures under direct vision should be preferable. Both are short-lasting and only superficial general anesthesia is required; as surgical access is retroperitoneal only two trocars are sufficient; at date only renal biopsies have previously been reported. 3) Diagnostic procedures on abdominal testis. The procedure is brief only superficial general anesthesia is needed and only one trocar is required. Conclusions. One-day laparoscopic surgery will require in the future a more and more strict cooperation between urologists and anesthetists in order to tailor the correct anesthesiological and laparoscopic technique to the procedure required and the features of the patient. PMID:9707775

  17. Electromyographic indices of muscle fatigue during simulated air combat maneuvering.

    PubMed

    Bain, B; Jacobs, I; Buick, F

    1994-03-01

    Pilots exposed to high levels of headward (+Gz) acceleration must perform voluntary muscle contractions in order to maintain head-level arterial pressure. To study the possibility that muscular fatigue can limit human +Gz duration tolerance, electromyographic (EMG) activity and EMG indices of muscular fatigue were measured during a simulated air combat maneuvering (SACM) centrifuge profile. Eight experienced male volunteers were exposed to a +4-7 Gz centrifuge profile until volitional fatigue. Electrical activity (EMG) was recorded from 7 muscles: biceps brachii (BB), latissimus dorsi (LD), pectoralis major (PM), rectus abdominis (RA), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius (GN). EMG and force during isometric contractions of the same muscles were also recorded at 1 G. Root mean square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MPF) were calculated for each second of EMG data. G-tolerance time averaged 256 +/- 33 s (mean +/- SD). RMS activity was expressed relative to activity during a maximal muscle contraction. The mean values (%) for each muscle during the 7 Gz plateaux were: RA, 30.8; BB, 26.4; LD, 44.0; PM, 48.5; VL, 43.4; BF, 31.4; GN, 39.3. The estimated level of contraction relative to a MVC (%) was: RA, 36.6; BB, 30.5; LD, 43.9 and PM, 61.4. There was no significant difference between contraction levels for any of the muscles studied. RMS activity did not increase over time and MPF decreased significantly only in BF and LD, however, these decreases were small. EMG activity and estimated contraction intensities were considered to be low to moderate. These results suggest that it is unlikely that fatigue in the muscles studied would limit G-tolerance time. PMID:8185546

  18. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Weight Loss Surgery: Stacie's Story (Video) Preparing Your Child for Surgery Keeping Portions Under Control Healthy Eating Overweight and Obesity Weight and Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Is Dieting OK ...

  19. Back extensor muscle fatigue in patients with lumbar disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Åsa Dedering; Karin Harms-Ringdahl; Gunnar Nèmeth

    2006-01-01

    We investigated back muscle fatigue and endurance in patients with lumbar disc herniation before and after surgery, and established the degree of association between perceived fatigue and objectively measured fatigue. Additionally, the relationships between muscle fatigue and endurance time on the one hand, and activity, participation, self-efficacy and health on the other, were investigated to clarify the grades of association

  20. Spine surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Intervertebral foramina - discharge; Spine surgery - foraminotomy - discharge; Lumbar decompression - discharge; Decompressive laminectomy - discharge; Spine surgery - laminectomy - discharge; ...

  1. Electron-microscopic study of the restoration of irradiated muscle under the influence of regenerating muscle tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Elyakova, G.V.; Azarova, V.S.; Popova, M.F.

    1985-09-01

    The authors determine whether the development of satellite cells and their transformation into myoblasts under the influence of regenerating muscle tissue occurs in irradiated muscle. In the control series seven days after surgery, degenerative changes occurred over a considerable extent in the muscle fibers of the proximal stump: a loosening, fragmentation, and disappearance of myofibrils, the vesiculation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondrial swelling and breakdown. The stimulation of the processes of postradiational repair occurs under the influence of transplanted regenerating muscle tissue into irradiated traumatized muscle. This results in the restoration of its capacity for regeneration by both myosymplastic and myoblastic means.

  2. Perioperative chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Black; Alan So

    Considerable debate exists concerning the combined use of sys - temic chemotherapy and radical surgery for muscle-invasive blad - der cancer. While there is evidence for a survival benefit after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the benefit is modest and the poten - tial toxicity and delay of time to surgery prior to cystectomy appears to be deterring many surgeons from its administration.

  3. The influences of position and forced respiratory maneuvers on spinal stability muscles.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Won; Kweon, Migyoung; Hong, Soonmi

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were to investigate the influences of position on %MVIC of spinal stability muscles to establish for the most effective breathing pattern for activation of spinal stability muscles in order to provide an additional treatment method for use in spinal stability exercise programs. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-three healthy subjects performed quiet breathing and four different forced respiratory maneuvers (FRM); [pursed lip breathing (PLB), diaphragmatic breathing (DB), combination breathing (CB) and respiration muscle endurance training (RMET)] in both standing and sitting positions. %MVIC of them (the multifidus (MF), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique/transversus abdominis (IO/TrA), external oblique (EO), rectus abdominis (RA) measured. [Results] IO/TrA, MF and EO showed greater activation in standing than in sitting, while RA and ES showed greater activation in sitting than in standing. RMET induced significantly greater activation of spinal stability muscles then other breathing patterns. %MVIC changes of muscle activities induced by FRM were independent of position with a few exceptions. [Conclusion] The increased respiratory demands of FRM induced greater activation of spinal stability muscles than QB. RMET was found to be the most effective breathing pattern for increasing the activation of the spinal stability muscles. PMID:25729199

  4. Muscle damage during MIS total hip arthroplasty: Smith-Petersen versus posterior approach.

    PubMed

    Meneghini, R Michael; Pagnano, Mark W; Trousdale, Robert T; Hozack, William J

    2006-12-01

    Decreased muscle damage is a reported benefit of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches in total hip arthroplasty (THA). We compared the extent and location of muscle damage during THA using the MIS anterior Smith-Petersen and MIS posterior surgical approaches. THA was performed in six human cadavers (12 hips). One hip was assigned to the Smith-Petersen approach and the contralateral hip to the posterior approach. Muscle damage was graded with a technique of visual inspection to calculate a proportion of surface area damage. Less damage occurred in the gluteus minimus muscles and minimus tendon with the Smith-Petersen approach. A mean of 8% of the minimus muscle was damaged via the Smith-Petersen approach, compared to 18% via the posterior approach. The tensor fascia latae muscle was damaged (mean of 31%), as well as direct head of the rectus femoris (mean 12%) during the Smith-Petersen approach. The piriformis or conjoined tendon was transected in 50% of the anterior approaches to mobilize the femur. The posterior approach involved intentional detachment of the piriformis and conjoined tendon and measurable damage to the abductor muscles and gluteus minimus tendon in each specimen. Clinical outcome studies and gait analysis are necessary to ascertain the functional implications of these findings. PMID:17006366

  5. Electromyographic responses of erector spinae and lower limb's muscles to dynamic postural perturbations in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Farahpour, Nader; Ghasemi, Safoura; Allard, Paul; Saba, Mohammad Sadegh

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate electromyographic (EMG) responses of erector spinae (ES) and lower limbs' muscles to dynamic forward postural perturbation (FPP) and backward postural perturbation (BPP) in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and in a healthy control group. Ten right thoracic AIS patients (Cobb=21.6±4.4°) and 10 control adolescents were studied. Using bipolar surface electrodes, EMG activities of ES muscle at T10 (EST10) and L3 (ESL3) levels, biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (G) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles in the right and the left sides during FPP and BPP were evaluated. Muscle responses were measured over a 1s time window after the onset of perturbation. In FPP test, the EMG responses of right EST10, ESL3 and BF muscles in the scoliosis group were respectively about 1.40 (p=0.035), 1.43 (p=0.07) and 1.45 (p=0.01) times greater than those in control group. Also, in BPP test, at right ESL3 muscle of the scoliosis group the EMG activity was 1.64 times higher than that in the control group (p=0.01). The scoliosis group during FPP displayed asymmetrical muscle responses in EST10 and BF muscles. This asymmetrical muscle activity in response to FPP is hypothesized to be a possible compensatory strategy rather than an inherent characteristic of scoliosis. PMID:25008019

  6. [What do general, abdominal and vascular surgeons need to know on plastic surgery - aspects of plastic surgery in the field of general, abdominal and vascular surgery].

    PubMed

    Damert, H G; Altmann, S; Stübs, P; Infanger, M; Meyer, F

    2015-02-01

    There is overlap between general, abdominal and vascular surgery on one hand and plastic surgery on the other hand, e.g., in hernia surgery, in particular, recurrent hernia, reconstruction of the abdominal wall or defect closure after abdominal or vascular surgery. Bariatric operations involve both special fields too. Plastic surgeons sometimes use skin and muscle compartments of the abdominal wall for reconstruction at other regions of the body. This article aims to i) give an overview about functional, anatomic and clinical aspects as well as the potential of surgical interventions in plastic surgery. General/abdominal/vascular surgeons can benefit from this in their surgical planning and competent execution of their own surgical interventions with limited morbidity/lethality and an optimal, in particular, functional as well as aesthetic outcome, ii) support the interdisciplinary work of general/abdominal/vascular and plastic surgery, and iii) provide a better understanding of plastic surgery and its profile of surgical interventions and options. PMID:24771218

  7. Muscle Mass Predicts Outcomes Following Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    DiMartini, Andrea; Cruz, Ruy J.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Myaskovsky, Larissa; Goodpaster, Bret; Fox, Kristen; Kim, Kevin H.; Fontes, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims For patients with end-stage liver disease commonly used indices of nutritional status (i.e. body weight and BMI) are often inflated due to fluid overload (i.e. ascites, peripheral edema) resulting in an underdiagnosis of malnutrition. As muscle is the largest protein reservoir in the body, an estimate of muscle mass may be a more reliable and valid estimate of nutritional status. Methods Therefore, we used pre-transplant computerized tomography data of 338 liver transplant (LTX) candidates to identify muscle and fat mass based on a specific abdominal transverse section commonly used in body composition analyses and investigated the contribution of this measure to specific post-LTX outcomes. Results We found the majority, 68%, of our patients could be defined as cachetic. For men muscle mass predicted many important post-transplant outcomes including intensive care unit (ICU) and total length of stay and days of intubation. Muscle mass was a significant predictor of survival and also predicted disposition to home vs another facility. For women muscle mass predicted lengths of ICU and total stay and days of intubation but the effect was modest. Muscle mass did not predict survival or disposition for women. Conclusions As pre-transplant muscle mass was associated with many important post-operative outcomes we discuss these findings in the context of possible pre-transplant interventions to either improve or sustain muscle mass before surgery. PMID:23960026

  8. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  9. Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury : Maintaining skeletal muscle function and vasomotor control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    In reconstructive surgery, ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury of skeletal muscle tissue occurs during replantations, free vascularized transfers of muscle flaps and following composite tissue allograft (CTA) transplantations. The latter is a newly emerging field and involves the allotransplantation of complex composite tissues from deceased donors. Complete and partial failures of free vascularized muscle flaps and replantations remain a significant clinical problem.

  10. Elec 331 -Minimally Invasive Surgery Minimally Invasive Surgery

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Elec 331 - Minimally Invasive Surgery 1 Minimally Invasive Surgery · Small incision ­ Low risk surgery ­ Laparoscopic surgery ­ Arthroscopic surgery Instruments Laparoscope / Arthroscope Trocar Forceps / Scissors Elevator / Retractor Stapler #12;Elec 331 - Minimally Invasive Surgery 2 Instrument Types · Trocar

  11. Increased expression of GDF-15 may mediate ICU-acquired weakness by down-regulating muscle microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, S A A; Lee, J Y; Syburra, T; Rosendahl, U; Griffiths, M J D; Kemp, P R; Polkey, M I

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The molecular mechanisms underlying the muscle atrophy of intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW) are poorly understood. We hypothesised that increased circulating and muscle growth and differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) causes atrophy in ICUAW by changing expression of key microRNAs. Objectives To investigate GDF-15 and microRNA expression in patients with ICUAW and to elucidate possible mechanisms by which they cause muscle atrophy in vivo and in vitro. Methods In an observational study, 20 patients with ICUAW and seven elective surgical patients (controls) underwent rectus femoris muscle biopsy and blood sampling. mRNA and microRNA expression of target genes were examined in muscle specimens and GDF-15 protein concentration quantified in plasma. The effects of GDF-15 on C2C12 myotubes in vitro were examined. Measurements and main results Compared with controls, GDF-15 protein was elevated in plasma (median 7239 vs 2454?pg/mL, p=0.001) and GDF-15 mRNA in the muscle (median twofold increase p=0.006) of patients with ICUAW. The expression of microRNAs involved in muscle homeostasis was significantly lower in the muscle of patients with ICUAW. GDF-15 treatment of C2C12 myotubes significantly elevated expression of muscle atrophy-related genes and down-regulated the expression of muscle microRNAs. miR-181a suppressed transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) responses in C2C12 cells, suggesting increased sensitivity to TGF-? in ICUAW muscle. Consistent with this suggestion, nuclear phospho-small mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) 2/3 was increased in ICUAW muscle. Conclusions GDF-15 may increase sensitivity to TGF-? signalling by suppressing the expression of muscle microRNAs, thereby promoting muscle atrophy in ICUAW. This study identifies both GDF-15 and associated microRNA as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25516419

  12. Muscle cramps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... O'Connor DP, Almekinders LC, et al. Basic science and injury of muscle, tendon, and ligament. In: DeLee JC, Drez D Jr., Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2009: ...

  13. Muscle activation patterns during walking from transtibial amputees recorded within the residual limb-prosthetic interface

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Powered lower limb prostheses could be more functional if they had access to feedforward control signals from the user’s nervous system. Myoelectric signals are one potential control source. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle activation signals could be recorded from residual lower limb muscles within the prosthetic socket-limb interface during walking. Methods We recorded surface electromyography from three lower leg muscles (tibilias anterior, gastrocnemius medial head, gastrocnemius lateral head) and four upper leg muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus medius) of 12 unilateral transtibial amputee subjects and 12 non-amputee subjects during treadmill walking at 0.7, 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 m/s. Muscle signals were recorded from the amputated leg of amputee subjects and the right leg of control subjects. For amputee subjects, lower leg muscle signals were recorded from within the limb-socket interface and from muscles above the knee. We quantified differences in the muscle activation profile between amputee and control groups during treadmill walking using cross-correlation analyses. We also assessed the step-to-step inter-subject variability of these profiles by calculating variance-to-signal ratios. Results We found that amputee subjects demonstrated reliable muscle recruitment signals from residual lower leg muscles recorded within the prosthetic socket during walking, which were locked to particular phases of the gait cycle. However, muscle activation profile variability was higher for amputee subjects than for control subjects. Conclusion Robotic lower limb prostheses could use myoelectric signals recorded from surface electrodes within the socket-limb interface to derive feedforward commands from the amputee’s nervous system. PMID:22882763

  14. Age and side-related morphometric MRI evaluation of trunk muscles in people without back pain.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Stephanie; Licka, Theresia; Elliott, James

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated lumbar spine muscle volume and Muscle Fatty Infiltrate (MFI) across two age groups of healthy adults. Twenty-four participants (young group - YG: age 18-25, n = 12; mature group - MG: age 45-60, n = 12) without low back pain underwent T1-weighted axial MRI. Muscle volume and MFI were obtained from the left and right lumbar erector spinae (ES), multifidus (M), rectus abdominis (RA) and psoas (PS) muscles. For MFI, mean pixel intensity (MPI) of muscles was reported as a percentage of subcutaneous fat MPI. Within-group comparison of left and right side muscle volume was not significantly different in the YG. In the MG, right RA and ES were significantly smaller than left (RA p = 0.049; ES p = 0.03). In both groups, left PS, M and ES MFI was significantly smaller compared to the right side and left RA MFI was significantly greater compared to right side (all p ? 0.001). For M volume, 81.7-84.6% of variance was explained by age, height and Body Mass Index (BMI). For ES volume, 81.6-82.8% of variance was explained by height and BMI. Age explained 18.1%-36.0% of variance in M and ES right MFI. Therefore, age and BMI are relevant factors for extensor muscle volume, but not for flexor muscle volume. Also, age significantly influences MFI for right-sided extensors only. The age effect is apparently independent of full subjective back functionality. For future spinal muscle research, the side-and muscle-specific effect of age on muscle morphology should be considered. PMID:25085813

  15. O2 delivery at VO2max and oxidative capacity in muscles of standardbred horses.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R B; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Hoppeler, H; Jones, J H; Kayar, S R; Laughlin, M H; Lindholm, A; Longworth, K E; Taylor, C R; Weibel, E R

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the relationships between 16 physiological, biochemical, and morphological variables presumed to relate to the oxidative capacity in quadriceps muscles or muscle parts in Standardbred horses. The variables included O2 delivery (blood flow) and mean capillary transit time (MTT) during treadmill locomotion at whole animal maximal O2 consumption (VO2max, 134 +/- 2 ml.min-1 x kg-1), capillary density and capillary-to-fiber ratio, myoglobin concentration, oxidative enzyme activities, glycolytic enzyme activities, fiber type populations, and fiber size. These components of muscle metabolic capacity were found to be interrelated to varying degrees using correlation matrix analysis, with lactate dehydrogenase activity showing the most significant correlations (n = 14) with other variables. Most of the "oxidative" variables occurred in the highest quantities in the deepest muscle of the group (vastus intermedius) and in the deepest parts of the other quadriceps muscles where the highest proportions of type I fibers were localized. The highest blood flow measured with microspheres in the muscle group during exercise was in vastus intermedius muscle (145 ml.min-1 x 100 g-1), and the lowest was in the superficial part of rectus femoris muscle (32 ml.min-1 x 100 g-1). Average muscle blood flow during exercise at whole animal VO2max was 116 ml.min-1 x 100 g-1. Because skeletal muscle comprised 43% of total body mass (453 +/- 34 kg), total muscle blood flow was estimated at 226 l/min, which was approximately 78% of total cardiac output (288 l/min).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1337073

  16. Maternal germline mosaicism of kinesin family member 21A (KIF21A) mutation causes complex phenotypes in a Chinese family with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Chen, Xue; Sun, Xiantao; Liu, Hu; Zhao, Kanxing; Chang, Qinglin; Pan, Xinyuan; Wang, Xiuying; Yuan, Songtao; Liu, Qinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify the causative mutation with its possible origin in a Chinese family with congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) and to characterize the ocular phenotypes and lesions in the corresponding intracranial nerves. Methods Three affected siblings and their asymptomatic parents underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations and neuropathologic analysis involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). KIF21A, PHOX2A, and TUBB3 genes were sequenced on the leukocyte-derived DNA to detect variants. The disease-linked haplotype was analyzed using four microsatellite markers across the KIF21A locus. Results All three affected individuals displayed typical CFEOM1. MRI revealed complicated but consistent neuromuscular abnormalities in the two patients examined, including hypoplastic oculomotor nerves, complete absence of bilateral superior rectus muscles, and unilateral absence of the abducens nerve with marked atrophy of the corresponding lateral rectus muscle. A heterozygous hotspot mutation KIF21A c.2860C>T was identified in all patients, but it was absent in both parents. Haplotype analysis of the disease locus showed the likely maternal inheritance of the disease-associated haplotype to all three affected offspring, strongly suggesting maternal germline mosaicism of the mutation. Conclusions Germline mosaicism of KIF21A c.2860C>T is likely to cause the high occurrence of this mutation in the population. This information may be useful for genetic counseling. KIF21A mutations can affect the abducens nerve and cause complete absence of the bilateral superior rectus muscles. MRI characterization of new CFEOM1 phenotypes would assist clinical management. PMID:24426772

  17. Effects of wearing gumboots and leather lace-up boots on lower limb muscle activity when walking on simulated underground coal mine surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Steele, Julie R

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing two standard underground coal mining work boots (a gumboot and a leather lace-up boot) on lower limb muscle activity when participants walked across simulated underground coal mining surfaces. Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) and hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscle activity were recorded as twenty male participants walked at a self-selected pace around a circuit while wearing each boot type. The circuit consisted of level, inclined and declined surfaces composed of rocky gravel and hard dirt. Walking in a leather lace-up boot, compared to a gumboot, resulted in increased vastus lateralis and increased biceps femoris muscle activity when walking on sloped surfaces. Increased muscle activity appears to be acting as a slip and/or trip prevention strategy in response to challenging surfaces and changing boot features. PMID:25766420

  18. Acute effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction and muscle electromyographical activity in indoor soccer players.

    PubMed

    Reis, Erika da Fonseca Silva; Pereira, Guilherme Borges; de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Silva, Mauro Fernando; Araujo, Marcia; Gomes, Italo; Prestes, Jonato

    2013-11-01

    The aim was to investigate and compare the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and static stretching (SS) on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and muscle activation in indoor soccer players. Thirty-three young adult men were divided into two groups: (i) sedentary and (ii) trained. Each group completed three different experimental trials: SS, PNF and no stretching (NS). The MVC of knee extension was evaluated before and immediately after each condition along with electromyography from the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles of the dominant leg. PNF or SS techniques induced no decrease on MVC and muscle electromyographical activity in indoor soccer players (P>0·05). The electromyography of the RF and VL was lower after SS only in the sedentary group (P?0·05). Short-duration PNF or SS has no effect on isometric MVC and muscle activity in indoor soccer players. PMID:23701400

  19. Effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old female complained of pain in the sacroiliac joints. [Methods] The subject performed individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles for nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint for 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were evaluated before and after the exercises. [Results] After performing the individual strengthening exercises for the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and biceps femoris muscles for 3 weeks, the subject displayed no pain in the pain provocation tests, and the VAS score was 2/10. [Conclusion] The individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles of the sacroiliac joint performed in the present study appear to be effective for sedentary workers with sacroiliac joint pain. PMID:25642098

  20. Hemorrhoid Surgery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains what hemorrhoids are, symptoms, alternative treatments, as well as the benefits and risks of surgery. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  1. Sinus Surgery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains the benefits and risks of sinus surgery. It reviews sinus anatomy, causes, diagnosis, and treatments for sinus problems. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  2. Thyroid Surgery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains the most common diseases that can affect the thyroid gland. It also explains treatment options including medications and surgery. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  3. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures. PMID:24144815

  4. Reproducibility of eight lower limb muscles activity level in the course of an incremental pedaling exercise.

    PubMed

    Laplaud, David; Hug, François; Grélot, Laurent

    2006-04-01

    Despite the wide use of surface electromyography (EMG) recorded during dynamic exercises, the reproducibility of EMG variables has not been fully established in a course of a dynamic leg exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of eight lower limb muscles activity level during a pedaling exercise performed until exhaustion. Eight male were tested on two days held three days apart. Surface EMG was recorded from vastus lateralis, rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateral, gastrocnemius medianus and tibialis anterior during incremental exercise test. The root mean square, an index of global EMG activity, was averaged every five crank revolutions (corresponding to about 3 s at 85 rpm) throughout the tests. Despite inter-subjects variations, we showed a high reproducibility of the activity level of lower limb muscles during a progressive pedaling exercise performed until exhaustion. However, RF muscle seemed to be the less reproducible of the eight muscles investigated during incremental pedaling exercise. These results suggest that each subject adopt a personal muscle activation strategy in a course of an incremental cycling exercise but fatigue phenomenon can induce some variations in the most fatigable muscles (RF). PMID:16126412

  5. Functional imaging of muscle oxygenation and oxygen consumption in the knee extensor muscles during isometric contractions by spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kek, Khai Jun; Miyakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Nobuki; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we showed that exercise type- and intensity-dependent regional differences in muscle oxygenation and oxygen consumption rate (Vo II) of the knee extensor muscles could be imaged in real time with a multi-channel spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SR-NIRS) imaging device. Healthy subjects performed isometric knee extension exercise for 30 s (without- or with-leg-press action) at different exercise intensities [10%, 40% and 70% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)]. "Separation-type" probes were attached to the skin over the major knee extensor muscles: vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus medialis (VM). Placement of the probes enabled simultaneously measurement of 12 sites over a skin area of about 30 cm2 (temporal resolution = 0.25 s). Local Vo II of each muscle, resting Vo II (Vo II, rest) and recovery Vo II (Vo II, rec ), were determined with arterial occlusion before the start and after the end of contraction, respectively. There was no significant difference between the values of Vo II rest, in the muscles. However, during knee extension exercise without-leg-press action, Vo II rec, value of the RF was significantly greater than the values of the VL and VM at all exercise intensities. In contrast, during exercise with-leg-press action, Vo II rec, values of the RF and VM were greater than those of the VL, especially during exercise at 40% and 70% MVC. In summary, the regional differences in muscle oxygenation and Vo II of the knee extensor muscles, probably due to the differences in relative contributions of muscles to exercise and in muscle architecture, were imaged using SR-NIRS.

