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Sample records for rectus muscle surgery

  1. Ultrasound-guided excision of rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Coccia, Maria Elisabetta; Rizzello, Francesca; Nannini, Sara; Cozzolino, Mauro; Capezzuoli, Tommaso; Castiglione, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis excised under ultrasound guidance. A 36-year-old woman came to our observation presenting an abdominal nodule located in the right side of the umbilical area. Ultrasound of the abdominal wall showed two hypoechogenic nodules in the context of the right rectus abdominis muscle and a fine-needle aspiration, performed under ultrasound guidance, confirmed the diagnosis of endometriosis. The patient underwent surgical excision of the lesions. Intraoperative localization was performed through ultrasonography. In our case, the diagnosis was essentially based on ultrasound scan. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were not performed. A high-resolution ultrasound is a simple, inexpensive and safe method and is sufficient for indicating surgery. Furthermore, the use of intraoperative ultrasound allowed adequate margins of excision. PMID:25160779

  2. Iatrogenic Injury to Medial Rectus After Endoscopic Sinus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bipasha; Priyadarshini, Omega; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Agarkar, Sumita

    2015-12-01

    Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is the mainstay of the treatment in sinus disorders, to re-establish the drainage of the affected sinus. The close proximity of the orbital structures to paranasal sinuses makes them vulnerable to inadvertent injury during the sinus surgery. Medial rectus (MR) muscle is the most commonly injured extraocular muscle during ESS due to its anatomic proximity to the thin medial wall of the orbit. This is a non-comparative, retrospective, interventional case series of six patients presenting with MR injury after ESS. We discuss the management, outcome and review the published literature. A total of six patients met the inclusion criteria. The presenting complaints were diplopia, squinting and limitation of ocular movements. Two patients underwent surgical exploration of the MR muscle and reattachment of the muscle along with injection botulinum to the antagonist lateral rectus muscle. Two patients who had small angle strabismus and who were able to fuse were advised orthoptic exercises and prisms as management. Remaining two patients were advised surgical intervention to correct strabismus but they declined further surgical intervention. Management of MR injury following ESS is complex, often resulting in suboptimal outcomes. Since early intervention is associated with better outcomes, early referral by otolaryngologists to ophthalmologists would result in better outcome. PMID:26693458

  3. Muscle activities of the rectus abdominis and rectus femoris and their ratio during leg raises performed by healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze muscle activation during hip flexion in the supine position to examine the activation characteristics of the rectus abdominis and rectus femoris. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy adults (10 males and 10 females). [Methods] Muscle activities of the rectus abdominis and rectus femoris while raising the leg from 060 were measured in 15-degree divisions and their ratio was calculated. [Results] Statistically significant differences were found in the muscle activities of the rectus femoris and rectus abdominis were found among each division of during hip flexion in the supine position. The rectus abdominis and rectus femoris ratios increased as the angle of hip flexion increased. [Conclusion] During hip flexion from 045 in the supine position, femur motion caused hip flexion. At angles greater than or equal to 45 hip flexion was accompanied by pelvic motion. PMID:25931677

  4. Prediction of outcome after rectus femoris surgery in cerebral palsy: the role of cocontraction of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis.

    PubMed

    Chambers, H; Lauer, A; Kaufman, K; Cardelia, J M; Sutherland, D

    1998-01-01

    Rectus femoris surgery was performed on 70 patients with cerebral palsy and stiff-knee gait. Fifty-three patients underwent distal rectus transfer, and 17 patients had distal rectus release with complete muscle mobilization. Gait analysis was performed preoperatively and postoperatively at a minimum of 1 year. Swing-phase peak knee flexion (PKF) was improved in the transfer group, allowing improved foot clearance and more efficient gait (p = 0.04). PKF in swing deteriorated slightly in the release group (p = 0.04). The presence of abnormal swing-phase electromyogram (EMG) activity in the rectus alone or abnormal combined rectus and vastus lateralis activity did not influence the PKF results in either surgery (p < 0.05). The Ely test had no predictive value in identifying patients with abnormal EMG activity (p > 0.05). Preoperative knee range of motion was not a significant variable in determining relative success of rectus surgery. No deleterious effects were observed in stance phase in either group (p > 0.05). PMID:9821123

  5. Two Cases of Rectus Sternalis Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Swapna; Mayilswamy, Mahendran

    2016-01-01

    The sternalis muscle, an uncommon anatomical variant of the chest wall musculature, though perhaps well known to anatomists, is quite unfamiliar to clinicians and radiologists despite attempts to highlight its clinical importance in recent years. During routine dissection for undergraduate medical teaching, in the department of anatomy, we came across two cases of sternalis muscle. The first was a unique case of unilateral right sternalis with contralateral insertion on the left sternocleidomastoid, and the second case where bilateral presence of the muscle was noted with ipsilateral insertion. The former was supplied by medial pectoral nerve and the latter by lower intercostal nerves. Usually present between the pectoral and superficial fasciae, wide ranging prevalence and morphology have been attributed to this muscular variant. Opinions differ on its development and nerve supply. Its presence can be misdiagnosed as a wide range of benign and malignant anterior chest wall lesions and tumours, but it is also of great use as a pedicle flap or flap microvascular anastomosis in reconstructive surgeries of anterior chest wall, head and neck and breast. In this paper, two cases of sternalis muscle which presented very differently from each other are discussed. PMID:26894052

  6. Two Cases of Rectus Sternalis Muscle.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Minnie; Ramakrishnan, Swapna; Mayilswamy, Mahendran

    2016-01-01

    The sternalis muscle, an uncommon anatomical variant of the chest wall musculature, though perhaps well known to anatomists, is quite unfamiliar to clinicians and radiologists despite attempts to highlight its clinical importance in recent years. During routine dissection for undergraduate medical teaching, in the department of anatomy, we came across two cases of sternalis muscle. The first was a unique case of unilateral right sternalis with contralateral insertion on the left sternocleidomastoid, and the second case where bilateral presence of the muscle was noted with ipsilateral insertion. The former was supplied by medial pectoral nerve and the latter by lower intercostal nerves. Usually present between the pectoral and superficial fasciae, wide ranging prevalence and morphology have been attributed to this muscular variant. Opinions differ on its development and nerve supply. Its presence can be misdiagnosed as a wide range of benign and malignant anterior chest wall lesions and tumours, but it is also of great use as a pedicle flap or flap microvascular anastomosis in reconstructive surgeries of anterior chest wall, head and neck and breast. In this paper, two cases of sternalis muscle which presented very differently from each other are discussed. PMID:26894052

  7. Rectus femoris transfer surgery affects balance recovery in children with cerebral palsy: A computer simulation study.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Misagh; Clark, Ashley E; Seth, Ajay; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Stiff-knee gait is a troublesome movement disorder among children with cerebral palsy (CP), where peak swing phase knee flexion is diminished due to over-activity of the rectus femoris muscle. A common treatment for stiff-knee gait, rectus femoris transfer surgery, moves the muscle's distal tendon from the patella to the sartorius insertion on the tibia. As a biarticular muscle, rectus femoris may play a role in motor control and have unrecognized benefits for maintaining balance. We used musculoskeletal modeling, neuromuscular control, and forward dynamic simulation to investigate the role of rectus femoris tendon transfer surgery on balance recovery after support-surface perturbations for children with CP adopting two different crouched postures. We combined both high-level supraspinal and low-level spinal signals to generate 92 muscle excitations for tracking experimental whole body center of mass positions and velocities. Stability during balance recovery was evaluated by the minimum distance between the extrapolated center of mass and base of support boundary (bmin) and the minimum time to reach the boundary (TtBmin). The balance recovery of pre-surgical simulations (bmin=2.3+1.1cm, TtBmin=0.2+0.1s) were different (p=0.02), on average, than post-surgical simulations (bmin=-4.9+11.4cm, TtBmin=-0.1+0.3s) of rectus femoris transfers. The moderate crouch simulations (bmin=2.4+0.4cm, TtBmin=0.2+0.03s) were more stable than the mild crouch simulations (bmin=1.2+0.3cm, TtBmin=0.1+0.02s) following anterior translations of the support surface. These findings suggest that tendon transfer of rectus femoris affects balance recovery in children with CP. PMID:26669947

  8. Function of transected or avulsed rectus muscles following recovery using an anterior orbitotomy approach

    PubMed Central

    Pineles, Stacy L.; Laursen, Jessica; Goldberg, Robert A.; Demer, Joseph L.; Velez, Federico G.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the function of muscles retrieved from a retrobulbar location using an anterior orbitotomy approach and to identify the prognostic factors favoring a good outcome. METHODS The records of all patients undergoing anterior orbitotomy for the retrieval of a transected or avulsed muscle in a retrobulbar location were reviewed. Ocular motility, before and after retrieval (with ductions scaled from ?4 to +4), was evaluated. RESULTS Record review identified 11 patients who had suffered trauma to 12 muscles (5 inferior, 6 medial, and 1 lateral rectus muscle). Ductions improved from ?4 0.4 preoperatively to ?2.7 0.9 postoperatively (P = 0.002); mean primary position deviation improved from 34? 14?-15? 9? (P < 0.001), and mean deviation in the field of action improved from 47? 20?-20? 22? (P = 0.02). Ductions improved by at least two units in three patients, all of whom had medial rectus trauma. Single binocular vision in primary gaze was achieved in 6 patients. Patients with medial rectus muscle injury and patients injured by sinus surgery had the lowest likelihood of recovering single binocular vision. CONCLUSIONS Our results are similar to historical series in which muscles were not retrieved and transpositions performed; however, muscle retrieval avoids risks associated with transposition surgeries such as anterior segment ischemia. Muscle recovery via the anterior orbitotomy approach may be reasonable to consider in those cases with a reasonable possibility of having active force generation postoperatively. PMID:22835914

  9. Traumatic longitudinal splitting of the inferior rectus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Jessica; Demer, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Orbital floor fractures and associated injuries can cause strabismus. We present the case of a 34-year-old man with incomitant strabismus following orbital reconstruction after a high-impact baseball injury. Multipositional, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extensive longitudinal splitting of the inferior rectus muscle by an orbital floor implant that separated its orbital and global layers. PMID:21463958

  10. Surgical Responses of Medial Rectus Muscle Recession in Thyroid Eye Disease-Related Esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, In Jeong; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Kong, Mingui; Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the surgical outcomes and surgical responses of medial rectus muscle (MR) recession patients with thyroid eye disease (TED)-related esotropia (ET). The surgical dose-response curves 1 week postoperatively and at the final visit were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were applied to investigate factors influencing surgical dose-response. A total of 43 patients with TED-related ET that underwent MR recession were included. The final success rate was 86.0% and the rate of undercorrection was 14.0%. The surgical dose-response curves of TED-related ET showed a gentle slope compared with those of standard surgical tables. In the univariable model, simultaneous vertical rectus muscle recession was the only significant factor influencing surgical dose-response of MR recession in TED-related ET (? = -0.397, P = 0.044). In a model adjusted for age, sex, type of surgery, and preoperative horizontal angle of deviation, simultaneous vertical rectus muscle recession showed marginal significance (? = -0.389, P = 0.064). The surgical dose-response curve of TED-related ET was unique. Simultaneous vertical rectus muscle recession was associated with increased surgical dose-response in TED-related ET. PMID:26796354

  11. Surgical Responses of Medial Rectus Muscle Recession in Thyroid Eye Disease-Related Esotropia.

    PubMed

    Lyu, In Jeong; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Kong, Mingui; Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the surgical outcomes and surgical responses of medial rectus muscle (MR) recession patients with thyroid eye disease (TED)-related esotropia (ET). The surgical dose-response curves 1 week postoperatively and at the final visit were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were applied to investigate factors influencing surgical dose-response. A total of 43 patients with TED-related ET that underwent MR recession were included. The final success rate was 86.0% and the rate of undercorrection was 14.0%. The surgical dose-response curves of TED-related ET showed a gentle slope compared with those of standard surgical tables. In the univariable model, simultaneous vertical rectus muscle recession was the only significant factor influencing surgical dose-response of MR recession in TED-related ET (? = -0.397, P = 0.044). In a model adjusted for age, sex, type of surgery, and preoperative horizontal angle of deviation, simultaneous vertical rectus muscle recession showed marginal significance (? = -0.389, P = 0.064). The surgical dose-response curve of TED-related ET was unique. Simultaneous vertical rectus muscle recession was associated with increased surgical dose-response in TED-related ET. PMID:26796354

  12. Electromyography study of the portions of the abdominal rectus muscle.

    PubMed

    Negrao Filho, R de F; Brzin, F; Souza, G da C

    1997-01-01

    This study objective was to verify the behavior of three portions of the abdominal rectus muscle through a quantitative analysis of the electromyographic signal in different types of abdominal exercises. Ten young male between 16 and 27 years old were studied and they had no previous history of muscle and joint illness. They were well-trained and did seven abdominal exercises chosen considering the types of contraction (isotonic and isometric) as well as the muscle fixation points. The electric activity of the superior, medium (above umbilicus) and inferior (below umbilicus) portions at the left side of the abdominal rectus muscle was taken using Beckman type surface mini-electrodes. The registers were collected from computerized 8-channel Nicholet electromyography equipment, model Viking II. The signals were quantified using the MVA (Maximum Volunteer Activity) software, being considered for analysis the values of RMS (Root Mean Square). The obtained data were submitted to a parametric analysis using the variance analysis (F test) and also the Tukey test, besides a descriptive graphic analysis starting from the average RMS values of each muscle portion. This study results suggest that for the majority of the subjects, the functional activities of the abdominal rectus muscle are performed with electric activity differences among their portions, showing a tendency of producing more electric activity in the superior portion than in the medium and inferior portions. The experiment also demonstrated an absence of a common behavior pattern in the three portions of the ten tested subjects. PMID:9444489

  13. [Autopsy case of PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis complicated with rectus muscle hematoma].

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Niihata, Kakuya; Yasuda, Keiko; Shimomura, Akihiro; Uehata, Takuya; Inoue, Kazunori; Kaneko, Tetsuya; Shoji, Tatsuya; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Okada, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    A 80-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of coughing, hemosputum and dyspnea. As a chest X-ray showed infiltrates of the right lung, he was diagnosed as bacterial pneumonia and treated with antibiotics. However, after a few days, he exhibited hemoptysis and developed severe dyspnea, while laboratory findings showed rapid elevation of the serum creatinine level (5.55 mg dL). Computed tomography (CT) revealed large areas of ground glass opacity in the right lung, hence the hemoptysis was considered to be due to alveolar hemorrhage. As he had been diagnosed as chronic renal failure a few years before this admission and we also noticed that interstitial pneumonia with a slightly elevated level of C-reactive protein had existed from that time, ANCA-associated vasculitis was suspected to be the underlying pathogenesis. Accordingly, he was started on methylprednisolone pulse therapy and temporary hemodialysis resulted in improvement of dyspnea and renal function. PR3-ANCA was 12.4 EU, so he was diagnosed as PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis. After a few days, he suddenly complained of abdominal pain, developing hypotension and anemia. Abdominal CT showed an irregular low-density mass in the right muscle, so he was diagnosed as rectus muscle hematoma. Surgery was performed and a massive hematoma was found in the rectus muscle without any ruptures of macroscopic vessels in the abdomen. Bleeding could not be stopped followed by multiple organ failure and the patient died four days postoperatively. Rectus muscle hematoma is an uncommon cause of acute abdomen, and has been reported in about 100 cases in Japan. It occurs because of a tear in epigastric vessels and is usually managed conservatively with a good prognosis, although hemodynamically unstable cases require surgery. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rectus muscle hematoma complicated with ANCA-associated vasculitis. PMID:19715163

  14. An aesthetic perquisite of rectus muscle transplantation in extremity reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Darrell; Buntic, Rudolf F

    2005-01-01

    The authors combine a rectus abdominis muscle harvest with a mini-abdominoplasty in patients with Matarasso type II and III body types admitted for extremity reconstruction. The dermo-lipectomy tissue was used as a source for split-thickness skin graft. Twenty-five patients underwent the combined procedure. All flaps survived. Average quantity of skin harvested from the dermo-lipectomy tissue was 150 cm2 (range 100-250 cm2). Twenty-three of 25 (92%) required no additional skin grafting. The remaining 2 cases required less than 50 cm2 of additional split-thickness skin graft. There were no complications related to the mini-abdominoplasty. All patients were satisfied with their abdominal recontouring. The combined procedure results in an aesthetic improvement at the abdominal donor site and elimination or significant reduction of the morbidity related to a conventional skin graft donor site at the upper lateral thigh. This technique also allows thicker skin graft harvest without an associated increase in morbidity. The authors believe that this technique should be considered for patients with appropriate body habitus when a rectus abdominis muscle is the flap of choice or when multiple flaps including the rectus abdominis muscle are equal for the task. PMID:15613894

  15. Task-dependent inhomogeneous muscle activities within the bi-articular human rectus femoris muscle.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Wakahara, Taku; Kawakami, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    The motor nerve of the bi-articular rectus femoris muscle is generally split from the femoral nerve trunk into two sub-branches just before it reaches the distal and proximal regions of the muscle. In this study, we examined whether the regional difference in muscle activities exists within the human rectus femoris muscle during maximal voluntary isometric contractions of knee extension and hip flexion. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the distal, middle, and proximal regions. In addition, twitch responses were evoked by stimulating the femoral nerve with supramaximal intensity. The root mean square value of electromyographic amplitude during each voluntary task was normalized to the maximal compound muscle action potential amplitude (M-wave) for each region. The electromyographic amplitudes were significantly smaller during hip flexion than during knee extension task for all regions. There was no significant difference in the normalized electromyographic amplitude during knee extension among regions within the rectus femoris muscle, whereas those were significantly smaller in the distal than in the middle and proximal regions during hip flexion task. These results indicate that the bi-articular rectus femoris muscle is differentially controlled along the longitudinal direction and that in particular the distal region of the muscle cannot be fully activated during hip flexion. PMID:22479583

  16. Task-Dependent Inhomogeneous Muscle Activities within the Bi-Articular Human Rectus Femoris Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Wakahara, Taku; Kawakami, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    The motor nerve of the bi-articular rectus femoris muscle is generally split from the femoral nerve trunk into two sub-branches just before it reaches the distal and proximal regions of the muscle. In this study, we examined whether the regional difference in muscle activities exists within the human rectus femoris muscle during maximal voluntary isometric contractions of knee extension and hip flexion. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the distal, middle, and proximal regions. In addition, twitch responses were evoked by stimulating the femoral nerve with supramaximal intensity. The root mean square value of electromyographic amplitude during each voluntary task was normalized to the maximal compound muscle action potential amplitude (M-wave) for each region. The electromyographic amplitudes were significantly smaller during hip flexion than during knee extension task for all regions. There was no significant difference in the normalized electromyographic amplitude during knee extension among regions within the rectus femoris muscle, whereas those were significantly smaller in the distal than in the middle and proximal regions during hip flexion task. These results indicate that the bi-articular rectus femoris muscle is differentially controlled along the longitudinal direction and that in particular the distal region of the muscle cannot be fully activated during hip flexion. PMID:22479583

  17. Avoiding Complications in Abdominal Wall Surgery: A Mathematical Model to Predict the Course of the Motor Innervation of the Rectus Abdominis.

    PubMed

    Tessone, Ariel; Nava, Maurizio; Blondeel, Phillip; Spano, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Ever since its introduction, the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap has become the mainstay of autologous breast reconstruction. However, concerns regarding donor site morbidity due to the breach of abdominal wall musculature integrity soon followed. Muscle-sparing techniques, eventually eliminating the muscle from the flap all-together with the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap, did not eliminate the problem of abdominal wall weakness. This led to the conclusion that motor innervation might be at fault. Studies have shown that even in the presence of an intact rectus abdominis muscle, and an intact anterior rectus sheath, denervation of the rectus abdominis muscle results in significant abdominal wall weakness leading to superior and inferior abdominal bulges, and abdominal herniation.Our aim was to establish a mathematical model to predict the location of the motor innervation to the rectus abdominis muscle, and thus provide surgeons with a tool that will allow them to reduce abdominal morbidity during deep inferior epigastric artery perforator and free muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous surgery.We dissected 42 cadaveric hemiabdomens and mapped the course of the thoracolumbar nerves. We then standardized and analyzed our findings and presented them as a relative map which can be adjusted to body type and dimensions.Our dissections show that the motor innervation is closely related to the lateral vascular supply. Thus, when possible, we support the preferred utilization of the medial vascular supply, and the preservation of the lateral supply and motor innervation. PMID:26756600

  18. [A case of Fournier's gangrene reconstructed using a rectus abdominis muscle flap].

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Masato; Nishimura, Taiji; Kondo, Yukihiro; Yamazaki, Keiichi; Sakai, Shigeki; Ishii, Naohiro; Kojo, Ken; Hosoda, Kei

    2011-07-01

    We encountered a case of Fournier's gangrene complicated with vesicorectocutaneous fistula that was treated with a pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flap (pedicled RA m-c flap). A 75-year-old man was admitted with consciousness disorder and swelling of the scrotum. The patient had noticed swelling of the scrotum 4 days before admission, but he had ignored this condition. The scrotum and the penis appeared necrotic. On the basis of clinical and radiological findings, we diagnosed this condition as Fournier's gangrene. Surgical debridement was performed in conjunction with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. After the patient's general condition was improved, the broad defect in the perineal tissue was covered with a pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flap. The flap was successful. In Japan, this is the first case of Fournier's gangrene complicated with vesicorectocutaneous fistula that was treated with a pedicled RA m-c flap. In order to determine whether plastic surgery after debridement shortens the duration of hospitalization, we reviewed the cases of 120 patients with Fournier's gangrene in Japan. We conclude that plastic surgery after debridement does not shorten the duration of hospitalization, however, this procedures is very useful to deep and broad defects by Fournier's gangrene. PMID:21961279

  19. "Tag-Team" Orbital and Strabismus Surgeries with Immediate Reconstruction After Tumor Excision Metastatic to the Inferior Rectus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chris Y; Archer, Steven M; Kahana, Alon

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing, low-grade neuroendocrine tumors with a propensity for orbital metastatic spread. The typical treatment paradigm for localized orbital disease involves excision, adjuvant radiotherapy, and/or receptor-targeted chemotherapy, followed by delayed evaluation for reconstructive strabismus surgery. We present a 58-year-old female patient with carcinoid tumor metastatic to the right inferior rectus muscle who presented with worsening binocular diplopia. The patient underwent coordinated "tag-team" orbital and strabismus surgeries that included excision of the right inferior rectus muscle to the annulus of Zinn followed immediately by reconstructive strabismus surgery. The patient required 1 additional strabismus surgery 1 year later. Follow up revealed no tumor recurrence at 4 years, and excellent binocular vision with good function. Deep orbital and strabismus surgeries, when performed simultaneously in a "tag-team" approach, may offer superior functional outcomes and improved patient quality of life, with expedited functional recovery. This approach may become a new treatment paradigm for surgical disease processes localized to the extraocular muscles. PMID:25650797

  20. Ultrastructure of medial rectus muscles in patients with intermittent exotropia.

    PubMed

    Yao, J; Wang, X; Ren, H; Liu, G; Lu, P

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo study the ultrastructure of the medial rectus in patients with intermittent exotropia at different ages.Patients and methodsThe medial recti were harvested surgically from 20 patients with intermittent exotropia. Patients were divided into adolescent (age<18 years, n=10) and adult groups (age >18 years, n=10). The normal control group included five patients without strabismus and undergoing eye enucleation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize the medial recti. Western blot was used to determine the levels of myosin and actin.ResultsVarying fiber thickness, atrophy, and misalignment of the medial recti were visualized under optical microscope in patients with exotropia. Electron microscopy revealed sarcomere destruction, myofilament disintegration, unclear dark and light bands, collagen proliferation, and fibrosis. The adolescent group manifested significantly higher levels of myosin and actin than the adult group (P<0.05).ConclusionYounger patients with intermittent exotropia show stronger contraction of the medial recti compared with older patients. Our findings suggest that childhood was the appropriate time for surgery as the benefit of the intervention was better than in adulthood. PMID:26514242

  1. Giant pseudocyst of the rectus femoris muscle--repetitive strain injury in recreational soccer player.

    PubMed

    Cicvari?, Tedi; Lucin, Ksenija; Roth, Sandor; Ivanci?, Aldo; Marinovi?, Marin; Santi?, Veljko

    2010-04-01

    We report a case of a traumatic pseudocyst, in a recreational soccer player, after rupture of rectus femoris muscle. 37-year-old male, with history of repetitive painful accidents, was examined because of a double fist-sized mass in the anterior thigh. Ultrasound examination revealed a cystic mass in the rectus femoris muscle. Surgical removal of the mass and proximal remnant of muscle was done. Primary healing and functional recovery was achieved. Histological analysis revealed pseudocyst filled with degenerating clot and surrounded with thick fibrous capsule. The repetitive strain muscle injury, with prolonged period of healing, can occur like pseudocyst. PMID:21302702

  2. Validation of Biodex system 4 for measuring the strength of muscles in patients with rectus diastasis.

    PubMed

    Stark, Birgit; Emanuelsson, Peter; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Strigrd, Karin

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the validity and reliability of the Biodex system 4 in the assessment of abdominal strength in patients with rectus diastasis, we studied 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with rectus diastasis of more than 3 cm. We assessed test-retest reliability at 30(o) and 60(o) of extension/flexion spinal angles, respectively, and isometric muscle strength with and without the abdominal girdle. Reliability was calculated using the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Validity was evaluated by correlation with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for self-assessment of abdominal muscular strength. The Kendall-Tau and Spearman tests were used. Reliability was excellent with ICC values ranging between 0.77 and 0.97. There was no significant difference in muscular strength for tests with or without a girdle except with 60(o) extension. The internal validity assessed as the correlation between VAS and isometric strength (p = 0.008) was excellent, whereas there was no correlation with IPAQ. The Biodex system 4 is a valuable and reliable instrument to measure abdominal wall strength in patients with rectus diastasis. The internal validity is excellent. The incongruence between abdominal muscle strength, as measured using the Biodex system 4, and IPAQ indicates that there is no relation between general physical activity (IPAQ) and muscular strength in patients with rectus diastasis. PMID:22471258

  3. Patterns of attachment of the myodural bridge by the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Sheng-Bo; Li, Yun-Fei; Chi, Yan-Yan; Zheng, Nan; Gao, Hai-Bin; Luan, Bing-Yi; Zhang, Zhao-Xi; Sui, Hong-Jin

    2016-03-01

    The myodural bridge was first described by Hack in 1995 and was thought to be related to chronic cervicogenic headaches. For a long time, few studies revealed the patterns of the myodural bridge considering the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle. In this study, P45 plastination technology and anatomical dissection were performed on head specimens, and four different terminal region types of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle were observed, including the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace, posterior arch of the atlas and posterior atlanto-axial interspace. We propose that the myodural complex structures in the posterior atlanto-occipital and posterior atlanto-axial interspace have cooperative effects on cerebrospinal fluid and work together. This force might be an important source for the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:25859757

  4. Early Results of Slanted Recession of the Lateral Rectus Muscle for Intermittent Exotropia with Convergence Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung Min

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of slanted recession of the lateral rectus muscle for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency. This prospective study included 31 patients who underwent slanted lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency between June 2010 and June 2012. Following parameters were recorded and analyzed: patient sex, age, preoperative and postoperative near and distance ocular alignment, and changes in stereopsis. The mean age of the patients was 9.2 years. The preoperative mean deviation angle was 32.4 PD at distance and 43.4 PD at near. After 6 months, slanted lateral rectus recession reduced the deviation angles to 2 PD at distance and 3.4 PD at near. In addition, the mean difference between distance and near deviation angles was significantly reduced from 11 PD to 1.4 PD at 6 months postoperatively. Slanted lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency in children successfully reduced the distance and near exodeviations and the near-distance difference without increasing the risk of long-term postoperative esotropia or diplopia. PMID:25688298

  5. Specific fibre composition and metabolism of the rectus abdominis muscle of bovine Charolais cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An important variability of contractile and metabolic properties between muscles has been highlighted. In the literature, the majority of studies on beef sensorial quality concerns M. longissimus thoracis. M. rectus abdominis (RA) is easy to sample without huge carcass depreciation and may appear as an alternative to M. longissimus thoracis for fast and routine physicochemical analysis. It was considered interesting to assess the muscle fibres of M. rectus abdominis in comparison with M. longissimus thoracis (LT) and M. triceps brachii (TB) on the basis of metabolic and contractile properties, area and myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) proportions. Immuno-histochemical, histochemical, histological and enzymological techniques were used. This research concerned two populations of Charolais cattle: RA was compared to TB in a population of 19 steers while RA was compared to LT in a population of 153 heifers. Results RA muscle had higher mean fibre areas (3350 ?m2 vs 2142 to 2639 ?m2) than the two other muscles. In RA muscle, the slow-oxidative fibres were the largest (3957 ?m2) and the fast-glycolytic the smallest (2868 ?m2). The reverse was observed in TB muscle (1725 and 2436 ?m2 respectively). In RA muscle, the distinction between fast-oxidative-glycolytic and fast-glycolytic fibres appeared difficult or impossible to establish, unlike in the other muscles. Consequently the classification based on ATPase and SDH activities seemed inappropriate, since the FOG fibres presented rather low SDH activity in this muscle in comparison to the other muscles of the carcass. RA muscle had a higher proportion of I fibres than TB and LT muscles, balanced by a lower proportion either of IIX fibres (in comparison to TB muscle) or of IIA fibres (in comparison to LT muscle). However, both oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities were lower in RA than in TB muscle, although the LDH/ICDH ratio was higher in RA muscle (522 vs 340). Oxidative enzyme activities were higher in RA than in LT muscle, whereas glycolytic enzyme activity was lower. In RA muscle, contractile and metabolic properties appeared to be less well-correlated than in the two other muscles. Conclusions RA muscle has some particularities in comparison to the LT and TB muscles, especially concerning the unusual large cross-section surface of SO fibres and the very low oxidative activity of intermediate IIA fibres. PMID:20205735

  6. Retrospective study of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle in periodic alternating nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kimura, Naoki; Kimura, Akiko; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a spontaneous horizontal nystagmus observed in disorders of the central nervous system. Patients with congenital PAN complain of oscillating vision at high rates. Medication is the first-choice treatment for PAN; however, clinicians still seek better therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle (R-FHR) in patients with congenital PAN. Patients and methods This study reports a retrospective case series of ten patients (seven males and three females; mean age 24.410.9) with congenital PAN who underwent R-FHR between 2007 and 2012, which was performed by the same surgeon at the Hyogo College of Medicine. Patients were evaluated for complications, recession amount, deviation angle, eye movements including a nystagmus amplitude, and visual acuity during pre- and post-operative periods. Results Pre-operatively, patients complained of oscillating vision, abnormal head posture, esotropia, and congenital superior oblique palsy. Post-operatively, changes from the previous observations of nystagmus amplitudes and abnormal head posture demonstrated a complete reversal in all patients. In addition, visual acuity determined with a Snellen chart improved in two patients. However, esotropia occurred in three patients who underwent additional strabismus surgery 2 days after R-FHR. R-FHR was particularly effective in eight patients who pre-operatively had periodic oscillating vision with a regular pattern of periodic nystagmus. Conclusion We demonstrated that ten patients with congenital PAN had improved vision following R-FHR, indicating that R-FHR was an effective procedure, especially in patients suffering PAN with periodic oscillating vision. PMID:25525330

  7. Spread patterns and effectiveness for surgery after ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block in adult day-case patients scheduled for umbilical hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Manassero, Alberto; Bossolasco, Matteo; Meineri, Maurizio; Ugues, Susanna; Liarou, Chrysoula; Bertolaccini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: We conducted a prospective study to examine the local anesthetic (LA) spread and the effectiveness for surgical anesthesia of ultrasound (US)-guided rectus sheath block (RSB) in adult patients undergoing umbilical hernia repair. Material and Methods: Thirty patients received at T-10 level a bilateral US-guided injection of 20 mL levobupivacaine 0.375% + epinephrine 5 ?g/mL behind the rectus muscle to detach it from its sheath. Anesthetic spread into the rectus sheath was evaluated ultrasonographically at T-9 and T-11 levels and scored from 0 to 4. The RSB was defined effective for surgical anesthesia if it was able to guarantee an anesthetic level sufficient for surgery without any mepivacaine supplementation. Results: Overall, the block was effective for surgical anesthesia in 53.3% of patients (95% confidence interval, 17.8). In the remaining patients, anesthesia supplementation was needed at cutaneous incision, whereas manipulation of the muscle and fascial planes was painless. No patients required general anesthesia. LA spreads as advocated (to T-9 and to T-11 bilaterally = spread score 4) in 8/30 patients (26.6%); in these cases, the block was 75% effective for surgery. The anesthetic spread was most negatively influenced by increased body mass index. Postoperative analgesia was excellent in 97% of patients. Conclusion: Use of RSB as an anesthetic management of umbilical herniorrhaphy is recommended only with anesthetic supplementation at the incision site. PMID:26330714

  8. Large Asymmetric Hypertrophy of Rectus Abdominis Muscle in Professional Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Idoate, Fernando; Dorado, Cecilia; Alayn, Santiago; Calbet, Jose A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the musculus rectus abdominis (RA) in professional tennis players. Methods The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 8 professional male tennis players and 6 non-active male control subjects. Results Tennis players had 58% greater RA volume than controls (P?=?0.01), due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (34% greater volume, P?=?0.02) and non-dominant (82% greater volume, P?=?0.01) sides, after accounting for age, the length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI) as covariates. In tennis players, there was a marked asymmetry in the development of the RA, which volume was 35% greater in the non-dominant compared to the dominant side (P<0.001). In contrast, no side-to-side difference in RA volume was observed in the controls (P?=?0.75). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry increased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis (r?=?0.97, P<0.001). Conclusions Professional tennis is associated with marked hypertrophy of the musculus rectus abdominis, which achieves a volume that is 58% greater than in non-active controls. Rectus abdominis hypertrophy is more marked in the non-dominant than in the dominant side, particularly in the more distal regions. Our study supports the concept that humans can differentially recruit both rectus abdominis but also the upper and lower regions of each muscle. It remains to be determined if this disequilibrium raises the risk of injury. PMID:21209832

  9. Quantitative end qualitative analysis of the electrical activity of rectus abdominis muscle portions.

    PubMed

    Negro Filho, R de Faria; Brzin, F; Souza, G da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrical behavior pattern of the Rectus abdominis muscle by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the electromyographic signal obtained from its superior, medium and inferior portions during dynamic and static activities. Ten voluntaries (aged X = 17.8 years, SD = 1.6) athletic males were studied without history of muscle skeletal disfunction. For the quantitative analysis the RMS (Root Mean Square) values obtained in the electromyographic signal during the isometric exercises were normalized and expressed in maximum voluntary isometric contraction percentages. For the qualitative analysis of the dynamic activity the electromyographic signal was processed by full-wave rectification, linear envelope and normalization (amplitude and time), so that the resulting curve of the processed signal was submitted to descriptive graphic analysis. The results of the quantitative study show that there is not a statistically significant difference among the portions of the muscle. Qualitative analysis demonstrated two aspects: the presence of a common activation electric pattern in the portions of Rectus abdominis muscle and the absence of significant difference in the inclination angles in the electrical activity curve during the isotonic exercises. PMID:12964259

  10. Donor-site morbidity of the segmental rectus abdominis muscle flap.

    PubMed

    Geishauser, M; Staudenmaier, R W; Biemer, E

    1998-12-01

    The donor-site morbidity of the segmental rectus abdominis muscle flap was evaluated in 20 patients with an average follow-up time of 47 months. Our criteria were based on static and dynamic functional results including relaxation and hernia of the abdominal wall, aesthetic outcome and patient satisfaction. The dynamic functional tests of the abdominal wall showed good results corresponding to the reported minimal impairment of quality of life. There was one abdominal hernia after wound infection and secondary healing. There was no evidence of abdominal wall instability in any of the other patients. The aesthetic outcome was excellent when a transverse lower abdominal incision, asymmetrically elongated to the donor site, was used and moderate in the case of a paramedian vertical incision. Ninety-five per cent of the patients were completely satisfied or satisfied with the result at the donor site. In the segmental use of the free rectus abdominis flap a high degree of subjective patient satisfaction reflects the favourable outcome of our examinations. On the other hand there is a clinically significant functional donor-site defect of this flap. As this procedure is still widely used, and as its indication is closely linked to its absolute and relative donor-site defect, comparisons with the alternatives, e.g. the partial latissimus dorsi muscle flap, the extended gracilis muscle flap or the serratus anterior muscle flap will have to be made. PMID:10209463

  11. The structure of the external rectus eye muscles of the carpet shark Cephaloscyllium isabella.

    PubMed Central

    Housley, G D; Montgomery, J C

    1984-01-01

    The external rectus muscles of the carpet shark Cephaloscyllium isabella contain two types of muscle fibre. A core of large white fibres which have regular myofibrils with extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum, triads located at the Z disc and a pronounced H band and M line. Mitochondria are frequent but tend to be smaller and less abundant than mitochondria of the smaller red fibre type. The red fibres which surround the central region are rich in mitochondria, have little sarcoplasmic reticulum and triads which are infrequent and dispersed. Sarcomere banding of red fibres is characterised by a faint H band and M line while the Z disc is thick in comparison with that found on the white muscle fibre sarcomere. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6746403

  12. Using the traditional model to evaluate the active force of the human lateral rectus muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, ZhiPeng; Chen, WeiYi; Jing, Lin; Feng, PengFei; Wu, XiaoGang; Guo, HongMei

    2014-05-01

    The information on the force of extraocular muscles (EOMs) is beneficial for strabismus diagnosis and surgical planning, and a direct and simple method is important for surgeons to obtain these forces. Based on the traditional model, a numerical simulation method was proposed to achieve this aim, and then the active force of the lateral rectus (LR) muscle was successfully simulated when the eye rotated every angle from 0 to 30 in the horizontal plane from the nasal to the temporal side. In order to verify these simulations, the results were compared with the previous experimental data. The comparison shows that the simulation results diverged much more than the experimental data in the range of 0-10. The errors were corrected to make the simulation results closer to the experimental data. Finally, a general empirical equation was proposed to evaluate the active force of the LR muscle by fitting these data, which represent the relationship between the simulation forces and the contractive amounts of the LR muscle.

  13. Rectus and oblique muscles of eyeball: a morphometric study of Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Kotgirwar, Sheetal; Lalwani, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    During the strengthening and weakening procedures of intraocular muscles, distance of insertion from the sclerocorneal junction is an important determinant in the identification of muscles. During repositioning of the aponeurosis of the muscles, it is desired that the width should not change in order to avoid diversion of forces. Available anatomic studies on insertions of extraocular muscles are few, date back to early twentieth century and have been conducted on mostly white population. The present study is an attempt to document the insertions of recti and oblique muscles in Indian population. Forty eyeballs were removed from orbit. Insertion of recti and obliqui were cleaned and eyeballs were perfused with normal saline to regain the volume (hence shape and size) before recording observations. Insertion of recti and obliqui muscles were observed under various study parameters. The distance of insertion of recti from the limbus were found to be 7.3 mm, 8.06 mm, 8.71 mm, and 8.74 mm for medial, inferior, lateral, and superior rectus, respectively. The superior oblique was aponeurotic and found to be more variable in mode of insertion as compared to inferior oblique which had a fleshy and relatively constant insertion. The observations on insertion of recti and obliqui as obtained in present study differ from earlier studies to the tune of 1-1.5 mm. This may be attributed to adoption of method of reperfusion of eyeball before recording observations thus maintaining size close to in vivo. The observations are expected to be closer to actual. PMID:26417480

  14. Verbal and visual stimulation effects on rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles during isometric and concentric

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coactivation may be both desirable (injury prevention) or undesirable (strength measurement). In this context, different styles of muscle strength stimulus have being investigated. In this study we evaluated the effects of verbal and visual stimulation on rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles contraction during isometric and concentric. Methods We investigated 13 men (age =23.1 ± 3.8 years old; body mass =75.6 ± 9.1 kg; height =1.8 ± 0.07 m). We used the isokinetic dynamometer BIODEX device and an electromyographic (EMG) system. We evaluated the maximum isometric and isokinetic knee extension and flexion at 60°/s. The following conditions were evaluated: without visual nor verbal command (control); verbal command; visual command and; verbal and visual command. In relation to the concentric contraction, the volunteers performed five reciprocal and continuous contractions at 60°/s. With respect to isometric contractions it was made three contractions of five seconds for flexion and extension in a period of one minute. Results We found that the peak torque during isometric flexion was higher in the subjects in the VVC condition (p > 0.05). In relation to muscle coactivation, the subjects presented higher values at the control condition (p > 0.05). Conclusion We suggest that this type of stimulus is effective for the lower limbs. PMID:24099489

  15. Rectus sheath catheters provide equivalent analgesia to epidurals following laparotomy for colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Tudor, E C G; Yang, W; Brown, R; Mackey, P M

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Rectus sheath catheters (RSCs) are increasingly being used to provide postoperative analgesia following laparotomy for colorectal surgery. Little is known about their efficacy in comparison with epidural infusion analgesia (EIA). They are potentially better as they avoid the recognised complications associated with EIA. This study compares these two methods of analgesia. Outcomes include average pain scores, time to mobilisation and length of stay. Methods This was a 33-month single centre observational study including all patients undergoing elective open or laparoscopic-converted-to-open colorectal resection for both benign and malignant disease. Patients received either EIA or RSCs. Data were collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively. Results A total of 95 patients were identified. Indications for surgery, operation and complications were recorded. The mean time to mobilisation was significantly shorter in patients who had RSCs compared with EIA patients (2.4 vs 3.5 days, p<0.05). There was no difference in postoperative pain scores or length of stay. Conclusions RSCs provide equivalent analgesia to EIA and avoid the recognised potential complications of EIA. They are associated with a shorter time to mobilisation. Their use should be adopted more widely. PMID:26414363

  16. Muscle belly union associated with simultaneous medial rectus recession for treatment of myopic myopathy: results in 33 eyes

    PubMed Central

    Fresina, M; Finzi, A; Versura, P; Campos, E C

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the results achieved using muscle belly union associated with the recession of the ipsilateral medial rectus muscle to treat myopic myopathy and restore the normal anatomical relationship of superior and lateral rectus (LR). Methods A retrospective, nonrandomized study performed on 33 eyes of 26 patients who underwent muscle belly union between January 2004 and October 2012. We preoperatively and postoperatively recorded: best-corrected visual acuity; refraction; intraocular pressure; complete orthoptic assessment, including the angle of deviation and maximal abduction measured using the Goldmann perimeter. Pictures of the eyes in all gaze directions were taken before and after the surgical treatment. Anatomical relationships between muscle cone and eye globe were preoperatively analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Surgical complications were noted. Results The follow-up period was 6 months. Preoperative mean BVCA was 0.97±0.96 logMAR (ranging from 0.1 to 3 logMAR) and no changes were detected during postoperative controls. Preoperative mean hypotropia and esotropia were, respectively, 10.2±3.9 prism diopters (PD) and 46.2±15.5 PD. Postoperative mean hypotropia was 2.48±2.00 PD (P<0.001) and mean esotropia was 7.36±9.09 PD (P<0.001). A statistical incrementation of mean maximal abduction (P<0.001) was also noticed. Conclusions Muscle belly union—coupled with the recession of the ipsilateral medial rectus muscle when considered convenient—is the elective surgical technique in myopic myopathy, when a downward displacement of LR muscle is shown on MRI with coronal sections. PMID:24525864

  17. Suturing technique for extraocular muscle surgery.

    PubMed

    Kraushar, M F; Mercur, L

    1977-10-01

    A method for suturing extraocular muscles is presented which provides a safe, anatomically perfect means of reattaching extraocular muscles after recession, resection, or after disinsertion at retinal surgery. PMID:335948

  18. Surface Electromyography Assessments of the Vastus medialis and Rectus femoris Muscles and Creatine Kinase after Eccentric Contraction Following Glutamine Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Farzaneh, Esmail; Damirchi, Arsalan; Majlan, Ali Shamsi; Tadibi, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Purpose L-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid found in human muscle and plays an important role in protein synthesis and can reduce the levels of inflammation biomarkers and creatine kinase (CK) after training sessions. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) develops after intense exercise and is associated with an inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of glutamine supplementation on surface electromyography activity of the vastus medialis muscle (VMM) and rectus femoris muscle (RFM) and levels of creatine kinase after an eccentric contraction. Methods Seventeen healthy men (age: 22.352.27yr; body mass: 69.91 9.78kg; height: 177.084.32cm) were randomly assigned to experimental (n=9) and control groups (n=8) in a double-blind manner. In both groups, subjects were given L-glutamine supplementation (0.1g.kg-1) or placebo three times a week for 4 weeks. Median frequency (MDF) and mean power frequency (MPF) for VMM and RFM muscles and also CK measurements were performed before, 24h and 48 h after a resistance training session. The resistance training included 6 sets of eccentric leg extensions to exhaustion with 75% of 1RM. Results There was no significant difference between groups for MDF or MPF in VMM and RFM. The difference of CK level between the groups was also not significant. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that glutamine supplementation has no positive effect on muscle injury markers after a resistance training session. PMID:24868432

  19. Actions of chloroquine and its N-oxidation metabolites on the rectus abdominis muscle of the toad (Bufo regularis).

    PubMed

    Ette, E I; Essien, E E; Marquis, V O; Ojewole, J A

    1981-09-01

    Using the isolate rectus abdominis muscle preparation of the toad (Bufo regularis) the pharmacological actions of chloroquine, chloroquine-N-oxide and chloroquine N-di-oxide were investigated. On their own at concentrations ranging from 7.5 x 10(-5) -5 x 10(-3)M, the compounds induced contractures, chloroquine being the most active. At lower concentrations (5 x 10(-7) - 5 x 10(-5) M), chloroquine and its N-oxides enhanced acetylcholine-induced contractures whereas they depressed the carbachol-evoked contractures. At higher concentrations (5 x 10(-4) - 5 x 10(-3)M), chloroquine and its N-oxides inhibited both ACh- and carbachol-induced contractures. Analysis of the results obtained showed that the antagonism between ACh (or carbachol) and chloroquine (or its N-oxides) is non-competitive. At low concentrations chloroquine and its N-oxides (5 x 10(-7) - 5 x 10(-5)M) inhibited the potentiating action of neostigimine on ACh-induced contractures. From the results obtained in the study presented here, it is suggested that the antagonism of acetylcholine (or carbachol) by chloroquine and its N-oxidation metabolites on this muscle preparation may be at the cellular level. It is also suggested that the compounds examined may be acting as anticholinesterases (with chloroquine being the most active). PMID:7325749

  20. A Case of Extrusion of a Solid Silicone Tire Migrating through the Superior Rectus Muscle with Aeromonas hydrophila Infection following a Scleral Buckling Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Shinji; Sato, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    To our knowledge, there are no reports of Aeromonas hydrophila infection after a scleral buckling procedure. Also, migration of a silicone explant element through the rectus muscles is extremely rare. Herein, we describe a case experiencing extrusion of a solid silicone tire migrating through the superior rectus muscle with Aeromonas hydrophila infection following a scleral buckling procedure. A 42-year-old man was referred to our hospital complaining of ocular pain and purulent discharge in his left eye which has persisted for several months. He had a history of bilateral rhegmatogenous retinal detachment which had been treated with scleral buckling. The left eye showed extrusion of the solid silicone buckle which had migrated through the superior rectus muscle and an infection in the upper quadrant of the sclera. The buckle was removed, and the patient was treated with antibiotics. After the removal of the buckle, the symptoms showed rapid amelioration and there was no recurrence of retinal detachment. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the discharge and the removed explant. He used well water in daily life. In this case, the Aeromonas hydrophila infection of the extruded buckle might have originated from contaminated well water. PMID:23213585

  1. Predictors of the Dose-Effect Relationship regarding Unilateral Inferior Rectus Muscle Recession in Patients with Thyroid Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate whether inferior rectus muscle (IRM) thickness, the degree of adipose change in the IRM, smoking status, and the previous history of orbital radiotherapy can predict the dose-effect relationship regarding unilateral IRM recession in thyroid eye disease (TED). Methods. Twenty-five patients were retrospectively reviewed. We calculated the largest IRM cross-sectional area and evaluated the degree of adipose change in the IRM using magnetic resonance imaging. The degree of adipose change and smoking status were classified using grading scales (03); previous orbital radiotherapy was graded as 0 when a history was not available and 1 when it was available. The correlation between the dose-effect relationship and the hypothesized predictive factors was evaluated using stepwise multiple regression analysis. Results. The multiple regression model, with the exception of the history of the previous orbital radiotherapy, estimated a significant dose-effect relationship for the parameters evaluated (YDOSE-EFFECT = 0.013XIRM?AREA??? 0.222XADIPOSE??? 0.102XSMOKING + 1.694; r = 0.668; adjusted r2 = 0.367; P = 0.005). Conclusions. The dose-effect relationship regarding unilateral IRM recession in TED could be predicted using IRM thickness, degree of intramuscular adipose change, and smoking status but could not be predicted using the previous orbital radiotherapy history. PMID:26221140

  2. Analysis of two different techniques in the treatment of knee stiffness in swing phase due to fibrous rectus femoris muscle in children.

    PubMed

    Hung, Nguyen Ngoc

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze two surgical techniques in the treatment of fibrous rectus femoris muscle in children. Data from 152 patients (161 knees) from July 1991 to December 2004 were analyzed. Clinical signs were knee stiffness in swing phase, positive Ely and Ober tests, and abnormal flexion angles of the knee and hip. Patients were operated according to one of two variants: variant A, to release the proximal tendon and variant B, to release the middle shaft of the rectus femoris muscle. There were 96 women (63.2%) and 56 men (36.8%) in this study. Bilateral involvement was found in nine patients; only the left knee was affected in 34 patients (22.4%) and only the right knee in 109 patients (71.7%). All 152 patients (161 knees) developed fibrous rectus femoris muscle (RFM) after repeated intramuscular injection of antibiotic(s) into the RFM. A total of 145 knees (136 patients) were classified as severe and 16 knees (16 patients) were classified as moderate. Overall, we attained excellent results in 109 (67.7%), good results in 26 (16.1%), fair results in 14 (8.7%), and poor results in 12 knees (7.5%). There have been no complications so far. Generally, surgical treatment of knee stiffness in swing phase due to fibrous RFM according to variant B led to postoperative poor results in only 1.2% of patients, whereas variant A gave postoperative poor results in 14.5% of patients. The surgical procedure is simple and safe, and knee and hip functions, tendency for crouch gait, and anterior pelvic tilt were remarkably improved. PMID:21394041

  3. The affinity and activity of compounds related to nicotine on the rectus abdominis muscle of the frog (Rana pipiens)

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, R. B.; Thompson, G. M.

    1969-01-01

    1. Series of pyridylalkyl- and substituted phenylalkyl-trimethylammonium salts, triethylammonium salts, diethylamines and di-n-propylamines have been made. The substituents in the benzene ring were nitro, chloro, bromo, methoxy, hydroxy and amino groups and the alkyl residues had one, two, or three methylene groups separating the aromatic nucleus from the cationic head. 2. Most of the trimethylammonium compounds caused a contracture of the frog rectus muscle, but some were partial agonists and a few were antagonists. The di-n-propylamines were all antagonists, as were most of the diethylamines and triethylammonium compounds, though some of these were partial agonists and a few triethylammonium compounds were agonists. The affinities of the antagonists and partial agonists for the receptors stimulated by β-pyridylmethyltrimethylammonium (and by nicotine) were measured. The equipotent molar ratios of all the agonists were measured relative to β-pyridylmethyltrimethylammonium. 3. The dissociation constants of the pyridylmethyldiethylamines and substituted benzyldiethylamines were measured. The effects of substituents on the pKa of benzyldiethylamine were similar to their effects on the pKa of aniline, though there were differences with some of the o-substituted compounds, which could be attributed to internal hydrogen-bond formation. 4. There is no obvious correlation between the effects of a substituent on the pKa of benzyldiethylamine and its effects on affinity. Although increasing the size of the cationic group usually increased affinity, it did not always do so. The compounds with the highest affinity, p-hydroxybenzyldiethylamine (log K, 5·90) had about half the affinity of (+)-tubocurarine (log K, 6·11), but the triethylammonium analogue (log K, 4·17) had only about one-fiftieth of the affinity of the tertiary base. The binding of the drug to the receptor appears to involve many factors which include the size of the groups as well as their electron-releasing or withdrawing nature and other properties, such as their polar and lipophilic or lipophobic character. 5. There is no obvious correlation between the effects of a substituent on the affinity of the diethylamino or triethylammonium compounds and its effects on the activity of the trimethylammonium analogue. The most active compounds contain hydroxy- and amino-, phenyl or β-pyridyl groups, m-hydroxyphenyl-propyltrimethylammonium being about 50 times as active as nicotine, but the corresponding diethylamino or triethylammonium compounds do not have high affinity. There does not seem necessarily to be an inverse relationship between activity and affinity, however, because some m-nitro and m-chloro trimethylammonium compounds have considerable activity and the analogous triethylammonium compounds have considerable affinity. 6. It is suggested that ability to activate these receptors is associated with the presence of substituents which can interact with water molecules which may be involved in the action of the drug at the receptor. PMID:5348464

  4. Rectus Femoris Tendon Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Zini, Raul; Panasc, Manlio; Papalia, Rocco; Franceschi, Francesco; Vasta, Sebastiano; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since it was developed, hip arthroscopy has become the favored treatment for femoroacetabular impingement. Due to recent considerable improvements, the indications for this technique have been widely extended. Injuries of the rectus femoris tendon origin, after an acute phase, could result in a chronic tendinopathy with calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition, leading to pain and loss of function. Traditionally, this condition is addressed by local injection of anesthetic and corticosteroids or, when conservative measures fail, by open excision of the calcific lesion by an anterior approach. Purpose: To assess whether arthroscopic excision of calcification of the proximal rectus is a safe and effective treatment. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Outcomes were studied from 6 top amateur athletes (age range, 30-43 years; mean, 32.6 years) affected by calcification of the proximal rectus who underwent arthroscopic excision of the calcification. Patients were preoperatively assessed radiographically, and diagnosis was confirmed by a 3-dimensional computed tomography scan. To evaluate the outcome, standardized hip rating scores were used pre- and postoperatively (at 6 and 12 months): the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Oxford Hip Score, and Modified Harris Hip Score. Moreover, visual analog scales (VAS) for pain, sport activity level (SAL), and activities of daily living (ADL) were also used. Results: One year after surgery, all patients reported satisfactory outcomes, with 3 of 6 rating their return-to-sport level as high as preinjury level, and the remaining 3 with a percentage higher than 80%. Five patients ranked their ability to carry on daily activities at 100%. Statistical analysis showed significant improvement of the Oxford Hip Score, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and all 3 VAS subscales (pain, SAL, and ADL) from pre- to latest postoperative assessment (P < .05). Conclusion: Arthroscopic excision of rectus femoris tendon calcification yields satisfying results with few risks to the patient as well as rapid recovery. Clinical Relevance: The recent improvements in hip arthroscopy give the opportunity to address an increasing number of hip conditions effectively and safely, with rapid recovery for the patient. Arthroscopic excision of rectus femoris tendon calcification can be considered a feasible option, with few risks to the patient, rapid recovery, and satisfying outcomes. PMID:26535288

  5. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Concurrent Spontaneous Hematomas of the Rectus Sheath and Psoas Muscle in Patients Undergoing Anticoagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio; Medina, Jose Garcia; Mundo, Elena; Medina, Vicente Garcia; Leal, Rafael

    2004-11-15

    We report a case of concurrent rectus sheath and psoas hematomas in a patient undergoing anticoagulant therapy, treated by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of inferior epigastric and lumbar arteries. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated signs of active bleeding in two hematomas of the anterior and posterior abdominal walls. Transfemoral arteriogram confirmed the extravasation of contrast from the right inferior epigastric artery (RIEA). Indirect signs of bleeding were also found in a right lumbar artery (RLA). We successfully performed TAE of the feeding arteries. There have been few reports in the literature of such spontaneous hemorrhages in patients undergoing anticoagulation, successfully treated by TAE.

  6. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath and transversus abdominis plane blocks for perioperative analgesia in upper abdominal surgery: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsalam, Khaled; Mohamdin, OW

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regional anesthetic techniques can be used to alleviate postoperative pain in patients undergoing major upper abdominal surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of bilateral ultrasound (US)-guided rectus sheath (RS) and transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks for better perioperative analgesia. Patients and Methods: It is a prospective, observer-blinded, randomized clinical study. 40 eligible patients undergoing elective liver resection or Whipple procedure were included. All patients received a standardized anesthetic technique. Group 1 (n = 20) received preincisional US-guided bilateral RS and TAP blocks using 20 ml volume of bupivacaine 0.25% for each, and group 2 (n = 20) received local wound infiltration at end of surgery with 40 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%. A standardized postoperative analgesic regimen composed of intravenous paracetamol and a morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The use of intraoperative fentanyl and recovery room morphine boluses, PCA-administered morphine, pain scores as well as number of patients’ experienced postoperative nausea and vomiting in the ward at 6 and 24 h were recorded. Results: Group 1 patients received a significantly lower cumulative intraoperative fentanyl, significantly lesser boluses of morphine in postanesthesia care unit, as well, significantly lower cumulative 24 h postoperative morphine dosage than the group 2 patients. Pain visual analog scale scores were significantly lower at both 6 and 24 h postoperatively in TAP group when compared with the no-TAP group. There were no complications related to the TAP block procedures. No signs or symptoms of local anesthetic systemic toxicity were detected. Conclusion: The combination of bilateral US-guided RS and TAP blocks provides excellent perioperative analgesia for major upper abdominal surgery.

  7. Outcome of unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection in primary exotropia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to measure the success rate of unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection in primary exotropia. Methods This is an interventional case series of 55 patients with primary exotropia (degree of deviation 15–85 PD), above the age of 5 years. Patients were treated in the Department of Ophthalmology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi, Pakistan, during the period of July 2009 to March 2010. All the patients underwent surgical procedure i.e., lateral rectus muscle recession (maximum up to 10 mm) and medial rectus muscle resection (up to 6 mm) of one eye, according to the Park’s method. Surgery was done based on prism cover test measurements obtained at 6 m with appropriate optical correction in place. Patients were re evaluated at one day, one month, two months and six months post operatively. Final outcome was considered at the end of six months at which achievement of ≤10 PD of exotropia was the success. Data was analyzed on SPSS version 17.0. Results We obtained success (≤10 PD) in 42 out of 55 patients (76.4%) and 13 out of 55 patients (23.6%) did not meet our criteria for surgical success (>10 PD). Analysis of success with the type of primary exotropia showed that success was achieved in 22 out of 24 cases of intermittent type (91.6%) and 20 out of 31 cases of constant type (64.5%)(P Value 0.019). The highest percentage of success was achieved in patients with the pre-operative deviation of ≤70 PD i.e., 93.3% (42 out of 45 cases), while none of the patients with the pre-operative deviation of >70 PD (10 out of 10 cases) achieved the criteria for success. Conclusion We conclude that pre-operative deviation is one of the strongest predictor for favorable surgical outcome. Therefore, eliminating the factors causing error in the correct determination of pre-operative deviation should improve the success and predictability of the surgical outcome. Despite the obstacles in the surgical management of strabismus, our results are encouraging. PMID:23834953

  8. Evaluation of Risk Factors for Rectus Sheath Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Heena S; Kumar, Rohit; DiNella, Jeannine; Janov, Cheryl; Kaldas, Hoda; Smith, Roy E

    2016-04-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) develops due to rupture of epigastric arteries or the rectus muscle. Although RSH incidence rate is low, it poses a significant diagnostic dilemma. We evaluated the risk factors for RSH, its presentation, management, and outcomes for 115 patients hospitalized with confirmed RSH by computed tomography scan between January 2005 and June 2009. More than three-fourth (77.4%) of the patients were on anticoagulation therapy, 58.3% patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage ≥3, 51.3% had abdominal injections, 41.7% were on steroids/immunosuppressant therapy, 37.4% had abdominal surgery/trauma, 33.9% had cough, femoral puncture was performed in 31.3% of patients, and 29.5% were on antiplatelet therapy. Rectus sheath hematoma was not an attributable cause in any of the 17 deaths. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with CKD stage ≥3 (P = .03) or who required transfusion (P = .007). Better understanding of RSH risk factors will facilitate early diagnoses and improve management. PMID:25294636

  9. Transnasal endoscopic approach to expose the medial rectus from the annulus of Zinn to the penetration of Tenon's capsule.

    PubMed

    McKeown, C A; Metson, R B; Dunya, I M; Shore, J W; Joseph, M P

    1996-01-01

    Conventional strabismus surgery employs a conjunctival incision to gain access to Tenon's space where a wide variety of procedures are routinely performed on the tendon and anterior aspect of the extraocular muscles. Recently, transnasal endoscopic surgical techniques have gained acceptance as effective means of decompressing the medial wall and floor of the orbit in patients with thyroid-related orbitopathy. The orbital surface of the medial rectus and inferior rectus are exposed from the annulus of Zinn to a position close to where the muscles penetrate Tenon's capsule. In theory, this technique also provides the exposure necessary to locate and retrieve a "lost" medial rectus when the usual sub-Tenon's approach fails to recover the muscle. Cadaver studies demonstrate the feasibility of exposure and suture placement in the stump of a lost medial rectus with passage of the suture through Tenon's capsule to transmit the force of the muscle to the globe, provided that the lost muscle is retrieved before severe contracture develops. PMID:8827557

  10. The Role of Thyroid Eye Disease and Other Factors in the Overcorrection of Hypotropia Following Unilateral Adjustable Suture Recession of the Inferior Rectus (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Natalie C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Overcorrection of hypotropia subsequent to adjustable suture surgery following inferior rectus recession is undesirable, often resulting in persistent diplopia and reoperation. I hypothesized that overcorrection shift after suture adjustment may be unique to thyroid eye disease, and the use of a nonabsorbable suture may reduce the occurrence of overcorrection. Methods A retrospective chart review of adult patients who had undergone eye muscle surgery with an adjustable suture technique was performed. Overcorrection shifts that occurred between the time of suture adjustment and 2 months postoperatively were examined. Descriptive statistics, linear regression, Anderson-Darling tests, generalized Pareto distributions, odds ratios, and Fisher tests were performed for two overcorrection shift thresholds (>2 and >5 prism diopters [PD]). Results Seventy-seven patients were found: 34 had thyroid eye disease and inferior rectus recession, 30 had no thyroid eye disease and inferior rectus recession, and 13 patients had thyroid eye disease and medial rectus recession. Eighteen cases exceeded the 2 PD threshold, and 12 exceeded the 5 PD threshold. Statistical analyses indicated that overcorrection was associated with thyroid eye disease (P=6.7E-06), inferior rectus surgery (P=6.7E-06), and absorbable sutures (>2 PD: OR=3.7, 95% CI=0.435.0, P=0.19; and >5 PD: OR=6.0, 95% CI=1.133.5, P=0.041). Conclusions After unilateral muscle recession for hypotropia, overcorrection shifts are associated with thyroid eye disease, surgery of the inferior rectus, and use of absorbable sutures. Surgeons performing unilateral inferior rectus recession on adjustable suture in the setting of thyroid eye disease should consider using a nonabsorbable suture to reduce the incidence of postoperative overcorrection. PMID:22253487

  11. Computer system for forecasting surgery on the eye muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrunin, Oleg G.; Kukharenko, Dmitriy V.; Romanyuk, Sergii O.; Kalizhanova, Aliya; Toygozhinova, Aynur; Gromaszek, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    For the successful surgery on the eye muscles it is recommended to use a computer system of preoperative planning of the surgical correction of strabismus. With using the computer system at surgery planning, ophthalmologist surgeon will be able to choose the best surgical treatment and surgery dosage for a particular patient.

