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1

Surgical results of the slipped medial rectus muscle after hang back recession surgery  

PubMed Central

AIM To analyze the surgical results of a slipped medial rectus muscle (MRM) after hang back recession surgery for esotropia. METHODS Twenty-one patients who underwent re-exploration for diagnosed slipped muscle after hang back recession surgery were included in this retrospective study. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed to identify the location of the slipped muscle. Ocular motility was evaluated with assessment with prism and cover test in gaze at cardinal positions. The operations were performed by the same consultant. Intraoperative forced duction test was performed under general anesthesia. The empty sheath of the slipped MRM was resected and the muscle was advanced to the original insertion site in all patients. RESULTS The average age of 21 patients who had consecutive exotropia with a slipped MRM at the time of presentation was 17.4±5.4y (5-50y). The average duration between the first operation and the diagnosis of the slipped muscle was 25mo (12 to 36mo). The mean follow up after the corrective surgery was 28mo. The mean preoperative adduction limitation in the field of action of the slipped muscle was -2.26 (ranging from -1 to -4). All patients had full adduction postoperatively. CONCLUSION The diagnosis of the slipped muscle should be confirmed during the strabismus surgery. The slipped muscle may be caused due to insufficient suture and excessive rubbing of the eye. When divergent strabismus is observed after the recession of the MRM, a slipped muscle should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

Duranoglu, Yasar; Ilhan, Hatice Deniz; Guler Alis, Meryem

2014-01-01

2

Adjustable Augmented Rectus Muscle Transposition Surgery with or Without Ciliary Vessel Sparing for Abduction Deficiencies  

PubMed Central

Background Vertical rectus transposition (VRT) is useful in abduction deficiencies. Posterior fixation sutures enhance the effect of VRT, but usually preclude the use of adjustable sutures. Augmentation of VRT by resection of the transposed muscles allows for an adjustable technique that can reduce induced vertical deviations and overcorrections. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients undergoing adjustable partial or full tendon VRT augmented by resection of the transposed muscles. Ciliary vessels were preserved in most of the patients by either splitting the transposed muscle or by dragging the transposed muscle without disrupting the muscle insertion. Results Seven patients with abducens palsy and one with esotropic Duane syndrome were included. Both vertical rectus muscles were symmetrically resected by 3–5 mm. Preoperative central gaze esotropia of 30.6 ± 12.9? (range, 17–50?) decreased to 10.6 ± 8.8? (range, 0–25?) at the final visit (p = 0.003). Three patients required postoperative adjustment by recession of one of the transposed muscles due to an induced vertical deviation (mean 9.3? reduced to 0?), coupled with overcorrection (mean exotropia 11.3? reduced to 0 in two patients and exophoria 2? in one patient). At the final follow-up visit 3.8 ± 2.6 months postoperatively, one patient had a vertical deviation <4?, and none had overcorrection or anterior segment ischemia. Three patients required further surgery for recurrent esotropia. Conclusions Augmentation of VRT by resection of the transposed muscles can be performed with adjustable sutures and vessel-sparing technique. This allows for postoperative control of overcorrections and induced vertical deviations as well as less risk of anterior segment ischemia. PMID:24738948

Hendler, Karen; Pineles, Stacy L.; Demer, Joseph L.; Yang, Dawn; Velez, Federico G.

2014-01-01

3

Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is characterized by an abnormal existence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically occuring within the pelvis of women in reproductive age. We report two cases with endometriosis of the abdominal wall; the first one in the rectus abdominis muscle and the second one in the surgical scar of previous caesarean incision along with the rectus abdominis muscle. Pre-operative evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging. The masses were dissected free from the surrounding tissue and excised with clear margins. Diagnosis of the excised lesions were verified by histopathology. PMID:25523734

Goker, Asli; Sarsmaz, Kemal; Pekindil, Gokhan; Kandiloglu, Ali Riza; Kuscu, Naci Kemal

2014-12-01

4

[Spontaneous hematoma of the rectus muscle].  

PubMed

The possibility of heart surgery and vascular surgery and the increased number of dialyzed patients receiving dicourmarin and heparin treatment raises the question of the probable rupture of the abdominal muscles, in particular the rectus muscles, following the onset of lancing abdominal pain. The authors report a clinical case referred to them in emergency conditions. They examine the possible etiopathogenetic causes and underline the symptoms of acute abdomen in patients being treated with anti-coagulating drugs. PMID:8121595

Vadalà, G; Cardì, F; Fisicaro, E; De Luca, A; Mangiameli, A

1993-10-31

5

Mechanisms of improved knee flexion after rectus femoris transfer surgery  

PubMed Central

Rectus femoris transfer is frequently performed to treat stiff-knee gait in subjects with cerebral palsy. In this surgery, the distal tendon is released from the patella and re-attached to one of several sites, such as the sartorius or the iliotibial band. Surgical outcomes vary, and the mechanisms by which the surgery improves knee motion are unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanism by which the transferred muscle improves knee flexion by examining three types of transfers. Muscle-actuated dynamic simulations were created of ten children diagnosed with cerebral palsy and stiff-knee gait. These simulations were altered to represent surgical transfers of the rectus femoris to the sartorius and the iliotibial band. Rectus femoris transfers in which the muscle remained attached to the underlying vasti through scar tissue were also simulated by reducing but not eliminating the muscle’s knee extension moment. Simulated transfer to the sartorius, which converted the rectus femoris’ knee extension moment to a flexion moment, produced 32° ± 8° improvement in peak knee flexion on average. Simulated transfer to the iliotibial band, which completely eliminated the muscle’s knee extension moment, predicted only slightly less improvement in peak knee flexion (28° ± 8°). Scarred transfer simulations, which reduced the muscle’s knee extension moment, predicted significantly less (p < 0.001) improvement in peak knee flexion (14° ± 5°). Simulations revealed that improved knee flexion following rectus femoris transfer is achieved primarily by reduction of the muscle’s knee extension moment. Reduction of scarring of the rectus femoris to underlying muscles has the potential to enhance knee flexion. PMID:19217109

Fox, Melanie D.; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A.; Õunpuu, Sylvia; Delp, Scott L.

2010-01-01

6

Surgery for Complete Vertical Rectus Paralysis Combined with Horizontal Strabismus  

PubMed Central

Aims. To report outcomes of the simultaneous surgical correction of vertical rectus paralysis combined with moderate-to-large angle horizontal strabismus. Methods. If a preoperative forced duction test was positive, antagonist muscle weakening surgery was performed, and then augmented partial rectus muscle transposition (APRMT) + partial horizontal rectus recession-resection was performed 2 months later. If a preoperative forced duction test was negative, APRMT + partial horizontal rectus recession-resection was performed. Antagonistic muscle weakening surgery and/or conventional recession-resection of the horizontal and/or vertical muscles of the contralateral eye was performed 2 months later, as needed. Results. Ten patients with a mean age of 22.3 ± 13.0 years were included and mean follow-up was 7.1 months. The mean vertical deviation that APRMT corrected was 21.4 ± 3.7 PD (prism diopter). The absolute deviation in horizontal significantly decreased from a preoperative value of 48.5 ± 27.4 PD to a value of 3.0 ± 2.3 PD 6 months postoperatively. The movement score decreased from a value of ?5 ± 0 preoperatively to a value of ?2.7 ± 0.8 at 6 months postoperatively. Conclusion. For patients with complete vertical rectus paralysis combined with a moderate- to-large angle of horizontal strabismus, combined APRMT and partial horizontal rectus recession-resection is safe and effective for correcting vertical and horizontal strabismus. PMID:24883204

Zou, Leilei; Liu, Rui; Liu, Yan; Lin, Jing; Liu, Hong

2014-01-01

7

Rectus abdominis muscle strains in tennis players  

PubMed Central

Rectus abdominis muscle strains are common and debilitating injuries among competitive tennis players. Eccentric overload, followed by forced contraction of the non?dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion is the accepted injury mechanism. A tennis?specific rehabilitation program emphasising eccentrics and plyometric strengthening of the abdominal wall muscles, contributes to the complete functional recovery in tennis players, and could help reduce recurrences. PMID:17957025

Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan P; Kokalj, Antonio M

2007-01-01

8

Ultrasound-guided excision of rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis excised under ultrasound guidance. A 36-year-old woman came to our observation presenting an abdominal nodule located in the right side of the umbilical area. Ultrasound of the abdominal wall showed two hypoechogenic nodules in the context of the right rectus abdominis muscle and a fine-needle aspiration, performed under ultrasound guidance, confirmed the diagnosis of endometriosis. The patient underwent surgical excision of the lesions. Intraoperative localization was performed through ultrasonography. In our case, the diagnosis was essentially based on ultrasound scan. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were not performed. A high-resolution ultrasound is a simple, inexpensive and safe method and is sufficient for indicating surgery. Furthermore, the use of intraoperative ultrasound allowed adequate margins of excision. PMID:25160779

Coccia, Maria Elisabetta; Rizzello, Francesca; Nannini, Sara; Cozzolino, Mauro; Capezzuoli, Tommaso; Castiglione, Francesca

2015-01-01

9

Posterior fixation sutures: a revised mechanical explanation for the fadenoperation based on rectus extraocular muscle pulleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of the rectus extraocular muscle pulleys on the fadenoperation, an operation designed to fixate the posterior muscle belly to the underlying retroequatorial sclera.METHODS: First, duction into the field of action of the operated-on muscle was quantified retrospectively after fadenoperation. Magnetic resonance imaging was then performed prospectively after surgery to verify anatomic changes. Forced duction testing

Robert A Clark; Sherwin J Isenberg; Arthur L Rosenbaum; Joseph L Demer

1999-01-01

10

Functional magnetic resonance imaging of horizontal rectus muscles in esotropia  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Monkey neurophysiology suggests that changes in neural drive rather than extraocular muscle structure underlie sensory-induced strabismus. If this is true, then extraocular muscle structure should be normal. We used magnetic resonance imaging to measure horizontal rectus muscle size and contractility to determine whether muscle structure is a factor in human concomitant esotropia. METHODS High-resolution, quasicoronal plane magnetic resonance imaging was performed in target-controlled central gaze, abduction, and adduction in 13 orthotropic controls (mean age, 38 ± 19 years) and 12 adults (mean age, 52 ± 16 years) who had concomitant esotropia averaging 28? ± 18? at distance. Thyroid ophthalmopathy was excluded. Horizontal rectus muscle cross sections were determined in 6 contiguous, 2-mm-thick midorbital image planes. Contractility was computed in each plane as the difference in cross section from contraction to relaxation. RESULTS Medial rectus muscle cross sections in multiple planes averaged up to 39% larger in esotropic patients than in controls (P <0.005), whereas lateral rectus muscle cross sections in esotropia were up to 28% larger but only significantly larger in one plane (P <0.02). Medial rectus contractility was increased by up to 60% in esotropic patients (P <0.005), whereas lateral rectus contractility in esotropia was slightly but not significantly supernormal. CONCLUSIONS Medial rectus muscle size is supernormal and lateral rectus muscle size is not subnormal in concomitant esotropia. This finding indicates that human concomitant esotropia is associated with peripheral muscular abnormality. PMID:23352382

Schoeff, Kirsta; Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

2014-01-01

11

Evidence for Active Control of Rectus Extraocular Muscle Pulleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Connective tissue structures constrain paths of the rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs), acting as pulleys and serving as functional EOM origins. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of orbital and global EOM layers to pulleys and kinematic implications of this anatomy. METHODS. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to define the anterior paths of rectus EOMs, as

Joseph L. Demer; Oh Sy; Vadims Poukens

2000-01-01

12

Compartmentalized Innervation of Primate Lateral Rectus Muscle  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Skeletal and craniofacial muscles are frequently composed of multiple neuromuscular compartments that serve different physiological functions. Evidence of possible regional selectivity in LR intramuscular innervation was sought in a study of the anatomic potential of lateral rectus (LR) muscle compartmentalization. Methods. Whole orbits of two humans and five macaque monkeys were serially sectioned at 10-?m thickness and stained with Masson trichrome. The abducens nerve (CN6) was traced anteriorly from the deep orbit as it branched to enter the LR and arborized among extraocular muscle (EOM) fibers. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed in human and monkey orbits. Results. Findings were in concordance in the monkey and human orbits. External to the LR global surface, CN6 bifurcated into approximately equal-sized trunks before entering the global layer. Subsequent arborization showed a systematic topography, entering a well-defined inferior zone 0.4 to 2.5 mm more posteriorly than branches entering the largely nonoverlapping superior zone. Zonal innervation remained segregated anteriorly and laterally within the LR. Conclusions. Consistent segregation of intramuscular CN6 arborization in humans and monkeys suggests functionally distinct superior and inferior zones for the LR. Since the LR is shaped as a broad vertical strap, segregated control of the two zones could activate them separately, potentially mediating previously unappreciated but substantial torsional and vertical oculorotary LR actions. PMID:20435590

Peng, Michelle; Poukens, Vadims; da Silva Costa, Roberta Martins; Yoo, Lawrence; Tychsen, Lawrence

2010-01-01

13

Magnetic resonance imaging after surgical transposition defines the anteroposterior location of the rectus muscle pulleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Connective tissue pulleys serve as the functional origins of the rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) and constrain the sideslip of the posterior EOM bellies after transposition surgery. Anterior to the pulleys, EOM paths appreciably displace to reach their transposed insertions. The inflection points in the EOM paths from minimal posterior displacement to maximal anterior displacement should define the anteroposterior location

Robert A. Clark; Arthur L. Rosenbaum; Joseph L. Demer

1999-01-01

14

Traumatic longitudinal splitting of the inferior rectus muscle  

PubMed Central

Orbital floor fractures and associated injuries can cause strabismus. We present the case of a 34-year-old man with incomitant strabismus following orbital reconstruction after a high-impact baseball injury. Multipositional, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extensive longitudinal splitting of the inferior rectus muscle by an orbital floor implant that separated its orbital and global layers. PMID:21463958

Laursen, Jessica; Demer, Joseph L.

2011-01-01

15

[Autopsy case of PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis complicated with rectus muscle hematoma].  

PubMed

A 80-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of coughing, hemosputum and dyspnea. As a chest X-ray showed infiltrates of the right lung, he was diagnosed as bacterial pneumonia and treated with antibiotics. However, after a few days, he exhibited hemoptysis and developed severe dyspnea, while laboratory findings showed rapid elevation of the serum creatinine level (5.55 mg dL). Computed tomography (CT) revealed large areas of ground glass opacity in the right lung, hence the hemoptysis was considered to be due to alveolar hemorrhage. As he had been diagnosed as chronic renal failure a few years before this admission and we also noticed that interstitial pneumonia with a slightly elevated level of C-reactive protein had existed from that time, ANCA-associated vasculitis was suspected to be the underlying pathogenesis. Accordingly, he was started on methylprednisolone pulse therapy and temporary hemodialysis resulted in improvement of dyspnea and renal function. PR3-ANCA was 12.4 EU, so he was diagnosed as PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis. After a few days, he suddenly complained of abdominal pain, developing hypotension and anemia. Abdominal CT showed an irregular low-density mass in the right muscle, so he was diagnosed as rectus muscle hematoma. Surgery was performed and a massive hematoma was found in the rectus muscle without any ruptures of macroscopic vessels in the abdomen. Bleeding could not be stopped followed by multiple organ failure and the patient died four days postoperatively. Rectus muscle hematoma is an uncommon cause of acute abdomen, and has been reported in about 100 cases in Japan. It occurs because of a tear in epigastric vessels and is usually managed conservatively with a good prognosis, although hemodynamically unstable cases require surgery. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rectus muscle hematoma complicated with ANCA-associated vasculitis. PMID:19715163

Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Niihata, Kakuya; Yasuda, Keiko; Shimomura, Akihiro; Uehata, Takuya; Inoue, Kazunori; Kaneko, Tetsuya; Shoji, Tatsuya; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Okada, Noriyuki

2009-01-01

16

An interesting case of bilateral bifid insertion of superior rectus muscle as an intra-operative finding in a patient with oculocutaneous albinism.  