  6. [Hand surgery training].

    PubMed

    Moutet, F; Haloua, J P

    2003-10-01

    Training of the hand surgeon HAND SURGEON A CONCEPT: The hand surgeon is supposed to be in charge of all the hand lesions regarding, skeleton, muscles, tendons, nerves and vessels. He has to be able to insure reparation and coverage of all of them. So he is involved in all the structures, which insure integrity and function of the hand. PURPOSE AND WAYS OF TRAINING: To obtain the asked ability, the hand surgeon training has to be global and sustained by two underlying surgical specialities: orthopedic surgery and plastic and reconstructive surgery. From 2000 after many years of dealings, a Right to the Title in Hand Surgery was born. This Right to the Title wants to be the formal recognition of the specific training of the hand surgeon. For the well-recognized ancient hand surgeons they need to be confirmed by one's peers. Now a day the hand surgeon has to satisfy to this specific training: Passed the complete training and exam of the Orthopedic or Plastic surgery board. Spent at least 6 months as resident in the other underlying specialty. Passed a microsurgery examination. Passed one of the four national Hand Surgery diplomas (DIU/Inter-Universitary Diploma). The examinations have been harmonized. A common formation is delivered regarding hand surgery, the way of examination is the same and the formation is 2 years long. The final exam is presented in front of board of examiners where a teacher of one of the other three national diplomas is present. Spent at least 2 years in a formative hand surgery unit, listed by the French College of Hand Surgeons, as senior surgeon. Those requirements are heavy to assume and need a heavy personal involvement. That seems to be necessary to have an ability level as high as possible. Emergency surgery practice is absolutely necessary in this training. All the 17 university formative hand surgery units listed by the French College of Hand Surgeons are members of the FESUM (European Federation of the Emergency Hand Units). Unfortunately it is non-sufficient to train the necessary number of hand surgeons needed in France today. So we try to obtain from the authority the formal recognition of a training period in private practice. Eleven out of the 28 hand units listed as formative by the French College of Hand Surgeons are in private practice and may be recognized as formative in the hand surgeon training. That needs to create an official agreement between university and private Units. This part of the training is yet accepted by the Right to the Title commission for a 6-month training period. But this needs a legal modification or adaptation of the private units legal status so they will be able to offer a quite equivalent conditions of training. Now a days 233 surgeons in France passed the Right to the Title. Among them, the oldest do not have emergency practice any more. So unfortunately, out of 1,400,000 hand injuries a year in France, only few are actually cared by hand surgeons. The emergency training needs at least a three to four senior surgeons team, operating and caring emergencies, 24 h a day, 365 days a year. They need to be surrounded by high-level technical facilities for this type of surgery. Only this type of unit may have a frequent severe hand traumatology practice, especially regarding microsurgery. But on the other hand a less complex hand unit operating only planed surgery and less complicated emergencies, may also be definitively formative. This only depends on the hand surgeon's qualification. It is only with a very demanding and high-level training program that our credibility as hand surgeon may be definitively established. The mainstay of this training is the combined action of the FESUM, the French College of Hand Surgeons and the DIU diploma. The Right to the Title formally confirms that training. For university or private unit, to be a member of the FESUM, must continue to guarantee a high level training regarding emergencies as in number as in complexity. We proposed as minimum level of practice (a year) to be a formative hand surgery unit: 10-15 hand and up

  7. Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine

    E-print Network

    Kim, Duck O.

    Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine How Does Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Surgery Work? Rev. 2 Sports Medicine How Does Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Surgery Work? Rev. 2/13 2 Rotator Cuff;Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine How Does Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Surgery Work? Rev. 2/13 3 Figure

  8. DEHN SURGERY SIDDHARTHA GADGIL

    E-print Network

    Gadgil, Siddhartha

    DEHN SURGERY SIDDHARTHA GADGIL Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Co-ordinates for surgery 1 3. Some algebraic topology 2 4. The theorem of Lickorish and Wallace 3 5. Surgeries and Cobordisms 4 6. The Kirby Calculus 5 7. Constructing knots using surgery 5 8. Surgeries about knots 5 References 6 1. Introduction

  9. CARDIAC MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, Paul H.; Sommer, J. R.; Johnson, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    Cardiac muscle fibers of the hummingbird and finch have no transverse tubules and are smaller in diameter than those of mammalian hearts. The fibers are connected by intercalated discs which are composed of desmosomes and f. adherentes; small nexuses are often interspersed. As in cardiac muscle of several other animals, the junctional SR of the couplings is highly structured in these two birds but, in addition, and after having lost sarcolemmal contact, the junctional SR continues beyond the coupling to extend deep into the interior of the cells and to form belts around the Z-I regions of the sarcomeres. This portion of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which we have named "extended junctional SR," and which is so prominent and invariant a feature of cardiac cells of hummingbirds and finches, has not been observed in chicken cardiac cells. The morphological differences between these species of birds may be related to respective differences in heart rates characteristic for these birds. PMID:5555579

  10. Muscle Fibers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly Chang

    2000-01-01

    In this activity about human anatomy (page 20 of PDF), learners investigate the structure of muscles by comparing yarn and cooked meat. Learners will record their observations in a data table and draw conclusions based on their findings. Beef brisket or stew meat should be cooked in advance so learners can observe at least one, 1-inch cube of cooked meat. This guide includes background information, extensions, and a data table.

  11. The effects of surface condition on abdominal muscle activity during single-legged hold exercise.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung-min; Oh, Jae-seop; Jeon, In-cheol; Kwon, Oh-yun

    2015-02-01

    To treat low-back pain, various spinal stability exercises are commonly used to improve trunk muscle function and strength. Because human movement for normal daily activity occurs in multi-dimensions, the importance of exercise in multi-dimensions or on unstable surfaces has been emphasized. Recently, a motorized rotating platform (MRP) for facilitating multi-dimensions dynamic movement was introduced for clinical use. However, the abdominal muscle activity with this device has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the abdominal muscle activity (rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique muscles) during an active single-leg-hold (SLH) exercise on a floor (stable surface), foam roll, and motorized rotating platform (MRP). Thirteen healthy male subjects participated in this study. Using electromyography, the abdominal muscle activity was measured while the subjects performed SLH exercises on floor (stable surface), foam roll, and MRP. There were significant differences in the abdominal muscle activities among conditions (P<.05), except for left EO (P>.05) (Fig. 2). After the Bonferroni correction, however, no significant differences among conditions remained, except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor and foam roll conditions (padj<0.017). The findings suggest that performing the SLH exercises on a foam roll and MRP is more effective increased activities of both side of RA and IO, and Rt. EO compared to floor condition. However, there were no significant differences in abdominal muscles activity in the multiple comparison between conditions (mean difference were smaller than the standard deviation in the abdominal muscle activities) (padj>0.017), except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor (stable surface) and foam roll (padj<0.017) (effect size: 0.79/0.62 (non-supporting/supporting leg) for foam-roll versus floor). PMID:25066516

  12. Carpal Tunnel Surgery

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... nerve supplies these muscles of the forearm, the base of the forearm. The motor branch supplies these ... the muscles of the thenar eminence of the base of the thumb, and these muscles begin to ...

  13. Simultaneous bilateral breast reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominus musculocutaneous free flap.

    PubMed Central

    Khouri, R K; Ahn, C Y; Salzhauer, M A; Scherff, D; Shaw, W W

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to assess the results and morbidity associated with simultaneous bilateral TRAM free flap breast reconstruction and describe refinements in its surgical technique. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Bilateral prophylactic total mastectomies might be an agreeable option for those patients at highest risk for breast cancer if autogenous tissue breast reconstruction could be performed with reasonable technical ease and acceptable morbidity. However, some surgeons harbor reservations regarding the extensiveness of the surgery, the associated morbidity, and the aesthetic quality of the resulting outcome. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective review of clinical experience with 120 consecutive patients who underwent 240 simultaneous bilateral TRAM free flap breast reconstructions was developed. RESULTS: The average operating time, including the time required for the breast ablative portion of the procedures, was 8.6 hours. The average length of hospitalization was 7.6 days. However, for the last 40 patients, these figures were reduced to 7.1 hours and 6.1 days, respectively. Nonautologous blood transfusions were needed in 33 cases (28%), but only 1 was required in the last 40 patients. Thromboses developed in six of 240 flaps (2.5%): 4 were arterial and 2 were venous. Re-exploration allowed us to restore circulation in five flaps, whereas one flap was unsalvageable and was replaced successfully with an alternate flap. An uncomplicated deep vein thromboses developed in one patient with a history of recurrent deep vein thromboses that had no adverse effect on her outcome. Minor complications developed in 18 patients (15%) (e.g., hematoma, partial wound necrosis, wound infection, or prolonged postoperative ileus) that did not affect the long-term outcome. Fourteen patients (11.6%) had abdominal wall weakness or hernias. Follow-up time averaged 37.2 months (range, 14-62 months). On last follow-up, patients' self-reported overall satisfaction with the procedure was 56% excellent, 40% good, and 4% fair.CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous bilateral free flap reconstruction is technically feasible with a high rate of success and an acceptable morbidity. When performed by experienced surgeons, bilateral prophylactic total mastectomies combined with simultaneous bilateral TRAM free flap reconstruction may provide an adequate surgical option with aesthetically acceptable results for patients at high risk for breast cancer. Images Figure 1. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:9242334

  14. Who Needs Heart Surgery?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Heart Surgery? Heart surgery is used to treat many heart problems. For ... t worked or can't be used, heart surgery might be an option. Specialists Involved Your primary ...

  15. Preparing for Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Preparing for Surgery If you are preparing for surgery, there are some critical steps you can take to help ensure the ... eat or drink anything after midnight before your surgery. Under some circumstances, your physician anesthesiologist may give ...

  16. Open heart surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and a camera to perform the surgery. During robot-assisted valve surgery, the surgeon makes two to ... results than traditional surgery methods. You will not need to be on a heart-lung machine for ...

  17. Cosmetic breast surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Cosmetic breast surgery is done at an outpatient surgery clinic or in a hospital. Most women receive ... with a plastic surgeon if you are considering cosmetic breast surgery. Discuss how you expect to look ...

  18. Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine Hip Arthroscopy for Labral Tear Postoperative Rehabilitation;Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine Hip Arthroscopy for Labral Tear Postoperative Rehabilitation Protocol Conditioning: Stationary bike Treadmill #12;Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine Hip Arthroscopy for Labral Tear

  19. Pancreatic Cancer: Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Ablation or embolization treatments for pancreatic cancer Surgery for pancreatic cancer There are 2 general types ... and risks of such surgery carefully. Potentially curative surgery Fewer than 1 in 5 pancreatic cancers appear ...

  20. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  1. Laser surgery - skin

    MedlinePLUS

    Surgery using a laser ... used is directly related to the type of surgery being performed and the color of the tissue ... Laser surgery can be used to: Close small blood vessels to reduce blood loss Remove warts , moles , sunspots, and ...

  2. Robotic Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

  3. Adynamic and dynamic muscle transposition techniques for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Bariši?, Goran; Krivokapi?, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Gracilis muscle transposition is well established in general surgery and has been the main muscle transposition technique for anal incontinence. Dynamization, through a schedule of continuous electrical stimulation, converts the fatigue-prone muscle fibres to a tonic fatigue-resistant morphology with acceptable results in those cases where there is limited sphincter muscle mass. The differences between gluteoplasty and graciloplasty, as well as the techniques and complications of both procedures, are outlined in this review. Overall, these techniques are rarely carried out in specialized units with experience, as there is a high revision and explantation rate. PMID:24759348

  4. Nonclassical Innervation Patterns In Mammalian Extraocular Muscles

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Costa, Roberta M.; Kung, Jennifer; Poukens, Vadims; Demer, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The abducens (CN6) and oculomotor (CN3) nerves (nn) enter target extraocular muscles (EOMs) via their global surfaces; the trochlear (CN4) nerve enters the superior oblique (SO) muscle on its orbital surface. Motor nn are classically described as entering the EOMs in their middle thirds. We investigated EOM innervation that does not follow the classic pattern. Methods Intact, whole orbits of two humans and one each monkey, cow, and rabbit were paraffin embedded, serially sectioned in coronal plane, and prepared with Masson’s trichrome and by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. Nerves innervating EOMs were traced from the orbital apex toward the scleral insertion, and some were reconstructed in three dimensions. Results Classical motor nn positive for ChAT entered rectus and SO EOMs and coursed anteriorly, without usually exhibiting recurrent branches. In every orbit, nonclassical (NC) nn entered each EOM well posterior to classical motor nn. These NC nn entered and arborized in the posterior EOMs, mainly within the orbital layer (OL), but often traveled into the global layer or entered an adjacent EOM. Other NC nn originated in the orbital apex and entered each EOM through its orbital surface, ultimately anastomosing with classical motor nn. Mixed sensory and motor nn interconnected EOM spindles. Conclusions EOMs exhibit a previously undescribed pattern of NC innervation originating in the proximal orbit that partially joins branches of the classical motor nn. This NC innervation appears preferential for the OL, and may have mixed supplemental motor and/or proprioceptive functions, perhaps depending upon species. The origin of the NC innervation is currently unknown. PMID:22559851

  5. Hip fracture surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... neck fracture repair; Trochanteric fracture repair; Hip pinning surgery ... You may receive general anesthesia before this surgery. This means ... spinal anesthesia. With this kind of anesthesia, medicine is ...

  6. Muscle Uncoupling Protein 3 Expression Is Unchanged by Chronic Ephedrine/Caffeine Treatment: Results of a Double Blind, Randomised Clinical Trial in Morbidly Obese Females

    PubMed Central

    Bracale, Renata; Petroni, Maria Letizia; Davinelli, Sergio; Bracale, Umberto; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Carruba, Michele O.; Nisoli, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Ephedrine/caffeine combination (EC) has been shown to induce a small-to-moderate weight loss in obese patients. Several mechanisms have been proposed, among which an increased thermogenic capacity of skeletal muscle consequent to the EC-induced up-regulation of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) gene expression. We did a parallel group double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-week trial to investigate this hypothesis. Thirteen morbidly obese women (25–52 years of age, body-mass index 48.0±4.0 kg/m2, range 41.1–57.6) were randomly assigned to EC (200/20 mg, n?=?6) or to placebo (n?=?7) administered three times a day orally, before undergoing bariatric surgery. All individuals had an energy-deficit diet equal to about 70% of resting metabolic rate (RMR) diet (mean 5769±1105 kJ/day). The RMR analysed by intention to treat and the UCP3 (long and short isoform) mRNA levels in rectus abdominis were the primary outcomes. Body weight, plasma levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, triglycerides, free fatty acids, glycerol, TSH, fT4, and fT3 were assessed, as well as fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA index, at baseline and at the end of treatments. Body weight loss was evident in both groups when compared to baseline values (overall ?5.2±3.2%, p<0.0001) without significant differences between the treated groups. EC treatment increased the RMR (+9.2±6.8%, p?=?0.020), differently from placebo which was linked to a reduction of RMR (?7.6±6.5%, p?=?0.029). No significant differences were seen in other metabolic parameters. Notably, no changes of either UCP3 short or UCP3 long isoform mRNA levels were evident between EC and placebo group. Our study provides evidence that 4-week EC administration resulted in a pronounced thermogenic effect not related to muscle UCP3 gene expression and weight loss in morbidly obese females under controlled conditions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02048215 PMID:24905629

  7. Independent Passive Mechanical Behavior of Bovine Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, while all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. We sought evidence of potential independent action by examining passive mechanical coupling between EOM compartments. Methods. Putative compartments of each of the six whole bovine anatomical EOMs were separately clamped to a physiologically controlled, dual channel microtensile load cell (5-mN force resolution) driven by independent, high-speed, linear motors having 20-nm position resolution. One channel at a time was extended or retracted by 3 to 5 mm, with the other channel stationary. Fiducials distributed on the EOM global surface enabled optical tracking of local deformation. Loading rates of 5 to 100 mm/sec were applied to explore speeds from slow vergence to saccades. Control loadings employed transversely loaded EOM and isotropic latex. Results. All EOM bellies and tendons exhibited substantial compartmental independence when loaded in the physiologic direction, both between OL and GL, and for arbitrary transverse parsings of EOM width ranging from 60%:40% to 80%:20%. Intercompartmental force coupling in the physiologic direction was less than or equal to 10% in all six EOMS even for saccadic loading rates. Coupling was much higher for nonphysiologic transverse EOM loading and isotropic latex. Optical tracking demonstrated independent strain distribution between EOM compartments. Conclusions. Substantial mechanical independence exists among physiologically loaded fiber bundles in bovine EOMs and tendons, providing biomechanical support for the proposal that differential compartmental function in horizontal rectus EOMs contributes to novel torsional and vertical actions. PMID:23188730

  8. The Effects of Knee Joint and Hip Abduction Angles on the Activation of Cervical and Abdominal Muscles during Bridging Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Kyoung; Park, Du-Jin

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the flexion angle of the knee joint and the abduction angle of the hip joint on the activation of the cervical region and abdominal muscles. [Subjects] A total of 42 subjects were enrolled 9 males and 33 females. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study was one form of exercise with a knee joint flexion angle of 90°. Based on this, a bridging exercise was conducted at the postures of abduction of the lower extremities at 0, 5, 10, and 15°. [Result] The changes in the knee joint angle and the hip abduction angle exhibited statistically significant effects on the cervical erector spinae, adductor magnus, and gluteus medius muscles. The abduction angles did not result in statistically significant effects on the upper trapezium, erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. However, in relation to the knee joint angles, during the bridging exercise, statistically significant results were exhibited. [Conclusion] When patients with both cervical and back pain do a bridging exercise, widening the knee joint angle would reduce cervical and shoulder muscle activity through minimal levels of abduction, permitting trunk muscle strengthening with reduced cervical muscle activity. This method would be helpful for strengthening trunk muscles in a selective manner. PMID:24259870

  9. Architectural and morphological assessment of rat abdominal wall muscles: comparison for use as a human model

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen H M; Banuelos, Karina; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    The abdominal wall is a composite of muscles that are important for the mechanical stability of the spine and pelvis. Tremendous clinical attention is given to these muscles, yet little is known about how they function in isolation or how they interact with one another. Given the morphological, vascular, and innervation complexities associated with these muscles and their proximity to the internal organs, an appropriate animal model is important for understanding their physiological and mechanical significance during function. To determine the extent to which the rat abdominal wall resembles that of human, 10 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed and formalin-fixed for architectural and morphological analyses of the four abdominal wall muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis). Physiological cross-sectional areas and optimal fascicle lengths demonstrated a pattern that was similar to human abdominal wall muscles. In addition, sarcomere lengths measured in the neutral spine posture were similar to human in their relation to optimal sarcomere length. These data indicate that the force-generating and length change capabilities of these muscles, relative to one another, are similar in rat and human. Finally, the fiber lines of action of each abdominal muscle were similar to human over most of the abdominal wall. The main exception was in the lower abdominal region (inferior to the pelvic crest), where the external oblique becomes aponeurotic in human but continues as muscle fibers into its pelvic insertion in the rat. We conclude that, based on the morphology and architecture of the abdominal wall muscles, the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat is a good candidate for a model representation of human, particularly in the middle and upper abdominal wall regions. PMID:20646108

  10. Risk Factors for Complications after Reconstructive Surgery for Sternal Wound Infection

    PubMed Central

    Takaku, Mitsuru; Matsuo, Shinji; Abe, Yoshiro; Harada, Hiroshi; Nagae, Hiroaki; Fujioka, Yusuke; Anraku, Kuniaki; Inagawa, Kiichi; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the utility of flaps for the treatment of sternal wound infections following median sternotomy has been reported for 30 years, there have been few reports on the risk factors for complications after reconstruction. The objective of this investigation was to identify factors related to complications after the reconstruction of sternal wound infections. Methods A retrospective analysis of 74 patients with reconstructive surgery after sternal wound infection over a 5-year period was performed. Clinical data including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, bacterial culture, previous cardiac surgery, wound depth, mortality rate, type of reconstructive procedure, and complication rate were collected. Results The patients' BMI ranged from 15.2 to 33.6 kg/m2 (mean, 23.1±3.74 kg/m2). Wound closure complications after reconstructive surgery were observed in 36.5% of the cases. The mortality rate was 2.7%. Diabetes mellitus significantly affected the rate of wound closure complications (P=0.041). A significant difference in the number of complications was seen between Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (P=0.011). There was a correlation between harvesting of the internal thoracic artery and postoperative complications (P=0.048). The complication rates of the pectoralis major flap, rectus abdominis flap, omentum flap, a combination of pectoralis major flap and rectus abdominis flap, and direct closure were 23.3%, 33.3%, 100%, 37.5%, and 35.7%, respectively. Conclusions Diabetes mellitus, S. aureus, harvesting of the internal thoracic artery, and omentum flap were significant factors for complications after reconstruction. The omentum flap volume may be related to the complications associated with the omentum flap transfer in the present study. PMID:24883276

  11. EMG threshold determination in eight lower limb muscles during cycling exercise: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hug, F; Laplaud, D; Lucia, A; Grelot, L

    2006-06-01

    The first aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the EMG threshold (EMG (Th)) in each of eight lower limb muscles (vastus lateralis [VL], vatus medialis [VM], rectus femoris [RF], semimembranosus [SM], biceps femoris [BF], gastrocnemius lateralis [GL] and medialis [GM], and tibialis anterior [TA]) during incremental cycling exercise. The second aim was to investigate the test-retest reproducibility of the EMG (Th) occurrence. Six sedentary male subjects (27 +/- 1 years) performed the same incremental cycling test until exhausted, (workload increments of 25 W/min starting at 100 W) twice. During the tests, the EMG Root Mean Square (RMS) response was studied in the aforementioned muscles. The EMG (Th) was detected mathematically from the RMS vs. workload relationship. All the subjects showed an EMG (Th) in the VL muscle, and the response was reliable in both tests (246 +/- 33 W and 254 +/- 33 W for the first and second test, respectively; coefficient of variation: 9.6 %, standard error of measurement: 28.9). However, few of them showed an EMG (Th) in the other muscles, especially in RF, SM or GM. When present, the EMG (Th) occurred at 75 - 80 % of the peak power output obtained during the tests. Our results suggest that EMG (Th) determination can be used as a reliable method for studying neuromuscular adjustments in the VL of untrained individuals, but not in other lower limb muscles. PMID:16767610

  12. Immediate effects of low-intensity laser (808 nm) on fatigue and strength of spastic muscle.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Mariana César Ribeiro; de Andrade, Eliana Aparecida Fonseca; Borges, Ana Carolina Lacerda; de Souza, Djenifer Queiroz; Lima, Fernanda Pupio Silva; Nicolau, Renata Amadei; Andrade, Adriano Oliveira; Lima, Mário Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    The cerebrovascular accident (CVA), high-impact disease II, affects the basic functions of the limbs, leading to changes of sensory, language, and motor functions. The search for resources that minimize the damage caused by this disease grows every day. The clinical use of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) has provided major breakthroughs in the treatment of muscular disorders and prevention of muscle fatigue. Thus, the objective of the present study is to analyze the answers and immediate adaptations of the rectus femoris and vastus medialis of spastic hemiparetic patients, facing the increase in peak torque and triggering muscle fatigue, after application of LILT. Double-blind clinical trials were conducted with 15 volunteers post-CVA with spasticity, of both genders, between 40 and 80 years old. To this end, the volunteers went through three consecutive stages of rating (control, placebo, and laser). All performed tests of isometric contraction on the patient's hemiparetic side. Significant differences were observed with regard to the increase in muscle performance (p?=?0.0043) and the reduction in blood lactate concentration (p?muscles. The LILT (diode laser, l100 mW 808 nm, 4.77 J/cm(2)/point, 40 s/AP) can be employed during and after spastic muscle-strengthening exercises, contributing to the improvement of motor function of the patient. After application of LILT, we found increased torque as well as decreased in lactate level in patients with spasticity. PMID:25614133

  13. Interface Stability Influences Torso Muscle Recruitment and Spinal Load During Pushing Tasks

    PubMed Central

    LEE, P. J.; GRANATA, K. P.