  12. Rectus abdominis diastasis.

    PubMed

    Akram, Javed; Matzen, Steen Henrik

    2014-06-01

    Because of the lack of agreement on when rectus diastasis (RD) is pathologic, the aim was to investigate indications for surgical repair. This study presents classifications of RD, current knowledge on the relation to pregnancy, and conservative and surgical management. A systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, and Cinahl revealed 437 studies. Inclusion criteria were applied according to the above mentioned subjects of interest. In total 28 studies were included, representing 3725 patients, 11 of these by assessing reference lists of included studies. Only one RCT was found; most studies were case-series lacking statistical analysis. RD was common in post-partum women. Antepartum activity level may have a protective effect on RD and exercise may improve post-partum symptoms of RD. Repair was done during abdominoplasty or laparoscopically. The patient-satisfaction was high and long-term recurrence was reported by one study, while five reported no recurrence. Overall major complications were few, while minor complications were primarily seroma and wound complications. RD is by itself not a true hernia and, therefore, not associated with the risk of strangulation. Repair is mostly done due to cosmetic reasons. The condition does not necessarily require repair, and conservative management may be an alternative. If done, the protrusion of the abdomen, rather than the diastasis itself should influence the decision of repair. It is recommended that future studies use the established classifications (e.g. Beer, Rath, or Nahas) when reporting RD and long-term outcome of treatment. Comparison of surgical techniques and studies that address and compare conservative management with surgery are needed. PMID:24256310

  13. Density gradients of trans-synaptically labeled collicular neurons after injections of rabies virus in the lateral rectus muscle of the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Grantyn, Alexej; Brandi, Anne-Marie; Dubayle, David; Graf, Werner; Ugolini, Gabriella; Hadjidimitrakis, Kostas; Moschovakis, Adonis

    2002-09-30

    We evaluated the two-dimensional distribution of superior colliculus (SC) neurons visualized after retrograde transneuronal transport of rabies virus injected into the lateral rectus muscle of rhesus monkeys to test whether the density of projection neurons might play a role in the spatiotemporal transformation and vector decomposition. If this were the case, the number of horizontal eye movement-related SC neurons should increase with their distance from the rostral pole of the SC and decrease with their distance from the representation of the horizontal meridian. Labeled neurons of the intermediate SC layers were counted inside a 1-mm-wide band that matched the horizontal meridian of the collicular motor map. Local areal densities were plotted against distance from the rostral SC pole. At 2.5 days after inoculation, there was no labeling in the SC. At 3 days, moderate labeling appeared on both sides, mostly in the intermediate layers. At 3.5 days, cell numbers substantially increased and the laminar distribution changed as cells appeared in the superficial SC layers. At 3 days, rostrocaudal density profiles were unimodal, with peaks at locations near 50 degrees (contralateral SC) and 25-30 degrees (ipsilateral SC) horizontal eccentricity. At 3.5 days, distributions were bimodal due to the appearance of a second high-density region near the rostral pole of the SC. The distribution of SC neurons influencing the abducens nucleus, thus, was nonuniform. Caudal sites contained more neurons, but the experimentally observed density gradients were shallower than the theoretically predicted ones that would be necessary to fully account for the spatiotemporal transformation. Similarly, we studied the distributions of cell densities in the intermediate SC layers along an isoamplitude line (representing saccades of equal amplitudes but different directions). Consistent with theoretical estimates of the density gradients required for vector decomposition, we found that the concentrations of labeled cells were highest in the vicinity of the horizontal meridian but their decrease toward the periphery of the motor map was steeper than predicted. We conclude that SC cell density gradients cannot fully account for the spatiotemporal transformation and vector decomposition in the absence of an additional mechanism such as the previously demonstrated (Grantyn et al., [1997] Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 23:1295; Moschovakis et al., [1998] J. Neurosci. 18:10219-10229) locus-dependent weighting of the strength of efferent projections to the saccade generators. PMID:12210129

  14. Comparative study of linear and curvilinear ultrasound probes to assess quadriceps rectus femoris muscle mass in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, S; Suh, E; Thompson, A; Connolly, B; Ramsay, M; Harding, R; Puthucheary, Z; Moxham, J; Hart, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasound measurements of rectus femoris cross-sectional area (RFCSA) are clinically useful measurements in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and critically ill patients. Technical considerations as to the type of probe used, which affects image resolution, have limited widespread clinical application. We hypothesised that measurement of RFCSA would be similar with linear and curvilinear probes. Methods Four studies were performed to compare the use of the curvilinear probe in measuring RFCSA. Study 1 investigated agreement of RFCSA measurements using linear and curvilinear probes in healthy subjects, and in patients with chronic respiratory disease. Study 2 investigated the intra-rater and inter-rater agreement using the curvilinear probe. Study 3 investigated the agreement of RFCSA measured from whole and spliced images using the linear probe. Study 4 investigated the applicability of ultrasound in measuring RFCSA during the acute and recovery phases of an exacerbation of COPD. Results Study 1 showed demonstrated no difference in the measurement of RFCSA using the curvilinear and linear probes (308±104 mm2 vs 320±117 mm2, p=0.80; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)>0.97). Study 2 demonstrated high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of RFCSA measurement with ICC>0.95 for both. Study 3 showed that the spliced image from the linear probe was similar to the whole image RFCSA (308±103.5 vs 263±147 mm2, p=0.34; ICC>0.98). Study 4 confirmed the clinical acceptability of using the curvilinear probe during an exacerbation of COPD. There were relationships observed between admission RFCSA and body mass index (r=+0.65, p=0.018), and between RFCSA at admission and physical activity levels at 4 weeks post-hospital discharge (r=+0.75, p=0.006). Conclusions These studies have demonstrated that clinicians can employ whole and spliced images from the linear probe or use images from the curvilinear probe, to measure RFCSA. This will extend the clinical applicability of ultrasound in the measurement of muscle mass in all patient groups. PMID:26835132

  15. Dengue Fever With Rectus Sheath Hematoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Bhatia, Sonia; Singh, Rajendra Pratap; Malik, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the Dengue virus. It is associated with a number of complications, which are well documented. However, Dengue fever associated with rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a very rare complication. Only one case report has been published prior supporting the association of Dengue fever with RSH. We report a case of Dengue fever who presented with RSH and was successfully treated conservatively. RSH is also an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear. PMID:25161976

  16. Dengue Fever with rectus sheath hematoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anurag; Bhatia, Sonia; Singh, Rajendra Pratap; Malik, Gaurav

    2014-04-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the Dengue virus. It is associated with a number of complications, which are well documented. However, Dengue fever associated with rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a very rare complication. Only one case report has been published prior supporting the association of Dengue fever with RSH. We report a case of Dengue fever who presented with RSH and was successfully treated conservatively. RSH is also an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear. PMID:25161976

  17. Does minimally invasive lumbar disc surgery result in less muscle injury than conventional surgery? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Arts, Mark; Brand, Ronald; van der Kallen, Bas; Lycklama Nijeholt, Geert; Peul, Wilco

    2011-01-01

    The concept of minimally invasive lumbar disc surgery comprises reduced muscle injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in serum and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the multifidus muscle on magnetic resonance imaging as indicators of muscle injury. We present the results of a double-blind randomized trial on patients with lumbar disc herniation, in which tubular discectomy and conventional microdiscectomy were compared. In 216 patients, CPK was measured before surgery and at day 1 after surgery. In 140 patients, the CSA of the multifidus muscle was measured at the affected disc level before surgery and at 1 year after surgery. The ratios (i.e. post surgery/pre surgery) of CPK and CSA were used as outcome measures. The multifidus atrophy was classified into three grades ranging from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe atrophy), and the difference between post and pre surgery was used as an outcome. Patients' low-back pain scores on the visual analogue scale (VAS) were documented before surgery and at various moments during follow-up. Tubular discectomy compared with conventional microdiscectomy resulted in a nonsignificant difference in CPK ratio, although the CSA ratio was significantly lower in tubular discectomy. At 1 year, there was no difference in atrophy grade between both groups nor in the percentage of patients showing an increased atrophy grade (14% tubular vs. 18% conventional). The postoperative low-back pain scores on the VAS improved in both groups, although the 1-year between-group mean difference of improvement was 3.5 mm (95% CI; 1.4-5.7 mm) in favour of conventional microdiscectomy. In conclusion, tubular discectomy compared with conventional microdiscectomy did not result in reduced muscle injury. Postoperative evaluation of CPK and the multifidus muscle showed similar results in both groups, although patients who underwent tubular discectomy reported more low-back pain during the first year after surgery. PMID:20556439

  18. Fetal surgery for repair of myelomeningocele allows normal development of anal sphincter muscles in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Jyoji; Sbragia, Lourenco; Paek, Bettina W; Sydorak, Roman M; Yamazaki, Yoji; Harrison, Michael R; Farmer, Diana L

    2004-01-01

    One major problem for patients with myelomeningocele (MMC) is fecal incontinence. To prevent this problem, fetal surgery for repair of MMC has been recently undertaken. The strategy behind this surgery is to allow normal development of anal sphincter muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fetal surgery for repair of MMC allows normal development of anal sphincter muscles. Myelomeningocele was surgically created in fetal sheep at 75 days of gestation. At 100 days of gestation, fetal surgery for repair of the MMC lesion was performed. Three repair methods were used: standard neurosurgical repair (4 fetal sheep), covering the MMC lesion with Alloderm (2 fetal sheep), and covering the MMC lesion with Gore-Tex (2 fetal sheep). After the sheep were delivered (140 days of gestation), external and internal anal sphincter muscles were analyzed histopathologically. In control fetal sheep (not repaired) anal sphincter muscles did not develop normally. In contrast, in fetal sheep that underwent repair of the MMC, the external and internal anal sphincter muscles developed normally. Histopathologically, in the external sphincter muscles, muscle fibers were dense. In the internal sphincter muscles, endomysial spaces were small, myofibrils were numerous, and fascicular units were larger than those in unrepaired fetal sheep. There was no difference in muscle development for the repair methods. Fetal surgery for repair of MMC allows normal development of anal sphincter muscles. PMID:14689212

  19. Surgical treatment of large median incisional hernia using the prosthetic mesh introduced behind the rectus abdominis muscle sheath procedure (Rives-Stoppa procedure)

    PubMed Central

    Gangură, AG; Palade, RŞ

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A number of 77 large incisional hernias located on the midline of the abdomen were operated following Rives-Stoppa procedure, in a period of five years (2006-2011), in the Surgery Clinic I of the University Hospital Bucharest. The characteristics of the study group were mean age - 62 years, predominance of females - 63 cases (82%), the rate of obesity - 26 observations (34%). Immediate postoperative morbidity was represented by (no. cases): thrombophlebitis (3), prolonged postoperative ileus (6), seroma (12) extended hematic drainage (5), hematoma (4). There were no fatalities. Late postoperative morbidity (no. cases) registered granulomas (4) and recurrence (2). We obtained good and very good results in 71 cases (92%). PMID:25408767

  20. The origins and insertions of the extraocular muscles: development, histologic features, and clinical significance.

    PubMed Central

    Sevel, D

    1986-01-01

    The tendinous origins and insertions of the extraocular muscles were studied embryologically by macroscopic and microscopic methods. It is concluded from this investigation that these tendons of origin and insertion arise from mesenchymal tissue similar to that of their respective muscles. These tendon-muscle groups have developed from superior and inferior mesenchymal complexes. The origins of the extraocular muscles are attached to the periorbita by an interlocking of the tendinous and muscular fibers, which allows for mobility of the extraocular muscles in all extreme directions of gaze and also results in a strong mechanical mooring for these muscles. Avulsion at the origins of the extraocular muscles following severe traction or trauma is rare. The additional origin of the superior and medial rectus muscles to the dura of the optic nerve explains the pain that may occur on movement of the eye in optic neuritis. Optic nerve compression and thyroid myopathy is explained by mucopolysaccharide and inflammatory cell infiltration of the muscular interdigitations that extend up to the site of origin of the rectus muscles. Findings of this investigation suggest that the association of ptosis and superior rectus muscle underaction may be due to a persistence of fibrous tissue that has endured from embryologic development between the superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris muscles. Superior oblique tendon sheath syndrome is explained by embryologic strands remaining between the tendon of the superior oblique muscle and the trochlea. The insertions of the rectus muscles extend from the equator of the eye to the limbus early on in development. By processes of differential degeneration between the sclera and the rectus tendon, posterior recession of the tendon from the limbus, and contemporaneous growth of the anterior segment of the eye, these tendons reach their adult location only between the ages of 18 months and 2 years. In strabismus surgery, measurements for muscle adjustments should be assessed from the limbus rather than from the sites of insertion of these tendons. In the series of patients with esotropia, no mechanical abnormalities were noted in relationship to the insertions of the medial or lateral recti muscles. Furthermore, no correlation was found between the site of insertion of the medial rectus muscle and the degree of esotropia. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 PMID:3590478

  1. Uses of the Inferior Oblique Muscle in Strabismus Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stager, David; Dao, Lori M.; Felius, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Inferior oblique muscle weakening is typically performed for overaction of the muscle. In this article, we review inferior oblique muscle anatomy, different weakening procedures, and recent surgical techniques that take advantage of the muscle's unique anatomy for the treatment of additional indications such as excyclotorsion and hypertropia in primary gaze. PMID:26180466

  2. Robotic Total Pelvic Exenteration with Laparoscopic Rectus Flap: Initial Experience

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Brian R.; Mann, Gary N.; Louie, Otway; Wright, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Total pelvic exenteration is a highly morbid procedure performed for locally advanced pelvic malignancies. We describe our experience with three patients who underwent robotic total pelvic exenteration with laparoscopic rectus flap and compare perioperative characteristics to our open experience. Demographic, tumor, operative, and perioperative factors were examined with descriptive statistics reported. Mean operative times were similar between the two groups. When compared to open total pelvic exenteration cases (n = 9), median estimated blood loss, ICU stay, and hospital stay were all decreased. These data show robotic pelvic exenteration with laparoscopic rectus flap is technically feasible. The surgery was well tolerated with low blood loss and comparable operative times to the open surgery. Further study is needed to confirm the oncologic efficacy and the suggested improvement in surgical morbidity. PMID:25960911

  3. Adaptability of the Immature Ocular Motor Control System: Unilateral IGF-1 Medial Rectus Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Christy L.; Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M.; Mustari, Michael J.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Unilateral treatment with sustained release IGF-1 to one medial rectus muscle in infant monkeys was performed to test the hypothesis that strabismus would develop as a result of changes in extraocular muscles during the critical period of development of binocularity. Methods. Sustained release IGF-1 pellets were implanted unilaterally on one medial rectus muscle in normal infant monkeys during the first 2 weeks of life. Eye position was monitored using standard photographic methods. After 3 months of treatment, myofiber and neuromuscular size, myosin composition, and innervation density were quantified in all rectus muscles and compared to those in age-matched controls. Results. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatments resulted in strabismus for all treated subjects; 3 of the 4 subjects had a clinically significant strabismus of more than 10°. Both the treated medial rectus and the untreated ipsilateral antagonist lateral rectus muscles had significantly larger myofibers. No adaptation in myofiber size occurred in the contralateral functionally yoked lateral rectus or in myosin composition, neuromuscular junction size, or nerve density. Conclusions. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatment to extraocular muscles during the sensitive period of development of orthotropic eye alignment and binocularity was sufficient to disturb ocular motor development, resulting in strabismus in infant monkeys. This could be due to altering fusion of gaze during the early sensitive period. Serial measurements of eye alignment suggested the IGF-1-treated infants received insufficient coordinated binocular experience, preventing the establishment of normal eye alignment. Our results uniquely suggest that abnormal signaling by the extraocular muscles may be a cause of strabismus. PMID:26030103

  4. Artificial muscles for a novel simulator in minimally invasive spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Hollensteiner, Marianne; Fuerst, David; Schrempf, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are commonly used minimally invasive methods to treat vertebral compression fractures. Novice surgeons gather surgical skills in different ways, mainly by "learning by doing" or training on models, specimens or simulators. Currently, a new training modality, an augmented reality simulator for minimally invasive spine surgeries, is going to be developed. An important step in investigating this simulator is the accurate establishment of artificial tissues. Especially vertebrae and muscles, reproducing a comparable haptical feedback during tool insertion, are necessary. Two artificial tissues were developed to imitate natural muscle tissue. The axial insertion force was used as validation parameter. It appropriates the mechanical properties of artificial and natural muscles. Validation was performed on insertion measurement data from fifteen artificial muscle tissues compared to human muscles measurement data. Based on the resulting forces during needle insertion into human muscles, a suitable material composition for manufacturing artificial muscles was found. PMID:25570007

  5. Decellularized Human Skeletal Muscle as Biologic Scaffold for Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Porzionato, Andrea; Sfriso, Maria Martina; Pontini, Alex; Macchi, Veronica; Petrelli, Lucia; Pavan, Piero G.; Natali, Arturo N.; Bassetto, Franco; Vindigni, Vincenzo; De Caro, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Engineered skeletal muscle tissues have been proposed as potential solutions for volumetric muscle losses, and biologic scaffolds have been obtained by decellularization of animal skeletal muscles. The aim of the present work was to analyse the characteristics of a biologic scaffold obtained by decellularization of human skeletal muscles (also through comparison with rats and rabbits) and to evaluate its integration capability in a rabbit model with an abdominal wall defect. Rat, rabbit and human muscle samples were alternatively decellularized with two protocols: n.1, involving sodium deoxycholate and DNase I; n.2, trypsin-EDTA and Triton X-NH4OH. Protocol 2 proved more effective, removing all cellular material and maintaining the three-dimensional networks of collagen and elastic fibers. Ultrastructural analyses with transmission and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the preservation of collagen, elastic fibres, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Implantation of human scaffolds in rabbits gave good results in terms of integration, although recellularization by muscle cells was not completely achieved. In conclusion, human skeletal muscles may be effectively decellularized to obtain scaffolds preserving the architecture of the extracellular matrix and showing mechanical properties suitable for implantation/integration. Further analyses will be necessary to verify the suitability of these scaffolds for in vitro recolonization by autologous cells before in vivo implantation. PMID:26140375

  6. Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Intervention in Extremity Fracture Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Qin; Deng, Yun-Long; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Richmond, Christopher J; Tang, Ying; Zhou, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of progressive muscle relaxation on state anxiety and self-efficacy in hospitalized patients admitted for an extremity fracture receiving elective surgery. Eighty four patients met the inclusion criteria and all were randomly assigned to either the progressive muscle relaxation group or the control group. The control group received standard orthopedic nursing care, and the experimental group received standard care along with daily progressive muscle relaxation throughout their hospitalization. The State Anxiety Inventory and Self-Efficacy Scales were administered before and after the intervention. Both paired-sample t tests and independent t tests showed that progressive muscle relaxation is effective in reducing state anxiety and enhancing the self-efficacy of patients with extremity fracture undergoing an elective surgery. PMID:25248661

  7. Medial Rectus Recession Is as Effective as Lateral Rectus Resection in Divergence Paralysis Esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To propose medial rectus (MR) recession to be equally as effective as lateral rectus (LR) resection, which has heretofore been the preferred treatment for divergence paralysis esotropia (DPE). Methods We examined a 17-year surgical experience comparing LR resection with MR recession in adults with DPE, defined as symptomatic distance esotropia (ET) at least double the asymptomatic ET of 10 or less prism diopters (?) at near. Results Twenty-four patients with DPE underwent surgery. Six patients underwent bilateral LR resection and 2 underwent unilateral LR resection (group L), while 13 underwent bilateral MR recession and 3 underwent unilateral MR recession, with the target angle double the distance ET (group M). One of 8 patients in group L and 15 of 16 patients in group M underwent intraoperative adjustable surgery under topical anesthesia. Mean (SD) preoperative central gaze ET measured 15.0 (7.7) ? at distance and 4.1 (3.4) ? at near in group L, but 10.4 (6.8) ? at distance and 0.6 (1.7) ? at near in group M (P=.15; distance, 0.003, near). Postoperatively, no patient in either group had symptomatic diplopia or convergence insufficiency in follow-up from 8.5 to 40 months. Twice the usual surgical dose of MR recession per prism diopter was required to achieve correction of the distance deviation in DPE as compared with that recommended for ET generally and also for LR resection in the same condition. Conclusions Recession of the MR provides binocular single vision in DPE without convergence insufficiency at near, and it is convenient for intraoperative adjustment under topical anesthesia. PMID:22688183

  8. Tourniquet Use During Knee Replacement Surgery May Contribute to Muscle Atrophy in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Hans C

    2016-04-01

    Muscle atrophy after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) occurs at a rate of 1% per day for the first 2 wk. Our hypothesis is that tourniquet-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury occurring during TKA influences metabolism and may contribute to atrophy. Identifying pathways that are upregulated during this critical "14-d window" after surgery may help us delineate therapeutic approaches to avoid muscle loss. PMID:26829246

  9. Clinical study of the Pronator Quadratus muscle: anatomical features and feasibility of Pronator-Sparing Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No clinical data for the relationship of pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle to distal radius had been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical features of the PQ muscle related to plate osteosynthesis for distal radius fractures in clinical cases. The feasibility of PQ muscle sparing surgery was investigated as well. Methods Fifty two distal radius fractures (23-A2) were enclosed in this study. The whole width of the muscle and the distance from the distal edge of the muscle to the joint surface of the distal radius were measured. The distance from the fracture site of the radius to the joint surface was measured as well. Results The average width of the pronator quadratus muscle was 37.6mm. The average distance from the pronator quadratus muscle to the lunate fossa surface was 12.2mm, and the average distance from the pronator quadratus muscle to the scaphoid fossa surface was 13.6mm. The average distance from the lunate fossa of the distal radius to the fracture site was 12.2mm (range, 7.3-17mm), and the scaphoid fossa of the distal radius to the fracture site was 13.2mm (range, 9.4-18.8mm). Conclusions This PQ muscle sparing surgery is feasible and can be performed without difficulty. The data might provide a useful basis for the preservation of pronator quadratus muscle applied to a functionally reduced fracture regarding the potential efficacy of conventional volar plate osteosynthesis. PMID:24762047

  10. Review: minimally invasive strabismus surgery.

    PubMed

    Mojon, D S

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the principles and different techniques used to perform minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS). This term is used for strabismus surgeries minimizing tissue disruption. Muscles are not accessed through one large opening, but using several keyhole openings placed where needed for the surgical steps. If necessary, tunnels are created between cuts, which will allow performing additional surgical steps. To keep the keyhole openings small, transconjunctival suturing techniques are used. The cuts are always placed as far away from the limbus as feasible. This will reduce the risk for postoperative corneal complications and it will ensure that all cuts will be covered by the eyelids, minimizing postoperative visibility of surgery and patient discomfort. Benefits from minimizing anatomical disruption between the muscle and the surrounding tissue are a better preservation of muscle function, less swelling, and pain, and more ease to perform reoperations. MISS openings allow to perform all types of strabismus surgeries, namely rectus muscle recessions, resections, plications, reoperations, retroequatorial myopexias, transpositions, oblique muscle recessions, or plications, and adjustable sutures, even in the presence of restricted motility. PMID:25431106

  11. Simultaneous Prosthetic Mesh Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Abdominoplasty for Ventral Hernia and Severe Rectus Diastasis Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Cheesborough, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard abdominoplasty rectus plication techniques may not suffice for severe cases of rectus diastasis. In the authors experience, prosthetic mesh facilitates the repair of severe rectus diastasis with or without concomitant ventral hernias. Methods: A retrospective review of all abdominal wall surgery patients treated in the past 8 years by the senior author (G.A.D.) was performed. Patients with abdominoplasty and either rectus diastasis repair with mesh or a combined ventral hernia repair were analyzed. Results: Thirty-two patients, 29 women and three men, underwent mesh-reinforced midline repair with horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty. Patient characteristics included the following: mean age, 53 years; mean body mass index, 26 kg/m2; average width of diastasis or hernia, 6.7 cm; and average surgery time, 151 minutes. There were no surgical-site infections and two surgical-site occurrencestwo seromas treated with drainage in the office. After an average of 471 days follow-up, none of the patients had recurrence of a bulge or a hernia. Conclusions: For patients with significant rectus diastasis, with or without concomitant hernias, the described mesh repair is both safe and durable. Although this operation requires additional dissection and placement of prosthetic mesh in the retrorectus plane, it may be safely combined with standard horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty skin excision techniques to provide an aesthetically pleasing overall result. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:25539311

  12. Contribution of the skin, rectus abdominis and their sheaths to the structural response of the abdominal wall ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Tran, D; Mitton, D; Voirin, D; Turquier, F; Beillas, P

    2014-09-22

    A better understanding of the abdominal wall biomechanics could help designing new treatments for incisional hernia. In the current study, an experimental protocol was developed to evaluate the contributions of the abdominal wall components to the structural response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall. The specimens underwent 3 dissections (removal of (1) skin and subcutaneous fat, (2) anterior rectus sheath, (3) rectus abdominis muscles). After each dissection, they were subjected to air pressure up to 3 kPa. Ultrasound images and associated elastographic maps were collected at 0, 2 and 3 kPa in the intact state and strains on the internal surface were calculated using stereo-correlation in all states. Strains on the rectus abdominis and linea alba were analyzed. After the dissection of the anterior sheath of the rectus abdominis, longitudinal strain was found significantly different on the linea alba (5% at 3 kPa) and on the rectus abdominis area (11% at 3 kPa). The current results highlight the importance of the rectus sheath in the structural response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall ex vivo. Geometrical characteristics such as thicknesses and radii of curvature and mechanical properties (shear modulus of the rectus abdominis, e.g. at 0 pressure the average value is 14 kPa) were provided in order to facilitate future modeling efforts. PMID:25065730

  13. The spinal accessory nerve plexus, the trapezius muscle, and shoulder stabilization after radical neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H; Burns, S; Kaiser, C W

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and anatomic study of the spinal accessory, the eleventh cranial nerve, and trapezius muscle function of patients who had radical neck cancer surgery was conducted. This study was done not only to document the indispensibility of the trapezius muscle to shoulder-girdle stability, but also to clarify the role of the eleventh cranial nerve in the variable motor and sensory changes occurring after the loss of this muscle. Seventeen male patients, 49-69 years of age, (average of 60 years of age) undergoing a total of 23 radical neck dissections were examined for upper extremity function, particularly in regard to the trapezius muscle, and for subjective signs of pain. The eleventh nerve, usually regarded as the sole motor innervation to the trapezius, was cut in 17 instances because of tumor involvement. Dissection of four fresh and 30 preserved adult cadavers helped to reconcile the motor and sensory differences in patients who had undergone loss of the eleventh nerve. The dissections and clinical observations corroborate that the trapezius is a key part of a "muscle continuum" that stabilizes the shoulder. Variations in origins and insertions of the trapezius may influence its function in different individuals. As regards the spinal accessory nerve, it is concluded that varying motor and sensory connections form a plexus with the eleventh nerve, accounting, in part, for the variations in motor innervation and function of the trapezius, as well as for a variable spectrum of sensory changes when the eleventh nerve is cut. For this reason, it is suggested that the term "spinal accessory nerve plexus" be used to refer to the eleventh nerve when it is considered in the context of radical neck cancer surgery. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3056289

  14. Masticatory performance, muscle activity, and occlusal force in preorthognathic surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Tate, G S; Throckmorton, G S; Ellis, E; Sinn, D P

    1994-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated that patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery tend to have lower maximum bite forces and exert lower forces during mastication. The effect of these deficits on masticatory performance have not been previously assessed. Masticatory performance was analyzed in four groups: male and female orthognathic surgery patients prior to presurgical orthodontics (n = 12 and 23), and male and female controls (n = 27 and 31). Mastication performance was analyzed by having the subjects chew 5-g pieces of carrot for 20 cycles and measuring the resulting median particle size with a standard sieve method. Masticatory performance showed the same trends as maximum bite force and masticatory forces: male controls had the best and patients the poorest masticatory performance. There was a weak correlation between masticatory performance and maximum bite force at the molar positions. Masticatory performance also weakly correlated to electromyographic signals during mastication of a constant bolus (gummy bears) for all muscles except the left posterior temporalis. Correlations were generally not present or were very weak between masticatory performance, estimated masticatory forces, and muscle efficiency, suggesting that muscle efficiency and forces generated during mastication are not the primary factors that determine masticatory performance. Other factors contributing to a person's ability to chew food might include occlusal relationships and mechanical advantage. PMID:8169710

  15. Control of a Six Degree-of-Freedom Prosthetic Arm after Targeted Muscle Reinnervation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laura A.; Lipschutz, Robert D.; Stubblefield, Kathy A.; Lock, Blair A.; Huang, He; Williams, T. Walley; Weir, Richard F.; Kuiken, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To fit and evaluate the control of a complex prosthesis for a shoulder disarticulation level amputee subject with targeted muscle reinnervation. Design One participant who had targeted muscle reinnervation surgery was fit with an advanced prosthesis and usage with this device was compared to the device used in the home setting. Setting The experiments were completed within a laboratory setting. Participants The first recipient of targeted muscle reinnervation: a bilateral shoulder disarticulation level amputee. Interventions Two years after surgery, the subject was fit with a 6 degree of freedom (DOF) prosthesis (shoulder flexion, humeral rotation, elbow flexion, wrist rotation, wrist flexion, and hand control). Control of this device was compared to his commercially available 3 DOF system (elbow, wrist rotation, and powered hook terminal device). Main Outcome Measure In order to assess performance, movement analysis and timed movement tasks were executed. Results The subject was able to independently operate all 6 arm functions with good control. He could simultaneously operate 2 DOF of several different joint combinations with relative ease. He operated up to 4 DOF simultaneously, but with poor control. Work space was markedly increased and some timed-tasks were faster with the 6-DOF system. Conclusions This proof-of-concept study shows that advances in control of shoulder disarticulation level prostheses can improve the quality of movement. Additional control sources may spur the development of more advanced and complex componentry for these amputees. PMID:18996233

  16. Anatomical and mechanical relationship between the proximal attachment of adductor longus and the distal rectus sheath.

    PubMed

    Norton-Old, Kimberley J; Schache, Anthony G; Barker, Priscilla J; Clark, Ross A; Harrison, Simon M; Briggs, Christopher A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the anatomical relationship between the proximal adductor longus (AL) and rectus abdominis muscles and to determine whether unilateral loading of AL results in strain transmission across the anterior pubic symphysis to the contralateral distal rectus sheath. Bilateral dissections were conducted on 10 embalmed cadavers. Strain transfer across the pubic symphysis was examined on seven of these cadavers. An AL contraction was simulated by applying a controlled load in the direction of its proximal tendinous fibers, and the resultant strain in the contralateral distal rectus sheath was measured using a foil-type surface mounted microstrain gage. Adductor longus attached to the antero-inferior aspect of the pubis. In 18 of the 20 limbs, the proximal attachment of AL was tendinous on its superficial surface and muscular on its deep surface. The proximal AL tendon was found in most instances to have secondary communications with structures such as the contralateral distal rectus sheath, pubic symphysis anterior capsule, ilio-inguinal ligament, and contralateral proximal AL tendon. Despite these consistent anatomical observations, strain measured in the contralateral distal rectus sheath upon unilateral loading of the proximal AL varied considerably between cadavers. Measured strain had an average ± 1SD of 0.23 ± 0.43%. The proximal attachment of AL contributes to an anatomical pathway across the anterior pubic symphysis that is likely required to withstand the transmission of large forces during multidirectional athletic activities. This anatomical relationship may be a relevant factor in explaining the apparent vulnerability of the AL and rectus abdominis attachments to injury. PMID:23553712

  17. SEX DIFFERENCES IN RECTUS FEMORIS MORPHOLOGY ACROSS DIFFERENT KNEE FLEXION POSITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Heather; Davis, Ashley; Lazicki, Randall; Martinez, Corina; Black, Douglass

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Quadriceps function is an important outcome following lower extremity injury and surgery. Measurements of quadriceps function are particularly helpful initially post surgery, however traditional quadriceps strength measures like isokinetic testing are contraindicated during this time period. Inclusion of dynamic musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging in the clinical setting has been beneficial in understanding quadriceps activation specifically rectus femoris (RF) contraction; however, there is a paucity of literature in this area. The purpose of the current study was to describe the cross?sectional area (CSA) of the RF across varying knee flexion angles. Methods: Forty?five adult recreational athletes were recruited for the study (21 males, 24 females). All subjects underwent tests of maximal volitional isometric contractions of the knee extensors at 0, 30, 60 and 90 degrees of knee flexion. During the trials, musculoskeletal ultrasound images of the RF at 15 cm from the superior pole of the patella were taken at rest and during contraction for each of the angular positions. Mixed model ANOVAs (angle x sex) were utilized to examine the differences between males and females for different angular positions. These analyses were conducted for the resting CSA, active CSA, and the contractile index (resting active). Results: RF cross?sectional area increased with increasing angles of knee flexion for both the resting and active conditions. The contractile index consistently decreased as knee flexion angle increased. No statistically significant interactions or main effects for sex were observed, although differences were observed in the trajectories of the data sets for males and females. Conclusions: RF CSA is dependent on knee flexion angle in both males and females. As a result, the assessment of RF CSA should be conducted in a standardized position if this variable is to be utilized as a meaningful measure of muscle size during rehabilitation. Additional research should seek out which factors are associated with clinically relevant factors that effect RF CSA across the range of knee flexion. Level of Evidence: 3b PMID:23593545

  18. Eye muscle surgery for infantile nystagmus syndrome in the first two years of life

    PubMed Central

    Hertle, Richard W; Felius, Joost; Yang, Dongsheng; Kaufman, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To report visual and elctrophysioloigcal effects of eye muscle surgery in young patients with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS). Methods: Prospective, interventional case cohort of 19 patients aged under 24 months who were operated on for combinations of strabismus, an anomalous head posture, and nystagmus. All patients were followed at least nine months. Outcome measures, part of an institutionally approved study, included Teller acuity, head position, strabismic deviation, and eye movement recordings, from which waveform types and a nystagmus optimal foveation fraction (NOFF). Computerized parametric and nonparametric statistical analysis of data were perfomed using standard software on both individual and group data. Results: Age averaged 17.7 months (13.1-month follow-up). Thirteen (68%) patients had associated optic nerve or retinal disease. 42% had amblyopia, 68% had refractive errors. Group means in binocular Teller acuity (P < 0.05), strabismic deviation (P < 0.05), head posture (P < 0.001), and the NOFF measures (P < 0.01) from eye movement recordings improved in all patients. There was a change in null zone waveforms to more favorable jerk types. There were no reoperations or surgical complications. Conclusions: Surgery on the extraocular muscles in patients aged less than two years with INS results in improvements in multiple aspects of ocular motor and visual function. PMID:19997564

  19. Muscle amino acid flux in patients receiving branched-chain amino acid solutions after surgery.

    PubMed

    Bonau, R A; Jeevanandam, M; Moldawer, L; Blackburn, G L; Daly, J M

    1987-04-01

    The metabolism and efficacy of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)-enriched parenteral solutions in patients after surgery are unclear. This prospective clinical study compared two groups of patients (n = 13) receiving either a 25% BCAA solution or a 45% BCAA solution at 30 kcal/kg/day and 1.5 gm protein/kg/day for 7 days after operation. Whole-body nitrogen balance and forearm muscle amino acid and ketoacid flux were measured. There were no significant differences between the two groups in mean cumulative nitrogen balance (+13.1 gm versus +18.0 gm) between the two groups. Patients receiving the 45% BCAA solution had significant mean uptake of total BCAA, leucine, and isoleucine compared with results in patients receiving the 25% BCAA solution. Despite this increased uptake of BCAA in the 45% BCAA group, there was no increased efflux of alanine, glutamine, or the BCAA ketoacids, ketoisocaproic, ketoisovaleric, or ketomethylvaleric. However, increased release of aspartate was noted in the 45% BCAA group compared with the 25% BCAA group. Thus use of a 45% BCAA-enriched solution infused in patients after surgery results in a significant increase in forearm muscle uptake of the BCAA that is not demonstrated in whole-body nitrogen economics. PMID:3563885

  20. Seeding of the Rectus Sheath with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Image Guided Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Using Coaxial Biopsy Needle System

    PubMed Central

    Tchatalbachev, Vladislav V.; Kirkpatrick, Daniel L.; Duff, Deiter J.; Travis, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Needle track seeding following image guided needle biopsy is a known but uncommon complication in the workup of hepatocellular carcinoma. We present the case of a 55 year-old male who was found to have a recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma in the rectus sheath five years following a CT guided biopsy with the biopsy needle passing through the anterior abdominal wall muscles. PMID:25926917

  1. Predictive value of the Duncan-Ely test in distal rectus femoris transfer.

    PubMed

    Kay, Robert M; Rethlefsen, Susan A; Kelly, John P; Wren, Tishya A L

    2004-01-01

    Fifty-six patients who underwent 94 distal rectus femoris transfers and pre- and postoperative gait analyses were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into three groups based on pre- and postoperative Duncan-Ely tests. Group A (34 limbs) had positive tests both before and after surgery. Group B (46 limbs) had positive tests before surgery and negative tests after surgery. Group C (13 limbs) had negative tests both before and after surgery. One limb had a negative test before surgery and a positive test after surgery and was not included in any group. Knee arc increased significantly in both groups with positive preoperative Duncan-Ely tests (groups A and B), but not in the group with negative preoperative tests (group C). The timing of peak knee flexion in swing improved in all groups, but the change was smaller and not statistically significant in the group with negative preoperative tests (group C). The findings of the current study indicate that the Duncan-Ely test may be a helpful predictor of outcome in children for whom distal rectus femoris transfer is being considered. Caution should be exercised when patients have weak quadriceps and a negative Duncan-Ely test before surgery, particularly when concurrent calf lengthening procedures are planned. PMID:14676535

  2. Ectopic osteogenesis in the rectus sheath.

    PubMed

    Me?in?, C; Me?in?-Botoran, Mihaela Iustina; Dr?goi, G S; Pa?alega, M; Vlcea, D; Vasile, I

    2006-01-01

    Although was published many cases of ectopic osteogenesis of traumatic, neurogenic cause or hereditable form, the etiology of ectopic osteogenesis remaining unknown. We present ectopic osteogenesis in the rectus abdominal sheath. The study material was represented from fragments of ectopic bones discovered in rectus sheath of four patients suffering iterative surgical abdominal interventions. The pieces of ectopic bone were decalcified and then were made to the standard techniques (paraffin inclusion, general techniques dyeing). The process of ectopic osteogenesis was analyzed through microscopically study to seriated sections of discovered piece, finding the presence of the hematopoesis foci. We conclude that is important identifying and characterizing the osteoinductor agents because these allowed the study of osteogenesis to the cellular level and make an estimation of the abnormally bone developing mechanisms. A possible osteoinductor factor has been considerate the non-absorbable wound closure material. PMID:16838064

  3. Eye muscle repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eye; Resection and recession; Strabismus repair; Extraocular muscle surgery ... The goal of this surgery is to restore the eye muscles to a proper position. This will help the eyes move correctly. Eye muscle surgery ...

  4. Lateral rectus palsy following coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Luke; Jones, Ruth; Hughes, David S

    2014-01-01

    We present a rare case of unilateral lateral rectus palsy following an elective coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention in a 78-year-oldwoman. Ophthalmoplegia following coronary angiography is extremely rare and this is the first case of a unilateral lateral rectus palsy following the procedure. PMID:24536054

  5. Early American Strabismus Surgery: 1840-1845.

    PubMed

    Currie, Benjamin D; Feibel, Robert M

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of effective surgical therapy for strabismus was one of the outstanding triumphs of the first half of 19th-century ophthalmology, just prior to the invention of the ophthalmoscope in 1850. Although priority for the development of strabismus surgery belongs to Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach of Germany, who first reported his surgical results in 1839, 4 cases of tenotomy of the medial rectus muscle had been performed in the United States by William Gibson in 1818 but never published. By 1840, the reports of surgery in Europe had rapidly spread to America where surgeons immediately began using these procedures. The first American surgeon to perform eye muscle surgery and publish his results was John Dix of Boston, and other surgeons were soon reporting their cases as well. We discuss 8 American pioneers in this field during the time (1840-1845) of the first burst of enthusiasm for this surgery. Although these surgeons were active in performing a large number of cases and carefully reporting their experiences and results, they did not make any major advances in the field. PMID:26669424

  6. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma in a patient treated with apixaban

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Halil; Inci, Sinan; Dogan, Pinar; Izgu, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Summary Apixaban, a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, is a Factor Xa inhibitor that is prescribed for the treatment of non valvular atrial fibrillation. Rectus sheath hematoma is a rare but significant complication of oral anticoagulant treatment. The important causes of rectus sheath hematoma include treatment with anticoagulants, hematologic diseases, trauma, intense physical activity, coughing, sneezing and pregnancy. In this report, we describe case of a 71-year-old woman undergoing apixaban treatment for non valvular atrial fibrillation who presented with spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma. PMID:26989650

  7. Surgically Mismanaged Ptosis in a Patient with Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type I

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Hatem A.; Rashad, Mohamed A.

    2012-01-01

    Fibrosis syndromes comprise a rare form of severe limitation of ocular motility. An 11-year-old girl was referred for the correction of eyelid retraction. The eyelid retraction occurred immediately following levator resection surgery performed by a plastic surgeon who missed the restrictive extraocular muscle abnormalities. On examination, both eyes were fixed in an infraducted position (20 prism diopters (?)), with a chin-up position and significant lagophthalmos. Bilateral 12-mm inferior rectus recession with adjustable sutures was performed, which resulted in significant reduction of lagophthalmos and elimination of the head tilt. PMID:23248547

  8. Sternalis Muscle: An Unexpected Finding during Mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sasmal, Prakash K.; Meher, Susanta; Mishra, Tushar S.; Deep, N.; Tripathy, Prabhas R.; Rath, Satyajit

    2015-01-01

    Sternalis muscle also called rectus sternalis, rectus thoracis, or episternalis is an anomalous muscle of the anterior chest wall with unknown anatomical function. It is regularly observed in lower animal but infrequently in humans. Presence of this muscle can create confusion with tumours of the anterior chest wall during routine mammography. Although less is known about its origin and innervations, knowledge about this muscle can have many clinical implications. A case of unilateral sternalis muscle detected during mastectomy, in a female with carcinoma of the right breast, is being reported with a brief review of the literature and highlighting its clinical significance. PMID:26609461

  9. Isolated Total Rupture of Extraocular Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingchang; Kang, Ying; Deng, Daming; Shen, Tao; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Total rupture of extraocular muscles is an infrequent clinical finding. Here we conducted this retrospective study to evaluate their causes of injury, clinical features, imaging, surgical management, and final outcomes in cases of isolated extraocular muscle rupture at a tertiary center in China. Thirty-six patients were identified (24 men and 12 women). Mean age was 34 years (range 260). The right eye was involved in 21 patients and the left 1 in 15. A sharp object or metal hook was the cause of this lesion in 16 patients, sinus surgery in 14 patients, traffic accident in 3 patients, orbital surgery in 2 patients, and conjunctive tumor surgery in 1 patient. The most commonly involved muscles were medial (18 patients) and inferior rectus muscles (13 patients). The function of the ruptured muscles revealed a scale of ?3 to ?4 defect of ocular motility and the amount of deviation in primary position varied from 10 to 140 PD (prism diopter). Computerized tomography (CT) confirmed the presence of ruptured muscles. An end-to-end muscle anastomosis was performed and 3 to 5?mm of muscle was resected in 23 patients. When the posterior border of the injured muscle could not be identified (13 patients), a partial tendon transposition was performed, together with recession of the antagonist in most patients, whereas a recession of the antagonist muscle plus a resection of the involved muscle with or without nasal periosteal fixation was performed in the remaining patients. After an average of 16.42 months of follow-up an excellent result was achieved in 23 patients and results of 13 patients were considered as a failure. In most patients, the posterior border of the ruptured muscle can be identified and an early surgery can be performed to restore function. Alternatively, a partial tendon transposition should be performed. When muscular rupture is suspected, an early orbital CT is required to confirm this possibility, which can then verify the necessity for an early surgical intervention. PMID:26426604

  10. Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis due to Campylobacter rectus infection.

    PubMed

    Leo, Qi Jie Nicholas; Bolger, Dennis Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of cavernous sinus thrombosis in a 55-year-old Chinese man who presented with headache, ophthalmoplegia and ptosis. Campylobacter rectus was eventually isolated from the blood cultures. He was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, anticoagulation and steroids with improvement in his condition. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis caused by C. rectus. PMID:24842357

  11. [Plastic surgery of extended defects after exenteration of the pelvis].

    PubMed

    Abdou, A; Bruns, H; Troja, A; Antolovic, D; Li, L; Raab, H-R

    2015-04-01

    Extended resections of pelvic malignancies, especially in cases of recurrent malignancies, result in the formation of large tissue defects in the region of the pelvic floor and perineum, which are difficult to deal with. Both after extra levator rectal excision and pelvic exenteration, wound healing deficiencies and local infections of the perineal wound are frequent. Primary closure is often impossible due to a lack of tissue substance after resection and an additional previous radiotherapy in most cases. This can result in poor or non-healing wounds, a consecutive need of complex care and an increased risk of secondary problems including tumour recurrences. A permanent wound closure of good quality can therefore only be achieved by plastic surgery. This can be done by local or distant muscle flaps with or without skin, for example, the gluteus maximus flap, the vertical rectus abdominis muscle flap (VRAM) or free flaps such as the latissimus dorsi flap. PMID:25874472

  12. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  13. Electromyographic activity of knee stabilizer muscles during six different balance board stimuli after anterior cruciate ligament surgery.

    PubMed

    Pereira, H M; Nowotny, A H; Santos, A B A N; Cardoso, J R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the electrical activity of the knee stabilizers, in patients with ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstructed and uninjured individuals during different balance board stimuli. Eleven post-surgery individuals and eleven uninjured controls participated in the study. The muscular activity of the vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medial were analyzed by surface electromyography during the execution of six different balance board activities. All electromyographic data were reported as percentage of RMS mean values obtained in maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) for each muscle. When comparing the individuals with ACL reconstructed and uninjured controls, minor electromyographic activity was observed (MVIC %) for all the muscles in the surgery group (P < 0.05), however, when comparing each exercise between the groups, a statistically significant difference for vastus lateralis was demonstrated in the floor exercise (P = 0.02) and for gastrocnemius on the round board (P = 0.04). Individuals ACL reconstructed presented a decrease in muscular activity during different balance board stimuli, which suggests that compensatory alterations after ACL may still exist even after a surgery to repair an ACL rupture. PMID:19400407

  14. Exercise and Weight Loss Improve Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration, Lipid Partitioning, and Insulin Sensitivity After Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Coen, Paul M; Menshikova, Elizabeth V; Distefano, Giovanna; Zheng, Donghai; Tanner, Charles J; Standley, Robert A; Helbling, Nicole L; Dubis, Gabriel S; Ritov, Vladimir B; Xie, Hui; Desimone, Marisa E; Smith, Steven R; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G S; Houmard, Joseph A; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2015-11-01

    Both Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery and exercise can improve insulin sensitivity in individuals with severe obesity. However, the impact of RYGB with or without exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondria, intramyocellular lipids, and insulin sensitivity index (SI) is unknown. We conducted a randomized exercise trial in patients (n = 101) who underwent RYGB surgery and completed either a 6-month moderate exercise (EX) or a health education control (CON) intervention. SI was determined by intravenous glucose tolerance test. Mitochondrial respiration and intramyocellular triglyceride, sphingolipid, and diacylglycerol content were measured in vastus lateralis biopsy specimens. We found that EX provided additional improvements in SI and that only EX improved cardiorespiratory fitness, mitochondrial respiration and enzyme activities, and cardiolipin profile with no change in mitochondrial content. Muscle triglycerides were reduced in type I fibers in CON, and sphingolipids decreased in both groups, with EX showing a further reduction in a number of ceramide species. In conclusion, exercise superimposed on bariatric surgery-induced weight loss enhances mitochondrial respiration, induces cardiolipin remodeling, reduces specific sphingolipids, and provides additional improvements in insulin sensitivity. PMID:26293505

  15. Morphology and Ultrastructure of Medial Rectus Subgroup Motoneurons in the Macaque Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Erichsen, Jonathan T.; Wright, Nicholas F.; May, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    There are two muscle fiber types in extraocular muscles: those receiving a single motor endplate, termed singly innervated fibers (SIFs), and those receiving multiple small terminals along their length, termed multiply innervated fibers (MIFs). In monkeys, these two fiber types receive input from different motoneuron pools: SIF motoneurons found within the extraocular motor nuclei, and MIF motoneurons found along their periphery. For the monkey medial rectus muscle, MIF motoneurons are found in the C-group, while SIF motoneurons lie in the A- and B-groups. We analyzed the somatodendritic morphology and ultrastructure of these three subgroups of macaque medial rectus motoneurons to better understand the structural determinants controlling the two muscle fiber types. The dendrites of A- and B-group motoneurons lay within the oculomotor nucleus, but those of the C-group motoneurons were located outside the nucleus, and extended into the preganglionic Edinger–Westphal nucleus. A- and B-group motoneurons were very similar ultrastructurally. In contrast, C-group motoneurons displayed significantly fewer synaptic contacts on their somata and proximal dendrites, and those contacts were smaller in size and lacked dense-cored vesicles. However, the synaptic structure of C-group distal dendrites was quite similar to that observed for A-and B-group motoneurons. Our anatomical findings suggest that C-group MIF motoneurons have different physiological properties than A- and B-group SIF motoneurons, paralleling their different muscle fiber targets. Moreover, primate C-group motoneurons have evolved a special relationship with the preganglionic Edinger–Westphal nucleus, suggesting these motoneurons play an important role in near triad convergence to support increased near work requirements. PMID:23897455

  16. The use of rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps following excision of vulvar cancer.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J H; Van Dam, P A; Jobling, T W; Breach, N

    1990-11-01

    Rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps have been used in 16 women following radical excision of extensive vulvar cancer. In two women the procedure was part of the primary surgery, in 11 for recurrence of vulvar cancer and in three for symptomatic palliation. Fifteen (94%) of the grafts took with primary healing. Thirteen of the 16 patients are alive 6-60 months (median 29 months) after surgery and the three who died benefited from symptomatic palliation. Simultaneous vulvar reconstruction allows good cosmetic rehabilitation and is an important part of the armamentarium for the management of patients with advanced primary or recurrent vulvar carcinoma. This technique offers excellent surgical clearance of massive offensive and painful vulvar tumors. PMID:2252868

  17. Initial experience with breast reconstruction using the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap: a study of 45 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, E.; Bond, J.; Dolan, S.; Kirk, S.

    1999-01-01

    Breast conserving surgery for breast cancer has led to an increased interest in reconstruction following mastectomy. The transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap has been proven to give good results in terms of restoration of body symmetry with near normal contour and consistency. Furthermore, immediate reconstruction has the advantage of a single procedure with less psychological morbidity, and reduction in hospital stay and overall complication rate. The aim of this study was to review our experience with the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap procedure an initial series of 45 patients. The overall complication rate of 27% is similar to that reported in the literature, with no total flap loss and nine patients with partial flap loss. There was no delay in commencement of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy and we believe our ability to detect local recurrence has not been compromised. We consider that immediate breast reconstruction is now an integral part of the surgical treatment of breast cancer. PMID:10489808

  18. Effects of fast and slow squat exercises on the muscle activity of the paretic lower extremity in patients with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Ah; Kim, Jin-Seop; Lee, Dong-Yeop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the speed of squat exercises on paretic lower extremity muscle activity in patients with hemiplegia following a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Ten stroke patients performed fast and slow squat exercises for 2 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. The muscle activities of the paretic and non-paretic sides of the rectus femoris muscle, the biceps femoris muscle, and the tibialis anterior muscle were assessed and compared using surface electromyography. [Results] The paretic side of the rectus femoris muscle showed statistically significant differences in the fast squat exercise group, which demonstrated the highest muscle activity during the rapid return to the upright position. [Conclusion] The rectus femoris muscle showed the highest muscle activity during the return to the upright position during the fast squat exercise, which indicates that the rectus femoris muscle is highly active during the fast squat exercise. PMID:26356385

  19. Skeletal muscle mitochondria exhibit decreased pyruvate oxidation capacity and increased ROS emission during surgery-induced acute insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Hagve, Martin; Gjessing, Petter Fosse; Fuskevg, Ole Martin; Larsen, Terje S; Irtun, ivind

    2015-04-15

    Development of acute insulin resistance represents a negative factor after surgery, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the postoperative changes in insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial function, enzyme activities, and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle and liver in pigs on the 2nd postoperative day after major abdominal surgery. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed by D-[6,6-H?]glucose infusion and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic step clamping. Surgical trauma elicited a decline in peripheral insulin sensitivity (?34%, P<0.01), whereas hepatic insulin sensitivity remained unchanged. Intramyofibrillar (IFM) and subsarcolemma mitochondria (SSM) isolated from skeletal muscle showed a postoperative decline in ADP-stimulated respiration (V(ADP)) for pyruvate (?61%, P<0.05, and ?40%, P<0.001, respectively), whereas V(ADP) for glutamate and palmitoyl-L-carnitine (PC) was unchanged. Mitochondrial leak respiration with PC was increased in SSM (1.9-fold, P<0.05) and IFM (2.5-fold, P<0.05), indicating FFA-induced uncoupling. The activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) was reduced (?32%, P<0.01) and positively correlated to the decline in peripheral insulin sensitivity (r=0.748, P<0.05). All other mitochondrial enzyme activities were unchanged. No changes in mitochondrial function in liver were observed. Mitochondrial H?O? and O?? emission was measured spectrofluorometrically, and H?O? was increased in SSM, IFM, and liver mitochondria (?2.3-, ?2.5-, and ?2.3-fold, respectively, all P<0.05). We conclude that an impairment in skeletal muscle mitochondrial PDC activity and pyruvate oxidation capacity arises in the postoperative phase along with increased ROS emission, suggesting a link between mitochondrial function and development of acute postoperative insulin resistance. PMID:25670828

  20. Myocyte Dedifferentiation Drives Extraocular Muscle Regeneration in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Kasprick, Daniel S.; Junttila, Tyler L.; Grzegorski, Steven J.; Louie, Ke'ale W.; Chiari, Estelle F.; Kish, Phillip E.; Kahana, Alon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the injury response of extraocular muscles (EOMs) in adult zebrafish. Methods Adult zebrafish underwent lateral rectus (LR) muscle myectomy surgery to remove 50% of the muscle, followed by molecular and cellular characterization of the tissue response to the injury. Results Following myectomy, the LR muscle regenerated an anatomically correct and functional muscle within 7 to 10 days post injury (DPI). Following injury, the residual muscle stump was replaced by a mesenchymal cell population that lost cell polarity and expressed mesenchymal markers. Next, a robust proliferative burst repopulated the area of the regenerating muscle. Regenerating cells expressed myod, identifying them as myoblasts. However, both immunofluorescence and electron microscopy failed to identify classic Pax7-positive satellite cells in control or injured EOMs. Instead, some proliferating nuclei were noted to express mef2c at the very earliest point in the proliferative burst, suggesting myonuclear reprogramming and dedifferentiation. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling of regenerating cells followed by a second myectomy without repeat labeling resulted in a twice-regenerated muscle broadly populated by BrdU-labeled nuclei with minimal apparent dilution of the BrdU signal. A double-pulse experiment using BrdU and 5-ethynyl-2?-deoxyuridine (EdU) identified double-labeled nuclei, confirming the shared progenitor lineage. Rapid regeneration occurred despite a cell cycle length of 19.1 hours, whereas 72% of the regenerating muscle nuclei entered the cell cycle by 48 hours post injury (HPI). Dextran lineage tracing revealed that residual myocytes were responsible for muscle regeneration. Conclusions EOM regeneration in adult zebrafish occurs by dedifferentiation of residual myocytes involving a muscle-to-mesenchyme transition. A mechanistic understanding of myocyte reprogramming may facilitate novel approaches to the development of molecular tools for targeted therapeutic regeneration in skeletal muscle disorders and beyond. PMID:26230763

  1. Intraoperative Electrophysiologic Monitoring of Ocular Motor Nerves Under Conditions of Partial Neuromuscular Blockade During Skull Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Ohnishi, Hideyuki; Sakamoto, Takanori; Shimizu, Kiyoshi; Karasawa, Jun; Furuya, Hitoshi

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility and usefulness of intraoperative electromyographic monitoring of the oculomotor nerve (CN III), trochlear nerve (CN IV), and abducens nerve (CN IV) were evaluated under conditions of partial neuromuscular blockade in 21 patients undergoing skill base surgery. Intracranial electrical stimulation of each nerve was performed, and compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were reconded from the inferior or superior rectus muscle, the superior oblique muscle, and the lateral rectus muscle for monitoring of CN III, IV, and VI, respectively. Partial neuromuscular blockade was achieved by controlled infusion of vecuronium titrated to eliminate about 90% of the twitch response of the abductor pollicis brevis to electrical stimulation of the median nerve. A total of 30 cranial nerves were stimulated intraoperatively. Of these, 29 were successfully monitored (19 CN III, 6 CN IV, 4 CN VI). A relationship was found between intraoperative findings of cranial nerve monitoring, such as disappearance of response and increase in latency and stimulus threshold during manipulation of a lesion, and the presence of postoperative nerve deficits. We conclude that intraoperative electromyographic monitoring of ocular motor nerves is feasible during partial neuromuscular blockade, and that partial neuromuscular blockade does not affect the relationship between findings of intraoperative monitoring and postoperative nerve function. PMID:17170948

  2. Abdominal foreign body: late presentation as a rectus sheath abscess.

    PubMed

    Noushif, M; Sivaprasad, S; Prashanth, A

    2011-05-01

    Intra-abdominal ingested foreign bodies are usually an incidental finding, typically encountered in mentally challenged patients. We present the case of a 65-year-old mentally sound woman who presented with recurrent abdominal pain and a lump in the hypogastrium. Evaluation revealed a rectus sheath abscess extending to the peritoneum, with a foreign body in situ. On enquiry, the patient revealed that she had accidentally ingested a tailoring needle 17 years ago. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an ingested foreign body as a rectus sheath abscess after a long duration. PMID:21633760

  3. Isolated Medial Rectus Nuclear Palsy as a Rare Presentation of Midbrain Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sofiani, Mohammed; Kwen, Peterkin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 83 Final Diagnosis: Midbrain infarction Symptoms: Diplopia Medication: Clinical Procedure: Computed tomography of the head and magnetic resonance image of the brain Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Diplopia is a common subjective complaint that can be the first manifestation of a serious pathology. Here, we report a rare case of midbrain infarction involving the lateral subnucleus of the oculomotor nuclear complex presenting as diplopia, with no other stroke manifestations. Case Report: An 83-year-old right-handed white man with past medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary artery disease presented to the emergency department (ED) with diplopia and unsteadiness. Two days prior to admission, the patient woke up with constant horizontal diplopia and unsteadiness, which limited his daily activities and led to a fall at home. He denied any weakness, clumsiness, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, fever, or chills. Ocular exam showed a disconjugate gaze at rest, weakness of the left medial rectus muscle, impaired convergence test, and bilateral 3-mm reactive pupils. The diplopia resolved by closing either eye. The remaining extraocular muscles and other cranial nerves were normal. There was no nystagmus, ptosis, or visual field deficit. Sensation, muscle tone, and strength were normal in all extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a tiny focus of restricted diffusion in the left posterior lateral midbrain. Conclusions: A thorough history and physical examination is essential to diagnose and manage diplopia. Isolated extraocular palsy is usually thought to be caused by orbital lesions or muscular diseases. Here, we report a case of mid-brain infarction manifested as isolated medial rectus palsy. PMID:26447784

  4. Evaluation of periosteal fixation of lateral rectus and partial VRT for cases of exotropic Duane retraction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pradeep; Tomer, Ruchi; Menon, Vimla; Saxena, Rohit; Sharma, Anudeepa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lateral rectus periosteal fixation and partial vertical rectus transpositioning (VRT) as treatment modalities to correct exotropic Duane retraction syndrome (Exo-DRS). Materials and Methods: Prospective interventional case study of cases of Exo-DRS with limitation of adduction. A total of 13 patients were subdivided into two groups. Six patients underwent only lateral rectus periosteal fixation (group A) and seven patients also underwent partial VRT (group B). Assessment involved prism bar cover test, abduction and adduction range, extent of binocular single visual field and exophthalmometry. These tests were repeated at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-operatively and data analyzed. Results: The pre-operative mean values and ranges were 26.2? (22-35) exotropia for group A and ?21.3? (14-30) exotropia for group B. The post-operative mean and range was +0.6? esotropia (+20 to ?8) for group A and 8? (?2 to ?20) exotropia for group B. Mean grade of limitation of abduction changed from ?3.8 to ?3.6 versus ?3.6 to ?2.8 and mean grade of limitation of adduction changed from ?1.9 to ?0.7 versus ?1.5 to ?0.5 in the groups A and B respectively. Mean binocular single visual field changed from 14.7 to 23.3 in group A and 11.8 to 26.4 in the group B respectively. Conclusion: Lateral rectus periosteal fixation is an effective surgery to correct the exodeviation, anomalous head posture and improving adduction in Exo-DRS and partial VRT in addition is effective in improving abduction and binocular single visual fields. PMID:24618490

  5. An Investigation into Reliability of Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements, and into the Relationship between Muscle Strength and Means of Independent Mobility in the Ward: Examinations of Patients Who Underwent Femoral Neck Fracture Surgery.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Munenori; Kaneko, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery, as well as the relationship between independent mobility in the ward and knee muscle strength. [Subjects] The subjects were 75 patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery. [Methods] We used a hand-held dynamometer and a belt to measure isometric knee extension muscle strength three times, and used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to investigate the reliability of the measurements. We used a receiver operating characteristic curve to investigate the cutoff values for independent walking with walking sticks and non-independent mobility. [Results] ICCs (1, 1) were 0.9 or higher. The cutoff value for independent walking with walking sticks was 0.289 kgf/kg on the non-fractured side, 0.193 kgf/kg on the fractured side, and the average of both limbs was 0.238 kgf/kg. [Conclusion] We consider that the test-retest reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who have undergone femoral neck fracture surgery is high. We also consider that isometric knee extension muscle strength is useful for investigating means of independent mobility in the ward. PMID:24567667

  6. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review

    PubMed Central

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Summary Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  7. [Surgery].

    PubMed

    Roulin, D; Hbner, M; Demartines, N

    2013-01-16

    In 2012, an innovative approach for staged in situ liver transection was proposed that could allow for even more aggressive major hepatectomies. Otherwise, after 25 years, laparoscopy became "traditional" and other minimally invasive techniques continue to be developed but their indications deserve further investigation. Less aggressive treatment in non-complicated diverticulitis becomes more popular, and even antibiotic treatment has been challenged by a randomized study. In colorectal oncology, local resection or observation only seems to become a valuable approach in selected patients with complete response after neo adjuvant chemoradiation. Finally, enhanced recovery pathways (ERAS) have been validated and is increasingly accepted for colorectal surgery and ERAS principles are successfully applied in other surgical fields. PMID:23409643

  8. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  9. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were

  10. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal wall surgery is a procedure that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. ... mini-tummy tuck to more extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which ...

  11. Open heart surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and surgery is done on the heart muscle, valves, arteries, or other parts of the heart (such ... heart is still beating. Related topics include: Aortic valve surgery -- minimally invasive Aortic valve surgery -- open Atrial ...

  12. Localisation of motoneurons supplying the extra-ocular muscles of the rat using horseradish peroxidase and fluorescent double labelling.