PubMed

We report a case of bilateral bifid insertion of superior rectus muscles, in a patient with oculocutaneous albinism as an incidental intraoperative finding during eye muscle surgery. The muscle was successfully operated on and the patient did well postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this anomaly. PMID:23975092

Verma, Rashmi; Hertle, Richard W

2014-08-01

17

Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in patients with horizontal rectus muscle recession  

PubMed Central

AIM To compare surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) following horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery between suspension recession with both the “hang-back” technique and conventional recession technique. METHODS Totally, 48 eyes of 24 patients who had undergone horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups. Twelve patients were operated on by the hang-back technique (Group 1), and 12 by the conventional recession technique (Group 2). SIA was calculated on the 1st wk, 1st and in the 3rd mo after surgery using the SIA calculator. RESULTS SIA was statistically higher in the Group 1 all postoperative follow-up. SIA was the highest in the 1st wk, and decreased gradually in both groups. CONCLUSION The suspension recession technique induced much more SIA than the conventional recession technique. This difference also continued in the following visits. Therefore, the refractive power should be checked postoperatively in order to avoid refractive amblyopia. Conventional recession surgery should be the preferred method so as to minimize the postoperative refractive changes in patients with amblyopia. PMID:25161948

Çakmak, Harun; Kocatürk, Tolga; Dündar, Sema Oruç

2014-01-01

18

Muscle strength measurements and functional outcome of an untreated complete distal rectus femoris muscle tear.  

PubMed

A 46-year-old man sustained an injury to his right thigh while skiing. He sought medical advice after 6 weeks, presenting a palpable painful mass of his anterior proximal thigh but no functional deficit. An isolated complete distal intrasubstance tear of the rectus femoris muscle was diagnosed on ultrasound and MRI scans, and the patient received no medical treatment. Functional and dynamometer tests after 1 year showed high limb symmetry indexes and only slightly reduced values for peak torque and total work on the injured side. The patient had resumed skiing activities and reported slight pain after intense downhill skiing runs, but no functional limitations. MRI scans after 19 months showed increased retraction of the rectus femoris muscle. The natural history of an untreated complete distal rectus femoris muscle tear with no functional deficit may result in minimal disability. PMID:25378109

Figved, Wender; Grindem, Hege; Aaberg, Morten; Engebretsen, Lars

2014-01-01

19

Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis Report of two cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Endometriosis involving the rectus abdominis muscle is very rare; until now, only 19 such cases have been reported in the medical literature since it was first described in 1984 by Amato and Levitt; almost all were associated with previous abdominal surgery such as cesarean section or other operations. We report two additional cases of this very rare condition presenting with an abdominal mass which was surgically excised with an accompanying margin of normal tissue. Both patients are well and without recurrence. Endometriosis pain has generally been described as cyclical and this condition usually develops in an old surgical scar. Endometriosis has no pathognomonic imaging findings on CT, MRI or sonography, as its appearance depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle, the proportion of stromal and glandular elements, the amount of bleeding and the degree of surrounding inflammatory and fibrotic response. Surgery is the treatment of choice including 5-10 mm of surrounding healthy tissue as surgical margin, to prevent recurrence. Our experience is in agreement with the data of the literature. We suggest that endometriosis must be included in the differential diagnosis of a symptomatic mass in the abdominal wall in women with and without a surgical history. Key words: Endometriosis, Rectus abdominis muscle, Surgery. PMID:22722317

Calò, Pietro Giorgio; Ambu, Rossano; Medas, Fabio; Longheu, Alessandro; Pisano, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Angelo

2012-06-20

20

Active Pulleys: Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Rectus Muscle Paths in Tertiary Gazes  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. The orbital layer of each rectus extraocular muscle (EOM) inserts on connective tissue, and the global layer inserts on the eyeball. The active-pulley hypothesis (APH) proposes that a condensation of this connective tissue constitutes a pulley serving as the functional origin of the rectus EOM, and that this pulley makes coordinated, gaze-related translations along the EOM axis to implement

Reika Kono; Robert A. Clark; Joseph L. Demer

2002-01-01

21

Reduction of ocular muscle power by splitting of the rectus muscle I: Biomechanics  

PubMed Central

Background/aim: Based on mechanical considerations, the authors have developed a new approach to weakening oculomotor muscles. They present the biomechanical considerations that have encouraged them to explore this approach, and compare it with existing surgical techniques. Results of application to patients are given in the companion paper, and do not require an analytical understanding of the underlying mechanics. Methods: Using a simple biomechanical model for the oculomotor system and vector component analysis, the eye position dependent torque exerted by extraocular muscles on the eyeball was investigated. This model was applied to the healthy eye, as well as to different surgical procedures (Cüppers’ Fadenoperation, Y-split muscle recessions, botulinum toxin, and simple muscle recessions). Conclusion: These investigations suggest that a Y-split muscle recession is a simple and efficient way to weaken ocular rectus muscles. Compared to alternative surgical procedures, undesired radial forces that can lead to post-surgical complications can be kept to a minimum. The authors further speculate that their good results may in part be because of possible preservation of proprioceptive inputs from the insertion of the extraocular muscle. PMID:15489482

Haslwanter, T; Hoerantner, R; Priglinger, S

2004-01-01

22

Double insertions of extraocular rectus muscles in humans and the pulley theory  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have promoted the concept that rectus muscles pass through connective tissue pulleys located near the equator of the eye and act, in effect, as the muscle origins. Orbital muscle fibres (facing bone) terminate in pulleys, permitting adjustment of their position independent of the global fibres responsible for rotating the eye. The structure of pulleys (or muscle sleeves) and the passage taken by their muscle fibre insertions are unclear, and a detailed description is presented here together with a review of the active pulley hypothesis. Segments including the full width of single muscles were removed from the full orbital contents of dissection room cadavers and fresh perfusion-fixed rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys and prepared for light microscopy. Thin longitudinal sections were cut as facets from resin-embedded tissue blocks and montages assembled. Interrupted serial sections of selected regions of both species and ultrathin sections of monkey material were prepared for light and electron microscopy, respectively. Slender tendons leave the orbital surface of rectus muscles at intervals, aggregating and entering sleeves in humans and monkey; less frequently, tendons pass from the global surface to sleeves or insert directly in the posterior fascia bulbi. The orbital sides of sleeve rings are continuous with the fascial canopy of the globe and are 5–6 times as thick as the global sides; sleeve structure differs in the four recti. Medial rectus sleeves are the thickest, and contain smooth muscle, whereas little or none is present in the other rectus sleeves. Superior rectus sleeves are variable in structure and relatively insubstantial. A narrow interval separates muscles from the surrounding connective tissue equatorially in some preparations, consistent with a capacity to slide, but the tissues are contiguous in others, especially in monkey material. The structural organization of sleeves and their tendons, together with other presented factors, is inconsistent with a facility for the separate adjustment of sleeve position. The results favour the theory that sleeve tendons have just one role, to counter the viscoelastic resistance of global fascia – ocular and sleeve muscle fibres acting in unison. Whether the fragile sleeve structure can meet the physical demands of pulleys is questionable; but otherwise the veracity of the pulley hypothesis cannot be assessed from the structural relations of muscles and fascia bulbi reported. PMID:15733302

Ruskell, Gordon L; Haugen, Inga-Britt Kjellevold; Bruenech, Jan Richard; van der Werf, Frans

2005-01-01

23

Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball. PMID:24198573

Balius, Ramon; Pedret, Carles; Pacheco, Laura; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Vives, Joan; Escoda, Jaume

2011-01-01

24

Early Results of Slanted Recession of the Lateral Rectus Muscle for Intermittent Exotropia with Convergence Insufficiency  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of slanted recession of the lateral rectus muscle for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency. This prospective study included 31 patients who underwent slanted lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency between June 2010 and June 2012. Following parameters were recorded and analyzed: patient sex, age, preoperative and postoperative near and distance ocular alignment, and changes in stereopsis. The mean age of the patients was 9.2 years. The preoperative mean deviation angle was 32.4?PD at distance and 43.4?PD at near. After 6 months, slanted lateral rectus recession reduced the deviation angles to 2?PD at distance and 3.4?PD at near. In addition, the mean difference between distance and near deviation angles was significantly reduced from 11?PD to 1.4?PD at 6 months postoperatively. Slanted lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency in children successfully reduced the distance and near exodeviations and the near-distance difference without increasing the risk of long-term postoperative esotropia or diplopia.