    2006-01-01

    Handle or interface design can influence torso muscle recruitment and spinal load during pushing tasks. The objective of the study was to provide insight into the role of interface stability with regard to torso muscle recruitment and biomechanical loads on the spine. Fourteen subjects generated voluntary isometric trunk flexion force against a rigid interface and similar flexion exertions against an unstable interface, which simulated handle design in a cart pushing task. Normalized electromyographic (EMG) activity in the rectus abdominus, external oblique and internal oblique muscles increased with exertion effort. When using the unstable interface, EMG activity in the internal and external oblique muscle groups was greater than when using the rigid interface. Results agreed with trends from a biomechanical model implemented to predict the muscle activation necessary to generate isometric pushing forces and maintain spinal stability when using the two different interface designs. The co-contraction contributed to increased spinal load when using the unstable interface. It was concluded that handle or interface design and stability may influence spinal load and associated risk of musculoskeletal injury during manual materials tasks that involve pushing exertions. PMID:16540437

  14. Maintenance of skeletal muscle energy homeostasis during prolonged wintertime fasting in the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Sanni; Mänttäri, Satu; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Saarela, Seppo

    2015-05-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid species with autumnal fattening and prolonged wintertime fasting. Nonpathological body weight cycling and the ability to tolerate food deficiency make this species a unique subject for studying physiological mechanisms in energy metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor regulating energy homeostasis. During acute fasting, AMPK promotes fatty acid oxidation and enhances glucose uptake. We evaluated the effects of prolonged fasting on muscle energy metabolism in farm-bred raccoon dogs. Total and phosphorylated AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4), insulin receptor and protein kinase B (Akt) protein expressions of hind limb muscles were determined by Western blot after 10 weeks of fasting. Plasma insulin, leptin, ghrelin, glucose and free fatty acid levels were measured, and muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition analyzed. Fasting had no effects on AMPK phosphorylation, but total AMPK expression decreased in m. rectus femoris, m. tibialis anterior and m. extensor digitorum longus resulting in a higher phosphorylation ratio. Decreased total expression was also observed for ACC. Fasting did not influence GLUT 4, insulin receptor or Akt expression, but Akt phosphorylation was lower in m. flexor digitorum superficialis and m. extensor digitorum longus. Three MHC isoforms (I, IIa and IIx) were detected without differences in composition between the fasted and control animals. The studied muscles were resistant to prolonged fasting indicating that raccoon dogs have an effective molecular regulatory system for preserving skeletal muscle function during wintertime immobility and fasting. PMID:25652584

  15. Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Background Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of at last 30 kg/m2.1 Morbid obesity is defined as a BMI of at least 40 kg/m2 or at least 35 kg/m2 with comorbid conditions. Comorbid conditions associated with obesity include diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemias, obstructive sleep apnea, weight-related arthropathies, and stress urinary incontinence. It is also associated with depression, and cancers of the breast, uterus, prostate, and colon, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity is also associated with higher all-cause mortality at any age, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors like smoking. A person with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 has about a 50% higher risk of dying than does someone with a healthy BMI. The risk more than doubles at a BMI of 35 kg/m2. An expert estimated that about 160,000 people are morbidly obese in Ontario. In the United States, the prevalence of morbid obesity is 4.7% (1999–2000). In Ontario, the 2004 Chief Medical Officer of Health Report said that in 2003, almost one-half of Ontario adults were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m2). About 57% of Ontario men and 42% of Ontario women were overweight or obese. The proportion of the population that was overweight or obese increased gradually from 44% in 1990 to 49% in 2000, and it appears to have stabilized at 49% in 2003. The report also noted that the tendency to be overweight and obese increases with age up to 64 years. BMI should be used cautiously for people aged 65 years and older, because the “normal” range may begin at slightly above 18.5 kg/m2 and extend into the “overweight” range. The Chief Medical Officer of Health cautioned that these data may underestimate the true extent of the problem, because they were based on self reports, and people tend to over-report their height and under-report their weight. The actual number of Ontario adults who are overweight or obese may be higher. Diet, exercise, and behavioural therapy are used to help people lose weight. The goals of behavioural therapy are to identify, monitor, and alter behaviour that does not help weight loss. Techniques include self-monitoring of eating habits and physical activity, stress management, stimulus control, problem solving, cognitive restructuring, contingency management, and identifying and using social support. Relapse, when people resume old, unhealthy behaviour and then regain the weight, can be problematic. Drugs (including gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and appetite suppressants) may be used if behavioural interventions fail. However, estimates of efficacy may be confounded by high rates of noncompliance, in part owing to the side effects of the drugs. In addition, the drugs have not been approved for indefinite use, despite the chronic nature of obesity. The Technology Morbidly obese people may be eligible for bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity is considered an intervention of last resort for patients who have attempted first-line forms of medical management, such as diet, increased physical activity, behavioural modification, and drugs. There are various bariatric surgical procedures and several different variations for each of these procedures. The surgical interventions can be divided into 2 general types: malabsorptive (bypassing parts of the gastrointestinal tract to limit the absorption of food), and restrictive (decreasing the size of the stomach so that the patient is satiated with less food). All of these may be performed as either open surgery or laparoscopically. An example of a malabsorptive technique is Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Examples of restrictive techniques are vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) and adjustable gastric banding (AGB). The Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) Schedule of Benefits for Physician Services includ

  16. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath catheters: A feasible and effective, opioid-sparing, post-operative pain management technique: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Sumitra; Mapari, Amol; Paliwal, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Epidural analgesia, though the gold standard of post-operative pain management for laparotomies, is associated with limitations and is contraindicated in many patients. Opioid-based pain management, which is an alternative to epidural, has been implicated in post-operative nausea, vomiting, and ileus. We report successful management of post operative pain with ultrasound guided rectus sheath (RS) catheters. RS block is a promising alternative in scenarios were epidural is contraindicated, has failed or in case of unexpected change in the surgical plan. PMID:25788745

  17. Challenges of Laparoscopic Surgery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students teams use a laparoscopic surgical trainer to perform simple laparoscopic surgery tasks (dissections, sutures) using laparoscopic tools. Just like in the operating room, where the purpose is to perform surgery carefully and quickly to minimize patient trauma, students' surgery time and mistakes are observed and recorded to quantify their performances. They learn about the engineering component of surgery.

  18. Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine

    E-print Network

    Kim, Duck O.

    Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine How Does Arthroscopic Shoulder Instability Surgery Work? Rev. 2 as part of a home exercise program. #12;Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine How Does Arthroscopic Shoulder the surgically repaired glenoid labrum. #12;Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine How Does Arthroscopic Shoulder

  19. Healthy Muscles Matter Basic facts about muscles

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    in your digestive system to move food along and push waste out of your body. They also help keep your eyes healthy for life. Different kinds of muscles have different jobs · Skeletal muscles are connected to your

  20. The oculocardiag reflex during strabismus surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George T Moonie; Donald L Rees; Denzil Elton

    1964-01-01

    Conclusions  The oculocardiac reflex was noted m 44 of 66 patients undergoing strabismus surgery Disturbances occurred at the time of extraocular\\u000a muscle traction in the absence of hypercarbia and hypoxia The oculocardiac reflex proved to be much more active than the vago-vagal\\u000a reflex associated with intubation Arrhythmias were not produced during intubation of a group of 9 patients, but later 6

  1. Evaluation of viscoelastic parameters of the skeletal muscles in junior triathletes.

    PubMed

    Gavronski, Georg; Veraksits, Alar; Vasar, Eero; Maaroos, Jaak

    2007-06-01

    Five male triathletes of the Estonian national junior team were observed during a seven-week competition period. The Myoton-2 equipment was used to describe the viscoelastic parameters of the skeletal muscles. The frequency of damped mechanical oscillation of the muscle tissue (Hz - indicating the tension in the muscle), logarithmic decrement of the oscillations (Theta - indicating the elasticity of the muscle) and stiffness (N m(-1)) of the muscle tissue were registered bilaterally in eight muscles in both the relaxed and the contracted states: BB - biceps brachii (caput longum); TB - triceps brachii (caput longum); BF - biceps femoris (caput longum); RF - rectus femoris; TA - tibialis anterior; GC - gastrocnemius (caput mediale); LD - latissimus dorsi; PM - pectoralis major (pars sternocostalis). A portable massage table was used for the subject to rest on during the measuring. For the measurement of the anterior muscles, the subject lay supine; for the posterior muscles the prone position was used. The (isometric) contraction was standardized simply by the same measuring position of the limb-the subject raised his arm or leg to an angle of 45 degrees from the horizontal level, using a 2.3 kg dumb-bell as an additional weight for the upper limb. The tarsal dorsiflexion and plantarflexion was performed against a fixed table to contract the crural muscles. The elasticity of the skeletal muscle is higher for the contracted state with respect to the relaxed one (p < 0.0001) and is described by decline of the value of logarithmic decrement, the stiffness and the tension in the muscle increases (p < 0.0001 for both parameters). The measured skeletal muscles differ significantly (p < 0.0018) by the viscoelastic properties in the relaxed state. In the relaxed state, TA was the most elastic (mean +/- SD; Theta-0.74 +/- 0.13), stiff (mean +/- SD; 346.68 +/- 60.34 N m(-1)) and tense muscle (mean +/- SD; 18.72 +/- 1.55 Hz). In the contracted state, the elasticity of TA did not change (0.76 +/- 0.14) while the stiffness and the tension in this muscle rose significantly (93% and 38%, accordingly). Personal differences (p < 0.005) exist if pooled data from the muscles are compared between the subjects. PMID:17664617

  2. The role of orthopaedic surgery in sports medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgery must play a significant role in the development of sports medicine as a viable academic discipline. Potential areas in which orthopaedic surgery can specifically contribute to such an evolution are discussed. Particular areas include skeletal development, the role of athletics on skeletal growth and trauma response, the mechanics of specific sports and the predisposition of specific sports to certain injury patterns, the role of muscle physiology and muscle stimulation in rehabilitation, and differing responses of the male and female skeletal system. Each of these areas is discussed in detail. PMID:7445534

  3. Electromyographic activity of trunk and hip muscles during stabilization exercises in four-point kneeling in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Vleeming, Andry; Bouche, Katie G.; Mahieu, Nele N.; Vanderstraeten, Guy G.; Danneels, Lieven A.

    2006-01-01

    Stabilization exercises are intended to optimize function of the muscles that are believed to govern trunk stability. Debate exists whether certain muscles are more important than others in optimally performing these exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to perform three frequently prescribed stabilization exercises in four-point kneeling. The electromyographic activity of different trunk and hip muscles was evaluated. Average amplitudes obtained during the exercises were normalized to the amplitude in maximal voluntary contraction (% MVIC). During all three exercises, the highest relative muscle activity levels (> 20% MVIC) were consistently found in the ipsilateral lumbar multifidus and gluteus maximus. During both the single leg extension (exercise 1) and the leg and arm extension exercise (exercise 2) the contralateral internal oblique and ipsilateral external oblique reached high levels (> 20%MVIC). During exercise 2 there were also high relative activity levels of the ipsilateral lumbar part and the contralateral thoracic part of the iliocostalis lumborum and the contralateral lumbar multifidus. During the leg and arm extension exercise with contralateral hip flexion (exercise 3) there were high relative muscle activity levels of all back muscles, except for the latissimus dorsi muscle. The lowest relative muscle activity levels (< 10% MVIC) were found in the rectus abdominis and the ipsilateral internal oblique during all exercises, and in the contralateral gluteus maximus during exercises 1 and 2. The results of this study show that in exercises in four-point kneeling performed by healthy subjects, hip and trunk muscles seem to work together in a harmonious way. This shows that when relative activity of muscles is measured, both “global and local” muscles function together in order to stabilize the spine. PMID:16896840

  4. Muscle shape consistency and muscle volume prediction of thigh muscles.

    PubMed

    Mersmann, F; Bohm, S; Schroll, A; Boeth, H; Duda, G; Arampatzis, A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the applicability of a muscle volume prediction method using only the muscle length (LM ), the maximum anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSAmax ), and a muscle-specific shape factor (p) on the quadriceps vastii. LM , ACSAmax , muscle volume, and p were obtained from magnetic resonance images of the vastus intermedius (VI), lateralis (VL), and medialis (VM) of female (n?=?20) and male (n?=?17) volleyball athletes. The average p was used to predict muscle volumes (Vp ) using the equation Vp ?=?p?×?ACSAmax ?×?LM . Although there were significant differences in the muscle dimensions between male and female athletes, p was similar and on average 0.582, 0.658, 0.543 for the VI, VL, and VM, respectively. The position of ACSAmax showed low variability and was at 57%, 60%, and 81% of the thigh length for VI, VL, and VM. Further, there were no significant differences between measured and predicted muscle volumes with root mean square differences of 5-8%. These results suggest that the muscle shape of the quadriceps vastii is independent of muscle dimensions or sex and that the prediction method could be sensitive enough to detect changes in muscle volume related to degeneration, atrophy, or hypertrophy. PMID:24975992

  5. Architectural Analysis of Human Abdominal Wall Muscles: Implications for Mechanical Function

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen H. M.; Ward, Samuel R.; Cook, Mark S.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Cadaveric analysis of human abdominal muscle architecture. Objective To quantify the architectural properties of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO) and transverse abdominis (TrA), and model mechanical function in light of these new data. Summary of Background Data Knowledge of muscle architecture provides the structural basis for predicting muscle function. Abdominal muscles greatly affect spine loading, stability, injury prevention and rehabilitation; however, their architectural properties are unknown. Methods Abdominal muscles from eleven elderly human cadavers were removed intact, separated into regions and micro-dissected for quantification of physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), fascicle length and sarcomere length. From these data, sarcomere operating length ranges were calculated. Results IO had the largest PCSA and RA the smallest, and would thus generate the largest and smallest isometric forces, respectively. RA had the longest fascicle length, followed by EO, and would thus be capable of generating force over the widest range of lengths. Measured sarcomere lengths, in the post-mortem neutral spine posture, were significantly longer in RA and EO (3.29±0.07 and 3.18±0.11 ?m) compared to IO and TrA (2.61±0.06 and 2.58±0.05 ?m) (p < 0.0001). Biomechanical modeling predicted that RA, EO and TrA act at optimal force-generating length in the mid-range of lumbar spine flexion, where IO can generate approximately 90% of its maximum force. Conclusions These data provide clinically relevant insights into the ability of the abdominal wall muscles to generate force and change length throughout the lumbar spine range of motion. This will impact the understanding of potential postures in which the force-generating and spine stabilizing ability of these muscles become compromised, which can guide exercise/rehabilitation development and prescription. Future work should explore the mechanical interactions among these muscles and their relationship to spine health and function. PMID:21325932

  6. Differences in muscle activation between submaximal and maximal 6-minute rowing tests.

    PubMed

    Gerževi?, Mitja; Strojnik, Vojko; Jarm, Tomaž

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to establish the differences in muscle activation between a 6-minute simulated race (all-out test) and a submaximal (blood lactate [LA] concentration 4 mmol·L(-1)) 6-minute effort (submax test) on a rowing ergometer. Eleven healthy, well-trained subjects performed the submax test followed after 1-hour rest by the all-out test. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) signal of muscles gastrocnemius medialis (GC), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris, gluteus maximus (GM), erector spinae (ES), lower latissimus dorsi (LD_lo), upper latissimus dorsi (LD_up), brachioradialis (BR) and biceps brachii (BB), and other biomechanical, biochemical, and respiratory parameters were monitored during rowing. During the all-out test, the subjects covered a longer distance with larger average power output, higher stroke frequency, LA concentration, and oxygen consumption compared to the submax test (p < 0.05). During the submax test, the average rectified values (ARVs) of sEMG signal increased significantly only in the RF and LD_lo muscles. During the all-out test, the ARVs of the RF, VL, and GM muscles increased (p < 0.05), whereas the MDFs of the RF, ES, and LD_lo muscles decreased (p < 0.05). Compared to the submax test, the ARVs of the GC, RF, VL, LD_lo, LD_up, and BB muscles were significantly higher during the all-out test. However, only for the RF muscle, the all-out test resulted in a significantly lower MDF value compared to the submax test. The most involved muscles that would need special attention in training seem to be the leg and shoulder girdle extensors and arm flexors but not the trunk and hip extensors. PMID:21747297

  7. Joint stabilisers or moment actuators: the role of knee joint muscles while weight-bearing.

    PubMed

    Flaxman, Teresa E; Speirs, Andrew D; Benoit, Daniel L

    2012-10-11

    Previous investigations have identified the roles of knee joint muscles in supporting external loads during non-weight-bearing tasks and found these to depend on moment arm orientation (MAO). However, during weight-bearing tasks ground reaction forces (GRF) are transferred up through the knee, subjecting it to large multi-directional forces and stability is dependent on articular geometry, loading, and muscle activation. The purpose of this study was to investigate activation strategies used by healthy individuals to generate and support highly controlled GRF during weight-bearing. Twenty healthy males (23.9±1.9 yrs) stood with their foot in a boot fixed to a force platform. Subjects controlled an onscreen cursor by modulating normalised GRF and were required to produce 30% of their maximal force in 12 directions of the horizontal plane while maintaining 50% body weight on the test leg. Lower limb electromyography, kinematics and kinetics were recorded for each trial. Mean muscle activation was plotted in polar coordinates based on GRF orientation. Muscle activation symmetry was determined and when applicable, the mean direction of activation and muscle specificity index reported. The measured GRF were comparable to activities of daily living (0.48-0.58±0.17-0.19 N/kg in horizontal plane). Muscle activations were repeatable (ICCs: 0.78-0.98), however, only semitendinosus (ST) activation was indicated by its MAO. Considering the joint moments and activations patterns we therefore classified muscles as: (1) general joint stabilisers (vastus lateralis and medialis), (2) specific joint stabiliser (BF), and (3) moment actuators (ST and rectus femoris). General joint stabilisers were active in all load directions; specific stabilisers were active in directions opposite their MAO; moment actuators had higher specificities and activations corresponding to their MAO. We suggest the stabiliser muscles create a rigid mechanical linkage at the knee which allows the actuators of the hip and knee to modulate GRF. PMID:22947435

  8. The control of mono-articular muscles in multijoint leg extensions in man.

    PubMed Central

    van Ingen Schenau, G J; Dorssers, W M; Welter, T G; Beelen, A; de Groot, G; Jacobs, R

    1995-01-01

    1. Movements often require control of direction and a magnitude of force exerted externally on the environment. Bi-articular upper leg muscles appear to play a unique role in the regulation of the net torques about the hip and knee joints, necessary for the control of this external force. 2. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the mono-articular muscles act as work generators in powerful dynamic leg extensions, which means that they should be activated primarily in the phases during which they can contribute to work, irrespective of the net joint torques required to control the external force. 3. Cycling movements of six trained subjects were analysed by means of inverse dynamics, yielding net joint torques as well as activity patterns and shortening velocities of four mono- and four bi-articular leg muscles. 4. The results show that the mono-articular muscles exert force only in the phase in which these muscles shorten, whereas this appears not to be the case for the bi-articular muscles. 5. Reciprocal patterns of activation of the rectus femoris and hamstring muscles appear to tune the distribution of net joint torques about the hip and knee joints, necessary to control the (changing) direction of the force on the pedal. 6. An analysis of running in man and additional related literature based on animal studies appears to provide further support for the hypothesis that mono- and bi-articular muscles have essentially different roles in these powerful multijoint leg extension tasks. PMID:7602524

  9. Frontalis Suspension Surgery in Upper Eyelid Blepharoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Leibovitch, Igal; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2010-01-01

    Frontalis suspension is a commonly used surgery that is indicated in patients with blepharoptosis and poor levator muscle function. The surgery is based on connecting the tarsal plate to the eyebrow with various sling materials. Although fascia lata is most commonly used due to its long-lasting effect and low rate of complications, it has several limitations such as difficulty of harvesting, insufficient amounts in small children, and postoperative donor-site complications. Other sling materials have overcome these limitations, but on the other hand, have been reported to be associated with other complications. In this review we focus on the different techniques and materials which are used in frontalis suspension surgeries, as well as the advantage and disadvantage of these techniques. PMID:21331314

  10. Stiff muscle fibers in calf muscles of patients with cerebral palsy lead to high passive muscle stiffness.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Margie A; Chambers, Henry G; Girard, Paul J; Tenenhaus, Mayer; Schwartz, Alexandra K; Lieber, Richard L

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP), caused by an injury to the developing brain, can lead to alterations in muscle function. Subsequently, increased muscle stiffness and decreased joint range of motion are often seen in patients with CP. We examined mechanical and biochemical properties of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, which are involved in equinus muscle contracture. Passive mechanical testing of single muscle fibers from gastrocnemius and soleus muscle of patients with CP undergoing surgery for equinus deformity showed a significant increase in fiber stiffness (p<0.01). Bundles of fibers that included their surrounding connective tissues showed no stiffness difference (p=0.28).). When in vivo sarcomere lengths were measured and fiber and bundle stiffness compared at these lengths, both fibers and bundles of patients with CP were predicted to be much stiffer in vivo compared to typically developing (TD) individuals. Interestingly, differences in fiber and bundle stiffness were not explained by typical biochemical measures such as titin molecular weight (a giant protein thought to impact fiber stiffness) or collagen content (a proxy for extracellular matrix amount). We suggest that the passive mechanical properties of fibers and bundles are thus poorly understood. PMID:25138654

  11. High-density areas on muscle CT in childhood-onset Pompe disease are caused by excess calcium accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Keiko; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Kuwatsuru, Ryohei; Murakami, Terumi; Shishikura, Keiko; Suzuki, Haruko; Hirayama, Yoshito; Nonaka, Ikuya; Osawa, Makiko

    2010-10-01

    We report two patients with childhood-onset Pompe disease showing striking changes with high-density areas on skeletal muscle CT, not seen in adult- or infantile-onset forms of this disease. While the anterior compartment of the thigh muscles was less affected in the adult-onset form, the rectus femoris and tibial muscles were preferentially involved from the early stage in the childhood-onset form of Pompe disease. The high-density areas became increasingly diffuse with disease progression, producing a marbled pattern and ultimately resulting in homogeneous high density and muscle atrophy. Muscle biopsy specimens from the high-density areas showed striking vacuolar changes with many dense globular bodies in lysosomes. High calcium signals were identified by X-ray microanalysis using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in these areas. Excess calcium accumulation in the vacuoles was also confirmed with the glyoxal-bis(2-hydroxyanil) (GBHA) staining. The high density on CT was slightly reduced together with clinical improvement after enzyme replacement therapy in patient 2. Our data demonstrate that in childhood-onset Pompe disease, high-density areas on skeletal muscle CT images are due to the accumulation of calcium in dense globular bodies formed by a chronic degenerative process affecting autophagic vacuoles. PMID:20680637

  12. Effects of Abdominal Hollowing During Stair Climbing on the Activations of Local Trunk Stabilizing Muscles: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ah Young; Kim, Eun Hyuk; Cho, Yun Woo; Kwon, Sun Oh; Son, Su Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine using surface electromyography whether stair climbing with abdominal hollowing (AH) is better at facilitating local trunk muscle activity than stair climbing without AH. Methods Twenty healthy men with no history of low back pain participated in the study. Surface electrodes were attached to the multifidus (MF), lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, transverse abdominus - internal oblique abdominals (TrA-IO), external oblique abdominals (EO), and the rectus abdominis. Amplitudes of electromyographic signals were measured during stair climbing. Study participants performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) for each muscle in various positions to normalize the surface electromyography data. Results AH during stair climbing resulted in significant increases in normalized MVCs in both MFs and TrA-IOs (p<0.05). Local trunk muscle/global trunk muscle ratios were higher during stair climbing with AH as compared with stair climbing without AH. Especially, right TrA-IO/EO and left TrA-IO/EO were significantly increased (p<0.05). Conclusion Stair climbing with AH activates local trunk stabilizing muscles better than stair climbing without AH. The findings suggest that AH during stair climbing contributes to trunk muscle activation and trunk stabilization. PMID:24466515

  13. The Patient Deficit Model Overturned: a qualitative study of patients' perceptions of invitation to participate in a randomized controlled trial comparing selective bladder preservation against surgery in muscle invasive bladder cancer (SPARE, CRUK/07/011)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that poor recruitment into clinical trials rests on a patient ‘deficit’ model – an inability to comprehend trial processes. Poor communication has also been cited as a possible barrier to recruitment. A qualitative patient interview study was included within the feasibility stage of a phase III non-inferiority Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) (SPARE, CRUK/07/011) in muscle invasive bladder cancer. The aim was to illuminate problems in the context of randomization. Methods The qualitative study used a ‘Framework Analysis’ that included ‘constant comparison’ in which semi-structured interviews are transcribed, analyzed, compared and contrasted both between and within transcripts. Three researchers coded and interpreted data. Results Twenty-four patients agreed to enter the interview study; 10 decliners of randomization and 14 accepters, of whom 2 subsequently declined their allocated treatment. The main theme applying to the majority of the sample was confusion and ambiguity. There was little indication that confusion directly impacted on decisions to enter the SPARE trial. However, confusion did appear to impact on ethical considerations surrounding ‘informed consent’, as well as cause a sense of alienation between patients and health personnel. Sub-optimal communication in many guises accounted for the confusion, together with the logistical elements of a trial that involved treatment options delivered in a number of geographical locations. Conclusions These data highlight the difficulty of providing balanced and clear trial information within the UK health system, despite best intentions. Involvement of multiple professionals can impact on communication processes with patients who are considering participation in RCTs. Our results led us to question the ‘deficit’ model of patient behavior. It is suggested that health professionals might consider facilitating a context in which patients feel fully included in the trial enterprise and potentially consider alternatives to randomization where complex interventions are being tested. Trial Registration ISRCTN61126465 PMID:23190503

  14. Move Your Muscles!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    This lesson covers the topic of muscles. Students learn about the three different types of muscles in the human body and the effects of microgravity on muscles. Students also learn how astronauts need to exercise in order to lessen muscle atrophy in space. Students discover what types of equipment engineers design to help the astronauts exercise while in space.