    PubMed Central

    Labandeira Garcia, J L; Gomez Segade, L A; Suarez Nuez, J M

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative and quantitative investigation into the location of the motoneurons innervating the extra-ocular muscles of the rat. Injections of horseradish peroxidase, bisbenzimide, propidium iodide and DAPI-primuline were made either in one or simultaneously in two muscles. Unlike those of the cat, rabbit and monkey, the motoneurons which make up the oculomotor nucleus of the rat are not arranged in spatially separate subgroups belonging each to its corresponding extra-ocular muscle, but instead allow a high degree of superposition among the motor pools which they compose. The motoneurons innervating the lateral rectus and inferior oblique muscles are all homolateral; those of the medial and inferior rectus muscles are mainly homolateral with a few contralateral exceptions; and those of the superior rectus, levator palpebrae and superior oblique muscles are mainly contralateral with a small minority of homolateral exceptions. As well as from the main motor pools with which they are associated, the medial rectus, inferior rectus, superior rectus, levator palpebrae, superior oblique and lateral rectus muscles all receive innervation from motoneurons lying among the fibres of the fasciculus longitudinalis medialis. All these observations are supported by quantitative data. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6195140

  13. DOES RECTUS FEMORIS TRANSFER INCREASE KNEE FLEXION DURING STANCE PHASE IN CEREBRAL PALSY?

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Mauro César; Blumetti, Francesco Camara; Kawamura, Cátia Miyuki; Lopes, José Augusto Fernandes; Neves, Daniella Lins; Cardoso, Michelle de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate whether distal rectus femoris transfer (DRFT) is related to postoperative increase of knee flexion during the stance phase in cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: The inclusion criteria were Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-III, kinematic criteria for stiff-knee gait at baseline, and individuals who underwent orthopaedic surgery and had gait analyses performed before and after intervention. The patients included were divided into the following two groups: NO-DRFT (133 patients), which included patients who underwent orthopaedic surgery without DRFT, and DRFT (83 patients), which included patients who underwent orthopaedic surgery that included DRFT. The primary outcome was to evaluate in each group if minimum knee flexion in stance phase (FMJFA) changed after treatment. Results: The mean FMJFA increased from 13.19° to 16.74° (p=0.003) and from 10.60° to 14.80° (p=0.001) in Groups NO-DRFT and DRFT, respectively. The post-operative FMJFA was similar between groups NO-DRFT and DRFT (p=0.534). The increase of FMJFA during the second exam (from 13.01° to 22.51°) was higher among the GMFCS III patients in the DRFT group (p<0.001). Conclusion: In this study, DRFT did not generate additional increase of knee flexion during stance phase when compared to the control group. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Comparative Study. PMID:26997910

  14. Spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture of a postpartum rectus sheath haematoma.

    PubMed

    Elmoghrabi, Adel; Mohamed, Mohamed; McCann, Michael; Sachwani-Daswani, Gul

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman presented to the emergency department (ED) with acute severe abdominal pain at 4 days postpartum. CT of the abdomen revealed a type II rectus sheath haematoma for which she was initially treated conservatively and discharged. A few hours later, she returned to the ED with a picture suggestive of peritonitis. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed and revealed haemoperitoneum and a ruptured area on the posterior rectus sheath. Approximately 2 L of blood was aspirated. Haemostatic control was achieved and closed suction drains secured in position. The patient was discharged in stable condition on postadmission day 6. She continued to follow-up on an outpatient basis and was doing well 3 months postoperatively. PMID:26961567

  15. Electromyographic patterns in children with cerebral palsy: do they change after surgery?

    PubMed

    Patikas, D; Wolf, S I; Schuster, W; Armbrust, P; Dreher, T; Dderlein, L

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in electromyographic (EMG) patterns after multilevel surgical treatment in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Children with diplegia (n=18) and hemiplegia (n=16) aging from 6 to 16 years participated in the study. Twenty healthy children within the same age span are presented as reference. Gait analysis and surface electromyograms of seven major lower limb muscles were assessed before and 1-5 years after the multilevel surgery. The most frequent procedures were equinus correction, distal rectus femoris transfer, femoral derotation osteotomy and hamstrings lengthening. The results showed that the EMG pattern of the soleus, lateral gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles became closer to normal after the surgery, while no differences were detected between diplegic and hemiplegic patients. Furthermore, a subgroup of 10 patients showed an increase in medial hamstrings activation during preswing that decreased postoperatively. These findings indicate that changes in EMG patterns should not be ruled out after surgical treatment, although the extent of these changes is limited compared to changes in the kinematics. Abnormal muscle activation before the operation can be related to a compensatory response in some patients and this can be manipulated after surgery. PMID:17140796

  16. Activity of the Femoral Muscles during Toe-gripping Action

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated femoral muscle activity during toe-gripping, and the role of the femoral muscles in toe-gripping strength. [Subjects] Fourteen healthy young women were selected. [Methods] We measured the maximum voluntary contraction of the rectus femoris and long head of the biceps femoris muscles. We then calculated the percent integrated EMG (%IEMG) during the toe-gripping action. [Results] We found that the %IEMG of the biceps femoris was significantly higher than that of the rectus femoris. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the %IEMG of the rectus femoris and that of the biceps femoris. [Conclusion] These results suggest that femoral muscles co-contract during the toe-gripping action, and thus possibly contribute to knee joint stability. PMID:25364128

  17. Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, I H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with overcorrected strabismus (and several patients with undercorrection after extraocular muscle resection) underwent exploration of previously operated muscles, with the intention of advancing their tendons to prevent the need for surgery on additional muscles. Unexpectedly, it was found that, in many cases, an elongated scar segment of variable length was interposed between the muscle and its insertion site on the sclera. Laboratory investigations were carried out to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) and to create an animal model of the disorder. METHODS: Lengthened scars were repaired on 198 muscles during 134 procedures performed on 123 patients. The scars consisted of amorphous connective tissue interposed between the globe and normal tendon. Repair was accomplished by excision of the scar and reattachment of the muscle to sclera, using absorbable sutures in 64 cases and nonabsorbable sutures in 70 cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on 82 clinical specimens, and tissue culture studies were performed on 7 specimens. To develop an animal model, 10 New Zealand white rabbits underwent bilateral superior rectus resection. Half of the eyes received sub-Tenon's injections of collagenase over the operative site during weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6 postoperatively; the other half received saline solution injections on the same schedule. At 10 weeks, half the sites were studied histologically, and the other half underwent collagen creep analysis. In a second study, the use of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures was compared in the rabbit model. RESULTS: In the clinical cases, the mean length of the elongated scar segments was 4.2 mm. A total of 105 of the 134 repair procedures were judged successful. Thirty-one procedures resulted in recurrence of the original overcorrection; 7 of these had documented restretches. Factors that distinguished patients with stretched scars from patients with classic slipped muscles included minimal or no limitation of versions, less separation of the tendons from sclera, and thicker appearance of the scar segments. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in the repair procedure reduced the recurrence rate. Histologic examination of the clinical stretched scar specimens showed dense connective tissue that was less well organized compared with normal tendon. In the tissue culture studies, cells cultured from the stretched scar specimens grew rapidly and were irregularly shaped. A high-molecular-weight protein was identified in the culture medium. By contrast, cells cultured from normal tendon (controls) grew more slowly and regularly, stopped growing at 4 days, and produced less total protein than cultured stretched scar specimens. In the animal model studies, the collagenase-treated sites showed elongated scars with increased collagen between the muscle and the sclera, as well as increased collagen creep rates, compared with the saline-treated controls. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in collagenase-treated animal model surgery sites was associated with shorter, thicker scars compared with similar sites sutured with absorbable sutures. CONCLUSIONS: A lengthened or stretched, remodeled scar between an operated muscle tendon and sclera is a common occurrence and is a factor contributing to the variability of outcome after strabismus repair, even years later. This abnormality may be revealed by careful exploration of previously operated muscles. Definitive repair requires firm reattachment of tendon to sclera with nonabsorbable suture support. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 53 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 55 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 63 FIGURE 64 PMID:10703142

  18. Retracted: Spontaneous rectus sheath haematoma associated with rivaroxaban treatment.

    PubMed

    Tas Tuna, A; Palabiyik, O; Beyaz, S G

    2015-08-01

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jcpt.12228/pdf The above article, published online on 10 November 2014 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, A. Li Wan Po, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because, unknown to the authors, another group published a similar study based on the same material in the Indian Journal of Pharmacology: Kocayigit I, Can Y, Sahinkus S, et al. Spontaneous rectus sheath haematoma during rivaroxaban therapy. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2014;46(3):339-340. doi:10.4103/0253-7613.132193. PMID:25381906

  19. Septic Cavernous Thrombosis Due to Campylobacter Rectus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bolger, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a rare but serious disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early recognition and prompt treatment is necessary to improve patient outcomes in this potentially fatal disease. Case Report: A 55-year-old man visiting from mainland China with no significant past medical history presented with eight days of headache. One day prior to admission, the patient developed diplopia and ptosis of his left eye. Physical examination revealed a fixed, dilated left pupil and left third, fourth, and sixth nerve palsies with loss of sensation in the left supraorbital region. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed fullness of the left cavernous sinus and dilated left superior ophthalmic vein consistent with cavernous sinus thrombosis. Treatment was initiated with broad spectrum antibiotics, high-dose corticosteroids, and anticoagulants. Hours after admission, he developed new proptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and marked chemosis of his right eye. Bilateral carotid artery angiogram ruled out indirect or direct carotid cavernous fistula. Computed tomography (CT) angiogram of the neck showed right internal jugular vein thrombosis extending into the right sigmoid sinus, while CT of the chest revealed solid and cavitary pulmonary nodules consistent with septic pulmonary emboli. Repeat MRI two days later showed progression of thrombosis to the contralateral cavernous sinus and superior ophthalmic vein. MRI venogram showed decreased, and in some portions, lack of flow in the right transverse, sigmoid sinuses and visualized internal jugular vein. Blood cultures eventually grew Campylobacter rectus identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Additional history revealed that the patient had an uncomplicated tooth extraction of a decayed upper left molar 3 months ago. As Campylobacter rectus is a member of the human oral flora associated with human periodontal disease, we hypothesized that the patient's infection likely started from left upper molar removal causing bacteremia and resulting in left cavernous sinus and right internal jugular vein thromboses with septic pulmonary emboli. The patient's condition improved and he was discharged from hospital to continue medical care in China. Discussion: Despite the very few cases of invasive Campylobacter rectus infections reported in literature, this case illustrates that Campylobacter rectus can be pathogenic. Dental infections may result in serious complications and an odontogenic source of infection should always be considered in patients with cavernous sinus thrombosis.

  20. Inferior oblique muscle paresis as a sign of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Almog, Yehoshua; Ben-David, Merav; Nemet, Arie Y

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis may affect any of the six extra-ocular muscles, masquerading as any type of ocular motor pathology. The frequency of involvement of each muscle is not well established in the medical literature. This study was designed to determine whether a specific muscle or combination of muscles tends to be predominantly affected. This retrospective review included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis who had extra-ocular muscle involvement with diplopia at presentation. The diagnosis was confirmed by at least one of the following tests: Tensilon test, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymoma on chest CT scan, or suggestive electromyography. Frequency of involvement of each muscle in this cohort was inferior oblique 19 (63.3%), lateral rectus nine (30%), superior rectus four (13.3%), inferior rectus six (20%), medial rectus four (13.3%), and superior oblique three (10%). The inferior oblique was involved more often than any other muscle (p<0.01). Eighteen (60%) patients had ptosis, six (20%) of whom had bilateral ptosis. Diagnosing myasthenia gravis can be difficult, because the disease may mimic every pupil-sparing pattern of ocular misalignment. In addition diplopia caused by paresis of the inferior oblique muscle is rarely encountered (other than as a part of oculomotor nerve palsy). Hence, when a patient presents with vertical diplopia resulting from an isolated inferior oblique palsy, myasthenic etiology should be highly suspected. PMID:26531848

  1. Possible postsynaptic action of aminoglycosides in the frog rectus abdominis.

    PubMed

    Karata?, Y; Ergn, Y; Gmen, C; Seilmi?, A; Singirik, E; Dikmen, A; Baysal, F

    2000-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the postsynaptic effects of aminoglycosides on contractions evoked by acetylcholine (ACh), KCl, electrical field stimulation (EFS) and Na(+)- and Ca(2+)-free Ringer solution with 0.2 mM Na2 EDTA (NaFCaFR) in the isolated frog rectus abdominis. Neomycin inhibited contraction elicited by ACh, NaFCaFR, and EFS at the higher frequencies (8 and 10 Hz) but not those elicited by KCl and EFS at the lower frequencies (2, 3 and 5 Hz). D-tubocurarine inhibited ACh-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, drug reduced EFS-evoked contractions to a limited extent. Lower concentrations (10(-5), 5 x 10(-5), 10(-4), 2 x 10(-4) and 3 x 10(-4) M) but not higher concentrations (4 x 10(-4) and 5 x 10(-4) M) of methoxyverapamil exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory action on NaFCaFR-induced contractions. Similar inhibitions of the same type of contraction were displayed by aminoglycosides (neomycin, streptomycin, netilmycin, gentamycin and amikacin). These results suggest that in addition to their antagonistic action on nicotinic receptors in the frog rectus abdominis, aminoglycosides may exert stabilizing effects on some functional components contributing to contractions at the membrane. PMID:10806525

  2. Predictive Factors Affecting Long-Term Outcome of Unilateral Lateral Rectus Recession

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Mi-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few long-term outcome reports of unilateral lateral rectus (LR) recession for exotropia including a large number of subjects. Previous reports on unilateral LR recession commonly show extremely low rates of initial overcorrection and large exodrifts after surgery suggesting that the surgical dose may be increased. However, little is known of the long-term outcome of a large unilateral LR recession for exotropia. Objectives To determine long-term outcomes and predictive factors of recurrence after a large unilateral LR recession in patients with exotropia. Data Extraction Retrospective analysis was performed on 92 patients aged 3 to 17 years who underwent 10 mm unilateral LR recession for exotropia of ≤ 25 prism diopters (Δ) with prism and alternate cover testing and were followed up for more than 2 years after surgery. Final success rates within 10Δ of exophoria/tropia and 5Δ of esophoria/tropia at distance in the primary position, improvement in stereopsis and the predictive factors for recurrence were evaluated. Results At 24 months after surgery, 54% of patients had ocular alignment meeting the defined criteria of success, 45% had recurrence and 1% had overcorrection. After a mean follow-up of 39 months, 36% showed success, 63% showed recurrence and 1% resulted in overcorrection. The average time of recurrence was 23.4±14.7 months (range, 1–60 months) and the rate of recurrence per person-year was 23% after unilateral LR recession. Predictive factors of recurrence were a larger preoperative near angle of deviation (>16Δ) and larger initial postoperative exodeviation (>5Δ) at distance. Conclusions Long-term outcome of unilateral LR recession for exotropia showed low success rates with high recurrence, thus should be reserved for patients with a small preoperative near angle of exodeviation. PMID:26418819

  3. Functional anatomy of the extraocular muscles during vergence.

    PubMed

    Demer, Joseph L; Clark, Robert A; Crane, Benjamin T; Tian, Jun-Ru; Narasimhan, Anita; Karim, Shaheen

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now enables precise visualisation of the mechanical state of the living human orbit, enabling inferences about the effects of mechanical factors on ocular kinematics. We used 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic search coil recordings and MRI to investigate the mechanical state of the orbit during vergence in humans. Horizontal convergence of 23 degrees from a remote to a near target aligned on one eye was geometrically ideal, and was associated with lens thickening and extorsion of the rectus pulley array of the aligned eye with superior oblique muscle relaxation and inferior oblique muscle contraction. There was no rectus muscle co-contraction. Subjective fusion through a 1 degree vertical prism caused a clockwise (CW) torsion in both eyes, as well as variable vertical and horizontal vergences that seldom corresponded to prism amount or direction. MRI under these conditions did not show consistent torsion of the rectus pulley array, but a complex pattern of changes in rectus extraocular muscle (EOM) crossections, consistent with co-contraction. Binocular fusion during vergence is accomplished by complex, 3D eye rotations seldom achieving binocular retinal correspondence. Vergence eye movements are sometimes associated with changes in rectus EOM pulling directions, and may sometimes be associated with co-contraction. Thus, extraretinal information about eye position would appear necessary to interpret binocular correspondence, and to avoid diplopia. PMID:18718278

  4. Muscle oxygen saturation heterogeneity among leg muscles during ramp exercise.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Murase, Norio; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether O(2) saturation in several leg muscles changes as exercise intensity increases. Twelve healthy young males performed 20 W/min ramp bicycle exercise until exhaustion. Pulmonary O(2) uptake (VO(2)) was monitored continuously during the experiments to determine peak oxygen uptake. Muscle O(2) saturation (SmO(2)) was also monitored continuously at the belly of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior by near-infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. Although the VL muscle mainly contributes during cycling exercise, deoxygenation was enhanced not only in the VL muscle but also in the other thigh muscles and lower leg muscles with increased exercise intensity. Furthermore, SmO(2) response during ramp cycling exercise differed considerably between leg muscles. PMID:22879044

  5. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    In coronary artery disease (CAD), the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to your heart muscle grow hardened and narrowed. ... these treatments don't help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path ...

  6. Beta-adrenoceptors and human skeletal muscle characterisation of receptor subtype and effect of age.

    PubMed Central

    Elfellah, M S; Dalling, R; Kantola, I M; Reid, J L

    1989-01-01

    1. Rectus abdominis muscle biopsies were obtained from 28 patients undergoing abdominal surgery. In membranes prepared from these biopsies beta-adrenoceptor binding was examined. The apparent affinity (KD) and the density (Bmax) of the receptors for the radioligand (-)-[125I]cyanopindolol were 28.5 +/- 2.7 (pM) and 25.9 +/- 2.1 (fmol mg-1 protein) (mean +/- s.e. mean) respectively. In forceps biopsies from vastus lateralis muscle from four healthy volunteers the values for KD and Bmax were 22.5 +/- 4.4 (pM) and 16.4 +/- 2.2 (fmol mg-1 protein). The binding characteristics for the radioligand were similar in the biopsies from the two muscle sites. 2. Inhibition of the radioligand binding by the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118551 (KI = 117 +/- 45 nM) and selective beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist metoprolol (KI = 15229 +/- 5046 nM) suggests the dominance of beta 2-adrenoceptor subtype in human skeletal muscle. 3. There were no significant differences in the skeletal muscle beta-adrenoceptor densities or affinities between the young and older patients. PMID:2565118

  7. Endoscopic Surgical Removal of Calcific Tendinitis of the Rectus Femoris: Surgical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Comba, Fernando; Piuzzi, Nicolás S.; Zanotti, Gerardo; Buttaro, Martín; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Calcific tendinitis of the rectus femoris (CTRF) is an under-recognized condition and, because of its self-limiting nature, is usually managed conservatively. Nevertheless, when nonsurgical therapy fails, further invasive alternatives are required. At this point, arthroscopic resection provides a minimally invasive and interesting alternative to open surgery. The aim of this work is to report the surgical technique of endoscopic surgical removal in patients with CTRF at the periarticular region of the hip joint. Endoscopic surgical removal of CTRF was performed without traction following anatomic landmarks for hip arthroscopy portal placement. We used the anterolateral portal and the proximal accessory portal to obtain access to the lesion. A shaver and radiofrequency device are useful tools to depict the calcific lesion while the whole resection is performed with a 5-mm round burr. Intraoperative fluoroscopy control during the entire procedure is essential. Endoscopic treatment of calcific tendinitis of the hip is a valuable technique in the treatment of patients who do not respond to conservative treatment. PMID:26759778

  8. Effects of Barbell Deadlift Training on Submaximal Motor Unit Firing Rates for the Vastus Lateralis and Rectus Femoris

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Matt S.; Thompson, Brennan J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age ?=?24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n?=?15) or control (n?=?9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d?=?.70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units. PMID:25531294

  9. Effects of barbell deadlift training on submaximal motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris.

    PubMed

    Stock, Matt S; Thompson, Brennan J

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age ?=?24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n?=?15) or control (n?=?9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d?=?.70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units. PMID:25531294

  10. Effects of Synovex-S and recombinant bovine growth hormone (Somavubove) on growth responses of steers: II. Muscle morphology and proximate composition of muscles.

    PubMed

    Ono, Y; Solomon, M B; Elsasser, T H; Rumsey, T S; Moseley, W M

    1996-12-01

    Twenty crossbred beef steers (initial BW 182 +/- 1.8 kg) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial to determine the effects of implantation with Synovex-S (SYN; 20 mg 17-beta estradiol benzoate + 200 mg progesterone, ear implant) and administration of recombinant bovine growth hormone (Somavubove SbV, .1 mg.kgBW-1.d-1, i.m.) on the morphology of six muscles (longissimus, psoas major, supraspinatus, triceps brachii, semitendinosus, rectus femoris) of growing steers. Implantation with SYN decreased the percentage distribution of FOG fibers and increased FG fibers in the supraspinatus and rectus femoris muscles (P < .05). Steers treated with SYN had a larger area of SO and FG fibers in the psoas major muscle (P < .05). The administration of SbV decreased the percentage distribution of FOG fibers and increased FG fibers in the rectus femoris muscle (P < .05). Steers administered SbV had larger SO, FOG, and FG fibers in the psoas major muscle and SO fibers in the supraspinatus and semitendinosus muscles (P < .05). The combined administration of SYN and SbV had minimal, if any, effect on the percentage distribution of fiber types (P > .05) but increased (P < .05) the fiber areas of all muscles (18.5 to 54.8%) except the rectus femoris (P > .05). Proximate composition of the muscles was generally not affected (P > .05) by any of the treatments. The only observations were decreases in fat content for psoas major and rectus femoris muscles as a result of the combined administration of SYN and SbV. These results indicate that both growth-promoting agents, SYN and SbV, have potential to increase muscle fiber size, but muscles respond differently to the administrations of SYN and SbV. However, when SYN and SbV are administered in combination, the combined effects result in an additive increase in muscle fiber hypertrophic response. PMID:8994906

  11. Laughing: a demanding exercise for trunk muscles.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Heiko; Rehmes, Ulrich; Kohle, Daniel; Puta, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Social, psychological, and physiological studies have provided evidence indicating that laughter imposes an increased demand on trunk muscles. It was the aim of this study to quantify the activation of trunk muscles during laughter yoga in comparison with crunch and back lifting exercises regarding the mean trunk muscle activity. Muscular activity during laughter yoga exercises was measured by surface electromyography of 5 trunk muscles. The activation level of internal oblique muscle during laughter yoga is higher compared to the traditional exercises. The multifidus, erector spinae, and rectus abdominis muscles were nearly half activated during laughter yoga, while the activation of the external oblique muscle was comparable with the crunch and back lifting exercises. Our results indicate that laughter yoga has a positive effect on trunk muscle activation. Thus, laughter seems to be a good activator of trunk muscles, but further research is required whether laughter yoga is a good exercise to improve neuromuscular recruitment patterns for spine stability. PMID:24246140

  12. Length-tension curves of human eye muscles during succinylcholine-induced contraction.

    PubMed

    Simonsz, H J; Kolling, G H; van Dijk, B; Kaufmann, H

    1988-08-01

    We have made intraoperative, continuous-registration, length-tension diagrams of detached eye muscles in 80 strabismus patients under general anaesthesia. In 47 of these we repeated the measurements after contraction evoked by succinylcholine chloride. In contracting horizontal and vertical rectus muscles, we found a linear relation between length and tension. In contracting oblique muscles, however, the relation between length and tension was frequently nonlinear. In superior oblique palsies, the superior oblique was found to be stiff after elongation and before injection of succinylcholine, and it did not contract after injection of succinylcholine. The ipsilateral inferior oblique did contract after injection of succinylcholine, but with a higher spring constant than usual (ie, contracture of the ipsilateral antagonist). In three cases the superior oblique contracted vividly after administration of succinylcholine despite the presence of excyclotropia, stereopsis, torticollis (two cases) and a hypertropia that increased in adduction, in down-gaze, in adduction and down-gaze and on ipsilateral head-tilt. In a case of general fibrosis syndrom we found almost normally contracting vertical recti, which is compatible only with a supranuclear or misdirectional cause. These cases demonstrate the usefulness of the assessment of the length-tension diagram of an eye muscle during surgery, before and during contraction evoked by succinylcholine chloride. PMID:3417416

  13. Comparison of orbital muscle akinesia caused by rocuronium versus hyaluronidase mixed to the local anesthetic in single injection peribulbar block for cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Messeha, Medhat M.; Elhesy, Abd-Elmonem

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare orbital muscle akinesia caused by rocuronium versus hyaluronidase when mixed with the local anesthetic in single-injection peribulbar anesthesia (PBA). Patients and Methods: Sixty patients were included in the study and subjected to cataract extraction using phacoemulsification technique with intraocular lens implantation. Group I received peribulbar block with 5 ml mixture of 30 IU/ml hyaluronidase and 2% lidocaine. Group II received peribulbar block with 5 ml mixture of rocuronium 5 mg and 2% lidocaine. The onset and duration of akinesia were assessed; the akinesia score at 2, 5, and 10 min was measured after injection. The need for supplementary injection was also recorded. Results and Conclusion: PBA using a mixture of rocuronium and lidocaine provides optimal globe akinesia and faster establishment of suitable conditions to start eye surgery and shortens the block onset time as compared with the addition of hyaluronidase to lidocaine. PMID:26712977

  14. Initial tension of the human extraocular muscles in the primary eye position.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhipeng; Guo, Hongmei; Chen, Weiyi

    2014-07-21

    This study proposes a mathematical model to estimate the initial tension forces of the extraocular muscles (EOMs). These forces are responsible for the mechanical equilibrium of the eye suspended in primary position. The passive contributions were obtained using the corresponding Cauchy stress-stretch relationships based on the previous clinical experimental data; whereas the active contributions were obtained using an optimum method with weakening the effect of innervation. The initial tension forces of the EOMs were estimated to be 48.814.2mN for the lateral rectus, 89.231.6mN for the medial rectus, 50.617.6mN for the superior rectus, 46.213.4mN for the inferior rectus, 15.68.3mN for the superior oblique, and 17.112.1mN for the inferior oblique. PMID:24657805

  15. Effect of Camphylobacter rectus on Serum Iron and Transferrin In-Vivo Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lele, Suresh Vasant; Mali, Pradnya Prabhakar; Jain, Pinal Mahendra; Darawade, Dattatray Anant; Medikeri, Manjushri Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Periodontopathogens require iron constituents for their growth and metabolism in subgingival crevice. In this study, C.rectus was detected and quantified by using 16s rDNA based PCR in chronic periodontitis and compared with the levels of serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin in chronic periodontitis and healthy sites. Materials and Methods One hundred twenty subjects divided into chronic periodontitis and healthy controls. Deep subgingival plaque was collected and genomic DNA was extracted from each sample analysed for C.rectus using 16s rRNA based PCR analysis. Blood samples were collected from both groups for estimation of serum iron, serum total iron binding capacity and serum transferrin levels. The quantified bacterial count was compared with blood samples. C. rectus was detected in both groups. Results There was significant increase in bacterial count in chronic periodontitis (p<0.05). Serum iron level was significantly raised in healthy group. TIBC and transferrin levels were elevated in periodontitis. Although these differences were non-significant. Regression analysis showed significant linear relationship between C.rectus counts and decreasing iron levels and consequently increasing serum transferrin and TIBC (p<0.05). Conclusion The preliminary in vivo findings suggests C.rectus requires iron as a significant source of nutrition for its survival and growth form its hosts in deeper subgingival sites. PMID:26393200

  16. Anterior rectus fascia back cut: a new modification to relieve the pressure in fascial closure of the superior pedicle of a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Shalom, Avshalom; Schein, Ophir; Westreich, Melvyn

    2012-04-01

    The maintenance of vascular patency is one of the key points to be considered after a pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap has been raised and when closing the anterior rectus fascia to avoid a hernia. In this study we describe a new approach to closing the most superior part of the fascia to help insure vascular patency. Forty patients who had their breasts reconstructed with TRAM flaps made up the study group. The new back cut technique was used in 25 patients. Of the remaining 15 patients, four required early revision on the day of operation for severe venous congestion or ischaemia. None of the patients who had the back cut technique required early revision. We found the back cut technique to be safe and easy, and we think that it can reduce the incidence of flap ischaemia and still achieve tight fascial closure. PMID:22471256

  17. Mind the gap: diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscles in pregnant and postnatal women.

    PubMed

    Champion, Penny

    2015-05-01

    This article looks at the abdominal physiology of pregnant and postnatal women, the incidence of diastasis recti abdominis and the possible risk factors for this condition. The longer-term implications of this condition, the effects of exercise, indicators for referral and future pregnancies are discussed. Key practice points and resources for midwives and women are offered. PMID:26336782

  18. Penetration of ceforanide and cefamandole into the right atrial appendage, pericardial fluid, sternum, and intercostal muscle of patients undergoing open heart surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Mullany, L D; French, M A; Nightingale, C H; Low, H B; Ellison, L H; Quintiliani, R

    1982-01-01

    Doses of 30 mg of ceforanide or cefamandole per kg were administered intravenously to 26 patients just before their chests were opened for coronary artery bypass or cardiac valve replacement surgery. Samples of right atrial appendage, pericardial fluid, plasma, aortic wall, intercostal muscle, and sternum were obtained at different times after the antibiotic was injected, and these samples were assayed for cephalosporin concentration. For ceforanide the pre-bypass plasma half-life was 2.5 h, and the atrial appendage half-life was 2.1 h; for cefamandole the pre-bypass plasma half-life was 0.75 h and the atrial appendage half-life was 0.72 h. At 3 h the concentrations of ceforanide and cefamandole in atrial appendages were 28.0 and 5.0 micrograms/g, respectively. Ceforanide achieved higher and more sustained concentrations in other tissues than cefamandole. Considering the minimal inhibitory concentrations of these drugs for staphylococci, cefamandole and ceforanide should provide adequate protection against infection by these organisms for the duration of the surgical procedure. PMID:7103445

  19. Postcraniotomy Function of the Temporal Muscle in Skull Base Surgery: Technical Note Based on a Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdulazim, Amr; Filis, Andreas; Sadr-Eshkevari, Pooyan; Schulte, Fried; Sandu, Nora; Schaller, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Patients undergoing craniotomies necessitating preparation of the temporal muscle (TM) may experience postoperative functional impairment of the temporomandibular joint. This topic has not been thoroughly discussed in the literature so far. In the present study, the authors propose a questionnaire as an evaluation tool to assess to what degree different TM preparation techniques correlate with postoperative temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Materials and Methods. Between 2004 and 2006, 286 patients underwent either pterional or temporal craniotomies in the department of craniotomies at the University of Mnster in Germany. Intraoperatively the TM was prepared either interfascial, submuscular, or subfascial. A patient-based questionnaire was designed and validated (Kendalls-? = +1) in order to evaluate the patients' postoperative temporomandibular functional outcome. Based on strict inclusion/exclusion criteria, 69 patients were eligible for the application of the questionnaire in this preliminary study. Results. Seventeen percent of the patients complained of either temporomandibular joint pain (3%) or restricted mouth opening (13%) postoperatively in a follow-up period between 3 and 12 months. In 92% postoperative complaints were reported within the first 3 months and in 58% of the patients with complaints the pain eased off. In 34% a therapy was required for the pain to be controlled. In one patient (8%) a postoperative arthroscopy has been necessary. Of the patients who experienced postoperative complaints, 67% had undergone temporal and 33% pterional craniotomy. In the group where postoperatively there were issues of temporomandibular pain/dysfunction, 42% had had the TM dissected, in 25% incised, and in 8% transected. For 25% of the patients, the type of intraoperative manipulation remained unknown. Conclusion. For postoperative quality control, the questionnaire showed to be a suitable evaluation tool. Concerning the different preparation techniques, subfascial preparation of the TM tends to result in less postoperative complaints and is thus recommended. PMID:22536141

  20. Comparison of the Complications in Vertical Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap with Non-Reconstructed Cases after Pelvic Exenteration

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Heechang; You, Hi-Jin; Kim, Hyon-Surk; Lee, Byung-Il; Park, Seung Ha

    2014-01-01

    Background Perineal reconstruction following pelvic exenteration is a challenging area in plastic surgery. Its advantages include preventing complications by obliterating the pelvic dead space and minimizing the scar by using the previous abdominal incision and a vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (VRAM) flap. However, only a few studies have compared the complications and the outcomes following pelvic exenteration between cases with and without a VRAM flap. In this study, we aimed to compare the complications and the outcomes following pelvic exenteration with or without VRAM flap coverage. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of nine patients for whom transpelvic VRAM flaps were created following pelvic exenteration due to pelvic malignancy. The complications and outcomes in these patients were compared with those of another nine patients who did not undergo such reconstruction. Results Flap reconstruction was successful in eight cases, with minor complications such as wound infection and dehiscence. In all cases in the reconstructed group (n=9), structural integrity was maintained and major complications including bowel obstruction and infection were prevented by obliterating the pelvic dead space. In contrast, in the control group (n=9), peritonitis and bowel obstruction occurred in 1 case (11%). Conclusions Despite the possibility of flap failure and minor complications, a VRAM flap can result in adequate perineal reconstruction to prevent major complications of pelvic exenteration. PMID:25396186

  1. Rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps for perineal reconstruction: modifications to the technique based on a large single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, DM; Clements, D; Edwards, TJ; Fitton, AR; Douie, WJP

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Perineal wound breakdown with delayed wound healing represents a significant cause of morbidity following surgery and radiotherapy to the perineum. The rectus abdominis myocutaneous (RAM) flap has been used increasingly to reconstruct the perineum with good effect. We describe our six-year experience of reconstruction of the perineum with the RAM flap and share some surgical adjuncts we believe are useful. METHODS We conducted a retrospective case note review of all patients who underwent a reconstruction of the perineum using the RAM flap between August 2003 and October 2009. Indications for the flap, complication rates and outcomes were all observed. RESULTS We conducted 16 RAM flap procedures, 15 of which (94%) were primary repairs and 1 (6%) a secondary repair. Three (19%) developed donor site hernias, two (12.5%) developed minor perineal wound infections, eight (50%) developed minor perineal wound breakdown and in one (6%) flap failure was observed. No perineal hernias were observed. There were no surgical mortalities. CONCLUSIONS The RAM flap has a high success rate and an acceptable morbidity rate and is a useful tool in the reconstruction of complex perineal wounds. Modifications to the standard surgical technique may reduce complications and improve the versatility of this flap. PMID:21943461

  2. Clinical anatomy and mechanical tensile properties of the rectus femoris tendon

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xing-Fei; Zhang, Xin-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to provide anatomical data and mechanical tensile properties for the rectus femoris tendon to determine if it is a feasible substitute for the anterior cruciate ligament during knee joint reconstruction. Methods: The length and width of the quadriceps femoris tendon were measured from ten adult cadavers (20 knees; age =48±2 years). The anatomic features of the patellar insertion on the quadriceps femoris tendon were also documented. The rectus femoris tendon and anterior cruciate ligament were harvested from an additional five fresh specimens (10 knees; age =41±3 years). To minimize dehydration, each specimen was wrapped in saline-moistened paper towels and stored at -10°C. We imposed tensile stresses on a total of twenty samples in a sample-driven machine at 10 mm/min until the specimens failed. Results: The inserted and discrete widths of the rectus femoris tendon were 3.20±0.33 and 1.28±0.25 cm, respectively. The length of the tendon tissue was 6.96±0.80 cm and the length of mixing zone was 3.81±0.53 cm. The average thickness of the upper pole of the patella was 2.22±0.14 cm. In mechanical tensile properties, the unit modulus and unit maximum load of the rectus femoris tendon were both 63% of the anterior cruciate ligament. Conclusions: Based on its anatomical and mechanical tensile properties, the rectus femoris tendon is a feasible donor site to reconstitute the anterior cruciate ligament. PMID:26885205

  3. Endolymphatic sac surgery versus tenotomy of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles in the management of patients with unilateral definite Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Albu, Silviu; Babighian, Gregorio; Amadori, Maurizio; Trabalzini, Franco

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to compare the outcomes of patients with Meniere's disease submitted to either endolymphatic mastoid shunt (ES) or tenotomy of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles (TSTM). This is a retrospective chart review of patients treated with ES or TSTM between 2000 and 2010 and followed up for at least 12 months. The main outcomes were represented by: (1) vertigo class, hearing stage and functional level according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery criteria; (2) adjustment of dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) and (3) complete and substantial vertigo control using the Kaplan-Meier survival method. Sixty-three patients met the inclusion criteria: 34 underwent ES and 29 TSTM. The baseline demographic characteristics, the hearing stage, the functional level, the DHI and hearing levels were not different between the two groups. No significant difference in vertigo class was demonstrated: 66 % of TSTM patients attained class A compared to 44 % in the ES group (p = 0.14). Kaplan-Meier survival curves specific to class A showed significant differences, favoring TSTM (log-rank test, p = 0.022). TSTM patients demonstrated significantly improved functional level (p = 0.0004) and improved DHI scores (p = 0.001). Eight ES patients (25 %) demanded a second surgical attempt compared to none in the TSTM. Aural fullness was significantly improved in TSTM group (p = 0.01), while the difference in tinnitus improvement was non-significant. Hearing preservation was significantly better in TSTM group (p = 0.001). TSTM is a safe surgical procedure, with significant vertigo control rates, and important hearing preservation rates. More patients and longer follow-up are needed to support our preliminary findings. PMID:25488280

  4. Impact of decline-board squat exercises and knee joint angles on the muscle activity of the lower limbs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to investigate how squat exercises on a decline board and how the knee joint angles affect the muscle activity of the lower limbs. [Subjects] The subjects were 26 normal adults. [Methods] A Tumble Forms wedge device was used as the decline board, and the knee joint angles were measured with a goniometer. To examine the muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior of the lower limbs, a comparison analysis with electromyography was conducted. [Results] The muscle activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, and tibialis anterior increased with increased knee joint angles, both for squat exercises on the decline board and on a flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 45, 60, and 90, the muscle activity of the rectus femoris was significantly higher and that of the tibialis anterior was significantly lower during squat exercises on the decline board than on the flat floor. When the knee joint angle was 90, the muscle activity of the gastrocnemius lateralis was significantly lower. [Conclusion] Squat exercises on a decline board are an effective intervention to increase the muscle activity of the rectus femoris with increased knee joint angles. PMID:26357447

  5. Effects of bridge exercise on trunk core muscle activity with respect to sling height and hip joint abduction and adduction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of bridge exercise on trunk core muscle activity with respect to sling height and hip joint abduction and adduction. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy adult males participated. [Methods] In the bridge exercise, the height of the sling was set low or high during hip joint abduction and adduction. Electromyography was used to compare the differences between the muscle activities of the transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae muscles. [Results] The muscle activities of the transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae were significantly higher in the high sling position. Furthermore, the activities of the transverse abdominis and erector spinae were significantly higher during hip joint adduction than abduction regardless of sling height. [Conclusion] A high sling height is the most effective intervention for increasing the muscle activities of the transverse abdominis and erector spinae muscles during hip joint adduction in a bridge exercise. PMID:26180366

  6. [Enthesopathy of the upper insertion of the musculus rectus femoris. A retrospective sign of tendon rupture in sports pathology].

    PubMed

    Baudrillard, J C; Lerais, J M; Segal, P; Durot, J F; Gatfosse, M; Auquier, F; Toubas, O

    1986-03-01

    We report 4 cases of post-traumatic enthesopathy occurring later after rupture of rectus femoris tendon from the anterior superior iliac spine. Radiographic feature and clinical picture are typical of diagnosis. PMID:3091817

  7. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... Robotic surgery is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It can be performed through smaller cuts than open surgery. ...

  8. Discomfort and muscle activation during car egress in drivers with hemiplegia following stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Nam-hae; Kim, Hwanhee; Chang, Moonyoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated and compared the discomfort experienced during car egress with the car door opened at different angles and muscle activation in drivers with hemiplegia following stroke and non-disabled drivers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were five drivers with hemiplegia and five non-disabled drivers. The discomfort experienced during car egress was measured using the nine-point Likert scale when the door was opened wide and when it was opened 45°. Muscle activation was measured using the TeleMyo 2400T G2 electromyography system. Electromyograph electrodes were placed on the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and rectus femoris muscles. [Results] In the non-disabled drivers, there was no significant difference in the discomforts they experienced during car egress when the door was opened wide and when it was opened 45°. However, the discomfort experienced by drivers with hemiplegia when the door was opened 45° was significantly higher than that experienced when it was opened wide. There was a significant difference in the activation of the erector spinae, but no difference in the activation of the rectus abdominis or rectus femoris muscles. [Conclusion] This study will help to understand the difficulties experienced by drivers with hemiplegia following stroke during car ingress and egress. PMID:26834350

  9. Effects of a multichannel dynamic functional electrical stimulation system on hemiplegic gait and muscle forces

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing-guang; Rong, Ke; Qian, Zhenyun; Wen, Chen; Zhang, Songning

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to design and implement a multichannel dynamic functional electrical stimulation system and investigate acute effects of functional electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris on ankle and knee sagittal-plane kinematics and related muscle forces of hemiplegic gait. [Subjects and Methods] A multichannel dynamic electrical stimulation system was developed with 8-channel low frequency current generators. Eight male hemiplegic patients were trained for 4 weeks with electric stimulation of the tibia anterior and rectus femoris muscles during walking, which was coupled with active contraction. Kinematic data were collected, and muscle forces of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris of the affected limbs were analyzed using a musculoskelatal modeling approach before and after training. A paired sample t-test was used to detect the differences between before and after training. [Results] The step length of the affected limb significantly increased after the stimulation was applied. The maximum dorsiflexion angle and maximum knee flexion angle of the affected limb were both increased significantly during stimulation. The maximum muscle forces of both the tibia anterior and rectus femoris increased significantly during stimulation compared with before functional electrical stimulation was applied. [Conclusion] This study established a functional electrical stimulation strategy based on hemiplegic gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. The multichannel functional electrical stimulation system successfully corrected foot drop and altered circumduction hemiplegic gait pattern. PMID:26696734

  10. Effects of a multichannel dynamic functional electrical stimulation system on hemiplegic gait and muscle forces.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jing-Guang; Rong, Ke; Qian, Zhenyun; Wen, Chen; Zhang, Songning

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to design and implement a multichannel dynamic functional electrical stimulation system and investigate acute effects of functional electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris on ankle and knee sagittal-plane kinematics and related muscle forces of hemiplegic gait. [Subjects and Methods] A multichannel dynamic electrical stimulation system was developed with 8-channel low frequency current generators. Eight male hemiplegic patients were trained for 4 weeks with electric stimulation of the tibia anterior and rectus femoris muscles during walking, which was coupled with active contraction. Kinematic data were collected, and muscle forces of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris of the affected limbs were analyzed using a musculoskelatal modeling approach before and after training. A paired sample t-test was used to detect the differences between before and after training. [Results] The step length of the affected limb significantly increased after the stimulation was applied. The maximum dorsiflexion angle and maximum knee flexion angle of the affected limb were both increased significantly during stimulation. The maximum muscle forces of both the tibia anterior and rectus femoris increased significantly during stimulation compared with before functional electrical stimulation was applied. [Conclusion] This study established a functional electrical stimulation strategy based on hemiplegic gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. The multichannel functional electrical stimulation system successfully corrected foot drop and altered circumduction hemiplegic gait pattern. PMID:26696734

  11. Discomfort and muscle activation during car egress in drivers with hemiplegia following stroke.

    PubMed

    Jung, Nam-Hae; Kim, Hwanhee; Chang, Moonyoung

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated and compared the discomfort experienced during car egress with the car door opened at different angles and muscle activation in drivers with hemiplegia following stroke and non-disabled drivers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were five drivers with hemiplegia and five non-disabled drivers. The discomfort experienced during car egress was measured using the nine-point Likert scale when the door was opened wide and when it was opened 45. Muscle activation was measured using the TeleMyo 2400T G2 electromyography system. Electromyograph electrodes were placed on the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and rectus femoris muscles. [Results] In the non-disabled drivers, there was no significant difference in the discomforts they experienced during car egress when the door was opened wide and when it was opened 45. However, the discomfort experienced by drivers with hemiplegia when the door was opened 45 was significantly higher than that experienced when it was opened wide. There was a significant difference in the activation of the erector spinae, but no difference in the activation of the rectus abdominis or rectus femoris muscles. [Conclusion] This study will help to understand the difficulties experienced by drivers with hemiplegia following stroke during car ingress and egress. PMID:26834350

  12. Arthroscopic treatment of chronically painful calcific tendinitis of the rectus femoris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Relatively large calcific tendinitis with persistent symptoms after extended periods of conservative treatment is an indication for operative therapy. Arthroscopy, as a treatment for calcific tendinitis of the hip abductors and calcinosis circumscripta, has been described previously; however, to our knowledge, the clinical and radiological response to arthroscopic removal of calcific tendinitis of the rectus femoris tendon has not. Methods We present arthroscopic treatment of unusual calcific tendonitis of the origin of the rectus femoris and associated intra-articular lesions in 3 patients with chronic coxa pain. Results Our cases show that hip arthroscopy is an effective therapeutic modality for calcific tendinitis of the hip joint with satisfactory short-term outcomes. Conclusions Calcific tendinitis, although an uncommon clinical entity, should be a part of the differential diagnosis of acute or chronic hip pain. PMID:24266900

  13. Interaction of Gender and Body Composition on Rectus Femoris Morphology as Measured With Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Corina; Davis, Ashley; Myers, Heather; Butler, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Quadriceps function is an important measure in patients recovering postoperatively. Traditionally, strength measures that require high levels of resistance are contraindicated during the early postoperative phase. Thus it may be helpful to evaluate the utilization of other tools, such as ultrasound imaging, that allow for assessment during a position of low resistance. Hypothesis: The rectus femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) is affected by sex and body composition in healthy subjects. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Thirty-two healthy subjects (16 women, 16 men), selected from a previously larger study, were chosen for analysis. All subjects underwent a maximal volitional isometric contraction protocol from 0 to 90 of knee motion controlled by an isokinetic dynamometer. In the contracted and resting positions, the rectus femoris CSA was measured at each angle using ultrasound imaging. The contractile index (contracted ? resting CSA) was calculated at each position. Subjects were separated into 1 of 4 groups based on sex and fat percentage (low or high). These data were analyzed using mixed-factor analysis of variance (group angle) for each variable, with a critical ? level of 0.05. Results: A significant interaction was noted for the CSA of the rectus femoris at rest (P < 0.03) and during contraction (P < 0.02). For both variables, all groups performed similarly, with the exception of women with high body fat percentage. No statistically significant interaction existed for the contractile index; however, a main effect for angle (P < 0.01) was observed. Conclusion: Rectus femoris CSA appears to depend on sex as well as the body composition of individuals. Clinical Relevance: Traditional subjective assessment measures of quadriceps strength and function have low reliability and functional validity. With the improved feasibility of ultrasound imaging in the clinical setting, quadriceps size may be more accurately measured during the early postoperative stages. PMID:25177424

  14. An analysis on muscle tone of lower limb muscles on flexible flat foot.

    PubMed

    Um, Gi-Mai; Wang, Joong-San; Park, Si-Eun

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine differences in the muscle tone and stiffness of leg muscles according to types of flexible flat foot. [Subjects and Methods] For 30 subjects 10 in a normal foot group (NFG), 10 in group with both flexible flat feet (BFFG), and 10 in a group with flexible flat feet on one side (OFFG), myotonometry was used to measure the muscle tone and stiffness of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA), the rectus femoris muscle (RF), the medial gastrocnemius (MG), and the long head of the biceps femoris muscle (BF) of both lower extremities. [Results] In the measurement results, only the stiffness of TA and MG of the NFG and the BFFG showed significant differences. The muscle tone and stiffness were highest in the BFFG, followed by the OFFG and NFG, although the difference was insignificant. In the case of the OFFG, there was no significant difference in muscle tone and stiffness compared to that in the NGF and the BFFG. Furthermore, in the NFG, the non-dominant leg showed greater muscle tone and stiffness than the dominant leg, although the difference was insignificant. [Conclusion] During the relax condition, the flexible flat foot generally showed a greater muscle tone and stiffness of both lower extremities compared to the normal foot. The stiffness was particularly higher in the TA and MG muscles. Therefore, the muscle tone and stiffness of the lower extremity muscles must be considered in the treatment of flat foot. PMID:26644650

  15. An analysis on muscle tone of lower limb muscles on flexible flat foot

    PubMed Central

    Um, Gi-Mai; Wang, Joong-San; Park, Si-Eun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine differences in the muscle tone and stiffness of leg muscles according to types of flexible flat foot. [Subjects and Methods] For 30 subjects 10 in a normal foot group (NFG), 10 in group with both flexible flat feet (BFFG), and 10 in a group with flexible flat feet on one side (OFFG), myotonometry was used to measure the muscle tone and stiffness of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA), the rectus femoris muscle (RF), the medial gastrocnemius (MG), and the long head of the biceps femoris muscle (BF) of both lower extremities. [Results] In the measurement results, only the stiffness of TA and MG of the NFG and the BFFG showed significant differences. The muscle tone and stiffness were highest in the BFFG, followed by the OFFG and NFG, although the difference was insignificant. In the case of the OFFG, there was no significant difference in muscle tone and stiffness compared to that in the NGF and the BFFG. Furthermore, in the NFG, the non-dominant leg showed greater muscle tone and stiffness than the dominant leg, although the difference was insignificant. [Conclusion] During the relax condition, the flexible flat foot generally showed a greater muscle tone and stiffness of both lower extremities compared to the normal foot. The stiffness was particularly higher in the TA and MG muscles. Therefore, the muscle tone and stiffness of the lower extremity muscles must be considered in the treatment of flat foot. PMID:26644650

  16. Previous Multiple Abdominal Surgeries: A Valid Contraindication to Abdominal Free Flap Breast Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Di Candia, Michele; Asfoor, Ahmed Al; Jessop, Zita M.; Kumiponjera, Devor; Hsieh, Frank; Malata, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Presented in part at the following Academic Meetings: 57th Meeting of the Italian Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, September 24-27, 2008, Naples, Italy.45th Congress of the European Society for Surgical Research (ESSR), June 9-12, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Summer Scientific Meeting, June 30-July 2, 2010, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK. Background: Patients with previous multiple abdominal surgeries are often denied abdominal free flap breast reconstruction because of concerns about flap viability and abdominal wall integrity. We therefore studied their flap and donor site outcomes and compared them to patients with no previous abdominal surgery to find out whether this is a valid contraindication to the use of abdominal tissue. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with multiple previous abdominal operations who underwent abdominal free flap breast reconstruction by a single surgeon (C.M.M., 2000-2009) were identified and retrospectively compared with a cohort of similar patients without previous abdominal surgery (sequential allocation control group, n = 20). Results: The index and control groups were comparable in age, body mass index, comorbidities, previous chemotherapy, and RT exposure. The index patients had a mean age of 54 years (r, 42-63) and an average body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 (r, 22-38). The main previous surgeries were Caesarean sections (19), hysterectomies (8), and cholecystectomies (6). They underwent immediate (n = 9) or delayed (n = 11) reconstructions either unilaterally (n = 18) or bilaterally (n = 2) and comprising 9 muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis muscle and 13 deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps. All flaps were successful, and there were no significant differences in flap and donor site outcomes between the 2 groups after an average follow up of 26 months (r, 10-36). Conclusion: Multiple previous abdominal surgeries did not predispose to increased flap or donor site morbidity. On the basis of our experience, we have proposed some recommendations for successful abdominal free flap breast reconstruction in patients with previous multiple scars. Careful preoperative planning and the use of some intraoperative adaptations can allow abdominal free flap breast reconstruction to be reliably undertaken in such patients. PMID:22848775

  17. Localization of motoneurons innervating individual abdominal muscles of the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a systematic investigation of the innervation of the cat's individual abdominal muscles. The segmental distribution of the different motor pools was determined by using electrical microstimulation of the ventral horn to produce visible localized muscle twitches and by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase injected into individual muscles. The segmental distribution of each motor pool was as follows: rectus abdominis, T4-L3; external oblique, T6-L3; transverse abdominis, T9-L3; and internal oblique, T13-L3.

  18. Optimizing Muscle Parameters in Musculoskeletal Modeling Using Monte Carlo Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Andrea; Reed, Erik; Cavanagh, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts assigned to long-duration missions experience bone and muscle atrophy in the lower limbs. The use of musculoskeletal simulation software has become a useful tool for modeling joint and muscle forces during human activity in reduced gravity as access to direct experimentation is limited. Knowledge of muscle and joint loads can better inform the design of exercise protocols and exercise countermeasure equipment. In this study, the LifeModeler(TM) (San Clemente, CA) biomechanics simulation software was used to model a squat exercise. The initial model using default parameters yielded physiologically reasonable hip-joint forces. However, no activation was predicted in some large muscles such as rectus femoris, which have been shown to be active in 1-g performance of the activity. Parametric testing was conducted using Monte Carlo methods and combinatorial reduction to find a muscle parameter set that more closely matched physiologically observed activation patterns during the squat exercise. Peak hip joint force using the default parameters was 2.96 times body weight (BW) and increased to 3.21 BW in an optimized, feature-selected test case. The rectus femoris was predicted to peak at 60.1% activation following muscle recruitment optimization, compared to 19.2% activation with default parameters. These results indicate the critical role that muscle parameters play in joint force estimation and the need for exploration of the solution space to achieve physiologically realistic muscle activation.

  19. Essential amino acid ingestion as an efficient nutritional strategyfor the preservation of muscle mass following gastricbypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, Christos S; Madura, James A; Roust, Lori R

    2016-01-01

    Loss of skeletal muscle in patients who have undergone gastric bypass is a consistent observation. Skeletal muscle constitutes the largest protein/amino acid pool in the body, and loss of skeletal muscle has important implications in health and disease. Sustaining a given level of muscle protein requires a balance between the rates of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown. Current evidence suggests that reduced rate of protein synthesis is implicated in the loss of muscle after gastric bypass. This is not surprising given a less than optimal dietary protein intake after the procedure and because, unlike other macronutrients, protein/amino acids are not stored in the body. Ingesting essential amino acids (EAAs), which cannot be synthesized de novo and have the primary role in the regulation of muscle protein synthesis, can potentially ameliorate loss of muscle protein after gastric bypass. At the same time, ingestion of EAAs provides a more efficient nutritional approach (i.e., greater stimulation of protein synthesis relative to the amount of amino acids ingested) to enhance muscle protein synthesis compared with the ingestion of intact protein. Changing current dietary practices toward increasing ingestion of EAAs provides an approach that can potentially prevent loss of lean body tissue and ultimately achieve a more sustained level of health in patients who have undergone gastric bypass. PMID:26456190

  20. The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of a 6-month-old Crocodylus niloticus (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    PubMed

    Fechner, R; Schwarz-Wings, D

    2013-06-01

    The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of crocodilians play an important role in their ventilatory mechanism. Yet the anatomy and homology of these muscles is poorly understood. To gain new insights into the anatomy of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall, we dissected a specimen of Crocodylus niloticus. Origin and insertion of the muscles, as well as their arrangement relative to each other was examined in great detail. The findings were compared with those of other crocodilian taxa to detect potential variability of the muscles of interest. The homology of the muscles was studied by comparing the muscles of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall with those of other diapsids. In Crocodylus niloticus, the infrapubic abdominal wall consists of four muscles: Musculus truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus, and Mm. rectus abdominis externus and internus. The arrangement of the muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of Crocodylus niloticus is consistent with that found in most other crocodilian taxa. In some crocodilian taxa, an additional muscle, M. ischiopubis, is found. In the remaining diapsids, only M. rectus abdominis is present. The crocodilian M. truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus and, if present, M. ischiopubis appear to be derivates of M. rectus abdominis; the development of those might be related to the evolution of the unique crocodilian ventilatory mechanism. PMID:22909340

  1. Comparative analysis of trunk muscle activities in climbing of during upright climbing at different inclination angles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byung-Joon; Kim, Joong-Hwi; Kim, Jang-Hwan; Choi, Byeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to provide evidence for the therapeutic exercise approach through a compative analysis of muscle activities according to climbing wall inclination. [Subjects and Methods] Twentyfour healthy adult subjects without climbing experience performed static exercises at a therapeutic climbing at with various inclination angles (0°, 10°, 20°), and the activities of the trunk muscles (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, erector spinae) were measured using surface electromyography (EMG) for 7 seconds. [Results] Significant differences were found between the inclination angles of 10° and 0°, as well as 20° in the rectus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, right obliquus externus abdominis, and right erector spinae. [Conclusion] Based on measurements of trunk muscle activity in a static climbing standing position at different angles, significant changes in muscle activity appear to be induced at 10 degrees. Therefore, the results appear to provide clinically relevant evidence. PMID:26644661

  2. Long-Term Outcome of Medial Rectus Recession and Pulley Posterior Fixation in Esotropia With High AC/A Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Wabulembo, Geoffrey; Demer, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Medial rectus (MR) recession with pulley posterior fixation (PF) can be used to treatesotropia (ET) with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio as effectively in the short term as MR recession with scleral PF. This study provides a novel examination of the long-term results of MR recession with pulley PF (PPF). Methods: In 21 children we performed bilateral MR recession and pulley PF for ET greater at near than distance (high AC/A). Mean follow-up was 3.5 2.5 (standard deviation [SD]) years. Results: Mean age at presentation was 2.7 1.8 and at surgery 4.3 1.6 years. Fourteen (67%) children had amblyopia. Distance and near pre-operative ET averaged 19.6? 10.5? and 36.9? 18.9?, respectively. Mean near-distance (N-D) disparity was 16.4? 12.3?. The MR recession averaged 4.4 0.9 mm. Early mean postoperative ET was 1.3 3.3? at distance and 2.8? 5.2? at near. Mean late postoperative ET was 0.1? 5.8? and 1.0? 6.2? at distance and near, respectively. At the final postoperative examination, mean N-D disparity was reduced to 0.9? 3.6?. Discussion: MR recession with PPF has a high long-term effectiveness, even in patients with amblyopia and autism. Since no posterior scleral suturing is required, it minimizes the perforation risk associated with scleral PF. Conclusion: MR recession with PPF is a safe and highly effective long-term treatment for ET with high AC/A ratio. Long-term results may surpass those of alternate procedures. PMID:22906381

  3. The Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator and Pedicled Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap in Breast Reconstruction: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shane; Yek, Jacklyn; Ong, Wei Chen; Hing, Chor Hoong; Lim, Thiam Chye

    2013-01-01

    Background Our objective was to compare the complication rates of two common breast reconstruction techniques performed at our hospital and the cost-effectiveness for each test group. Methods All patients who underwent deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap and transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap by the same surgeon were selected and matched according to age and mastectomy with or without axillary clearance. Patients from each resultant group were selected, with the patients matched chronologically. The remainder were matched for by co-morbidities. Sixteen patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction with pedicled TRAM flaps and 16 patients with DIEP flaps from 1999 to 2006 were accrued. The average total hospitalisation cost, length of hospitalisation, and complications in the 2 year duration after surgery for each group were compared. Results Complications arising from both the pedicled TRAM flaps and DIEP flaps included fat necrosis (TRAM, 3/16; DIEP, 4/16) and other minor complications (TRAM, 3/16; DIEP, 1/16). The mean hospital stay was 7.13 days (range, 4 to 12 days) for the pedicled TRAM group and 7.56 (range, 5 to 10 days) for the DIEP group. Neither the difference in complication rates nor in hospital stay duration were statistically significant. The total hospitalisation cost for the DIEP group was significantly higher than that of the pedicled TRAM group (P<0.001). Conclusions Based on our study, the pedicled TRAM flap remains a cost-effective technique in breast reconstruction when compared to the newer, more expensive and tedious DIEP flap. PMID:23730591

  4. Insulin receptor phosphorylation, insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity are decreased in intact skeletal muscle strips from obese subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Goodyear, L J; Giorgino, F; Sherman, L A; Carey, J; Smith, R J; Dohm, G L

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether the impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in obese individuals is associated with altered insulin receptor signaling, we measured both glucose uptake and early steps in the insulin action pathway in intact strips of human skeletal muscle. Biopsies of rectus abdominus muscle were taken from eight obese and eight control subjects undergoing elective surgery (body mass index 52.9 +/- 3.6 vs 25.7 +/- 0.9). Insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake was 53% lower in muscle strips from obese subjects. Additional muscle strips were incubated in the basal state or with 10(-7) M insulin for 2, 15, or 30 min. In the lean subjects, tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), measured by immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, was significantly increased by insulin at all time points. In the skeletal muscle from the obese subjects, insulin was less effective in stimulating tyrosine phosphorylation (maximum receptor and IRS-1 phosphorylation decreased by 35 and 38%, respectively). Insulin stimulation of IRS-1 immunoprecipitable phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity also was markedly lower in obese subjects compared with controls (10- vs 35-fold above basal, respectively). In addition, the obese subjects had a lower abundance of the insulin receptor, IRS-1, and the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase (55, 54, and 64% of nonobese, respectively). We conclude that impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle from severely obese subjects is accompanied by a deficiency in insulin receptor signaling, which may contribute to decreased insulin action. Images PMID:7537758

  5. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C.; Martn, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E.; Behm, David G.; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p < 0.001). Individually, the suspended push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key Points Compared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation. A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity. More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation. A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS. PMID:25177174

  6. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Cosmetic surgery Cosmetic surgery Teens might have cosmetic surgery for a ... about my body? What are the risks of cosmetic surgery? top People who have cosmetic surgery face ...

  7. Your Muscles

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles Print A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles sometimes also called involuntary muscles are ...

  8. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dystrophy Inflammation of the muscle Muscular dystrophy Myopathic changes (destruction of the muscle) Necrosis (tissue death) of muscle Necrotizing vasculitis Traumatic muscle damage Polymyositis ...