Kang, Kyung Min

2015-01-01

25

Retrospective study of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle in periodic alternating nystagmus  

PubMed Central

Purpose Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a spontaneous horizontal nystagmus observed in disorders of the central nervous system. Patients with congenital PAN complain of oscillating vision at high rates. Medication is the first-choice treatment for PAN; however, clinicians still seek better therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle (R-FHR) in patients with congenital PAN. Patients and methods This study reports a retrospective case series of ten patients (seven males and three females; mean age 24.4±10.9) with congenital PAN who underwent R-FHR between 2007 and 2012, which was performed by the same surgeon at the Hyogo College of Medicine. Patients were evaluated for complications, recession amount, deviation angle, eye movements including a nystagmus amplitude, and visual acuity during pre- and post-operative periods. Results Pre-operatively, patients complained of oscillating vision, abnormal head posture, esotropia, and congenital superior oblique palsy. Post-operatively, changes from the previous observations of nystagmus amplitudes and abnormal head posture demonstrated a complete reversal in all patients. In addition, visual acuity determined with a Snellen chart improved in two patients. However, esotropia occurred in three patients who underwent additional strabismus surgery 2 days after R-FHR. R-FHR was particularly effective in eight patients who pre-operatively had periodic oscillating vision with a regular pattern of periodic nystagmus. Conclusion We demonstrated that ten patients with congenital PAN had improved vision following R-FHR, indicating that R-FHR was an effective procedure, especially in patients suffering PAN with periodic oscillating vision. PMID:25525330

Mimura, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kimura, Naoki; Kimura, Akiko; Borlongan, Cesar V

2014-01-01

26

Large Asymmetric Hypertrophy of Rectus Abdominis Muscle in Professional Tennis Players  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the musculus rectus abdominis (RA) in professional tennis players. Methods The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 8 professional male tennis players and 6 non-active male control subjects. Results Tennis players had 58% greater RA volume than controls (P?=?0.01), due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (34% greater volume, P?=?0.02) and non-dominant (82% greater volume, P?=?0.01) sides, after accounting for age, the length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI) as covariates. In tennis players, there was a marked asymmetry in the development of the RA, which volume was 35% greater in the non-dominant compared to the dominant side (P<0.001). In contrast, no side-to-side difference in RA volume was observed in the controls (P?=?0.75). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry increased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis (r?=?0.97, P<0.001). Conclusions Professional tennis is associated with marked hypertrophy of the musculus rectus abdominis, which achieves a volume that is 58% greater than in non-active controls. Rectus abdominis hypertrophy is more marked in the non-dominant than in the dominant side, particularly in the more distal regions. Our study supports the concept that humans can differentially recruit both rectus abdominis but also the upper and lower regions of each muscle. It remains to be determined if this disequilibrium raises the risk of injury. PMID:21209832

Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Idoate, Fernando; Dorado, Cecilia; Alayón, Santiago; Calbet, Jose A. L.

2010-01-01

27

Functional Morphometry of Horizontal Rectus Extraocular Muscles during Horizontal Ocular Duction  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We explored multiple quantitative measures of horizontal rectus extraocular muscle (EOM) morphology to determine the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measure best correlating with duction and thus contractility. Methods. Surface coil coronal MRI was obtained in target-controlled central gaze and multiple positions of adduction and abduction in 26 orbits of 15 normal volunteers. Duction angles were determined by position changes of the globe-optic nerve junction. Cross-sectional areas, partial volumes, and location of peak cross-sections of the horizontal rectus EOMs were computed in contiguous image planes 2-mm thick spanning the EOM origins to the globe equator. Results. All measures correlated significantly with duction angle (P < 0.0001). The best measures obtainable in single image planes were the maximum change in the cross-sectional area between equivalent image planes, with coefficients of determination R2 = 0.92 for medial rectus (MR) and 0.91 for lateral rectus (LR), and percentage change in maximum cross-section with R2 = 0.79 for MR and 0.78 for LR. The best partial volume measure of contractility was the change in partial volumes in four contiguous posterior planes (R2 = 0.86 MR and for 0.89 LR), particularly when combined with the corresponding change in partial volume for the antagonist EOM (R2 = 0.95 for MR and LR). Conclusions. EOM morphologic changes are highly correlated with degrees of duction and thus contractility. Both changes in single-plane maximum cross-sectional areas and posterior partial volumes provide accurate, quantitative measures of EOM contractility. PMID:22997285

Clark, Robert A.; Demer, Joseph L.

2012-01-01

28

In vivo muscle architecture and size of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Aim Our aim was to investigate muscle architecture and size of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) compared with age-matched typically developing participants. Method Muscle architecture and size were measured with ultrasound imaging in 18 participants with spastic CP (9 females, 9 males; age range 7.5–19y; mean age 12y [SD 3y 2mo]) within Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I (n=4), II (n=2), III (n=9), and IV (n=3) and 12 typically developing participants (10 females, 2 males; age range 7–20y; mean age 12y 4mo [SD 3y 11mo]). Exclusion criteria were orthopedic surgery or neurosurgery within 6 months before testing or botulinum toxin injections to the quadriceps within 3 months before testing. Results RF cross-sectional area was significantly lower (48%), RF and VL muscle thickness 30% lower, RF fascicle length 27% lower, and VL fascicle angle 3° less in participants with CP compared to the typically developing participants (p<0.05). Intraclass correlation coefficients were ? 0.93 (CP) and ? 0.88 (typical development), indicating excellent reliability. Interpretation These results provide the first evidence of altered muscle architecture and size of the RF and VL in CP, similar to patterns observed with disuse and aging. These alterations may play a significant role in the decreased capacity for force generation as well as decreased shortening velocity and range of motion over which the quadriceps can act. PMID:19459913

MOREAU, NOELLE G; TEEFEY, SHARLENE A; DAMIANO, DIANE L

2009-01-01

29

Using the traditional model to evaluate the active force of the human lateral rectus muscle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information on the force of extraocular muscles (EOMs) is beneficial for strabismus diagnosis and surgical planning, and a direct and simple method is important for surgeons to obtain these forces. Based on the traditional model, a numerical simulation method was proposed to achieve this aim, and then the active force of the lateral rectus (LR) muscle was successfully simulated when the eye rotated every angle from 0° to 30° in the horizontal plane from the nasal to the temporal side. In order to verify these simulations, the results were compared with the previous experimental data. The comparison shows that the simulation results diverged much more than the experimental data in the range of 0°-10°. The errors were corrected to make the simulation results closer to the experimental data. Finally, a general empirical equation was proposed to evaluate the active force of the LR muscle by fitting these data, which represent the relationship between the simulation forces and the contractive amounts of the LR muscle.

Gao, ZhiPeng; Chen, WeiYi; Jing, Lin; Feng, PengFei; Wu, XiaoGang; Guo, HongMei

2014-05-01

30

Verbal and visual stimulation effects on rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles during isometric and concentric  

PubMed Central

Background Coactivation may be both desirable (injury prevention) or undesirable (strength measurement). In this context, different styles of muscle strength stimulus have being investigated. In this study we evaluated the effects of verbal and visual stimulation on rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles contraction during isometric and concentric. Methods We investigated 13 men (age =23.1?±?3.8 years old; body mass =75.6?±?9.1 kg; height =1.8?±?0.07 m). We used the isokinetic dynamometer BIODEX device and an electromyographic (EMG) system. We evaluated the maximum isometric and isokinetic knee extension and flexion at 60°/s. The following conditions were evaluated: without visual nor verbal command (control); verbal command; visual command and; verbal and visual command. In relation to the concentric contraction, the volunteers performed five reciprocal and continuous contractions at 60°/s. With respect to isometric contractions it was made three contractions of five seconds for flexion and extension in a period of one minute. Results We found that the peak torque during isometric flexion was higher in the subjects in the VVC condition (p?>?0.05). In relation to muscle coactivation, the subjects presented higher values at the control condition (p?>?0.05). Conclusion We suggest that this type of stimulus is effective for the lower limbs. PMID:24099489

2013-01-01

31

Proteasome activities in the rectus abdominis muscle of young and older individuals.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia is one of the most striking effects of age, the causes and the pathogenic mechanisms being largely unknown. Unfortunately, there is limited information on the effect of aging on muscle protein breakdown in basal conditions. The present study aimed at investigating if skeletal muscle ubiquitn mRNA levels and proteasome activities vary with age in healthy individuals. Ub mRNA levels were measured by northern blot analysis whereas proteasome activities were determined by evaluating the cleavage of specific fluorogenic substrates in the rectus abdominis muscle of 14 healthy male individuals. Patients were divided in three groups according to the age: (1) 20-30 years (N = 3); (2) 31-64 years (N = 5); (3) > or = 65 years (N = 6). Quantitation of the ubiquitin mRNA levels (expressed in arbitrary units) (mean (SD) showed no differences among the three groups of age (20-30 years: 1352 +/- 441; 31-64 years: 1324 +/- 439; > or = 65 years: 884 +/- 400; P = 0.33). The correlation between age and muscle ubiquitin mRNA levels was not statistically significant (r = -0.4, P = 0.26). The three proteasome activities, chymotrypsin-like (CTL), trypsin-like (TL) and peptidyl-gutamyl-peptidase (PGP), expressed as nkatal x 10(-3)/mg protein, were similar in the three groups of patients stratified according to the age. There was no correlation between age with either CTL (r = 0.22, P = 0.4), PGP (r = 0.002, P = 0.9), and TL (r = 0.28, P = 0.33) activities. In conclusion, the present study shows that the skeletal muscle proteasome activities do not differ with age in healthy male individuals. PMID:18330717