  15. Infectious muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Parasca, I; Damian, Laura; Albu, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    Infectious muscle diseases have very different aetiologies. The viral myositides are proved by clinical and laboratory evidences in various etiologic settings (Influenza A and B, Coxsackie and HIV). The bacterial myositis was considered in the near past a tropical disease, but in our days with migration of people from South to North and the endemia of AIDS it became a problem of the "civilized" world. On the other hand, tuberculous endemia in Central-Eastern Europe, including Romania, results in quite high incidence of osteoarticular tuberculosis. In this section the authors take into consideration some clinical entities, such as psoas abscess, postanginal sepsis, beta-haemolytic streptococcus infection and that caused by Koch bacillus. Other rare musculoskeletal infections such as gas gangrene and non-clostridial anaerobic myonecrosis are also reviewed. Immune depression caused by underlying diseases, therapies, alcoholism or old age is often encountered. The parasitic aetiologies include infestations with Trichinella spiralis, Cysticercus cellulosae, Toxoplasma and Amoeba. The contribution of imagistic methods to diagnosis is emphasised. Ultrasonography associated with CT imaging are usually used, while MRI should be reserved for cases in which axial skeleton is involved. The management is based on appropriate antibiotic therapy and surgery. PMID:17236294

  16. Long-term outcome of patients with large overcorrection following surgery for exotropia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, Jeong Hun; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2005-01-01

    To provide long-term surgical results for patients with large initial overcorrection following surgery for exodeviation, 68 consecutive patients with initial overcorrection of 20 prism diopters (PD) or more at distance or near following surgery for exodeviation performed between 1994 and 2002 were included in this study. The patients were managed with an alternate full-time occlusion, echothiophate iodide, or prism glasses for the period of overcorrection. One day postoperatively, the amount of overcorrection was 8--40 PD at distance and 0--35 PD at near, and decreased to 10 PD or less both at distance and near vision within 4 weeks postoperatively in 49 patients (72%). Seven patients needed prism glasses for esotropia of less than 10 PD. Four patients (5.9%) needed a reoperation for consecutive esotropia and 1 patient for postoperative hypotropia following recession of the superior and lateral rectus. The final outcome showed orthophoria to exo/esodeviation of 10 PD in 11 patients (16%) at near or distance. In conclusion, overcorrection was reduced to 10 PD or less at distance and near within 4 weeks after surgery in most patients. Even with initial overcorrection of 20 PD or more after surgery for exodeviation, reoperation for consecutive esotropia was necessary only in 5.9% of the patients. PMID:16088244

  17. Targeted muscle reinnervation and advanced prosthetic arms.

    PubMed

    Cheesborough, Jennifer E; Smith, Lauren H; Kuiken, Todd A; Dumanian, Gregory A

    2015-02-01

    Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) is a surgical procedure used to improve the control of upper limb prostheses. Residual nerves from the amputated limb are transferred to reinnervate new muscle targets that have otherwise lost their function. These reinnervated muscles then serve as biological amplifiers of the amputated nerve motor signals, allowing for more intuitive control of advanced prosthetic arms. Here the authors provide a review of surgical techniques for TMR in patients with either transhumeral or shoulder disarticulation amputations. They also discuss how TMR may act synergistically with recent advances in prosthetic arm technologies to improve prosthesis controllability. Discussion of TMR and prosthesis control is presented in the context of a 41-year-old man with a left-side shoulder disarticulation and a right-side transhumeral amputation. This patient underwent bilateral TMR surgery and was fit with advanced pattern-recognition myoelectric prostheses. PMID:25685105

  18. Do Changes in Muscle Architecture Affect Post-Activation Potentiation?

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Danielle; Hoffman, Jay R.; Mangine, Gerald T.; Wells, Adam J.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Townsend, Jeremy R.; McCormack, William P.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Fragala, Maren S.; Fukuda, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized, cross-over design study was to examine the effect of three different muscle potentiation protocols on acute changes in muscle architecture and vertical jump performance. Eleven experienced, resistance trained men (25.2±3.6y) completed three potentiation squat protocols using moderate intensity (MI; 75%, 3 sets x 10 repetitions), high intensity (HI; 90%, 3 sets x 3 repetitions) and 100% (1RM; 1 set x 1repetition) of their 1RM. In addition, all participants completed a control session (CTL) in which no protocol was performed. During each testing session, muscle architecture and vertical jump testing were assessed at baseline (BL), 8min post (8P) and 20min post (20P) workout. Ultrasound measures included cross sectional area (CSA) and pennation angle (PANG) of both the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL). Following each ultrasound measure, peak vertical jump power (PVJP) and mean (MVJP) power was assessed using an accelerometer. Magnitude based inferences were used to make comparisons between trials. The MI trial resulted in a likely greater increase from BL to 8P and 20P in RF-CSA and VL-CSA, while the HI trial resulted in a likely greater change from BL to 20P in both RF-CSA and VL-CSA. Meanwhile, changes in PVJP and MVJP for the MI trial was likely decreased at BL-8P and BL–20P, while the HI trial was shown to result in a likely or possible decrease compared to CTL at BL-8P and BL–20P, respectively. A likely negative relationship was observed between changes in VL-PANG and MVJP (r = -0.35; p , 0.018) at BL-8P, and between changes in PVJP and RF-CSA (r = -0.37; p , 0.014) at BL–20P. Results of this study were unable to demonstrate any potentiation response from the trials employed, however these protocols did result in acute muscle architectural changes. Key points Three squat protocols using moderate intensity (75% 1-RM; 3 sets x 10 repetitions), high intensity (90% 1-RM, 3 sets x 3 repetitions) and maximal intensity (100% 1RM; 1 set x 1repetition) were unable to potentiate jump height or jump power in experienced, resistance trained men. Experienced, resistance trained athletes who are not competitive may be limited in regards to potentiation due to a poor level of conditioning. Both the moderate and high intensity potentiation protocols stimulated acute changes in muscle architecture. Greater increases in the CSA of both the RF and VL muscles were noted. A different potentiation protocol may have elicited greater changes in muscle architecture. PMID:25178394

  19. Tendon Transfer Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stroke, traumatic brain injuries, and spinal muscle atrophy. Finally, there are some conditions in which babies are ... therapy to teach you the new tendon function. Finally, exercises will be needed to strengthen the muscle ...

  20. Trunk muscle activation during stabilization exercises with single and double leg support.

    PubMed

    García-Vaquero, María Pilar; Moreside, Janice M; Brontons-Gil, Evaristo; Peco-González, Noelia; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze trunk muscle activity during bridge style stabilization exercises, when combined with single and double leg support strategies. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers performed bridge exercises in 3 different positions (back, front and side bridges), with and without an elevated leg, and a quadruped exercise with contralateral arm and leg raise ("bird-dog"). Surface EMG was bilaterally recorded from rectus abdominis (RA), external and internal oblique (EO, IO), and erector spinae (ES). Back, front and side bridges primarily activated the ES (approximately 17% MVC), RA (approximately 30% MVC) and muscles required to support the lateral moment (mostly obliques), respectively. Compared with conventional bridge exercises, single leg support produced higher levels of trunk activation, predominantly in the oblique muscles. The bird-dog exercise produced greatest activity in IO on the side of the elevated arm and in the contralateral ES. In conclusion, during a common bridge with double leg support, the antigravity muscles were the most active. When performed with an elevated leg, however, rotation torques increased the activation of the trunk rotators, especially IO. This information may be useful for clinicians and rehabilitation specialists in determining appropriate exercise progression for the trunk stabilizers. PMID:22436839

  1. Changes in muscle architecture induced by low load blood flow restricted training.

    PubMed

    Martín-Hernández, Juan; Marín, P J; Menéndez, H; Loenneke, J P; Coelho-e-Silva, M J; García-López, D; Herrero, A J

    2013-12-01

    In order to ascertain whether differing structural mechanisms could underlie blood flow restricted training (BFRT) and high intensity training (HIT), this study had two aims: (i) to gain an insight into the acute variations of muscle architecture following a single bout of two different volumes of BFRT, and (ii) to compare these variations with those observed after HIT. Thirty-five young men volunteered for the study and were randomly divided into three groups: BFRT low volume (BFRT LV), BFRT high volume (BFRT HV) and traditional high intensity resistance training (HIT). All subjects performed a bilateral leg extension exercise session with a load of 20% of one repetition maximum (1RM) in the BFRT groups, whereas the load of the HIT group was equivalent to an 85% of their 1RM. Before and immediately after the exercise bout, ultrasound images were taken from the rectus femoris (RF) and the vastus lateralis (VL). All groups increased their RF (p < 0.001) and VL (p < 0.001) muscle thickness, while the increases in pennation angle were larger in HIT as compared to BFRT LV (p = 0.013) and BFRT HV (p = 0.037). These results support the hypothesis that acute muscle cell swelling may be involved in the processes underlying BFRT induced muscle hypertrophy. Furthermore, our data indicate differing structural responses to exercise between BFRT and HIT. PMID:24013941

  2. Long-term results of pectoralis major muscle transposition for infected sternotomy wounds.

    PubMed Central

    Pairolero, P C; Arnold, P G; Harris, J B

    1991-01-01

    During an 11.5-year period, 100 consecutive patients (79 male, 21 female) underwent repair of an infected sternotomy wound. Sixty-five patients had failed attempts at wound closure by other physicians. Median age was 61.5 years (range, 5 to 85 years). Reconstruction included muscle in 79 patients, omentum in 4, and both in 15. A total of 175 muscles were transposed, including 169 pectoralis major, 3 rectus abdominis, 2 external oblique, and 1 latissimus dorsi. Median number of operations was four (range, 1 to 11). Mechanical ventilation was required in 30 patients. Two perioperative deaths occurred, one related to sepsis. Median follow-up was 4.2 years (range, 1.3 to 13.5 years). Twenty-six patients had recurrent infection. Median time from our closure to recurrence was 5.5 months (range, 0.3 to 27.6 months). Cause of recurrence was inadequate removal of cartilage in 16 patients, bone in 6, and retained foreign body in 4. Eighteen patients had the wound reopened with further resection; 10 had another muscle or omentum transposition. There were 30 late deaths, only one related to recurrent infection. At the time of death or last follow-up, 92 patients had a healed chest wall. Transposition of the pectoralis major muscle remains an excellent method of management for infected sternotomy wounds. Failure is directly related to persistent infection of cartilage, bone, or retained foreign bodies. PMID:2039289

  3. Brown adipocyte progenitor population is modified in obese and diabetic skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Russell, A P; Crisan, M; Léger, B; Corselli, M; McAinch, A J; O'Brien, P E; Cameron-Smith, D; Péault, B; Casteilla, L; Giacobino, J-P

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue mitochondria express the unique thermogenic uncoupling protein-1. Recently, brown adipocyte progenitors have been identified in the CD34+ cell population of human skeletal muscle. The aims of this study were firstly to determine if obesity and diabetes have altered amounts of muscle brown adipocyte progenitors and, secondly, to establish if the latter are correlated with clinical parameters of obesity and diabetes. Body mass index (BMI), plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides as well as homeostasis model assessment were measured in lean (n=10), obese (n=18) and obese-diabetic (n=15) subjects and muscle biopsies were taken from the rectus abdominus. CD34 being also expressed on endothelial cells, we measured CD31, another endothelial marker, and expressed the brown adipocyte progenitors, as the CD34/CD31 mRNA ratio. The latter was significantly reduced in the obese vs lean subjects suggesting a smaller pool of brown adipocyte progenitors. More strikingly, for lean and obese subjects negative correlations were observed between the CD34/CD31 mRNA ratios and BMI, fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment. These correlations highlight the potential physiological relevance of the muscle CD34/CD31 mRNA ratio. PMID:21522126

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative Skeletal Muscle Ultrasound in Late-Onset Acid Maltase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zaidman, Craig M.; Malkus, Elizabeth C.; Siener, Catherine; Florence, Julaine; Pestronk, Alan; Al-Lozi, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acid maltase deficiency (AMD) (Pompe disease) is an inherited myopathic disorder of glycogen degradation. Diagnosis is often delayed. Muscle ultrasound could improve diagnosis. Methods We compared skeletal muscle ultrasound images from adults with AMD (n=10) to other myopathies (n=81) and, in AMD, compared qualitative (Heckmatt) and quantitative (backscatter) ultrasound measurements with strength and function. Results Qualitative ultrasound was abnormal in at least one muscle in all AMD subjects. Ultrasound patterns specific for AMD compared to other myopathies were: normal triceps brachii despite abnormalities in elbow flexors (89 vs. 17%, p<0.0001), focal abnormalities affecting deep more than superficial biceps brachii (40 vs. 4%, p=0.002), and more severe involvement of vastus intermedius than rectus femoris (40 vs. 11%, p=0.03). In AMD, both qualitative (Heckmatt) and quantitative (backscatter) ultrasound measures increased with decreasing strength and function. Discussion Muscle ultrasound identifies the presence and specific patterns of AMD pathology, measures disease severity, and could help diagnose AMD. PMID:21755514

  5. On high heels and short muscles: a multiscale model for sarcomere loss in the gastrocnemius muscle.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Alexander M; Pok, Jacquelynn M; McWalter, Emily J; Gold, Garry E; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-21

    High heels are a major source of chronic lower limb pain. Yet, more than one third of all women compromise health for looks and wear high heels on a daily basis. Changing from flat footwear to high heels induces chronic muscle shortening associated with discomfort, fatigue, reduced shock absorption, and increased injury risk. However, the long-term effects of high-heeled footwear on the musculoskeletal kinematics of the lower extremities remain poorly understood. Here we create a multiscale computational model for chronic muscle adaptation to characterize the acute and chronic effects of global muscle shortening on local sarcomere lengths. We perform a case study of a healthy female subject and show that raising the heel by 13cm shortens the gastrocnemius muscle by 5% while the Achilles tendon remains virtually unaffected. Our computational simulation indicates that muscle shortening displays significant regional variations with extreme values of 22% in the central gastrocnemius. Our model suggests that the muscle gradually adjusts to its new functional length by a chronic loss of sarcomeres in series. Sarcomere loss varies significantly across the muscle with an average loss of 9%, virtually no loss at the proximal and distal ends, and a maximum loss of 39% in the central region. These changes reposition the remaining sarcomeres back into their optimal operating regime. Computational modeling of chronic muscle shortening provides a valuable tool to shape our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of muscle adaptation. Our study could open new avenues in orthopedic surgery and enhance treatment for patients with muscle contracture caused by other conditions than high heel wear such as paralysis, muscular atrophy, and muscular dystrophy. PMID:25451524

  6. Free functional muscle transplantation of an anomalous femoral adductor with a very large muscle belly: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 34-year-old man with a total brachial plexus injury that was treated by free functional muscle transplantation to restore simultaneously elbow flexion and finger extension. The muscle had a very large muscle belly (12 cm width), which was considered anatomically to be a fusion of the gracilis and the adductor longus muscles. Although the muscle possessed two major vascular pedicles with almost equal diameters, only the proximal vascular pedicle was anastomosed to the recipient vessels during the transplantation surgery, resulting in partial necrosis of the muscle. Several authors have reported on the successful simultaneous transplantation of the gracilis and adductor longus muscles, because they are supplied generally by a single common vascular pedicle. However, the present study suggests that when a surgeon encounters an aberrant femoral adductor with a very large muscle belly that can be considered to be a fusion of these muscles, the surgeon should assess intraoperatively the vascularity of the muscle using Doppler sonography, indocyanine green fluorescence injection, or other techniques. PMID:24164731

  7. Ear Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  8. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be inserted through the other cuts. Advantages of laparoscopy over open surgery include: Shorter hospital stay and quicker recovery. Less pain. Smaller scars and a lower risk of getting a hernia or infection. This surgery takes about 2 to ...

  9. Surgery for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this surgery, even those that have spread. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) Depending on the type and stage ... it has been like for them. Effects of lymph node dissection: Surgery to remove retroperitoneal lymph nodes is ...

  10. Septoplasty and Turbinate Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may be asked to use saline sprays or irrigations after your surgery. Please check with your surgeon ... may be asked to use saline sprays or irrigations after your surgery. Please check with your surgeon ...

  11. Refractive corneal surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... after surgery, it should be okay to use artificial tears. Check with your doctor. Do NOT wear contact lenses on the eye that had surgery, even if you have blurry vision. Do NOT use any makeup, creams, or lotions ...

  12. Facial Plastic Surgery Today

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Shopping Cart Trust Your Face To A Facial Plastic Surgeon.® Home Meetings & Courses Find a Surgeon Physicians’ ... FAQ's For Patients Procedures What is a Facial Plastic Surgeon Facelift Surgery Wrinkle Treatment Nose Surgery Eyelid ...

  13. Periodontal Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Periodontal plastic surgery is designed to restore form and function to the gum tissue, periodontal ligament, and the bone ... with conservative behavioral changes and extending to periodontal plastic surgery. Treating Periodontal Disease Periodontal disease does not ...

  14. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  15. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  16. Muscle Flaps and Their Role in Limb Salvage

    PubMed Central

    Klebuc, Michael; Menn, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Muscle flaps have proved to be a valuable and versatile tool in the surgical treatment of the severely compromised lower extremity. Utilized as both local pedicle flaps and free tissue transfers, muscles have been successfully employed to cover complex wounds, manage osteomyelitis, salvage infected vascular grafts, treat recalcitrant venous stasis ulcers, preserve amputation levels, and restore motion following compartment syndrome. Free flap pedicles have also been used in a flow-through fashion to create a distal arterial bypass. This article explores the multipurpose role of muscle flaps in limb salvage surgery and their beneficial physiologic characteristics in hostile wound environments. PMID:23805342

  17. [Muscle fiber atrophy].

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Ikuya

    2012-01-01

    Muscle fibers have been classified into two major forms of red (slow twitch) and white (fast twitch) muscles. The red muscle utilizes lipid as energy source through mitochondrial metabolism and function to sustain the position against gravity (sometimes called as antigravity muscle). Under microgravity the red muscle is selectively involved. In our unloading study by hindlimb suspension experiment on rats, the one of the representative red muscle of soleus muscle underwent rapid atrophy; they reduced their weights about 50% after 2 week-unloading. In addition, myofibrils were occasionally markedly disorganized with selective thin filament loss. Mitochondria in the degenerated area were decreased in number. The white muscle fibers in the soleus muscle had mostly transformed to the red ones. It took about 1 month to recover morphologically. The satellite cell playing a major role in muscle regeneration was not activated. There still remained unsolved what are the mechanosensors to keep muscle function under normal gravity. Dr Nikawa's group proposed that one of ubiquitin ligases, Cbl-b is activated under microgravity and induces muscle fiber degeneration. There might be many factors to induce muscle atrophy and degeneration under microgravity. Further study is necessary to explore the pathomechanism of muscle atrophy in disused and under immobility conditions. PMID:23196603

  18. Surgery for an Inguinal Hernia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Inguinal Hernia" /> Consumer Summary – Jul. 24, 2013 Surgery for an Inguinal Hernia Formats View PDF (PDF) ... pronounced lah-puh-ruh-SKAHP-ik) surgery. Open Surgery In an open surgery, the surgeon makes a ...

  19. Intracranial Hypertension: Medication and Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

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  20. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  1. Pediatric Surgery Gallengangatresie

    E-print Network

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    1 Pediatric Surgery Gallengangatresie: eine seltene Erkrankung fällt durch die Maschen eines Versorgungsnetzes C. Petersen, B. M. Ure Pediatric Surgery Warum machen wir so viel Wirbel um eine seltene Surgery Die Gallengangatresie ist ein Problem! Seltene Erkrankung: ca. 1: 18.000 In Deutschland ca. 40

  2. Biaxial mechanical properties of muscle-derived cell seeded small intestinal submucosa for bladder wall reconstitution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shing-Hwa Lu; Michael S Sacks; Steve Y Chung; D. Claire Gloeckner; Ryan Pruchnic; Johnny Huard; William C de Groat; Michael B Chancellor

    2005-01-01

    Bladder wall replacement remains a challenging problem for urological surgery due to leakage, infection, stone formation, and extensive time needed for tissue regeneration. To explore the feasibility of producing a more functional biomaterial for bladder reconstitution, we incorporated muscle-derived cells (MDC) into small intestinal submucosa (SIS) scaffolds. MDC were harvested from mice hindleg muscle, transfected with a plasmid encoding for

  3. Functional Imaging of Human Extraocular Muscles In Head Tilt Dependent Hypertropia

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Jennifer; Clark, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Although alteration in hypertropia induced by head tilt is considered a clinical criterion for diagnosis of superior oblique (SO) palsy, the mechanism of this head-tilt–dependent hypertropia (HTDHT) is unclear. In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to study extraocular muscle (EOM) responses to head tilt in HTDHT. Methods. Orbital MRI was used to study 16 normal subjects and 22 subjects with HTDT, of whom 12 had unilateral SO atrophy and 10 had “masquerading” SO palsy with normal SO size. Sizes and paths of all EOMs were compared in 90° roll tilts. Results. Normal subjects exhibited the expected 3° to 7° physiologic extorsion of all four rectus pulleys in the orbit up-versus-down roll positions, corresponding to ocular counterrolling. In orbits with SO atrophy, the lateral (LR) and inferior rectus (IR) pulleys paradoxically intorted by approximately 2°. Subjects with HTDHT but normal SO size exhibited reduced or reversed extorsion of the medial, superior, and LR pulleys, whereas pulley shift was normal in nonhypertropic fellow orbits in HTDHT. In normal subjects and in SO atrophy, the inferior oblique (IO) muscle contracted in the orbit up-versus-down roll position, but paradoxically relaxed in HTDHT without SO atrophy. Conclusions. The ipsilesional IR and LR pulleys shift abnormally during head tilt in HTDHT with SO atrophy. In HTDHT without SO atrophy, the ipsilesional MR, SO, and LR pulleys shift abnormally, and the IO relaxes paradoxically during head tilt. These widespread alterations in EOM pulling directions suggest that complex neural adjustments to the otolith–ocular reflexes mediate HTDHT. PMID:21282574

  4. Unusual fibularis (peroneus) muscle.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Philip A

    2014-11-28

    Routine dissection has identified a previously unrecorded fibularis (peroneus) muscle in a 74-year-old male cadaver. The anomalous fibularis muscle was found lying immediately antero-medial to the fibularis longus (FL) muscle of the left leg. The anomalous muscle arose from the muscle belly of the FL in the proximal 1/2 of the leg. The muscle belly gave way to a long slender tendon that continued distally behind the lateral malleolus and inserted onto the superficial aspect of the inferior fibular retinaculum. The current finding and clinical significance are discussed. PMID:25431295

  5. No effect of sex steroids on compensatory muscle hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.

  6. Altered muscle coordination when pedaling with independent cranks

    PubMed Central

    Hug, François; Boumier, Florian; Dorel, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Pedaling with independent cranks ensures each leg cycles independently of the other, and thus eliminates the contribution of the contralateral leg during the upstroke phase. Consequently the subject is required to actively pull-up the pedal to complete the cycle. The present study aimed to determine the acute effect of the use of independent cranks on muscle coordination during a submaximal pedaling exercise. Ten healthy males were asked to perform submaximal pedaling exercises at 100 Watts with normal fixed cranks (control condition) or independent cranks. Both 2-D pedal forces and electromyographic (EMG) SIGNALS of 10 lower limb muscles were recorded. When the mean EMG activity across the cycle was considered, the use of independent cranks significantly increased the activity level compared to control for Tibialis anterior (TA) (P = 0.0017; +336 ± 302%), Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) (P = 0.0005; +47 ± 25%), Rectus femoris (RF) (P = 0.005; +123 ± 153%), Biceps femoris (BF)—long head (P = 0.0001; +162 ± 97%), Semimembranosus (SM) (P = 0.0001; +304 ± 192%), and Tensor fascia latae (P = 0.0001; +586 ± 262%). The analysis of the four pedaling sectors revealed that the increased activity of hip and knee flexors mainly occurred during the top dead center and the upstroke phase. In addition, a high inter-individual variability was found in the way the participants adapted to pedaling with independent cranks. The present results showed that the enforced pull-up action required when using independent cranks was achieved by increasing the activation of hip and knee flexors. Further studies are needed to determine whether training with independent cranks has the potential to induce long-term changes in muscle coordination, and, if so, whether these changes are beneficial for cycling performance. PMID:24009587

  7. Human Muscle Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The stimulus of gravity affects RNA production, which helps maintain the strength of human muscles on Earth (top), as seen in this section of muscle fiber taken from an astronaut before spaceflight. Astronauts in orbit and patients on Earth fighting muscle-wasting diseases need countermeasures to prevent muscle atrophy, indicated here with white lipid droplets (bottom) in the muscle sample taken from the same astronaut after spaceflight. Kerneth Baldwin of the University of California, Irvine, is conducting research on how reducing the stimulus of gravity affects production of the RNA that the body uses as a blueprint for making muscle proteins. Muscle proteins are what give muscles their strength, so when the RNA blueprints aren't available for producing new proteins to replace old ones -- a situation that occurs in microgravity -- the muscles atrophy. When the skeletal muscle system is exposed to microgravity during spaceflight, the muscles undergo a reduced mass that translates to a reduction in strength. When this happens, muscle endurance decreases and the muscles are more prone to injury, so individuals could have problems in performing extravehicular activity [space walks] or emergency egress because their bodies are functionally compromised.