  9. Analysis of muscle activations in lower extremities muscles at various angles of ankle flexion using wedges during static squat exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Chang-Hwan; Jeong, Yeon-Woo; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate changes in activation of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles during one-legged squats performed at various angles of ankle flexion. With the use of wedges, the muscles were activated at different angles of ankle flexion angles to establish the appropriate posture necessary for muscle strengthening and rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy adults aged 20–40 years were recruited from Good Morning Hospital in Ulsan City. Of the 22 participants, two dropped out during the tests, leaving a final sample of 20 participants. The wedges were 100 mm wide and 200 mm long and had inclinations of 10°, 30°, and 50°. EMG Analyzer software was used to measure muscle activation. [Results] A significant difference in the activation of the rectus femoris muscle at various angles of ankle flexion was seen. The gastrocnemius muscle exhibited significant differences in activation among the 0°–30°, 0°–50°, and 10°–50° inclinations. [Conclusion] Wedge-assisted muscle activation under different ankle flexion angles can be introduced as an effective exercise option under clinical conditions. PMID:26504309

  10. Bilateral Orbital Abscesses After Strabismus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Lee, Winston; Garg, Aakriti; Garibaldi, Daniel C; Leibert, Michelle; Kazim, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Infectious orbital complications after strabismus surgery are rare. Their incidence is estimated to be 1 case per 1,100 surgeries and include preseptal cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, subconjunctival and sub-Tenon's abscesses, myositis, and endophthalmitis. This report describes the case of an otherwise healthy 3-year-old boy who underwent bilateral medial rectus recession and disinsertion of the inferior obliques. A few days after surgery, the patient presented with bilateral periorbital edema and inferotemporal chemosis. A series of CT scans with contrast revealed inferotemporal orbital collections OU. The patient immediately underwent transconjunctival drainage of fibrinous and seropurulent collections in the sub-Tenon's space and experienced rapid improvement a few days later. The patient is reported to be in stable condition in a follow-up examination performed more than a year after the reported events. PMID:24896771

  11. Does the rectus femoris nerve block improve knee recurvatum in adult stroke patients? A kinematic and electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Gross, R; Delporte, L; Arsenault, L; Revol, P; Lefevre, M; Clevenot, D; Boisson, D; Mertens, P; Rossetti, Y; Luaut, J

    2014-02-01

    Knee recurvatum (KR) during gait is common in hemiplegic patients. Quadriceps spasticity has been postulated as a cause of KR in this population. The aim of this study was to assess the role of rectus femoris spasticity in KR by using selective motor nerve blocks of the rectus femoris nerve in hemiparetic stroke patients. The data from six adult, post-stroke hemiplegic patients who underwent a rectus femoris nerve block for a stiff-knee gait were retrospectively analyzed. An extensive clinical and functional evaluation was performed and gait was assessed by motion analysis (kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic parameters) before and during the block realized using 2% lidocaine injected under a neurostimulation and ultrasonographic targeting procedure. The main outcome measures were the peak knee extension in stance and peak knee extensor moment obtained during gait analysis. No serious adverse effect of the nerve block was observed. The block allowed a reduction of rectus femoris overactivity in all patients. Peak knee extension and extensor moment in stance did not improve in any patient, but peak knee flexion during the swing phase was significantly higher after block (mean: 31.2 post, 26.4 pre, p < 0.05). Our results provide arguments against the hypothesis that the spasticity of the rectus femoris contributes to KR. PMID:24286615

  12. Extraocular Muscle Motor Units Characterized By Spike-Triggered Averaging In Alert Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Gamlin, Paul D.; Miller, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    Single-unit recording in macaque monkeys has been widely used to study extraocular motoneuron behavior during eye movements. However, primate extraocular motor units have only been studied using electrical stimulation in anesthetized animals. To study motor units in alert, behaving macaques, we combined chronic muscle force transducer (MFT) and single-unit extracellular motoneuron recordings. During steady fixation with low motoneuron firing rates, we used motoneuron spike-triggered averaging of MFT signals (STA-MFT) to extract individual motor unit twitches, thereby characterizing each motor unit in terms of twitch force and dynamics. It is then possible, as in conventional studies, to determine motoneuron activity during eye movements, but now with knowledge of underlying motor unit characteristics. We demonstrate the STA-MFT technique for medial rectus motor units. Recordings from 33 medial rectus motoneurons in three animals identified 20 motor units, which had peak twitch tensions of 0.5 5.25 mg, initial twitch delays averaging 2.4ms, and time to peak contraction averaging 9.3ms. These twitch tensions are consistent with those reported in unanesthetized rabbits, and with estimates of the total number of medial rectus motoneurons and twitch tension generated by whole-nerve stimulation in monkey, but are substantially lower than those reported for lateral rectus motor units in anesthetized squirrel monkey. Motor units were recruited in order of twitch tension magnitude with stronger motor units reaching threshold further in the muscles ON-direction, showing that, as in other skeletal muscles, medial rectus motor units are recruited according to the size principle. PMID:22108141

  13. Changes in Activation of Abdominal Muscles at Selected Angles During Trunk Exercise by Using Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Dong; Bae, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Jong-Gil; Han, Nami; Eom, Mi-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of activation of the abdominal muscles depending on exercise angles and whether the activation of rectus abdominis differs according to the location, during curl up and leg raise exercises, by measuring the thickness ratio of abdominal muscles using ultrasonography. Methods We examined 30 normal adults without musculoskeletal problems. Muscle thickness was measured in the upper rectus abdominis (URA), lower rectus abdominis (LRA), obliquus externus (EO), obliquus internus (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA), at pre-determined angles (30, 60, 90) and additionally at the resting angle (0). Muscle thickness ratio was calculated by dividing the resting (0) thickness for each angle, and was used as reflection of muscle activity. Results The muscle thickness ratio was significantly different depending on the angles in URA and LRA. For curl up-URA p=0 (30<60), p=0 (60>90), p=0.44 (30<90) and LRA p=0.01 (30<60), p=0 (60>90), p=0.44 (30>90), respectively, by one-way ANOVA test-and for leg raise-URA p=0 (30<60), p=0 (60<90), p=0 (30<90) and LRA p=0.01 (30<60), p=0 (60<90), p=0 (30<90), respectively, by one-way ANOVA test-exercises, but not in the lateral abdominal muscles (EO, IO, and TrA). Also, there was no significant difference in the muscle thickness ratio of URA and LRA during both exercises. In the aspect of muscle activity, there was significant difference in the activation of RA muscle by selected angles, but not according to location during both exercises. Conclusion According to this study, exercise angle is thought to be an important contributing factor for strengthening of RA muscle; however, both the exercises are thought to have no property of strengthening RA muscle selectively based on the location. PMID:26798609

  14. Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Tome; Mori, Natsuko; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of age and inactivity due to being chronically bedridden on atrophy of trunk muscles. The subjects comprised 33 young women (young group) and 41 elderly women who resided in nursing homes or chronic care institutions. The elderly subjects were divided into two groups: independent elderly group who were able to perform activities of daily living involving walking independently (n = 28) and dependent elderly group who were chronically bedridden (n = 13). The thickness of the following six trunk muscles was measured by B-mode ultrasound: the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, thoracic erector spinae (longissimus) and lumbar multifidus muscles. All muscles except for the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles were significantly thinner in the independent elderly group compared with those in the young group. The thicknesses of all muscles in the dependent elderly group was significantly smaller than that in the young group, whereas there were no differences between the dependent elderly and independent elderly groups in the muscle thicknesses of the rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles. In conclusion, our results suggest that: (1) age-related atrophy compared with young women was less in the deep antigravity trunk muscles than the superficial muscles in the independent elderly women; (2) atrophy associated with chronic bed rest was more marked in the antigravity muscles, such as the back and transversus abdominis. PMID:21472438

  15. Postnatal development of the connexion between tubulus seminiferous and tubulus rectus in the bovine testis.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, K H; Schilling, E; Zwack, M

    1986-01-01

    Histology and ultrastructure of the connexion of seminiferous and straight testicular tubules were studied in 58 bovine testes of 29 animals ranging from 4 to 52 weeks of postnatal development. In the 4th and 8th week seminiferous tubules are solid. Their non-germinal supporting cells possess spherical nuclei in a basal location and a great amount of granular endoplasmic reticulum. The straight tubules have a narrow lumen and a stratified epithelium rich in intercellular canaliculi. Between 20 and 25 weeks the seminiferous tubules acquire a lumen and develop a terminal segment, the tip of which (terminal plug) protrudes into the cup-shaped modification of the adjacent straight tubule. At 30 weeks the structural differentiation between seminiferous tubule proper and its terminal segment has proceeded: in the former spermatocytes and spermatids make their first appearance, and the supporting cells have transformed to Sertoli cells. In the latter the morphology of the supporting cell preserves a more primitive state. Starting from the 16th week and proceeding through the 30th week and further, the epithelium of the tubulus rectus close to the connexion with the seminiferous tubule becomes monolayered by rearrangement of its cells and advances along the basal lamina into the area of the seminiferous tubule. Those cells of the seminiferous tubule that are cut off from the basal lamina by invading rectus cells degenerate. Between 40 and 52 weeks the adult situation is principally achieved. The terminal segment of the seminiferous tubule is tripartite consisting of transitional region, intermediate portion, and terminal plug. The terminal segment is surrounded by a vascular plexus. The straight testicular tubule adjacent to the terminal segment is modified into a cup region encompassing the terminal plug, followed by a narrow stalk region, which is lined by simple columnar epithelium. Mononuclear free cells are a constant feature of the tubulus rectus epithelium in all stages of postnatal development. PMID:3779817

  16. 'Serious thigh muscle strains': beware the intramuscular tendon which plays an important role in difficult hamstring and quadriceps muscle strains.

    PubMed

    Brukner, Peter; Connell, David

    2016-02-01

    Why do some hamstring and quadriceps strains take much longer to repair than others? Which injuries are more prone to recurrence? Intramuscular tendon injuries have received little attention as an element in 'muscle strain'. In thigh muscles, such as rectus femoris and biceps femoris, the attached tendon extends for a significant distance within the muscle belly. While the pathology of most muscle injures occurs at a musculotendinous junction, at first glance the athlete appears to report pain within a muscle belly. In addition to the musculotendinous injury being a site of pathology, the intramuscular tendon itself is occasionally injured. These injuries have a variety of appearances on MRIs. There is some evidence that these injuries require a prolonged rehabilitation time and may have higher recurrence rates. Therefore, it is important to recognise the tendon component of a thigh 'muscle strain'. PMID:26519522

  17. Duodenal-jejunal bypass surgery does not increase skeletal muscle insulin signal transduction or glucose disposal in Goto-Kakazaki type 2 diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Timothy P.; Sloan, Ruben C.; Lukosius, Eric Z.; Reed, Melissa A.; Pender, John R.; Boghossian, Van; Carter, Jacqueline J.; McKernie, Robert D.; Parikh, Kushal; Price, J. William; Tapscott, Edward B.; Pories, Walter J.; Dohm, G. Lynis

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) has been shown to reverse type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Goto-Kakazaki (GK) rats, a rodent model of non-obese T2DM. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a hallmark decrement in T2DM. The aim of the current work was to investigate the effects of DJB on skeletal muscle insulin signal transduction and glucose disposal. It was hypothesized that DJB would increase skeletal muscle insulin signal transduction and glucose disposal in GK rats. METHODS DJB was performed in GK rats. Sham operations were performed in GK and non-diabetic Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. At two weeks post-DJB, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) was measured. At three weeks post-DJB, insulin-induced signal transduction and glucose disposal were measured in skeletal muscle. RESULTS In GK rats and compared to Sham operation, DJB did not: 1) improve fasting glucose or insulin; 2) improve OGTT; or 3) increase skeletal muscle insulin signal transduction or glucose disposal. Interestingly, skeletal muscle glucose disposal was similar between WKY-Sham, GK-Sham, and GK-DJB. CONCLUSIONS Bypassing of the proximal small intestine does not increase skeletal muscle glucose disposal. The lack of skeletal muscle insulin resistance in GK rats questions whether this animal model is adequate to investigate the etiology and treatments for T2DM. Additionally, bypassing of the foregut may lead to different findings in other animal models of T2DM as well as in T2DM patients. PMID:21086062

  18. Ontogenetic changes of trunk muscle structure in the Japanese black salamander (Hynobius nigrescens).

    PubMed

    Omura, Ayano; Anzai, Wataru; Koyabu, Daisuke; Endo, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    We investigated ontogenetic changes in the trunk muscles of the Japanese black salamander (Hynobius nigrescens) before, during and after metamorphosis. Given that amphibians change their locomotive patterns with metamorphosis, we hypothesized that they may also change the structure of their trunk muscles. The trunk muscles were macroscopically observed, and the weight ratios of each trunk muscle group were quantified at six different developmental stages. Immediately after hatching, we found that the lateral hypaxial muscle was composed of one thick M. ventralis, from ventral edge of which M. transversus abdominis arose later, followed by M. obliquus externus and M. rectus abdominis. The weight ratios of the dorsal and abdominal muscles to the trunk muscles increased with growth. We suggest that a single thick and large lateral hypaxial muscle facilitates swimming during early developmental stages. The increase in the weight ratios of the dorsal and abdominal muscles with growth possibly assists with gravity resistance necessary for terrestrial life. PMID:25816856

  19. Ontogenetic changes of trunk muscle structure in the Japanese black salamander (Hynobius nigrescens)

    PubMed Central

    OMURA, Ayano; ANZAI, Wataru; KOYABU, Daisuke; ENDO, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    We investigated ontogenetic changes in the trunk muscles of the Japanese black salamander (Hynobius nigrescens) before, during and after metamorphosis. Given that amphibians change their locomotive patterns with metamorphosis, we hypothesized that they may also change the structure of their trunk muscles. The trunk muscles were macroscopically observed, and the weight ratios of each trunk muscle group were quantified at six different developmental stages. Immediately after hatching, we found that the lateral hypaxial muscle was composed of one thick M. ventralis, from ventral edge of which M. transversus abdominis arose later, followed by M. obliquus externus and M. rectus abdominis. The weight ratios of the dorsal and abdominal muscles to the trunk muscles increased with growth. We suggest that a single thick and large lateral hypaxial muscle facilitates swimming during early developmental stages. The increase in the weight ratios of the dorsal and abdominal muscles with growth possibly assists with gravity resistance necessary for terrestrial life. PMID:25816856

  20. Optimising muscle parameters in musculoskeletal models using Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Reed, Erik B; Hanson, Andrea M; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The use of musculoskeletal simulation software has become a useful tool for modelling joint and muscle forces during human activity, including in reduced gravity because direct experimentation is difficult. Knowledge of muscle and joint loads can better inform the design of exercise protocols and exercise countermeasure equipment. In this study, the LifeModeler™ (San Clemente, CA, USA) biomechanics simulation software was used to model a squat exercise. The initial model using default parameters yielded physiologically reasonable hip-joint forces but no activation was predicted in some large muscles such as rectus femoris, which have been shown to be active in 1-g performance of the activity. Parametric testing was conducted using Monte Carlo methods and combinatorial reduction to find a muscle parameter set that more closely matched physiologically observed activation patterns during the squat exercise. The rectus femoris was predicted to peak at 60.1% activation in the same test case compared to 19.2% activation using default parameters. These results indicate the critical role that muscle parameters play in joint force estimation and the need for exploration of the solution space to achieve physiologically realistic muscle activation. PMID:24050838

  1. Reconstruction of full-thickness chest wall defects using rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap: A report of fifteen cases

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Y.; Hattori, T.; Niimoto, M.; Toge, T. )

    1986-02-01

    In 15 patients chest walls were excised because of recurrent breast cancer, radiation ulcer, or rib tumor. In most cases the full-thickness defect of the chest wall was about 10 x 10 cm. Reconstruction was performed using only a rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap. No patient developed circulation problems in the flap or severe flail chest, and we had successful results in all our cases. These results show that the rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap is quite effective and safe to use in the reconstruction of chest wall defects.

  2. Spontaneous rectus sheath haematoma in a deceased donor renal transplant recipient: a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, Jayaram; Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; SampathKumar, Nathee; Umesha, Lingaraju

    2016-01-01

    Rectus sheath haematoma (RSH) is rarely thought of as a cause of abdominal pain in renal transplant recipients. A 36-year-old woman, a post-deceased donor renal allograft transplant recipient for chronic interstitial nephritis, on triple drug immunosuppression (tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone) with basiliximab induction, developed acute vascular rejection and acute tubular injury with suspected antibody-mediated rejection. While on plasmapheresis and haemodialysis for delayed graft function, she developed acute left lower abdominal pain on the 16th postoperative day with tender swelling in the left paraumbilical region. CT of the abdomen showed a large haematoma in the left rectus sheath with no extension. The patient underwent haematoma evacuation through a left paramedian incision and had an uneventful recovery. Serum creatinine stabilised at 0.8?mg/dL and she is on regular follow-up with excellent graft function at 6?months. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, and prompt treatment prevents morbidity and can expedite patient recovery. PMID:26847807

  3. In vitro effects of VD-99-11 on Angiostrongylus cantonensis and isolated frog rectus.

    PubMed

    Lee, H H; Shyu, L Y; Terada, M

    1995-01-01

    In vitro effects of VD-99-11 were examined using adult Angiostrongylus cantonensis and isolated frog rectus. In A. cantonensis, paralysis was elicited by VD-99-11 at 10(-9)-10(-6) g/ml. The paralysis caused by VD-99-11 (10(-8) g/ml) was antagonized by picrotoxin or bicuculline but not by phentolamine. A relationship between VD-99-11 and gabergic antagonists was observed in worm preparations contracted by eserine or pyrantel: VD-99-11 at higher concentrations (3x10(-6) g/ml) caused a marked contraction. In worm preparations contracted with eserine or pyrantel, the only additional contraction induced by VD-99-11 (5x10(-6) g/ml) was antagonized by strychnine. In experiments on the guanidine (2.5x10(-3) M)-induced twitch responses in isolated frog rectus, marked stimulation was caused by VD-99-11 (3-5x10(-6) g/ml). The stimulated responses induced by VD-99-11 were antagonized by tetrodotoxin, D-tubocurarine, strychnine, and hemicholinium-3, respectively. These results suggest that VD-99-11 seems superior to milbemycin D, milbemycin oxime, and ivermectin in some aspects, such as in vitro potency, though this new substance is similar to these drugs in having two different actions on the gabergic mechanism at lower concentrations and on the cholinergic mechanism at higher concentrations. PMID:7479654

  4. Correlation between Peak Expiratory Flow and Abdominal Muscle Thickness.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Kobara, Kenichi; Osaka, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Tadanobu; Ito, Tomotaka; Kurozumi, Chiharu; Watanabe, Susumu

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether forced expiration is correlated with abdominal muscle thickness. [Subjects] Twenty-three healthy male volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] The peak expiratory flow (PEF) was obtained using a peak flow meter with subjects in the sitting position. The thicknesses of the right rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis muscles were measured using B-mode ultrasonography at the end of a relaxed expiration in the supine position. [Results] Among the abdominal muscles, only the thickness of the external oblique muscle displayed a significant correlation with PEF. [Conclusion] It appears that the thickness of the external oblique muscle might be associated with PEF during forced expiration. PMID:25435702

  5. Influence of exercise training on the oxidative capacity of rat abdominal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uribe, J. M.; Stump, C. S.; Tipton, C. M.; Fregosi, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine if endurance exercise training would increase the oxidative capacity of the abdominal expiratory muscles of the rat. Accordingly, 9 male rats were subjected to an endurance training protocol (1 h/day, 6 days/week, 9 weeks) and 9 litter-mates served as controls. Citrate synthase (CS) activity was used as an index of oxidative capacity, and was determined in the following muscles: soleus, plantaris, costal diaphragm, crural diaphragm, and in all four abdominal muscles: rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique. Compared to their non-trained litter-mates, the trained rats had higher peak whole body oxygen consumption rates (+ 16%) and CS activities in plantaris (+34%) and soleus (+36%) muscles. Thus, the training program caused substantial systemic and locomotor muscle adaptations. The CS activity of costal diaphragm was 20% greater in the trained animals, but no difference was observed in crural diaphragm. The CS activity in the abdominal muscles was less than one-half of that in locomotor and diaphragm muscles, and there were no significant changes with training except in the rectus abdominis where a 26% increase was observed. The increase in rectus abdominis CS activity may reflect its role in postural support and/or locomotion, as none of the primary expiratory pumping muscles adapted to the training protocol. The relatively low levels of CS activity in the abdominal muscles suggests that they are not recruited frequently at rest, and the lack of an increase with training indicates that these muscles do not contribute significantly to the increased ventilatory activity accompanying exercise in the rat.

  6. Knee extensor muscle oxygen consumption in relation to muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Kooistra, R D; Blaauboer, M E; Born, J R; de Ruiter, C J; de Haan, A

    2006-12-01

    Recently, fatigability and muscle oxygen consumption (mVO(2)) during sustained isometric contractions were found to be less at shorter (30 degrees knee angle; 0 degrees = full extension) compared to longer knee extensor muscle lengths (90 degrees ) and, at low torques, less in the rectus femoris (RF) muscle than in the vastus lateralis and medialis. In the present study we hypothesized that these findings could be accounted for by a knee angle- and a muscle-dependent activation respectively. On two experimental days rectified surface EMG (rsEMG) was obtained as a measure of muscle activation in nine healthy young males. In addition, on day 1 maximal torque capacity (MTC) was carefully determined using superimposed nerve stimulation on brief high intensity contractions (> 70%MVC) at 30, 60 and 90 degrees knee angles. On day 2, subjects performed longer lasting isometric contractions (10-70%MTC) while mVO(2) was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). At 30 degrees , maximal mVO(2) was reached significantly later (11.0 s +/- 6.5 s) and was 57.9 +/- 8.3% less (average +/- SD, across intensities and muscles) than mVO(2) at 60 and 90 degrees (p < 0.05). However, rsEMG was on average only 18.0 +/- 11.8% (p = 0.062) less at the start of the contraction at 30 degrees . At 10%MTC at all knee angles, maximal mVO(2) of the RF occurred significantly later (28.8 +/- 36.0 s) and showed a significantly smaller increase in rsEMG compared to both vasti. In conclusion, it is unlikely that the tendency for less intense muscle activation could fully account for the approximately 60% lower oxygen consumption at 30 degrees , but the later increase in RFmVO(2) seemed to be caused by a less strong activation of the RF. PMID:17089159

  7. Effect of Different Forefoot and Heel Support Surfaces on the Activities of the RF and HAM Muscles during the Sit-to-stand Task while Wearing High-heel Shoes

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show the effect of different forefoot and heel support surfaces on the activities of the rectus femoris and medial hamstring muscles during the sit-to-stand task while wearing high-heel shoes. [Subjects] Fifteen female subjects were recruited. [Methods] The muscle activities of the rectus femoris and hamstring muscles were recorded using an MP150 system during the sit-to-stand task while wearing various high-heeled shoes. [Results] The activities of the rectus femoris and medial hamstring muscles significantly decreased when subjects wore condition 1 shoes compared with when they wore condition 2, 3 or 4 high-heeled shoes. The activities of the rectus femoris and medial hamstring muscles significantly decreased when subjects wore condition 2 high-heeled shoes compared with condition 3 or 4 high-heeled shoes. [Conclusion] The results can be interpreted as indicating that the size of the forefoot supporting surface can influence the lower extremity muscles of women wearing high-heeled shoes more than the size of the heel supporting surface. PMID:25364105

  8. Influence of exercise intensity on atrophied quadriceps muscle in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shoji; Obatake, Taishi; Hoshino, Koichi; Nakagawa, Takao

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of resistance training on atrophied skeletal muscle in rats based on evidence derived from physical therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were forced to undergo squats as resistance training for 3 weeks after atrophying the rectus femoris muscle by hindlimb suspension for 2 weeks. The intensity of resistance training was adjusted to 50% and 70% of the maximum lifted weight, i.e., 50% of the one-repetition maximum and 70% of the one-repetition maximum, respectively. [Results] Three weeks of training did not alter the one-repetition maximum, and muscle fibers were injured while measuring the one-repetition maximum and reloading. The decrease in cross-sectional area in the rectus femoris muscle induced by unloading for 2 weeks was significantly recovered after training at 70% of the one-repetition maximum. The levels of muscle RING-finger protein-1 mRNA expression were significantly lower in muscles trained at 70% of the one-repetition maximum than in untrained muscles. [Conclusion] These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training can promote atrophic muscle recovery, which provides a scientific basis for therapeutic exercise methods for treatment of atrophic muscle in physical therapy. PMID:26696716

  9. Influence of exercise intensity on atrophied quadriceps muscle in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shoji; Obatake, Taishi; Hoshino, Koichi; Nakagawa, Takao

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of resistance training on atrophied skeletal muscle in rats based on evidence derived from physical therapy. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were forced to undergo squats as resistance training for 3 weeks after atrophying the rectus femoris muscle by hindlimb suspension for 2 weeks. The intensity of resistance training was adjusted to 50% and 70% of the maximum lifted weight, i.e., 50% of the one-repetition maximum and 70% of the one-repetition maximum, respectively. [Results] Three weeks of training did not alter the one-repetition maximum, and muscle fibers were injured while measuring the one-repetition maximum and reloading. The decrease in cross-sectional area in the rectus femoris muscle induced by unloading for 2 weeks was significantly recovered after training at 70% of the one-repetition maximum. The levels of muscle RING-finger protein-1 mRNA expression were significantly lower in muscles trained at 70% of the one-repetition maximum than in untrained muscles. [Conclusion] These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training can promote atrophic muscle recovery, which provides a scientific basis for therapeutic exercise methods for treatment of atrophic muscle in physical therapy. PMID:26696716

  10. Transosseous transposition of a pedicled rectus abdominis flap to cover hip wounds.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Grlek, A; Gheradini, G; Miller, M J

    1998-12-01

    Bone-marrow transplantation may be complicated by aseptic necrosis of the femoral head. Prolonged immunosuppression places the patient at increased risk of infection and is of particular concern if replacement arthroplasty is contemplated. Infection of a prosthesis usually requires thorough debridement and removal of the device. However, attention must also be paid to the resultant cavity and soft-tissue cover. Several flaps have been reported for this problem, though limitations of flap size may make it difficult to achieve both objectives. This report describes the use a pedicled rectus abdominis flap that was tunnelled through the acetabulum in order to gain direct access to the hip and allow adequate length both to fill the dead-space and to provide cover. PMID:9870743

  11. Your Muscles

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the heart because it controls the heartbeat. Skeletal Muscle Now, let's talk about the kind of muscle ... soccer ball into the goal. These are your skeletal muscles — sometimes called striated (say: STRY-ay-tud) muscle ...

  12. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  13. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePLUS

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  14. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePLUS

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy. Disuse atrophy occurs from a lack of physical activity. In most people, muscle atrophy is caused by not using the ...

  15. Getting Muscles

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting Muscles Print A A ... healthy muscles . Let's find out how. Playing Makes Muscles It sounds too simple, but it's true. Playing, ...

  16. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2015-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best “treatment”.

  17. Real-time noninvasive optical imaging of exercising muscle and brain upon cognitive stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresima, Valentina; van der Sluijs, Marco C.; Menssen, Jan; Grillotti, Lucia; Ferrari, Marco; Colier, Willy N.

    2001-06-01

    The monitoring of a single muscle location does not reflect the heterogeneity of the muscle groups activation during exercise. In the past, measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) at single muscle locations could be carried out non-invasively by near-infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRCWS) at rest or during isometric contractions. In the present study, human regional quadriceps (vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) VO2 was investigated at rest and during maximal voluntary contractions using a 12- channel NIRCWS system with an acquisition time of 0.1 s.

  18. Treatment of gummy smile: Gingival recontouring with the containment of the elevator muscle of the upper lip and wing of nose. A surgery innovation technique

    PubMed Central

    Storrer, Carmen Lucia Mueller; Valverde, Fabiane Kristine Bochenek; Santos, Felipe Rychuv; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda

    2014-01-01

    The containment of the elevator muscle of the upper lip and wing of nose was used for the treatment of patients with gummy smile. This technique had corrected esthetic alterations of smile, reducing the upper lip elevation, which results in a smaller gingival display. An upper lip lengthening as well as a reduction in the upper lip shortening when the patient smiled could be observed. The high smile line was corrected without compromising the labial harmony. This study presents an innovative and effective therapeutic option to obtain a natural and harmonious smile. The patient expressed a high degree of satisfaction. PMID:25425832

  19. Evaluating potential biomarkers of cachexia and survival in skeletal muscle of upper gastrointestinal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Nathan A; Skipworth, Richard J E; Gallagher, Iain J; Greig, Carolyn A; Guttridge, Denis C; Ross, James A; Fearon, Kenneth C H

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to grow the potential therapeutic armamentarium in the cachexia domain of supportive oncology, there is a pressing need to develop suitable biomarkers and potential drug targets. This pilot study evaluated several potential candidate biomarkers in skeletal muscle biopsies from a cohort of upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGIC) patients. Methods One hundred seven patients (15 weight-stable healthy controls (HC) and 92 UGIC patients) were recruited. Mean (standard deviation) weight-loss of UGIC patients was 8.1 (9.3%). Cachexia was defined as weight-loss ?5%. Rectus?abdominis muscle was obtained at surgery and was analysed by western blotting or quantitative real-timepolymerase chain reaction. Candidate markers were selected according to previous literature and included Akt and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt, n?=?52), forkhead box O transcription factors (n?=?59), ubiquitin E3 ligases (n?=?59, control of muscle anabolism/catabolism), BNIP3 and GABARAPL1 (n?=?59, as markers of autophagy), myosin heavy-chain (MyHC, n?=?54), dystrophin (n?=?39), ?-dystroglycan (n?=?52), and ?-sarcoglycan (n?=?52, as markers of structural alteration in a muscle). Patients were followed up for an average of 1255?days (range 5811955?days) or until death. Patients were grouped accordingly and analysed by (i) all cancer patients vs. HC; (ii) cachectic vs. non-cachectic cancer patients; and (iii) cancer patients surviving ?1 vs. >1?year post operatively. Results Cancer compared with HC patients had reduced mean (standard deviation) total Akt protein [0.49 (0.31) vs. 0.89 (0.17), P?=?0.001], increased ratio of phosphorylated to total Akt [1.33 (1.04) vs. 0.32 (0.21), P?=?0.002] and increased expression of GABARAPL1 [1.60 (0.76) vs. 1.10 (0.57), P?=?0.024]. ?-Dystroglycan levels were higher in cachectic compared with non-cachectic cancer patients [1.01 (0.16) vs. 0.87 (0.20), P?=?0.007]. Survival was shortened in patients with low compared with high MyHC levels (median 316 vs. 1326?days, P?=?0.023) and dystrophin levels (median 341 vs. 660?days, P?=?0.008). Conclusions The present study has identified intramuscular protein level of ?-dystroglycan as a potential biomarker of cancer cachexia. Changes in the structural elements of muscle (MyHC or dystrophin) appear to be survival biomarkers. PMID:26136412

  20. ‘Serious thigh muscle strains’: beware the intramuscular tendon which plays an important role in difficult hamstring and quadriceps muscle strains

    PubMed Central

    Brukner, Peter; Connell, David

    2016-01-01

    Why do some hamstring and quadriceps strains take much longer to repair than others? Which injuries are more prone to recurrence? Intramuscular tendon injuries have received little attention as an element in ‘muscle strain’. In thigh muscles, such as rectus femoris and biceps femoris, the attached tendon extends for a significant distance within the muscle belly. While the pathology of most muscle injures occurs at a musculotendinous junction, at first glance the athlete appears to report pain within a muscle belly. In addition to the musculotendinous injury being a site of pathology, the intramuscular tendon itself is occasionally injured. These injuries have a variety of appearances on MRIs. There is some evidence that these injuries require a prolonged rehabilitation time and may have higher recurrence rates. Therefore, it is important to recognise the tendon component of a thigh ‘muscle strain’. PMID:26519522

  1. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing.

    PubMed

    Loureno Dos Santos, Sofia; Baraibar, Martin A; Lundberg, Staffan; Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar; Larsson, Lars; Friguet, Bertrand

    2015-08-01

    Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated) proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the 'oxi-proteome' or 'carbonylome', have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype. PMID:26073261

  2. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing

    PubMed Central

    Loureno dos Santos, Sofia; Baraibar, Martin A.; Lundberg, Staffan; Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar; Larsson, Lars; Friguet, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated) proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the oxi-proteome or carbonylome, have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype. PMID:26073261

  3. Effect of using a suspension training system on muscle activation during the performance of a front plank exercise.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Jeannette M; Bishop, Nicole S; Caines, Andrew M; Crane, Kalynn A; Feaver, Ashley M; Pearcey, Gregory E P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of suspension training on muscle activation during performance of variations of the plank exercise. Twenty-one participants took part. All individuals completed 2 repetitions each of 4 different plank exercises that consisted of a floor based plank, or planks with arms suspended, feet suspended, or feet and arms suspended using a TRX Suspension System. During plank performance, muscle activation was recorded from rectus abdominis, external oblique, rectus femoris, and serratus anterior (SA) muscles using electromyography. All planks were performed for a total of 3 seconds. Resulting muscle activation data were amplitude normalized, and root mean square activation was then determined over the full 3 second duration of the exercise. A significant main effect of plank type was found for all muscles. Post hoc analysis and effect size examination indicated that abdominal muscle activation was higher in all suspended conditions compared to the floor based plank. The highest level of abdominal muscle activation occurred in the arms suspended and arms/feet suspended conditions, which did not differ from one another. Rectus femoris activation was greatest during the arms suspended condition, whereas SA activity peaked during normal and feet suspended planks. These results indicate that suspension training as performed in this study seems to be an effective means of increasing muscle activation during the plank exercise. Contrary to expectations, the additional instability created by suspending both the arms and feet did not result in any additional abdominal muscle activation. These findings have implications in prescription and progression of core muscle training programs. PMID:24796979

  4. Ten-year follow up after autologous rectus abdominis fascia sheath patch repair of aortic root abscess.

    PubMed

    Tsilimingas, Nikolaos B; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Reiter, Beate; Mnzel, Thomas; Meinertz, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The infection of aortic annular tissue is a life-threatening complication of aortic valve endocarditis, the survival of which is usually with immediate surgical intervention. Optimal surgical techniques include aortic valve replacement with an aortic or pulmonary homograft, and reconstruction of cardiac structures with autologous pericardium. Here, two cases are reported with extensive aortic root infection and partial left ventricular-aortic dehiscence, who underwent left ventricular outflow tract reconstruction using a rectus abdominis fascia patch and aortic valve replacement with a Carpentier-Edwards porcine bioprosthetic graft. Both patients did well perioperatively and for 10 years postoperatively. The results may encourage alternative surgical strategies to be used when aortic valve homografts or autologous pericardium are unavailable. Notably, autologous rectus fascia patches showed excellent performance in the reconstruction of left ventricular outflow tract destruction associated with aortic root abscess. PMID:15473472

  5. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  6. An external pilot study to test the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial comparing eye muscle surgery against active monitoring for childhood intermittent exotropia [X(T)].

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Michael; Hogan, Vanessa; Buck, Deborah; Shen, Jing; Powell, Christine; Speed, Chris; Tiffin, Peter; Sloper, John; Taylor, Robert; Nassar, Mahmoud; Joyce, Kerry; Beyer, Fiona; Thomson, Richard; Vale, Luke; McColl, Elaine; Steen, Nick

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The evidence base for the treatment of strabismus (squint) is poor. Our main aim is to improve this evidence base for the treatment of a common type of childhood squint {intermittent exotropia, [X(T)]}. We conducted an external pilot study in order to inform the design and conduct of a future full randomised controlled trial (RCT). METHODS Children of between 6 months and 16 years with a recent diagnosis of X(T) were eligible for recruitment. Participants were recruited from secondary care at the ophthalmology departments at four UK NHS foundation trusts. Participants were randomised to either active monitoring or surgery. This report describes the findings of the Pilot Rehearsal Trial and Qualitative Study, and assesses the success against the objectives proposed. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION The experience gained during the Pilot Rehearsal Trial demonstrates the ability to recruit and retain sites that are willing to randomise children to both trial arms, and for parents to agree to randomisation of their children to such a study. One child declined the group allocation. A total of 231 children were screened (expected 240), of whom 138 (60%) were eligible (expected 228: 95%) and 49 (35% of eligible) children were recruited (expected 144: 63% of eligible). Strategies that improved recruitment over the course of the trial are discussed, together with the reasons why fewer children were eligible for recruitment than initially anticipated. Attrition was low. Outcome data were obtained for 47 of 49 randomised children. TRIAL PROCESSES AND DATA COLLECTION The Trial Management processes proved effective. There were high levels of completion on all of the data collection forms. However, the feedback from the treatment orthoptists revealed that some modifications should be made to the length and frequency of the health service assessment and travel assessment questionnaires, thus reducing the burden on participants in the main trial. Modifications to the wording of the questions also need to be made. MONITORING OF BIAS Children who recruited to the trial were older and had more severe strabismus than those children eligible but declining participation. Strategies to account for this in a full trial are proposed. REASONS FOR PARTICIPATION OR DECLINING STUDY These were identified using qualitative interviews. The principal reasons for declining entry into the study were strong preferences for and against surgical treatment. HARMS There were no serious unexpected adverse events. Two children had overcorrection of their X(T) with reduction in binocular vision following surgery, which is in line with previous studies. No children in the active monitoring arm developed a constant strabismus although two showed some reduction in control. CONCLUSIONS The SamExo study has demonstrated that it is possible to recruit and retain participants to a randomised trial of surgery compared with active monitoring for X(T). For longer-term full RCTs, in order to maximise the generalisability of future studies, consideration needs to be given to planning more time and clinic appointments to assess eligibility and to allow consideration of participation; the greater use of research nurses for recruitment; and accommodating the strong preferences of some parents both for and against surgical intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN44114892. FUNDING This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 19, No. 39. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. PMID:26005878

  7. Age-Related Differences in Muscle Shear Moduli in the Lower Extremity.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Ryota; Yamashita, Yota; Ueyasu, Yuta

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the age-related differences in shear moduli of the rectus femoris muscle (RF), the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle (LG) and the soleus muscle (SOL) using shear wave ultrasound elastography. Thirty-one young individuals and 49 elderly individuals volunteered for this study. The shear modulus of RF was determined at 50% of the thigh length, and those of LG and SOL were determined at 30% of the lower leg length. RF and LG shear moduli were significantly higher in young individuals than in elderly individuals, but there was no age-related difference in SOL shear modulus. From the standpoint of an index reflecting muscle mechanical properties, it is suggested that the lower muscle shear moduli of RF and LG are the reason for the decreased explosive muscle strength in the lower extremity and the increased risk of falls for elderly individuals. PMID:26314496

  8. Modified Vertical Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap for Limb Salvage Procedures in Proximal Lower Limb Musculoskeletal Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Haitham H.; El-Ghoneimy, Ahmed; Farid, Yasser; Ebeid, Walid; Afifi, Ahmed; Elaffandi, Ahmed; Mahboub, Tarek

    2008-01-01

    Introduction and aim. Management of complicated wounds after tumor extipiration of pelvic and proximal lower limb musculoskeletal sarcoma represents an essential component in the outcome of these patients. The authors present modified vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (VRAM) flap techniques to reconstruct extensive defects after debridment of these complicated wounds. Material and Methods. Over a period of 4 years (20022005), 5 men and 2 women were managed. Median age was 21 years (range 1549). The patients were managed for complicated lower trunk, groin, and upper thigh wounds after resection of three pelvic chondrosarcomas as well as two pelvic and two proximal femur osteosarcomas. The modifications included a VRAM flap with lateral and tongue-like extension design of the skin paddle (5 cases) or a delayed extended VRAM flap (2 cases). Results. All flaps showed complete survival and healing with no ischemic events providing stable coverage. All patients were ambulant with good limb functions in terms of walking and gait after adequate rehabilitation, 2 needed support with crutches. Conclusion. The modified VRAM flaps offer reliable reconstructive tools for coverage of complex groin and thigh defects by providing larger well-vascularized soft tissue with acceptable donor site. PMID:18389069

  9. Modified vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap for limb salvage procedures in proximal lower limb musculoskeletal sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Haitham H; El-Ghoneimy, Ahmed; Farid, Yasser; Ebeid, Walid; Afifi, Ahmed; Elaffandi, Ahmed; Mahboub, Tarek

    2008-01-01

    Introduction and aim. Management of complicated wounds after tumor extipiration of pelvic and proximal lower limb musculoskeletal sarcoma represents an essential component in the outcome of these patients. The authors present modified vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (VRAM) flap techniques to reconstruct extensive defects after debridment of these complicated wounds. Material and Methods. Over a period of 4 years (2002-2005), 5 men and 2 women were managed. Median age was 21 years (range 15-49). The patients were managed for complicated lower trunk, groin, and upper thigh wounds after resection of three pelvic chondrosarcomas as well as two pelvic and two proximal femur osteosarcomas. The modifications included a VRAM flap with lateral and tongue-like extension design of the skin paddle (5 cases) or a delayed extended VRAM flap (2 cases). Results. All flaps showed complete survival and healing with no ischemic events providing stable coverage. All patients were ambulant with good limb functions in terms of walking and gait after adequate rehabilitation, 2 needed support with crutches. Conclusion. The modified VRAM flaps offer reliable reconstructive tools for coverage of complex groin and thigh defects by providing larger well-vascularized soft tissue with acceptable donor site. PMID:18389069

  10. Effects of bridge exercise performed on an unstable surface on lumbar stabilizing muscles according to the knee angle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Daehee

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of bridge exercise performed on an unstable surface on lumbar stabilizing muscles according to the knee angle. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy adult men were selected for this study. [Methods] The study subjects performed the bridge exercise on an unstable surface and a stable surface, with the knees at different angles (45°, 90°, and 120°). An aero-step device was used as the unstable surface, and the flat ground was used as the stable surface. External oblique, internal oblique, and rectus abdominis muscle activities were assessed and compared using electromyography. [Results] The study results demonstrated that performing the bridge exercise on an unstable surface with a knee angle of 120° led to a greater increase in the external oblique, internal oblique, and rectus abdominis muscle activities than when performed on a stable surface. [Conclusion] The bridge exercise with the knees at a 120° angle was found to be an effective intervention for increasing the external oblique, internal oblique, and rectus abdominis muscle activities. PMID:26357450

  11. Effects of bridge exercise performed on an unstable surface on lumbar stabilizing muscles according to the knee angle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of bridge exercise performed on an unstable surface on lumbar stabilizing muscles according to the knee angle. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy adult men were selected for this study. [Methods] The study subjects performed the bridge exercise on an unstable surface and a stable surface, with the knees at different angles (45, 90, and 120). An aero-step device was used as the unstable surface, and the flat ground was used as the stable surface. External oblique, internal oblique, and rectus abdominis muscle activities were assessed and compared using electromyography. [Results] The study results demonstrated that performing the bridge exercise on an unstable surface with a knee angle of 120 led to a greater increase in the external oblique, internal oblique, and rectus abdominis muscle activities than when performed on a stable surface. [Conclusion] The bridge exercise with the knees at a 120 angle was found to be an effective intervention for increasing the external oblique, internal oblique, and rectus abdominis muscle activities. PMID:26357450

  12. Muscular rehabilitation after orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bell, W H; Gonyea, W; Finn, R A; Storum, K A; Johnston, C; Throckmorton, G S

    1983-09-01

    There is both a biologic and a clinical foundation for the use of therapeutic exercise after othognathic surgical procedures to restore normal function of the jaw muscles. This can be accomplished by a systematic plan Of occlusal and muscular rehabilitation after release of maxillomandibular fixation. Through the diligent application of physical therapy principles, the function of the masticatory muscles can be more efficiently rehabilitated after orthognathic surgery and maxillomandibular fixation. PMID:6579456

  13. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  14. Corticospinal Excitability of Trunk Muscles during Different Postural Tasks.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shin-Yi; Gottardi, Sam E A; Hodges, Paul W; Strutton, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the primary motor cortex (M1) is involved in both voluntary, goal-directed movements and in postural control. Trunk muscles are involved in both tasks, however, the extent to which M1 controls these muscles in trunk flexion/extension (voluntary movement) and in rapid shoulder flexion (postural control) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate this question by examining excitability of corticospinal inputs to trunk muscles during voluntary and postural tasks. Twenty healthy adults participated. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to the M1 to examine motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the trunk muscles (erector spinae (ES) and rectus abdominis (RA)) during dynamic shoulder flexion (DSF), static shoulder flexion (SSF), and static trunk extension (STE). The level of background muscle activity in the ES muscles was matched across tasks. MEP amplitudes in ES were significantly larger in DSF than in SSF or in STE; however, this was not observed for RA. Further, there were no differences in levels of muscle activity in RA between tasks. Our findings reveal that corticospinal excitability of the ES muscles appears greater during dynamic anticipatory posture-related adjustments than during static tasks requiring postural (SSF) and goal-directed voluntary (STE) activity. These results suggest that task-oriented rehabilitation of trunk muscles should be considered for optimal transfer of therapeutic effect to function. PMID:26807583

  15. Corticospinal Excitability of Trunk Muscles during Different Postural Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Shin-Yi; Gottardi, Sam E. A.; Hodges, Paul W.; Strutton, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the primary motor cortex (M1) is involved in both voluntary, goal-directed movements and in postural control. Trunk muscles are involved in both tasks, however, the extent to which M1 controls these muscles in trunk flexion/extension (voluntary movement) and in rapid shoulder flexion (postural control) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate this question by examining excitability of corticospinal inputs to trunk muscles during voluntary and postural tasks. Twenty healthy adults participated. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to the M1 to examine motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the trunk muscles (erector spinae (ES) and rectus abdominis (RA)) during dynamic shoulder flexion (DSF), static shoulder flexion (SSF), and static trunk extension (STE). The level of background muscle activity in the ES muscles was matched across tasks. MEP amplitudes in ES were significantly larger in DSF than in SSF or in STE; however, this was not observed for RA. Further, there were no differences in levels of muscle activity in RA between tasks. Our findings reveal that corticospinal excitability of the ES muscles appears greater during dynamic anticipatory posture-related adjustments than during static tasks requiring postural (SSF) and goal-directed voluntary (STE) activity. These results suggest that task-oriented rehabilitation of trunk muscles should be considered for optimal transfer of therapeutic effect to function. PMID:26807583

  16. 3D False Color Computed Tomography for Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Permanent Denervated Human Muscles Submitted to Home-Based Functional Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Ugo; Edmunds, Kyle J.

    2015-01-01

    This report outlines the use of a customized false-color 3D computed tomography (CT) protocol for the imaging of the rectus femoris of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients suffering from complete and permanent denervation, as characterized by complete Conus and Cauda Equina syndrome. This muscle imaging method elicits the progression of the syndrome from initial atrophy to eventual degeneration, as well as the extent to which patients' quadriceps could be recovered during four years of home-based functional electrical stimulation (h-b FES). Patients were pre-selected from several European hospitals and functionally tested by, and enrolled in the EU Commission Shared Cost Project RISE (Contract n. QLG5-CT-2001-02191) at the Department of Physical Medicine, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, Austria. Denervated muscles were electrically stimulated using a custom-designed stimulator, large surface electrodes, and customized progressive stimulation settings. Spiral CT images and specialized computational tools were used to isolate the rectus femoris muscle and produce 3D and 2D reconstructions of the denervated muscles. The cross sections of the muscles were determined by 2D Color CT, while muscle volumes were reconstructed by 3D Color CT. Shape, volume, and density changes were measured over the entirety of each rectus femoris muscle. Changes in tissue composition within the muscle were visualized by associating different colors to specified Hounsfield unit (HU) values for fat, (yellow: [-200; -10]), loose connective tissue or atrophic muscle, (cyan: [-9; 40]), and normal muscle, fascia and tendons included, (red: [41; 200]). The results from this analysis are presented as the average HU values within the rectus femoris muscle reconstruction, as well as the percentage of these tissues with respect to the total muscle volume. Results from this study demonstrate that h-b FES induces a compliance-dependent recovery of muscle volume and size of muscle fibers, as evidenced by the gain and loss in muscle mass. These results highlight the particular utility of this modality in the quantitative longitudinal assessment of the responses of skeletal muscle to long-term denervation and h-b FES recovery. PMID:26913154

  17. Testing procedures for abdominal muscles using the muscle dynamometer SD02.

    PubMed

    Maltov, R; Drevikovsk, P

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two tests both frequently used for determination of the state of the lumbar spine muscle system during static and dynamic loads. The sit-up test is a commonly used terrain test, while the diaphragm test is a more exact laboratory procedure. For both tests, measurements conducted by the muscular dynamometer SD02 were used to assure congruency in evaluation. The tests are based on the general information that the muscles of the deep stabilizing spine system (DSSS) are interconnected and form one functional unit, and that dysfunction of just one of these muscles may cause total dysfunction of the whole muscle system. It is therefore expected that the participation and force generated by the largest muscles of the area, musculus rectus abdominis and musculus transversus abdominis, will be comparable also during the testing procedures. Forty-five healthy women joined in the research, with the average age of 21.6 years. The results obtained were statistically evaluated using Statistica 6. The results showed the clear incapability of the sit-up test to indicate correctly the imbalances of the muscles of the DSSS, also implying that the tested subjects suffer to a high degree from dysfunctions of the DSSS. PMID:20092100

  18. Muscular Activity and Fatigue in Lower-Limb and Trunk Muscles during Different Sit-To-Stand Tests

    PubMed Central

    Roldán-Jiménez, Cristina; Bennett, Paul; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.

    2015-01-01

    Sit-to-stand (STS) tests measure the ability to get up from a chair, reproducing an important component of daily living activity. As this functional task is essential for human independence, STS performance has been studied in the past decades using several methods, including electromyography. The aim of this study was to measure muscular activity and fatigue during different repetitions and speeds of STS tasks using surface electromyography in lower-limb and trunk muscles. This cross-sectional study recruited 30 healthy young adults. Average muscle activation, percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, muscle involvement in motion and fatigue were measured using surface electrodes placed on the medial gastrocnemius (MG), biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis of the quadriceps (QM), the abdominal rectus (AR), erector spinae (ES), rectus femoris (RF), soleus (SO) and the tibialis anterior (TA). Five-repetition STS, 10-repetition STS and 30-second STS variants were performed. MG, BF, QM, ES and RF muscles showed differences in muscle activation, while QM, AR and ES muscles showed significant differences in MVC percentage. Also, significant differences in fatigue were found in QM muscle between different STS tests. There was no statistically significant fatigue in the BF, MG and SO muscles of the leg although there appeared to be a trend of increasing fatigue. These results could be useful in describing the functional movements of the STS test used in rehabilitation programs, notwithstanding that they were measured in healthy young subjects. PMID:26506612

  19. Muscletendon structure and dimensions in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    OBrien, Thomas D; Reeves, Neil D; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Jones, David A; Maganaris, Constantinos N

    2010-01-01

    Muscle performance is closely related to the architecture and dimensions of the muscletendon unit and the effect of maturation on these architectural characteristics in humans is currently unknown. This study determined whether there are differences in musculo-tendinous architecture between adults and children of both sexes. Fascicle length and pennation angle were measured from ultrasound images at three sites along the length of the vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, vastis medialis and rectus femoris muscles. Muscle volume and muscletendon length were measured from magnetic resonance images. Muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was calculated as the ratio of muscle volume to optimum fascicle length. Fascicle length was greater in the adult groups than in children (P < 0.05) but pennation angle did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). The ratios between fascicle and muscle length and between fascicle and tendon length were not different (P > 0.05) between adults and children for any quadriceps muscle. Quadriceps volume and PCSA of each muscle were greater in adults than children (P < 0.01) but the relative proportion of each head to the total quadriceps volume was similar in all groups. However, the difference in PCSA between adults and children (men ? 104% greater than boys, women ? 57% greater than girls) was greater (P < 0.05) than the difference in fascicle length (men ? 37% greater than boys, women ? 10% greater than girls). It is concluded that the fascicle, muscle and tendon lengthen proportionally during maturation, thus the muscletendon stiffness and excursion range are likely to be similar in children and adults but the relatively greater increase in PCSA than fascicle length indicates that adult muscles are better designed for force production than childrens muscles. PMID:20345856

  20. Electromyographic analysis of lower limb muscles during the golf swing performed with three different clubs.

    PubMed

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Vaz, João Rocha; Castro, Maria António; Reinaldo, Gustavo; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the EMG patterns of select lower limb muscles throughout the golf swing, performed with three different clubs, in non-elite middle-aged players. Fourteen golfers performed eight swings each using, in random order, a pitching wedge, 7-iron and 4-iron. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from lower limb muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. Three-dimensional high-speed video analysis was used to determine the golf swing phases. Results showed that, in average handicap golfers, the highest muscle activation levels occurred during the Forward Swing Phase, with the right semitendinosus and the right biceps femoris muscles producing the highest mean activation levels relative to maximal electromyography (70-76% and 68-73% EMGMAX, respectively). Significant differences between the pitching wedge and the 4-iron club were found in the activation level of the left semitendinosus, right tibialis anterior, right peroneus longus, right vastus medialis, right rectus femuris and right gastrocnemius muscles. The lower limb muscles showed, in most cases and phases, higher mean values of activation on electromyography when golfers performed shots with a 4-iron club. PMID:26197882

  1. Chest wall dynamics and muscle recruitment during professional flute playing.

    PubMed

    Cossette, Isabelle; Monaco, Pierpaolo; Aliverti, Andrea; Macklem, Peter T

    2008-02-01

    Respiratory parameters and sound were recorded during professional flute playing in order to assess what physiological processes were associated with the control of sound production that results in 'breath support' which in turn is associated with high quality playing. Four standing young professional flautists played flute excerpts with and without breath support. Recordings included optoelectronic plethysmographic measurements of chest wall volume (V(cw)) and its compartments, surface electromyography of the scalene, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominus, parasternal and sternocleidomastoid muscles, mouth pressure, and sound. Flow was estimated from differentiating V(cw) during playing. Results showed that flute support entails antagonistic contraction of non-diaphragmatic inspiratory muscles that tends to hold the rib cage at higher lung volume. This relieves the expiratory muscles from the task of producing the right mouth pressure, especially at the end of the phrases, so they can contribute more to the finer control of mouth pressure modulations required for high quality playing. PMID:17977805

  2. Foot Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not move. Fusions can be done with screws, plates or pins or a combination of these. Tendon Surgery: Surgery on the tendons can be performed for acute injuries such as ruptures but is also commonly done ...

  3. Turbinate surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or part of the lower turbinate is taken out. This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  4. After Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... side effects. There is usually some pain with surgery. There may also be swelling and soreness around ... the first few days, weeks, or months after surgery. Some other questions to ask are How long ...

  5. Cataract Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention News Ask an Eye M.D. Espaol Cataracts What Are Cataracts? Cataract Symptoms Who Is at ... Lens Replacement and Cataract Surgery Cataract Vision Simulator Cataract Surgery Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Elena ...

  6. Cataract Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Cataracts Sections What Are Cataracts? Cataract Symptoms Who Is ... Lens Replacement and Cataract Surgery Cataract Vision Simulator Cataract Surgery Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Elena ...

  7. Use of the SF-36 quality of life scale to assess the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise on aging males who received transurethral prostate surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chen-Pang; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Chang, Chia-Chi; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chen, Chien-Lun; Hsu, Yu-Chao; Tsui, Ke-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We used the Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey scale to assess the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFE) on aging males who received transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P). Methods From April 2010 to December 2010, a total of 66 patients who underwent TUR-P were enrolled in this study. They were randomized into two groups (with 33 patients in each group) an experimental group who performed postoperative PFE every day and a control group. Data, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), uroflowmetry study, and the SF-36 quality of life measure, were collected before the operation, and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the operation. We analyzed the differences between the two groups with respect to their IPSS scores, maximal urinary flow rate, residual urine amount, and life quality. Results A total of 61 patients (experimental group: 32 patients, and control group: 29 patients) completed this study. We found that at 12 weeks postop, patients who performed PFE every day had a better maximal urinary flow rate (16.41 6.20 vs 12.41 7.28 mL/min) (P = 0.026) compared with patients in the control group. The experimental group had a much greater decrease in IPSS score (P < 0.001). As for the SF-36 scale, the experimental group had higher scores than did the control group on both the physiological domain (54.86 vs 49.86) (P = 0.029) and the psychological domain (61.88 vs 52.69) (P = 0.005). However, there were no significant differences with respect to the postvoiding residual urine between the two groups (57.24 52.95 vs 64.68 50.63 mL) (P = 0.618). Conclusion Compared with the control group, patients who performed PFE for 12 weeks after TUR-P showed improvement in their maximal urinary flow rate and lower urinary tract symptoms, and had a better quality of life. The immediate initiation of PFE is suggested for patients who undergo TUR-P. PMID:23766642

  8. Reconstruction of extensive partial or total sacrectomy defects with a transabdominal vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Glatt, Brian S; Disa, Joseph J; Mehrara, Babak J; Pusic, Andrea L; Boland, Patrick; Cordeiro, Peter G

    2006-05-01

    Following partial or total sacrectomy, extensive soft tissue defects are frequently created. These ablations typically involve an anterior and a posterior approach, creating a large communication between the abdominal cavity and the central gluteal region. Local flap options are usually not sufficient for definitive closure of these large defects. We have found that the most useful option for reconstruction in these cases is a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap, passed transabdominally through the peritoneal cavity into the sacral defect during the initial anterior-approach portion of the procedure and then inset following completion of the posterior-approach final resection. Advantages of the VRAM flap are that it can supply ample skin, as well as soft tissue bulk, is easy to perform, and does not require microvascular techniques. Utilizing a prospectively maintained database, all patients over the last 14 years who underwent reconstruction utilizing a transabdominal VRAM flap following extensive partial or total sacrectomy with intraabdominal communication were identified. A retrospective chart review was then performed. Our study population consisted of 12 patients with a mean age of 58.5 years. Following sacrectomy, all patients underwent reconstruction with a VRAM flap. Flap sizes averaged 9.1 x 27 cm. Early flap complications included 3 small areas of flap necrosis at the distal, superior portion of the flap, 2 of which required minimal operative intervention of debridement and reclosure. No late flap complications have occurred, and all 12 patients completely healed, with a mean follow-up time of 29.1 months. Following sacrectomy, extensive soft tissue defects are created in the sacral area and communicate with the abdominal cavity. In these situations, we have found the inferiorly-based pedicled VRAM, passed transabdominally, to be the most reliable and useful choice of flap reconstruction. It has a low incidence of complications, low morbidity, and is easy to perform with a high success rate. PMID:16641629

  9. Avulsion of the direct head of rectus femoris following arthroscopic subspine impingement resection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, Brian M.; Smith, Bjorn; Stapf, Robert; O’Donnell, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Arthroscopic resection of the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) for subspine impingement has become a relatively common procedure. The AIIS is the origin of the direct head of rectus femoris (dhRF). Previous studies have reported that removal of the contributing portion of the AIIS causing impingement is unlikely to weaken the attachment of the dhRF. The purpose of this article is to report a case of avulsion of the dhRF, following revision hip arthroscopy for the treatment of subspine impingement. A 23-year-old professional footballer underwent revision left hip arthroscopy for the treatment of subspine impingement. 5-mm of bone was resected inferior to the AIIS. Two-weeks post-operatively, he presented with sudden onset, severe left anterior thigh pain following a fall and hyperextension of his left hip. The patient felt a pop over the anterior aspect of his hip. He noticed immediate swelling, severe pain and stiffness. Examination revealed diffuse swelling, 4/5-power on straight-leg-raise, focal tenderness over the AIIS but no palpable gap. MRI confirmed the clinical suspicion of a dhRF avulsion. Given the minimal loss of power and the lack of significant retraction, the patient was treated conservatively. He was instructed to avoid excessive hip extension. He returned to full participation at 3-months. This article highlights a case of avulsion of the dhRF due to a hyperextension injury of the hip following arthroscopic resection of subspinal impingement, a previously unreported complication. Resection of soft and bone from the AIIS may weaken the insertion of the dhRF. Care should be taken during post-operative rehabilitation to avoid trauma and excessive forces on the dhRF tendon, which may lead to rupture. Rehabilitation should be focused on range of motion of the hip.