Bossola, Maurizio; Pacelli, Fabio; Costelli, Paola; Tortorelli, Antonio; Rosa, Fausto; Doglietto, Giovan Battista

2008-08-01

32

Rectus femoris knee muscle moment arms measured in vivo during dynamic motion with real-time magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Moment arms represent a muscle's ability to generate a moment about a joint for a given muscle force. The goal of this study was to develop a method to measure muscle moment arms in vivo over a large range of motion using real-time magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Rectus femoris muscle-tendon lengths and knee joint angles of healthy subjects (N = 4) were measured during dynamic knee joint flexion and extension in a large-bore magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Muscle-tendon moment arms were determined at the knee using the tendon-excursion method by differentiating measured muscle-tendon length with respect to joint angle. Rectus femoris moment arms were averaged across a group of healthy subjects and were found to vary similarly during knee joint flexion (mean: 3.0 (SD 0.5) cm, maximum: 3.5 cm) and extension (mean: 2.8 (SD 0.4) cm, maximum: 3.6 cm). These moment arms compare favorably with previously published dynamic tendon-excursion measurements in cadaveric specimens but were relatively smaller than moment arms from center-of-rotation studies. The method presented here provides a new approach to measure muscle-tendon moment arms in vivo and has the potential to be a powerful resource for characterizing musculoskeletal geometry during dynamic joint motion. PMID:24231903

Fiorentino, Niccolo M; Lin, Jonathan S; Ridder, Kathryn B; Guttman, Michael A; McVeigh, Elliot R; Blemker, Silvia S

2013-04-01

33

[Effects of surgery on muscles on clinical and radiographic findings in the hip joint region in cerebral palsy patients].  

PubMed

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Isolated or combined surgical procedures on muscles around the hip joint are currently indicated by many authors. In cerebral palsy patients they are regarded as essential intervention. MATERIAL In the years 2005-2007, surgery in the hip joint region was essential for 150 children between 3 and 18 years of age. At the time of surgery, the patients' locomotion ranged from stage 1 to stage 7 of the Vojta system. METHODS The outcome was evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination at 2 and 6 months post-operatively and hip migration percentage and Wiberg's CE angle were measured. RESULTS The best clinical and radiographic outcomes were achieved in children younger than 6 years of age. On the other hand, isolated transfer of the distal rectus femoris muscle significantly affected pelvis anteflexion in adolescent patients. The most marked decrease in migration percentage was found after adductor tenotomy combined with surgery on the iliopsoas muscle (55.6 %) or when the two procedures were combined with distal rectus femoris transfer. DISCUSSION Combined surigical procedures, i.e., adductor tenotomy, surgery on the iliopsoas muscle or rectus femoris muscle and medial hamstrings, with fixation using an abduction modified Atlanta brace, are effective in patients with marked lateral hip migration who are younger that 6 years. Isolated adductor tenotomy and distal transfer of the rectus femoris muscle markedly improve standing position in walking patients. CONCLUSION An appropriate combination of surgical procedures on muscles in the hip region and on medial hamstrings can significantly improve the patient's locomotion and, if lateral migration is present, help to avoid surgery on bones. PMID:19026189

Schejbalová, A; Havlas, V

2008-10-01

34

Multiple brain parenchymal neurocysticercosis with extraocular muscle cysticercosis affecting levator palpebral superioris and superior rectus complex: an unusual association  

PubMed Central

An 8-year-old girl presented to the neurology department with a complaint of insidious onset of left-sided ptosis and restricted elevation of the left eye. A CT scan orbit and brain revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the levator palpebral superioris (LPS) and superior rectus (SR) muscle complex of the left eye and left parietal and right temporal region. She was started on steroid, followed by albendazole with improvement. The LPS/SR complex is the least common site of involvement among extraocular muscles in ocular cysticercosis. Specially, with brain neurocysticercosis (NCC), it is extremely rare. We report an unusual association of multiple brain NCC with ocular cysticercosis involving LPS and SR muscle. PMID:23355567

Verma, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Anupam

2013-01-01

35

Predicting outcomes of rectus femoris transfer surgery Jeffrey A. Reinbolt a,  

E-print Network

is one of the most common gait abnormalities in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy [1]. Stiff knee with cerebral palsy following a variety of surgical treatments. Goldberg et al. [18] used statistical analysis Keywords: Predicting outcomes Rectus femoris transfer Stiff knee gait Cerebral palsy Gait analysis A B

Delp, Scott

36

Comparison of gracilis and rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap neovaginal reconstruction performed during radical pelvic surgery: flap-specific morbidity.  

PubMed

To compare flap-specific complications of gracilis myocutaneous (GM) and rectus abdominis myocutaneous (RAM) flap neovaginal reconstructions after radical pelvic surgery. The study was a single-institution retrospective review of patients undergoing concurrent radical pelvic surgery with GM or RAM neovaginal reconstructions performed on a gynecological oncology service, 1978-2003. Flap-specific complications were compared between the techniques. Forty-four GM and 32 RAM neovaginal reconstructions were analyzed: plastic surgeons developed 12 (27%) GM and 4 (13%) RAM flaps, with all other flaps performed by gynecological oncologists. Primary procedures included 54 (71%) total pelvic exenterations, with partial exenterations or radical vulvovaginectomies in 16 (21%) and 6 (8%) patients, respectively. Forty (53%) patients had received radiation and 28 (36%) received chemoradiation before radical surgery. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics, other than more frequent use of continent urinary conduits (P < 0.001) and a trend for more frequent sidewall radiation (P < 0.1) in the RAM group, reflecting use in more recent patients (P < 0.001). Median follow-up is 28 months (range: 2 weeks to 216 months), with 5% acute operative mortality. Flap-specific complications were significantly increased in GM patients (P < 0.03). Overall flap loss was significantly increased in GM patients (P < 0.02). Thirty (59%) of 51 patients surviving for more than 12 months reported coitus, with no significant difference between the groups. Because of lower overall incidence of flap-specific complications and significantly lower incidence of flap loss compared with GM flap, RAM flap has become our technique of choice for neovaginal reconstruction concurrent with radical pelvic surgery. PMID:17291272

Soper, J T; Secord, A A; Havrilesky, L J; Berchuck, A; Clarke-Pearson, D L

2007-01-01

37

Electromyographic activity of the rectus abdominis muscle during exercise performed with the AB Slider  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strengthening of abdominal muscles is often used in athletic training and in clinical rehabilitation of subjects with low\\u000a back pain. Traditionally, it is performed by isometric or concentric abdominal contractions in supine position. Recently,\\u000a the AB Slider has been introduced as a device to train abdominal muscles in quadrupedic position. The aim of this study was\\u000a to assess the muscle

R. Gatti; M. Corti; M. Barbero; M. Testa

2006-01-01

38

Proteasome activities in the rectus abdominis muscle of young and older individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarcopenia is one of the most striking effects of age, the causes and the pathogenic mechanisms being largely unknown. Unfortunately,\\u000a there is limited information on the effect of aging on muscle protein breakdown in basal conditions. The present study aimed\\u000a at investigating if skeletal muscle ubiquitn mRNA levels and proteasome activities vary with age in healthy individuals. Ub\\u000a mRNA levels

Maurizio Bossola; Fabio Pacelli; Paola Costelli; Antonio Tortorelli; Fausto Rosa; Giovan Battista Doglietto

2008-01-01

39

Rectus abdominal muscle endometriosis in a patient with cesarian scar: case report.  