  8. Peripheral polyneuropathy after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Ching; Lin, Ying-Li

    2011-01-01

    A patient with peripheral polyneuropathy after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity is reported. She suffered from frequent episodes of vomiting and abdominal pain after surgery. Muscle weakness in her lower limbs developed 5 months later and she experienced difficulty in walking and standing. Wrist drop, foot drop, and marked distal limb muscle atrophy were found bilaterally. Electromyography showed the presence of sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Nutritional deficiencies may play an important role in pathogenesis. This uncommon neurological complication might be due to rapid weight loss and vitamin deficiency. Physicians who take care for patients after bariatric surgery should have a high index of awareness for the neurologic complications, and routine vitamin supplementation might be useful for these patients. PMID:22175046

  9. Peripheral polyneuropathy after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Ching; Lin, Ying-Li

    2011-09-01

    A patient with peripheral polyneuropathy after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity is reported. She suffered from frequent episodes of vomiting and abdominal pain after surgery. Muscle weakness in her lower limbs developed 5 months later and she experienced difficulty in walking and standing. Wrist drop, foot drop, and marked distal limb muscle atrophy were found bilaterally. Electromyography showed the presence of sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Nutritional deficiencies may play an important role in pathogenesis. This uncommon neurological complication might be due to rapid weight loss and vitamin deficiency. Physicians who take care for patients after bariatric surgery should have a high index of awareness for the neurologic complications, and routine vitamin supplementation might be useful for these patients. PMID:22175046

  10. Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

  11. Electromyographic analysis of trunk and lower extremity muscle activities during pulley-based shoulder exercises performed on stable and unstable surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Doochul; Cha, Jaeyun; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of an unstable support surface (USS) on the activities of trunk and lower extremity muscles during pulley-based shoulder exercise (PBSE). [Subjects] Twenty healthy college students were included in this study. [Methods] Surface EMG was carried out in twenty healthy adult men. The activities of trunk and lower extremity muscles performed during PBSE using a resistance of 14?kg on a stable or unstable support surface were compared. The PBSE included shoulder abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, internal rotation, and external rotation. [Results] On the unstable surface, the rectus abdominis and erector spinae showed significantly less activation during shoulder external rotation, but the extent of activation was not significantly different during other shoulder exercises. The external oblique and rectus femoris showed no significant difference during any shoulder exercises. The tibialis anterior showed significantly greater activation during all shoulder exercises, except flexion and extension. The gastrocnemius showed significantly greater activation during shoulder abduction, extension, and internal rotation. However, during shoulder adduction, flexion, and external rotation, the gastrocnemius showed no significant difference. [Conclusion] The use of USS to increase core stability during PBSE is probably not effective owing to compensatory strategies of the ankle. PMID:25642041

  12. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePLUS

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  13. Quantitative PCR Analysis of Laryngeal Muscle Fiber Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Daele, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Voice and swallowing dysfunction as a result of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis can be improved with vocal fold injections or laryngeal framework surgery. However, denervation atrophy can cause late-term clinical failure. A major determinant of skeletal muscle physiology is myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression, and previous protein analyses…

  14. An Artificial Tendon with Durable Muscle Interface

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Alan; Litsky, Alan; Mayerson, Joel; Witte, David; Melvin, David; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    A coupling mechanism that can permanently fix a forcefully contracting muscle to a bone anchor or any totally inert prosthesis would meet a serious need in orthopaedics. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to satisfy these demands. The objective of this study was to test OrthoCoupler’s performance in vitro and in vivo in the goat semitendinosus tendon model. For in vitro evaluation, 40 samples were fatigue-tested, cycling at 10 load levels, n=4 each. For in vivo evaluation, the semitendinosus tendon was removed bilaterally in 8 goats. Left sides were reattached with an OrthoCoupler, and right sides were reattached using the Krackow stitch with #5 braided polyester sutures. Specimens were harvested 60 days post-surgery and assigned for biomechanics and histology. Fatigue strength of the devices in vitro was several times the contractile force of the semitendinosus muscle. The in vivo devices were built equivalent to two of the in vitro devices, providing an additional safety factor. In strength testing at necropsy, suture controls pulled out at 120.5 ± 68.3 N, whereas each OrthoCoupler was still holding after the muscle tore, remotely, at 298±111.3N (mean ± SD)(p<0.0003). Muscle tear strength was reached with the fiber-muscle composite produced in healing still soundly intact. This technology may be of value for orthopaedic challenges in oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and sports-injury reconstruction. PMID:19639642

  15. Skeletal muscle stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer CJ Chen; David J Goldhamer

    2003-01-01

    Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells responsible for the post-natal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on the basic biology of the satellite cell with emphasis on its role in muscle repair and parallels between embryonic myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Recent advances have altered the long-standing view of the satellite cell as a committed myogenic stem

  16. Muscle function loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscle doesn't work or move normally. The medical term for complete loss of muscle function is paralysis. ... over the eye while you are asleep. Long-term immobility can cause ... , a condition in which a muscle becomes permanently shortened.

  17. Muscle Tissue Overview

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Wendy M Rappazzo (Harford Community College Science, Technology, Engineering & Math)

    2007-08-15

    This is a short overview of the three types of muscle tissue. Each type of muscle tissue is briefly described with a histology view of the tissue. This presentation also incorporates information regarding each muscle tissue and its role in attaining VO2 max.

  18. Muscle Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth; Feeback, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Presentations from the assembled group of investigators involved in specific research projeects related to skeletal muscle in space flight can categorized in thematic subtopics: regulation of contractile protein phenotypes, muscle growth and atrophy, muscle structure: injury, recovery,and regeneration, metabolism and fatigue, and motor control and loading factors.

  19. [Aesthetic surgery and history].

    PubMed

    Glicenstein, J

    2003-10-01

    The history of aesthetic surgery is linked to that of the 20th century. The first operations allowed by the progress of anesthesia and asepsis are the correction of "prominent ears" by Ely then rhinoplasty with endonasal incision by Roe. Considered by some as a precursor and a quack by others, C.C. Miller was the first surgeon to specialize and write books on the subject. Before world war I, aesthetic surgery was seldom practiced and publications were few. The war was at the origin of several units of maxillo-facial surgery created for the huge number of casualties with face trauma due to trench warfare. Many of those who will become great names in plastic surgery operated in these units: Blair, Davis, Léon Dufourmentel, Virenque, Morestin and Gillies. After the war, American surgeons were regrouped in scientific societies. Plastic surgery was privileged and aesthetic surgery was lifted for "quacks". In France, several surgeons such as Suzanne Noël, Passot, Bourguet, Dartigues showed an important creativity and described several techniques that inspired recent ones. The Dujarier case discredited French aesthetic surgery but did not stop the creation of the first French Society of Plastic Surgery in 1930. World war II led to new orientations. In England, the East Grinstead center with Gillies and McIndoe during and after the war was at the origin of many vocations. After the war, many national and international societies of plastic surgery started to appear. The French Society of Plastic Surgery was born in 1952. PMID:14599899

  20. Does primary brachial plexus surgery alter palliative tendon transfer surgery outcomes in children with obstetric paralysis?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The surgical management of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy can generally be divided into two groups; early reconstructions in which the plexus or affected nerves are addressed and late or palliative reconstructions in which the residual deformities are addressed. Tendon transfers are the mainstay of palliative surgery. Occasionally, surgeons are required to utilise already denervated and subsequently reinnervated muscles as motors. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of tendon transfers for residual shoulder dysfunction in patients who had undergone early nerve surgery to the outcomes in patients who had not. Methods A total of 91 patients with obstetric paralysis-related shoulder abduction and external rotation deficits who underwent a modified Hoffer transfer of the latissimus dorsi/teres major to the greater tubercle of the humerus tendon between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively analysed. The patients who had undergone neural surgery during infancy were compared to those who had not in terms of their preoperative and postoperative shoulder abduction and external rotation active ranges of motion. Results In the early surgery groups, only the postoperative external rotation angles showed statistically significant differences (25 degrees and 75 degrees for total and upper type palsies, respectively). Within the palliative surgery-only groups, there were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative abduction and external rotation angles. The significant differences between the early surgery groups and the palliative surgery groups with total palsy during the preoperative period diminished postoperatively (p < 0.05 and p > 0.05, respectively) for abduction but not for external rotation. Within the upper type palsy groups, there were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative abduction and external rotation angles. Conclusions In this study, it was found that in patients with total paralysis, satisfactory shoulder abduction values can be achieved with tendon transfers regardless of a previous history of neural surgery even if the preoperative values differ. PMID:21489264

  1. [Day surgery and anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Takeda, J

    2000-10-01

    Ambulatory surgery comprised up to 70% of scheduled surgery in the USA during the past decades. The main reason for the increase was economic. In Japan, day surgery has been performed in the pediatric field, such as for inguinal hernia. However, recently day surgery has been performed in adult patients, because of medical economics as well as to improve the quality of life of patients. Patient safety is the most important issue in the increasing number of day surgeries in Japan. Postoperative care occurs at home. To reduce postoperative complications, skilled surgery, prompt recovery from anesthesia, and postoperative care using sophisticated systems, manpower, and equipment are necessary. To ensure patient safety, the Japan Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia announced a set of "safety standards for ambulatory anesthesia" in 1999 and we continue to work to developing protocols that maximize the safety of and benefits to patients. PMID:11107594

  2. Trunk Control Ability after Minimally Invasive Lumbar Fusion Surgery during the Early Postoperative Phase

    PubMed Central

    Pao, Jwo-Luen; Yang, Rong-Sen; Hsiao, Chen-Hsi; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Lumbar fusion has been used for spinal disorders when conservative treatment fails. The minimally invasive approach causes minimal damage to the back muscles and shortens the postoperative recovery time. However, evidence regarding functional recovery in patients after minimally invasive lumbar spinal fusion is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate how trunk control ability is affected after minimally invasive lumbar fusion surgery during the early postoperative phase. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen patients and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy participants were recruited. Participants were asked to perform a maximum forward reaching task and were evaluated 1 day before and again 1 month after the lumbar fusion surgery. Center of pressure (COP) displacement, back muscle strength, and scores for the Visual Analog Scale, and Chinese version of the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were recorded. [Results] The healthy control group exhibited more favorable outcomes than the patient group both before and after surgery in back strength, reaching distance, reaching velocity, and COP displacement. The patient group improved significantly after surgery in all clinical outcome measurements. However, reaching distance decreased, and the reaching velocity as well as COP displacement did not differ before and after surgery. [Conclusion] The LBP patients with lumbar fusion surgery showed improvement in pain intensity 1 month after surgery but no improvement in trunk control during forward reaching. The results provide evidence that the back muscle strength was not fully recovered in patients 1 month after surgery and limited their ability to move their trunk forward. PMID:25202174

  3. Radioisotopic assays of CoASH and carnitine and their acetylated forms in human skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Cederblad, G.; Carlin, J.I.; Constantin-Teodosiu, D.; Harper, P.; Hultman, E. (Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital (Sweden))

    1990-03-01

    Radioisotopic assays for the determination of acetyl-CoA, CoASH, and acetylcarnitine have been modified for application to the amount of human muscle tissue that can be obtained by needle biopsy. In the last step common to all three methods, acetyl-CoA is condensed with (14C)oxaloacetate by citrate synthase to give (14C)-citrate. For determination of CoASH, CoASH is reacted with acetylphosphate in a reaction catalyzed by phosphotransacetylase to yield acetyl-CoA. In the assay for acetylcarnitine, acetylcarnitine is reacted with CoASH in a reaction catalyzed by carnitine acetyltransferase to form acetyl-CoA. Inclusion of new simple steps in the acetylcarnitine assay and conditions affecting the reliability of all three methods are also described. Acetylcarnitine and free carnitine levels in human rectus abdominis muscle were 3.0 +/- 1.5 (SD) and 13.5 +/- 4.0 mumol/g dry wt, respectively. Values for acetyl-CoA and CoASH were about 500-fold lower, 6.7 +/- 1.8 and 21 +/- 8.9 nmol/g dry wt, respectively. A strong correlation between acetylcarnitine (y) and short-chain acylcarnitine (x), determined as the difference between total and free carnitine, was found in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle obtained during intense muscular effort, y = 1.0x + 0.5; r = 0.976.

  4. Muscle activity amplitudes and co-contraction during stair ambulation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michelle; Stevermer, Catherine A; Gillette, Jason C

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activity amplitudes and co-contraction in those with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to healthy controls during stair negotiation. Eighteen participants with unilateral ACL reconstruction and 17 healthy controls performed stair ascent and descent while surface electromyography was recorded from knee and hip musculature. During stair ascent, the ACL group displayed higher gluteus maximus activity (1-50% stance, p=0.02), higher vastus lateralis:biceps femoris co-contraction (51-100% stance, p=0.01), and higher vastus lateralis:vastus medialis co-contraction (51-100% stance, p=0.05). During stair descent, the ACL group demonstrated higher gluteus maximus activity (1-50% stance, p=0.01; 51-100% stance, p<0.01), lower rectus femoris activity (1-50% stance, p=0.04), higher semimembranosus activity (1-50% stance, p=0.01), higher gluteus medius activity (51-100% stance, p=0.01), and higher vastus medialis:semimembranosus co-contraction (1-50% stance, p=0.02). While the altered muscle activity strategies observed in the ACL group may act to increase joint stability, these strategies may alter joint loading and contribute to post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis often observed in this population. Our results warrant further investigation to determine the longterm effects of altered muscle activity on the knee joint following ACL reconstruction. PMID:25716325

  5. Oxygen uptake, muscle activity and ground reaction force during water aerobic exercises.

    PubMed

    Alberton, C L; Pinto, S S; Cadore, E L; Tartaruga, M P; Kanitz, A C; Antunes, A H; Finatto, P; Kruel, L F M

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the oxygen uptake (VO2), the muscle activity of lower limbs, and the vertical ground reaction force (V-GRF) of women performing water aerobic exercises at different intensities. 12 young women performed the experimental protocol, which consisted of 3 water exercises (stationary running [SR], frontal kick [FK] and cross country skiing [CCS]) at 3 intensities (first and second ventilatory thresholds and maximum effort). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used. Regarding VO2, different responses between intensities (p<0.001) were found, and values between exercises were similar. For electromyographic activity (EMG), differences between intensities for all muscles (p<0.001) were found. Greater EMG signals were observed in the FK compared to SR for rectus femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles (p<0.05). Regarding V-GRF, there was an increase in the V-GRF at greater intensities compared to the first ventilatory threshold (p=0.001). In addition, lower values were found during CCS compared to the SR and FK exercises (p<0.001). Thus, greater cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses were observed with increasing intensity. Exercises such as CCS could be used to attenuate the V-GRF; if the purpose is to reduce the muscular activity of lower limbs at a specific intensity, SR could be recommended. PMID:25144436

  6. CV Surgery Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stanford University's HighWire Press has announced the online publication of several journals. CV Surgery Online offers "a fully searchable online compilation of articles pertinent to the cardiothoracic and vascular surgeon from the 5 American Heart Association Journals: Circulation, Circulation Research, Hypertension, Stroke, and Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Surgery." Published by the American Heart Association in conjunction with HighWire Press, the free trial period for CV Surgery Online ended December 31, 2000.

  7. Effect of Virtual Reality Exercise Using the Nintendo Wii Fit on Muscle Activities of the Trunk and Lower Extremities of Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jungseo; Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the effect of virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit on the muscle activities of the trunk and lower extremities of normal adults. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 24 normal adults who were divided into a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n=12) and a stable surface exercise group (SEG, n=12). [Methods] The exercises of the VREG using the Nintendo Wii Fit and the SEG using a stable surface were conducted three times a week for six weeks. Electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities of the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), erector spinae (ES), and rectus abdominal (RA) muscles. [Results] VREG showed significant within group differences in TA and MG muscle activities, while the SEG showed a significant difference in the muscle activity of the MG. [Conclusion] Virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit was an effective intervention for the muscle activities of the TA and MG of normal adults. PMID:24648647

  8. Hyperoxaluria and Bariatric Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplin, John R.

    2007-04-01

    Bariatric surgery as a means to treat obesity is becoming increasingly common in the United States. An early form of bariatric surgery, the jejunoileal bypass, had to be abandoned in 1980 due to numerous complications, including hyperoxaluria and kidney stones. Current bariatric procedures have not been systematically evaluated to determine if they cause hyperoxaluria. Presented here are data showing that hyperoxaluria is the major metabolic abnormality in patients with bariatric surgery who form kidney stones. Further studies are needed to assess the prevalence of hyperoxaluria in all patients with bariatric surgery.

  9. Periodontal Plastic Surgery Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Comprehensive Periodontal Evaluation Periodontal Treatments and Procedures Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatments Gum Graft Surgery Laser Treatment for Gum Disease Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown ...

  10. Gum Graft Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Comprehensive Periodontal Evaluation Periodontal Treatments and Procedures Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatments Gum Graft Surgery Laser Treatment for Gum Disease Regenerative Procedures Dental Crown ...

  11. Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Medical Specialties-recognized boards. © ASPS, 2013 2012 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics Cosmetic Procedure Trends COSMETIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES201220112000 % CHANGE 2012 vs. 2011 % CHANGE 2012 ...

  12. Laparoscopic surgery in children.

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Mark

    2003-01-01

    A review of laparoscopy as used in paediatric surgery with special reference to cholecystectomy, appendicectomy, fundoplication, the undescended testicle, inguinal hernia and hydroceles. PMID:14594537

  13. Herbal medications and plastic surgery: a hidden danger.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arvind; Lahiri, Anindya

    2014-04-01

    Herbal medicine is a multibillion-pound industry, and surveys suggest that ~10% of the UK population uses herbal supplements concurrently with prescription medications. Patients and health care practitioners are often unaware of the adverse side effects of herbal medicines. In addition, because many of these herbal supplements are available over the counter, many patients do not disclose these when listing medications to health care providers. A 39-year-old nurse underwent an abdominoplasty with rectus sheath plication after weight loss surgery. Postoperatively, she experienced persistent drain output, and after discharge, a seroma developed requiring repeated drainage in the clinic. After scar revision 10 months later, the woman bled postoperatively, requiring suturing. Again, a seroma developed, requiring repeated drainage. It was discovered that the patient had been taking a herbal menopause supplement containing ingredients known to have anticoagulant effects. Complementary medicine is rarely taught in UK medical schools and generally not practiced in UK hospitals. Many supplements are known to have anticoagulant, cardiovascular, and sedative effects. Worryingly, questions about herbal medicines are not routinely asked in clinics, and patients do not often volunteer such information. With the number and awareness of complementary medications increasing, their usage among the population is likely to increase. The authors recommend specific questioning about the use of complementary medications and consideration of ceasing such medications before surgery. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 . PMID:24488003

  14. Muscle progenitor cell regenerative capacity in the torn rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gretchen A; Farris, Ashley L; Sato, Eugene; Gibbons, Michael; Lane, John G; Ward, Samuel R; Engler, Adam J

    2015-03-01

    Chronic rotator cuff (RC) tears affect a large portion of the population and result in substantial upper extremity impairment, shoulder weakness, pain, and limited range of motion. Regardless of surgical or conservative treatment, persistent atrophic muscle changes limit functional restoration and may contribute to surgical failure. We hypothesized that deficits in the skeletal muscle progenitor (SMP) cell pool could contribute to poor muscle recovery following tendon repair. Biopsies were obtained from patients undergoing arthroscopic RC surgery. The SMP population was quantified, isolated, and assayed in culture for its ability to proliferate and fuse in vitro and in vivo. The SMP population was larger in muscles from cuffs with partial tears compared with no tears or full thickness tears. However, SMPs from muscles in the partial tear group also exhibited reduced proliferative ability. Cells from all cuff states were able to fuse robustly in culture and engraft when injected into injured mouse muscle, suggesting that when given the correct signals, SMPs are capable of contributing to muscle hypertrophy and regeneration regardless of tear severity. The fact that this does not appear to happen in vivo helps focus future therapeutic targets for promoting muscle recovery following rotator cuff repairs and may help improve clinical outcomes. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:???-???, 2015. PMID:25410765

  15. Glycopyrrolate induced bilateral angle closure glaucoma after cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Jaroudi, Mahmoud; Fadi, Maalouf; Farah, Fadi; El Mollayess, Georges M

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG) that occurred after cervical spine surgery with the use of glycopyrolate. A 59-year-old male who presented with severe bilateral bifrontal headache and eye pain that started 12 h postextubation from a cervical spine surgery. Neostigmine 0.05 mg/kg (4.5 mg) and glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg (0.9 mg) were used as muscle relaxant reversals at the end of the surgery. Ophthalmic examination revealed he had bilateral AACG with plateau iris syndrome that was treated medically along with laser iridotomies. Thorough examination of anterior chamber should be performed preoperatively on all patients undergoing surgeries in the prone position and receiving mydriatic agents under general anesthesia. PMID:23741140

  16. Arterial anatomy of the gracilis muscle as determined by latex injection and glycerin transparency.

    PubMed

    An, Xiaochun; Yue, Bin; Lee, Je-Hun; Lin, Chenghe; Han, Seung-Ho

    2012-03-01

    The gracilis muscle is widely used in reconstructive surgery, either as a pedicled flap or as a free microsurgical flap. The aim of this study was to demonstrate in detail the arterial anatomy of the gracilis muscle, particularly its intramuscular artery distribution, by using a method involving red latex injection and glycerin transparency, which makes muscle tissues quite transparent and allows direct visualization of the arterial anatomy. Twenty-four specimens of gracilis muscle were harvested after injecting 12 cadavers with red latex. The different patterns of blood supply of the gracilis muscle were counted. A complete arterial system formed by anastomoses of intramuscular arterial branches was observed in each specimen. The existence of several arterial branches at the proximal origin of each muscle was observed. The results of this study provide reconstructive surgeons with useful information regarding gracilis muscle flap design. PMID:21744397

  17. Ultrasound of the pectoralis major muscle after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mascarinas, Angelie L; Newman, Joel S; Warner, Jon J P; Jain, Nitin B