  10. Isotonic and isometric responses of different tonic muscles to agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Michelson, M J; Shelkovnikov, S A

    1976-04-01

    1 With isotonic recording the percentage of muscle shortening as compared with the maximal possible shortening, and with isometric recording the percentage of developed tension were determined. In relatively 'thick' muscles, such as dorsal leech muscle, frog rectus abdominis or protractor pharynx of holothuria (0.3-0.8 mm thick), the concentrations of a full agonist (carbachol) producing a given percentage of tension, (e.g. 50%) are about 5 times greater than the concentrations, producing the same percentage of shortening. In 'thin' muscles the difference between the percentage of shortening and tension is either small (retractor dentis of the sea urchin, 0.1 mm thick, response to carbachol) or absent (guinea-pig ileum, 0.06 mm thick, responses to methylfurmethide). The possible mechanism underlying this difference is discussed. 2 With partial agonists (dodecamethonium and heptamethonium) the fractional tension of the frog rectus abdominis is always less than the fractional shortening and the correlation between shortening and tension is the same as in the case of full agonists. 3 The blocking activity of (+)-tubocurarine on the frog rectus abdominis is the same in isotonic and in isometric conditions. 4 On the frog rectus abdominis the alkylating agent, decamethonium mustard, does not produce any 'parallel shift' of the dose-response curve for carbachol, the only result of alkylation being a decrease in maximal response, which is more pronounced in isometric than in isotonic conditions. The degree of decrease is in accordance with the correlation between percentage of shortening and percentage of tension in the absence of alkylating agent. Probably this muscle does not possess any 'spare receptors'. 5 On the frog muscle the dose-isometric response curve for acetylcholine (ACh) is shifted toward greater concentration about 33-fold as compared with the dose-isotonic response curve but after the inhibition of cholinesterases the shift is only about 6-fold. The same shift (5-fold) is observed for carbachol, which is not hydrolysed by cholinesterases. The results with ACh are due to the fact, that after cholinesterase inhibition the sensitivity to ACh increases in isotonic conditions only 13-fold, but in isometric conditions it increases 71-fold. Probably under isometric conditions, when the muscle remains in the extended state, the rate of hydrolysis of ACh is much greater than under isotonic conditions when the muscle is shortened during contraction. PMID:1083271

  11. Isotonic and isometric responses of different tonic muscles to agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Michelson, M J; Shelkovnikov, S A

    1976-01-01

    1 With isotonic recording the percentage of muscle shortening as compared with the maximal possible shortening, and with isometric recording the percentage of developed tension were determined. In relatively 'thick' muscles, such as dorsal leech muscle, frog rectus abdominis or protractor pharynx of holothuria (0.3-0.8 mm thick), the concentrations of a full agonist (carbachol) producing a given percentage of tension, (e.g. 50%) are about 5 times greater than the concentrations, producing the same percentage of shortening. In 'thin' muscles the difference between the percentage of shortening and tension is either small (retractor dentis of the sea urchin, 0.1 mm thick, response to carbachol) or absent (guinea-pig ileum, 0.06 mm thick, responses to methylfurmethide). The possible mechanism underlying this difference is discussed. 2 With partial agonists (dodecamethonium and heptamethonium) the fractional tension of the frog rectus abdominis is always less than the fractional shortening and the correlation between shortening and tension is the same as in the case of full agonists. 3 The blocking activity of (+)-tubocurarine on the frog rectus abdominis is the same in isotonic and in isometric conditions. 4 On the frog rectus abdominis the alkylating agent, decamethonium mustard, does not produce any 'parallel shift' of the dose-response curve for carbachol, the only result of alkylation being a decrease in maximal response, which is more pronounced in isometric than in isotonic conditions. The degree of decrease is in accordance with the correlation between percentage of shortening and percentage of tension in the absence of alkylating agent. Probably this muscle does not possess any 'spare receptors'. 5 On the frog muscle the dose-isometric response curve for acetylcholine (ACh) is shifted toward greater concentration about 33-fold as compared with the dose-isotonic response curve but after the inhibition of cholinesterases the shift is only about 6-fold. The same shift (5-fold) is observed for carbachol, which is not hydrolysed by cholinesterases. The results with ACh are due to the fact, that after cholinesterase inhibition the sensitivity to ACh increases in isotonic conditions only 13-fold, but in isometric conditions it increases 71-fold. Probably under isometric conditions, when the muscle remains in the extended state, the rate of hydrolysis of ACh is much greater than under isotonic conditions when the muscle is shortened during contraction. PMID:1083271

  12. Optimizing the Distribution of Leg Muscles for Vertical Jumping.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jeremy D; Bobbert, Maarten F; van Soest, Arthur J; Gribble, Paul L; Kistemaker, Dinant A

    2016-01-01

    A goal of biomechanics and motor control is to understand the design of the human musculoskeletal system. Here we investigated human functional morphology by making predictions about the muscle volume distribution that is optimal for a specific motor task. We examined a well-studied and relatively simple human movement, vertical jumping. We investigated how high a human could jump if muscle volume were optimized for jumping, and determined how the optimal parameters improve performance. We used a four-link inverted pendulum model of human vertical jumping actuated by Hill-type muscles, that well-approximates skilled human performance. We optimized muscle volume by allowing the cross-sectional area and muscle fiber optimum length to be changed for each muscle, while maintaining constant total muscle volume. We observed, perhaps surprisingly, that the reference model, based on human anthropometric data, is relatively good for vertical jumping; it achieves 90% of the jump height predicted by a model with muscles designed specifically for jumping. Alteration of cross-sectional areas-which determine the maximum force deliverable by the muscles-constitutes the majority of improvement to jump height. The optimal distribution results in large vastus, gastrocnemius and hamstrings muscles that deliver more work, while producing a kinematic pattern essentially identical to the reference model. Work output is increased by removing muscle from rectus femoris, which cannot do work on the skeleton given its moment arm at the hip and the joint excursions during push-off. The gluteus composes a disproportionate amount of muscle volume and jump height is improved by moving it to other muscles. This approach represents a way to test hypotheses about optimal human functional morphology. Future studies may extend this approach to address other morphological questions in ethological tasks such as locomotion, and feature other sets of parameters such as properties of the skeletal segments. PMID:26919645

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and real-time ultrasound elastography of the thigh muscles in congenital muscle dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Drakonaki, Eleni E; Allen, Gina M

    2010-04-01

    Congenital muscle dystrophy includes a range of genetic disorders characterized by muscle weakness and contractures. We report the magnetic resonance (MR), ultrasound (US) and real-time sonoelastography (RTE) imaging findings of the thigh muscles of a 15-year-old boy with Bethlem myopathy diagnosed with clinical, electromyographic and histopathological criteria. Ultrasound and MR showed hyperechoic appearance and high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences respectively at the periphery of the vastus lateralis and the long head of the biceps femoris muscles, and at a central area within the rectus femoris muscles. RTE was employed to examine the elastic properties of the muscle. The elastograms were presented as colour-coded maps superimposed on the B-mode images and revealed that the elastographic pattern correlated with the MR and US pattern of involvement. The abnormal muscle areas were stiffer (blue) than the normal-appearing areas (green), a finding that probably correlates with the presence of dystrophic collagen at the affected areas. This report suggests that RTE could be used as an additional imaging tool to evaluate the pattern of muscle changes in congenital myopathy. Further studies are needed to investigate the specificity and clinical value of RTE in the diagnosis and monitoring of neuromuscular disease. PMID:20205351

  14. Fiber Composition of the Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck 1827) Thigh Muscle: An Enzyme-histochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bakou, Serge Niangoran; Nteme Ella, Gualbert Simon; Aoussi, Serge; Guiguand, Lydie; Cherel, Yannick; Fantodji, Agathe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe de fiber composition in the thigh muscles of grass cutter (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck 1827). Ten 4 to 6-month-old (3 to 4 kg) male grasscutter were used in this study. Eleven skeletal muscles of the thigh [M. biceps femoris (BF), M. rectus femoris (RF), M. vastus lateralis (VL), M. vastus medialis (VM), M. tensor fasciae latae (TFL), M. semitendinosus (ST), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semimembranosus accessorius (SMA), M. Sartorius (SRT), M. pectineus (PCT), M. adductor magnus (AM)] were collected after animals euthanasia and examined by light microscopy. Three muscle fiber types (I, IIB and IIA) were found in these muscles using enzyme histochemical techniques [myosine adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase (NADH-TR)]. Ten of these eleven muscles are composed by 89% to 100% of fast contracting fibers (types IIA and IIB), while the SMA was almost exclusively formed by slow contracting fibers. PMID:26167391

  15. Botulinum toxin type A injections for the management of muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Anil; Zywiel, Michael G; Ulrich, Slif D; McGrath, Mike S; Seyler, Thorsten M; Marker, David R; Delanois, Ronald E; Mont, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Background Development of hip adductor, tensor fascia lata, and rectus femoris muscle contractures following total hip arthroplasties are quite common, with some patients failing to improve despite treatment with a variety of non-operative modalities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of and patient outcomes of botulinum toxin injections as an adjunctive treatment for muscle tightness following total hip arthroplasty. Methods Ten patients (14 hips) who had hip adductor, abductor, and/or flexor muscle contractures following total arthroplasty and had been refractory to physical therapeutic efforts were treated with injection of botulinum toxin A. Eight limbs received injections into the adductor muscle, 8 limbs received injections into the tensor fascia lata muscle, and 2 limbs received injection into the rectus femoris muscle, followed by intensive physical therapy for 6 weeks. Results At a mean final follow-up of 20 months, all 14 hips had increased range in the affected arc of motion, with a mean improvement of 23 degrees (range, 10 to 45 degrees). Additionally all hips had an improvement in hip scores, with a significant increase in mean score from 74 points (range, 57 to 91 points) prior to injection to a mean of 96 points (range, 93 to 98) at final follow-up. There were no serious treatment-related adverse events. Conclusion Botulinum toxin A injections combined with intensive physical therapy may be considered as a potential treatment modality, especially in difficult cases of muscle tightness that are refractory to standard therapy. PMID:19709429

  16. Extensive dural sinus thrombosis and bilateral lateral rectus palsy as an uncommon complication of chronic suppurative otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Anusha; Mohamad, Irfan; Sidek, Dinsuhaimi

    2013-01-01

    Dural venous sinus thrombosis, especially of the sigmoid sinus, is a known but uncommon intracranial extradural complication of chronic suppurative otitis media. Even rarer is the simultaneous occurrence of bilateral abducens palsy in the same patient. We report the case of an adolescent male who presented with signs of raised intracranial pressure, diplopia and bilateral lateral rectus palsy associated with a history of left ear discharge and neck swelling. Extensive dural sinus thrombosis extending right up to the left internal jugular vein was confirmed on CT imaging. The patient was successfully treated with thrombolytic agents and antibiotic therapy. The pathophysiology of the concurrent complications is discussed. PMID:23355565

  17. Blocking the rectus sheath guided by ultrasound in an 8-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis: reporting a case

    PubMed Central

    Encarnación-Martínez, Juan; Barberá-Alacreu, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a severe disease that is transmitted with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, and is the commonest disease among Caucasian populations (1/2,500). There are many clinical manifestations that derive from its multiorgan dysfunctions, mainly in the respiratory and digestive tract. In addition, lung disease injury is principally responsible for morbidity and mortality in CF patients. Blocking the rectus sheath, first described by Schleich in 1899, is a loco-regional technique that provides adequate analgesia in those surgical procedures with midline or umbilical incisions. PMID:26733116

  18. Trunk Muscle Activation and Estimating Spinal Compressive Force in Rope and Harness Vertical Dance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Margaret; Dai, Boyi; Zhu, Qin; Humphrey, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Rope and harness vertical dance takes place off the floor with the dancer suspended from his or her center of mass in a harness attached to a rope from a point overhead. Vertical dance represents a novel environment for training and performing in which expected stresses on the dancer's body are different from those that take place during dance on the floor. Two male and eleven female dancers with training in vertical dance performed six typical vertical dance movements with electromyography (EMG) electrodes placed bilaterally on rectus abdominus, external oblique, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi. EMG data were expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). A simplified musculoskeletal model based on muscle activation for these four muscle groups was used to estimate the compressive force on the spine. The greatest muscle activation for erector spinae and latissimus dorsi and the greatest trunk compressive forces were seen in vertical axis positions where the dancer was moving the trunk into a hyper-extended position. The greatest muscle activation for rectus abdominus and external oblique and the second highest compressive force were seen in a supine position with the arms and legs extended away from the center of mass (COM). The least muscle activation occurred in positions where the limbs were hanging below the torso. These movements also showed relatively low muscle activation compression forces. Post-test survey results revealed that dancers felt comfortable in these positions; however, observation of some positions indicated insufficient muscular control. Computing the relative contribution of muscles, expressed as muscle activation and estimated spinal compression, provided a measure of how much the muscle groups were working to support the spine and the rest of the dancer's body in the different movements tested. Additionally, identifying typical muscle recruitment patterns in each movement will help identify key exercises for training that should promote injury prevention. PMID:26641703

  19. The hyal and ventral branchial muscles in caecilian and salamander larvae: homologies and evolution.

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    Amphibians (Lissamphibia) are characterized by a bi-phasic life-cycle that comprises an aquatic larval stage and metamorphosis to the adult. The ancestral aquatic feeding behavior of amphibian larvae is suction feeding. The negative pressure that is needed for ingestion of prey is created by depression of the hyobranchial apparatus as a result of hyobranchial muscle action. Understanding the homologies of hyobranchial muscles in amphibian larvae is a crucial step in understanding the evolution of this important character complex. However, the literature mostly focuses on the adult musculature and terms used for hyal and ventral branchial muscles in different amphibians often do not reflect homologies across lissamphibian orders. Here we describe the hyal and ventral branchial musculature in larvae of caecilians (Gymnophiona) and salamanders (Caudata), including juveniles of two permanently aquatic salamander species. Based on previous alternative terminology schemes, we propose a terminology for the hyal and ventral branchial muscles that reflects the homologies of muscles and that is suited for studies on hyobranchial muscle evolution in amphibians. We present a discussion of the hyal and ventral branchial muscles in larvae of the most recent common ancestor of amphibians (i.e. the ground plan of Lissamphibia). Based on our terminology, the hyal and ventral branchial musculature of caecilians and salamanders comprises the following muscles: m. depressor mandibulae, m. depressor mandibulae posterior, m. hyomandibularis, m. branchiohyoideus externus, m. interhyoideus, m. interhyoideus posterior, m. subarcualis rectus I, m. subarcualis obliquus II, m. subarcualis obliquus III, m. subarcualis rectus II-IV, and m. transversus ventralis IV. Except for the m. branchiohyoideus externus, all muscles considered herein can be assigned to the ground plan of the Lissamphibia with certainty. The m. branchiohyoideus externus is either apomorphic for the Batrachia (frogs + salamanders) or salamander larvae depending on whether or not a homologous muscle is present in frog tadpoles. PMID:21374703

  20. Microanatomy of Adult Zebrafish Extraocular Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kasprick, Daniel S.; Kish, Phillip E.; Junttila, Tyler L.; Ward, Lindsay A.; Bohnsack, Brenda L.; Kahana, Alon

    2011-01-01

    Binocular vision requires intricate control of eye movement to align overlapping visual fields for fusion in the visual cortex, and each eye is controlled by 6 extraocular muscles (EOMs). Disorders of EOMs are an important cause of symptomatic vision loss. Importantly, EOMs represent specialized skeletal muscles with distinct gene expression profile and susceptibility to neuromuscular disorders. We aim to investigate and describe the anatomy of adult zebrafish extraocular muscles (EOMs) to enable comparison with human EOM anatomy and facilitate the use of zebrafish as a model for EOM research. Using differential interference contrast (DIC), epifluorescence microscopy, and precise sectioning techniques, we evaluate the anatomy of zebrafish EOM origin, muscle course, and insertion on the eye. Immunofluorescence is used to identify components of tendons, basement membrane and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), and to analyze myofiber characteristics. We find that adult zebrafish EOM insertions on the globe parallel the organization of human EOMs, including the close proximity of specific EOM insertions to one another. However, analysis of EOM origins reveals important differences between human and zebrafish, such as the common rostral origin of both oblique muscles and the caudal origin of the lateral rectus muscles. Thrombospondin 4 marks the EOM tendons in regions that are highly innervated, and laminin marks the basement membrane, enabling evaluation of myofiber size and distribution. The NMJs appear to include both en plaque and en grappe synapses, while NMJ density is much higher in EOMs than in somatic muscles. In conclusion, zebrafish and human EOM anatomy are generally homologous, supporting the use of zebrafish for studying EOM biology. However, anatomic differences exist, revealing divergent evolutionary pressures. PMID:22132088

  1. Skeletal muscle responses to unloading in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, G.; Tesch, P.; Hather, B.; Adams, G.; Buchanan, P.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the effects of unloading on skeletal muscle structure. Method: Eight subjects walked on crutches for six weeks with a 110 cm elevated sole on the right shoe. This removed weight bearing by the left lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging of both lower limbs and biopsies of the left m. vastus laterallis (VL) were used to study muscle structure. Results: Unloading decreased (P less than 0.05) muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the knee extensors 16 percent. The knee flexors showed about 1/2 of this response (-7 percent, P less than 0.05). The three vasti muscles each showed decreases (P less than 0.05) of about 15 percent. M. rectus femoris did not change. Mean fiber CSA in VL decreased (P less than 0.05) 14 percent with type 2 and type 1 fibers showing reductions of 15 and 11 percent respectively. The ankle extensors showed a 20 percent decrease (P less than 0.05) in CSA. The reduction for the 'fast' m. gastrocnemius was 27 percent compared to the 18 percent decrease for the 'slow' soleus. Summary: The results suggest that decreases in muscle CSA are determined by the relative change in impact loading history because atrophy was (1) greater in extensor than flexor muscles, (2) at least as great in fast as compared to slow muscles or fibers, and (3) not dependent on single or multi-joint function. They also suggest that the atrophic responses to unloading reported for lower mammals are quantitatively but not qualitatively similar to those of humans.

  2. Optimizing the Distribution of Leg Muscles for Vertical Jumping

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jeremy D.; Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Soest, Arthur J.; Gribble, Paul L.; Kistemaker, Dinant A.

    2016-01-01

    A goal of biomechanics and motor control is to understand the design of the human musculoskeletal system. Here we investigated human functional morphology by making predictions about the muscle volume distribution that is optimal for a specific motor task. We examined a well-studied and relatively simple human movement, vertical jumping. We investigated how high a human could jump if muscle volume were optimized for jumping, and determined how the optimal parameters improve performance. We used a four-link inverted pendulum model of human vertical jumping actuated by Hill-type muscles, that well-approximates skilled human performance. We optimized muscle volume by allowing the cross-sectional area and muscle fiber optimum length to be changed for each muscle, while maintaining constant total muscle volume. We observed, perhaps surprisingly, that the reference model, based on human anthropometric data, is relatively good for vertical jumping; it achieves 90% of the jump height predicted by a model with muscles designed specifically for jumping. Alteration of cross-sectional areas—which determine the maximum force deliverable by the muscles—constitutes the majority of improvement to jump height. The optimal distribution results in large vastus, gastrocnemius and hamstrings muscles that deliver more work, while producing a kinematic pattern essentially identical to the reference model. Work output is increased by removing muscle from rectus femoris, which cannot do work on the skeleton given its moment arm at the hip and the joint excursions during push-off. The gluteus composes a disproportionate amount of muscle volume and jump height is improved by moving it to other muscles. This approach represents a way to test hypotheses about optimal human functional morphology. Future studies may extend this approach to address other morphological questions in ethological tasks such as locomotion, and feature other sets of parameters such as properties of the skeletal segments. PMID:26919645

  3. Longitudinal changes in muscle activity during infants' treadmill stepping

    PubMed Central

    Teulier, Caroline; Sansom, Jennifer K.; Muraszko, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has described kinetic characteristics of treadmill steps in very stable steppers, in cross-sectional designs. In this study we examined, longitudinally, muscle activation patterns during treadmill stepping, without practice, in 12 healthy infants at 1, 6, and 12 mo of age. We assessed lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris as infants stepped on a treadmill during twelve 20-s trials. Infants showed clear changes in kinematics, such as increased step frequency, increased heel contact at touch down, and more flat-footed contact at midstance. Electromyographic data showed high variability in muscle states (combinations), with high prevalence of all muscles active initially, reducing with age. Agonist-antagonist muscle coactivation also decreased as age increased. Probability analyses showed that across step cycles, the likelihood a muscle was on at any point tended to be <50%; lateral gastrocnemius was the exception, showing an adultlike pattern of probability across ages. In summary, over time, healthy infants produce a wide variety of muscle activation combinations and timings when generating stepping patterns on a treadmill, even if some levels of muscle control arose with time. However, the kinematic stability improved much more clearly than the underlying kinetic strategies. We conclude that although innate control of limb movement improves as infants grow, explore, and acquire functional movement, stepping on a treadmill is a novel and unpracticed one. Hence, developing stable underlying neural activations will only arise as functional practice ensues, similarly to that observed for other functional movements in infancy. PMID:22490560

  4. Functional Reconstruction of a Combined Tendocutaneous Defect of the Achilles Using a Segmental Rectus Femoris Myofascial Construct: A Viable Alternative

    PubMed Central

    DeFazio, Michael Vincent; Han, Kevin Dong

    2014-01-01

    The composite anterolateral thigh flap with vascularized fascia lata has emerged as a workhorse at our institution for complex Achilles defects requiring both tendon and soft tissue reconstruction. Safe elevation of this flap, however, is occasionally challenged by absent or inadequate perforators supplying the anterolateral thigh. When discovered intraoperatively, alternative options derived from the same vascular network can be pursued. We present the case of a 74-year-old male who underwent composite Achilles defect reconstruction using a segmental rectus femoris myofascial free flap. Following graduated rehabilitation, postoperatively, the patient resumed full activity and was able to ambulate on his tip-toes. At 1-year follow-up, active total range of motion of the reconstructed ankle exceeded 85% of the unaffected side, and donor site morbidity was negligible. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Short Form-36 scores improved by 78.8% and 28.8%, respectively, compared to preoperative baseline assessments. Based on our findings, we advocate for use of the combined rectus femoris myofascial free flap as a rescue option for reconstructing composite Achilles tendon/posterior leg defects in the setting of inadequate anterolateral thigh perforators. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe use of this flap for such an indication. PMID:24883281

  5. Site-dependent differences in density of sympathetic nerve fibers in muscle-innervating nerves of the human head and neck.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Fumio; Katori, Yukio; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Fujimiya, Mineko; Ohguro, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    The autonomic nerve supply of skeletal muscle has become a focus of interest because it is closely related to the adaptation of energy metabolism with aging. We have performed an immunohistochemistry study on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) using specimens obtained from ten selected elderly cadavers (mean age 83.3 years) in which we examined muscle-innervating nerves (abbreviated muscle-nerves hereafter) of ten striated muscles (soleus, infraspinatus, extra-ocular inferior rectus, lateral rectus, superior obliquus, temporalis, orbicularis oculi, posterior cricoarytenoideus, trapezius and genioglossus) and, as a positive control, the submandibular ganglion. We found that the extra-ocular muscles received no or very few TH-positive nerve fibers. Muscle-nerves to the other head and neck muscles contained a few or several TH-positive fibers per section, but their density (proportional area of TH-positive fibers per nerve cross-section) was one-half to one-third of that in nerves to the soleus or infraspinatus. We did not find nNOS-positive fibers in any of these muscle-nerves. In the head and neck muscles, with the exception of those of the tongue, there appeared to be very few TH-positive nerve fibers along the feeding artery. Consequently, the head and neck muscles seemed to receive much fewer sympathetic nerves than limb muscles. There was no evidence that nNOS-positive nerves contributed to vasodilation of feeding arteries in striated muscles. This site-dependent difference in sympathetic innervation would reflect its commitment to muscle activity. However, we did not find any rules determining the density of nerves according to muscle fiber type and the mode of muscle activity. PMID:24078519

  6. Timing of Muscle Response to a Sudden Leg Perturbation: Comparison between Adolescents and Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Maria Stella; Cioni, Matteo; Pisasale, Mariangela; Pantò, Maria Rosita; Casabona, Antonino

    2013-01-01

    Movement disturbances associated with Down syndrome reduce mechanical stability, worsening the execution of important tasks such as walking and upright standing. To compensate these deficits, persons with Down syndrome increase joint stability modulating the level of activation of single muscles or producing an agonist-antagonist co-activation. Such activations are also observed when a relaxed, extended leg is suddenly released and left to oscillate passively under the influence of gravity (Wartenberg test). In this case, the Rectus femoris of adults with Down syndrome displayed peaks of activation after the onset of the first leg flexion. With the aim to verify if these muscular reactions were acquired during the development time and to find evidences useful to give them a functional explanation, we used the Wartenberg test to compare the knee joint kinematics and the surface electromyography of the Rectus femoris and Biceps femoris caput longus between adolescents and adults with Down syndrome. During the first leg flexion, adolescents and adults showed single Rectus femoris activations while, a restricted number of participants exhibited agonist-antagonist co-activations. However, regardless the pattern of activation, adults initiated the muscle activity significantly later than adolescents. Although most of the mechanical parameters and the total movement variability were similar in the two groups, the onset of the Rectus femoris activation was well correlated with the time of the minimum acceleration variability. Thus, in adolescents the maximum mechanical stability occurred short after the onset of the leg fall, while adults reached their best joint stability late during the first flexion. These results suggest that between the adolescence and adulthood, persons with Down syndrome explore a temporal window to select an appropriate timing of muscle activation to overcome their inherent mechanical instability. PMID:24278374

  7. Piriformis muscle syndrome: a recurrent case after surgical release.

    PubMed

    Haghnegahdar, Ali; Sedighi, Mahsa; Motalebi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    We report a recurrent Piriformisc muscle syndrome after surgical release. After the primary neurolysis, a second operation was performed to release adhesions. This case shows a different type of sciatic nerve entrapment by an abnormal thin muscle slip. Results of the revision surgery guide us to the point that revision surgery for Piriformis muscle syndrome should be meticulously selected, and after considering medical and interventional therapies. PMID:26286539

  8. Piriformis muscle syndrome: a recurrent case after surgical release

    PubMed Central

    Haghnegahdar, Ali; Sedighi, Mahsa; Motalebi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    We report a recurrent Piriformisc muscle syndrome after surgical release. After the primary neurolysis, a second operation was performed to release adhesions. This case shows a different type of sciatic nerve entrapment by an abnormal thin muscle slip. Results of the revision surgery guide us to the point that revision surgery for Piriformis muscle syndrome should be meticulously selected, and after considering medical and interventional therapies. PMID:26286539

  9. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  10. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of

  11. Effects of the Sustained Release of IGF-1 on Extraocular Muscle of the Infant Non-Human Primate: Adaptations at the Effector Organ Level

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Christy L.; Christiansen, Stephen P.; Mustari, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The authors have demonstrated that prolonged exposure of adult rabbit extraocular muscle (EOM) to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) results in significantly increased cross-sectional area and muscle force generation lasting over 3 months. Here the authors assess the effects on EOM of sustained IGF-1 treatment on normal binocular infant Macaca mulatta. Methods. Sustained-release IGF-1 pellets were implanted bilaterally in each medial rectus (MR) muscle of two normal infant non-human primates. Eye position was examined using corneal light reflex testing. After 3 months, morphometric analyses of myofiber cross-sectional area and innervation density in treated MR muscles were compared with an age-matched control and with antagonist lateral rectus (LR) muscles. Results. After 3 months, the slow-release pellets remained at the implantation site in all four MR muscles treated. The treated MR showed pronounced increases in cross-sectional area and nerve density, mirrored in the untreated antagonist LR. Conclusions. Three months of bilateral sustained IGF-1 release in infant non-human primate MR resulted in increased muscle size and innervation density, mirrored in the untreated antagonist LR. It appears that bilateral MR treatment resulted in slow adaptation of both treated MR and contralateral LR muscles over time such that functional homeostasis and near-normal alignment were maintained. Further work is needed to determine what signaling mechanisms maintain proportional innervation when EOMs are forced to adapt to an externally applied perturbation. PMID:22125277

  12. Stretching Skeletal Muscle: Chronic Muscle Lengthening through Sarcomerogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zllner, Alexander M.; Abilez, Oscar J.; Bl, Markus; Kuhl, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09m to 3.51m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance treatment for patients with ill proportioned limbs, tendon lengthening, tendon transfer, tendon tear, and chronically retracted muscles. PMID:23049683

  13. Unnecessary surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Leape, L L

    1989-01-01

    The extent of unnecessary surgery has been the object of considerable speculation and occasional wild accusation in recent years. Most evidence of the existence of unnecessary surgery, such as information from studies of geographic variations and the results of second surgical opinion programs, is circumstantial. However, results from the few studies that have measured unnecessary surgery directly indicate that for some highly controversial operations the fraction that are unwarranted could be as high as 30 percent. Most unnecessary surgery results from physician uncertainty about the effectiveness of an operation. Elimination of this uncertainty requires more efficient production and dissemination of scientific information about clinical effectiveness. In the absence of adequate data from scientific studies, the use of a consensus of expert opinion, disseminated by means of comprehensive practice guidelines, offers the best opportunity to identify and eliminate unnecessary surgery. PMID:2668237

  14. [Precise surgery].

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiahong; Zhang, Ning

    2015-05-01

    Surgery has passed through an intuitive and an empirical era and has now entered its modern phase. The enormous progress in biomedicine, the rise of evidence-based medicine and the consensus on the need for humanistic patient care, have laid a foundation for a new surgical paradigm. Based on a series of studies and practices, we advocated the concept of 'Precision Surgery'. It covers the entire operation-centered surgical practice. The strategy of precision surgery is to seek a balance of maximizing the removal of the target lesion, while maximizing the functional liver remnant and minimizing surgical invasiveness. We propose that the concept of precision surgery should be considered for wider application within liver surgery and various surgical fields, and finally realize the multi-objective optimization with certainty-based practice to ensure maximized recovery for each patient. PMID:26082243

  15. Case report: Extraocular muscle paresis caused by snakebite.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Tetsuji; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Hanada, Masakazu; Oda-Ueda, Naoko

    2003-01-01

    A 51 year-old man presented with binocular diplopia on the three days after the snakebite in the fifth finger of the right hand by an Agkistrodon blomhoffi (mamushi). In the primary position he had an exotropia and right hypertropia, which became apparent when his head was tilted to the right. From ocular angle of deviation measured by synoptophore and Hess chart test, he was diagnosed as having medial rectus muscle paresis as well as inferior oblique muscle paresis of the left eye. Elevation deficit on right gaze in the left eye had remained during three days. Our case suggested that the occurrence of subjective binocular diplopia is an important clinical sign for the onset of general abnormalities caused by snakebite. PMID:12698017

  16. Lower muscle co-contraction in flutter kicking for competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yuji; Hirano, Masami; Yamada, Yosuke; Ikuta, Yasushi; Nomura, Teruo; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Oda, Shingo

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in muscle activation pattern and co-contraction of the rectus and biceps femoris in flutter-kick swimming between competitive and recreational swimmers, to better understand the mechanism of repetitive kicking movements during swimming. Ten competitive and 10 recreational swimmers swam using flutter kicks at three different velocities (100%, 90%, and 80% of their maximal velocity) in a swimming flume. Surface electromyographic signals (EMG) were obtained from the rectus (RF) and biceps femoris (BF), and lower limb kinematic data were obtained at the same time. The beginning and ending of one kick cycle was defined as when the right lateral malleolus reached its highest position in the vertical axis. The offset timing of muscle activation of RF in the recreational swimmers was significantly later at all velocities than in the competitive swimmers (47-48% and 26-33% of kick time of one cycle for recreational and competitive swimmers, respectively), although the kinematic data and other activation timing of RF and BF did not differ between groups. A higher integrated EMG of RF during hip extension and knee extension induced a higher level of muscle co-contraction between RF and BF in the recreational swimmers. These results suggest that long-term competitive swimming training can induce an effective muscle activation pattern in the upper legs. PMID:26590483

  17. Congenital isolated absence of the inferior oblique muscle and compensatory aberrant insertion of the inferior and lateral recti.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Farhan; Watson, Nicholas J

    2011-03-01

    Absence of various extra-ocular muscles has previously been described. However isolated absence of the inferior oblique has not yet been described. Our patient was found to have a small right esotropia and limitation of right eye abduction with an abnormal head posture. Ocular movements showed a marked adduction overshoot in elevation. Exploration of the musculature revealed an absent inferior oblique with abnormally inserted and tight inferior and lateral rectus muscles. Imaging, forced duction testing and surgical exploration is recomended in cases where the signs do not fit into a clear syndrome. PMID:21469964

  18. In situ Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap: A Rat Model of Myocutaneous Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Marie-Claire; Wigmore, Stephen; Kluth, David

    2013-01-01

    Free tissue transfer is the gold standard of reconstructive surgery to repair complex defects not amenable to local options or those requiring composite tissue. Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a known cause of partial free flap failure and has no effective treatment. Establishing a laboratory model of this injury can prove costly both financially as larger mammals are conventionally used and in the expertise required by the technical difficulty of these procedures typically requires employing an experienced microsurgeon. This publication and video demonstrate the effective use of a model of IRI in rats which does not require microsurgical expertise. This procedure is an in situ model of a transverse abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap where atraumatic clamps are utilized to reproduce the ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with this surgery. A laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) scanner is employed to assess flap perfusion and the image processing software, Image J to assess percentage area skin survival as a primary outcome measure of injury. PMID:23770929

  19. The Effects of Grade and Speed on Leg Muscle Activations during Walking

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Jason R.; Kram, Rodger

    2011-01-01

    Compared to level walking, additional muscle actions are required to raise and lower the center of mass during uphill and downhill walking, respectively. However, it remains unclear which muscle recruitment strategies are employed at typical grades when walking over a range of speeds. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that, across a range of walking speeds, hip, knee, and ankle extensor muscle activations increase with steeper uphill grade, but only knee extensor muscle activations increase with steeper downhill grade. We also hypothesized that these changes in muscle activations with grade become more pronounced with faster walking speed. To test these hypotheses, ten young adult subjects (5M/5F) walked on a standard treadmill at seven grades (0, 3, 6, and 9) and three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 ms?1). We quantified the stance phase electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus (GMAX), biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SOL) muscles. On average, compared to level walking, hip (BF: 635%, GMAX: 345%), knee (RF: 165%, VM: 366%), and ankle (MG: 175%, SOL: 136%) extensor muscle activities increased to walk up 9, but only knee (RF: 310%, VM: 246%) extensor muscle activities increased to walk down 9. Further, these changes in muscle activations with grade became greater with faster walking speed. We conclude that people employ distinct uphill (hip, knee, and ankle extensors) and downhill (knee extensors) muscle recruitment strategies generally across walking speeds and progressively with steeper grade. PMID:21962846

  20. The effects of grade and speed on leg muscle activations during walking.

    PubMed

    Franz, Jason R; Kram, Rodger

    2012-01-01

    Compared to level walking, additional muscle actions are required to raise and lower the center of mass during uphill and downhill walking, respectively. However, it remains unclear which muscle recruitment strategies are employed at typical grades when walking over a range of speeds. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that, across a range of walking speeds, hip, knee, and ankle extensor muscle activations would increase with steeper uphill grade, but only knee extensor muscle activations would increase with steeper downhill grade. We also hypothesized that these changes in muscle activations with grade would become more pronounced at faster walking speeds. To test these hypotheses, 10 young adults (5M/5F) walked on a standard treadmill at seven grades (0, 3, 6, and 9) and three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 ms(-1)). We quantified the stance phase electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus (GMAX), biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SOL) muscles. On average, compared to level walking, hip (BF: 635%, GMAX: 345%), knee (RF: 165%, VM: 366%), and ankle (MG: 175%, SOL: 136%) extensor muscle activities increased to walk up 9, but only knee (RF: 310%, VM: 246%) extensor muscle activities increased to walk down 9. Further, these changes in muscle activations with grade became greater with faster walking speed. We conclude that people employ distinct uphill (hip, knee, and ankle extensors) and downhill (knee extensors) muscle recruitment strategies generally across walking speeds and progressively with steeper grade. PMID:21962846

  1. Effectiveness of the Wavelet Transform on the Surface EMG to Understand the Muscle Fatigue During Walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. S.; Mamun, Md.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is the decline in ability of a muscle to create force. Electromyography (EMG) is a medical technique for measuring muscle response to nervous stimulation. During a sustained muscle contraction, the power spectrum of the EMG shifts towards lower frequencies. These effects are due to muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue is often a result of unhealthy work practice. In this research, the effectiveness of the wavelet transform applied to the surface EMG (SEMG) signal as a means of understanding muscle fatigue during walk is presented. Power spectrum and bispectrum analysis on the EMG signal getting from right rectus femoris muscle is executed utilizing various wavelet functions (WFs). It is possible to recognize muscle fatigue appreciably with the proper choice of the WF. The outcome proves that the most momentous changes in the EMG power spectrum are symbolized by WF Daubechies45. Moreover, this research has compared bispectrum properties to the other WFs. To determine muscle fatigue during gait, Daubechies45 is used in this research to analyze the SEMG signal.

  2. Direction-Dependent Phasing of Locomotor Muscle Activity Is Altered Post-Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Schindler-Ivens, Sheila; Brown, David A.; Brooke, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A major contributor to impaired locomotion post-stroke is abnormal phasing of muscle activity. While inappropriate paretic muscle phasing adapts to changing body orientation, load, and speed, it remains unclear whether paretic muscle phasing adapts to reversal of locomotor direction. We examined muscle phasing in backward pedaling, a task that requires shifts in biarticular but not uniarticular muscle phasing relative to forward pedaling. We hypothesized that if paretic and neurologically intact muscle phasing adapt similarly, then paretic biarticular but not paretic uniarticular muscles would shift phasing in backward pedaling. Paretic and neurologically intact individuals pedaled forward and backward while recording electromyograms (EMGs) from vastus medialis (VM), soleus (SOL), rectus femoris (RF), semimembranosus (SM), and biceps femoris (BF). Changes in muscle phasing were assessed by comparing the probability of muscle activity in forward and backward pedaling throughout 18 pedaling cycles. Paretic uniarticular muscles (VM and SOL) showed phase-advanced activity in backward versus forward pedaling, whereas the corresponding neurologically intact muscles showed little to no phasing change. Paretic biarticular muscles were less likely than neurologically intact biarticular muscles to display phasing changes in backward pedaling. Paretic RF displayed no phase change during backward pedaling, and paretic BF displayed no consistent adaptation to backward pedaling. Paretic SM was the only muscle to display backward/forward phase changes that were similar to the neurologically intact group. We conclude that paretic uniarticular muscles are more susceptible and paretic biarticular muscles are less susceptible to direction-dependent phase shifts, consistent with altered sensory integration and impaired cortical control of locomotion. PMID:15175363

  3. Brain surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  4. Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... procedure that can help smooth or camouflage severe acne scars) sometimes feel more comfortable with their appearance ... procedures teens choose include nose reshaping, ear surgery, acne and acne scar treatment, and breast reduction. previous ...

  5. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... defect or cosmetic flaw that has diminished their self-esteem over time. It's important to remember that cosmetic ... can create both physical changes and changes in self-esteem. But if you are seeking surgery with the ...

  6. Rodding Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rods can be made of stainless steel or titanium. Regular rods do not expand. They have many ... v regular), the rod materials (stainless steel v titanium) and the age for a first rodding surgery. ...

  7. Considering Surgery?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I should know about this surgery? Choosing a Surgeon Your primary care doctor may suggest a surgeon to you. Your state or local medical society can tell you about your surgeon's training. Try to choose a surgeon who operates ...

  8. Thyroid Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... thyroid surgery, requiring treatment with thyroid hormone (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). This is especially true if you had ... Radioactive Iodine Low Iodine Diet Thyroid Function Tests Hypothyroidism Hyperthyroidism Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine ...

  9. Heart Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Risks Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Aneurysm Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Heart Transplant Pacemakers Ventricular Assist Device Send a ... common type of heart surgery for adults is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). During CABG, a healthy artery or vein ...

  10. Effects of gabergic anthelmintics at higher concentrations on the guanidine-induced twitch responses in isolated frog rectus preparations.

    PubMed

    Terada, M; Chen, W; Wang, H H; Kachi, S; Lee, H H

    1994-01-01

    Effects of various gabergic anthelmintics on the guanidine-induced twitch responses in isolated frog rectus preparations were examined. All gabergic anthelmintics such as milbemycin oxime, milbemycin D, avermectin B1a, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine (DEC) showed stimulatory effects on the guanidine-induced twitch responses at their higher concentrations. Only piperazine caused inhibitory effects on the twitch responses, even at higher concentrations. The stimulation of the twitch responses by the gabergic anthelmintics was antagonized with tetrodotoxin, hemicholinium-3, d-tubocurarine, and strychnine. These results suggest that all gabergic anthelmintics except piperazine stimulate the release of acetylcholine from the nerve endings and that all of them, including piperazine, have different effects on the gabergic mechanism at lower concentrations and on the cholinergic mechanism at higher concentrations. PMID:7855122

  11. Bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, Shahzeer; Stoklossa, Carlene Johnson; Sharma, Arya; Stadnyk, Janet; Christiansen, Sandra; Cottreau, Danielle; Birch, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the management of bariatric surgical patients. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, as well as PubMed US National Library, from January 1950 to December 2009. Evidence was levels I, II, and III. MAIN MESSAGE Bariatric surgery should be considered for obese patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality who have not achieved adequate weight loss with lifestyle and medical management and who are suffering from the complications of obesity. Bariatric surgery can result in substantial weight loss, resolution of comorbid conditions, and improved quality of life. The patient’s weight-loss history; his or her personal accountability, responsibility, and comprehension; and the acceptable level of risk must be taken into account. Complications include technical failure, bleeding, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, excess loose skin, bowel obstruction, ulcers, and anastomotic stricture. Lifelong monitoring by a multidisciplinary team is essential. CONCLUSION Limited long-term success of behavioural and pharmacologic therapies in severe obesity has led to renewed interest in bariatric surgery. Success with bariatric surgery is more likely when multidisciplinary care providers, in conjunction with primary care providers, assess, treat, monitor, and evaluate patients before and after surgery. Family physicians will play a critical role in counseling patients about bariatric surgery and will need to develop skills in managing these patients in the long-term. PMID:20841586

  12. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Portillo, Mucio; Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Quiroz-Guadarrama, Csar David; Pachecho-Gahbler, Carlos; Rojano-Rodrguez, Martn

    2014-12-01

    Medicine has experienced greater scientific and technological advances in the last 50 years than in the rest of human history. The article describes relevant events, revises concepts and advantages and clinical applications, summarizes published clinical results, and presents some personal reflections without giving dogmatic conclusions about robotic surgery. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) defines robotic surgery as a surgical procedure using technology to aid the interaction between surgeon and patient. The objective of the surgical robot is to correct human deficiencies and improve surgical skills. The capacity of repeating tasks with precision and reproducibility has been the base of the robots success. Robotic technology offers objective and measurable advantages: -?Improving maneuverability and physical capacity during surgery. -?Correcting bad postural habits and tremor. -?Allowing depth perception (3D images). -?Magnifying strength and movement limits. -?Offering a platform for sensors, cameras, and instruments. Endoscopic surgery transformed conceptually the way of practicing surgery. Nevertheless in the last decade, robotic assisted surgery has become the next paradigm of our era. PMID:25643879

  13. Tennis elbow surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Lateral epicondylitis - surgery; Lateral tendinosis - surgery; Lateral tennis elbow - surgery ... Surgery to repair tennis elbow is usually an outpatient surgery. This means you will not stay in the hospital overnight. You will be ...

  14. Dynamic Frequency Analyses of Lower Extremity Muscles during Sit-To-Stand Motion for the Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Yagi, Masahide

    2016-01-01

    Objective Muscle activities during the sit-to-stand motion (STS) are characterized by coordinated movements between hip extensors and knee extensors. However, previous reports regarding the STS and lower extremity muscle activities have focused on some quantitative assessment, but little qualitative research. This study aimed to examine the muscle activities of the lower extremity both quantitatively and qualitatively. Methods Study participants included 13 patients with knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) and 11 age-matched asymptomatic controls. The task was STS from a chair with a height-adjustable seat. EMG activities were acquired using surface electromyogram. The root mean square signals normalized as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction values (RMS%MVC) and the mean power frequency (MPF) were calculated. Results During STS, knee OA patients had increased RMS%MVC of the vastus medialis and raised MPF of the rectus femoris before buttocks-off. Conclusion These findings suggest that STS of knee OA patients not only increased relative muscle activity of the vastus medialis, but also enlisted the rectus femoris in knee extension to improve muscle contraction force by activating more type II fibers to accomplish buttocks-off. PMID:26807578

  15. Functional morphometry demonstrates extraocular muscle compartmental contraction during vertical gaze changes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert A; Demer, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical studies demonstrate selective compartmental innervation of most human extraocular muscles (EOMs), suggesting the potential for differential compartmental control. This was supported by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrating differential lateral rectus (LR) compartmental contraction during ocular counterrolling, differential medial rectus (MR) compartmental contraction during asymmetric convergence, and differential LR, inferior rectus (IR), and superior oblique (SO) compartmental contraction during vertical vergence. To ascertain possible differential compartmental EOM contraction during vertical ductions, surface coil MRI was performed over a range of target-controlled vertical gaze positions in 25 orbits of 13 normal volunteers. Cross-sectional areas and partial volumes of EOMs were analyzed in contiguous, quasi-coronal 2-mm image planes spanning origins to globe equator to determine morphometric features correlating best with contractility. Confirming and extending prior findings for horizontal EOMs during horizontal ductions, the percent change in posterior partial volume (PPV) of vertical EOMs from 8 to 14 mm posterior to the globe correlated best with vertical duction. EOMs were then divided into equal transverse compartments to evaluate the effect of vertical gaze on changes in PPV. Differential contractile changes were detected in the two compartments of the same EOM during infraduction for the IR medial vs. lateral (+4.4%, P = 0.03), LR inferior vs. superior (+4.0%, P = 0.0002), MR superior vs. inferior (-6.0%, P = 0.001), and SO lateral vs. medial (+9.7%, P = 0.007) compartments, with no differential contractile changes in the superior rectus. These findings suggest that differential compartmental activity occurs during normal vertical ductions. Thus all EOMs may contribute to cyclovertical actions. PMID:26538608

  16. The Effect of Warm-Up and Cool-Down Exercise on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in the Quadriceps Muscle: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Olav; Sjhaug, Mona; van Beekvelt, Mireille; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of warm-up and cool-down exercise on delayed onset of muscle soreness at the distal and central parts of rectus femoris following leg resistance exercise. Thirty-six volunteers (21 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the warm-up (20 min ergometer cycling prior to the resistance exercise), cool-down (20 min cycling after the resistance exercise), or control group performing resistance exercise only. The resistance exercise consisted of front lunges (105 repetitions/sets) with external loading of 40% (women) and 50% (men) of body mass. Primary outcomes were pressure pain threshold along rectus femoris and maximal isometric knee extension force. Data were recorded before the resistance exercise and on the two consecutive days. Pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced for the control group on both day 2 and 3 (p?0.003) but not for the warm-up group (p?0.21). For the cool-down group, pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced on day 2 (p?0.005) and was also lower compared to the warm-up group (p=0.025). Force was significantly reduced on day 2 and 3 for all groups (p<0.001). This study indicates that aerobic warm-up exercise performed prior to resistance exercise may prevent muscle soreness at the central but not distal muscle regions, but it does not prevent loss of muscle force. PMID:23486850

  17. Muscle deoxygenation in the quadriceps during ramp incremental cycling: Deep vs. superficial heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Okushima, Dai; Poole, David C; Rossiter, Harry B; Barstow, Thomas J; Kondo, Narihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Koga, Shunsaku

    2015-12-01

    Muscle deoxygenation (i.e., deoxy[Hb + Mb]) during exercise assesses the matching of oxygen delivery (Q?o2) to oxygen utilization (V?o2). Until now limitations in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology did not permit discrimination of deoxy[Hb + Mb] between superficial and deep muscles. In humans, the deep quadriceps is more highly vascularized and oxidative than the superficial quadriceps. Using high-power time-resolved NIRS, we tested the hypothesis that deoxygenation of the deep quadriceps would be less than in superficial muscle during incremental cycling exercise in eight males. Pulmonary V?o2 was measured and muscle deoxy[Hb + Mb] was determined in the superficial vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF-s) and the deep rectus femoris (RF-d). deoxy[Hb + Mb] in RF-d was significantly less than VL at 70% (67.2 7.0 vs. 75.5 10.7 ?M) and 80% (71.4 11.0 vs. 79.0 15.4 ?M) of peak work rate (WRpeak), but greater than VL and VM at WRpeak (87.7 32.5 vs. 76.6 17.5 and 75.1 19.9 ?M). RF-s was intermediate at WRpeak (82.6 18.7 ?M). Total hemoglobin and myoglobin concentration and tissue oxygen saturation were significantly greater in RF-d than RF-s throughout exercise. The slope of deoxy[Hb + Mb] increase (proportional to Q?o2/V?o2) in VL and VM slowed markedly above 70% WRpeak, whereas it became greater in RF-d. This divergent deoxygenation pattern may be due to a greater population of slow-twitch muscle fibers in the RF-d muscle and the differential recruitment profiles and vascular and metabolic control properties of specific fiber populations within superficial and deeper muscle regions. PMID:26404619

  18. Relationships between thyroid status, tissue oxidative metabolism, and muscle differentiation in bovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Cassar-Malek, I; Picard, B; Kahl, S; Hocquette, J F

    2007-07-01

    The temporal relationships between thyroid status and differentiation of liver, heart and different skeletal muscles were examined in 42 bovine fetuses from day 110 to day 260 of development using principal component analysis of the data. Plasma concentrations of reverse-triiodothyronine (rT(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) increased during development from day 110 to day 210 or 260, respectively, whereas concentration of triiodothyronine (T(3)) and hepatic type-1 5'-deiodinase activity (5'D1) increased from day 180 onwards. On day 260, high T(4) and rT(3) and low T(3) concentrations were observed together with a mature 5'D1 activity. Cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity expressed per mg protein increased at day 180 in masseter and near birth in masseter, rectus abdominis and cutaneus trunci muscles (P<0.05). Significant changes in citrate synthase (CS) activity per mg protein were observed between day 110 and day 180 in the liver and between day 210 and day 260 in the liver, the heart and the longissimus thoracis muscle (P<0.05). Muscle contractile differentiation was shown by the disappearance of the fetal myosin heavy chain from day 180 onwards. A positive correlation (r>0.47, P<0.01) was shown between thyroid status parameters (5'D1, concentrations of T(4) and T(3)) and COX activity in muscles known to be oxidative after birth (masseter, rectus abdominis) but not in liver and heart, nor in muscles known to be glycolytic after birth (cutaneus trunci, longissimus thoracis). A similar correlation was found between thyroid parameters and CS activity in liver and masseter. Results indicate that elevation of plasma T(3) concentrations in the last gestational trimester could be involved in the differentiation of oxidative skeletal muscles. PMID:16797912

  19. Muscle moment arms of the gibbon hind limb: implications for hylobatid locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Channon, Anthony J; Crompton, Robin H; Gnther, Michael M; Vereecke, Evie E

    2010-01-01

    Muscles facilitate skeletal movement via the production of a torque or moment about a joint. The magnitude of the moment produced depends on both the force of muscular contraction and the size of the moment arm used to rotate the joint. Hence, larger muscle moment arms generate larger joint torques and forces at the point of application. The moment arms of a number of gibbon hind limb muscles were measured on four cadaveric specimens (one Hylobates lar, one H. moloch and two H. syndactylus). The tendon travel technique was used, utilizing an electro-goniometer and a linear voltage displacement transducer. The data were analysed using a technique based on a differentiated cubic spline and normalized to remove the effect of body size. The data demonstrated a functional differentiation between voluminous muscles with short fascicles having small muscle moment arms and muscles with longer fascicles and comparatively smaller physiological cross-sectional area having longer muscle moment arms. The functional implications of these particular configurations were simulated using a simple geometric fascicle strain model that predicts that the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles are more likely to act primarily at their distal joints (knee and ankle, respectively) because they have short fascicles. The data also show that the main hip and knee extensors maintain a very small moment arm throughout the range of joint angles seen in the locomotion of gibbons, which (coupled to voluminous, short-fascicled muscles) might help facilitate rapid joint rotation during powerful movements. PMID:20447251

  20. How different modes of child delivery influence abdominal muscle activities in the active straight leg raise.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yu-Jeong; Hyung, Eun-Ju; Yang, Kyung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ok

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the activities of the abdominal muscles of women who had experienced vaginal delivery in comparison with those who had experienced Cesarean childbirth. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 subjects (7 vaginal delivery, 7 Cesarean section) performed an active straight leg raise to 20?cm above the ground, and we measured the activities of the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the external oblique abdominal muscle, and the rectus abdominal muscle on both sides using electromyography. The effort required to raise the leg was scored on a Likert scale. Then, the subjects conducted maximum isometric contraction for hip joint flexion with the leg raised at 20?cm, and maximum torque and abdominal muscle activities were measured using electromyography. [Results] During the active straight leg raise, abdominal muscle activities were higher in the Cesarean section subjects. The Likert scale did not show a significant difference. The activities of the abdominal muscles and the maximum torque of the hip joint flexion at maximum isometric contraction were higher in the vaginal delivery subjects. [Conclusion] The abdominal muscles of Cesarean section subjects showed greater recruitment for maintaining pelvic stability during the active straight leg raising, but were relatively weaker when powerful force was required. Therefore, we consider that more abdominal muscle training is necessary for maintaining pelvic stability of Cesarean section subjects. PMID:25202194

  1. Fatty degeneration of gluteus minimus muscle as a predictor of falls.

    PubMed

    Kiyoshige, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The cause of falls is multifactorial, however, hip fractures in elderly would be prevented if accidental falls are predictable. We assessed magnetic resonance images of 38 patients with groin pain after taking a fall whose fracture could not be detected by plain X-rays, and 45 patients with no episode of falls. Their ages were over 65 years. Fatty degeneration of muscles, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, obturator externus, adductor longus, rectus femoris and iliopsoas muscles, were evaluated by Goutallier's staging. Odds ratio was calculated by a logistic regression analysis allocating dependent variable for falls and independent variables for Goutallier's stage, age and gender. The fatty degeneration of gluteus maximus muscle was generalized, while that of gluteus minimus muscle was unevenly distributed, especially in anterior area. Gluteus minimus muscle initiated its fatty degeneration earlier than gluteus medius muscle. Odds ratio of falling was 3.2 (95% confidence intervals: 1, 14, 8.94) for Goutallier' stage of the gluteus medius muscle. Fatty degeneration of gluteus medius muscle has a crucial role in providing stability of the pelvis including hip joint. Evaluating fatty streaks in the gluteus minimus muscle could help give early indication to those who have a higher risk of falling. PMID:25440137

  2. Advances in quantitative muscle ultrasonography using texture analysis of ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Filippo; Caresio, Cristina; Acharya, U Rajendra; Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Minetto, Marco Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging can be used to investigate the skeletal muscle structure in terms of architecture (thickness, cross-sectional area, fascicle length and fascicle pennation angle) and texture. Gray-scale analysis is commonly used to characterize transverse scans of the muscle. Gray mean value is used to distinguish between normal and pathologic muscles, but it depends on the image acquisition system and its settings. In this study, quantitative ultrasonography was performed on five muscles (biceps brachii, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, medial gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior) of 20 healthy patients (10 women, 10 men) to assess the characterization performance of higher-order texture descriptors to differentiate genders and muscle types. A total of 53 features (7 first-order descriptors, 24 Haralick features, 20 Galloway features and 2 local binary pattern features) were extracted from each muscle region of interest (ROI) and were used to perform the multivariate linear regression analysis (MANOVA). Our results show that first-order descriptors, Haralick features (energy, entropy and correlation measured along different angles) and local binary pattern (LBP) energy and entropy were highly linked to the gender, whereas Haralick entropy and symmetry, Galloway texture descriptors and LBP entropy helped to distinguish muscle types. Hence, the combination of first-order and higher-order texture descriptors (Haralick, Galloway and LBP) can be used to discriminate gender and muscle types. Therefore, multi-texture analysis may be useful to investigate muscle damage and myopathic disorders. PMID:26026375

  3. Metabolic capacity of individual muscle fibers from different anatomic locations.

    PubMed

    Rosser, B W; Norris, B J; Nemeth, P M

    1992-06-01

    We studied muscle fibers by quantitative biochemistry to determine whether metabolic capacity varied among fibers of a given type as a function of their anatomic location. Muscles were selected from both contiguous and diverse anatomic regions within the rats studied. The individual fibers, classified into myosin ATPase fiber types by histochemical means, were assessed for fiber diameters and analyzed for the activities of enzymes representing major energy pathways: malate dehydrogenase (MDH, oxidative), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, glycolytic), and adenylokinase (AK, high-energy phosphate metabolism). We found that neither the average activities of each of the three enzymes nor the fiber diameters varied in Type I or Type IIa fibers selected from superficial to deep portions of the triceps surae of the hindlimb. However, the IIb fibers in the deep region of this muscle group had significantly greater oxidative capacity, less glycolytic capacity, and smaller diameters than the superficially situated IIb fibers. Type IIa fibers in lateral gastrocnemius, extensor digitorum longus, psoas, diaphragm, biceps brachii, superficial masseter, and superior rectus muscles were highly variable in both diameter and enzyme profiles, with a correlation between MDH activity and fiber diameter. Therefore, our results show that both intermuscular and intramuscular metabolic variations exist in muscle fibers of a given type. PMID:1588028

  4. Ocular torsion and the function of the vertical extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Jampel, R S

    1975-02-01

    The vertical corneal meridia are not kept perpendicular to the horizon in human and nonhuman primates when the head or body is tilted, i.e., compensatory counter-rolling of the eyes does not occur. The slight torsional displacement of the vertical corneal meridia noted by many observers may be the result of rotation around an axis or to translation of the globe. The neurologic and structural systems that control the actions of the vertical muscles in human and nonhuman primates do not appear to provide a mechanism for wheel-rotation of the eyes around the pupillary axis. Ocular torsion is not a normal function of the vertical extraocular muscles. Their function is probably the reverse, i.e., the inhibition or prevention of ocular torsion and the stabilization of the eyes when the head or body inclines. Torsional displacement of a vertical corneal meridian occurs only when there is an abnormal muscle imbalance. Wheel-like movements (cycloduction) around the pupillary axis or visual line do not occur. Torsional displacement of a vertical corneal meridian occurs only with a simultaneous vertical movement. The vertical rectus and the oblique muscles in man work together to produce vertical ocular movements regardless of head position of body posture while maintaining the vertical corneal meridia parallel to the sagittal plane of the head. The vestibular apparatus may be responsible for distributing innervation among these muscles, enabling them to function in this manner. PMID:803789

  5. Muscle cramps.

    PubMed

    Miller, Timothy M; Layzer, Robert B

    2005-10-01

    Muscle cramps are a common problem characterized by a sudden, painful, involuntary contraction of muscle. These true cramps, which originate from peripheral nerves, may be distinguished from other muscle pain or spasm. Medical history, physical examination, and a limited laboratory screen help to determine the various causes of muscle cramps. Despite the "benign" nature of cramps, many patients find the symptom very uncomfortable. Treatment options are guided both by experience and by a limited number of therapeutic trials. Quinine sulfate is an effective medication, but the side-effect profile is worrisome, and other membrane-stabilizing drugs are probably just as effective. Patients will benefit from further studies to better define the pathophysiology of muscle cramps and to find more effective medications with fewer side-effects. PMID:15902691

  6. Kinesiology Taping does not Modify Electromyographic Activity or Muscle Flexibility of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study in Healthy Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Halski, Tomasz; Dymarek, Robert; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Rajfur, Katarzyna; Rajfur, Joanna; Pasternok, Małgorzata; Smykla, Agnieszka; Taradaj, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Background Kinesiology taping (KT) is a popular method of supporting professional athletes during sports activities, traumatic injury prevention, and physiotherapeutic procedures after a wide range of musculoskeletal injuries. The effectiveness of KT in muscle strength and motor units recruitment is still uncertain. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of KT on surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity and muscle flexibility of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus medialis (VM) muscles in healthy volleyball players. Material/Methods Twenty-two healthy volleyball players (8 men and 14 women) were included in the study and randomly assigned to 2 comparative groups: “kinesiology taping” (KT; n=12; age: 22.30±1.88 years; BMI: 22.19±4.00 kg/m2) in which KT application over the RF muscle was used, and “placebo taping” (PT; n=10; age: 21.50±2.07 years; BMI: 22.74±2.67 kg/m2) in which adhesive nonelastic tape over the same muscle was used. All subjects were analyzed for resting sEMG activity of the VL and VM muscles, resting and functional sEMG activity of RF muscle, and muscle flexibility of RF muscle. Results No significant differences in muscle flexibility of the RF muscle and sEMG activity of the RF, VL, and VM muscles were registered before and after interventions in both groups, and between the KT and PT groups (p>0.05). Conclusions The results show that application of the KT to the RF muscle is not useful to improve sEMG activity. PMID:26232122

  7. Cross-correlation analyses of mechanomyographic signals from the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles during concentric and eccentric isokinetic muscle actions.

    PubMed

    Cramer, J T; Housh, T J; Weir, J P; Ebersole, K T; Perry-Rana, S R; Bull, A J; Johnson, G O

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the cross-correlation coefficients of mechanomyographic (MMG) signals recorded from the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus medialis (VM) muscles during maximal, concentric and eccentric isokinetic muscle actions. Eleven females (mean +/- SD age = 21 +/- 1 yr) performed such muscle actions of the leg extensors at 60 degrees.s-1 on a Cybex 6000 dynamometer. MMG signals were sampled simultaneously from the VL, RF, and VM at 1000 Hz by piezoelectric crystal contact sensors. Peak composite cross-correlation coefficients (rxy) and common variances (rxy2) were determined for each between-muscle comparison (VL vs. RF, VL vs. VM, and RF vs. VM). The results indicated peak cross-correlation coefficients ranging from rxy = 0.38 to 0.52, while common variances (rxy2) between signals ranged from 14% to 27% across all time lags (tau = -50...). In conjunction with other studies, these results suggested that despite the potential for some cross-talk, MMG measurements can be used to examine differences between the patterns of MMG amplitude and frequency responses of the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles. PMID:12964257

  8. Differential Glucose Uptake in Quadriceps and Other Leg Muscles During One-Legged Dynamic Submaximal Knee-Extension Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kalliokoski, Kari K.; Boushel, Robert; Langberg, Henning; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Ryberg, Ann Kathrine; Dssing, Simon; Kjr, Andreas; Kjr, Michael

    2011-01-01

    One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE) is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron emission tomography (PET) determined uptake of [18F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (GU) during DKE. Five healthy male subjects performed DKE at 25?W for 35?min and both the contracting and contralateral resting leg were scanned with PET from mid-thigh and distally. On average, exercise GU was the highest in the vastus intermedius (VI) and lowest in the vastus lateralis (VL; VI vs VL, p?muscles in the exercising leg was 35??9%. Compared to mean GU in QF (=100%), GU was on average 73% in VL, 84% in rectus femoris, 115% in vastus medialis, and 142% in VI. Variable activation of hamstring muscles and muscles of the lower leg was also observed. These results show that GU of different muscles of quadriceps muscle group as well as between individuals vary greatly during DKE, and suggests that muscle activity is not equal between quadriceps muscles in this exercise model. Furthermore, posterior thigh muscles and lower leg muscles are more active than hitherto thought even during this moderate exercise intensity. PMID:22046164

  9. [Metabolic surgery].

    PubMed

    Jurowich, C; Germer, C T; Seyfried, F; Thalheimer, A

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 is constantly rising worldwide and is one of the most threatening global health and health economic problems. Whereas bariatric surgery is well established in the treatment of morbid obesity, the surgical treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus alone are still under discussion (metabolic surgery). Bariatric procedures differ considering weight loss and influencing associated comorbidities. Detailed knowledge of available surgical treatment options for morbid obesity, the risks and requirements of laparoscopic skills, effectiveness and, as far as already known, mechanisms of action are crucial for appropriate implementation. PMID:22695815

  10. [Foreskin surgery].

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, Maija; Taskinen, Seppo; Ossi, Lindell

    2010-01-01

    Balanitis, phimosis and foreskin adhesions are common indications for foreskin surgery during childhood. In phimosis, the foreskin cannot be drawn behind the glans penis because of the narrow external opening of the former. It is important to be able to distinguish between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, since their treatment is different. In adulthood, the need for surgery can be caused by phimosis, a difficult sequel of paraphimosis, recurrent inflammations of the glans penis and foreskin, diseases and cancers of the skin as well as difficulties at intercourse due to the shortness of the frenulum of the prepuce of the penis. PMID:20405611

  11. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  12. Muscle-specific glucose and free fatty acid uptake after sprint interval and moderate-intensity training in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Heinonen, Ilkka; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Saunavaara, Virva; Kirjavainen, Anna; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2015-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sprint interval training (SIT) causes larger improvements in glucose and free fatty acid uptake (FFAU) in lower and upper body muscles than moderate-intensity training (MIT). Twenty-eight healthy, untrained, middle-aged men were randomized into SIT (n = 14, 4-6 × 30 s of all-out cycling/4 min recovery) and MIT groups [n = 14, 40-60 min cycling at 60% of peak O2 uptake (V̇o2 peak)] and completed six training sessions within 2 wk. Pre- and postmeasurements included V̇o2 peak, whole body (M-value), muscle-specific insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU), and fasting FFAU measured with positron emission tomography in thigh [quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstrings] and upper body (deltoids, biceps, and triceps brachii) muscles. V̇o2 peak and M-value improved significantly by 6 and 12% in SIT, and 3 and 8% in MIT, respectively,. GU increased significantly only in the QF, and there was no statistically significant difference between the training modes. GU increased in all four heads of QF in response to SIT, but only in the vasti muscles in response to MIT, whereas in rectus femoris the response was completely lacking. Training response in FFAU in QF was smaller and nonsignificant, but it also differed between the training modes in the rectus femoris. In conclusion, SIT and MIT increased insulin-stimulated GU only in the main working muscle QF and not in the upper body muscles. In addition, the biarticular rectus femoris did not respond to moderate-intensity training, reflecting most probably poor activation of it during moderate-intensity cycling. PMID:25767035

  13. The impact of the pelvic floor muscles on dynamic ventilation maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Park, Hankyu; Hwang, Byoungha; Kim, Yeoungsung

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) on dynamic ventilation maneuvers. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 19 healthy female adults in their 20s who consented to participate in the present study. Electromyography (EMG) was used to examine respiratory muscle activity, and a spirometer was used to examine vital capacity before and during contraction of the PFM. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), transverse abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) when the PFM was contracted. [Conclusion] Contraction of the PFM can be effective in promoting activation of the respiratory muscles and vital capacity. Therefore, the PFM should be considered to improve the effects of respiratory activity. PMID:26644664

  14. The impact of the pelvic floor muscles on dynamic ventilation maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hankyu; Hwang, Byoungha; Kim, Yeoungsung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) on dynamic ventilation maneuvers. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 19 healthy female adults in their 20s who consented to participate in the present study. Electromyography (EMG) was used to examine respiratory muscle activity, and a spirometer was used to examine vital capacity before and during contraction of the PFM. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), transverse abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) when the PFM was contracted. [Conclusion] Contraction of the PFM can be effective in promoting activation of the respiratory muscles and vital capacity. Therefore, the PFM should be considered to improve the effects of respiratory activity. PMID:26644664

  15. Comparison of Lower Limb Muscle Activity during Eccentric and Concentric Exercises in Runners with Achilles Tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jaeho

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify changes in muscle activation by comparing muscle activities of the affected side (AS) and non-affected side (NAS) during eccentric and concentric exercises in runners with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. [Subjects] The study included 18 participants consisting of men and women with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in a single leg who had more than 1?year of running experience. [Methods] All subjects performed concentric and eccentric exercise with the Achilles tendon moving from full plantar flexion to full dorsiflexion for 8 seconds, and electromyography data was obtained. [Results] All muscles examined showed a significant increase in %maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with concentric exercise compared with eccentric exercise. Compared with the NAS, the AS showed significant increases in %MVC of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius. All interaction effects of exercise methods and injuries showed statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] Runners with Achilles tendinopathy show increases in medial gastrocnemius activity when performing eccentric exercise. PMID:25276014

  16. Effect of Muscle Vibration on Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters in Patients with Parkinsons Disease

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jintae; Kim, Eunjung; Jung, Jaemin; Lee, Junghoon; Sung, Hyeryun; Kim, Jaewoo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle vibration in the lower extremities in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD) during walking. [Subjects] Nine patients with PD participated in this study and were tested with and without vibration (vibration at 60?Hz). [Methods] Eight oscillators of vibration were attached to the muscle bellies (tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, and rectus femoris) on both sides of the lower extremities with adhesive tape in this study. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured using a motion analysis system. [Results] Stride length and walking speed with vibration were significantly increased compared with those without vibration in PD patients. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the application of vibration to lower extremity muscles in patients with PD may improve the parkinsonian gait pattern. PMID:24926129

  17. Arthroscopic Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Arthroscopic surgery (or microsurgery) is a significant breakthrough in treating knee injuries. Its applications range from basic diagnosis to arthroscopic menisectomy, although its use in some procedures is still highly controversial. Many surgeons perform the diagnostic procedure, but follow this with the conventional surgical approach.

  18. Preprosthetic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ephros, Hillel; Klein, Robert; Sallustio, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    Preprosthetic oral and maxillofacial surgery has changed dramatically over the last 3 decades. Surgical preparation for dentures has been displaced by site development for implants. Nonetheless, there is still a role to play for several preprosthetic procedures. In this article, historical context is provided, enduring concepts are reviewed, and procedures that remain relevant are described and discussed. PMID:26231818

  19. Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Allen B.