PubMed

Endometriosis is the existence of endometrial tissue out of the intrauterine cavity. Abdominal wall endometrioma is a well-defined mass composed of endometrial glands and stroma that may develop after gynecologic and obstetrical surgeries. A cyclic painful mass at the site of a cesarean section scar is most likely due to an endometrioma, and wide local excision is the advisable treatment. The authors present a case of endometrioma in the abdominal wall, which was treated with local excision. PMID:24597267

Sahin, L; Dinçel, O; Türk, B Aydin

2013-01-01

40

Restoration of muscle volume and shape induced by electrical stimulation of denervated degenerated muscles: qualitative and quantitative measurement of changes in rectus femoris using computer tomography and image segmentation.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates in a novel way how volume and shape are restored to denervated degenerated muscles due to a special pattern of electrical stimulation. To this purpose, Spiral Computer Tomography (CT) and special image processing tools were used to develop a method to isolate the rectus femoris from other muscle bellies in the thigh and monitor growth and morphology changes very accurately. During 4 years of electrical stimulation, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the rectus femoris muscles from patients with long-term flaccid paraplegia were made at different points in time. The growth of the muscle and its changes through the time period are seen in the 3D representation and are measured quantitatively. Furthermore, changes in shape are compared with respect to healthy muscles in order to estimate the degree of restoration. The results clearly show a slow but continuing muscle growth induced by electrical stimulation; the increase of volume is accompanied by the return of a quasi-normal muscle shape. This technique allows a unique way of monitoring which provides qualitative and quantitative information on the denervated degenerated muscle behavior otherwise hidden. PMID:18782130

Gargiulo, Paolo; Vatnsdal, Brynjar; Ingvarsson, Páll; Knútsdóttir, Sigrún; Gudmundsdóttir, Vilborg; Yngvason, Stefán; Helgason, Thórdur

2008-08-01

41

[Surgical treatment progress of myopic strabismus fixus by Yokoyama's surgery].  

PubMed

Highly myopic strabismus, also known as 'heavy eye syndrome' or 'myopic strabismus fixus', is an acquired restrictive strabismus occurred in patients with pathologic myopia. Patients often manifest extreme esotropia, hypotropia and restrictive ocular motility.Recession of medial rectus and resection of lateral rectus, even dis-insertion of medial rectus surgery often have limited effect in the severe high myopia strabismus, and susceptible to recur postoperatively.In the European strabismus meeting of 2001, Yokoyama first proposed a new surgical idea, he suggested to union the lateral rectus and superior rectus together, and use it as a muscle pulley to push the herniated eyeball back into the muscle cone. After that, a series of studies focused on the specific surgical operation methods. The objective of this article is to review recent research progress of highly myopic strabismus surgery, in order to give some recommendations for the improvement of surgical treatment. PMID:25312465

Wei, Yan; Kang, Xiaoli

2014-07-01

42

The affinity and activity of compounds related to nicotine on the rectus abdominis muscle of the frog (Rana pipiens)  

PubMed Central

1. Series of pyridylalkyl- and substituted phenylalkyl-trimethylammonium salts, triethylammonium salts, diethylamines and di-n-propylamines have been made. The substituents in the benzene ring were nitro, chloro, bromo, methoxy, hydroxy and amino groups and the alkyl residues had one, two, or three methylene groups separating the aromatic nucleus from the cationic head. 2. Most of the trimethylammonium compounds caused a contracture of the frog rectus muscle, but some were partial agonists and a few were antagonists. The di-n-propylamines were all antagonists, as were most of the diethylamines and triethylammonium compounds, though some of these were partial agonists and a few triethylammonium compounds were agonists. The affinities of the antagonists and partial agonists for the receptors stimulated by ?-pyridylmethyltrimethylammonium (and by nicotine) were measured. The equipotent molar ratios of all the agonists were measured relative to ?-pyridylmethyltrimethylammonium. 3. The dissociation constants of the pyridylmethyldiethylamines and substituted benzyldiethylamines were measured. The effects of substituents on the pKa of benzyldiethylamine were similar to their effects on the pKa of aniline, though there were differences with some of the o-substituted compounds, which could be attributed to internal hydrogen-bond formation. 4. There is no obvious correlation between the effects of a substituent on the pKa of benzyldiethylamine and its effects on affinity. Although increasing the size of the cationic group usually increased affinity, it did not always do so. The compounds with the highest affinity, p-hydroxybenzyldiethylamine (log K, 5·90) had about half the affinity of (+)-tubocurarine (log K, 6·11), but the triethylammonium analogue (log K, 4·17) had only about one-fiftieth of the affinity of the tertiary base. The binding of the drug to the receptor appears to involve many factors which include the size of the groups as well as their electron-releasing or withdrawing nature and other properties, such as their polar and lipophilic or lipophobic character. 5. There is no obvious correlation between the effects of a substituent on the affinity of the diethylamino or triethylammonium compounds and its effects on the activity of the trimethylammonium analogue. The most active compounds contain hydroxy- and amino-, phenyl or ?-pyridyl groups, m-hydroxyphenyl-propyltrimethylammonium being about 50 times as active as nicotine, but the corresponding diethylamino or triethylammonium compounds do not have high affinity. There does not seem necessarily to be an inverse relationship between activity and affinity, however, because some m-nitro and m-chloro trimethylammonium compounds have considerable activity and the analogous triethylammonium compounds have considerable affinity. 6. It is suggested that ability to activate these receptors is associated with the presence of substituents which can interact with water molecules which may be involved in the action of the drug at the receptor. PMID:5348464

Barlow, R. B.; Thompson, G. M.

1969-01-01

43

Two cases of hypotropia and dissociated vertical deviation treated with oblique muscle surgery.  

PubMed

The authors report two cases with vertical deviations. The first patient had right exotropia and hypotropia and left inferior oblique overaction and was treated with left inferior oblique muscle weakening and bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession. The second patient had chin-up posture and right dissociated vertical deviation and was treated with bilateral superior oblique posterior tenotomy. PMID:25490238

Niyaz, Leyla; Gursoy, Haluk Huseyin; Basmak, Hikmet

2014-01-01

44

Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Concurrent Spontaneous Hematomas of the Rectus Sheath and Psoas Muscle in Patients Undergoing Anticoagulation  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of concurrent rectus sheath and psoas hematomas in a patient undergoing anticoagulant therapy, treated by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of inferior epigastric and lumbar arteries. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated signs of active bleeding in two hematomas of the anterior and posterior abdominal walls. Transfemoral arteriogram confirmed the extravasation of contrast from the right inferior epigastric artery (RIEA). Indirect signs of bleeding were also found in a right lumbar artery (RLA). We successfully performed TAE of the feeding arteries. There have been few reports in the literature of such spontaneous hemorrhages in patients undergoing anticoagulation, successfully treated by TAE.

Basile, Antonio [Ospedale Barone I, Department of Radiology (Italy); Medina, Jose Garcia [Hospital Universitario Virgen de Arrixaca, Department of Radiology (Spain); Mundo, Elena [Ospedale Barone I, Department of Radiology (Italy); Medina, Vicente Garcia [Hospital General Universitario, Department of Radiology (Spain); Leal, Rafael [Hospital Universitario Virgen de Arrixaca, Department of Radiology (Spain)

2004-11-15

45

Virtual eye muscle surgery based upon biomechanical models.  

PubMed

Within our research project "SEE-KID", a Software Engineering Environment for Knowledge-based Interactive Eye Motility Diagnostics, we focus on virtual reality training for the surgery of human eye muscles of--mostly--children age 1 to 3. Our report gives details on the sound integration of biomechanical muscle data into our virtual reality models in order to evaluate the quality of specific techniques for eye motility surgery regarding real-world pathologies. We illustrate the usefulness of our software system describing some of the possible medical applications, like optimized transposition surgery of the musculus obliquus superior. PMID:11317760

Mayr, H

2001-01-01

46

Midurethral autologous fascial sling surgery with reconstruction of the lower abdominal wall using the tensor fascia lata muscle flap for post-hemipelvectomy stress urinary incontinence.  

PubMed

Hemipelvectomy is surgery for pelvic bone neoplasms. In the case of pubic bone osteosarcoma, the distal end of the rectus abdominis muscle is severed from the pubic and ischium bones, and the pelvic floor muscles are resected en bloc with the bone, which leads to stress urinary incontinence. Cancer control is prioritized over complications, and stress urinary incontinence is generally disregarded. A 25-year-old woman presented with stress urinary incontinence. She had undergone a hemipelvectomy for left pubic bone osteosarcoma, and stress urinary incontinence appeared and persisted since the surgery. We carried out a reconstruction of the tissue deficit of the rectus abdominis using the tensor fascia lata muscle flap simultaneously with a midurethral autologous fascial sling anchoring to the tensor fascia lata flap. Stress incontinence was successfully improved without morbidity. This is the first reported case of midurethral suspension with reconstruction of the lower abdominal wall with the tensor fascia lata flap for post-hemipelvectomy stress urinary incontinence. PMID:24954425

Niimi, Aya; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Mihara, Makoto; Koshima, Isao; Homma, Yukio

2014-09-01

47

Density of lumbar muscles 4 years after decompressive spinal surgery.  