    2014-12-01

    Only a few reports exist in the literature for sonographic assessment of the pectoralis major muscle. Presented is a case of pectoralis major muscle atrophy as a cause of persistent internal rotation weakness diagnosed via ultrasound in a patient with multiple previous surgeries and contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging because of a shoulder implant. This patient's physical examination suggested an abnormal contour of the pectoralis major muscle on contraction, so he was referred for diagnostic ultrasound. The ultrasound was key to guiding the management of this patient because surgical repair of a torn pectoralis major muscle was planned if this was found. No pectoralis major tear or rupture was seen on ultrasound, but there was evidence of pectoralis major muscle atrophy. Accordingly, surgery was avoided and the patient was able to continue with his physical therapy program. PMID:25251253

  18. Strategies to Improve Regeneration of the Soft Palate Muscles After Cleft Palate Repair

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal Monroy, Paola L.; Grefte, Sander; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Wagener, Frank A.D.T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Children with a cleft in the soft palate have difficulties with speech, swallowing, and sucking. These patients are unable to separate the nasal from the oral cavity leading to air loss during speech. Although surgical repair ameliorates soft palate function by joining the clefted muscles of the soft palate, optimal function is often not achieved. The regeneration of muscles in the soft palate after surgery is hampered because of (1) their low intrinsic regenerative capacity, (2) the muscle properties related to clefting, and (3) the development of fibrosis. Adjuvant strategies based on tissue engineering may improve the outcome after surgery by approaching these specific issues. Therefore, this review will discuss myogenesis in the noncleft and cleft palate, the characteristics of soft palate muscles, and the process of muscle regeneration. Finally, novel therapeutic strategies based on tissue engineering to improve soft palate function after surgical repair are presented. PMID:22697475

  19. Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine Trauma and Post Department of Orthopaedic Surgery 4860 Y Street, 1700 Sacramento, CA 95817 P: 916.734.2700 F: 916

  20. Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine Trauma and Post______________________________: This letter is to welcome you to the University of California, Davis Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

  1. Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine Trauma and Post OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS Department of Orthopaedic Surgery 4860 Y Street, Suite 3800 Sacramento, CA 95817 P: 916

  2. Tensor tympani muscle: strange chewing muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Miguel Ramírez; Luis Ernestos Ballesteros; German Pablo Sandoval

    ABSTRACT This work,seeks to alert medical and odontological,staff to understanding,and using interdisciplinary handling,for detecting different pathologies’ common,otic symptoms. It offers better tools for this shared symptomatology,during therapy’s conservative phase. Tensor tympani muscle physiology and function in the middle ear have been veiled, even when,their dysfunction and anatomical relationships may explain a group,of confused,otic symptoms,during conventional clinical evaluation. Middle ear muscles

  3. Trunk muscle fatigue during a lateral isometric hold test: what are we evaluating?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Side bridge endurance protocols have been suggested to evaluate lateral trunk flexor and/or spine stabilizer muscles. To date, no study has investigated muscle recruitment and fatigability during these protocols. Therefore the purpose of our study was to quantify fatigue parameters in various trunk muscles during a modified side bridge endurance task (i.e. a lateral isometric hold test on a 45° roman chair apparatus) and determine which primary trunk muscles get fatigued during this task. It was hypothesized that the ipsilateral external oblique and lumbar erector spinae muscles will exhibit the highest fatigue indices. Methods Twenty-two healthy subjects participated in this study. The experimental session included left and right lateral isometric hold tasks preceded and followed by 3 maximal voluntary contractions in the same position. Surface electromyography (EMG) recordings were obtained bilaterally from the external oblique, rectus abdominis, and L2 and L5 erector spinae. Statistical analysis were conducted to compare the right and left maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), surface EMG activities, right vs. left holding times and decay rate of the median frequency as the percent change from the initial value (NMFslope). Results No significant left and right lateral isometric hold tests differences were observed neither for holding times (97.2?±?21.5?sec and 96.7?±?24.9?sec respectively) nor for pre and post fatigue root mean square during MVCs. However, participants showed significant decreases of MVCs between pre and post fatigue measurements for both the left and right lateral isometric hold tests. Statistical analysis showed that a significantly NMFslope of the ipsilateral external oblique during both conditions, and a NMFslope of the contralateral L5 erector spinae during the left lateral isometric hold test were steeper than those of the other side’s respective muscles. Although some participants presented positive NMFslope for some muscles, each muscle presented a mean negative NMFslope significantly different from 0. Conclusions Although the fatigue indices suggest that the ipsilateral external oblique and contralateral L5 erector spinae show signs of muscle fatigue, this task seems to recruit a large group of trunk muscles. Clinicians should not view this task as evaluating specifically lateral trunk flexors, but rather as providing an indication of the general endurance and stabilisation capacity of the trunk. PMID:22515489

  4. Influence of Gender and Muscle Architecture Asymmetry on Jump and Sprint Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mangine, Gerald T.; Fukuda, David H.; LaMonica, Michael B.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Wells, Adam J.; Townsend, Jeremy R.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Fragala, Maren S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Hoffman, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle architecture is a determinant for sprinting speed and jumping power, which may be related to anaerobic sports performance. In the present investigation, the relationships between peak (PVJP) and mean (MVJP) vertical jump power, 30m maximal sprinting speed (30M), and muscle architecture were examined in 28 college-aged, recreationally-active men (n = 14; 24.3 ± 2.2y; 89.1 ± 9.3kg; 1.80 ± 0.07 m) and women (n = 14; 21.5 ± 1.7y; 65.2 ± 12.4kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m). Ultrasound measures of muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle (PNG), cross-sectional area (CSA), and echo intensity (ECHO) were collected from the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) of both legs; fascicle length (FL) was estimated from MT and PNG. Men possessed lower ECHO, greater muscle size (MT & CSA), were faster, and were more powerful (PVJP & MVJP) than women. Stepwise regression indicated that muscle size and quality influenced speed and power in men. In women, vastus lateralis asymmetry negatively affected PVJP (MT: r = –0.73; FL: r = –0.60) and MVJP (MT: r = –0.76; FL: r = –0.64), while asymmetrical ECHO (VL) and FL (RF) positively influenced MVJP (r = 0.55) and 30M (r = 0.57), respectively. Thigh muscle architecture appears to influence jumping power and sprinting speed, though the effect may vary by gender in recreationally-active adults. Appropriate assessment of these ultrasound variables in men and women prior to training may provide a more specific exercise prescription. Key points The manner in which thigh muscle architecture affects jumping power and sprinting speed varies by gender. In men, performance is influenced by the magnitude of muscle size and architecture. In women, asymmetrical muscle size and architectural asymmetry significantly influence performance. To develop effective and precise exercise prescription for the improvement of jumping power and/or sprinting speed, muscle architecture assessment prior to the onset of a training program is advised. PMID:25435784

  5. Anatomical Study of Pectoral Nerves and its Implications in Surgery

    PubMed Central

    K, Saniya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This anatomical study of the pectoral nerves and their innervation is to provide detail informations on the pectoral nerves and their variations in their course, to guide the cosmetic and plastic surgeons for their easy intra operative localization and to improve the understanding of the pectoral muscle innervation, which is very much required during breast reconstruction after modified radical mastectomy (MRM) in breast cancer; axillary dissection; removal of the pectoralis minor muscle, and in harvesting the pectoralis major for myocutaneous head and neck island flap surgeries. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 pectoral region specimens (both right and left sided) from 25 embalmed adult human cadavers (20 female & 05 male) were studied by dissection method. Statistical Analysis: The data were tabulated in Microsoft excel and analysed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 17th version). Mean, Proportion, Standard deviation and Unpaired t-test were applied for analysing the data obtained. Result and Conclusion: In all the specimens, the medial pectoral nerve pierces the pectoralis minor muscle; but as a single trunk in 76%, and as dividing branches in 34% specimens. The extent of costal attachment of the pectoralis minor muscle found to be less than 6.0 cm in cases of the medial pectoral nerve piercing the pectoralis minor muscle as a single trunk. The medial pectoral nerve after piercing the pectoralis minor, ramify within the muscle supplying it, finally runs along the lateral aspect (lower border) of the pectoralis minor muscle to supply the lower portion or distal segment of the pectoralis major muscle. Similarly, the lateral pectoral nerve runs along the upper border (medial aspect) of the pectoralis minor muscle (98%) and then runs under surface of the pectoralis major muscle along with the pectoral branch of thoracoacromial artery, supplying the upper portion or most of the proximal 2/3rd of the pectoralis major muscle. Therefore, when the pectoralis minor muscle is removed in a modified radical mastectomy or during dissection between the two muscles, there is partial denervation of the pectoralis major muscle with partial atrophy and decrease in muscle mass. If the lateral pectoral nerve also injured along with the medial pectoral nerve, it can result in total denervation of the pectoralis major muscle with severe atrophy and fibrosis. In breast augmentation implants placing behind the pectoralis major muscle, it is found to be more advantageous if the pectoralis major muscle is partially denervated for the better projection and contour. The distance of the branches of the medial pectoral nerve and the lateral pectoral nerve in the pectoral muscles from the lateral margin of the sternum being 8.8-10.8 cm and 5.8-10.2 cm respectively. The proximal segment or upper portion of the pectoralis major muscle has got separate independent vascular and nerve supply; therefore, it can be safely used as a myocutaneous flap in surgeries of head and neck or anterior chest wall. PMID:25177552

  6. Changes in muscle activation patterns in response to enhanced sensory input during treadmill stepping in infants born with myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Pantall, Annette; Teulier, Caroline; Ulrich, Beverly D.

    2013-01-01

    Infants with myelomeningocele (MMC) increase step frequency in response to modifications to the treadmill surface. The aim was to investigate how these modifications impacted the electromyographic (EMG) patterns. We analyzed EMG from 19 infants aged 2–10 months, with MMC at the lumbosacral level. We supported infants upright on the treadmill for 12 trials, each 30 seconds long. Modifications included visual flow, unloading, weights, Velcro and lcriction. Surface electrodes recorded EMG from tibialis anterior, lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris. We determined muscle bursts for each stride cycle and from these calculated various parameters. Results indicated that each of the five sensory conditions generated different motor patterns. Visual flow and friction which we previously reported increased step frequency impacted lateral gastrocnemius most. Weights, which significantly decreased step frequency increased burst duration and co-activity of the proximal muscles. We also observed an age effect, with all conditions increasing muscle activity in younger infants whereas in older infants visual flow and unloading stimulated most activity. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that infants with myelomeningocele at levels which impact the myotomes of major locomotor muscles find ways to respond and adapt their motor output to changes in sensory input. PMID:23158017

  7. EMG power spectra of trunk muscles during graded maximal voluntary isometric contraction in flexion-rotation and extension-rotation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Zedka, M; Narayan, Y

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the electromyographic (EMG) power spectral characteristics of seven trunk muscles bilaterally during two complex isometric activities extension-rotation and flexion-rotation, in both genders to describe the frequency-domain parameters. Eighteen normal young subjects volunteered for the study. The subjects performed steadily increasing isometric extension-rotation and flexion-rotation contractions in a standard trunk posture (40 degrees flexed and 40 degrees rotated to the right). A surface EMG was recorded from the external and internal oblique, rectus abdominis, pectoralis, latissimus dorsi, and erector spinae muscles at the 10th thoracic and the 3rd lumbar vertebral levels, at 1 kHz and 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The median frequency (MF), mean power frequency (MPF), frequency spread and peak power were obtained from fast Fourier transform analysis. The MF and MPF for both extension-rotation and flexion-rotation increased with the grade of contraction for both males and females. The EMG spectra in flexion-rotation were different from those of extension-rotation (P < 0.001). The left external and right internal oblique muscles played the role of antagonists in trunk extension-rotation. There was an increase in the MF of the trunk muscles with increasing magnitude of contraction. Frequency-domain parameters for both the male and female subjects were significantly different (P < 0.001). PMID:10541919

  8. Functional variation of neck muscles and their relation to feeding style in Tyrannosauridae and other large theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Snively, Eric; Russell, Anthony P

    2007-08-01

    Reconstructed neck muscles of large theropod dinosaurs suggest influences on feeding style that paralleled variation in skull mechanics. In all examined theropods, the head dorsiflexor m. transversospinalis capitis probably filled in the posterior dorsal concavity of the neck, for a more crocodilian- than avian-like profile in this region. The tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurids Daspletosaurus and Tyrannosaurus had relatively larger moment arms for latero-flexion by m. longissimus capitis superficialis and m. complexus than albertosaurine tyrannosaurids, and longer dorsiflexive moment arms for m. complexus. Areas of dorsiflexor origination are significantly larger relative to neck length in adult Tyrannosaurus rex than in other tyrannosaurids, suggesting relatively large muscle cross-sections and forces. Tyrannosaurids were not particularly specialized for neck ventro-flexion. In contrast, the hypothesis that Allosaurus co-opted m. longissimus capitis superficialis for ventro-flexion is strongly corroborated. Ceratosaurus had robust insertions for the ventro-flexors m. longissimus capitis profundus and m. rectus capitis ventralis. Neck muscle morphology is consistent with puncture-and-pull and powerful shake feeding in tyrannosaurids, relatively rapid strikes in Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus, and ventroflexive augmentation of weaker jaw muscle forces in the non tyrannosaurids. PMID:17654673

  9. Impact of Different Body Positions on Bioelectrical Activity of the Pelvic Floor Muscles in Nulliparous Continent Women

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewska, Daria; Stania, Magdalena; Sobota, Grzegorz; Kwa?na, Krystyna; B?aszczak, Edward; Taradaj, Jakub; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    We examined pelvic floor muscles (PFM) activity (%MVC) in twenty nulliparous women by body position during exercise as well as the activation of abdominal muscles and the gluteus maximus during voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during five experimental trials. Activation of transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis, and gluteus maximus during voluntary PFM contractions was also assessed. Significant differences in mean normalized amplitudes of baseline PFM activity were revealed between standing and lying (P < 0.00024) and lying and ball-sitting positions (P < 0.0053). Average peak, average time before peak, and average time after peak did not differ significantly during the voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Baseline PFM activity seemed to depend on the body position and was the highest in standing. Pelvic floor muscles activity during voluntary contractions did not differ by position in continent women. Statistically significant differences between the supine lying and sitting positions were only observed during a sustained 60-second contraction of the PFMs. PMID:25793212

  10. Cervix Uteri Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Cervi x Uteri C530–C539 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) [SEER Note: Do not code dilation and curettage (D&C) as Surgery of Primary Site for invasive cancers] Codes 00 None; no surgery

  11. Corpus Uteri Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Corpus Uteri C540–C559 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) [SEER Note: Do not code dilation and curettage (D&C) as Surgery of Primary Site for invasive cancers] Codes 00 None; no surgery

  12. Surgery for bronchiectasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Prieto; João Bernardo; Maria João Matos; Lu??s Eugénio; Manuel Antunes

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The incidence of bronchiectasis has declined markedly in developed countries. However, a reasonable number of patients still need surgery, despite aggressive physiotherapy and antibiotic therapy. We have reviewed our patients to clarify the benefits from surgery and to analyse the complications. Material and methods: Between 1988 and 1999, we have operated on 119 patients with bronchiectasis, 71 female and

  13. Robot assisted knee surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Ho; R. D. Hibberd; B. L. Davies

    1995-01-01

    Discusses establishing a force control strategy incorporating active motion constraint. The following subjects are considered: problems with conventional surgery; robot assisted surgery; control strategy; representing the motion constraint; design of the desired position; force control strategy; implicit force control; modified damping control; experimental results

  14. Economics of epilepsy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sadanand, Venkatraman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Surgical decision-making is a complex process. First, a medical decision is made to determine if surgery is necessary. Second, another medical decision is made to determine the type of surgery. Third, a corporate decision is made if such a surgery is financially feasible. Finally, a legal decision is made to proceed or refuse the chosen surgery. This paper examines these issues in the case of surgery for medically intractable epilepsy and proposes a method of decision analysis to guide epilepsy surgery. Materials and Methods: A stochastic game of imperfect information using techniques of game theory and decision analysis is introduced as an analytical tool for surgical decision-making. Results: Surgery for appropriately chosen patients suffering from medically intractable epilepsy may not only be feasible, but may be the best medical option and the best financial option for the patient, families, society and the healthcare system. Such a situation would then make it legally or ethically difficult to reject or postpone surgery for these patients. Conclusions: A process to collect data to quantify the parameters used in the decision analysis is hereby proposed. PMID:24791079

  15. Training in pediatric surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry O'Donnell

    1985-01-01

    Pediatric surgery is a small, popular specialty with a limited number of formal, structured training programs. Basic training should place emphasis on the general principles of surgery. Picking a trainer and working in a program that gives a genuine mix of training and experience with adequate supervision are the next steps. The importance of research, the discipline of writing, and

  16. Surgery for thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Callender, Glenda G; Carling, Tobias; Christison-Lagay, Emily; Udelsman, Robert

    2014-06-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer, particularly papillary thyroid cancer, is rising at an epidemic rate. The mainstay of treatment of most patients with thyroid cancer is surgery. Considerable controversy exists about the extent of thyroid surgery and lymph node resection in patients with thyroid cancer. Surgical experience in judgment and technique is required to achieve optimal patient outcomes. PMID:24891171

  17. What Is Refractive Surgery?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... widely performed type of refractive surgery is LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) , where a laser is used to reshape the cornea. For people ... most appropriate procedure for you. Next Page: LASIK — Laser Eye Surgery Find An Eye M.D. Enter ...

  18. Virtual Knee Surgery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this online activity, learners assist in performing a virtual total knee replacement surgery. There is a great deal of information about this procedure specifically as well as general surgical information, along with questions the learner must answer (using information given onscreen) before the surgery can proceed.

  19. Excessive skeletal muscle recruitment during strenuous exercise in McArdle patients.

    PubMed

    Rae, Dale E; Noakes, Timothy D; San Juan, Alejandro F; Pérez, Margarita; Nogales-Gadea, Gisela; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Morán, María; Martín, Miguel A; Andreu, Antoni L; Arenas, Joaquín; Lucia, Alejandro

    2010-11-01

    We compared the cardiorespiratory response and muscle recruitment [as determined by electromyography (EMG)] of 37 McArdle patients [19 males, 37.4 ± 2.8 years, body mass index (BMI): 25.1 ± 4.7 kg m(-2)] and 33 healthy controls (18 males, 36.4 ± 10.0 years, BMI: 25.7 ± 3.8 kg m(-2)) during cycle-ergometer exercise (an incremental test to exhaustion and a 12-min submaximal constant workload test). We obtained cardiorespiratory [oxygen uptake and heart rate (HR)] and EMG data (rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles). During the incremental test, the patients exhibited the expected hyperkinetic cardiovascular response shown by a marked increase in the slope of the HR:Power relationship (p < 0.001). Throughout the incremental test and at the point of fatigue, the patients produced significantly less power than the controls (peak power output: 67 ± 21 vs. 214 ± 56 watts respectively, p < 0.001), yet they demonstrated significantly higher levels of muscle activity for a given absolute power. During the constant workload test, patients displayed higher levels of EMG activity than the controls during the second half of the test, despite a lower power production (34 ± 13 vs. 94 ± 29 watts respectively, p < 0.001). In conclusion, since the McArdle patients required more motor unit recruitment for a given power output, our data suggest that the state of contractility of their muscles is reduced compared with healthy people. Excessive muscle recruitment for a given load could be one of the mechanisms explaining the exercise intolerance of these patients. PMID:20683610

  20. Frequency analysis of ultrasonic echo intensities of the skeletal muscle in elderly and young individuals

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Ken; Kawai, Hisashi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Hideo; Kimura, Akihiko; Gomi, Toshiaki; Hoshi, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background The skeletal muscle echo intensity (EI) during ultrasound imaging has been investigated to evaluate the muscle quality. However, EI fluctuates according to the scanning conditions. Methods The motor functions and ultrasound images of 19 elderly (73±3.2 years) and 19 young (22±1.5 years) individuals were investigated and an EI frequency component was assessed for more reliable evaluations. Healthy elderly and young subjects participated in this study. The motor functions were assessed during walking and according to the knee extension muscle strength. The muscle thicknesses of rectus femoris (RF), vastus intermedius (VI), and quadriceps femoris (QF) were investigated. EIs were calculated and the mean frequencies of the regions of interest (MFROIs) for RF and VI were analyzed. Results EIs and MFROIs were greater in elderly subjects than in young subjects (P<0.01 for RF, and P<0.001 for VI, in EIs; and P<0.01 for RF, and P<0.05 for VI, in MFROIs). In young subjects, EI of RF was greater than that of VI; however, there was no difference between the RF and VI MFROIs in both elderly and young subjects. EIs of VI exhibited a significantly negative correlation with the QF thickness in both elderly and young subjects. RF MFROIs negatively correlated with the QF thickness and positively correlated with EI of VI in elderly subjects alone. Conclusion These findings suggest that MFROIs of elderly individuals would have a larger value than those of young individuals; moreover, MFROIs did not fluctuate greatly with the tissue depth and scanning conditions. MFROIs might be thus useful for further investigations of muscle quality and applications for the early prevention of age-related motor functional decline. PMID:25228800

  1. Lower Extremity Muscle Activity During a Women’s Overhand Lacrosse Shot

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Brianna M.; Mercer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe lower extremity muscle activity during the lacrosse shot. Participants (n=5 females, age 22±2 years, body height 162.6±15.2 cm, body mass 63.7±23.6 kg) were free from injury and had at least one year of lacrosse experience. The lead leg was instrumented with electromyography (EMG) leads to measure muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (GA). Participants completed five trials of a warm-up speed shot (Slow) and a game speed shot (Fast). Video analysis was used to identify the discrete events defining specific movement phases. Full-wave rectified data were averaged per muscle per phase (Crank Back Minor, Crank Back Major, Stick Acceleration, Stick Deceleration). Average EMG per muscle was analyzed using a 4 (Phase) × 2 (Speed) ANOVA. BF was greater during Fast vs. Slow for all phases (p<0.05), while TA was not influenced by either Phase or Speed (p>0.05). RF and GA were each influenced by the interaction of Phase and Speed (p<0.05) with GA being greater during Fast vs. Slow shots during all phases and RF greater during Crank Back Minor and Major as well as Stick Deceleration (p<0.05) but only tended to be greater during Stick Acceleration (p=0.076) for Fast vs. Slow. The greater muscle activity (BF, RF, GA) during Fast vs. Slow shots may have been related to a faster approach speed and/or need to create a stiff lower extremity to allow for faster upper extremity movements. PMID:25114727

  2. Muscle Changes in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Siparsky, Patrick N.; Kirkendall, Donald T.; Garrett, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle physiology in the aging athlete is complex. Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in lean muscle mass, can alter activity level and affect quality of life. This review addresses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in muscle with age, recognizes contributing factors including nutrition and changes in hormone levels, and identifies potential pharmacologic agents in clinical trial that may aid in the battle of this complex, costly, and disabling problem. Level of Evidence: Level 5. PMID:24427440

  3. Skeletal muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Grace W; Lamb, Elizabeth K; Kao, Race L

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (myoblasts) are the primary stem cells of skeletal muscle which contribute to growth, maintenance, and repair of the muscles. Satellite cells are the first stem cells used for cellular cardiomyoplasty more than 20 years ago. The isolation, culture, labeling, and identification of satellite cells are described in detail here. The implantation and outcomes of cellular cardiomyoplasty using satellite cells have been summarized in the previous chapter (Chapter 1). PMID:23807783

  4. Mechanochemistry of cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, C. Lynn; Pool, Peter E.; Seagren, Shirley C.; Braunwald, Eugene

    1971-01-01

    The possibility that alterations in the rate or efficiency of energy utilization could be involved in the control of cellular oxygen consumption by thyroid hormone was examined in right ventricular papillary muscles isolated from normal euthyroid cats and cats with experimentally induced hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Energy production in the muscles was inhibited and isolated from the process of energy utilization by exposure to iodoacetic acid and nitrogen. After resting or performing variable amounts of contractile element work under isometric conditions, muscles were frozen, and the total amount of chemical energy (? P = creatine phosphate + ATP) used was determined. The resting rate of energy utilization in muscles from euthyroid animals was 0.78±0.07 ?moles/g per min of ? P. This rate was elevated in muscles from hyperthyroid cats to 1.00±0.09 ?moles/g per min and decreased in muscles from hypothyroid cats to 0.23±0.14 ?moles/g per min. Isometrically contracting muscles from cats with hypothyroidism utilized only 64% as much energy as muscles from euthyroid cats while performing 81% as much contractile element work at a moderately decreased level of contractile state. Muscles from hyperthyroid cats utilized an average of 41% more energy than did muscles from euthyroid cats while contracting an identical number of times and performing an equal amount of contractile element work at a slightly increased level of contractile state. These results suggest that thyroid hormone directly influences the rate of cellular energy utilization. Furthermore, the increase in energy utilization in muscles from hyperthyroid cats could not be attributed entirely to observed alterations in contractile behavior, which indicates that excess thyroid hormone may decrease the efficiency of the conversion of cellular energy to work. However, the opposite effect, an increased efficiency of energy utilization, was not observed in muscles from hypothyroid cats. Thus, it is concluded that the calorigenic effects of thyroid hormone may be explained, at least in part, by alterations in the process of energy utilization. PMID:5545115

  5. Muscles And Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The following resource is fromLessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this particular lesson, students will learn several important characteristics about muscles and how muscles and bones work together to produce motion. Students will learn about the role of practice in strengthening muscles and muscle memory.