    2011-01-01

    Well into the first decades of the 20th century, medical opinion held that any surgical attempts to treat heart disease were not only misguided, but unethical. Despite such reservations, innovative surgeons showed that heart wounds could be successfully repaired. Then, extracardiac procedures were performed to correct patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, and tetralogy of Fallot. Direct surgery on the heart was accomplished with closed commissurotomy for mitral stenosis. The introduction of the heart-lung machine and cardiopulmonary bypass enabled the surgical treatment of other congenital and acquired heart diseases. Advances in aortic surgery paralleled these successes. The development of coronary artery bypass grafting greatly aided the treatment of coronary heart disease. Cardiac transplantation, attempts to use the total artificial heart, and the application of ventricular assist devices have brought us to the present day. Although progress in the field of cardiovascular surgery appears to have slowed when compared with the halcyon times of the past, substantial challenges still face cardiac surgeons. It can only be hoped that sufficient resources and incentive can carry the triumphs of the 20th century into the 21st. This review covers past developments and future opportunities in cardiac surgery. PMID:22163121

  20. Arthroscopic Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Arthroscopic surgery (or microsurgery) is a significant breakthrough in treating knee injuries. Its applications range from basic diagnosis to arthroscopic menisectomy, although its use in some procedures is still highly controversial. Many surgeons perform the diagnostic procedure, but follow this with the conventional surgical approach.…

  1. Between-muscle differences in the adaptation to experimental pain.

    PubMed

    Hug, Franois; Hodges, Paul W; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Tucker, Kylie

    2014-11-15

    This study aimed to determine whether muscle stress (force per unit area) can be redistributed between individual heads of the quadriceps muscle when pain is induced into one of these heads. Elastography was used to measure muscle shear elastic modulus (an index of muscle stress). Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF). In experiment I (n = 20), participants matched a knee extension force, and thus any reduction of stress within the painful muscle would require compensation by other muscles. In experiment II (n = 13), participants matched VL EMG amplitude and were free to vary external force such that intermuscle compensation would be unnecessary to maintain the experimental task. In experiments I and II, pain was induced by injection of hypertonic saline into VM or RF. Experiment III aimed to establish whether voluntary drive to the individual muscles could be controlled independently. Participants (n = 13) were asked to voluntarily reduce activation of VM or RF while maintaining knee extension force. During VM pain, there was no change in shear elastic modulus (experiments I and II) or EMG amplitude of VM (experiment II). In contrast, RF pain was associated with a reduction in RF elastic modulus (experiments I and II: -8 to -17%) and EMG amplitude (experiment II). Participants could voluntarily reduce EMG amplitude of RF (-26%; P = 0.003) but not VM (experiment III). These results highlight between-muscle differences in adaptation to pain that might be explained by their function (monoarticular vs. biarticular) and/or the neurophysiological constraints associated to their activation. PMID:25213640

  2. Effects of weight loss and exercise on trunk muscle composition in older women

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Alice S; Harduarsingh-Permaul, Aruna Selina

    2014-01-01

    Background Aging and obesity increase the risk for mobility limitations in women. Although trunk muscle composition is important to physical function, the implication of ectopic fat in the trunk muscles with respect to physical fitness and its potential for modification by lifestyle changes is unknown. Methods The effects of a 6-month period of either weight loss (WL) alone or of aerobic exercise (AEX) plus WL (AEX+WL), on trunk body composition, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (to measure trunk fat and lean mass) and computed tomography (CT) (to measure the erector spinae, psoas, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominis muscle, and intramuscular fat, and the intramuscular adipose tissue [IMAT] areas) was determined in 65 overweight and obese postmenopausal women (aged 50–76 years). Results The area of the erector spinae, psoas, and rectus abdominis muscles declined with age in the women (P<0.05). Both the spinal and abdominal muscle areas were related to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) (P<0.05). Body weight decreased by 8% after both AEX+WL and WL (P<0.001). The VO2max increased by 11% after AEX+WL (P<0.001) but did not change with WL alone (group effect, P<0.001). The DXA-measured trunk fat mass decreased by 16% after AEX+WL (P<0.001) and by 12% after WL (P<0.001). When both groups were combined, the IMAT decreased in all four muscle groups − by 6% in the erector spinae (P<0.01), by 9% in the psoas (P<0.01), by 11% in the lateral abdominals (P<0.001), and by 6% in the rectus abdominis (P<0.05). The loss of fat mass was related to the loss of IMAT of the erector spinae and the lateral abdominals. Conclusions A lifestyle modification of diet-induced WL alone, or with AEX training, results in a significant reduction of the fat infiltration in the abdominal and spinal muscles of the trunk region. Our finding that losses of total body fat predict a reduction in the IMAT of the trunk supports the idea that WL reduces fat depots throughout the body. PMID:24623974

  3. Influence of pelvic position and vibration frequency on muscle activation during whole body vibration in quiet standing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joong-Hwi; Seo, Hye-Jung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation related to postural stability depending on the pelvic position and frequency of whole body vibration (WBV) during quiet standing, and to identify the most effective training conditions that elicit the highest neuromuscular responses. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this single-group, repeated-measures study in which surface electromyography (EMG) data for the upper trapezius, rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominis, erector spinae, gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, and medial gastrocnemius were collected at three frequencies (0?Hz, 10?Hz, and 20?Hz) of WBV and three pelvic positions (neutral, anterior tilt, posterior tilt) for each subject during quiet standing. [Results] The EMG activities of all the recorded muscles showed significant differences between the three frequencies of WBV and three pelvic positions during quiet standing. [Conclusion] The study findings suggest that a higher WBV frequency (20?Hz) should be used to strengthen most muscles, and that using the posterior pelvic tilt during WBV is much more effective at strengthening and training muscles related to core stability. PMID:25995555

  4. Lower Extremity Muscle Thickness During 30-Day 6 degrees Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.; Kirby, L. C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Muscle thickness was measured in 19 Bed-Rested (BR) men (32-42 year) subjected to IsoTonic (ITE, cycle orgometer) and IsoKi- netic (IKE, torque orgometer) lower extremity exercise training, and NO Exercise (NOE) training. Thickness was measured with ultrasonography in anterior thigh-Rectus Femoris (RF) and Vastus Intermadius (VI), and combined posterior log-soleus, flexor ballucis longus, and tibialis posterior (S + FHL +TP) - muscles. Compared with ambulatory control values, thickness of the (S + FHL + TP) decreased by 90%-12% (p less than 0.05) In all three test groups. The (RF) thickness was unchanged in the two exercise groups, but decreased by 10% (p less than 0.05) in the NOE. The (VI) thickness was unchanged In the ITE group, but decreased by 12%-l6% (p less than 0.05) in the IKE and NOE groups. Thus, intensive, alternating, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise training is as effective as intensive, intermittent, isokinetic exercise training for maintaining thicknesses of rectus femoris and vastus lntermedius anterior thigh muscles, but not posterior log muscles, during prolonged BR deconditioning.

  5. Dual encoding of muscle tension and eye position by abducens motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Davis-Lpez de Carrizosa, Mara A; Morado-Daz, Camilo J; Miller, Joel M; de la Cruz, Rosa R; Pastor, Angel M

    2011-02-01

    Extraocular muscle tension associated with spontaneous eye movements has a pulse-slide-step profile similar to that of motoneuron firing rate. Existing models only relate motoneuron firing to eye position, velocity and acceleration. We measured and quantitatively compared lateral rectus muscle force and eye position with the firing of abducens motoneurons in the cat to determine fundamental encoding correlations. During fixations (step), muscle force increased exponentially with eccentric eye position, consistent with a model of estimate ensemble motor innervation based on neuronal sensitivities and recruitment order. Moreover, firing rate in all motoneurons tested was better related to eye position than to muscle tension during fixations. In contrast, during the postsaccadic slide phase, the time constant of firing rate decay was closely related to that of muscle force decay, suggesting that all motoneurons encode muscle tension as well. Discharge characteristics of abducens motoneurons formed overlapping clusters of phasic and tonic motoneurons, thus, tonic units recruited earlier and had a larger slide signal. We conclude that the slide signal is a discharge characteristic of the motoneuron that controls muscle tension during the postsaccadic phase and that motoneurons are specialized for both tension and position-related properties. The organization of signal content in the pool of abducens motoneurons from the very phasic to the very tonic units is possibly a result of the differential trophic background received from distinct types of muscle fibers. PMID:21307263

  6. Changes in Tibiofemoral Forces due to Variations in Muscle Activity during Walking

    PubMed Central

    DeMers, Matthew S.; Pal, Saikat; Delp, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Muscles induce large forces in the tibiofemoral joint during walking and thereby influence the health of tissues like articular cartilage and menisci. It is possible to walk with a wide variety of muscle coordination patterns, but the effect of varied muscle coordination on tibiofemoral contact forces remains unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of varied muscle coordination on tibiofemoral contact forces. We developed a musculoskeletal model of a subject walking with an instrumented knee implant. Using an optimization framework, we calculated the tibiofemoral forces resulting from muscle coordination that reproduced the subject’s walking dynamics. We performed a large set of optimizations in which we systematically varied the coordination of muscles to determine the influence on tibiofemoral force. Model-predicted tibiofemoral forces arising with minimum muscle activation matched in vivo forces measured during early stance, but were greater than in vivo forces during late stance. Peak tibiofemoral forces during late stance could be reduced by increasing the activation of the gluteus medius, uniarticular hip flexors, and soleus, and by decreasing the activation of the gastrocnemius and rectus femoris. These results suggest that retraining of muscle coordination could substantially reduce tibiofemoral forces during late stance. PMID:24615885

  7. FGFR1 inhibits skeletal muscle atrophy associated with hindlimb suspension

    PubMed Central

    Eash, John; Olsen, Aaron; Breur, Gert; Gerrard, Dave; Hannon, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle atrophy can occur under many different conditions, including prolonged disuse or immobilization, cachexia, cushingoid conditions, secondary to surgery, or with advanced age. The mechanisms by which unloading of muscle is sensed and translated into signals controlling tissue reduction remains a major question in the field of musculoskeletal research. While the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors are synthesized by, and intimately involved in, embryonic skeletal muscle growth and repair, their role maintaining adult muscle status has not been examined. Methods We examined the effects of ectopic expression of FGFR1 during disuse-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy, utilizing hindlimb suspension and DNA electroporation in mice. Results We found skeletal muscle FGF4 and FGFR1 mRNA expression to be modified by hind limb suspension,. In addition, we found FGFR1 protein localized in muscle fibers within atrophying mouse muscle which appeared to be resistant to atrophy. Electroporation and ectopic expression of FGFR1 significantly inhibited the decrease in muscle fiber area within skeletal muscles of mice undergoing suspension induced muscle atrophy. Ectopic FGFR1 expression in muscle also significantly stimulated protein synthesis in muscle fibers, and increased protein degradation in weight bearing muscle fibers. Conclusion These results support the theory that FGF signaling can play a role in regulation of postnatal skeletal muscle maintenance, and could offer potentially novel and efficient therapeutic options for attenuating muscle atrophy during aging, illness and spaceflight. PMID:17425786

  8. Muscle cramps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Often, drinking water will ease the cramping. However, water alone does not always help. Salt tablets or sports drinks, which also replenish lost minerals, can be helpful. Other tips for relieving muscle ...

  9. Atrial Fibrillation Surgery - Maze Procedure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Thoracic Surgeon? Adult Cardiac Surgery What is Pediatric Heart Disease? What is Risk Adjustment? Valve Repair/Replacement Surgery Esophageal Surgery Lung/Thoracic Surgery Aneurysm Surgery Arrhythmia Surgery Atrial Fibrillation Surgery - Maze Procedure ...

  10. Skeletal muscle glutathione after surgical trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J L; Hammarqvist, F; Andersson, K; Wernerman, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors investigate the effect of surgical trauma on skeletal muscle concentrations of glutathione in patients undergoing selective abdominal surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The posttraumatic state is accompanied by characteristic changes in the pattern of free amino acids and a decline of protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle. Glutathione has multiple metabolic functions that are involved in cellular homeostasis. It is unknown how surgical trauma affects the glutathione metabolism of skeletal muscle in surgical patients. METHODS: Eight patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery were investigated. Percutaneous muscle biopsies and blood samples were taken before operation and at 6, 24, and 48 hours after operation. The concentrations of glutathione were determined in muscle tissue, plasma, and whole blood, as well as the concentrations of the related amino acids in muscle and plasma. RESULTS: In skeletal muscle, the levels of both reduced and total glutathione decreased by 40% (p<0.01) at 24 hours and remained low at 48 hours after operation compared with the preoperative values. The glutathione concentration in plasma was 20% lower after operation compared with the concentration before operation (p<0.05). There were no changes at the whole blood levels of glutathione. Tissue glutamate and glutamine decreased significantly after operation (p<0.001), whereas intracellular cysteine and glycine remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Skeletal muscle glutathione deficiency occurs after surgical trauma. This may lead to an increase in the susceptibility to intracellular oxidative injury. PMID:8633921

  11. Refractive corneal surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Nearsightedness surgery - discharge; Refractive surgery - discharge; LASIK - discharge; PRK - discharge ... You had refractive corneal surgery to help improve your vision. This surgery uses a laser to reshape your cornea. It corrects mild-to-moderate nearsightedness, ...

  12. Scoliosis surgery - child

    MedlinePLUS

    Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... Before surgery, your child will receive general anesthesia. This will make ... and unable to feel pain during the operation. During ...

  13. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for lung carcinoid tumor symptoms Surgery to treat lung carcinoid tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  14. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Radiation therapy for breast cancer Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some ... the most common types of breast cancer surgery. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) This type of surgery removes ...

  15. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Gregory J.; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM) during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test. Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 3.3 years; height = 170 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 14.9 kg) performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated. Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86 (+0.11, +3.61); z(22) = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearsons r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72)) was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = ?1.39 (?5.53, +2.75); t(22) = ?0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohens d = ? 0.15 (?0.58, 0.29)) or rectus femoris length (change = ?0.005 (?0.013, +0.003); t(22) = ?1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohens d = ? 0.27 (?0.70, 0.16)) were not due to chance alone. Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol. PMID:26421244

  16. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test.

    PubMed

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Lehman, Gregory J; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM) during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test. Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 3.3 years; height = 170 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 14.9 kg) performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated. Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86 (+0.11, +3.61); z(22) = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson's r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72)) was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = -1.39 (-5.53, +2.75); t(22) = -0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen's d = - 0.15 (-0.58, 0.29)) or rectus femoris length (change = -0.005 (-0.013, +0.003); t(22) = -1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen's d = - 0.27 (-0.70, 0.16)) were not due to chance alone. Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol. PMID:26421244

  17. Evaluation of three-dimensional printing for internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Canjun; Xiao, Jidong; Wu, Zhanglin; Huang, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of three-dimensional printing (3D printing) assisted internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach. Methods: A total of 38 patients with unstable pelvic fractures were analyzed retrospectively from August 2012 to February 2014. All cases were treated operatively with internal fixation assisted by three-dimensional printing from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach. Both preoperative CT and three-dimensional reconstruction were performed. Pelvic model was created by 3D printing. Data including the best entry points, plate position and direction and length of screw were obtained from simulated operation based on 3D printing pelvic model. The diaplasis and internal fixation were performed by minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach according to the optimized dada in real surgical procedure. Matta and Majeed score were used to evaluate currative effects after operation. Results: According to the Matta standard, the outcome of the diaplasis achieved 97.37% with excellent and good. Majeed assessment showed 94.4% with excellent and good. The imageological examination showed consistency of internal fixation and simulated operation. The mean operation time was 110 minutes, mean intraoperative blood loss 320 ml, and mean incision length 6.5 cm. All patients have achieved clinical healing, with mean healing time of 8 weeks. Conclusion: Three-dimensional printing assisted internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach is feasible and effective. This method has the advantages of trauma minimally, bleeding less, healing rapidly and satisfactory reduction, and worthwhile for spreading in clinical practice. PMID:26550226

  18. Bloodless surgery in geriatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Salvatore; Di Matteo, Filippo; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Greco, Roberto; Nardi, Matteo; Favoriti, Pasqualino; De Antoni, Enrico; Filippini, Angelo; Catania, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In bloodless surgery a series of measures has to be implemented to reduce the perioperative need for transfusion of whole blood or its components. Jehovah's Witness are the most representative group of patients opting for bloodless surgery as their faith follows strict believes that prohibits receiving blood. Geriatric patients requiring bloodless surgery are even more delicate and represent a challenge for surgeons. The physiological response of the over 65 year population to decreased hemoglobin level is slower and less effective than in young and adult patients. Herby we describe the perioperative protocol implemented in our surgical Department offered to geriatric Jehovah's Witness patients. Preoperative optimization of the patients is the key step in the preparation period. Intraoperative anesthetic and surgical measures are also required along with a strict postoperative follow-up. From our experience, bloodless surgery is feasible in the geriatric population as long as it is performed in specialized centers where a multidisciplinary team is prepared to specifically manage this scenario. Rigorous patients selection and preparation are mandatory. PMID:25183638

  19. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  20. Piriformis syndrome surgery causing severe sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Justice, Phillip E; Katirji, Bashar; Preston, David C; Grossman, Gerald E

    2012-09-01

    Piriformis syndrome is a controversial entrapment neuropathy in which the sciatic nerve is thought to be compressed by the piriformis muscle. Two patients developed severe left sciatic neuropathy after piriformis muscle release. One had a total sciatic nerve lesion, whereas the second had a predominantly high common peroneal nerve lesion. Follow-up studies showed reinnervation of the hamstrings only. We conclude that piriformis muscle surgery may be hazardous and result in devastating sciatic nerve injury. PMID:22922582

  1. The acute muscle swelling effects of blood flow restriction.

    PubMed

    Loenneke, Jeremy Paul; Fahs, C A; Thiebaud, R S; Rossow, L M; Abe, T; Ye, Xin; Kim, D; Bemben, M G

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential mechanisms behind the blood flow restriction (BFR) stimulus in the absence of exercise. Nine participants completed a 10 minute time control and then a BFR protocol. The protocol was five, 5-minute bouts of inflation with 3-minutes of deflation between each bout. The pressure was set relative to each individual's thigh circumference. Significant increases in muscle thickness were observed for both the vastus lateralis (VL) [6%, p = 0.027] and rectus femoris (RF) [22%, p = 0.001] along with a significant decrease in plasma volume [15%, p = 0.001]. Ratings of discomfort during the BFR protocol peaked at 2.7 (light discomfort). There were no significant changes with whole blood lactate, electromyography (EMG), or heart rate (HR), however, there was a trend for a significant increase in HR during the 5th inflation (p = 0.057). In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that the attenuation of both muscle atrophy and declines in strength previously observed with brief applications of BFR may have been mediated through an acute fluid shift induced increase in muscle size. This is supported by our finding that the changes in muscle thickness are maintained even after the cuffs have been removed. PMID:23238542

  2. Delayed lateral rectus palsy following resection of a pineal cyst in sitting position: direct or indirect compressive phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Qualls E; Colen, Chaim B; Ham, Steven D; Kattner, Keith A; Sood, Sandeep

    2007-12-01

    A rare case of delayed lateral rectus palsy in a patient following resection of a pineal lesion in the sitting position is presented. Postoperative pneumocephalus is common following craniospinal surgical intervention in the sitting position. The sixth cranial nerve is frequently injured because of its prolonged intracranial course. A 13-year-old girl was evaluated for unremitting headaches. No focal deficits were demonstrated on neurological examination. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystlike pineal region mass with peripheral enhancement following intravenous contrast administration. A supracerebellar infratentorial craniotomy was performed in the sitting position, and complete resection of the lesion was achieved. Her postoperative course was complicated by sixth nerve palsy on the third postoperative day. Her symptoms improved with conservative management. The occurrence of sixth cranial nerve palsy secondary to pneumocephalus is a rare entity. Even rarer is the report of this anomaly following craniotomy in the sitting position. This patient's symptoms manifested in a delayed fashion. Although uncommon, this complication should be considered in patients undergoing cranial or spinal surgical interventions in this position. PMID:18174563

  3. Abdominal perforator vs. muscle sparing flaps for breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liza C.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominally based free flaps have become the mainstay for women that desire to use their own tissue as a means of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. As the techniques have evolved, significant effort has been invested in finding the best means of minimizing morbidity to the abdominal donor site while ensuring a viable reconstructed breast that is aesthetically pleasing. This manuscript reviews and compares the muscle sparing free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MsfTRAM), the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP), and the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flaps, regarding flap success rate, operative times, abdominal donor site morbidity and residual functionality, hospital lengths of stay and associated costs, impact of co-morbid conditions, and resilience after adjuvant radiation treatment. PMID:26161306

  4. [Minimally invasive breast surgery].

    PubMed

    Mtrai, Zoltn; Gulys, Gusztv; Kunos, Csaba; Svolt, Akos; Farkas, Emil; Szollr, Andrs; Ksler, Mikls

    2014-02-01

    Due to the development in medical science and industrial technology, minimally invasive procedures have appeared in the surgery of benign and malignant breast diseases. In general , such interventions result in significantly reduced breast and chest wall scars, shorter hospitalization and less pain, but they require specific, expensive devices, longer surgical time compared to open surgery. Furthermore, indications or oncological safety have not been established yet. It is quite likely, that minimally invasive surgical procedures with high-tech devices - similar to other surgical subspecialties -, will gradually become popular and it may form part of routine breast surgery even. Vacuum-assisted core biopsy with a therapeutic indication is suitable for the removal of benign fibroadenomas leaving behind an almost invisible scar, while endoscopically assisted skin-sparing and nipple-sparing mastectomy, axillary staging and reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle flap are all feasible through the same short axillary incision. Endoscopic techniques are also suitable for the diagnostics and treatment of intracapsular complications of implant-based breast reconstructions (intracapsular fluid, implant rupture, capsular contracture) and for the biopsy of intracapsular lesions with uncertain pathology. Perception of the role of radiofrequency ablation of breast tumors requires further hands-on experience, but it is likely that it can serve as a replacement of surgical removal in a portion of primary tumors in the future due to the development in functional imaging and anticancer drugs. With the reduction of the price of ductoscopes routine examination of the ductal branch system, guided microdochectomy and targeted surgical removal of terminal ducto-lobular units or a "sick lobe" as an anatomical unit may become feasible. The paper presents the experience of the authors and provides a literature review, for the first time in Hungarian language on the subject. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(5), 162-169. PMID:24463161

  5. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on postoperative muscle mass and protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vinge, O; Edvardsen, L; Jensen, F; Jensen, F G; Wernerman, J; Kehlet, H

    1996-03-01

    In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein synthesis were assessed by computed tomography and ribosome analysis of percutaneous muscle biopsies before surgery and on the sixth postoperative day. The percentage of polyribosomes in the ribosome suspension decreased significantly (P < 0.03) after operation in control legs, but not in stimulated legs (P > 0.16). The total concentration of ribosomes decreased significantly in legs treated with TEMS (P < 0.03) but not in control legs (P > 0.16). CSA decreased significantly in both legs. The decrease in polyribosomes and CSA after operation was significantly less in stimulated legs than in controls (P < 0.05). TEMS may be a simple and effective method for improving muscle protein synthesis and muscle mass after abdominal surgery and should be evaluated in other catabolic states with muscle wasting. PMID:8665192

  6. Motor nucleus activity fails to predict extraocular muscle forces in ocular convergence

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Ryan C.; Gamlin, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    For a given eye position, firing rates of abducens neurons (ABNs) generally (Mays et al. 1984), and lateral rectus (LR) motoneurons (MNs) in particular (Gamlin et al. 1989a), are higher in converged gaze than when convergence is relaxed, whereas LR and medial rectus (MR) muscle forces are slightly lower (Miller et al. 2002). Here, we confirm this finding for ABNs, report a similarly paradoxical finding for neurons in the MR subdivision of the oculomotor nucleus (MRNs), and, for the first time, simultaneously confirm the opposing sides of these paradoxes by recording physiological LR and MR forces. Four trained rhesus monkeys with binocular eye coils and custom muscle force transducers on the horizontal recti of one eye fixated near and far targets, making conjugate saccades and symmetric and asymmetric vergence movements of 1627. Consistent with earlier findings, we found in 44 ABNs that the slope of the rate-position relationship for symmetric vergence (kV) was lower than that for conjugate movement (kC) at distance, i.e., mean kV/kC = 0.50, which implies stronger LR innervation in convergence. We also found in 39 MRNs that mean kV/kC = 1.53, implying stronger MR innervation in convergence as well. Despite there being stronger innervation in convergence at a given eye position, we found both LR and MR muscle forces to be slightly lower in convergence, ?0.40 and ?0.20 g, respectively. We conclude that the relationship of ensemble MN activity to total oculorotary muscle force is different in converged gaze than when convergence is relaxed. We conjecture that LRMNs with kV < kC and MRMNs with kV > kC innervate muscle fibers that are weak, have mechanical coupling that attenuates their effective oculorotary force, or serve some nonoculorotary, regulatory function. PMID:21451064

  7. An electromyographical comparison of trunk muscle activity during isometric trunk and dynamic strengthening exercises.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Paul; Pearson, Stephen J; Mather, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare rectus abdominis and erector spinae muscle activity during isometric (prone bridge [PB] and superman [SM]) and dynamic strengthening exercises (back squat, front squat [FS], and military press). Participants (n = 10, age 21.8 2.6 years; body mass 82.65 10.80 kg, 174.5 7.2 cm), performed each exercise in a randomized order, using a repeated-measures design. Electromyographical (EMG) activity (sampling at 2,000 Hz) of the rectus abdominis (RA) and the erector spinae (ES) muscles was recorded throughout the duration of the exercises. Intraclass correlations demonstrated the highest levels of reliability for muscle activity during the isometric exercises; however, all exercises demonstrated high level of reliability (r = 0.764-0.998, p ? 0.01). The PB demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.01) RA activity compared to all other exercises. The ES activity was significantly (p < 0.01) greater during the FS (1.010 0.308 root mean square value [RMS (V)]) and SM (0.951 0.217 RMS[V]) and compared to all other exercises, although there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the FS and the SM exercise. The PB may be the most suitable exercise for strengthening the RA, compared to dynamic exercises at a low to moderate load, because of a higher level of muscle activity. The FS may be a useful alternative to isometric exercises when strengthening the ES, because it results in slightly higher muscle activity levels when using only a light to moderate load. Because of the dynamic nature of the FS, this may also be more beneficial in transferring to activities of daily living and sporting environments. PMID:21157393

  8. Assessment of magnetic resonance techniques to measure muscle damage 24 h after eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Fulford, J; Eston, R G; Rowlands, A V; Davies, R C

    2015-02-01

    The study examined which of a number of different magnetic resonance (MR) methods were sensitive to detecting muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise. Seventeen healthy, physically active participants, with muscle damage confirmed by non-MR methods were tested 24 h after performing eccentric exercise. Techniques investigated whether damage could be detected within the quadriceps muscle as a whole, and individually within the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and vastus intermedius (VI). Relative to baseline values, significant changes were seen in leg and muscle cross-sectional areas and volumes and the resting inorganic phosphate concentration. Significant time effects over all muscles were also seen in the transverse relaxation time (T2) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, with individually significant changes seen in the VL, VM, and VI for T2 and in the VI for ADC. A significant correlation was found between muscle volume and the average T2 change (r = 0.59) but not between T2 and ADC or Pi alterations. There were no significant time effects over all muscles for magnetization transfer contrast images, for baseline pH, phosphocreatine (PCr), phosphodiester, or ATP metabolite concentrations or the time constant describing the rate of PCr recovery following exercise. PMID:24738493

  9. How does age affect leg muscle activity/coactivity during uphill and downhill walking?

    PubMed

    Franz, Jason R; Kram, Rodger

    2013-03-01

    Walking uphill and downhill can be challenging for community-dwelling old adults. We investigated the effects of age on leg muscle activity amplitudes and timing during level, uphill, and downhill walking. We hypothesized that old adults would exhibit smaller increases in ankle extensor muscle activities and greater increases in hip extensor muscle activities compared to young adults during uphill vs. level walking. We also hypothesized that, compared to level walking, antagonist leg muscle coactivation would be disproportionately greater in old vs. young adults during downhill walking. Ten old (725yrs) and ten young (254yrs) subjects walked at 1.25m/s on a treadmill at seven grades (0, 3, 6, 9). We quantified the stance phase electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus (GMAX), biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), medial gastrocnemius (MG), soleus (SOL), and tibialis anterior (TA). Old adults exhibited smaller increases in MG activity with steeper uphill grade than young adults (e.g., +136% vs. +174% at 9). A disproportionate recruitment of hip muscles led to GMAX activity approaching the maximum isometric capacity of these active old adults at steep uphill grades (e.g., old vs. young, 73% MVC vs. 33% MVC at +9). Neither uphill nor downhill walking affected the greater coactivation of antagonist muscles in old vs. young adults. We conclude that the disproportionate recruitment of hip muscles with advanced age may have critical implications for maintaining independent mobility in old adults, particularly at steeper uphill grades. PMID:22940542

  10. The determination of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in normal human muscle and other tissues

    PubMed Central

    Emery, A. E. H.

    1967-01-01

    1. A technique has been developed, based on preferential inhibition by urea, for determining the amounts and proportions of the M and H sub-units of lactate dehydrogenase (referred to as LDH-M and LDH-H respectively) in human tissues, including muscle. 2. There was good agreement between the results obtained with urea inhibition and those obtained with starch-gel electrophoresis. 3. With increasing age there was a significant decrease in the total amount of lactate dehydrogenase and the amount of LDH-M in skeletal muscle. This could not be accounted for by the replacement of functioning muscle tissue by fibrous connective tissue. 4. The proportion of LDH-M was less in certain muscles (e.g. soleus and extra-ocular) than in other muscles (e.g. gastrocnemius and rectus abdominis). 5. The proportions of LDH-M and LDH-H did not differ significantly in different superficial limb muscles and were not significantly affected by either age or sex. 6. Specimens of muscle from 86 different individuals (all Europeans) have been subjected to electrophoresis, but no variants of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes have been found. PMID:5584002

  11. Electron-microscopic study of the restoration of irradiated muscle under the influence of regenerating muscle tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Elyakova, G.V.; Azarova, V.S.; Popova, M.F.

    1985-09-01

    The authors determine whether the development of satellite cells and their transformation into myoblasts under the influence of regenerating muscle tissue occurs in irradiated muscle. In the control series seven days after surgery, degenerative changes occurred over a considerable extent in the muscle fibers of the proximal stump: a loosening, fragmentation, and disappearance of myofibrils, the vesiculation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondrial swelling and breakdown. The stimulation of the processes of postradiational repair occurs under the influence of transplanted regenerating muscle tissue into irradiated traumatized muscle. This results in the restoration of its capacity for regeneration by both myosymplastic and myoblastic means.

  12. Arthroscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Marquez, R A

    1992-03-01

    The first examination of a knee joint was in 1918 by the Japanese surgeon Takagi. Since this first attempt at joint space surgery, numerous advances have been made in arthroscopic design, video imaging, instrumentation, and the adoption of laser energy devices. As a result, diagnostic and therapeutic arthroscopy is currently performed in every major joint space in the body. Recently, clinical investigators have begun exploring the potential of endoscopic examination of small joint spaces, such as the temporomandibular joint. Also on the horizon are scopes and instruments to intervene therapeutically in the spinal canal. PMID:1341511

  13. Electromyographic responses of erector spinae and lower limb's muscles to dynamic postural perturbations in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Farahpour, Nader; Ghasemi, Safoura; Allard, Paul; Saba, Mohammad Sadegh

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate electromyographic (EMG) responses of erector spinae (ES) and lower limbs' muscles to dynamic forward postural perturbation (FPP) and backward postural perturbation (BPP) in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and in a healthy control group. Ten right thoracic AIS patients (Cobb=21.64.4) and 10 control adolescents were studied. Using bipolar surface electrodes, EMG activities of ES muscle at T10 (EST10) and L3 (ESL3) levels, biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (G) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles in the right and the left sides during FPP and BPP were evaluated. Muscle responses were measured over a 1s time window after the onset of perturbation. In FPP test, the EMG responses of right EST10, ESL3 and BF muscles in the scoliosis group were respectively about 1.40 (p=0.035), 1.43 (p=0.07) and 1.45 (p=0.01) times greater than those in control group. Also, in BPP test, at right ESL3 muscle of the scoliosis group the EMG activity was 1.64 times higher than that in the control group (p=0.01). The scoliosis group during FPP displayed asymmetrical muscle responses in EST10 and BF muscles. This asymmetrical muscle activity in response to FPP is hypothesized to be a possible compensatory strategy rather than an inherent characteristic of scoliosis. PMID:25008019

  14. Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Background Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of at last 30 kg/m2.1 Morbid obesity is defined as a BMI of at least 40 kg/m2 or at least 35 kg/m2 with comorbid conditions. Comorbid conditions associated with obesity include diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemias, obstructive sleep apnea, weight-related arthropathies, and stress urinary incontinence. It is also associated with depression, and cancers of the breast, uterus, prostate, and colon, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity is also associated with higher all-cause mortality at any age, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors like smoking. A person with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 has about a 50% higher risk of dying than does someone with a healthy BMI. The risk more than doubles at a BMI of 35 kg/m2. An expert estimated that about 160,000 people are morbidly obese in Ontario. In the United States, the prevalence of morbid obesity is 4.7% (1999–2000). In Ontario, the 2004 Chief Medical Officer of Health Report said that in 2003, almost one-half of Ontario adults were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). About 57% of Ontario men and 42% of Ontario women were overweight or obese. The proportion of the population that was overweight or obese increased gradually from 44% in 1990 to 49% in 2000, and it appears to have stabilized at 49% in 2003. The report also noted that the tendency to be overweight and obese increases with age up to 64 years. BMI should be used cautiously for people aged 65 years and older, because the “normal” range may begin at slightly above 18.5 kg/m2 and extend into the “overweight” range. The Chief Medical Officer of Health cautioned that these data may underestimate the true extent of the problem, because they were based on self reports, and people tend to over-report their height and under-report their weight. The actual number of Ontario adults who are overweight or obese may be higher. Diet, exercise, and behavioural therapy are used to help people lose weight. The goals of behavioural therapy are to identify, monitor, and alter behaviour that does not help weight loss. Techniques include self-monitoring of eating habits and physical activity, stress management, stimulus control, problem solving, cognitive restructuring, contingency management, and identifying and using social support. Relapse, when people resume old, unhealthy behaviour and then regain the weight, can be problematic. Drugs (including gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and appetite suppressants) may be used if behavioural interventions fail. However, estimates of efficacy may be confounded by high rates of noncompliance, in part owing to the side effects of the drugs. In addition, the drugs have not been approved for indefinite use, despite the chronic nature of obesity. The Technology Morbidly obese people may be eligible for bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity is considered an intervention of last resort for patients who have attempted first-line forms of medical management, such as diet, increased physical activity, behavioural modification, and drugs. There are various bariatric surgical procedures and several different variations for each of these procedures. The surgical interventions can be divided into 2 general types: malabsorptive (bypassing parts of the gastrointestinal tract to limit the absorption of food), and restrictive (decreasing the size of the stomach so that the patient is satiated with less food). All of these may be performed as either open surgery or laparoscopically. An example of a malabsorptive technique is Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Examples of restrictive techniques are vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) and adjustable gastric banding (AGB). The Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) Schedule of Benefits for Physician Services includes fee code “S120 gastric bypass or partition, for morbid obesity” as an insured service. The term gastric bypass is a general term that encompasses a variety of surgical methods, all of which involve reconfiguring the digestive system. The term gastric bypass does not include AGB. The number of gastric bypass procedures funded and done in Ontario, and funded as actual out-of-country approvals,2 is shown below. Number of Gastric Bypass Procedures by Fiscal Year: Ontario and Actual Out-of-Country (OOC) Approvals Data from Provider Services, MOHLTC Courtesy of Provider Services, Ministry of Health and Long Term Care Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat reviewed the literature to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery to treat morbid obesity. It used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases. The interventions of interest were bariatric surgery and, for the controls, either optimal conventional management or another type of bariatric procedure. The outcomes of interest were improvement in comorbid conditions (e.g., diabetes, hypertension); short- and long-term weight loss; quality of life; adverse effects; and economic analysis data. The databases yielded 15 international health technology assessments or systematic reviews on bariatric surgery. Subsequently, the Medical Advisory Secretariat searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from April 2004 to December 2004, after the search cut-off date of April, 2004, for the most recent systematic reviews on bariatric surgery. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. One of those 10 was the Swedish Obese Subjects study, which started as a registry and intervention study, and then published findings on people who had been enrolled for at least 2 years or at least 10 years. In addition to the literature review of economic analysis data, the Medical Advisory Secretariat also did an Ontario-based economic analysis. Summary of Findings Bariatric surgery generally is effective for sustained weight loss of about 16% for people with BMIs of at least 40 kg/m2 or at least 35 kg/m2 with comorbid conditions (including diabetes, high lipid levels, and hypertension). It also is effective at resolving the associated comorbid conditions. This conclusion is largely based on level 3a evidence from the prospectively designed Swedish Obese Subjects study, which recently published 10-year outcomes for patients who had bariatric surgery compared with patients who received nonsurgical treatment. (1) Regarding specific procedures, there is evidence that malabsorptive techniques are better than other banding techniques for weight loss and resolution of comorbid illnesses. However, there are no published prospective, long-term, direct comparisons of these techniques available. Surgery for morbid obesity is considered an intervention of last resort for patients who have attempted first-line forms of medical management, such as diet, increased physical activity, behavioural modification, and drugs. In the absence of direct comparisons of active nonsurgical intervention via caloric restriction with bariatric techniques, the following observations are made: A recent systematic review examining the efficacy of major commercial and organized self-help weight loss programs in the United States concluded that the evidence to support the use of such programs was suboptimal, except for one trial on Weight Watchers. Furthermore, the programs were associated with high costs, attrition rates, and probability of regaining at least 50% of the lost weight in 1 to 2 years. (2) A recent randomized controlled trial reported 1-year outcomes comparing weight loss and metabolic changes in severely obese patients assigned to either a low-carbohydrate diet or a conventional weight loss diet. At 1 year, weight loss was similar for patients in each group (mean, 2–5 kg). There was a favourable effect on triglyceride levels and glycemic control in the low-carbohydrate diet group. (3) A decision-analysis model showed bariatric surgery results in increased life expectancy in morbidly obese patients when compared to diet and exercise. (4) A cost-effectiveness model showed bariatric surgery is cost-effective relative to nonsurgical management. (5) Extrapolating from 2003 data from the United States, Ontario would likely need to do 3,500 bariatric surgeries per year. It currently does 508 per year, including out-of-country surgeries. PMID:23074460

  15. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of synergistic muscles during pelvic floor muscles activation in postmenopausal women with and without stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Paprocka-Borowicz, Ma?gorzata; S?upska, Lucyna; Bartnicki, Janusz; Dymarek, Robert; Rosi?czuk, Joanna; Heimrath, Jerzy; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Objective Muscles such as adductor magnus (AM), gluteus maximus (GM), rectus abdominis (RA), and abdominal external and internal oblique muscles are considered to play an important role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), and the relationship between contraction of these muscles and pelvic floor muscles (PFM) has been established in previous studies. Synergistic muscle activation intensifies a womans ability to contract the PFM. In some cases, even for continent women, it is not possible to fully contract their PFM without involving the synergistic muscles. The primary aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic activity of synergistic muscles to PFM (SPFM) during resting and functional PFM activation in postmenopausal women with and without SUI. Materials and methods This study was a preliminary, prospective, cross-sectional observational study and included volunteers and patients who visited the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Forty-two patients participated in the study and were screened for eligibility criteria. Thirty participants satisfied the criteria and were categorized into two groups: women with SUI (n=16) and continent women (n=14). The bioelectrical activity of PFM and SPFM (AM, RA, GM) was recorded with a surface electromyographic instrument in a standing position during resting and functional PFM activity. Results Bioelectrical activity of RA was significantly higher in the incontinent group than in the continent group. These results concern the RA activity during resting and functional PFM activity. The results for other muscles showed no significant difference in bioelectrical activity between groups. Conclusion In women with SUI, during the isolated activation of PFM, an increased synergistic activity of RA muscle was observed; however, this activity was not observed in asymptomatic women. This may indicate the important accessory contribution of these muscles in the mechanism of continence. PMID:26445533

  16. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  17. Laparoscopic Surgery - What Is It?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Laparoscopic Surgery - What is it? Laparoscopic Surgery - What is it? Laparoscopic Surgery - What is it? | ASCRS Alternate Titles: Trocar Used in Surgery WHAT IS LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY? Laparoscopic or “minimally invasive” surgery is ...

  18. Muscle "Building."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of constructivism in teaching human anatomy. Provides directions for constructing arm-hand and leg-foot models that include extensor and flexor muscles and that are easily and cheaply constructed. Lists resources that provide ideas for using such models depending upon the curriculum implemented in a school or the course that is…

  19. Correlation between Extraocular Muscle Size Measured by Computed Tomography and the Vertical Angle of Deviation in Thyroid Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Yeun; Bae, Kunho; Park, Kyung-Ah; Lyu, In Jeong; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate extraocular muscle (EOM) volume and cross-sectional area using computed tomography (CT), and to determine the relationship between EOM size and the vertical angle of deviation in thyroid eye disease (TED). Twenty-nine TED patients (58 orbits) with vertical strabismus were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination including prism, alternate cover, and Krimsky tests. Orbital CT scans were also performed on each patient. Digital image analysis was used to quantify superior rectus (SR) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle cross-sectional areas and volumes. Measurements were compared with those of controls. The correlation between muscle size and degree of vertical angle deviation was evaluated. The mean vertical angle of deviation was 26.2 ± 4.1 prism diopters. The TED group had a greater maximum cross-sectional area and EOM volume in the SR and IR than the control group (all p<0.001). Area and volume of the IR were correlated with the angle of deviation, but the SR alone did not show a significant correlation. The maximum cross-sectional area and volume of [Right IR + Left SR − Right SR − Left IR] was strongly correlated with the vertical angle of deviation (P<0.001). Quantitative CT of the orbit with evaluation of the area and volume of EOMs may be helpful in anticipating and monitoring vertical strabismus in TED patients. PMID:26820406

  20. Correlation between Extraocular Muscle Size Measured by Computed Tomography and the Vertical Angle of Deviation in Thyroid Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Yeun; Bae, Kunho; Park, Kyung-Ah; Lyu, In Jeong; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate extraocular muscle (EOM) volume and cross-sectional area using computed tomography (CT), and to determine the relationship between EOM size and the vertical angle of deviation in thyroid eye disease (TED). Twenty-nine TED patients (58 orbits) with vertical strabismus were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination including prism, alternate cover, and Krimsky tests. Orbital CT scans were also performed on each patient. Digital image analysis was used to quantify superior rectus (SR) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle cross-sectional areas and volumes. Measurements were compared with those of controls. The correlation between muscle size and degree of vertical angle deviation was evaluated. The mean vertical angle of deviation was 26.2 4.1 prism diopters. The TED group had a greater maximum cross-sectional area and EOM volume in the SR and IR than the control group (all p<0.001). Area and volume of the IR were correlated with the angle of deviation, but the SR alone did not show a significant correlation. The maximum cross-sectional area and volume of [Right IR + Left SR - Right SR - Left IR] was strongly correlated with the vertical angle of deviation (P<0.001). Quantitative CT of the orbit with evaluation of the area and volume of EOMs may be helpful in anticipating and monitoring vertical strabismus in TED patients. PMID:26820406

  1. Age and side-related morphometric MRI evaluation of trunk muscles in people without back pain.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Stephanie; Licka, Theresia; Elliott, James

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated lumbar spine muscle volume and Muscle Fatty Infiltrate (MFI) across two age groups of healthy adults. Twenty-four participants (young group - YG: age 18-25, n = 12; mature group - MG: age 45-60, n = 12) without low back pain underwent T1-weighted axial MRI. Muscle volume and MFI were obtained from the left and right lumbar erector spinae (ES), multifidus (M), rectus abdominis (RA) and psoas (PS) muscles. For MFI, mean pixel intensity (MPI) of muscles was reported as a percentage of subcutaneous fat MPI. Within-group comparison of left and right side muscle volume was not significantly different in the YG. In the MG, right RA and ES were significantly smaller than left (RA p = 0.049; ES p = 0.03). In both groups, left PS, M and ES MFI was significantly smaller compared to the right side and left RA MFI was significantly greater compared to right side (all p ? 0.001). For M volume, 81.7-84.6% of variance was explained by age, height and Body Mass Index (BMI). For ES volume, 81.6-82.8% of variance was explained by height and BMI. Age explained 18.1%-36.0% of variance in M and ES right MFI. Therefore, age and BMI are relevant factors for extensor muscle volume, but not for flexor muscle volume. Also, age significantly influences MFI for right-sided extensors only. The age effect is apparently independent of full subjective back functionality. For future spinal muscle research, the side-and muscle-specific effect of age on muscle morphology should be considered. PMID:25085813

  2. Quantifying the Elastic Property of Nine Thigh Muscles Using Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Chakouch, Mashhour K.; Charleux, Fabrice; Bensamoun, Sabine F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pathologies of the muscles can manifest different physiological and functional changes. To adapt treatment, it is necessary to characterize the elastic property (shear modulus) of single muscles. Previous studies have used magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), a technique based on MRI technology, to analyze the mechanical behavior of healthy and pathological muscles. The purpose of this study was to develop protocols using MRE to determine the shear modulus of nine thigh muscles at rest. Methods Twenty-nine healthy volunteers (mean age = 26 3.41 years) with no muscle abnormalities underwent MRE tests (1.5 T MRI). Five MRE protocols were developed to quantify the shear moduli of the nine following thigh muscles at rest: rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), vastus intermedius (VI), vastus lateralis (VL), sartorius (Sr), gracilis (Gr), semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), and biceps (BC). In addition, the shear modulus of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was analyzed. Results The gracilis, sartorius, and semitendinosus muscles revealed a significantly higher shear modulus (?_Gr = 6.15 0.45 kPa, ?_ Sr = 5.15 0.19 kPa, and ?_ ST = 5.32 0.10 kPa, respectively) compared to other tissues (from ?_ RF = 3.91 0.16 kPa to ?_VI = 4.23 0.25 kPa). Subcutaneous adipose tissue had the lowest value (?_adipose tissue = 3.04 0.12 kPa) of all the tissues tested. Conclusion The different elasticities measured between the tissues may be due to variations in the muscles' physiological and architectural compositions. Thus, the present protocol could be applied to injured muscles to identify their behavior of elastic property. Previous studies on muscle pathology found that quantification of the shear modulus could be used as a clinical protocol to identify pathological muscles and to follow-up effects of treatments and therapies. These data could also be used for modelling purposes. PMID:26397730

  3. Resistance training induces qualitative changes in muscle morphology, muscle architecture, and muscle function in elderly postoperative patients.

    PubMed

    Suetta, Charlotte; Andersen, Jesper L; Dalgas, Ulrik; Berget, Jakob; Koskinen, Satu; Aagaard, Per; Magnusson, S Peter; Kjaer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Although the negative effects of bed rest on muscle strength and muscle mass are well established, it still remains a challenge to identify effective methods to restore physical capacity of elderly patients recovering from hospitalization. The present study compared different training regimes with respect to muscle strength, muscle fiber size, muscle architecture, and stair walking power in elderly postoperative patients. Thirty-six patients (60-86 yr) scheduled for unilateral hip replacement surgery due to hip osteoarthritis were randomized to either 1) resistance training (RT: 3/wk x 12 wk), 2) electrical stimulation (ES: 1 h/day x 12 wk), or 3) standard rehabilitation (SR: 1 h/day x 12 wk). All measurements were performed at baseline, at 5 wk and 12 wk postsurgery. After 12 wk of resistance training, maximal dynamic muscle strength increased by 30% at 60 degrees /s (P < 0.05) and by 29% at 180 degrees /s (P < 0.05); muscle fiber area increased for type I (+17%, P < 0.05), type IIa (+37%, P < 0.05), and type IIx muscle fibers (+51%, P < 0.05); and muscle fiber pennation angle increased by 22% and muscle thickness increased by 15% (P < 0.05). Furthermore, stair walking power increased by 35% (P < 0.05) and was related to the increase in type II fiber area (r = 0.729, P < 0.05). In contrast, there was no increase in any measurement outcomes with electrical stimulation and standard rehabilitation. The present study is the first to demonstrate the effectiveness of resistance training to induce beneficial qualitative changes in muscle fiber morphology and muscle architecture in elderly postoperative patients. In contrast, rehabilitation regimes based on functional exercises and neuromuscular electrical stimulation had no effect. The present data emphasize the importance of resistance training in future rehabilitation programs for elderly individuals. PMID:18420714

  4. Effects of chronic electrical stimulation on paralyzed expiratory muscles

    PubMed Central

    DiMarco, Anthony F.; Kowalski, Krzysztof E.

    2013-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury, the expiratory muscles develop significant disuse atrophy characterized by reductions in their weight, fiber cross-sectional area, and force-generating capacity. We determined the extent to which these physiological alterations can be prevented with electrical stimulation. Because a critical function of the expiratory muscles is cough generation, an important goal was the maintenance of maximal force production. In a cat model of spinal cord injury, short periods of high-frequency lower thoracic electrical spinal cord stimulation (SCS) at the T10 level (50 Hz, 15 min, twice/day, 5 days/wk) were initiated 2 wk following spinalization and continued for a 6-mo period. Airway pressure (P)-generating capacity was determined by SCS. Five acute, spinalized animals served as controls. Compared with controls, initial P fell from 43.9 1.0 to 41.8 0.7 cmH2O (not significant) in the chronic animals. There were small reductions in the weight of the external oblique, internal oblique, transverses abdominis, internal intercostal, and rectus abdominis muscles (not significant for each). There were no significant changes in the population of fast muscle fibers. Because prior studies (Kowalski KE, Romaniuk JR, DiMarco AF. J Appl Physiol 102: 1422-1428, 2007) have demonstrated significant atrophy following spinalization in this model, these results indicate that expiratory muscle atrophy can be prevented by the application of short periods of daily high-frequency stimulation. Because the frequency of stimulation is similar to the expected pattern of clinical use for cough generation, the daily application of electrical stimulation could potentially serve the dual purpose of maintenance of expiratory muscle function and airway clearance. PMID:18403449

  5. A newly discovered muscle: The tensor of the vastus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Grob, K; Ackland, T; Kuster, M S; Manestar, M; Filgueira, L

    2016-03-01

    The quadriceps femoris is traditionally described as a muscle group composed of the rectus femoris and the three vasti. However, clinical experience and investigations of anatomical specimens are not consistent with the textbook description. We have found a second tensor-like muscle between the vastus lateralis (VL) and the vastus intermedius (VI), hereafter named the tensor VI (TVI). The aim of this study was to clarify whether this intervening muscle was a variation of the VL or the VI, or a separate head of the extensor apparatus. Twenty-six cadaveric lower limbs were investigated. The architecture of the quadriceps femoris was examined with special attention to innervation and vascularization patterns. All muscle components were traced from origin to insertion and their affiliations were determined. A TVI was found in all dissections. It was supplied by independent muscular and vascular branches of the femoral nerve and lateral circumflex femoral artery. Further distally, the TVI combined with an aponeurosis merging separately into the quadriceps tendon and inserting on the medial aspect of the patella. Four morphological types of TVI were distinguished: Independent-type (11/26), VI-type (6/26), VL-type (5/26), and Common-type (4/26). This study demonstrated that the quadriceps femoris is architecturally different from previous descriptions: there is an additional muscle belly between the VI and VL, which cannot be clearly assigned to the former or the latter. Distal exposure shows that this muscle belly becomes its own aponeurosis, which continues distally as part of the quadriceps tendon. Clin. Anat. 29:256-263, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26732825

  6. The influence of visual information on multi-muscle control during quiet stance: a spectral analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Degani, Adriana M; Boonstra, Tjeerd W; Mochizuki, Luis; Harney, Allison M; Schmeckpeper, Megan M; Tabor, Lori C; Leonard, Charles T

    2015-02-01

    Standing upright requires the coordination of neural drives to a large set of muscles involved in controlling human bipedal stance (i.e., postural muscles). The coordination may deteriorate in situations where standing is performed under more challenging circumstances, such as standing on a smaller base of support or not having adequate visual information. The present study investigates the role of common neural inputs in the organization of multi-muscle synergies and the effects of visual input disruption to this mechanism of control. We analyzed the strength and distribution of correlated neural inputs (measured by intermuscular coherence) to six postural muscles previously recognized as components of synergistic groups involved in the maintenance of the body's vertical positioning. Two experimental conditions were studied: quiet bipedal stance performed with opened eyes (OEs) and closed eyes (CEs). Nine participants stood quietly for 30 s while the activity of the soleus, biceps femoris, lumbar erector spinae, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles were recorded using surface electrodes. Intermuscular (EMG-EMG) coherence was estimated for 12 muscle pairs formed by these muscles, including pairs formed solely by either posterior, anterior, or mixed (one posterior and one anterior) muscles. Intermuscular coherence was only found to be significant for muscle pairs formed solely by either posterior or anterior muscles, and no significant coherence was found for mixed muscle pairs. Significant intermuscular coherence was only found within a distinct frequency interval bounded between 1 and 10 Hz when visual input was available (OEs trials). The strength of correlated neural inputs was similar across muscle pairs located in different joints but executing a similar function (pushing body either backward or forward) suggesting that synergistic postural groups are likely formed based on their functional role instead of their anatomical location. Absence of visual information caused a significant decrease in intermuscular coherence. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that correlated neural inputs are a mechanism used by the CNS to assemble synergistic muscle groups. Further, this mechanism is affected by interruption of visual input. PMID:25407521

  7. Maternal germline mosaicism of kinesin family member 21A (KIF21A) mutation causes complex phenotypes in a Chinese family with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Chen, Xue; Sun, Xiantao; Liu, Hu; Zhao, Kanxing; Chang, Qinglin; Pan, Xinyuan; Wang, Xiuying; Yuan, Songtao; Liu, Qinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify the causative mutation with its possible origin in a Chinese family with congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) and to characterize the ocular phenotypes and lesions in the corresponding intracranial nerves. Methods Three affected siblings and their asymptomatic parents underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations and neuropathologic analysis involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). KIF21A, PHOX2A, and TUBB3 genes were sequenced on the leukocyte-derived DNA to detect variants. The disease-linked haplotype was analyzed using four microsatellite markers across the KIF21A locus. Results All three affected individuals displayed typical CFEOM1. MRI revealed complicated but consistent neuromuscular abnormalities in the two patients examined, including hypoplastic oculomotor nerves, complete absence of bilateral superior rectus muscles, and unilateral absence of the abducens nerve with marked atrophy of the corresponding lateral rectus muscle. A heterozygous hotspot mutation KIF21A c.2860C>T was identified in all patients, but it was absent in both parents. Haplotype analysis of the disease locus showed the likely maternal inheritance of the disease-associated haplotype to all three affected offspring, strongly suggesting maternal germline mosaicism of the mutation. Conclusions Germline mosaicism of KIF21A c.2860C>T is likely to cause the high occurrence of this mutation in the population. This information may be useful for genetic counseling. KIF21A mutations can affect the abducens nerve and cause complete absence of the bilateral superior rectus muscles. MRI characterization of new CFEOM1 phenotypes would assist clinical management. PMID:24426772

  8. Robotic Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

  9. Burn surgery.

    PubMed

    Tenenhaus, Mayer; Rennekampff, Hans Oliver

    2007-10-01

    The challenges posed by thermal injury often are daunting emotionally and physically for the survivor, family, and staff. Morbidity and mortality have improved with advances in emergent and multidisciplinary care; the establishment of dedicated burn centers; and increased education, prevention, and experience. The role of surgery in the treatment of these complex injury patterns continues to evolve, incorporating refined concepts of tissue preservation, wound bed preparation, and early attention to functional and esthetic parameters. Societal reintegration, psychosocial support, and new pain control strategies have dramatically improved the quality of life for our patients during and after the acute course of care. With improved survivability and a changing demographic, fundamental reconstructive surgical principles have found increased applicability and are instituted at the time of admission whenever possible. PMID:17967624

  10. The early days of heart valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2011-08-01

    To the lay public, the very idea of an operation on that vital structure, the heart, seems to be out of the question. (In fact, the heart muscle is an incredibly tough machine that can go on pumping, without a single service, for 90 or more years!) Even to the surgeons of the end of the 19th century, who, thanks to the twin discoveries of anaesthesia and antiseptic surgery, were beginning to operate on all the other major organs of the body, heart surgery seemed to remain an impossible dream. Even that great pioneer of modern scientific surgery, Theodor Billroth, Professor of Surgery in Vienna, who had himself already performed the first successful partial gastrectomy for a stomach cancer and the first laryngectomy, wrote, in 1893, 'Any surgeon who would attempt an operation on the heart should lose the respect of his colleagues'. PMID:22029211

  11. Prognostic value of sarcopenia in liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Cornet, M; Lim, C; Salloum, C; Lazzati, A; Compagnon, P; Pascal, G; Azoulay, D

    2015-11-01

    Current knowledge indicates that malnutrition increases the rate of post-operative complications, particularly respiratory and infectious, after major surgery. Almost all liver surgery is performed in patients with cancer, a factor that increases the risk of malnutrition. The primary risk factors for post-operative complications are pre-operative hypo-albuminemia and a body mass index less than 20 kg/m(2). To improve the prediction of complications in these patients, some teams have suggested measurement of muscle thickness by computed tomography. Muscular mass can thus be quantified by measuring the total surface of the psoas muscle or the total surface of all muscles (i.e. external and internal oblique, transverse, psoas and paravertebral muscles) seen on an axial CT slice at L3. As well, data exist suggesting that sarcopenia is an independent predictive factor of post-operative morbidity and poor long-term survival after resection for cancer. Nonetheless, the literature on the subject is limited, there are no standardized definitions for sarcopenia, and the need of special software to calculate the surfaces limits its usefulness. Lastly, there are little if any data concerning the nutritional or pharmacologic means to treat sarcopenia. This update, based on a literature review, deals with the value and the prognostic impact of sarcopenia in surgery for liver tumors. The current definition of sarcopenia, validated internationally, the methods of measurement, and the consequences of sarcopenia on the outcome of liver resections are detailed in this review. PMID:26476674

  12. Modelling of Muscle Force Distributions During Barefoot and Shod Running.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Richards, Jim; Vincent, Hayley

    2015-09-29

    Research interest in barefoot running has expanded considerably in recent years, based around the notion that running without shoes is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the differences in the forces produced by different skeletal muscles during barefoot and shod running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 ms-1 ( 5%). Kinematics were measured using an eight camera motion analysis system alongside ground reaction force parameters. Differences in sagittal plane kinematics and muscle forces between footwear conditions were examined using repeated measures or Freidman's ANOVA. The kinematic analysis showed that the shod condition was associated with significantly more hip flexion, whilst barefoot running was linked with significantly more flexion at the knee and plantarflexion at the ankle. The examination of muscle kinetics indicated that peak forces from Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Tibialis anterior were significantly larger in the shod condition whereas Gastrocnemius forces were significantly larger during barefoot running. These observations provide further insight into the mechanical alterations that runners make when running without shoes. Such findings may also deliver important information to runners regarding their susceptibility to chronic injuries in different footwear conditions. PMID:26557186

  13. Modelling of Muscle Force Distributions During Barefoot and Shod Running

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Richards, Jim; Vincent, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Research interest in barefoot running has expanded considerably in recent years, based around the notion that running without shoes is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic injuries. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the differences in the forces produced by different skeletal muscles during barefoot and shod running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 ms-1 ( 5%). Kinematics were measured using an eight camera motion analysis system alongside ground reaction force parameters. Differences in sagittal plane kinematics and muscle forces between footwear conditions were examined using repeated measures or Freidmans ANOVA. The kinematic analysis showed that the shod condition was associated with significantly more hip flexion, whilst barefoot running was linked with significantly more flexion at the knee and plantarflexion at the ankle. The examination of muscle kinetics indicated that peak forces from Rectus femoris, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Tibialis anterior were significantly larger in the shod condition whereas Gastrocnemius forces were significantly larger during barefoot running. These observations provide further insight into the mechanical alterations that runners make when running without shoes. Such findings may also deliver important information to runners regarding their susceptibility to chronic injuries in different footwear conditions. PMID:26557186

  14. Effects of wearing gumboots and leather lace-up boots on lower limb muscle activity when walking on simulated underground coal mine surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Steele, Julie R

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing two standard underground coal mining work boots (a gumboot and a leather lace-up boot) on lower limb muscle activity when participants walked across simulated underground coal mining surfaces. Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) and hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscle activity were recorded as twenty male participants walked at a self-selected pace around a circuit while wearing each boot type. The circuit consisted of level, inclined and declined surfaces composed of rocky gravel and hard dirt. Walking in a leather lace-up boot, compared to a gumboot, resulted in increased vastus lateralis and increased biceps femoris muscle activity when walking on sloped surfaces. Increased muscle activity appears to be acting as a slip and/or trip prevention strategy in response to challenging surfaces and changing boot features. PMID:25766420

  15. Assessing viability of extracorporeal preserved muscle transplants using external field stimulation: a novel tool to improve methods prolonging bridge-to-transplantation time

    PubMed Central

    Taeger, Christian D.; Friedrich, Oliver; Dragu, Adrian; Weigand, Annika; Hobe, Frieder; Drechsler, Caroline; Geppert, Carol I.; Arkudas, Andreas; Münch, Frank; Buchholz, Rainer; Pollmann, Charlotte; Schramm, Axel; Birkholz, Torsten; Horch, Raymund E.; Präbst, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Preventing ischemia-related cell damage is a priority when preserving tissue for transplantation. Perfusion protocols have been established for a variety of applications and proven to be superior to procedures used in clinical routine. Extracorporeal perfusion of muscle tissue though cumbersome is highly desirable since it is highly susceptible to ischemia-related damage. To show the efficacy of different perfusion protocols external field stimulation can be used to immediately visualize improvement or deterioration of the tissue during active and running perfusion protocols. This method has been used to show the superiority of extracorporeal perfusion using porcine rectus abdominis muscles perfused with heparinized saline solution. Perfused muscles showed statistically significant higher ability to exert force compared to nonperfused ones. These findings can be confirmed using Annexin V as marker for cell damage, perfusion of muscle tissue limits damage significantly compared to nonperfused tissue. The combination of extracorporeal perfusion and external field stimulation may improve organ conservation research. PMID:26145230

  16. Assessing viability of extracorporeal preserved muscle transplants using external field stimulation: a novel tool to improve methods prolonging bridge-to-transplantation time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeger, Christian D.; Friedrich, Oliver; Dragu, Adrian; Weigand, Annika; Hobe, Frieder; Drechsler, Caroline; Geppert, Carol I.; Arkudas, Andreas; Münch, Frank; Buchholz, Rainer; Pollmann, Charlotte; Schramm, Axel; Birkholz, Torsten; Horch, Raymund E.; Präbst, Konstantin

    2015-07-01

    Preventing ischemia-related cell damage is a priority when preserving tissue for transplantation. Perfusion protocols have been established for a variety of applications and proven to be superior to procedures used in clinical routine. Extracorporeal perfusion of muscle tissue though cumbersome is highly desirable since it is highly susceptible to ischemia-related damage. To show the efficacy of different perfusion protocols external field stimulation can be used to immediately visualize improvement or deterioration of the tissue during active and running perfusion protocols. This method has been used to show the superiority of extracorporeal perfusion using porcine rectus abdominis muscles perfused with heparinized saline solution. Perfused muscles showed statistically significant higher ability to exert force compared to nonperfused ones. These findings can be confirmed using Annexin V as marker for cell damage, perfusion of muscle tissue limits damage significantly compared to nonperfused tissue. The combination of extracorporeal perfusion and external field stimulation may improve organ conservation research.

  17. The effects of horseback riding simulator exercises on the muscle activity of the lower extremities according to changes in arm posture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of horseback riding simulator exercise on the muscle activities of the lower extremities according to changes in arm posture. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 normal adult males and females. [Methods] The horseback riding simulator exercise used a horseback riding simulator device; two arm postures were used, posture 1 (holding the handle of the device) and posture 2 (crossing both arms, with both hands on the shoulders). Electromyography was used to compare the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and hip adductors in the lower extremities. [Results] Posture 2 had significantly higher muscle activity than posture 1. [Conclusion] Posture 2, which entailed crossing both arms with both hands on the shoulders, was an effective intervention for improved muscle activity in the hip adductors. PMID:26504280

  18. [Minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery: surgery 4.0?].

    PubMed

    Feußner, H; Wilhelm, D

    2016-03-01

    Surgery can only maintain its role in a highly competitive environment if results are continuously improved, accompanied by further reduction of the interventional trauma for patients and with justifiable costs. Significant impulse to achieve this goal was expected from minimally invasive surgery and, in particular, robotic surgery; however, a real breakthrough has not yet been achieved. Accordingly, the new strategic approach of cognitive surgery is required to optimize the provision of surgical treatment. A full scale integration of all modules utilized in the operating room (OR) into a comprehensive network and the development of systems with technical cognition are needed to upgrade the current technical environment passively controlled by the surgeon into an active collaborative support system (surgery 4.0). Only then can the true potential of minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery be exploited. PMID:26801753

  19. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Weight Loss Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Weight Loss Surgery Print ... Any Risks and Side Effects? What Is Weight Loss Surgery? For some people, being overweight is about ...

  20. Stomach Cancer: Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Next Topic Chemotherapy for stomach cancer Surgery for stomach cancer Surgery is often part of the treatment for ... cancer. The 3 main types of surgery for stomach cancer Endoscopic resection: Resection refers to cutting out a ...

  1. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed ...

  2. Types of Heart Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart surgery that is becoming more common is robotic-assisted surgery. For this surgery, a surgeon uses a computer to control surgical tools on thin robotic arms. The tools are inserted through small incisions ...

  3. Laser surgery - skin

    MedlinePLUS

    Surgery using a laser ... used is directly related to the type of surgery being performed and the color of the tissue ... Laser surgery can be used to: Close small blood vessels to reduce blood loss Remove warts , moles , sunspots, and ...