PubMed

Results of decompressive surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis vary. We evaluated the density of lumbar muscles by computed tomography (CT) at the L2-L4 levels in patients 4 years after they had undergone surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. Twenty of these patients had an excellent outcome clinically, and 16 patients had very poor outcome. The residual stenosis and density of lumbar muscles in Hounsfield units were measured on CT images. The clinical evaluation of outcome also included the Oswestry questionnaire and a walking test. The density of lumbar flexors was higher in the group with excellent results than in the group with poor results. The density of lumbar extensors showed a marked decrease in the operated area. These results suggest that the decrease of muscular density can be partially explained by disuse or inactivity. The decrease in the operated area probably reflects muscular atrophy caused by muscle denervation. PMID:8831123

Airaksinen, O; Herno, A; Kaukanen, E; Saari, T; Sihvonen, T; Suomalainen, O

1996-01-01

48

Changes in the Range of Motion of the Hip Joint and the Muscle Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris of Stroke Patients during Obstacles Crossing on the Ground and Underwater  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine range of motion (ROM) and the muscle activity of stroke patients during obstacle task on the ground and underwater. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were seven stroke patients in a hospital located in Daejeon, South Korea. [Methods] The measurements in this study were conducted in an exercise therapy room and a pool dedicated to underwater exercise (water temperature 33.5?°C, air temperature 27?°C) in the hospital building. The pool’s water depth was determined by considering the levels of the xiphoid process of the study subjects. Ten-centimeter-high obstacles were used. An electrogoniometer was used to examine the ROM of flexion and extension of the hip joints on the affected side. An MP150 system a BioNomadix 2-channel wireless EMG transmitter was used to examine the muscle activity of the rectus femoris and biceps femoris of the affected side. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the unaffected side was supported, that the affected side moved, and that the hip joint was bent more underwater than on the ground. The rectus femoris and bicpes femoris were activated significantly less underwater than on the ground in all sections. PMID:25202169

Kim, Myung-chul; Han, Seul-ki; Kim, Seung-kyun

2014-01-01

49

Changes in the Range of Motion of the Hip Joint and the Muscle Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris of Stroke Patients during Obstacles Crossing on the Ground and Underwater.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine range of motion (ROM) and the muscle activity of stroke patients during obstacle task on the ground and underwater. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were seven stroke patients in a hospital located in Daejeon, South Korea. [Methods] The measurements in this study were conducted in an exercise therapy room and a pool dedicated to underwater exercise (water temperature 33.5?°C, air temperature 27?°C) in the hospital building. The pool's water depth was determined by considering the levels of the xiphoid process of the study subjects. Ten-centimeter-high obstacles were used. An electrogoniometer was used to examine the ROM of flexion and extension of the hip joints on the affected side. An MP150 system a BioNomadix 2-channel wireless EMG transmitter was used to examine the muscle activity of the rectus femoris and biceps femoris of the affected side. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the unaffected side was supported, that the affected side moved, and that the hip joint was bent more underwater than on the ground. The rectus femoris and bicpes femoris were activated significantly less underwater than on the ground in all sections. PMID:25202169

Kim, Myung-Chul; Han, Seul-Ki; Kim, Seung-Kyun

2014-08-01

50

Displacement of the Medial Rectus Pulley in Superior Oblique Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. The rectus extraocular muscles pass through fibromuscular connective tissue pulleys that stabilize mus- cle paths and control the direction of muscle pull. The authors investigated whether abnormal forces associated with superior oblique palsy can cause displacement of pulleys and muscle paths. METHODS. Coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing significantly reduced superior oblique cross-sec- tional areas and lack of contractile

Robert A. Clark; Joel M. Miller; Joseph L Demer

51

Rectus abdominis diastasis.  

PubMed

Because of the lack of agreement on when rectus diastasis (RD) is pathologic, the aim was to investigate indications for surgical repair. This study presents classifications of RD, current knowledge on the relation to pregnancy, and conservative and surgical management. A systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, and Cinahl revealed 437 studies. Inclusion criteria were applied according to the above mentioned subjects of interest. In total 28 studies were included, representing 3725 patients, 11 of these by assessing reference lists of included studies. Only one RCT was found; most studies were case-series lacking statistical analysis. RD was common in post-partum women. Antepartum activity level may have a protective effect on RD and exercise may improve post-partum symptoms of RD. Repair was done during abdominoplasty or laparoscopically. The patient-satisfaction was high and long-term recurrence was reported by one study, while five reported no recurrence. Overall major complications were few, while minor complications were primarily seroma and wound complications. RD is by itself not a true hernia and, therefore, not associated with the risk of strangulation. Repair is mostly done due to cosmetic reasons. The condition does not necessarily require repair, and conservative management may be an alternative. If done, the protrusion of the abdomen, rather than the diastasis itself should influence the decision of repair. It is recommended that future studies use the established classifications (e.g. Beer, Rath, or Nahas) when reporting RD and long-term outcome of treatment. Comparison of surgical techniques and studies that address and compare conservative management with surgery are needed. PMID:24256310

Akram, Javed; Matzen, Steen Henrik

2014-06-01

52

The contribution of the rectus abdominis and rectus femoris in twelve selected abdominal exercises. An electromyographic study.  

PubMed

The influence of twelve selected abdominal exercises on the muscle action potentials (MAP) of the rectus abdominis--upper and lower portions--and rectus femoris was investigated. Twenty physical education students executed twelve exercises. The results showed that the elevation of the lower limbs from the long lying and from the forearm supported positions elicited significantly lower MAP for the upper rectus abdominis than all other exercises. Elevation of the lower limbs with the body suspended by hands and the V-sit exercises elicited significantly higher MAP for the lower rectus abdominis than all other exercises. The use of extended or flexed knees with supported or unsupported feet in a horizontal or inclined plane did not affect the MAP of the upper and lower rectus abdominis. The results for the rectus femoris showed five significantly different groups of exercises. The curl-up elicited the lowest MAP. The elevation of the lower limbs with the body suspended by hands and the sit-ups--with extended and also with flexed knees--in an inclined plane elicited the highest MAP for the rectus femoris. The results suggested that sit-ups executed with supported feet required higher MAP of the rectus femoris than sit-ups with unsupported feet, no matter whether hips and knees were extended or flexed. This trend was observed for exercises performed in an horizontal and in an inclined plane. PMID:1836517

Guimaraes, A C; Vaz, M A; De Campos, M I; Marantes, R

1991-06-01

53

Reducing Postoperative Opioid Consumption by Adding an Ultrasound-Guided Rectus Sheath Block to Multimodal Analgesia for Abdominal Cancer Surgery With Midline Incision  

PubMed Central

Background: Many multimodal analgesia techniques have been tried to provide adequate analgesia for midline incisions extending above and below the umbilicus aiming at limiting the perioperative use of morphine thus limiting side effects. Ultrasound (US) guidance made the anesthesiologist reconsider old techniques for wider clinical use. The rectus sheath block (RSB) is a useful technique under-utilized in the adult population. Objectives: Our study examined the efficacy of a preemptive single-injection rectus sheath block in providing better early postoperative pain scores compared to general anesthesia alone. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients were recruited in this randomized controlled trial. These patients were divided into two groups: RSB group had an RSB after induction of anesthesia and before surgical incision, and GA (general anesthesia) group had general anesthesia alone. Both groups were compared for verbal analogue scale (VAS) score, opioid consumption and hemodynamic variables in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Analgesic requirements in surgical wards were recorded in postoperative days (POD) 0, 1 and 2. Results: The median VAS score was significantly lower in RSB group compared with GA group in all 5 time points in the PACU (P ? 0.05). Also PACU morphine consumption was lower in RSB group than GA group patients (95% confidence interval [CI] of the difference in means between groups, ?4.59 to ?2.23 mg). Morphine consumption was also less in the first 2 postoperative days (POD0 and POD1). Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block is an easy technique to learn. This technique, when it is used with general anesthesia, will be more effective in reducing pain scores and opioid consumption compared with general anesthesia alone. PMID:25289373