  6. Muscle Loss in Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students measure the change in the area of calf muscle from transverse MRI images collected from an astronaut before and after a prolonged journey in space. They measure and compare the total area of calf muscle from before and after flight to determine if muscle loss has occurred. The lesson introduces some reasons for the muscle loss, measures to reduce the loss, and other effects of space flight. Students perform the image analysis with WebImage, a customized version of ImageJ running in a browser.

  7. Paraneoplastic muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Baer, Alan N

    2011-05-01

    In paraneoplastic muscle disease, the malignancy may remotely affect neuromuscular transmission or incite muscle inflammation or necrosis. In several of these diseases, an autoimmune basis for the muscle disease has been established and has become a defining feature. These paraneoplastic muscle diseases may be the first manifestation of a malignancy, and their diagnosis thus demands a vigilant search for an underlying tumor. This article is focused on inflammatory and necrotizing myopathies and disorders of neuromuscular transmission that may arise in the setting of malignancy and are considered paraneoplastic phenomena. PMID:21444019

  8. Pediatric epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Dorfmüller, Georg; Delalande, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Whereas there is no specific neurosurgical technique in pediatric epilepsy, the frequency of each type of surgery is very different from epilepsy surgery applied in adults, and reflects the underlying etiologies, which are much more diverse in children, with malformations of cortical development and tumors as the prevailing etiologies. Extensive resective or disconnective procedures for extratemporal epilepsy are more frequently performed in infants and younger children, whereas temporo-mesial resection is by far the most common surgical treatment for adults with epilepsy. More recently, less invasive techniques in children with an extensive epileptogenic zone, such as multilobar disconnection, hemispherotomy and other functional hemispherectomy variants, have been introduced in order to reduce duration of surgery, perioperative morbidity and length of hospital stay. Likewise, minimally invasive techniques are utilized, such as the endoscopic disconnection of hypothalamic hamartomas for gelastic epilepsy. This development has been encouraged with the introduction of image-guided navigation systems for the preoperative planning and during surgery. Historically, epilepsy surgery for children has been established much later than for adults. Apart from the particular aspects in perioperative management of younger infants, surgery-related morbidity as well as seizure outcome is in general similar to those in adults, depending rather on each type of surgery. PMID:23622226

  9. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  10. ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY AND INSURANCE ISSUES 1. Orthognathic surgery (surgery for the treatment of a dentofacial deformity) is

    E-print Network

    Mullins, Dyche

    ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY AND INSURANCE ISSUES 1. Orthognathic surgery (surgery for the treatment. 2. Although there are some medical plans that specifically exclude orthognathic surgery, most insurance plans in California do permit the authorization of orthognathic surgery "when medically necessary

  11. Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Avi; Cutress, Ramsey I.

    2013-01-01

    Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery is a fundamental component of the repertoire for the management of breast cancer. It facilitates removal of large volumes of breast tissue, and can improve cosmetic outcomes and patient satisfaction whilst maintaining good oncological principles, reducing re-excision and mastectomy rates and assisting in adjuvant radiotherapy planning. We review the various techniques for oncoplastic breast conserving surgery that have emerged over recent years and describe their utilisation in excising tumours from various locations within the breast, and the pertinent patient specific factors that must be considered in technique selection. Finally complications and the evidence for the oncological safety specific to this type of surgery are discussed. PMID:25083477

  12. Physical Therapy and Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Valle-Onate, Rafael; Ward, Michael M.; Kerr, Gail S.

    2012-01-01

    Physical therapy and orthopedic surgery are important components in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Supervised physical therapy is more effective that individual or unsupervised exercise in improving symptoms, but controlled trials suggest than combined inpatient and outpatient therapy provides the greatest improvement. Recommendations for exercise are universal, but the best types and sequence of therapies are not known. Total hip replacement is the surgery most commonly performed for AS, with good long-term implant survival. Heterotopic ossification may occur no more frequently after hip replacement in patients with AS than in patients with other diseases. Corrective spinal surgery is rarely performed and requires specialized centers and experienced surgeons. PMID:22543536

  13. Minimally Invasive Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, William S.; Carter, Kristine M.; Fuhrman, George M.; Bolton, John S.; Bowen, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In the last decade, laparoscopy has been the most innovative surgical movement in general surgery. Minimally invasive surgery performed through a few small incisions, laparoscopy is the standard of care for the treatment of gallbladder disease and the gold standard for the treatment of reflux disease. The indications for a laparoscopic approach to abdominal disease continue to increase, and many diseases may be treated with laparoscopic techniques. At Ochsner, laparoscopic techniques have demonstrated better cosmetic results, shorter recovery times, and an earlier return to normal activity compared with open surgery. PMID:21765684

  14. Research opportunities in muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbison, G. J.; Talbot, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A trophy of skeletal muscle; muscle a trophy associated with manned space flight; the nature, causes, and mechanisms of muscle atrophy associated with space flight, selected physiological factors, biochemical aspects, and countermeasures are addressed.

  15. UCF COLLEGE OF MEDICINE M.D. CURRICULUM Surgery Surgery

    E-print Network

    Foroosh, Hassan

    UCF COLLEGE OF MEDICINE M.D. CURRICULUM May Vacation Surgery Surgery Vacation IM/FM (Continued) Internal Medicine/Family Medicine Surgery FIREMiniConference Longitudinal Curricular Themes Ethics wks) S-6 Brain and Behavior (7 wks) March April FIREMiniConference Capstone Surg Select Surgery Select

  16. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery.

    E-print Network

    1/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Simon;2/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Motivation #12;2/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Motivation Recent work (B-boys & Schweinsberg, Aidekon-Harris) considers branching Brownian

  17. A case report on a full-thickness chest wall reconstruction with polypropylene mesh and stainless steel mesh concurrently using a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Akimoto, Masataka; Hisayoshi, Takao; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Kazuo

    2006-12-01

    A full-thickness chest wall resection requires subsequent chest wall reconstruction. A chest wall resection and reconstruction was performed using a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap, together with polypropylene mesh (Marlex mesh) and stainless steel mesh (SSM). A 71-year-old man was diagnosed as having recurrent lung cancer in the chest wall, and underwent surgical resection. Marlex mesh was sutured to the posterior wall of the surgical defect. A portion of the SSM was adjusted to the size of the defect and cut out. Its edges were folded to make the portion into a plate. This SSM plate was placed anteriorly to the Marlex mesh and sutured to the ribs. The Marlex mesh was folded back on the SSM plate by 2 cm and fixed. After the above procedures, a left-sided TRAM flap was raised through a subcutaneous tunnel up to the defect and sutured to the region. The patient was discharged from hospital 19 days postoperatively. The wound was fine and he had no flail chest or dyspnea, and carcinomatous pain resolved. PMID:17228288

  18. Muscle Receptors in Cephalopods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Graziadei

    1965-01-01

    Multipolar nerve cells with the characteristics of muscle receptors have been shown in the arms of Octopus vulgaris. The dendrites of these cells branch out into the muscle fibres and their axons make their way to small, intramuscular ganglion centres (ganglion of the sucker and intramuscular nerve cords), in which they seem to end. Multipolar nerve cells with characteristics similar

  19. SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

  20. What to Expect during Heart Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Heart Surgery Heart surgery is done in a hospital, ... surgery, takes about 3–6 hours. Traditional Open-Heart Surgery For this type of surgery, you'll ...

  1. Muscle Atlas: Musculoskeletal Radiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Not enough people know about the world of musculoskeletal radiology, but this site can address some of those glaring gaps in medical and physiological knowledge. Created by Doctor Michael Richardson at the University of Washington, this online muscle atlas covers the lower and upper extremity, and is primarily designed for use by health science professionals. The site also includes some teaching and instructional materials related to radiology. Visitors will note that the site contains a table of contents, and all of the major muscles are listed alphabetically, from the Adductor Brevis to the Vastus Medialis. Additionally, for each muscle, visitors can view a high-quality image of the related muscle groups and the function of each muscle in question.

  2. Treatment of strabismus in adults with botulinum toxin A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J S Elston; J P Lee; C M Powell; C Hogg; P Clark

    1985-01-01

    Eighty-five adults with horizontal concomitant strabismus were treated with an injection of a low dose of botulinum toxin A (BTXA) into the lateral or medial rectus muscle. The ocular deviation was reduced by an average of 60% independently of its size and whether or not surgery had previously been performed. The change was temporary, however, except in those cases with

  3. Monitoring Murine Skeletal Muscle Function for Muscle Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Chady H.; Li, Dejia; Duan, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    The primary function of skeletal muscle is to generate force. Muscle force production is compromised in various forms of acquired and/or inherited muscle diseases. An important goal of muscle gene therapy is to recover muscle strength. Genetically engineered mice and spontaneous mouse mutants are readily available for preclinical muscle gene therapy studies. In this chapter, we outlined the methods commonly used for measuring murine skeletal muscle function. These include ex vivo and in situ analysis of the contractile profile of a single intact limb muscle (the extensor digitorium longus for ex vivo assay and the tibialis anterior muscle for in situ assay), grip force analysis, and downhill treadmill exercise. Force measurement in a single muscle is extremely useful for pilot testing of new gene therapy protocols by local gene transfer. Grip force and treadmill assessments offer body-wide evaluation following systemic muscle gene therapy. PMID:21194022

  4. Plastic Surgery for Teenagers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 1995. 34:1637-1647. Simis, K.J., Hovius, S. ... applying for plastic surgery? Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 2000; 42:669-678.

  5. Preparing for Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be given an ID bracelet. It will include your name, birth date, and health care provider’s name. Be ... Your health care provider or team will confirm your name, birth date, and type of surgery before you ...

  6. Complications of Sinus Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... impairment is often temporary but can be prolonged. Nasal obstruction : Much of the nasal septum is made of ... undergoing surgery for a refractory chronic sinus infection. Nasal obstruction, dryness and pain: (see above) Revised 01/20/ ...

  7. Brain Tumor Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The surgical removal of a portion of the skull. Doing so allows the neurosurgeon to find the ... much of it as possible. The piece of skull that was removed is replaced following surgery. Craniectomy: ...

  8. Anaesthesia in war surgery 

    E-print Network

    Brydon, Adam

    1918-01-01

    For the past fifteen months, I have been attached to the Third Australian General Hospital as Anaesthetist, and now record my experiences gleaned from somewhere over a thousand cases of anaesthesia in war surgery. I may conveniently divide up...

  9. Deep breathing after surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... One way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and healthy ... be uncomfortable. But if you do not practice deep breathing after surgery, you may develop lung problems, ...

  10. Knee microfracture surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Cartilage regeneration - knee ... Three types of anesthesia may be used for knee arthroscopy surgery: Medicine to relax you, and shots of painkillers to numb the knee Spinal (regional) anesthesia General anesthesia (you will be ...

  11. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as swelling of the arm and chest ( lymphedema ). Lymph node surgery To find out if the breast cancer ... nodes are checked in 2 major ways. Axillary lymph node dissection: In this operation, about 10 to 40 ( ...

  12. Surgery, Hospitals, and Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    Patient Education Sheet Sjögren’s, Surgery, Hospitals, and Medications The SSF thanks Lynn Petruzzi, RN, MSN, for this Patient Education Sheet. Educate your healthcare givers! • Tell your surgeon, ...

  13. Blood donation before surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or further tests. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate blood. ... to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  14. Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of artificial lenses. Following are some of the alternative refractive surgery procedures to LASIK . Wavefront-Guided LASIK ... that releases controlled amounts of radio frequency (RF) energy, instead of a laser, to apply heat to ...

  15. Sculptures honour wartime surgery.

    PubMed

    2014-11-18

    The Florence Nightingale Museum has marked the centenary of the first world war with a display of life-size sculptures of soldiers from different wars who had reconstructive surgery after experiencing appalling facial injuries. PMID:25388690

  16. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... artery surgery is a procedure to restore proper blood flow to the brain. The carotid artery brings needed ... these arteries on each side of your neck. Blood flow in this artery can become partly or totally ...

  17. Expectations of Sinus Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... after surgery, it can be treated with antibiotics. Steroids - One of the underlying causes of some forms ... forms of swelling, your doctor may prescribe oral steroids or topical (spray, irrigation) steroids or both. Packing – ...

  18. Joint Replacement Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... such as walking, climbing stairs, and taking a bath. What Happens During Surgery? First, the surgical team ... of Graciela S. Alarcón, M.D., M.P.H., University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL; Agustin ...

  19. [Urology and ambulatory surgery].

    PubMed

    Cuvelier, G

    2012-11-01

    The ambulatory surgery is the realization of a surgical act with entrance and taken out the same day. The evolution of the surgery in traditional hospitalization towards the ambulatory is a cultural revolution. The function care and accommodation of our establishments of health are disconnected. The ambulatory surgery is source of progress for the surgery, the anesthesia, our organizations. She corresponds to a demand of the public. She is ethical. There is an institutional will shared by all the actors of health today. The AFU measured its delay and has the objective to facilitate to the urologic community this mode of taken care. Learned recommendations are going to be produced in association with the HAS. The role of the IDE of urology is specified there. PMID:23101963

  20. Breast Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prosthesis • Chemotherapy and Side Effects • Radiation Therapy and Side Effects ©2013 Susan G. Komen ® Item No. KOMEED024000 12/13 You are not alone If you need breast cancer surgery, remember there are many women who have ...

  1. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... will increase the risk of the carcinoid tumor spreading even farther, to other organs. If this happens, ... can’t have major surgery because you have reduced lung function or other serious medical problems, or ...

  2. A new dimension in endo surgery: Micro endo surgery.

    PubMed

    Pecora, Gabriele Edoardo; Pecora, Camilla Nicole

    2015-01-01

    There is an immense difference between tradizional Endodontic Surgery and Micro-Endo Surgery. Microsurgical techniques made possible and accessible results,that were unimaginable before. Under microscopic control,the operative techniques reached continous changes,allowing a better precision and quality standards. The dramatic evolution from Endo Surgery to Micro-Endo Surgery has enlarged the horizon of therapeutic options. Illumination and magnification through the Microscope has fundamentally and radically changed the way endo surgery can be performed. PMID:25657519

  3. A new dimension in endo surgery: Micro endo surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pecora, Gabriele Edoardo; Pecora, Camilla Nicole

    2015-01-01

    There is an immense difference between tradizional Endodontic Surgery and Micro-Endo Surgery. Microsurgical techniques made possible and accessible results,that were unimaginable before. Under microscopic control,the operative techniques reached continous changes,allowing a better precision and quality standards. The dramatic evolution from Endo Surgery to Micro-Endo Surgery has enlarged the horizon of therapeutic options. Illumination and magnification through the Microscope has fundamentally and radically changed the way endo surgery can be performed. PMID:25657519

  4. Department of Surgery Reunion Gala

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    Department of Surgery Reunion Gala Report A celebration of over 40 years of the Department of Surgery October25th&26th2013 #12;October25th2013:Wine&Cheese Surgery Reunion Gala Weekend: Wine & Cheese On Friday October 25, 2013 the Surgery Reunion Gala weekend kicked off with a wine and cheese event

  5. 2013 PLASTIC SURGERY VISITING PROFESSOR

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    2013 PLASTIC SURGERY VISITING PROFESSOR Dr. Mutaz B. Habal June 6, 2013 McGill University Division of Plastic Surgery 2013 PLASTIC SURGERY VISITING PROFESSOR Special thanks to our sponsors: Representative Surgery MUHC McGill University Campagne Les meilleurs soins pour la vie The Best Care for Life Campaign

  6. Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery 1. Your surgery will be performed in the Surgery Center on the 4th floor of the Center for Health and Healing (CHH) at Oregon Health & Sciences University. The procedure is done under anesthesia administered by an anesthesiologist. After surgery, you

  7. New approach in strabismus surgery in high myopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas H Krzizok; Herbert Kaufmann; Horst Traupe

    1997-01-01

    AIMSTo develop appropriate methods of eye muscle surgery in highly myopic patients with esotropia and hypotropia, with respect to the pathological findings in high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).METHODS35 patients with unilateral or bilateral high myopia and strabismus—that is, axial length of the globe averaged 29.4 mm. Multiple coronal, transverse, and parasagittal MRI image planes were obtained using a Siemens

  8. Selective blockade of the dorsal scapular nerve for scapula surgery.

    PubMed

    Auyong, David B; Cabbabe, Amy A

    2014-12-01

    The dorsal scapular nerve, a proximal branch of the brachial plexus, may be imaged using ultrasound. This nerve supplies the rhomboid and levator scapulae muscles while providing significant sensory innervation to the scapula. An ultrasound-guided nerve block of the dorsal scapular nerve provided analgesia after surgery of the scapula. Selective blockade of this nerve, without blocking the remainder of the brachial plexus, results in specific analgesia of the scapula, sparing sensory and motor function of the ipsilateral arm. PMID:25439401

  9. Robotic surgery in gynecology

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rooma; Sanjay, Madhumati; Rupa, B.; Kumari, Samita

    2015-01-01

    FDA approved Da Vinci Surgical System in 2005 for gynecological surgery. It has been rapidly adopted and it has already assumed an important position at various centers where this is available. It comprises of three components: A surgeon's console, a patient-side cart with four robotic arms and a high-definition three-dimensional (3D) vision system. In this review we have discussed various robotic-assisted laparoscopic benign gynecological procedures like myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometriosis, tubal anastomosis and sacrocolpopexy. A PubMed search was done and relevant published studies were reviewed. Surgeries that can have future applications are also mentioned. At present most studies do not give significant advantage over conventional laparoscopic surgery in benign gynecological disease. However robotics do give an edge in more complex surgeries. The conversion rate to open surgery is lesser with robotic assistance when compared to laparoscopy. For myomectomy surgery, Endo wrist movement of robotic instrument allows better and precise suturing than conventional straight stick laparoscopy. The robotic platform is a logical step forward to laparoscopy and if cost considerations are addressed may become popular among gynecological surgeons world over. PMID:25598600

  10. Surgery for childhood epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmi, Sita; Panigrahi, Manas; Nanda, Subrat Kumar; Vadapalli, Rammohan

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 60% of all patients with epilepsy suffer from focal epilepsy syndromes. In about 15% of these patients, the seizures are not adequately controlled with antiepileptic drugs; such patients are potential candidates for surgical treatment and the major proportion is in the pediatric group (18 years old or less). Epilepsy surgery in children who have been carefully chosen can result in either seizure freedom or a marked (>90%) reduction in seizures in approximately two-thirds of children with intractable seizures. Advances in structural and functional neuroimaging, neurosurgery, and neuroanaesthesia have improved the outcomes of surgery for children with intractable epilepsy. Early surgery improves the quality of life and cognitive and developmental outcome and allows the child to lead a normal life. Surgically remediable epilepsies should be identified early and include temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis, lesional temporal and extratemporal epilepsy, hemispherical epilepsy, and gelastic epilepsy with hypothalamic hamartoma. These syndromes have both acquired and congenital etiologies and can be treated by resective or disconnective surgery. Palliative procedures are performed in children with diffuse and multifocal epilepsies who are not candidates for resective surgery. The palliative procedures include corpus callosotomy and vagal nerve stimulation while deep brain stimulation in epilepsy is still under evaluation. For children with “surgically remediable epilepsy,” surgery should be offered as a procedure of choice rather than as a treatment of last resort. PMID:24791093

  11. Cardioprotection during cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hausenloy, Derek J.; Boston-Griffiths, Edney; Yellon, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. For a large number of patients with CHD, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery remains the preferred strategy for coronary revascularization. Over the last 10 years, the number of high-risk patients undergoing CABG surgery has increased significantly, resulting in worse clinical outcomes in this patient group. This appears to be related to the ageing population, increased co-morbidities (such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, stroke), concomitant valve disease, and advances in percutaneous coronary intervention which have resulted in patients with more complex coronary artery disease undergoing surgery. These high-risk patients are more susceptible to peri-operative myocardial injury and infarction (PMI), a major cause of which is acute global ischaemia/reperfusion injury arising from inadequate myocardial protection during CABG surgery. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are required to protect the heart in this high-risk patient group. In this article, we review the aetiology of PMI during CABG surgery, its diagnosis and clinical significance, and the endogenous and pharmacological therapeutic strategies available for preventing it. By improving cardioprotection during CABG surgery, we may be able to reduce PMI, preserve left ventricular systolic function, and reduce morbidity and mortality in these high-risk patients with CHD. PMID:22440888

  12. Photobiomodulation in laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Rong, Dong-Liang; Huang, Jin; Deng, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-01-01

    Laser surgery provides good exposure with clear operating fields and satisfactory preliminary functional results. In contrast to conventional excision, it was found that matrix metalloproteinases and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases -1 mRNA expression is higher, myofibroblasts appeared and disappeared slower in laser excision wounds. It has been suggested that the better anatomical and functional results achieved following laser cordectomy may be explained by the fact that such procedures result in better, more rapid healing processes to recover vocal cord for early glottic tumors and better. In this paper, the role of photobiomodulation in laser surgery will be discussed by the cultured monolayer normal human skin fibroblast model of the photobiomodulation of marginal irradiation of high intensity laser beam, the photobiomodulation related to the irradiated tissue, the biological information model of photobiomodulation and the animal models of laser surgery. Although high intensity laser beam is so intense that it destroys the irradiated cells or tissue, its marginal irradiation intensity is so low that there is photobiomodulation on non-damage cells to modulate the regeneration of partly damaged tissue so that the surgery of laser of different parameters results in different post-surgical recovery. It was concluded that photobiomodulation might play an important role in the long-term effects of laser surgery, which might be used to design laser surgery.