  4. Capillary muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Caroline; Mouterde, Timothée; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The contraction of a muscle generates a force that decreases when increasing the contraction velocity. This “hyperbolic” force–velocity relationship has been known since the seminal work of A. V. Hill in 1938 [Hill AV (1938) Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 126(843):136–195]. Hill’s heuristic equation is still used, and the sliding-filament theory for the sarcomere [Huxley H, Hanson J (1954) Nature 173(4412):973–976; Huxley AF, Niedergerke R (1954) Nature 173(4412):971–973] suggested how its different parameters can be related to the molecular origin of the force generator [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255–318; Deshcherevskiĭ VI (1968) Biofizika 13(5):928–935]. Here, we develop a capillary analog of the sarcomere obeying Hill’s equation and discuss its analogy with muscles. PMID:25944938

  5. Internal Oblique and Transversus Abdominis Muscle Fatigue Induced by Slumped Sitting Posture after 1 Hour of Sitting in Office Workers

    PubMed Central

    Waongenngarm, Pooriput; Rajaratnam, Bala S.; Janwantanakul, Prawit

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged sitting leads to low back discomfort and lumbopelvic muscle fatigue. This study examined the characteristics of body perceived discomfort and trunk muscle fatigue during 1 hour of sitting in three postures in office workers. Methods Thirty workers sat for 1 hour in one of three sitting postures (i.e., upright, slumped, and forward leaning postures). Body discomfort was assessed using the Body Perceived Discomfort scale at the beginning and after 1 hour of sitting. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from superficial lumbar multifidus, iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, internal oblique (IO)/transversus abdominis (TrA), and rectus abdominis muscles during 1 hour of sitting. The median frequency (MDF) of the EMG power spectrum was calculated. Results Regardless of the sitting posture, the Body Perceived Discomfort scores in the neck, shoulder, upper back, low back, and buttock significantly increased after 1 hour of sitting compared with baseline values (t(9) = −11.97 to −2.69, p < 0.05). The MDF value of the EMG signal of rectus abdominis, iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, and multifidus muscles was unchanged over time in all three sitting postures. Only the right and left IO/TrA in the slumped sitting posture was significantly associated with decreased MDF over time (p = 0.019 to 0.041). Conclusion Prolonged sitting led to increased body discomfort in the neck, shoulder, upper back, low back, and buttock. No sign of trunk muscle fatigue was detected over 1 hour of sitting in the upright and forward leaning postures. Prolonged slumped sitting may relate to IO/TrA muscle fatigue, which may compromise the stability of the spine, making it susceptible to injury. PMID:27014491

  6. The Influence in Airforce Soldiers Through Wearing Certain Types of Army-Issue Footwear on Muscle Activity in the Lower Extremities

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Christoph; Lindner, Tobias; Schulz, Katharina; Finze, Susanne; Kundt, Guenther; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the influence of the shape and material of the military footwear worn by soldiers on muscle activity in the lower extremities, and whether such footwear could explain specific strain complaints and traumatic lesions in the region of the lower extremities. 37 soldiers (one woman, 36 men) aged between 20 and 53 years underwent a dynamic electromyography (EMG) analysis. Wearing – one pair at a time - five different types of shoes, the subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill, where an EMG of the following muscles was taken: M. tibialis anterior, M. gastrocnemius mediales, M. gastrocnemius laterales, M. peroneus longus and M. rectus femoris. When the subjects wore old-fashioned outdoor jogging shoes increased muscle activity was observed in the region of the M. peroneus longus. This can be interpreted as a sign of the upper ankle joint requiring increased support and thus explain the higher susceptibility to sprains experienced in connection with these shoes. When the subjects wore combat boots, increased activity was observed in the region of the Mm. tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The specific activity differences that were observed in particular muscles may have influence in the occurrence of certain disorders, especially in untrained recruits. This can be linked to various strain-related disorders such as shin splints and patellofemoral pain. The data obtained using EMG can provide information about the likelihood of a clustering of the complaints experienced by soldiers during training or active service. PMID:21886685

  7. Aging affects spatial distribution of leg muscle oxygen saturation during ramp cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Osada, Takuya; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2013-01-01

    We compared muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) responses in several leg muscles and within a single muscle during ramp cycling exercise between elderly men (n = 8; age, 65 3 years; ELD) and young men (n = 10; age, 23 3 years; YNG). SmO2 was monitored at the distal site of the vastus lateralis (VLd), proximal site of the vastus lateralis (VLp), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and tibialis anterior (TA) by near-infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. During submaximal exercise, significantly lower SmO2 at a given absolute work rate was observed in VLd, RF, BF, GL, and TA but not in VLp, VM, and GM in ELD than in YNG. In contrast, at all measurement sites, SmO2 at peak exercise was not significantly different between groups. These results indicate that the effects of aging on SmO2 responses are heterogeneous between leg muscles and also within a single muscle. The lower SmO2 in older men may have been caused by reduced muscle blood flow or altered blood flow distribution. PMID:23852490

  8. Refuting The Polemic Against the Extraocular Muscle Pulleys: Jampel and Shis Platygean View of Extraocular Muscle Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Demer, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Late in the 20th Century, it was recognized that connective tissue structures in the orbit influence the paths of the extraocular muscles, and constitute their functional origins. Targeted investigations of these connective tissue pulleys led to the formulation of the active pulley hypothesis, which proposes that pulling directions of the rectus extraocular muscles are actively controlled via connective tissues. Purpose This review rebuts a series of criticisms of the active pulley hypothesis published by Jampel, and Jampel and Shi, in which these authors have disputed the existence and function of the pulleys. Methods The current paper reviews published evidence for the existence of orbital pulleys, the active pulley hypothesis, and physiologic tests of the active pulley hypothesis. Magnetic resonance imaging in a living subject, and histological examination of a human cadaver directly illustrate the relationship of pulleys to extraocular muscles. Results Strong scientific evidence is cited that supports the existence of orbital pulleys, and their role in ocular motility. The criticisms of have ignored mathematical truisms and strong scientific evidence. Conclusions Actively controlled orbital pulleys play a fundamental role in ocular motility. Pulleys profoundly influence the neural commands required to control eye movements and binocular alignment. Familiarity with the anatomy and physiology of the pulleys is requisite for a rational approach to diagnosing and treating strabismus using emerging methods. Conversely, approaches that deny or ignore the pulleys risk the sorts of errors that arise in geography and navigation from incorrect assumptions such as those of a flat (platygean) earth. PMID:17022164

  9. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath catheters: A feasible and effective, opioid-sparing, post-operative pain management technique: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Sumitra; Mapari, Amol; Paliwal, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Epidural analgesia, though the gold standard of post-operative pain management for laparotomies, is associated with limitations and is contraindicated in many patients. Opioid-based pain management, which is an alternative to epidural, has been implicated in post-operative nausea, vomiting, and ileus. We report successful management of post operative pain with ultrasound guided rectus sheath (RS) catheters. RS block is a promising alternative in scenarios were epidural is contraindicated, has failed or in case of unexpected change in the surgical plan. PMID:25788745

  10. Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    2014 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics Cosmetic Procedure Trends 2014 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report Please credit the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS when citing statistical data or using ...

  11. Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ...

  12. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ...

  13. [Modern mitral valve surgery].

    PubMed

    Bothe, W; Beyersdorf, F

    2016-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Cutler and Levine performed the first successful surgical treatment of a stenotic mitral valve, which was the only treatable heart valve defect at that time. Mitral valve surgery has evolved significantly since then. The introduction of the heart-lung machine in 1954 not only reduced the surgical risk, but also allowed the treatment of different mitral valve pathologies. Nowadays, mitral valve insufficiency has become the most common underlying pathomechanism of mitral valve disease and can be classified into primary and secondary mitral insufficiency. Primary mitral valve insufficiency is mainly caused by alterations of the valve (leaflets and primary order chords) itself, whereas left ventricular dilatation leading to papillary muscle displacement and leaflet tethering via second order chords is the main underlying pathomechanism for secondary mitral valve regurgitation. Valve reconstruction using the "loop technique" plus annuloplasty is the surgical strategy of choice and normalizes life expectancy in patients with primary mitral regurgitation. In patients with secondary mitral regurgitation, implanting an annuloplasty is not superior to valve replacement and results in high rates of valve re-insufficiency (up to 30 % after 3 months) due to ongoing ventricular dilatation. In order to improve repair results in these patients, we add a novel subvalvular technique (ring-noose-string) to the annuloplasty that aims to prevent ongoing ventricular remodeling and re-insufficiency. In modern mitral surgery, a right lateral thoracotomy is the approach of choice with excellent repair and cosmetic results. PMID:26907868

  14. The effects of surface condition on abdominal muscle activity during single-legged hold exercise.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung-min; Oh, Jae-seop; Jeon, In-cheol; Kwon, Oh-yun

    2015-02-01

    To treat low-back pain, various spinal stability exercises are commonly used to improve trunk muscle function and strength. Because human movement for normal daily activity occurs in multi-dimensions, the importance of exercise in multi-dimensions or on unstable surfaces has been emphasized. Recently, a motorized rotating platform (MRP) for facilitating multi-dimensions dynamic movement was introduced for clinical use. However, the abdominal muscle activity with this device has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the abdominal muscle activity (rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique muscles) during an active single-leg-hold (SLH) exercise on a floor (stable surface), foam roll, and motorized rotating platform (MRP). Thirteen healthy male subjects participated in this study. Using electromyography, the abdominal muscle activity was measured while the subjects performed SLH exercises on floor (stable surface), foam roll, and MRP. There were significant differences in the abdominal muscle activities among conditions (P<.05), except for left EO (P>.05) (Fig. 2). After the Bonferroni correction, however, no significant differences among conditions remained, except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor and foam roll conditions (padj<0.017). The findings suggest that performing the SLH exercises on a foam roll and MRP is more effective increased activities of both side of RA and IO, and Rt. EO compared to floor condition. However, there were no significant differences in abdominal muscles activity in the multiple comparison between conditions (mean difference were smaller than the standard deviation in the abdominal muscle activities) (padj>0.017), except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor (stable surface) and foam roll (padj<0.017) (effect size: 0.79/0.62 (non-supporting/supporting leg) for foam-roll versus floor). PMID:25066516

  15. Myriocin prevents muscle ceramide accumulation but not muscle fiber atrophy during short-term mechanical unloading.

    PubMed

    Salaun, Erwann; Lefeuvre-Orfila, Luz; Cavey, Thibault; Martin, Brice; Turlin, Bruno; Ropert, Martine; Loreal, Olivier; Derbr, Frdric

    2016-01-15

    Bedridden patients in intensive care unit or after surgery intervention commonly develop skeletal muscle weakness. The latter is promoted by a variety of prolonged hospitalization-associated conditions. Muscle disuse is the most ubiquitous and contributes to rapid skeletal muscle atrophy and progressive functional strength reduction. Disuse causes a reduction in fatty acid oxidation, leading to its accumulation in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that muscle fatty acid accumulation could stimulate ceramide synthesis and promote skeletal muscle weakness. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the effects of sphingolipid metabolism on skeletal muscle atrophy induced by 7 days of disuse. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were treated with myriocin, an inhibitor of de novo synthesis of ceramides, and subjected to hindlimb unloading (HU) for 7 days. Soleus muscles were assayed for fiber diameter, ceramide levels, protein degradation, and apoptosis signaling. Serum and liver were removed to evaluate the potential hepatoxicity of myriocin treatment. We found that HU increases content of saturated C16:0 and C18:0 ceramides and decreases soleus muscle weight and fiber diameter. HU increased the level of polyubiquitinated proteins and induced apoptosis in skeletal muscle. Despite a prevention of C16:0 and C18:0 muscle accumulation, myriocin treatment did not prevent skeletal muscle atrophy and concomitant induction of apoptosis and proteolysis. Moreover, myriocin treatment increased serum transaminases and induced hepatocyte necrosis. These data highlight that inhibition of de novo synthesis of ceramides during immobilization is not an efficient strategy to prevent skeletal muscle atrophy and exerts adverse effects like hepatotoxicity. PMID:26542521

  16. Trunk muscle activity during stability ball and free weight exercises.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, James L; McCaulley, Grant O; Cormie, Prue; Cavill, Michael J; McBride, Jeffrey M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare trunk muscle activity during stability ball and free weight exercises. Nine resistance-trained men participated in one testing session in which squats (SQ) and deadlifts (DL) were completed with loads of approximately 50, 70, 90, and 100% of one-repetition maximum (1RM). Isometric contractions during 3 stability ball exercises (quadruped (QP), pelvic thrust (PT), ball back extension (BE)) were also completed. During all exercises, average integrated electromyography (IEMG) from the rectus abdominus (RA), external oblique (EO), longissimus (L1) and multifidus (L5) was collected and analyzed. Results demonstrate that when expressed relative to 100% DL 1RM, muscle activity was 19.5 +/- 14.8% for L1 and 30.2 +/- 19.3% for L5 during QP, 31.4 +/- 13.4% for L1 and 37.6 +/- 12.4% for L5 during PT, and 44.2 +/- 22.8% for L1 and 45.5 +/- 21.6% for L5 during BE. IEMG of L1 during SQ and DL at 90 and 100% 1RM, and relative muscle activity of L5 during SQ and DL at 100% 1RM was significantly greater (P < or = 0.05) than in the stability ball exercises. Furthermore, relative muscle activity of L1 during DL at 50 and 70% 1RM was significantly greater than in QP and PT. No significant differences were observed in RA and EO during any of the exercises. In conclusion, activity of the trunk muscles during SQs and DLs is greater or equal to that which is produced during the stability ball exercises. It appears that stability ball exercises may not provide a sufficient stimulus for increasing muscular strength or hypertrophy; consequently, the role of stability ball exercises in strength and conditioning programs is questioned. SQs and DLs are recommended for increasing strength and hypertrophy of the back extensors. PMID:18296961

  17. Walking at the preferred stride frequency minimizes muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Russell, Daniel M; Apatoczky, Dylan T

    2016-03-01

    This study determined whether walking at the preferred stride frequency minimizes muscle activity compared with other cadences at the same speed. Anthropometric measurements were recorded from 10 subjects and used to estimate their predicted resonant stride frequency. The preferred walking speed and stride frequency were determined from freely adopted walking on a treadmill. For the experimental trials the treadmill was set at each individual's preferred walking speed. Participants walked for 6min at eight cadences prescribed by an auditory metronome: preferred stride frequency and -35, -25, -15, 0, +15, +25, +35% of predicted resonant stride frequency. Oxygen consumption was measured via gas analysis. Muscle activity of the right leg gastrocnemius (GA), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles was recorded via electromyography (EMG). On average, participants preferred to walk with a stride frequency .07Hz lower than their predicted resonant stride frequency, however a strong positive correlation was observed between these variables. Stride frequency had a significant and large quadratic effect on VO2 (RLR(2)=.76), and activity of the GA (RLR(2)=.66), TA (RLR(2)=.83), BF (RLR(2)=.70) and RF (RLR(2)=.78) muscles. VO2, GA and TA activity were all minimal at the preferred stride frequency and increased for faster or slower cadences. BF and RF activity were minimal across a broad range of slow frequencies including the preferred stride frequency and increased for faster frequencies. The preferred stride frequency that humans readily adopt during walking minimizes the activation of the GA, TA, BF and RF muscles, which in turn minimizes the overall metabolic cost. PMID:26979903

  18. Lower Extremity Muscle Activity During a Women's Overhand Lacrosse Shot.

    PubMed

    Millard, Brianna M; Mercer, John A

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of this study was to describe lower extremity muscle activity during the lacrosse shot. Participants (n=5 females, age 222 years, body height 162.615.2 cm, body mass 63.723.6 kg) were free from injury and had at least one year of lacrosse experience. The lead leg was instrumented with electromyography (EMG) leads to measure muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (GA). Participants completed five trials of a warm-up speed shot (Slow) and a game speed shot (Fast). Video analysis was used to identify the discrete events defining specific movement phases. Full-wave rectified data were averaged per muscle per phase (Crank Back Minor, Crank Back Major, Stick Acceleration, Stick Deceleration). Average EMG per muscle was analyzed using a 4 (Phase) 2 (Speed) ANOVA. BF was greater during Fast vs. Slow for all phases (p<0.05), while TA was not influenced by either Phase or Speed (p>0.05). RF and GA were each influenced by the interaction of Phase and Speed (p<0.05) with GA being greater during Fast vs. Slow shots during all phases and RF greater during Crank Back Minor and Major as well as Stick Deceleration (p<0.05) but only tended to be greater during Stick Acceleration (p=0.076) for Fast vs. Slow. The greater muscle activity (BF, RF, GA) during Fast vs. Slow shots may have been related to a faster approach speed and/or need to create a stiff lower extremity to allow for faster upper extremity movements. PMID:25114727

  19. Muscle channelopathies.

    PubMed

    Statland, Jeffrey; Phillips, Lauren; Trivedi, Jaya R

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle channelopathies are rare heterogeneous diseases with marked genotypic and phenotypic variability. Despite advances in understanding of the molecular pathology of these disorders, the diverse phenotypic manifestations remain a challenge in diagnosis and therapeutics. These disorders can cause lifetime disability and affect quality of life. There is no treatment of these disorders approved by the US Food and Drug Administration at this time. Recognition and treatment of symptoms might reduce morbidity and improve quality of life. This article summarizes the clinical manifestations, diagnostic studies, pathophysiology, and treatment options in nondystrophic myotonia, congenital myasthenic syndrome, and periodic paralyses. PMID:25037091

  20. Muscle Uncoupling Protein 3 Expression Is Unchanged by Chronic Ephedrine/Caffeine Treatment: Results of a Double Blind, Randomised Clinical Trial in Morbidly Obese Females

    PubMed Central

    Bracale, Renata; Petroni, Maria Letizia; Davinelli, Sergio; Bracale, Umberto; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Carruba, Michele O.; Nisoli, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Ephedrine/caffeine combination (EC) has been shown to induce a small-to-moderate weight loss in obese patients. Several mechanisms have been proposed, among which an increased thermogenic capacity of skeletal muscle consequent to the EC-induced up-regulation of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) gene expression. We did a parallel group double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-week trial to investigate this hypothesis. Thirteen morbidly obese women (2552 years of age, body-mass index 48.04.0 kg/m2, range 41.157.6) were randomly assigned to EC (200/20 mg, n?=?6) or to placebo (n?=?7) administered three times a day orally, before undergoing bariatric surgery. All individuals had an energy-deficit diet equal to about 70% of resting metabolic rate (RMR) diet (mean 57691105 kJ/day). The RMR analysed by intention to treat and the UCP3 (long and short isoform) mRNA levels in rectus abdominis were the primary outcomes. Body weight, plasma levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, triglycerides, free fatty acids, glycerol, TSH, fT4, and fT3 were assessed, as well as fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA index, at baseline and at the end of treatments. Body weight loss was evident in both groups when compared to baseline values (overall ?5.23.2%, p<0.0001) without significant differences between the treated groups. EC treatment increased the RMR (+9.26.8%, p?=?0.020), differently from placebo which was linked to a reduction of RMR (?7.66.5%, p?=?0.029). No significant differences were seen in other metabolic parameters. Notably, no changes of either UCP3 short or UCP3 long isoform mRNA levels were evident between EC and placebo group. Our study provides evidence that 4-week EC administration resulted in a pronounced thermogenic effect not related to muscle UCP3 gene expression and weight loss in morbidly obese females under controlled conditions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02048215 PMID:24905629

  1. Ultrastructural abnormalities of muscle spindles in the rat masseter muscle with malocclusion-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Bani, D; Bergamini, M

    2002-01-01

    Human temporomandibular disorders due to disturbed occlusal mechanics are characterized by sensory, motor and autonomic symptoms, possibly related to muscle overwork and fatigue. Our previous study in rats with experimentally-induced malocclusion due to unilateral molar cusp amputation showed that the ipsilateral masseter muscles undergo morphological and biochemical changes consistent with muscle hypercontraction and ischemia. In the present study, the masseter muscle spindles of the same malocclusion-bearing rats were examined by electron microscopy. Sham-operated rats were used as controls. In the treated rats, clear-cut alterations of the muscle spindles were observed 26 days after surgery, when the extrafusal muscle showed the more severe damage. The fusal alterations affected predominantly capsular cells, intrafusal muscle fibers and sensory nerve endings. These results suggest that in the malocclusion-bearing rats, an abnormal reflex regulation of the motor activity of the masticatory muscles may take place. They also allow us to hypothesize that muscle spindle alterations might be involved in the pathogenesis of human temporomandibular disorders. PMID:11813885

  2. Independent Passive Mechanical Behavior of Bovine Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, while all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. We sought evidence of potential independent action by examining passive mechanical coupling between EOM compartments. Methods. Putative compartments of each of the six whole bovine anatomical EOMs were separately clamped to a physiologically controlled, dual channel microtensile load cell (5-mN force resolution) driven by independent, high-speed, linear motors having 20-nm position resolution. One channel at a time was extended or retracted by 3 to 5 mm, with the other channel stationary. Fiducials distributed on the EOM global surface enabled optical tracking of local deformation. Loading rates of 5 to 100 mm/sec were applied to explore speeds from slow vergence to saccades. Control loadings employed transversely loaded EOM and isotropic latex. Results. All EOM bellies and tendons exhibited substantial compartmental independence when loaded in the physiologic direction, both between OL and GL, and for arbitrary transverse parsings of EOM width ranging from 60%:40% to 80%:20%. Intercompartmental force coupling in the physiologic direction was less than or equal to 10% in all six EOMS even for saccadic loading rates. Coupling was much higher for nonphysiologic transverse EOM loading and isotropic latex. Optical tracking demonstrated independent strain distribution between EOM compartments. Conclusions. Substantial mechanical independence exists among physiologically loaded fiber bundles in bovine EOMs and tendons, providing biomechanical support for the proposal that differential compartmental function in horizontal rectus EOMs contributes to novel torsional and vertical actions. PMID:23188730

  3. A novel method for teaching key steps of strabismus surgery in the wet lab.

    PubMed

    White, Cassandra A; Wrzosek, James A; Chesnutt, David A; Enyedi, Laura B; Cabrera, Michelle T

    2015-10-01

    The surgical laboratory environment plays an important role in modern surgical education. Learning how to complete the key steps of strabismus surgery prior to actual surgery may enhance efficiency and sensitize the surgeon to potential complications. Cadaveric extraocular muscle is difficult to manipulate and specimens are not readily available; therefore, an alternative is needed to teach strabismus surgery techniques. We developed a wet lab to practice the key steps of strabismus surgery using commercially available bacon as an extraocular muscle substitute and cadaveric pig eyes for conjunctival and scleral tissue in a framework of peer teaching, expert supervision, and validated written feedback. PMID:26486033

  4. Assessment of the activation patterns of the muscles involved in the FR test in diabetic neuropathic patients.

    PubMed

    Maranesi, E; Di Nardo, F; Ghetti, G G; Mercante, O; Rabini, R A; Burattini, L; Fioretti, S

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to assess, in elderly neuropathic diabetic (DN) patients, the activation patterns of the main muscles involved in the Functional Reach (FR) Test, a well-recognized method to identify elderly subjects at risk of recurrent falls. Surface electromyographic (sEMG) analysis of Sternocleidomastoideus (Scm), Rectus Abdominis (RAbd), Erectores Spinae at L4 level (L4), Rectus Femoris (RF), Hamstrings (Ham), Tibialis Anterior (TA) and Soleus (Sol) was performed to this aim. Results in DN patients are compared with a control group (CH) of healthy age-matched subjects. In DN patients, TA is identified as the first muscle to be recruited (ON at -34% of the FR-period) before the movement start, in order to initiate the body forward displacement. RF is the first muscle to be recruited after TA and, togheter with RAbd, showed a progressive earlier onset from CH group. Sol and Ham (ON after the FR-start), followed by L4, act mainly as tonic muscles, opposing the movement and preventing falls. Compared to the CH group, the DN subjects show an anticipatory recruitment (-34%6%) of TA, showing a statistically significant difference (p<;0.05) in comparison to CH group, together with the Scm activation. Results suggest a trend of DN patients in anticipating the activation of the anterior muscles of the body. This is likely due to an attempt to compensate the neuropathy-related proprioception dysfunction and to adjust the movement timing. In conclusion, the present study shows that sEMG is a suitable tool to deepen the interpretation of the FR-test execution and proposes the earlier start of TA as a possible element to identify the presence of neuropathy in diabetic subjects. PMID:26737674

  5. Activation of human respiratory muscles during different voluntary manoeuvres.

    PubMed Central

    Gandevia, S C; McKenzie, D K; Plassman, B L

    1990-01-01

    1. This study used three techniques (bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation, motor cortex stimulation and quantitative electromyography) to assess the degree of activation of the diaphragm, intercostal-accessory muscles and abdominal muscles during postural tasks and respiratory manoeuvres. They included maximal inspiratory and expulsive efforts. 2. Bilateral phrenic nerve stimuli at supramaximal levels produced an average change in transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) of 28 cmH2O during relaxation. During maximal inspiratory or expulsive efforts, all subjects were able to activate the diaphragm fully at functional residual capacity as judged by the failure of stimuli delivered during the voluntary efforts to increase Pdi. Peak voluntary Pdi was about 30% less for inspiratory than expulsive manoeuvres. 3. By contrast, transcranial activation of motor cortical output to the diaphragm and abdominal muscles produced an increment in abdominal pressure of 25 +/- 7 cmH2O during maximal voluntary expulsive efforts. Given the lack of response to phrenic nerve stimulation at similar voluntary pressures, this suggests that abdominal muscles, and not the diaphragm, fail to generate their full contractile force during maximal voluntary expulsive manoeuvres. 4. Motor cortical stimulation during weak inspiratory efforts produced a small reduction in oesophageal pressure (i.e. increase in net inspiratory force) of 7-14 cmH2O. This response could not be extinguished during maximal voluntary inspiratory efforts in two of three subjects. This occurred despite the cortical co-activation of 'antagonist' muscles in the chest wall and abdomen, and passive transmission of pressure from the abdominal to thoracic compartments. 5. Integrated electromyographic activity (EMG) recorded from abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique) was greater during trunk flexion than during maximal expulsive efforts. Similarly, integrated EMG of the intercostal-accessory muscles (sternomastoid, scalenes, parasternal intercostals) was greater during tasks requiring head and/or neck flexion than during the maximal inspiratory efforts. 6. These data show that the diaphragm can be fully activated by the central nervous system during voluntary respiratory tasks but that other agonist 'respiratory' muscles need not be activated fully. Given the complex actions of 'inseries' respiratory muscles revealed here, it is argued that differences in the transdiaphragmatic pressure during various postural and respiratory tasks do not necessarily imply variation in the level of diaphragmatic neural drive. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2231418

  6. Muscle function loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... positions often and take care of your skin. Range-of-motion exercises may help to maintain some muscle tone. Splints may help prevent muscle contractures , a condition in which a muscle becomes permanently shortened.

  7. Extraocular muscle function testing

    MedlinePLUS

    Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. A health care provider observes the movement of ... evaluate weakness or other problem in the extraocular muscles. These problems may result in double vision or ...

  8. The effects of aquatic trunk exercise on gait and muscle activity in stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activity and gait function following aquatic trunk exercise in hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study’s participants included thirteen hemiplegic patients (ten males and three females). The aquatic therapy consisted of administering concentrative aquatic therapy for four weeks in a therapeutic pool. Gait parameters were measured using a gait analysis system adjusted to each subject’s comfortable walking speed. Electromyographic signals were measured for the rectus abdominis, external abdominal oblique, transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique, and erector spine of each patients. [Results] The pre- and post-training performances of the transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique were compared statistically. There was no statistical difference between the patients’ pre- and post-training values of maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the rectus abdominis, but the external abdominal oblique values tended to improve. Furthermore, gait factors improved significantly in terms of walking speeds, walking cycles, affected-side stance phases, affected-stride lengths, and stance-phase symmetry indices, respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the trunk exercise during aquatic therapy may in part contribute to clinically relevant improvements in muscle activities and gait parameters. PMID:26696736

  9. The effects of aquatic trunk exercise on gait and muscle activity in stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activity and gait function following aquatic trunk exercise in hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study's participants included thirteen hemiplegic patients (ten males and three females). The aquatic therapy consisted of administering concentrative aquatic therapy for four weeks in a therapeutic pool. Gait parameters were measured using a gait analysis system adjusted to each subject's comfortable walking speed. Electromyographic signals were measured for the rectus abdominis, external abdominal oblique, transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique, and erector spine of each patients. [Results] The pre- and post-training performances of the transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique were compared statistically. There was no statistical difference between the patients' pre- and post-training values of maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the rectus abdominis, but the external abdominal oblique values tended to improve. Furthermore, gait factors improved significantly in terms of walking speeds, walking cycles, affected-side stance phases, affected-stride lengths, and stance-phase symmetry indices, respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the trunk exercise during aquatic therapy may in part contribute to clinically relevant improvements in muscle activities and gait parameters. PMID:26696736

  10. The influence of different footwear on 3-D kinematics and muscle activation during the barbell back squat in males.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; McCarthy, Derek; Bentley, Ian; Hurst, Howard Thomas; Atkins, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The barbell back squat is commonly used by athletes participating in resistance training. The barbell squat is typically performed using standard athletic shoes, or specially designed weightlifting footwear, although there are now a large number of athletes who prefer to squat barefoot or in barefoot-inspired footwear. This study aimed to determine how these footwear influence 3-D kinematics and muscle activation potentials during the barbell back squat. Fourteen experienced male participants completed squats at 70% 1 rep max in each footwear condition. 3-D kinematics from the torso, hip, knee and ankle were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system. In addition, electromyographical (EMG) measurements were obtained from the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, erector spinae and biceps femoris muscles. EMG parameters and joint kinematics were compared between footwear using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Participants were also asked to subjectively rate which footwear they preferred when performing their squat lifts; this was examined a chi-squared test. The kinematic analysis indicated that, in comparison to barefoot the running shoe was associated with increased squat depth, knee flexion and rectus femoris activation. The chi-squared test was significant and showed that participants preferred to squat barefoot. This study supports anecdotal evidence of athletes who prefer to train barefoot or in barefoot-inspired footwear although no biomechanical evidence was found to support this notion. PMID:25331484

  11. Effects of combined exercise on changes of lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaehyun; Lee, Joongsook; Yang, Jeongok; Lee, Bomjin; Han, Dongwook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of combined exercise for a period of 12 weeks on the changes in lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 22 elderly women who were 65 years of age or older and living in B-City. The subjects had no nervous system or muscular system diseases that might affect walking in the previous two years. [Methods] Muscle activation was measured by using surface EMG (QEMG-8, Laxtha, Daejeon, Republic of Korea). The subjects were asked to walk on an 8 m of footpath at a natural speed. In order to minimize the noise from the cable connecting the EMG measuring instrument to the electrodes, tape was used to affix the electrodes so that they would not fall off the subjects. The EMG data were analyzed by using the RMS. [Results] Muscle activation of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius was increased significantly after combined exercise for 12 weeks. However, no increase was observed in the left biceps femoris. [Conclusion] It was demonstrated that our exercise program, which includes aerobic walking exercises, senior-robics, and muscle strengthening exercises using elastic bands, is very effective for reorganizing the normal gait pattern in the cerebral cortex and improving muscle strength. PMID:26157253

  12. Interface Stability Influences Torso Muscle Recruitment and Spinal Load During Pushing Tasks

    PubMed Central

    LEE, P. J.; GRANATA, K. P.

    2006-01-01

    Handle or interface design can influence torso muscle recruitment and spinal load during pushing tasks. The objective of the study was to provide insight into the role of interface stability with regard to torso muscle recruitment and biomechanical loads on the spine. Fourteen subjects generated voluntary isometric trunk flexion force against a rigid interface and similar flexion exertions against an unstable interface, which simulated handle design in a cart pushing task. Normalized electromyographic (EMG) activity in the rectus abdominus, external oblique and internal oblique muscles increased with exertion effort. When using the unstable interface, EMG activity in the internal and external oblique muscle groups was greater than when using the rigid interface. Results agreed with trends from a biomechanical model implemented to predict the muscle activation necessary to generate isometric pushing forces and maintain spinal stability when using the two different interface designs. The co-contraction contributed to increased spinal load when using the unstable interface. It was concluded that handle or interface design and stability may influence spinal load and associated risk of musculoskeletal injury during manual materials tasks that involve pushing exertions. PMID:16540437

  13. Changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) eigenvalues of skeletal muscle due to hybrid exercise training.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Kemp, Graham J; Isobe, Tomonori; Sato, Eisuke; Hirano, Yuji; Shoda, Junichi; Minami, Manabu

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have proposed the cell membrane as the main water diffusion restricting factor in the skeletal muscle cell. We sought to establish whether a particular form of exercise training (which is likely to affect only intracellular components) could affect water diffusion. The purpose of this study is to characterise prospectively the changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) eigenvalues of thigh muscle resulting from hybrid training (HYBT) in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Twenty-one NAFLD patients underwent HYBT for 30 minutes per day, twice a week for 6 months. Patients were scanned using DTI of the thigh pre- and post-HYBT. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), the three eigenvalues lambda 1 (?1), ?2, ?3, and the maximal cross sectional area (CSA) were measured in bilateral thigh muscles: knee flexors (biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), semimembranous (SM)) and knee extensors (medial vastus (MV), intermediate vastus (IV), lateral vastus (LV), and rectus femoris (RF)), and compared pre- and post-HYBT by paired t-test. Muscle strength of extensors (P<0.01), but not flexors, increased significantly post-HYBT. For FA, ADC and eigenvalues, the overall picture was of increase. Some (P<0.05 in ?2 and P<0.01 in ?1) eigenvalues of flexors and all (?1-?3) eigenvalues of extensors increased significantly (P<0.01) post-HYBT. HYBT increased all 3 eigenvalues. We suggest this might be caused by enlargement of muscle intracellular space. PMID:25086331

  14. Effect of instability training equipment on lower limb kinematics and muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Pfusterschmied, J; Lindinger, S; Buchecker, M; Stggl, T; Wagner, H; Mller, E

    2013-03-01

    To improve the effectiveness of training or therapy, it is important to know the benefits for each type of instability training equipment. The aim of this study was to show differences in lower limb kinematics and muscle activation during single leg standing on a slackline (SL) compared to a multi-functional rocker board (MD) and an air cushion (AC). In 14 subjects, mean angular velocity of the hip, knee and ankle, as well as the muscle activity (iEMG) from six lower limb muscles were recorded during 12 s of single leg standing task. Ankle in-/eversion and knee ab-/adduction angular velocity were highest for SL followed by MD and AC (all p < 0.05), as well as in the hip flex-/extension angular velocity with higher values for SL compared with AC (p < 0.01). Regarding iEMG, the rectus femoris muscle showed higher values for SL compared with MD (p < 0.05) and AC (p < 0.01). iEMG of biceps femoris muscle demonstrated higher values for MD compared to AC (p < 0.05), but with no difference to SL. Balancing on a SL is a more challenging exercise for the postural control system compared to MD and AC, and affects the knee and hip joint motion in particular. PMID:23404457

  15. An oblique muscle hematoma as a rare cause of severe abdominal pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Abdominal wall hematomas are an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain and are often misdiagnosed. They are more common in elderly individuals, particularly in those under anticoagulant therapy. Most abdominal wall hematomas occur in the rectus sheath, and hematomas within the oblique muscle are very rare and are poorly described in the literature. Here we report the case of an oblique muscle hematoma in a middle-aged patient who was not under anticoagulant therapy. Case presentation A 42-year-old Japanese man presented with a painful, enlarging, lateral abdominal wall mass, which appeared after playing baseball. Abdominal computed tomography and ultrasonography showed a large soft tissue mass located in the patients left internal oblique muscle. A diagnosis of a lateral oblique muscle hematoma was made and the patient was treated conservatively. Conclusion Physicians should consider an oblique muscle hematoma during the initial differential diagnosis of pain in the lateral abdominal wall even in the absence of anticoagulant therapy or trauma. PMID:23327472

  16. Perfusion-decellularized skeletal muscle as a three-dimensional scaffold with a vascular network template.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Zhi Qian; Turner, Neill J; Teng, Shi Feng; Cheng, Wen Yue; Zhou, Hai Yang; Zhang, Li; Hu, Hong Wei; Wang, Qiang; Badylak, Stephen F

    2016-05-01

    There exists a great need for repair grafts with similar volume to human skeletal muscle that can promote the innate ability of muscle to regenerate following volumetric muscle loss. Perfusion decellularization is an attractive technique for extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold from intact mammalian organ or tissue which has been successfully used in tissue reconstruction. The perfusion-decellularization of skeletal muscle has been poorly assessed and characterized, but the bioactivity and functional capacity of the obtained perfusion skeletal muscle ECM (pM-ECM) to remodel in vivo is unknown. In the present study, pM-ECM was prepared from porcine rectus abdominis (RA). Perfusion-decellularization of porcine RA effectively removed cellular and nuclear material while retaining the intricate three-dimensional microarchitecture and vasculature networks of the native RA, and many of the bioactive ECM components and mechanical properties. In vivo, partial-thickness abdominal wall defects in rats repaired with pM-ECM showed improved neovascularization, myogenesis and functional recellularization compared to porcine-derived small intestinal submucosa (SIS). These findings show the biologic potential of RA pM-ECM as a scaffold for supporting site appropriate, tissue reconstruction, and provide a better understanding of the importance maintaining the tissue-specific complex three-dimensional architecture of ECM during decellularization and regeneration. PMID:26963901

  17. Maintenance of skeletal muscle energy homeostasis during prolonged wintertime fasting in the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Sanni; Mnttri, Satu; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Saarela, Seppo

    2015-05-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid species with autumnal fattening and prolonged wintertime fasting. Nonpathological body weight cycling and the ability to tolerate food deficiency make this species a unique subject for studying physiological mechanisms in energy metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor regulating energy homeostasis. During acute fasting, AMPK promotes fatty acid oxidation and enhances glucose uptake. We evaluated the effects of prolonged fasting on muscle energy metabolism in farm-bred raccoon dogs. Total and phosphorylated AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4), insulin receptor and protein kinase B (Akt) protein expressions of hind limb muscles were determined by Western blot after 10 weeks of fasting. Plasma insulin, leptin, ghrelin, glucose and free fatty acid levels were measured, and muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition analyzed. Fasting had no effects on AMPK phosphorylation, but total AMPK expression decreased in m. rectus femoris, m. tibialis anterior and m. extensor digitorum longus resulting in a higher phosphorylation ratio. Decreased total expression was also observed for ACC. Fasting did not influence GLUT 4, insulin receptor or Akt expression, but Akt phosphorylation was lower in m. flexor digitorum superficialis and m. extensor digitorum longus. Three MHC isoforms (I, IIa and IIx) were detected without differences in composition between the fasted and control animals. The studied muscles were resistant to prolonged fasting indicating that raccoon dogs have an effective molecular regulatory system for preserving skeletal muscle function during wintertime immobility and fasting. PMID:25652584

  18. The role of orthopaedic surgery in sports medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgery must play a significant role in the development of sports medicine as a viable academic discipline. Potential areas in which orthopaedic surgery can specifically contribute to such an evolution are discussed. Particular areas include skeletal development, the role of athletics on skeletal growth and trauma response, the mechanics of specific sports and the predisposition of specific sports to certain injury patterns, the role of muscle physiology and muscle stimulation in rehabilitation, and differing responses of the male and female skeletal system. Each of these areas is discussed in detail. PMID:7445534

  19. Effects of replacing free weights with elastic band resistance in squats on trunk muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Saeterbakken, Atle H; Andersen, Vidar; Kolnes, Maria K; Fimland, Marius S

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of adding elastic bands to free-weight squats on the neuromuscular activation of core muscles. Twenty-five resistance trained women with 4.6 ± 2.1 years of resistance training experience participated in the study. In randomized order, the participants performed 6 repetition maximum in free-weight squats, with and without elastic bands (i.e., matched relative intensity between exercises). During free-weight squats with elastic bands, some of the free weights were replaced with 2 elastic bands attached to the lowest part of the squat rack. Surface electromyography (EMG) activity was measured from the erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis, whereas a linear encoder measured the vertical displacement. The EMG activities were compared between the 2 lifting modalities for the whole repetition and separately for the eccentric, concentric, and upper and lower eccentric and concentric phases. In the upper (greatest stretch of the elastic band), middle, and lower positions in squats with elastic bands, the resistance values were approximately 117, 105, and 93% of the free weight-only trial. Similar EMG activities were observed for the 2 lifting modalities for the erector spinae (p = 0.112-0.782), external oblique (p = 0.225-0.977), and rectus abdominis (p = 0.315-0.729) in all analyzed phases. In conclusion, there were no effects on the muscle activity of trunk muscles of substituting some resistance from free weights with elastic bands in the free-weight squat. PMID:24832981

  20. Localization of motoneurons innervating the extraocular muscles in Salamandra salamandra L. (Amphibia, Urodela).

    PubMed

    Naujoks-Manteuffel, C; Manteuffel, G; Himstedt, W

    1986-12-01

    The central innervation patterns of the extraocular muscles were investigated in the European fire salamander Salamandra salamandra L. by means of the horseradish peroxidase method. The ipsilateral portion of the nucleus nervi oculomotorii, which is located in the rostral ventral tegmentum mesencephali, supplies the musculi recti inferior and medialis and the musculus obliquus inferior without a clear somatotopic representation of the motoneurons. The musculus rectus superior is innervated mainly by a contralateral portion of this nucleus. A definite nucleus Edinger-Westphal could not be recognized. The nucleus nervi trochlearis, which rostrally joins the nucleus nervi oculomotorii with a gap of only about 40 micron between the nuclei, is situated completely contralateral to the musculus obliquus superior supplied by it. The nucleus nervi abducentis, innervating the musculus rectus lateralis, and the nucleus accessorius nervi abducentis, supplying the musculus retractor bulbi, are found in the ipsilateral medulla oblongata and exhibit a large rostrocaudal extension from the eighth cranial nerve to the first root of the vagus nerve. Dendrites of the nucleus nervi oculumotorii and of the nucleus accessorius nervi abducentis extend into neuropil areas receiving primary sensory afferents. PMID:3805351

  1. [EARLY AMBULATION AFTER SURGERY AND PERIOPERATIVE REHABILITATION].

    PubMed

    Kato, Takashi; Miyata, Go; Kamei, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Early ambulation following a surgical procedure is a central concept in fast-track surgery according to Enhanced Recovery after Surgery protocols. Although a shorter hospital stay is reported to be a benefit of perioperative rehabilitation, its effect on patient metabolism has not been fully explored. Thirty-eight patients who had undergone esophagectomy, a highly stressful surgery, received intensive rehabilitation (group R) with regular evaluation of their metabolic parameters compared with 41 control group patients (group C) who received conventional care without such rehabilitation. Nitrogen balances calculated daily were significantly higher in group R on the third postoperative day. Fluid retention after surgery improved earlier in group R than in group C. Liver dysfunction occurred 1 week after surgery in group C but was avoided in group R. Total lymphocyte counts decreased after surgery in both groups, but their recovery was observed earlier in group R. Early mobility after esophagectomy is thought to avoid disuse atrophy of skeletal muscles in postsurgical patients. Fluid retention and immune dysfunction are also improved through perioperative rehabilitation. The biological mechanisms underlying the benefits of rehabilitation should be further elucidated for its clinical application in all surgical care pathways. PMID:26422889

  2. Physically-based Modeling and Simulation of Extraocular Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qi; Sueda, Shinjiro; Pai, Dinesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic simulation of human eye movements, with realistic physical models of extraocular muscles (EOMs), may greatly advance our understanding of the complexities of the oculomotor system and aid in treatment of visuomotor disorders. In this paper we describe the first three dimensional (3D) biomechanical model which can simulate the dynamics of ocular motility at interactive rates. We represent EOMs using strands, which are physical primitives that can model an EOM's complex nonlinear anatomical and physiological properties. Contact between the EOMs, the globe, and orbital structures can be explicitly modeled. Several studies were performed to assess the validity and utility of the model. EOM deformation during smooth pursuit was simulated and compared with published experimental data; the model reproduces qualitative features of the observed non-uniformity. The model is able to reproduce realistic saccadic trajectories when the lateral rectus muscle was driven by published measurements of abducens neuron discharge. Finally, acute superior oblique palsy, a pathological condition, was simulated to further evaluate the system behavior; the predicted deviation patterns agree qualitatively with experimental observations. This example also demonstrates potential clinical applications of such a model. PMID:20868704

  3. Patterns of muscle coordination during stepping responses post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Gray, V L; Pollock, C L; Wakeling, J M; Ivanova, T D; Garland, S J

    2015-12-01

    This study compared self-induced stepping reactions of seventeen participants after stroke and seventeen controls. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded bilaterally from the soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the data into muscle activation patterns and examine group differences (paretic, non-paretic, control leg). The first principal component (PC1) explained 46.7% of the EMG signal of the stepping leg. Two PCs revealed distinct activation features for the stepping paretic leg: earlier TA onset at step initiation and earlier BF and SOL onset at mid-step. For the stance leg, PC1 explained 44.4% of the EMG signal and significant differences were found in the non-paretic leg compared to paretic (p < 0.001) and control (p < 0.001). In PC1, at step onset the BF and SOL EMG and the RF and TA EMG were increased over the latter half of the step. No PC loadings were distinct for the paretic leg during stance, however differences were found in the non-paretic leg: earlier TA burst and increased BF and SOL EMG at step initiation. The results suggest impairments in the paretic leg when stepping and compensatory strategies in the non-paretic stance leg. PMID:26475243

  4. A comparison of optimisation methods and knee joint degrees of freedom on muscle force predictions during single-leg hop landings.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarzadeh, Hossein; Perraton, Luke; Fok, Laurence; Muñoz, Mario A; Clark, Ross; Pivonka, Peter; Bryant, Adam L

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this paper was to compare the effect of different optimisation methods and different knee joint degrees of freedom (DOF) on muscle force predictions during a single legged hop. Nineteen subjects performed single-legged hopping manoeuvres and subject-specific musculoskeletal models were developed to predict muscle forces during the movement. Muscle forces were predicted using static optimisation (SO) and computed muscle control (CMC) methods using either 1 or 3 DOF knee joint models. All sagittal and transverse plane joint angles calculated using inverse kinematics or CMC in a 1 DOF or 3 DOF knee were well-matched (RMS error<3°). Biarticular muscles (hamstrings, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius) showed more differences in muscle force profiles when comparing between the different muscle prediction approaches where these muscles showed larger time delays for many of the comparisons. The muscle force magnitudes of vasti, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius were not greatly influenced by the choice of muscle force prediction method with low normalised root mean squared errors (<48%) observed in most comparisons. We conclude that SO and CMC can be used to predict lower-limb muscle co-contraction during hopping movements. However, care must be taken in interpreting the magnitude of force predicted in the biarticular muscles and the soleus, especially when using a 1 DOF knee. Despite this limitation, given that SO is a more robust and computationally efficient method for predicting muscle forces than CMC, we suggest that SO can be used in conjunction with musculoskeletal models that have a 1 or 3 DOF knee joint to study the relative differences and the role of muscles during hopping activities in future studies. PMID:25129166

  5. Skeletal Muscle Phospholipid Metabolism Regulates Insulin Sensitivity and Contractile Function.

    PubMed

    Funai, Katsuhiko; Lodhi, Irfan J; Spears, Larry D; Yin, Li; Song, Haowei; Klein, Samuel; Semenkovich, Clay F

    2016-02-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is an early defect in the development of type 2 diabetes. Lipid overload induces insulin resistance in muscle and alters the composition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). To test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle phospholipid metabolism regulates systemic glucose metabolism, we perturbed choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase 1 (CEPT1), the terminal enzyme in the Kennedy pathway of phospholipid synthesis. In C2C12 cells, CEPT1 knockdown altered SR phospholipid composition and calcium flux. In mice, diet-induced obesity, which decreases insulin sensitivity, increased muscle CEPT1 expression. In high-fat diet-fed mice with skeletal muscle-specific knockout of CEPT1, systemic and muscle-based approaches demonstrated increased muscle insulin sensitivity. In CEPT1-deficient muscles, an altered SR phospholipid milieu decreased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase-dependent calcium uptake, activating calcium-signaling pathways known to improve insulin sensitivity. Altered muscle SR calcium handling also rendered these mice exercise intolerant. In obese humans, surgery-induced weight loss increased insulin sensitivity and decreased skeletal muscle CEPT1 protein. In obese humans spanning a spectrum of metabolic health, muscle CEPT1 mRNA was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity. These results suggest that high-fat feeding and obesity induce CEPT1, which remodels the SR to preserve contractile function at the expense of insulin sensitivity. PMID:26512026

  6. Imaging in gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Liselotte; Sammur, Wael; Alkatout, Ibrahim; Schollmeyer, Thoralf

    2011-03-01

    The technical development of instruments for endoscopic surgery started in the field of gynecology. In the early 1970s, with the improvement of optics and instruments for laparoscopic surgery, gyne-endoscopic surgery developed and set milestones for all other surgical fields. However, the general surgeons propagated the advantages of 2D or 3D imaging surgery much better than the conservative gynecologists. Surgery on a 2D screen without direct vision is regarded as more advantageous than open surgery and has achieved wide acceptance. Several schools of gynecologic endoscopy in Europe (in Kiel, Giessen, Clermont Ferrand and Strasbourg) have set guidelines for gyne-endoscopic surgery. Our catalog of indications in the areas of gyne-endoscopic surgery, published in 2002, reveals the broad application of these techniques today. 3D vision, robotic instruments and systems, such as the da Vinci() Surgical System from Intuitive Surgical, Inc. (CA, USA), round up the picture of endoscopic surgery. The advantages of endoscopic surgery over open surgery (more precision, less trauma, less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays and a faster recovery period) are becoming more accepted. The present healthcare systems and hospital administrations understand the challenges of imaging in surgery, particularly in endoscopic surgery. PMID:21410349

  7. Architectural Analysis of Human Abdominal Wall Muscles: Implications for Mechanical Function

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen H. M.; Ward, Samuel R.; Cook, Mark S.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Cadaveric analysis of human abdominal muscle architecture. Objective To quantify the architectural properties of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO) and transverse abdominis (TrA), and model mechanical function in light of these new data. Summary of Background Data Knowledge of muscle architecture provides the structural basis for predicting muscle function. Abdominal muscles greatly affect spine loading, stability, injury prevention and rehabilitation; however, their architectural properties are unknown. Methods Abdominal muscles from eleven elderly human cadavers were removed intact, separated into regions and micro-dissected for quantification of physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), fascicle length and sarcomere length. From these data, sarcomere operating length ranges were calculated. Results IO had the largest PCSA and RA the smallest, and would thus generate the largest and smallest isometric forces, respectively. RA had the longest fascicle length, followed by EO, and would thus be capable of generating force over the widest range of lengths. Measured sarcomere lengths, in the post-mortem neutral spine posture, were significantly longer in RA and EO (3.290.07 and 3.180.11 ?m) compared to IO and TrA (2.610.06 and 2.580.05 ?m) (p < 0.0001). Biomechanical modeling predicted that RA, EO and TrA act at optimal force-generating length in the mid-range of lumbar spine flexion, where IO can generate approximately 90% of its maximum force. Conclusions These data provide clinically relevant insights into the ability of the abdominal wall muscles to generate force and change length throughout the lumbar spine range of motion. This will impact the understanding of potential postures in which the force-generating and spine stabilizing ability of these muscles become compromised, which can guide exercise/rehabilitation development and prescription. Future work should explore the mechanical interactions among these muscles and their relationship to spine health and function. PMID:21325932

  8. Chronic muscle stimulation increases lactate transport in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, K J; Juel, C; O'Brien, M; Bonen, A

    1996-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chronic low frequency stimulation on the lactate transport across the plasma membrane of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of the rat. Stimulating electrodes were implanted on either side of the peroneal nerve in one hindlimb. Chronic stimulation (10 Hz, 50 microsecond bursts, 24h/day) commenced 7 days after surgery, and were continued for 7 days. Animals were then left for 24 h, and thereafter muscles were obtained. Cytochrome C-oxidase activity was increased 1.9-fold in the stimulated TA compared to the control TA (p < 0.05). Lactate transport (zero-trans) was measured in giant sarcolemmal vesicles obtained from the chronically stimulated TA and the control TA. At each of the concentrations used in these studies a significant increase in lactate transport was observed; 2.8-fold increase at 1 mM lactate p < 0.05); 2-fold increases at both 30 mM and 50 mM lactate p < 0.05). These studies have shown that lactate transport capacity is markedly increased in response to chronic muscle contraction. PMID:8709976

  9. Modification of surgery equipment for ovine surgery.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, W D

    1994-01-01

    Surgery equipment was modified for ovine surgery. Pre- and postoperative holding pens were designed to meet the specific requirements of sheep. A hydraulic trolley lift was constructed and operating tables fitted with spilltrays. A gag was made to protect Magill tubing and the indifferent electrode was altered for electrosurgery. For fluoroscopy a flexible table was constructed to accommodate sheep. PMID:8049178

  10. The use of biomaterials for chest wall reconstruction 30 years after radical surgery and radiation.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Gaetano; Mori, Stefano; Fazioli, Flavio; La Rocca, Antonello; Martucci, Nicola; Setola, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    The combination of titanium plates and acellular collagen matrix was used to restore anterior chest wall integrity in a 68-year-old woman more than 30 years after a Halsted mastectomy and radiation treatment. A vertical rectus abdominis muscle flap was used for myocutaneous coverage of the reconstructed chest wall. Partial necrosis of the flap caused prolonged exposure of the collagen matrix and the titanium plates, which were then covered with a free skin graft. Long-term results were satisfactory despite continued infection treated with vacuum-assisted closure and surgical debridement. Recently introduced materials for chest wall reconstruction may offer resilience to infection, tolerability, and stability, and their use may be contemplated when the potential for local morbidity is high. PMID:23006719

  11. Comparison of toe grip strength and muscle activities during maximal toe grip strength exertion according to the presence/absence of an ankle immobilization belt.

    PubMed

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare toe grip strength and muscle activity during toe grip strength exertion according to the presence/absence of an ankle immobilization belt and to examine the relationship between the differences in muscle activity and toe grip strength. [Subjects] The Subjects were 13 healthy young women. [Methods] We measured toe grip strength and muscle activity during toe grip strength exertion in the presence and absence of an ankle immobilization belt using electromyography. Activity in the following leg muscles was recorded: rectus femoris, biceps femoris, medial head of the gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior. We then calculated the percent integrated electromyography during toe gripping. [Results] Toe grip strength and percent integrated electromyography of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle were significantly higher with ankle belt immobilization compared with without ankle belt immobilization. In addition, in the presence of ankle belt immobilization, the percent integrated electromyography of the tibialis anterior muscle and medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle demonstrated a positive correlation with toe grip strength (r = 0.75 and r = 0.65, respectively). [Conclusion] These findings suggest that greater toe grip strength could be exerted in the presence of ankle belt immobilization. The measured values reflect the percent integrated electromyography of the crural muscles. Therefore, it was shown that toe grip strength should be measured in the presence of an immobilization belt. PMID:26644648

  12. Comparison of toe grip strength and muscle activities during maximal toe grip strength exertion according to the presence/absence of an ankle immobilization belt

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare toe grip strength and muscle activity during toe grip strength exertion according to the presence/absence of an ankle immobilization belt and to examine the relationship between the differences in muscle activity and toe grip strength. [Subjects] The Subjects were 13 healthy young women. [Methods] We measured toe grip strength and muscle activity during toe grip strength exertion in the presence and absence of an ankle immobilization belt using electromyography. Activity in the following leg muscles was recorded: rectus femoris, biceps femoris, medial head of the gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior. We then calculated the percent integrated electromyography during toe gripping. [Results] Toe grip strength and percent integrated electromyography of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle were significantly higher with ankle belt immobilization compared with without ankle belt immobilization. In addition, in the presence of ankle belt immobilization, the percent integrated electromyography of the tibialis anterior muscle and medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle demonstrated a positive correlation with toe grip strength (r = 0.75 and r = 0.65, respectively). [Conclusion] These findings suggest that greater toe grip strength could be exerted in the presence of ankle belt immobilization. The measured values reflect the percent integrated electromyography of the crural muscles. Therefore, it was shown that toe grip strength should be measured in the presence of an immobilization belt. PMID:26644648

  13. Bariatric Surgery Misconceptions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from depression or anxiety and to have lower self-esteem and overall quality of life than someone who ... is a Candidate for Bariatric Surgery? Childhood and Adolescent Obesity Find a Provider Benefits of Bariatric Surgery ...

  14. Ear Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  15. Plastic Surgery for Teenagers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or severe acne and scarring. Teens frequently gain self-esteem and confidence when their physical problems are corrected. ... art as a helpful index of anxiety and self-esteem with plastic surgery. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 2002. ...

  16. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you ... caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food ...

  17. Breast augmentation surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may need mammograms or breast x-rays before surgery. The plastic surgeon will do a routine breast exam. Several ... Gabriel A. Breast augmentation. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 2.

  18. American Board of Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Feedback Joint Pathway - General & Thoracic Surgery Specialty Definition Vascular Surgery Training Pathways Related Policies Credit for Foreign Medical Education Early Specialization Program Exam Admissibility Policy Leave Policy Readmissibility Policy ...

  19. Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ask When Considering LASIK Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures Dec. 12, 2015 Today's refractive ... that releases controlled amounts of radio frequency (RF) energy, instead of a laser, to apply heat to ...

  20. Surgery for Bone Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Radiation therapy for bone cancer Surgery for bone cancer Surgery is the primary (main) treatment for ... filled by bone grafts or by bone cement. Bone cement: The bone cement PMMA (polymethylmethyacrylate) starts out ...

  1. Concerns about cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at some ethical challenges in cosmetic surgery. Enhancement versus therapy, risks, patient autonomy, beneficence and informed consent are issues that need to be considered when considering cosmetic surgery in today's world. PMID:18630237

  2. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Fisher J, Higdon KK. Reduction mammoplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ... Maxwell GP, Gabriel A. Breast augmentation. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  3. The effects of isometric exercise types on pain and muscle activity in patients with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Park, Hun-Kyung; Park, Jung-Sub; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise types on low back pain (LBP) patients. Isometric exercise types were mat exercise and I-Zer exercise. Subjects were divided into 3 groups: LBP control group, LBP mat exercise group, and LBP I-Zer exercise group in 23–25 aged men. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and electromyography (EMG) were used to evaluate the degree of pain and the muscle activity in LBP patients. Root mean square (RMS), median frequency (MDF), and mean frequency (MNF) were checked by EMG power spectrum analysis on longissimus thoracic (LT), iliocostalis lumborum (IL), mulitifidus (M), and rectus abdominis (RA). LBP mat exercise program and LBP I-Zer exercise program were conducted 5 sets once time, 3 times per week during 6 weeks. The two-way ANOVA with repeated measure was used to check the pain degree and muscle activity. The present results showed that muscle activity in the LBP I-Zer exercise group was increased compared to the LBP mat exercise group and LBP control group (P<0.05). LBP I-Zer exercise group and LBP mat exercise group showed increased mean frequency in LT, IL, M, and RA muscles than the LBP control group. Therefore, LBP patients performed isometric exercise may have positive effect to reduce pain degree and to increase muscle activity. Especially, LBP I-Zer exercise type showed more effectiveness in reducing pain degree and enhancing muscle activity. PMID:26331136

  4. Alternating stimulation of synergistic muscles during functional electrical stimulation cycling improves endurance in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Decker, M J; Griffin, L; Abraham, L D; Brandt, L

    2010-12-01

    Therapeutic effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) are limited by high rates of muscular fatigue. FES-cycling performance limits and surface mechanomyography (MMG) of 12 persons with SCI were compared under two different stimulation protocols of the quadriceps muscles. One strategy used the standard "co-activation" protocol from the manufacturer of the FES cycle which involved intermittent simultaneous activation of the entire quadriceps muscle group for 400 ms. The other strategy was an "alternation" stimulation protocol which involved alternately stimulating the rectus femoris (RF) muscle for 100 ms and the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles for 100 ms, with two sets with a 400 ms burst. Thus, during the alternation protocol, each of the muscle groups rested for two 100 ms "off" periods in each 400 ms burst. There was no difference in average cycling cadence (28 RPM) between the two protocols. The alternation stimulation protocol produced longer ride times and longer virtual distances traveled and used lower stimulation intensity levels with no differences in average MMG amplitudes compared to the co-activation protocol. These results demonstrate that FES-cycling performance can be enhanced by a synergistic muscle alternation stimulation strategy. PMID:20708950

  5. Effects of Abdominal Hollowing During Stair Climbing on the Activations of Local Trunk Stabilizing Muscles: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ah Young; Kim, Eun Hyuk; Cho, Yun Woo; Kwon, Sun Oh; Son, Su Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine using surface electromyography whether stair climbing with abdominal hollowing (AH) is better at facilitating local trunk muscle activity than stair climbing without AH. Methods Twenty healthy men with no history of low back pain participated in the study. Surface electrodes were attached to the multifidus (MF), lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, transverse abdominus - internal oblique abdominals (TrA-IO), external oblique abdominals (EO), and the rectus abdominis. Amplitudes of electromyographic signals were measured during stair climbing. Study participants performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) for each muscle in various positions to normalize the surface electromyography data. Results AH during stair climbing resulted in significant increases in normalized MVCs in both MFs and TrA-IOs (p<0.05). Local trunk muscle/global trunk muscle ratios were higher during stair climbing with AH as compared with stair climbing without AH. Especially, right TrA-IO/EO and left TrA-IO/EO were significantly increased (p<0.05). Conclusion Stair climbing with AH activates local trunk stabilizing muscles better than stair climbing without AH. The findings suggest that AH during stair climbing contributes to trunk muscle activation and trunk stabilization. PMID:24466515

  6. A novel outlier detection method for identifying torque-related transient patterns of in vivo muscle behavior.

    PubMed

    Sheng Han; Xin Chen; Sheng Zhong; Yongjin Zhou; Zhiguo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel outlier detection method, named l1-regularized outlier isolation and regression (LOIRE), to examine torque-related transient patterns of in vivo muscle behavior from multimodal signals, including electromyography (EMG), mechanomyography (MMG) and ultrasonography (US), during isometric muscle contraction. Eight subjects performed isometric ramp contraction of knee up to 90% of the maximal voluntary contraction, and EMG, MMG and US were simultaneously recorded from the rectus femoris muscle. Five features, including two root mean square amplitudes from EMG and MMG, muscle cross sectional area, muscle thickness and width from US were extracted. Then, local polynomial regression was used to obtain the signal-to-torque relationships and their derivatives. By assuming the signal-to-torque functions are basically quadratic, the LOIRE method is applied to identify transient torque-related patterns of EMG, MMG and US features as outliers of the linear derivative-to-torque functions. The results show that the LOIRE method can effectively reveal transient patterns in the signal-to-torque relationships (for example, sudden changes around 20% MVC can be observed from all features), providing important information about in vivo muscle behavior. PMID:25570922

  7. Robotic liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Leung, Universe; Fong, Yuman

    2014-10-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  8. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  9. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  10. Infection after hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Ring, David

    2015-05-01

    Postoperative infections are uncommon after hand surgery. Infection can delay recovery and contribute to scarring and stiffness. Measures intended to reduce the risk of infection after hand surgery include hand washing, skin preparation, sterile technique, and prophylactic antibiotics. The role of prophylactic antibiotics for small, clean, elective hand surgery procedures lasting less than 2 hours is debated. PMID:25934209

  11. Visceral surgery and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Germain, A; Brunaud, L

    2010-06-01

    With an incidence of 950,000 pregnancies per year in France, the likelihood of seeing one or more surgical abdominal diseases during pregnancy is high. The goal of this update was to describe the management of four different settings in the pregnant woman: colorectal cancer, laparoscopic surgery, gastrointestinal emergency surgery, and bariatric surgery. PMID:20813621

  12. The Development of a Flexible Measuring System for Muscle Volume Using Ultrasonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Kiyotaka; Fukuda, Osamu; Tsubai, Masayoshi; Muraki, Satoshi

    Quantification of muscle volume can be used as a means for the estimation of muscle strength. Its measuring process does not need the subject's muscular contractions so it is completely safe and particularly suited for elderly people. Therefore, we have developed a flexible measuring system for muscle volume using ultrasonography. In this system, an ultrasound probe is installed on a link mechanism which continuously scans fragmental images along the human body surface. These images are then measured and composed into a wide area cross-sectional image based on the spatial compounding method. The flexibility of the link mechanism enables the operator to measure the images under any body postures and body site. The spatial compounding method significantly reduces speckle and artifact noises from the composed cross-sectional image so that the operator can observe the individual muscles, such as Rectus femoris, Vastus intermedius, and so on, in detail. We conducted the experiments in order to examine the advantages of this system we have developed. The experimental results showed a high accuracy of the measuring position which was calculated using the link mechanism and presented the noise reduction effect based on the spatial compounding method. Finally, we confirmed high correlations between the MRI images and the ones of the developed system to verify the validity of the system.