  13. Versatile use of the muscle and nerve sparing latissimus dorsi flap.

    PubMed

    Tan, Onder; Algan, Said; Denktas Kuduban, Selma; Cinal, Hakan; Zafer Barin, Ensar; Ulvi, Hizir

    2012-02-01

    In this report, we describe the technique of muscle and nerve sparing latissimus dorsi (LD) flap and evaluate the outcomes of reconstruction of various defects with 12 free and 2 pedicled muscle and nerve sparing LD flaps in 14 patients. The LD muscle functions at operated and nonoperated muscles were evaluated clinically and with electroneuromyography. All flaps survived completely but one which had a partial necrosis. The mean follow-up time was 12.3 months. Adduction and extention ranges of the shoulders were the same bilaterally in all patients. In electroneuromyography, no significant difference was available statistically between the sides. This muscle and nerve sparing latissimus dorsi flap has advantages of thinness, muscle preservation and reliability, and thus can be a good option to other fasciocutaneous flaps in reconstruction surgery. PMID:22113922

  14. Effect of muscle vibration on postural balance of Parkinson's diseases patients in bipedal quiet standing.

    PubMed

    Han, Jintae; Jung, Jaemin; Lee, Junghoon; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Myunghee; Lee, Keunhee

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle vibration applied to the lower extremities on static postural balance of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). [Subjects] Seven subjects with Parkinson's disease participated in this study. [Methods] The oscillators of vibration were attached to the muscle bellies of the tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, and rectus femoris on both sides of the lower extremities with adhesive tape. A vibration frequency of 60?Hz was used to induce static postural reactions. Subjects' center of pressure (COP) sway and peak ground reaction force (GRF) were measured with their eyes open with and without vibration. COP sway and peak GRF (Fx, Fy, Fz) were measured using a force plate (AMTI, Newton, USA), which provides x, y and z coordinates of body movement. [Results] The area of COP sway with vibration was significantly smaller than that with no vibration, but the length of COP sway showed no difference between two conditions. Peak medial-lateral maximum force (Fy) with vibration was significantly higher than that with no vibration, but peak anterior-posterior force (Fx) and peak vertical force (Fz) showed no differences. [Conclusion] These results suggest that vibration applied to the lower extremities can help PD patients control postural balance during quiet standing. PMID:24396205

  15. Static vs. Dynamic Acute Stretching Effect on Quadriceps Muscle Activity during Soccer Instep Kicking

    PubMed Central

    Amiri-Khorasani, Mohammadtaghi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic stretching on quadriceps muscle activation during maximal soccer instep kicking. The kicking motion of twelve male college soccer players (body height: 174.66 ± 5.01 cm; body mass: 72.83 ± 4.83 kg; age: 18.83 ± 0.75 years) was captured using six synchronized high-speed infra-red cameras whilst electromyography (EMG) signals from vastus medialis (VM), lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) were recorded before and after static or dynamic stretching. Analysis of variance designs showed a higher increase in knee extension angular velocity (9.65% vs. ?1.45%, p < 0.001), RF (37.5% vs. ?8.33%, p < 0.001), VM (12% vs. ?12%, p < 0.018), and VL EMG activity (20% vs. ?6.67%, p < 0.001) after dynamic stretching exercises. Based on these results, it could be suggested that dynamic stretching is probably more effective in increasing quadriceps muscle activity and knee extension angular velocity during the final swing phase of a maximal soccer instep kick than static stretching. PMID:24511339

  16. Arthroscopic Gluteal Muscle Contracture Release With Radiofrequency Energy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Jie; Wang, Yan; Xue, Jing; Lui, Pauline Po-Yee

    2008-01-01

    Gluteal muscle contracture is common after repeated intramuscular injections and sometimes is sufficiently debilitating to require open surgery. We asked whether arthroscopic release of gluteal muscle contracture using radiofrequency energy would decrease complications with clinically acceptable results. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients with bilateral gluteal muscle contractures (57 males, 51 females; mean age, 23.7 years). We used inferior, anterosuperior, and posterosuperior portals. With the patient lying laterally, we developed and enlarged a potential space between the gluteal muscle group and the subcutaneous fat using blunt dissection. Under arthroscopic guidance through the inferior portal, we débrided and removed fatty tissue overlying the contractile band of the gluteal muscle group using a motorized shaver introduced through the superior portal. Radiofrequency then was introduced through the superior portal to gradually excise the contracted bands from superior to inferior. Finally, hemostasis was ensured using radiofrequency. Patients were followed a minimum of 7 months (mean, 17.4 months; range, 7–42 months). At last followup, the adduction and flexion ranges of the hip were 45.3° ± 8.7° and 110.2° ± 11.9°, compared with 10.4° ± 7.2° and 44.8° ± 14.1° before surgery. No hip abductor contracture recurred and no patient had residual hip pain or gluteal muscle wasting. We found gluteal muscle contracture could be released effectively with radiofrequency energy. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0595-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18975040

  17. Pattern of expiratory muscle activation during lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, A F; Romaniuk, J R; Kowalski, K E; Supinski, G

    1999-06-01

    Large positive airway pressures (Paws) can be generated by lower thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS), which may be a useful method of restoring cough in spinal cord-injured patients. Optimal electrode placement, however, requires an assessment of the pattern of current spread during SCS. Studies were performed in anesthetized dogs to assess the pattern of expiratory muscle recruitment during SCS applied at different spinal cord levels. A multicontact stimulating electrode was positioned over the surface of the lower thoracic and upper lumbar spinal cord. Recording electromyographic electrodes were placed at several locations in the abdominal and internal intercostal muscles. SCS was applied at each lead, in separate trials, with single shocks of 0.2-ms duration. The intensity of stimulation was adjusted to determine the threshold for development of the compound action potential at each electrode lead. The values of current threshold for activation of each muscle formed parabolas with minimum values at specific spinal root levels. The slopes of the parabolas were relatively steep, indicating that the threshold for muscle activation increases rapidly at more cephalad and caudal sites. These results were compared with the effectiveness of SCS (50 Hz; train duration, 1-2 s) at different spinal cord levels to produce changes in Paw. Stimulation at the T9 and T10 spinal cord level resulted in the largest positive Paws with a single lead. At these sites, threshold values for activation of the internal intercostal (7-11th interspaces) upper portions of external oblique, rectus abdominis, and transversus abdominis were near their minimum. Threshold values for activation of the caudal portions of the abdominal muscles were high (>50 mA). Our results indicate that 1) activation of the more cephalad portions of the abdominal muscles is more important than activation of caudal regions in the generation of positive Paws and 2) it is not possible to achieve complete activation of the expiratory muscles with a single electrode lead by using modest current levels. In support of this latter conclusion, a two-electrode lead system results in more uniform expiratory muscle activation and significantly greater changes in Paw. PMID:10368352

  18. Delayed onset muscle soreness in neck\\/shoulder muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongling Nie; Adam Kawczynski; Pascal Madeleine; Lars Arendt-Nielsen

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to: (1) induce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in the neck and shoulder muscles; (2) compare the pressure pain sensitivity of muscle belly with that of musculotendinous tissue after DOMS; (3) examine the gender differences in the development of DOMS. An eccentric shoulder exercise was developed to induce DOMS on neck\\/shoulder muscles using

  19. Muscle inflammation susceptibility: a prognostic index of recovery potential after hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Bamman, Marcas M; Ferrando, Arny A; Evans, Richard P; Stec, Michael J; Kelly, Neil A; Gruenwald, Johannes M; Corrick, Katie L; Trump, Jesse R; Singh, Jasvinder A

    2015-04-15

    While elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) for end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) improves pain, mobility function, and quality of life in most cases, a large proportion of patients suffer persistent muscle atrophy, pain, and mobility impairment. Extensive skeletal muscle damage is unavoidable in these surgical procedures, and it stands to reason that poor recovery and long-term mobility impairment among some individuals after THA is linked to failed muscle regeneration and regrowth following surgery and that local muscle inflammation susceptibility (MuIS) is a major contributing factor. Here we present results of two integrated studies. In study 1, we compared muscle inflammation and protein metabolism signaling in elective THA (n = 15) vs. hip fracture/trauma (HFX; n = 11) vs. nonsurgical controls (CON; n = 19). In study 2, we compared two subgroups of THA patients dichotomized into MuIS((+)) (n = 7) or MuIS((-)) (n = 7) based on muscle expression of TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) receptor (Fn14). As expected, HFX demonstrated overt systemic and local muscle inflammation and hypermetabolism. By contrast, no systemic inflammation was detected in elective THA patients; however, local muscle inflammation in the perioperative limb was profound in MuIS((+)) and was accompanied by suppressed muscle protein synthesis compared with MuIS((-)). Muscle from the contralateral limb of MuIS((+)) was unaffected, providing evidence of a true inflammation susceptibility localized to the muscle surrounding the hip with end-stage OA. We suggest MuIS status assessed at the time of surgery may be a useful prognostic index for muscle recovery potential and could therefore provide the basis for a personalized approach to postsurgery rehabilitation. PMID:25670829

  20. Prions in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Bosque, Patrick J; Ryou, Chongsuk; Telling, Glenn; Peretz, David; Legname, Giuseppe; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2002-03-19

    Considerable evidence argues that consumption of beef products from cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions causes new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In an effort to prevent new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, certain "specified offals," including neural and lymphatic tissues, thought to contain high titers of prions have been excluded from foods destined for human consumption [Phillips, N. A., Bridgeman, J. & Ferguson-Smith, M. (2000) in The BSE Inquiry (Stationery Office, London), Vol. 6, pp. 413-451]. Here we report that mouse skeletal muscle can propagate prions and accumulate substantial titers of these pathogens. We found both high prion titers and the disease-causing isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the skeletal muscle of wild-type mice inoculated with either the Me7 or Rocky Mountain Laboratory strain of murine prions. Particular muscles accumulated distinct levels of PrP(Sc), with the highest levels observed in muscle from the hind limb. To determine whether prions are produced or merely accumulate intramuscularly, we established transgenic mice expressing either mouse or Syrian hamster PrP exclusively in muscle. Inoculating these mice intramuscularly with prions resulted in the formation of high titers of nascent prions in muscle. In contrast, inoculating mice in which PrP expression was targeted to hepatocytes resulted in low prion titers. Our data demonstrate that factors in addition to the amount of PrP expressed determine the tropism of prions for certain tissues. That some muscles are intrinsically capable of accumulating substantial titers of prions is of particular concern. Because significant dietary exposure to prions might occur through the consumption of meat, even if it is largely free of neural and lymphatic tissue, a comprehensive effort to map the distribution of prions in the muscle of infected livestock is needed. Furthermore, muscle may provide a readily biopsied tissue from which to diagnose prion disease in asymptomatic animals and even humans. PMID:11904434

  1. Robotic surgery for thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jandee; Chung, Woong Youn

    2013-06-01

    Robotic surgery is an innovation in thyroid surgery that may compensate for the drawbacks of conventional endoscopic surgery. A surgical robot provides strong advantages, including three-dimensional imaging, motion scaling, tremor elimination, and additional degrees of freedom. We review here recent adaptations, experience and applications of robotics in thyroid surgery. Robotic thyroid surgeries include thyroid lobectomy, total thyroidectomy, central compartment neck dissection, and radical neck dissection for benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Most of the current literature consists of case series of robotic thyroidectomies. Recent retrospective and prospective analyses have evaluated the safety and oncologic efficacy of robotic surgery for thyroid cancer. Although robotic thyroid surgery is often associated with longer operation times than conventional open surgery, robotic techniques have shown similar or superior levels of surgical completeness and safety compared with conventional open or endoscopic surgery. Compared to open thyroidectomy, robotic thyroidectomy has been associated with several quality-of-life benefits, including excellent cosmetic results, reduced neck pain and sensory changes, and decreased voice and swallowing discomfort after surgery. For surgeons, robotic surgery has improved ergonomics and has a shorter learning curve than open or endoscopic surgery. The advantages of robotic thyroid surgery over conventional surgery suggest that robotic thyroidectomy with or without neck dissection may become the preferred surgical option for thyroid diseases. Robotic thyroid surgery will likely continue to develop as more endocrine and head-and-neck surgeons are trained and more patients seek this newly developed surgical option. PMID:24783046

  2. STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Structure of an Individual Muscle Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Robin L.

    STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Structure of an Individual Muscle Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 The Connective Tissue System within the Muscle Belly

  3. Muscle metabolism and activation heterogeneity by combined 31P chemical shift and T2 imaging, and pulmonary O2 uptake during incremental knee-extensor exercise

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Daniel T.; Howe, Franklyn A.; Whipp, Brian J.; Ward, Susan A.; McIntyre, Dominick J.; Ladroue, Christophe; Griffiths, John R.; Kemp, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of skeletal muscle substrate depletion, metabolite accumulation, and fatigue during large muscle-mass exercise is not well understood. Measurement of intramuscular energy store degradation and metabolite accumulation is confounded by muscle heterogeneity. Therefore, to characterize regional metabolic distribution in the locomotor muscles, we combined 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chemical shift imaging, and T2-weighted imaging with pulmonary oxygen uptake during bilateral knee-extension exercise to intolerance. Six men completed incremental tests for the following: 1) unlocalized 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy; and 2) spatial determination of 31P metabolism and activation. The relationship of pulmonary oxygen uptake to whole quadriceps phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]) was inversely linear, and three of four knee-extensor muscles showed activation as assessed by change in T2. The largest changes in [PCr], [inorganic phosphate] ([Pi]) and pH occurred in rectus femoris, but no voxel (72 cm3) showed complete PCr depletion at exercise cessation. The most metabolically active voxel reached 11 ± 9 mM [PCr] (resting, 29 ± 1 mM), 23 ± 11 mM [Pi] (resting, 7 ± 1 mM), and a pH of 6.64 ± 0.29 (resting, 7.08 ± 0.03). However, the distribution of 31P metabolites and pH varied widely between voxels, and the intervoxel coefficient of variation increased between rest (?10%) and exercise intolerance (?30–60%). Therefore, the limit of tolerance was attained with wide heterogeneity in substrate depletion and fatigue-related metabolite accumulation, with extreme metabolic perturbation isolated to only a small volume of active muscle (<5%). Regional intramuscular disturbances are thus likely an important requisite for exercise intolerance. How these signals integrate to limit muscle power production, while regional “recruitable muscle” energy stores are presumably still available, remains uncertain. PMID:23813534

  4. Thyrotoxic muscle disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Ian

    1968-01-01

    Evidence suggests that most hyperthyroid patients have a proximal myopathy. The more severe this is the more frequently are distal muscles, and ultimately, bulbar muscles involved. Probably acute thyrotoxic myopathy or encephalopathy supervenes on a previous chronic background or occurs concurrently with skeletal muscle involvement. Using careful electromyographic techniques evidence of myopathy may be found in most thyrotoxics; it disappears with adequate treatment of the primary disease. Myasthenia gravis and periodic paralysis are also associated with thyrotoxicosis and their differentiation is discussed. Infiltrative ophthalmopathy is not related to the effects of excess thyroid hormone, but is possibly due to EPS working in conjunction with LATS. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:4871773

  5. Innovation in Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Riskin, Daniel J.; Longaker, Michael T.; Gertner, Michael; Krummel, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the field of surgical innovation from a historical perspective, applying new findings from research in technology innovation. Background: While surgical innovation has a rich tradition, as a field of study it is embryonic. Only a handful of academic centers of surgical innovation exist, all of which have arisen within the last 5 years. To this point, the field has not been well defined, nor have future options to promote surgical innovation been thoroughly explored. It is clear that surgical innovation is fundamental to surgical progress and has significant health policy implications. A process of systematically evaluating and promoting innovation in surgery may be critical in the evolving practice of medicine. Methods: A review of the academic literature in technology innovation was undertaken. Articles and books were identified through technical, medical, and business sources. Luminaries in surgical innovation were interviewed to develop further relevance to surgical history. The concepts in technology innovation were then applied to innovation in surgery, using the historical example of surgical endoscopy as a representative area, which encompasses millennia of learning and spans multiple specialties of care. Results: The history of surgery is comprised largely of individual, widely respected surgeon innovators. While respecting individual accomplishments, surgeons as a group have at times hindered critical innovation to the detriment of our profession and patients. As a clinical discipline, surgery relies on a tradition of research and attracting the brightest young minds. Innovation in surgery to date has been impressive, but inconsistently supported. Conclusion: A body of knowledge on technology innovation has been developed over the last decade but has largely not been applied to surgery. New surgical innovation centers are working to define the field and identify critical aspects of surgical innovation promotion. It is our responsibility as a profession to work to understand innovation in surgery, discover, translate, and commercialize advances to address major clinical problems, and to support the future of our profession consistently and rationally. PMID:17060760

  6. Slow expiration reduces sternocleidomastoid activity and increases transversus abdominis and internal oblique muscle activity during abdominal curl-up.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae-Lim; Kim, Ki-Song; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quiet inspiration versus slow expiration on sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and abdominal muscle activity during abdominal curl-up in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to collect activity of bilateral SCM, rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO) muscles. A paired t-test was used to determine significant differences in the bilateral SCM, RF, EO, and TrA/IO muscles between abdominal curl-up with quiet inspiration and slow expiration. There were significantly lower EMG activity of both SCMs and greater EMG activity of both IOs during abdominal curl-up with slow expiration, compared with the EMG activity of both SCMs and IOs during abdominal curl-up with quiet inspiration (p<.05). The results of this study suggest that slow expiration would be recommended during abdominal curl-up for reduced SCM activation and selective activation of TrA/IO in healthy subjects compared with those in abdominal curl up with quiet inspiration. PMID:24210796

  7. Effects of performing an abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during curl-up exercise on an unstable surface.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during the curl-up exercise on an unstable surface by measuring electromyography (EMG) activity. [Subjects] Fourteen young healthy adults (nine male, five female) voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] Each subject was asked to perform a curl-up exercise on two supporting surfaces (stable and unstable surfaces) combined with the abdominal hollowing exercise on an unstable surface. The muscle activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were measured using surface EMG during performance of the curl-up exercise. [Results] The EMG activity of the RA and EO was significantly higher on an unstable surface than on a stable surface during the curl-up exercise. The EMG activities of the TrA and IO were greater in combination with the abdominal hollowing exercise on an unstable surface than during the curl-up exercise on both a stable and unstable surface. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the local trunk muscle activity during the curl-up exercise is more strongly affected by combination with the abdominal hollowing exercise than by performance on an unstable supporting surface. PMID:25729202

  8. [Minimal invasive surgery: historical review, current status and perspective].

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Stienen, Martin N; Corniola, Marco V; Schaller, Karl

    2014-10-29

    Lumbar spine surgery has been performed for decades using the so-called «dorsal open approach». Although established as a safe and effective procedure, it is associated to some extent with extensive collateral damage in the area of the operative field. For over ten years, minimal-invasive spine surgery (MISS) techniques, which are considerably less destructive and less traumatic, have earned their place as valuable and at times superior to the established dorsal open approach. Advantages include smaller skin incisions, less soft tissue and muscle damage, less peri-operative blood loss, lower infection rates, earlier postoperative return to function or work as well as shorter hospital stays. All these advantages, however, have to be carefully balanced against the potential disadvantages of MISS techniques, notably reduced orientation, steep learning curves, and increased radiation exposure from repeated imaging for guidance. This article gives an overview about the evolution and current role of MISS in lumbar spine surgery. PMID:25351695

  9. Muscle Fiber Types and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Jason R.

    2001-01-01

    The specific types of fibers that make up individual muscles greatly influence how people will adapt to their training programs. This paper explains the complexities of skeletal muscles, focusing on types of muscle fibers (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), recruitment of muscle fibers to perform a motor task, and determining fiber type. Implications…

  10. Research opportunities in muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbison, G. J. (editor); Talbot, J. M. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    Muscle atrophy in a weightless environment is studied. Topics of investigation include physiological factors of muscle atrophy in space flight, biochemistry, countermeasures, modelling of atrophied muscle tissue, and various methods of measurement of muscle strength and endurance. A review of the current literature and suggestions for future research are included.

  11. [CT after transsphenoidal surgery].

    PubMed

    Tazawa, S

    1991-03-25

    Two hundred and ten CT studies of 95 patients after transsphenoidal surgery were reviewed. Spheno-ethmoid opacification, intrasellar hematoma and gas bubbles were noted within 2 weeks after surgery. Bone defect of the sellar floor and bone stent were seen on coronal scans in most cases. The packing material frequently disappeared on follow-up studies. Hormonal assessment of the functioning tumor, according to which the effect of treatment was evaluated, was correlated with CT findings. Because differentiation between postoperative changes and residual mass was difficult, there was no definite CT criteria to indicate residual functioning tumor except upward convexity of the diaphragma sellae on CT more than 3 months after surgery. Initial follow up CT study is recommended to be performed at about 3 months after surgery, at which time the immediate postoperative inflammatory changes have been disappeared. The incidence of recurrence was 3/47 (6%), which was shown on follow-up CT from 4 to 10 years after surgery. Therefore subsequent CT study should be done in every year or two, taking the clinical symptoms and hormonal data into consideration. PMID:2047199

  12. Daycase cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Strong, N P; Wigmore, W; Smithson, S; Rhodes, S; Woodruff, G; Rosenthal, A R

    1991-12-01

    The increasing demand for cataract surgery, combined with limited resources, has created renewed interest in daycase admission. We have audited the results of all daycase and inpatient cataract surgery in a large unit over a six-month period to determine the factors influencing daycase admission and surgical outcome; 34% of cataract patients were admitted as daycases in the study period. Neither distance travelled by the patient nor age appear to influence daycase admission. However, the differing policies of the individual consultant surgeons resulted in a wide variation in the number of operations performed on a daycase basis by each firm. The rate of preoperative complications was unaffected by daycase admission, by the grade of surgeon operating, or by the type of anaesthetic employed. Only 2.1% of daycase admissions resulted in unplanned inpatient admission on the day of surgery, with another 2.1% being readmitted within six months of surgery. Late cancellation of surgery was much lower for daycases (0.4%) than for inpatients (5.1%). PMID:1768662

  13. Cardiac muscle cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nathanael Reveal (None; )

    2007-07-02

    Cardiac muscles are found only in the heart. They work together to bring deoxygenated blood in and push oxygenated blood out into the body. Essentially, they keep your heart pumping and your body alive.

  14. Metabolic Diseases of Muscle

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease. 9 Metabolic Diseases of Muscle • ©2011 MDA Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency Also called: Glycogenosis type 11 Onset: ... rash is common, probably because skin cells need lactate dehydrogenase. FAt-PRoCEssing disoRdERs Carnitine deficiency Onset: Childhood ...

  15. Fitness: My Muscles

    MedlinePLUS

    Fitness: My Muscles Posted under Health Guides . Updated 22 May 2014. +Related Content Fitness is fun! It’s a great way to experience health and wellness. Enjoying fitness is the key to keeping exercise a part ...

  16. Anatomical Research of the Three-dimensional Route of the Thoracodorsal Nerve, Artery, and Veins in Latissimus Dorsi Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Nagahiro; Watanabe, Koichi; Koga, Noriyuki; Rikimaru, Hideaki; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Moriyoshi; Tabira, Yoko; Yamaki, Koh-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle flap has been widely used in facial reanimation surgery. However, there are no standards to what degree the muscle flap may be safely thinned because the three-dimensional positional relationship of thoracodorsal artery, vein, and nerve inside the LD muscle is poorly understood. Methods: From 18 formalin-fixed cadavers, we made 36 transparent specimens of LD muscles using a newly developed decoloration technique. In 26 specimens, nerve staining (Sihler’s staining method) and silicone rubber (Microfil) injection to the thoracodorsal artery were performed, and the relationship of the artery and the vein was examined in 10 specimens. Results: The thoracodorsal artery and vein always ran parallel in a deeper layer compared to the nerve. The thoracodorsal nerve constantly existed in a deeper layer than half (50%) of the muscle in the range of use of the muscle flap in facial reanimation surgery. Conclusions: The thoracodorsal nerves ran in a shallower layer, and the depth to the nerve in the muscle flap in actual facial reanimation surgery is safe enough to avoid damage to the nerves. The LD muscle may be thinned to half its original thickness safely. PMID:25289214

  17. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263984

  18. [Perspectives in glaucoma surgery].

    PubMed

    Dietlein, T S

    2002-02-01

    Trabeculectomy is still considered to be the gold standard in the surgical treatment of the open-angle glaucomas. The additional application of local antimetabolites has reduced the rate of early filtering bled fibrosis, but increased the rate of essential late-postoperative complications. Growth factor inhibition and photodynamic therapy may be an alternative local treatment to enhance the results in filtering surgery. Non-penetrating glaucoma surgery and ab-interno trabecular surgery have several conceptual advantages, e.g. the lack of overfiltration or the untouched conjunctiva in the ab-interno approach. Clinical studies of these and other new procedures including antiglaucomatous retinectomy and subchoroidal shunt systems are currently performed in order to evaluate their potential and limits in the clinical management of glaucoma. PMID:11871077

  19. [Refractive surgery: techniques and reliability].

    PubMed

    Zanen, A

    2003-09-01

    Refractive surgery modifies anatomic properties of the eye, in order to improve vision without the recourse to optical devices. It includes corneal surgery (radial keratotomy, excimer laser keratectomy), intraocular surgery (artificial lens implantation) and scleral surgery. The level of satisfaction of the patients who have benefit from this surgery is usually high, but is related to the selection of the subjects, which depends on the motivation and also on the default to be corrected. Despite the continuous progress of that surgery, it is not devoid of risks and complications. PMID:14606294

  20. [Robot-assisted surgery].

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Makoto

    2005-11-01

    Computer-enhanced surgical systems are becoming common worldwide. Currently, 331 da Vinci surgical systems have been installed. Robotic surgery was successfully performed on more than 20,000 patients in 2004. Intuitive Surgical has received FDA clearance for laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures, including hysterectomy or prostatectomy, as well as cardiac revascularization. The Japanese "Future Project" team has developed a prototype of a smaller surgical robotic system and successfully performed telesurgery on animals between Tokyo and Fujinomiya on August 8, 2002, and between Fukuoka and Seoul on March 2, 2005. Robotic surgery will lead to dramatic progress in medicine with the development of surgical navigation systems, simulation systems, and telementoring systems. PMID:16304816