  13. Effects of high-intensity sprint training on skeletal muscle blood flow in rats.

    PubMed

    Musch, T I; Terrell, J A; Hilty, M R

    1991-10-01

    The regional blood flow response (via radioactive microspheres) was determined for female rats after 6 wk of high-intensity sprint training (HIST) or limited cage activity as the animals exercised at work loads that would elicit maximal O2 uptake. Blood flow to the different organs of the abdominal region was greatly reduced during maximal exercise conditions, and the magnitude of the reduction appeared to be similar for both the HIST group of rats and their sedentary (SED) control counterparts. Of the 20 different hindlimb muscles examined in the present study, blood flow to the soleus, plantaris, gastrocnemius, flexor hallicus longus, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and adductor magnus and brevis muscles was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) in the HIST rats during maximal exercise conditions than in the SED control rats. Correspondingly, blood flow to the total hindlimb during maximal exercise was also significantly greater in the HIST rats than in the SED control rats [240 +/- 18 vs. 192 +/- 15 (SE) ml.min-1.100 g-1]. These results support the contention that the increase in maximal cardiac output that is produced by HIST in the rat is primarily directed toward the working skeletal muscle and not toward the organs found in the abdominal region. We conclude from these experiments that HIST will produce significant adaptations in central cardiac function and skeletal muscle blood flow in the rat. PMID:1757362

  14. The Effect of the Weight of Equipment on Muscle Activity of the Lower Extremity in Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Tobias; Schulze, Christoph; Woitge, Sandra; Finze, Susanne; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Due to their profession and the tasks it entails, soldiers are exposed to high levels of physical activity and strain. This can result in overexertion and pain in the locomotor system, partly caused by carrying items of equipment. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent of muscle activity in the lower extremities caused by carrying specific items of equipment. For this purpose, the activity of selected groups of muscles caused by different items of equipment (helmet, carrying strap, backpack, and rifle) in the upper and lower leg was measured by recording dynamic surface electromyograms. Electrogoniometers were also used to measure the angle of the knee over the entire gait cycle. In addition to measuring muscle activity, the study also aimed to determine out what influence increasing weight load has on the range of motion (ROM) of the knee joint during walking. The activity of recorded muscles of the lower extremity, that is, the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris, was found to depend on the weight of the items of equipment. There was no evidence, however, that items of equipment weighing a maximum of 34% of their carrier's body weight had an effect on the ROM of the knee joint. PMID:22973179

  15. Reliability of Abdominal Muscle Stiffness Measured Using Elastography during Trunk Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, David; Wan, Alan; McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie; Hug, Franois

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra-session and inter-rater reliability of shear modulus measured in abdominal muscles during two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers performed a series of abdominal hollow and abdominal brace tasks. Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure the shear modulus (considered an index of muscle tension) of the four anterior trunk muscles: obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis. Because of measurement artifacts, internus abdominis and transversus abdominis data were not analyzed for 36.7% and 26.7% of the participants, respectively. These participants exhibited thicker superficial fat layers than the others. For the remaining participants, fair to excellent intra-session and inter-rater reliability was observed with moderate to high intra-class coefficients (0.45-0.97) and low to moderate standard error of measurement values (0.38-3.53kPa). Reliability values were consistently greater for superficial than for deeper muscles. PMID:26746381

  16. Effect of armor and carrying load on body balance and leg muscle function.

    PubMed

    Park, Huiju; Branson, Donna; Kim, Seonyoung; Warren, Aric; Jacobson, Bert; Petrova, Adriana; Peksoz, Semra; Kamenidis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of weight and weight distribution of body armor and load carriage on static body balance and leg muscle function. A series of human performance tests were conducted with seven male, healthy, right-handed military students in seven garment conditions with varying weight and weight distributions. Static body balance was assessed by analyzing the trajectory of center of plantar pressure and symmetry of weight bearing in the feet. Leg muscle functions were assessed by analyzing the peak electromyography amplitude of four selected leg muscles during walking. Results of this study showed that uneven weight distribution of garment and load beyond an additional 9 kg impaired static body balance as evidenced by increased sway of center of plantar pressure and asymmetry of weight bearing in the feet. Added weight on non-dominant side of the body created greater impediment to static balance. Increased garment weight also elevated peak EMG amplitude in the rectus femoris to maintain body balance and in the medial gastrocnemius to increase propulsive force. Negative impacts on balance and leg muscle function with increased carrying loads, particularly with an uneven weight distribution, should be stressed to soldiers, designers, and sports enthusiasts. PMID:24021525

  17. Moments of force, power, and muscle coordination in speed-skating.

    PubMed

    de Boer, R W; Cabri, J; Vaes, W; Clarijs, J P; Hollander, A P; de Groot, G; van Ingen Schenau, G J

    1987-12-01

    Two well-trained speed-skaters were subjected to a biomechanical analysis incorporating push-off forces, cinematographic data, and link segment modeling. To gain knowledge on the backgrounds on technique and performance in speed-skating, the muscle coordination was studied by EMG and muscle contraction velocities. In speed-skating during the push-off, the body center of gravity (cg) is accelerated with respect to the point of application of the push-off force, with a forward gliding skate. The velocity of cg is a result of rotation of segments. Due to the absence of plantar flexion of the foot, the knee extension range is limited. The short and explosive push-off can be considered as a catapult-like action. The knee extensor muscles vastus medialis and rectus femoris are prestretched in the gliding phase by the antagonistic action of gastrocnemius and biceps femoris. In this phase the skater rotates his cg from the lateral to the medial side of the skate to reach an optimal push-off angle. The power output in the push-off phase is mainly generated by the monoarticular extensor muscles gluteus maximus and vastus medialis. PMID:3429080

  18. Trunk muscle activation during stabilization exercises with single and double leg support.

    PubMed

    García-Vaquero, María Pilar; Moreside, Janice M; Brontons-Gil, Evaristo; Peco-González, Noelia; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze trunk muscle activity during bridge style stabilization exercises, when combined with single and double leg support strategies. Twenty-nine healthy volunteers performed bridge exercises in 3 different positions (back, front and side bridges), with and without an elevated leg, and a quadruped exercise with contralateral arm and leg raise ("bird-dog"). Surface EMG was bilaterally recorded from rectus abdominis (RA), external and internal oblique (EO, IO), and erector spinae (ES). Back, front and side bridges primarily activated the ES (approximately 17% MVC), RA (approximately 30% MVC) and muscles required to support the lateral moment (mostly obliques), respectively. Compared with conventional bridge exercises, single leg support produced higher levels of trunk activation, predominantly in the oblique muscles. The bird-dog exercise produced greatest activity in IO on the side of the elevated arm and in the contralateral ES. In conclusion, during a common bridge with double leg support, the antigravity muscles were the most active. When performed with an elevated leg, however, rotation torques increased the activation of the trunk rotators, especially IO. This information may be useful for clinicians and rehabilitation specialists in determining appropriate exercise progression for the trunk stabilizers. PMID:22436839

  19. Targeted Muscle Reinnervation and Advanced Prosthetic Arms

    PubMed Central

    Cheesborough, Jennifer E.; Smith, Lauren H.; Kuiken, Todd A.; Dumanian, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) is a surgical procedure used to improve the control of upper limb prostheses. Residual nerves from the amputated limb are transferred to reinnervate new muscle targets that have otherwise lost their function. These reinnervated muscles then serve as biological amplifiers of the amputated nerve motor signals, allowing for more intuitive control of advanced prosthetic arms. Here the authors provide a review of surgical techniques for TMR in patients with either transhumeral or shoulder disarticulation amputations. They also discuss how TMR may act synergistically with recent advances in prosthetic arm technologies to improve prosthesis controllability. Discussion of TMR and prosthesis control is presented in the context of a 41-year-old man with a left-side shoulder disarticulation and a right-side transhumeral amputation. This patient underwent bilateral TMR surgery and was fit with advanced pattern-recognition myoelectric prostheses. PMID:25685105

  20. Pregnancy After Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Monson, Martha; Jackson, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective weight loss treatment available for morbidly obese patients. The majority of bariatric surgery cases are now performed on reproductive-aged women. The pregnant bariatric surgery patient is unique, with specific care needs that often require a multidisciplinary approach. Here, we will review the rationale for bariatric surgery and contemporary surgical modalities. We will then consider the obstetric and neonatal implications following these procedures and discuss the tenets of pregnancy care in the patient after bariatric surgery. PMID:26710306

  1. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Athletic Pubalgia and Core Muscle Injury.

    PubMed

    Coker, Dana J; Zoga, Adam C

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the standard of care imaging modality for a difficult, often misunderstood spectrum of musculoskeletal injury termed athletic pubalgia or core muscle injury. Armed with a dedicated noncontrast athletic pubalgia protocol and a late model phased array receiver coil, the musculoskeletal imager can play a great role in effective diagnosis and treatment planning for lesions, including osteitis pubis, midline pubic plate lesions, and rectus abdominis/adductor aponeurosis injury. Beyond these established patterns of MRI findings, there are many confounders and contributing pathologies about the pelvis in patients with activity related groin pain, including internal and periarticular derangements of the hip. The MRI is ideally suited to delineate the extent of expected injury and to identify the unexpected visceral and musculoskeletal lesions. PMID:26244616

  2. Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Myasthenia Gravis for Meningioma Surgery - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, V K; Agrawal, S; Ahmed, M; Sharma, S

    2015-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a disease of great challenge to the anesthesiologist, because it affects the neuromuscular junction. Anesthetic management involves either muscle relaxant or non-muscle relaxant techniques. This case report documents the safe use of fentanyl, propofol and sevoflurane combination guided by bispectral index, without the use of muscle relaxants in a patient with myasthenia gravis who presented for meningioma surgery. PMID:26620756

  3. On high heels and short muscles: a multiscale model for sarcomere loss in the gastrocnemius muscle.

    PubMed

    Zllner, Alexander M; Pok, Jacquelynn M; McWalter, Emily J; Gold, Garry E; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-21

    High heels are a major source of chronic lower limb pain. Yet, more than one third of all women compromise health for looks and wear high heels on a daily basis. Changing from flat footwear to high heels induces chronic muscle shortening associated with discomfort, fatigue, reduced shock absorption, and increased injury risk. However, the long-term effects of high-heeled footwear on the musculoskeletal kinematics of the lower extremities remain poorly understood. Here we create a multiscale computational model for chronic muscle adaptation to characterize the acute and chronic effects of global muscle shortening on local sarcomere lengths. We perform a case study of a healthy female subject and show that raising the heel by 13cm shortens the gastrocnemius muscle by 5% while the Achilles tendon remains virtually unaffected. Our computational simulation indicates that muscle shortening displays significant regional variations with extreme values of 22% in the central gastrocnemius. Our model suggests that the muscle gradually adjusts to its new functional length by a chronic loss of sarcomeres in series. Sarcomere loss varies significantly across the muscle with an average loss of 9%, virtually no loss at the proximal and distal ends, and a maximum loss of 39% in the central region. These changes reposition the remaining sarcomeres back into their optimal operating regime. Computational modeling of chronic muscle shortening provides a valuable tool to shape our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of muscle adaptation. Our study could open new avenues in orthopedic surgery and enhance treatment for patients with muscle contracture caused by other conditions than high heel wear such as paralysis, muscular atrophy, and muscular dystrophy. PMID:25451524

  4. On high heels and short muscles: A multiscale model for sarcomere loss in the gastrocnemius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zllner, Alexander M.; Pok, Jacquelynn M.; McWalter, Emily J.; Gold, Garry E.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    High heels are a major source of chronic lower limb pain. Yet, more than one third of all women compromise health for looks and wear high heels on a daily basis. Changing from flat footwear to high heels induces chronic muscle shortening associated with discomfort, fatigue, reduced shock absorption, and increased injury risk. However, the long-term effects of high-heeled footwear on the musculoskeletal kinematics of the lower extremities remain poorly understood. Here we create a multiscale computational model for chronic muscle adaptation to characterize the acute and chronic effects of global muscle shortening on local sarcomere lengths. We perform a case study of a healthy female subject and show that raising the heel by 13 cm shortens the gastrocnemius muscle by 5% while the Achilles tendon remains virtually unaffected. Our computational simulation indicates that muscle shortening displays significant regional variations with extreme values of 22% in the central gastrocnemius. Our model suggests that the muscle gradually adjusts to its new functional length by a chronic loss of sarcomeres in series. Sarcomere loss varies significantly across the muscle with an average loss of 9%, virtually no loss at the proximal and distal ends, and a maximum loss of 39% in the central region. These changes reposition the remaining sarcomeres back into their optimal operating regime. Computational modeling of chronic muscle shortening provides a valuable tool to shape our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of muscle adaptation. Our study could open new avenues in orthopedic surgery and enhance treatment for patients with muscle contracture caused by other conditions than high heel wear such as paralysis, muscular atrophy, and muscular dystrophy. PMID:25451524

  5. Free functional muscle transplantation of an anomalous femoral adductor with a very large muscle belly: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 34-year-old man with a total brachial plexus injury that was treated by free functional muscle transplantation to restore simultaneously elbow flexion and finger extension. The muscle had a very large muscle belly (12 cm width), which was considered anatomically to be a fusion of the gracilis and the adductor longus muscles. Although the muscle possessed two major vascular pedicles with almost equal diameters, only the proximal vascular pedicle was anastomosed to the recipient vessels during the transplantation surgery, resulting in partial necrosis of the muscle. Several authors have reported on the successful simultaneous transplantation of the gracilis and adductor longus muscles, because they are supplied generally by a single common vascular pedicle. However, the present study suggests that when a surgeon encounters an aberrant femoral adductor with a very large muscle belly that can be considered to be a fusion of these muscles, the surgeon should assess intraoperatively the vascularity of the muscle using Doppler sonography, indocyanine green fluorescence injection, or other techniques. PMID:24164731

  6. [Muscle fiber atrophy].

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Ikuya

    2012-01-01

    Muscle fibers have been classified into two major forms of red (slow twitch) and white (fast twitch) muscles. The red muscle utilizes lipid as energy source through mitochondrial metabolism and function to sustain the position against gravity (sometimes called as antigravity muscle). Under microgravity the red muscle is selectively involved. In our unloading study by hindlimb suspension experiment on rats, the one of the representative red muscle of soleus muscle underwent rapid atrophy; they reduced their weights about 50% after 2 week-unloading. In addition, myofibrils were occasionally markedly disorganized with selective thin filament loss. Mitochondria in the degenerated area were decreased in number. The white muscle fibers in the soleus muscle had mostly transformed to the red ones. It took about 1 month to recover morphologically. The satellite cell playing a major role in muscle regeneration was not activated. There still remained unsolved what are the mechanosensors to keep muscle function under normal gravity. Dr Nikawa's group proposed that one of ubiquitin ligases, Cbl-b is activated under microgravity and induces muscle fiber degeneration. There might be many factors to induce muscle atrophy and degeneration under microgravity. Further study is necessary to explore the pathomechanism of muscle atrophy in disused and under immobility conditions. PMID:23196603

  7. How does age affect leg muscle activity/coactivity during uphill and downhill walking?

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Jason R.; Kram, Rodger

    2012-01-01

    Walking uphill and downhill can be challenging for community-dwelling old adults. We investigated the effects of age on leg muscle activity amplitudes and timing during level, uphill, and downhill walking. We hypothesized that old adults would exhibit smaller increases in ankle extensor muscle activities and greater increases in hip extensor muscle activities compared to young adults during uphill vs. level walking. We also hypothesized that, compared to level walking, antagonist leg muscle coactivation would be disproportionately greater in old vs. young adults during downhill walking. Ten old (72 ± 5 yrs) and ten young (25 ± 4 yrs) subjects walked at 1.25 m/s on a treadmill at seven grades (0, ±3, ±6, ±9°). We quantified the stance phase electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus (GMAX), biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), medial gastrocnemius (MG), soleus (SOL), and tibialis anterior (TA). Old adults exhibited smaller increases in MG activity with steeper uphill grade than young adults (e.g., +136% vs. +174% at 9°). A disproportionate recruitment of hip muscles led to GMAX activity approaching the maximum isometric capacity of these active old adults at steep uphill grades (e.g., old vs. young, 73% MVC vs. 33% MVC at +9°). Neither uphill nor downhill walking affected the greater coactivation of antagonist muscles in old vs. young adults. We conclude that the disproportionate recruitment of hip muscles with advanced age may have critical implications for maintaining independent mobility in old adults, particularly at steeper uphill grades. PMID:22940542

  8. Modeling of intramuscular lipids in different muscles in bulls, steers, and cows.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; Agabriel, J; Picard, B; Micol, D; Jurie, C; Bauchart, D; Garca-Launay, F

    2015-10-01

    Intramuscular fat depot is of major interest for consumers, producers, and the industry. To predict intramuscular (i.m.) lipid deposition in cattle of continental breeds, different models were constructed for different muscles in bulls, steers, and cows. Two independent databases (DB1 and DB2) were developed with homogeneous individual data collected in the same slaughterhouse and total lipids, phospholipids, and triglycerides were analyzed in the same lab with the same procedures. Database DB1 was used with the meta-analysis methodology to fit the predictive models of i.m. lipids, phospholipids, and triglycerides with carcass fatness. Database DB2 was used to evaluate the accuracy of the models predicted. Total lipid and triglyceride contents varied linearly with carcass fatness in bulls, steers, and cows, but phospholipids were more independent of carcass fatness, regardless of the type of cattle studied. In bulls, LM had a lower minimal value (intercept in the model) and greater slope than semitendinosus (ST) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles. In cows, LM showed a greater intercept than ST and TB muscles but a similar slope. In steers, lipid content increased similarly in LM, rectus abdominis (RA) muscle, and ST muscle with carcass fatness. Bulls had a lower intercept than steers but showed a similar trend with carcass fatness. According to the external evaluation using DB2, the models obtained to predict total lipids in LM were more accurate than those obtained in the ST muscle in bulls and cows and in the RA muscle in steers. The models proposed for cows should be used only in the range of carcass fatness used to fit the equations, and further data are needed to fully validate them. PMID:26523599

  9. Trunk Muscle Activation at the Initiation and Braking of Bilateral Shoulder Flexion Movements of Different Amplitudes.

    PubMed

    Eriksson Crommert, M; Halvorsen, K; Ekblom, M M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if trunk muscle activation patterns during rapid bilateral shoulder flexions are affected by movement amplitude. Eleven healthy males performed shoulder flexion movements starting from a position with arms along sides (0°) to either 45°, 90° or 180°. EMG was measured bilaterally from transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus (OI) with intra-muscular electrodes, and from rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES) and deltoideus with surface electrodes. 3D kinematics was recorded and inverse dynamics was used to calculate the reactive linear forces and torque about the shoulders and the linear and angular impulses. The sequencing of trunk muscle onsets at the initiation of arm movements was the same across movement amplitudes with ES as the first muscle activated, followed by TrA, RA and OI. All arm movements induced a flexion angular impulse about the shoulders during acceleration that was reversed during deceleration. Increased movement amplitude led to shortened onset latencies of the abdominal muscles and increased level of activation in TrA and ES. The activation magnitude of TrA was similar in acceleration and deceleration where the other muscles were specific to acceleration or deceleration. The findings show that arm movements need to be standardized when used as a method to evaluate trunk muscle activation patterns and that inclusion of the deceleration of the arms in the analysis allow the study of the relationship between trunk muscle activation and direction of perturbing torque during one and the same arm movement. PMID:26562017

  10. Trunk Muscle Activation at the Initiation and Braking of Bilateral Shoulder Flexion Movements of Different Amplitudes

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson Crommert, M.; Halvorsen, K.; Ekblom, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if trunk muscle activation patterns during rapid bilateral shoulder flexions are affected by movement amplitude. Eleven healthy males performed shoulder flexion movements starting from a position with arms along sides (0°) to either 45°, 90° or 180°. EMG was measured bilaterally from transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus (OI) with intra-muscular electrodes, and from rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES) and deltoideus with surface electrodes. 3D kinematics was recorded and inverse dynamics was used to calculate the reactive linear forces and torque about the shoulders and the linear and angular impulses. The sequencing of trunk muscle onsets at the initiation of arm movements was the same across movement amplitudes with ES as the first muscle activated, followed by TrA, RA and OI. All arm movements induced a flexion angular impulse about the shoulders during acceleration that was reversed during deceleration. Increased movement amplitude led to shortened onset latencies of the abdominal muscles and increased level of activation in TrA and ES. The activation magnitude of TrA was similar in acceleration and deceleration where the other muscles were specific to acceleration or deceleration. The findings show that arm movements need to be standardized when used as a method to evaluate trunk muscle activation patterns and that inclusion of the deceleration of the arms in the analysis allow the study of the relationship between trunk muscle activation and direction of perturbing torque during one and the same arm movement. PMID:26562017

  11. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... THIS TOPIC Overweight and Obesity Weight and Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Keeping Portions Under Control Healthy Eating Preparing Your ... Problem Dealing With Feelings When You're Overweight Metabolic Syndrome Weight Loss Surgery Staying at a Healthy Weight ...

  12. Optical fiber distributed temperature sensor in cardiological surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skapa, Jan; Ltal, Jan; Penhaker, Marek; Koudelka, Petr; Hancek, Frantiek; Vasinek, Vladimr

    2010-04-01

    In those days a lot of cardiological surgeries is made every day. It is a matter of very significant importance keeping the temperature of the hearth low during the surgery because it decides whether the cells of the muscle will die or not. The hearth is cooled by the ice placed around the hearth muscle during the surgery and cooling liquid is injected into the hearth also. In these days the temperature is measured only in some points of the hearth using sensors based on the pH measurements. This article describes new method for measurement of temperature of the hearth muscle during the cardiological surgery. We use a multimode optical fiber and distributed temperature sensor (DTS) based on the stimulated Raman scattering in temperature measurements. This principle allows us to measure the temperature and to determine where the temperature changes during the surgery. Resolution in the temperature is about 0.1 degrees of Celsius. Resolution in length is about 1 meter. The resolution in length implies that the fiber must be wound to ensure the spatial resolution about 5 by 5 centimeters.

  13. Effect of endurance running on cardiac and skeletal muscle in rats.

    PubMed

    Daz-Herrera, P; Torres, A; Morcuende, J A; Garca-Castellano, J M; Calbet, J A; Sarrat, R

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effect of resistance running on left cardiac ventricle size and rectus femoris muscle fiber composition. Ten male Wistar rats were trained on a treadmill 6 days per week for 12 weeks. Ten rats remained sedentary and served as controls. A higher endurance time (40%) and cardiac hypertrophy in the trained animals were indicators of training efficiency. Morphometric analysis of the left ventricle cross-sectional area, left ventricular wall, and left ventricular cavity were evaluated. The endurance-running group demonstrated a hypertrophy of the ventricular wall (22%) and an increase in the ventricular cavity (25%); (p<0.0001). Semi-quantitative analysis of rectus femoris fiber-type composition and of the oxidative and glycolytic capacity was histochemically performed. Endurance running demonstrated a significant (p<0.01) increase in the relative frequency of Type I (24%), Type IIA (8%) and Type IIX (16%) oxidative fibers, and a decrease in Type IIB (20%) glycolytic fibers. There was a hypertrophy of both oxidative and glycolytic fiber types. The relative cross-sectional area analysis demonstrated an increase in oxidative fibers and a decrease in glycolytic fibers (p<0.0001). Changes were especially evident for Type IIX oxidative-glycolytic fibers. The results of this study indicate that the left ventricle adapts to endurance running by increasing wall thickness and enlargement of the ventricular cavity. Skeletal muscle adapts to training by increasing oxidative fiber Type. This increase may be related to fiber transformation from Type IIB glycolytic to Type IIX oxidative fibers. These results open the possibility for the use of this type of exercise to prevent muscular atrophy associated with age or post-immobilization. PMID:11193205

  14. Clinical strategies for addressing muscle weakness following knee injury.

    PubMed

    Pietrosimone, Brian; Blackburn, J Troy; Harkey, Matthew S; Luc, Brittney A; Pamukoff, Derek N; Hart, Joe M

    2015-04-01

    Muscle strength is a determinate of physical function and increasing muscle strength is an important clinical goal for patients with knee injury. This article discusses the emerging evidence regarding a novel rehabilitation strategy that uses disinhibitory modalities to increase neuromuscular activation in conjunction with traditional muscle strengthening for the purpose of maximizing strength gains following acute knee injury or surgery and in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The use of disinhibitory modalities and specific types of neuromuscular training for clinically maximizing strength are discussed. PMID:25818714

  15. Unusual fibularis (peroneus) muscle.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Philip A

    2015-10-01

    Routine dissection has identified a previously unrecorded fibularis (peroneus) muscle in a 74-year-old male cadaver. The anomalous fibularis muscle was found lying immediately antero-medial to the fibularis longus (FL) muscle of the left leg. The anomalous muscle arose from the muscle belly of the FL in the proximal 1/2 of the leg. The muscle belly gave way to a long slender tendon that continued distally behind the lateral malleolus and inserted onto the superficial aspect of the inferior fibular retinaculum. The current finding and clinical significance are discussed. PMID:25431295

  16. Peripheral polyneuropathy after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Ching; Lin, Ying-Li

    2011-01-01

    A patient with peripheral polyneuropathy after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity is reported. She suffered from frequent episodes of vomiting and abdominal pain after surgery. Muscle weakness in her lower limbs developed 5 months later and she experienced difficulty in walking and standing. Wrist drop, foot drop, and marked distal limb muscle atrophy were found bilaterally. Electromyography showed the presence of sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Nutritional deficiencies may play an important role in pathogenesis. This uncommon neurological complication might be due to rapid weight loss and vitamin deficiency. Physicians who take care for patients after bariatric surgery should have a high index of awareness for the neurologic complications, and routine vitamin supplementation might be useful for these patients. PMID:22175046

  17. Altered muscle coordination when pedaling with independent cranks

    PubMed Central

    Hug, François; Boumier, Florian; Dorel, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Pedaling with independent cranks ensures each leg cycles independently of the other, and thus eliminates the contribution of the contralateral leg during the upstroke phase. Consequently the subject is required to actively pull-up the pedal to complete the cycle. The present study aimed to determine the acute effect of the use of independent cranks on muscle coordination during a submaximal pedaling exercise. Ten healthy males were asked to perform submaximal pedaling exercises at 100 Watts with normal fixed cranks (control condition) or independent cranks. Both 2-D pedal forces and electromyographic (EMG) SIGNALS of 10 lower limb muscles were recorded. When the mean EMG activity across the cycle was considered, the use of independent cranks significantly increased the activity level compared to control for Tibialis anterior (TA) (P = 0.0017; +336 ± 302%), Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) (P = 0.0005; +47 ± 25%), Rectus femoris (RF) (P = 0.005; +123 ± 153%), Biceps femoris (BF)—long head (P = 0.0001; +162 ± 97%), Semimembranosus (SM) (P = 0.0001; +304 ± 192%), and Tensor fascia latae (P = 0.0001; +586 ± 262%). The analysis of the four pedaling sectors revealed that the increased activity of hip and knee flexors mainly occurred during the top dead center and the upstroke phase. In addition, a high inter-individual variability was found in the way the participants adapted to pedaling with independent cranks. The present results showed that the enforced pull-up action required when using independent cranks was achieved by increasing the activation of hip and knee flexors. Further studies are needed to determine whether training with independent cranks has the potential to induce long-term changes in muscle coordination, and, if so, whether these changes are beneficial for cycling performance. PMID:24009587

  18. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hwa; Hyun, Seung-Jae

    2015-09-16

    Recently, many surgeons have been using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) in spinal surgery to reduce the incidence of postoperative neurological complications, including level of the spinal cord, cauda equina and nerve root. Several established technologies are available and combined motor and somatosensory evoked potentials are considered mandatory for practical and successful IOM. Spinal cord evoked potentials are elicited compound potentials recorded over the spinal cord. Electrical stimulation is provoked on the dorsal spinal cord from an epidural electrode. Somatosensory evoked potentials assess the functional integrity of sensory pathways from the peripheral nerve through the dorsal column and to the sensory cortex. For identification of the physiological midline, the dorsal column mapping technique can be used. It is helpful for reducing the postoperative morbidity associated with dorsal column dysfunction when distortion of the normal spinal cord anatomy caused by an intramedullary cord lesion results in confusion in localizing the midline for the myelotomy. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) consist of spinal, neurogenic and muscle MEPs. MEPs allow selective and specific assessment of the functional integrity of descending motor pathways, from the motor cortex to peripheral muscles. Spinal surgeons should understand the concept of the monitoring techniques and interpret monitoring records adequately to use IOM for the decision making during the surgery for safe surgery and a favorable surgical outcome. PMID:26380823

  19. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Hwa; Hyun, Seung-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many surgeons have been using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) in spinal surgery to reduce the incidence of postoperative neurological complications, including level of the spinal cord, cauda equina and nerve root. Several established technologies are available and combined motor and somatosensory evoked potentials are considered mandatory for practical and successful IOM. Spinal cord evoked potentials are elicited compound potentials recorded over the spinal cord. Electrical stimulation is provoked on the dorsal spinal cord from an epidural electrode. Somatosensory evoked potentials assess the functional integrity of sensory pathways from the peripheral nerve through the dorsal column and to the sensory cortex. For identification of the physiological midline, the dorsal column mapping technique can be used. It is helpful for reducing the postoperative morbidity associated with dorsal column dysfunction when distortion of the normal spinal cord anatomy caused by an intramedullary cord lesion results in confusion in localizing the midline for the myelotomy. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) consist of spinal, neurogenic and muscle MEPs. MEPs allow selective and specific assessment of the functional integrity of descending motor pathways, from the motor cortex to peripheral muscles. Spinal surgeons should understand the concept of the monitoring techniques and interpret monitoring records adequately to use IOM for the decision making during the surgery for safe surgery and a favorable surgical outcome. PMID:26380823

  20. Activation timing patterns of the abdominal and leg muscles during the sit-to-stand movement in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-Heon; Choi, Jong-Duk; Lee, Nam-Gi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the activation timing patterns of abdominal and leg muscles during the sit-to-stand movement in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke. [Subjects] Twenty adults with chronic hemiparetic stroke participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects performed five sit-to-stand movements at a self-selected velocity without using their hands. Surface electromyography was used to measure the reaction time of the bilateral transverse abdominis/internal oblique, rectus femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles during the sit-to-stand movement. [Results] There were significant differences in the reaction time between the affected and unaffected sides of the abdominal and leg muscles. Muscles on the unaffected side had faster reaction time than those on the affected side. Activation of the transverse abdominis/internal oblique muscles was delayed relative to activation of the tibialis anterior muscle during the sit-to-stand movement. [Conclusion] Our findings provide information that may aid clinicians in the examination and management of paretic muscles for transfers in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke. PMID:26696744

  1. Lipid deposition in various sites of the skeletal muscles and liver exhibits a positive correlation with visceral fat accumulation in middle-aged Japanese men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taira, Shin-ichiro; Shimabukuro, Michio; Higa, Moritake; Yabiku, Kouichi; Kozuka, Chisayo; Ueda, Rei; Sunagawa, Sumito; Ohshiro, Yuzuru; Doi, Mototsugu; Nanba, Toyotaka; Kawamoto, Eriko; Nakayama, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Hideaki; Iha, Takako; Nakachi, Sawako; Tomoyose, Takeaki; Ikema, Tomomi; Yamakawa, Ken; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Objective In addition to excess visceral fat, lipid deposition in the liver and skeletal muscle has been implicated in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This study was designed to explore the relationship between hepatic and muscular lipid deposition and visceral fat accumulation in 105 middle-aged men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was used to simultaneously evaluate the visceral fat area (VFA) and CT Hounsfield unit (HU) values of three different portions of skeletal muscle and the liver. Results A significant inverse correlation was observed between the VFA and the CT HU values of the iliopsoas muscle, back muscle, rectus abdominis muscle and liver. Three types of interventions, i.e., lifestyle modification and treatment with antidiabetic drugs, such as Pioglitazone or Miglitol, caused significant decreases in visceral fat accumulation. The extent of lipid deposition in the liver was strongly correlated with the levels of glucose-lipid metabolic markers, which decreased significantly following Pioglitazone treatment. On the other hand, the amount of lipid deposition in the three skeletal muscles and the liver did not decrease after Miglitol treatment. Conclusion Visceral fat accumulation is accompanied by excess lipid deposition in skeletal muscle and the liver in patients with metabolic syndrome. The CT-based simultaneous, concise evaluations of ectopic lipid deposition and visceral fat mass used in the present study may provide unique information for assessing cardiometabolic risks and the therapeutic impact in patients with diabetes-obesity syndrome. PMID:23857087

  2. Human Muscle Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The stimulus of gravity affects RNA production, which helps maintain the strength of human muscles on Earth (top), as seen in this section of muscle fiber taken from an astronaut before spaceflight. Astronauts in orbit and patients on Earth fighting muscle-wasting diseases need countermeasures to prevent muscle atrophy, indicated here with white lipid droplets (bottom) in the muscle sample taken from the same astronaut after spaceflight. Kerneth Baldwin of the University of California, Irvine, is conducting research on how reducing the stimulus of gravity affects production of the RNA that the body uses as a blueprint for making muscle proteins. Muscle proteins are what give muscles their strength, so when the RNA blueprints aren't available for producing new proteins to replace old ones -- a situation that occurs in microgravity -- the muscles atrophy. When the skeletal muscle system is exposed to microgravity during spaceflight, the muscles undergo a reduced mass that translates to a reduction in strength. When this happens, muscle endurance decreases and the muscles are more prone to injury, so individuals could have problems in performing extravehicular activity [space walks] or emergency egress because their bodies are functionally compromised.

  3. Electromyographic analysis of trunk and lower extremity muscle activities during pulley-based shoulder exercises performed on stable and unstable surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Doochul; Cha, Jaeyun; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of an unstable support surface (USS) on the activities of trunk and lower extremity muscles during pulley-based shoulder exercise (PBSE). [Subjects] Twenty healthy college students were included in this study. [Methods] Surface EMG was carried out in twenty healthy adult men. The activities of trunk and lower extremity muscles performed during PBSE using a resistance of 14?kg on a stable or unstable support surface were compared. The PBSE included shoulder abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, internal rotation, and external rotation. [Results] On the unstable surface, the rectus abdominis and erector spinae showed significantly less activation during shoulder external rotation, but the extent of activation was not significantly different during other shoulder exercises. The external oblique and rectus femoris showed no significant difference during any shoulder exercises. The tibialis anterior showed significantly greater activation during all shoulder exercises, except flexion and extension. The gastrocnemius showed significantly greater activation during shoulder abduction, extension, and internal rotation. However, during shoulder adduction, flexion, and external rotation, the gastrocnemius showed no significant difference. [Conclusion] The use of USS to increase core stability during PBSE is probably not effective owing to compensatory strategies of the ankle. PMID:25642041

  4. Muscle Injuries: A Brief Guide to Classification and Management

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, Nicola; Del Buono, Angelo; Oliva, Francesco; Giai Via, Alessio; Frizziero, Antonio; Barazzuol, Michele; Brancaccio, Paola; Freschi, Marco; Galletti, Stefano; Lisitano, Gianfranco; Melegati, Gianluca; Nanni, Gianni; Pasta, Ghito; Ramponi, Carlo; Rizzo, Diego; Testa, Vittorino; Valent, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Muscle injuries are frequent in athletes. Despite their high incidence, advances in clinical diagnostic criteria and imaging, their optimal management and rehabilitation strategies are still debated in literature. Furthermore, reinjury rate is high after a muscle lesion, and an improper treatment or an early return to sports can increase the rate of reinjury and complications. Most muscle injuries are managed conservatively with excellent results, and surgery is normally advocated only for larger tears. This article reviews the current literature to provide physicians and rehabilitation specialists with the necessary basic tools to diagnose, classify and to treat muscle injuries. Based on anatomy, biomechanics, and imaging features of muscle injury, the use of a recently reported new classification system is also advocated. PMID:26535183

  5. Increased collagen synthesis rate during wound healing in muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shaobo; Salisbury, Jonathan; Preedy, Victor R; Emery, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing in muscle involves the deposition of collagen, but it is not known whether this is achieved by changes in the synthesis or the degradation of collagen. We have used a reliable flooding dose method to measure collagen synthesis rate in vivo in rat abdominal muscle following a surgical incision. Collagen synthesis rate was increased by 480% and 860% on days 2 and 7 respectively after surgery in the wounded muscle compared with an undamaged area of the same muscle. Collagen content was increased by approximately 100% at both day 2 and day 7. These results demonstrate that collagen deposition during wound healing in muscle is achieved entirely by an increase in the rate of collagen synthesis. PMID:23526975

  6. No effect of sex steroids on compensatory muscle hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.

  7. Increased Collagen Synthesis Rate during Wound Healing in Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shaobo; Salisbury, Jonathan; Preedy, Victor R.; Emery, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing in muscle involves the deposition of collagen, but it is not known whether this is achieved by changes in the synthesis or the degradation of collagen. We have used a reliable flooding dose method to measure collagen synthesis rate in vivo in rat abdominal muscle following a surgical incision. Collagen synthesis rate was increased by 480% and 860% on days 2 and 7 respectively after surgery in the wounded muscle compared with an undamaged area of the same muscle. Collagen content was increased by approximately 100% at both day 2 and day 7. These results demonstrate that collagen deposition during wound healing in muscle is achieved entirely by an increase in the rate of collagen synthesis. PMID:23526975

  8. Linearity and reliability of the mechanomyographic amplitude versus dynamic torque relationships for the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles.

    PubMed

    Stock, Matthew S; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M; Dillon, Michael A

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the linearity and reliability of the mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude versus dynamic torque relationships for the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus medialis (VM) muscles. Nine healthy men and 11 healthy women performed submaximal to maximal, concentric, isokinetic muscle actions of the leg extensors at 30 degrees s(-1) on two occasions. Surface MMG signals were detected from the VL, RF, and VM of the dominant thigh during both trials. The ranges of the coefficients of determination for the MMG amplitude versus dynamic torque relationships were 0.01-0.94 for the VL, 0.01-0.84 for the RF, and 0.19-0.96 for the VM. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the linear MMG amplitude versus torque slope coefficients were 0.823 (VL), 0.792 (RF), and 0.927 (VM). These results indicate that, when analyzed for individual subjects, the MMG amplitude versus dynamic torque relationships demonstrated inconsistent linearity. When using MMG in the clinical setting, dynamic muscle actions of the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles do not appear to be appropriate for assessing changes in muscle function during strength training. PMID:19813206

  9. The effects of progressive functional training on lower limb muscle architecture and motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, MiHye; Ko, YoungJun; Shin, Mary Myong Sook; Lee, Wanhee

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of progressive functional training on lower limb muscle architecture and motor function of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 26 children with spastic CP. [Methods] Thirteen subjects in the experimental group performed general neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) and additional progressive functional trainings and 13 subjects in the control group performed only general NDT 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Ultrasonography, gross motor function measurement (GMFM) and the mobility questionnaire (MobQue) were evaluated. [Results] After the intervention, the muscle thickness of the quadriceps femoris (QF), cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris (RF), pennation angle of the gastrocnemius (GCM) and the MobQue score of the experimental group were significantly greater than those of the control group. The muscle thickness of QF correlated with the cross-sectional area (CSA) of RF and the pennation angle of GCM, and GMFM score correlated with the pennation angle of GCM. [Conclusion] Progressive functional training can increase muscle thickness, CSA, and the pennation angle of the lower limb muscles, and improve the mobility of spastic CP children making it useful as a practical adjunct to rehabilitation therapy. PMID:26157267

  10. The effects of progressive functional training on lower limb muscle architecture and motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, MiHye; Ko, YoungJun; Shin, Mary Myong Sook; Lee, Wanhee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of progressive functional training on lower limb muscle architecture and motor function of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 26 children with spastic CP. [Methods] Thirteen subjects in the experimental group performed general neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) and additional progressive functional trainings and 13 subjects in the control group performed only general NDT 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Ultrasonography, gross motor function measurement (GMFM) and the mobility questionnaire (MobQue) were evaluated. [Results] After the intervention, the muscle thickness of the quadriceps femoris (QF), cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris (RF), pennation angle of the gastrocnemius (GCM) and the MobQue score of the experimental group were significantly greater than those of the control group. The muscle thickness of QF correlated with the cross-sectional area (CSA) of RF and the pennation angle of GCM, and GMFM score correlated with the pennation angle of GCM. [Conclusion] Progressive functional training can increase muscle thickness, CSA, and the pennation angle of the lower limb muscles, and improve the mobility of spastic CP children making it useful as a practical adjunct to rehabilitation therapy. PMID:26157267

  11. Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

  12. Effects of a therapeutic climbing program on muscle activation and SF-36 scores of patients with lower back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Hun; Seo, Dong-Yel

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of lumbar stability exercises on chronic lower back pain by using a therapeutic climbing program on lumbar muscle activity and function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult subjects with chronic back pain participated. The subjects were assigned to 2 exercise groups, namely the lumbar stabilization (Mat Ex) and therapeutic climbing exercise groups (TC Ex). Each group trained for 30 minutes, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The Short-form 36-item Questionnaire (SF-36) was administered and the surface electromyographic (sEMG) activities of the lumbar muscles were measured. [Results] Both therapy groups showed significant increases in the SF-36 score, and the increase was greater in the TC Ex group. Significant increases in the sEMG activities of the lumbar muscles were found in both groups. The increases in the sEMG activities of the rectus abdominis and internal and external oblique muscles of the abdomen were greater in the TC Ex group than in the Mat Ex group. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that TC Ex, which is similar to normal lumbar stabilization exercise, is effective at activating and improving the function of the lumbar muscles. These results suggest that TC Ex has a positive impact on the stabilization of the lumbar region. PMID:25931721

  13. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePLUS

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  14. Metabolic surgery: quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Ramos-Leví, Ana M; Rubio Herrera, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The impact of bariatric surgery beyond its effect on weight loss has entailed a change in the way of regarding it. The term metabolic surgery has become more popular to designate those interventions that aim at resolving diseases that have been traditionally considered as of exclusive medical management, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Recommendations for metabolic surgery have been largely addressed and discussed in worldwide meetings, but no definitive consensus has been reached yet. Rates of diabetes remission after metabolic surgery have been one of the most debated hot topics, with heterogeneity being a current concern. This review aims to identify and clarify controversies regarding metabolic surgery, by focusing on a critical analysis of T2D remission rates achieved with different bariatric procedures, and using different criteria for its definition. Indications for metabolic surgery for patients with T2D who are not morbidly obese are also discussed. PMID:23911576

  15. Compensatory responses of the insulin signaling pathway restore muscle glucose uptake following long-term denervation

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Zachary J; Oxendine, Michael; Wheatley, Joshua L; Menke, Chelsea; Cassell, Emily A; Bartos, Amanda; Geiger, Paige C; Schaeffer, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of muscle activity in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis via transection of the sciatic nerve, an extreme model of disuse atrophy. Mice were killed 3, 10, 28, or 56 days after transection or sham surgery. There was no difference in muscle weight between sham and transected limbs at 3 days post surgery, but it was significantly lower following transection at the other three time points. Transected muscle weight stabilized by 28 days post surgery with no further loss. Myocellular cross-sectional area was significantly smaller at 10, 28, and 56 days post transection surgery. Additionally, muscle fibrosis area was significantly greater at 56 days post transection. In transected muscle there was reduced expression of genes encoding transcriptional regulators of metabolism (PPARα, PGC-1α, PGC-1β, PPARδ), a glycolytic enzyme (PFK), a fatty acid transporter (M-CPT 1), and an enzyme of mitochondrial oxidation (CS) with transection. In denervated muscle, glucose uptake was significantly lower at 3 days but was greater at 56 days under basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. Although GLUT 4 mRNA was significantly lower at all time points in transected muscle, Western blot analysis showed greater expression of GLUT4 at 28 and 56 days post surgery. GLUT1 mRNA was unchanged; however, GLUT1 protein expression was also greater in transected muscles. Surgery led to significantly higher protein expression for Akt2 as well as higher phosphorylation of Akt. While denervation may initially lead to reduced glucose sensitivity, compensatory responses of insulin signaling appeared to restore and improve glucose uptake in long-term-transected muscle. PMID:25896980

  16. Does primary brachial plexus surgery alter palliative tendon transfer surgery outcomes in children with obstetric paralysis?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The surgical management of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy can generally be divided into two groups; early reconstructions in which the plexus or affected nerves are addressed and late or palliative reconstructions in which the residual deformities are addressed. Tendon transfers are the mainstay of palliative surgery. Occasionally, surgeons are required to utilise already denervated and subsequently reinnervated muscles as motors. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of tendon transfers for residual shoulder dysfunction in patients who had undergone early nerve surgery to the outcomes in patients who had not. Methods A total of 91 patients with obstetric paralysis-related shoulder abduction and external rotation deficits who underwent a modified Hoffer transfer of the latissimus dorsi/teres major to the greater tubercle of the humerus tendon between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively analysed. The patients who had undergone neural surgery during infancy were compared to those who had not in terms of their preoperative and postoperative shoulder abduction and external rotation active ranges of motion. Results In the early surgery groups, only the postoperative external rotation angles showed statistically significant differences (25 degrees and 75 degrees for total and upper type palsies, respectively). Within the palliative surgery-only groups, there were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative abduction and external rotation angles. The significant differences between the early surgery groups and the palliative surgery groups with total palsy during the preoperative period diminished postoperatively (p < 0.05 and p > 0.05, respectively) for abduction but not for external rotation. Within the upper type palsy groups, there were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative abduction and external rotation angles. Conclusions In this study, it was found that in patients with total paralysis, satisfactory shoulder abduction values can be achieved with tendon transfers regardless of a previous history of neural surgery even if the preoperative values differ. PMID:21489264

  17. Ergonomics in laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Supe, Avinash N; Kulkarni, Gaurav V; Supe, Pradnya A

    2010-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery provides patients with less painful surgery but is more demanding for the surgeon. The increased technological complexity and sometimes poorly adapted equipment have led to increased complaints of surgeon fatigue and discomfort during laparoscopic surgery. Ergonomic integration and suitable laparoscopic operating room environment are essential to improve efficiency, safety, and comfort for the operating team. Understanding ergonomics can not only make life of surgeon comfortable in the operating room but also reduce physical strains on surgeon. PMID:20814508

  18. Optimal management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer a review

    PubMed Central

    Scarpato, Kristen R; Morgans, Alicia K; Moses, Kelvin A

    2015-01-01

    Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is a complex disease requiring aggressive management. Patients are often older with comorbid conditions that impact treatment options. This review describes the available therapies for invasive urothelial carcinoma, including chemotherapy, radical extirpative surgery, and bladder-preserving strategies. PMID:26380230

  19. Quantitative PCR Analysis of Laryngeal Muscle Fiber Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Daele, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Voice and swallowing dysfunction as a result of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis can be improved with vocal fold injections or laryngeal framework surgery. However, denervation atrophy can cause late-term clinical failure. A major determinant of skeletal muscle physiology is myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression, and previous protein analyses…

  20. Quantitative PCR Analysis of Laryngeal Muscle Fiber Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Daele, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Voice and swallowing dysfunction as a result of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis can be improved with vocal fold injections or laryngeal framework surgery. However, denervation atrophy can cause late-term clinical failure. A major determinant of skeletal muscle physiology is myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression, and previous protein analyses

  1. Muscle Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth; Feeback, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Presentations from the assembled group of investigators involved in specific research projeects related to skeletal muscle in space flight can categorized in thematic subtopics: regulation of contractile protein phenotypes, muscle growth and atrophy, muscle structure: injury, recovery,and regeneration, metabolism and fatigue, and motor control and loading factors.

  2. An Artificial Tendon with Durable Muscle Interface

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Alan; Litsky, Alan; Mayerson, Joel; Witte, David; Melvin, David; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    A coupling mechanism that can permanently fix a forcefully contracting muscle to a bone anchor or any totally inert prosthesis would meet a serious need in orthopaedics. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler device to satisfy these demands. The objective of this study was to test OrthoCouplers performance in vitro and in vivo in the goat semitendinosus tendon model. For in vitro evaluation, 40 samples were fatigue-tested, cycling at 10 load levels, n=4 each. For in vivo evaluation, the semitendinosus tendon was removed bilaterally in 8 goats. Left sides were reattached with an OrthoCoupler, and right sides were reattached using the Krackow stitch with #5 braided polyester sutures. Specimens were harvested 60 days post-surgery and assigned for biomechanics and histology. Fatigue strength of the devices in vitro was several times the contractile force of the semitendinosus muscle. The in vivo devices were built equivalent to two of the in vitro devices, providing an additional safety factor. In strength testing at necropsy, suture controls pulled out at 120.5 68.3 N, whereas each OrthoCoupler was still holding after the muscle tore, remotely, at 298111.3N (mean SD)(p<0.0003). Muscle tear strength was reached with the fiber-muscle composite produced in healing still soundly intact. This technology may be of value for orthopaedic challenges in oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and sports-injury reconstruction. PMID:19639642

  3. Intramuscular myxoma of the cervical paraspinal muscle.

    PubMed

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Righesso, Orlando; Volquind, Daniel; Teles, Alisson Roberto

    2009-07-01

    Myxoma is a neoplasm of mesenchymal origin composed of undifferentiated stellate cells in a myxoid stroma. This tumor can develop in a variety of locations. Myxomas that arise from skeletal muscles are called intramuscular myxomas. They usually occur in large skeletal muscles. Only ten cases of these benign tumors involving the neck muscles were reported in literature. Of them, only three were located at the paraspinal muscles. A 64-year-old woman presented with occipital and neck pain over 5 years noted an expansive painful lesion located at posterior cervical region with progressive volume increase in the last 12 months. Image exams revealed a large mass located in the left posterior region of the neck in contact with the C2, C3 and C4 laminae with no invasion of the vertebrae. Tumor total removal was performed through normal muscle margins and the vertebral periosteum was scraped. The tumor was encapsulated, lobulated with a gray-white appearance. The histological examination yielded the diagnosis of intramuscular myxoma. Follow-up at 1 year showed complete resolution of preoperative symptoms and no evidence of local recurrence. In conclusion, although rare, intramuscular myxoma should be included in differential diagnosis of cervical paraspinal tumors. We reported the fourth case of intramuscular myxoma in the paraspinal musculature of the neck. Despite its benign characteristics, local recurrence was reported after subtotal resection. Tumor total removal should be the goal of surgery. PMID:19301043

  4. Intramuscular myxoma of the cervical paraspinal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Righesso, Orlando; Volquind, Daniel; Teles, Alisson Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Myxoma is a neoplasm of mesenchymal origin composed of undifferentiated stellate cells in a myxoid stroma. This tumor can develop in a variety of locations. Myxomas that arise from skeletal muscles are called intramuscular myxomas. They usually occur in large skeletal muscles. Only ten cases of these benign tumors involving the neck muscles were reported in literature. Of them, only three were located at the paraspinal muscles. A 64-year-old woman presented with occiptal and neck pain over 5years noted an expansive painful lesion located at posterior cervical region with progressive volume increase in the last 12months. Image exams revealed a large mass located in the left posterior region of the neck in contact with the C2, C3 and C4 laminae with no invasion of the vertebrea. Tumor total removal was performed through normal muscle margins and the vertebral periosteum was scraped. The tumor was encapsuleted, lobulated with a gray-white appearance. The histological examination yielded the diagnosis of intramuscular myxoma. Follow-up at 1year showed complete resolution of preoperative symptoms and no evidence of local recurrence. In conclusion, although rare, intramuscular myxoma should be included in differential diagnosis of cervical paraspinal tumors. We reported the fourth case of intramuscular myxoma in the paraspinal musculature of the neck. Despite its benign characteristics, local recurrence was reported after subtotal resection. Tumor total removal should be the goal of surgery. PMID:19301043

  5. Periodontal Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Procedures Dental Implants Dentures Direct Bonding Implants versus Bridges Orthodontics and Aligners Periodontal Plastic Surgery Porcelain Crowns Porcelain Fixed Bridges Porcelain Veneers Repairing Chipped Teeth Teeth Whitening Tooth- ...

  6. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - ...

  7. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - discharge; Tetralogy of Fallot repair - discharge; Coarctation of the aorta repair - discharge; ...

  8. Hyperoxaluria and Bariatric Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplin, John R.

    2007-04-01

    Bariatric surgery as a means to treat obesity is becoming increasingly common in the United States. An early form of bariatric surgery, the jejunoileal bypass, had to be abandoned in 1980 due to numerous complications, including hyperoxaluria and kidney stones. Current bariatric procedures have not been systematically evaluated to determine if they cause hyperoxaluria. Presented here are data showing that hyperoxaluria is the major metabolic abnormality in patients with bariatric surgery who form kidney stones. Further studies are needed to assess the prevalence of hyperoxaluria in all patients with bariatric surgery.

  9. Relationships Between Muscle Activity and Anteroposterior Ground Reaction Forces in Hemiparetic Walking

    PubMed Central

    Turns, Lindsey J.; Neptune, Richard R.; Kautz, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine relationships between muscle activity and propulsive impulse in hemiparetic walking. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Gait analysis laboratory. Participants Forty-nine poststroke patients with chronic hemiparesis, stratified into hemiparetic severity subgroups based on Brunnstrom stages of motor recovery, walking at their self-selected speed. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Percent of muscle activity in the paretic and nonparetic legs and net anteroposterior (AP) ground reaction force impulse (ie, the time integral of the AP ground reaction force) within 4 regions of the stance phase (first double support, first and second halves of single support, and second double support). Results Medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscle activity correlated positively with paretic propulsion in the second half of single support and double support across all subjects and subjects grouped by hemiparetic severity. Tibialis anterior correlated negatively with paretic propulsion during preswing across all subjects and for subjects with moderate and severe hemiparesis. Rectus femoris activity also correlated negatively with preswing propulsion for the severe group. Uniarticular knee extensor activity correlated only with increased paretic braking in the first double-support phase for the severe hemiparesis group. Nonparetic leg muscle activity correlated with propulsive impulses across all subjects, but not within the severe group exclusively. Conclusions Paretic propulsion is strongly associated with increased plantarflexor activity and also negatively associated with increased leg flexor activity, especially in the severe hemiparesis group. These results suggest that exaggerated flexor muscle activity may counteract the effects of the plantarflexors by offloading the leg and interfering with the limbs ability to generate appropriate AP ground reaction forces. There is also evidence for specific relationships between paretic braking and nonparetic propulsive forces and changes in timing of muscle activation. PMID:17826457

  10. Physiological and electromyographic responses during 40-km cycling time trial: relationship to muscle coordination and performance.

    PubMed

    Bini, Rodrigo R; Carpes, Felipe P; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; Mota, Carlos B; Guimarães, Antônio Carlos S

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the oxygen uptake (VO(2)), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), cadence and muscle activity during cycling a 40-km time trial (TT), and to analyse the relationship between muscle activity and power output (PO). Eight triathletes cycled a 40-km TT on their own bicycles, which were mounted on a stationary cycle simulator. The VO(2), RER and muscle activity (electromyography, EMG) from tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius medialis (GA), biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) of the lower limb were collected. The PO was recorded from the cycle simulator. The data were collected at the 3rd, 10th, 20th, 30th and 38th km. The root mean square envelope (RMS) of EMG was calculated. The VO(2) and PO presented a significant increase at the 38th km (45.23+/-8.35 ml kg min(-1) and 107+/-7.11% of mean PO of 40-km, respectively) compared to the 3rd km (38.12+/-5.98 ml kg min(-1) and 92+/-8.30% of mean PO of 40-km, respectively). There were no significant changes in cadence and RER throughout the TT. The VL was the only muscle that presented significant increases in the RMS at the 10th km (22.56+/-3.05% max), 20th km (23.64+/-2.52% max), 30th km (25.27+/-3.00% max), and 38th km (26.28+/-3.57%max) when compared to the 3rd km (21.03+/-1.88%max). The RMS of VL and RF presented a strong relationship to PO (r=0.89 and 0.86, respectively, p<0.05). The muscular steady state reported for cycling a 30-min TT seems to occur in the 40-km TT, for almost all assessed muscles, probably in attempt to avoid premature muscle fatigue. PMID:17703997

  11. The Role of Extraocular Muscle Pulleys in Incomitant Non-Paralytic Strabismus.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    The rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) and inferior oblique muscle have paths through the orbit constrained by connective tissue pulleys. These pulleys shift position during contraction and relaxation of the EOMs, dynamically changing the biomechanics of force transfer from the tendon onto the globe. The paths of the EOMs are tightly conserved in normal patients and disorders in the location and/or stability of the pulleys can create patterns of incomitant strabismus that may mimic oblique muscle dysfunction and cranial nerve paresis. Developmental disorders of pulley location can occur in conjunction with large, obvious abnormalities of orbital anatomy (e.g., craniosynostosis syndromes) or subtle, isolated abnormalities in the location of one or more pulleys. Acquired disorders of pulley location can be divided into four broad categories: Connective tissue disorders (e.g., Marfan syndrome), globe size disorders (e.g., high myopia), senile degeneration (e.g., sagging eye syndrome), and trauma (e.g., orbital fracture or postsurgical). Recognition of these disorders is important because abnormalities in pulley location and movement are often resistant to standard surgical approaches that involve strengthening or weakening the oblique muscles or changing the positions of the EOM insertions. Preoperative diagnosis is aided by: (1) Clinical history of predisposing risk factors, (2) observation of malpositioning of the medial canthus, lateral canthus, and globe, and (3) gaze-controlled orbital imaging using direct coronal slices. Finally, surgical correction frequently involves novel techniques that reposition and stabilize the pulley and posterior muscle belly within the orbit using permanent scleral sutures or silicone bands without changing the location of the muscle's insertion. PMID:26180464

  12. Neurosedative and muscle-relaxant activities of ethyl acetate extract of Baphia nitida AFZEL.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O; Yemitan, Omoniyi K; Taiwo, Adefunmilayo E

    2006-07-19

    The sedative, anxiolytic and muscle-relaxant effects of the ethyl acetate leaf extract of Baphia nitida (BN) was investigated in intact mice, using the hole-board head-dip test for exploratory behavioural effect, elevated plus maze (EPM) and Y-maze (YM) models of anxiety; chimney, inclined screen, traction and climbing tests for muscle-relaxant effects. In each of these tests, BN (100-400mg/kg, p.o.), diazepam (1mg/kg, i.p.) or distilled water (10ml/kg, p.o.) was administered, 30 or 60min before performing the tests in mice. For exploratory behavioural test, number of head-dip within 15min was counted. For EPM and YM tests, the cumulative time spent in open and closed arms was recorded within 5min. In the muscle-relaxant tests, mice were subjected to modified models such as chimney, inclined screen, traction and climbing tests. BN produced a significant (P<0.05) dose-related decrease in exploratory behaviour in the head-dip test and prolongation of cumulative time spent in open arms of both EPM and YM. BN did not show any significant effect in the chimney and traction tests, but produced significant, dose-dependent muscle relaxation in the inclined screen and climbing tests. Furthermore, BN (200-1200microg/ml) non-competitively shifted the curves of acetylcholine contractions of the toad Rectus abdominis muscle to the right. Oral doses of BN (0.1-20g/kg) did not produce mortality, but the LD(50) when given intraperitoneally, was 645.65mg/kg. Results suggest that the leaf extract of Baphia nitida has sedative, anxiolytic and skeletal muscle-relaxant effects and support its neurosedative use in traditional African medicine. PMID:16516421

  13. Balance recovery is compromised and trunk muscle activity is increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle D; Chang, Angela T; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-01-01

    Increased respiration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires greater abdominal muscle activation, which may impact on contribution of the trunk to postural control. This study aimed to determine whether recovery of balance from postural perturbations and trunk muscle activity differs in people with and without COPD before and/or after exercise. Electromyography (EMG) of the obliquus internus (OI) and externus (OE) abdominis, rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES) and deltoid muscles was recorded with surface electrodes during rapid shoulder flexion and extension. Time taken to regain baseline centre of pressure velocity (vCOP) and the number of postural adjustments following arm movement was calculated from force plate data. Time to recover balance in the direction of postural disturbance (anteroposterior vCOP) was longer in COPD, particularly more severe COPD, than controls. Mediolateral vCOP (perpendicular to the perturbation) and the number of postural adjustments did not differ between groups, but people with more severe COPD were less successful at returning their mediolateral vCOP to baseline. Abdominal muscle EMG was similar between groups, but controls had greater ES EMG during arm movements. Individuals with more severe COPD had greater OE and RA EMG both before and during arm movement compared to those with less severe COPD and controls. Following exercise, OE and ES EMG increased in people with less severe COPD. This study shows that severe COPD is associated with impaired ability to recover balance and greater trunk muscle activity during postural challenges. Augmented trunk muscle activity may limit the contribution of trunk movements to balance recovery and could contribute to increased falls risk. PMID:26471324

  14. Pelvic Organ Prolapse--Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Now PFD Treatments POP Surgery Types of POP Surgery Mesh Information 3 Resources + More POP FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... you can prepare for surgery. The other offers information about mesh. Download Preparing for Surgery (PDF) Mesh Information for Patients with Pelvic Floor ...

  15. Oxidative Metabolism in Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, M.; Binzoni, T.; Quaresima, V.

    1997-06-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantages and problems of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements, in resting and exercising skeletal muscles studies, are discussed through some representative examples.

  16. Glucocorticoids and Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Bodine, Sue C; Furlow, J David

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are known to regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, producing a catabolic effect that is opposite that of insulin. In many catabolic diseases, such as sepsis, starvation, and cancer cachexia, endogenous glucocorticoids are elevated contributing to the loss of muscle mass and function. Further, exogenous glucocorticoids are often given acutely and chronically to treat inflammatory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, resulting in muscle atrophy. This chapter will detail the nature of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy and discuss the mechanisms thought to be responsible for the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids on muscle. PMID:26215994

  17. Heterogeneous recruitment of quadriceps muscle portions and fibre types during moderate intensity knee-extensor exercise: effect of thigh occlusion.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, P; Sderlund, K; Relu, M U; Ferguson, R A; Bangsbo, J

    2009-08-01

    The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without (MOD; 29+/-4 W) and with thigh OCC, and moderate exercise followed by 90-s of intense exercise (HI; 65+/-8 W). Temperatures were continuously measured in m. vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) and successive muscle biopsies were obtained from VL. During MOD, muscle temperature increase (DeltaT(m)) in RF was 0.52+/-0.09 degrees C, which was 57% and 73% higher (P<0.05) than in VL and VM, respectively. During OCC, DeltaT(m) in RF was 0.39+/-0.05 degrees C, which was not different from VM but 54% higher (P<0.05) than in VL. After MOD, muscle CP in slow twitch (ST) and fast twitch (FT) fibres was 81% and 91% of resting levels, respectively, with lower (P<0.05) values after OCC (15% and 22%) and HI (24% and 13%). After MOD, OCC and HI, a total of 48%, 93% and 96% of the ST fibres had CP levels below mean-1 SD, respectively, with corresponding values for FT fibres being 41%, 89% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, a heterogeneous recruitment of the quadriceps muscle portions and muscle fibres was observed during submaximal knee-extensor exercise, whereas recruitment pattern was homogenous during intense exercise. Thigh OCC caused an altered recruitment of fibres and muscle portions, suggesting a significant afferent response affecting the activation of fibres in the contracting muscles. PMID:18627560

  18. Optical characterization of muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Lus; Lage, Armindo; Pais Clemente, Manuel; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2012-03-01

    Optical characterization and internal structure of biological tissues is highly important for biomedical optics. In particular for optical clearing processes, such information is of vital importance to understand the mechanisms involved through the variation of the refractive indices of tissue components. The skeletal muscle presents a fibrous structure with an internal arrangement of muscle fiber cords surrounded by interstitial fluid that is responsible for strong light scattering. To determine the refractive index of muscle components we have used a simple method of measuring tissue mass and refractive index during dehydration. After performing measurements for natural and ten dehydration states of the muscle samples, we have determined the dependence between the refractive index of the muscle and its water content. Also, we have joined our measurements with some values reported in literature to perform some calculations that have permitted to determine the refractive index of the dried muscle fibers and their corresponding volume percentage inside the natural muscle.

  19. Optical characterization of muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Lus; Lage, Armindo; Pais Clemente, Manuel; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2011-10-01

    Optical characterization and internal structure of biological tissues is highly important for biomedical optics. In particular for optical clearing processes, such information is of vital importance to understand the mechanisms involved through the variation of the refractive indices of tissue components. The skeletal muscle presents a fibrous structure with an internal arrangement of muscle fiber cords surrounded by interstitial fluid that is responsible for strong light scattering. To determine the refractive index of muscle components we have used a simple method of measuring tissue mass and refractive index during dehydration. After performing measurements for natural and ten dehydration states of the muscle samples, we have determined the dependence between the refractive index of the muscle and its water content. Also, we have joined our measurements with some values reported in literature to perform some calculations that have permitted to determine the refractive index of the dried muscle fibers and their corresponding volume percentage inside the natural muscle.

  20. Effects of shoe type on lower extremity muscle activity during treadmill walking

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of different shoe types on lower extremity muscle activity in healthy young women by using electromyography. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy young women in their 20s were included in this single-group repeated measures study. The subjects were divided into three groups: Converse sneakers, rain boots, and combat boots. The subjects walked on a treadmill at 4 km/h for 30 min, during which six muscles were examined using electromyography: the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, semimembranosus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and medial head of the gastrocnemius. Between switching shoe types, a 24-h rest period was instated to prevent the fatigue effect from treadmill walking. [Results] One-way analysis of variance used to compare electromyography results among the three groups showed that the main effect of group differed significantly for the vastus medialis. Vastus medialis activity was higher in the rain boots group than the Converse sneakers group, and it was higher in the combat boots group than rain boots group. [Conclusion] Shoe type affects lower extremity muscle activity. Our findings may help individuals choose the ideal shoes for daily walking. PMID:26834363