Bashandy, Ghada Mohammad Nabih; Elkholy, Abeer Hassan Hamed

2014-01-01

54

Predictive Factors Affecting the Short Term and Long Term Exodrift in Patients with Intermittent Exotropia after Bilateral Rectus Muscle Recession and Its Effect on Surgical Outcome  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the predictive factors that affect short term and long term postoperative drift in intermittent exotropia after bilateral lateral rectus recession and to evaluate its effect on surgical outcome. Methods. Retrospective review of 203 patients with diagnosis of intermittent exotropia, who had surgical corrections with more than 3 years of followup. Different preoperative parameters were obtained and evaluated using Pearson's correlation analysis. Results. The proportion of exodrift increased from 62% at 6 weeks to 84% at 3 years postoperatively. The postoperative drift was 4.3 ± 8.1?PD at 6 weeks, 5.8 ± 8.4?PD at 6 months, 7.2 ± 8.3?PD at 1 year, 7.4 ± 8.4?PD at 2 years, and 7.7 ± 8.5?PD at 3 years. Preoperative deviation and initial overcorrection were significant factors affecting the postoperative drift at 3 years (r = 0.177, P = 0.011, r = ?0.349, and P < 0.001, resp.). Conclusions. Postoperative exodrift along three years occurs in a majority of patients after bilateral lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia. The long term surgical success is significantly affected by this postoperative exodrift. A larger preoperative deviation and a larger initial overcorrection are associated with a larger early and late postoperative exodrift. PMID:25093170

Yam, Jason C. S.; Chong, Gabriela S. L.; Wu, Patrick K. W.; Wong, Ursula S. F.; Chan, Clement W. N.; Ko, Simon T. C.

2014-01-01

55

Muscle lengthening surgery causes differential acute mechanical effects in both targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles.  

PubMed

Epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT) is a major determinant of muscle force exerted, as well as length range of force exertion. Therefore, EMFT is of importance in remedial surgery performed, e.g., in spastic paresis. We aimed to test the following hypotheses: (1) muscle lengthening surgery (involving preparatory dissection (PD) and subsequent proximal aponeurotomy (AT)) affects the target muscle force exerted at its distal and proximal tendons differentially, (2) forces of non-operated synergistic muscles are affected as well, (3) PD causes some of these effects. In three conditions (control, post-PD, and post-AT exclusively on m. extensor digitorum longus (EDL)), forces exerted by rat anterior crural muscles were measured simultaneously. Our results confirm hypotheses (1-2), and hypothesis (3) in part: Reduction of EDL maximal force differed by location (i.e. 26.3% when tested distally and 44.5% when tested proximally). EDL length range of active force exertion increased only distally. Force reductions were shown also for non-operated tibialis anterior (by 11.9%), as well as for extensor hallucis longus (by 8.4%) muscles. In tibialis anterior only, part of the force reduction (4.9%) is attributable to PD. Due to EMFT, remedial surgery should be considered to have differential effects for targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles. PMID:23837929

Ate?, Filiz; Özde?lik, Rana N; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A

2013-10-01

56

Case report Rectus abdominis endometriosis: a report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of histological normal endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Most frequently endometriosis occurs within the pelvis. Extrapelvic endometriosis is less common, but can involve nearly every organ. We present two patients in whom endometriosis was found in the rectus abdominis muscle and discuss the imaging findings and pathological correlation. Endometriosis is classically defined as

V COEMAN; R SCIOT

57

Artificial muscles for a novel simulator in minimally invasive spine surgery.  

PubMed

Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are commonly used minimally invasive methods to treat vertebral compression fractures. Novice surgeons gather surgical skills in different ways, mainly by "learning by doing" or training on models, specimens or simulators. Currently, a new training modality, an augmented reality simulator for minimally invasive spine surgeries, is going to be developed. An important step in investigating this simulator is the accurate establishment of artificial tissues. Especially vertebrae and muscles, reproducing a comparable haptical feedback during tool insertion, are necessary. Two artificial tissues were developed to imitate natural muscle tissue. The axial insertion force was used as validation parameter. It appropriates the mechanical properties of artificial and natural muscles. Validation was performed on insertion measurement data from fifteen artificial muscle tissues compared to human muscles measurement data. Based on the resulting forces during needle insertion into human muscles, a suitable material composition for manufacturing artificial muscles was found. PMID:25570007

Hollensteiner, Marianne; Fuerst, David; Schrempf, Andreas

2014-08-01

58

Temporalis muscle hypertrophy: a new plastic surgery procedure.  

PubMed

Bilateral hypertrophy of the temporal muscle can give the impression of a harsh facial appearance that manifests itself as a morphopsychological conflict for the subject involved (Minotaur syndrome). This article describes a new facial aesthetic surgical procedure in the area of the temporal muscle. The author describes the surgical technique and the surgical instrument that he developed specifically for performing aesthetic contouring of the temporal area by reducing the muscle volume discrepancy ("myosuction"). The follow-up results of 11 cases demonstrated that this procedure renders valid results in the overall aesthetic reharmonization of the face and an improvement of individual psychological well-being. PMID:11039387

Morselli, P G

2000-10-01

59

Anesthesia in adult cardiac surgery without maintenance of muscle relaxants: a randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

There may be no need for muscle paralysis during cardiac surgery when adequate anesthesia is provided. We studied intra- and post-operative conditions during cardiac surgery without maintenance muscle relaxant therapy. Eighty adult patients who were candidates for elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly allocated into two groups. In the noMR or study group (noMR group; n = 40) only an intubation dose of cisatracurium (0.15 mg kg(-1)) was administrated, as opposed to the control group (MR group; n = 40), who had a continuous infusion added to the intubation dose. The anesthesia level was maintained at a Bispectral score of 40-50 using a propofol infusion. A remifentanil infusion was titrated to control patient hemodynamic response. During surgery, any minor (fine body or respiratory muscle movements) or major (coarse body movements or bucking/caught) movements were recorded. Postoperatively, analgesia was provided by remifentanil. The surgical condition was classified into three states: good (no movement), acceptable (minor movements), or poor (major movements). Anesthesia, surgery and postoperative characteristics were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis was performed in only 78 patients (noMR = 38, MR = 40). The demographic and preoperative characteristics of the two groups were comparable. Intra-operative propofol consumption was the same, but significantly more remifentanil was used in the noMR group (p = 0.001). Post-operative characteristics and complication rates did not differ between the two groups. There were no movements in the MR group patients, while in the noMR group one patient had major movement and three had minor movements. We concluded that omitting maintenance muscle relaxants in adult cardiac surgery or eliminating residual muscle paralysis at the end of the surgery without improving early outcome can increase patient intra-operative movement risk. PMID:19899321

Fakhari, S; Bilehjani, E; Azarfarin, R; Kianfar, A A; Mirinazhad, M; Negargar, S

2009-08-15

60

Clinical study of the Pronator Quadratus muscle: anatomical features and feasibility of Pronator-Sparing Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background No clinical data for the relationship of pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle to distal radius had been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical features of the PQ muscle related to plate osteosynthesis for distal radius fractures in clinical cases. The feasibility of PQ muscle sparing surgery was investigated as well. Methods Fifty two distal radius fractures (23-A2) were enclosed in this study. The whole width of the muscle and the distance from the distal edge of the muscle to the joint surface of the distal radius were measured. The distance from the fracture site of the radius to the joint surface was measured as well. Results The average width of the pronator quadratus muscle was 37.6 mm. The average distance from the pronator quadratus muscle to the lunate fossa surface was 12.2 mm, and the average distance from the pronator quadratus muscle to the scaphoid fossa surface was 13.6 mm. The average distance from the lunate fossa of the distal radius to the fracture site was 12.2 mm (range, 7.3-17 mm), and the scaphoid fossa of the distal radius to the fracture site was 13.2 mm (range, 9.4-18.8 mm). Conclusions This PQ muscle sparing surgery is feasible and can be performed without difficulty. The data might provide a useful basis for the preservation of pronator quadratus muscle applied to a functionally reduced fracture regarding the potential efficacy of conventional volar plate osteosynthesis. PMID:24762047

2014-01-01

61

Differential Lateral Rectus Compartmental Contraction during Ocular Counter-Rolling  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The lateral rectus (LR) and medial rectus (MR) extraocular muscles (EOMs) have largely nonoverlapping superior and inferior innervation territories, suggesting functional compartmental specialization. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans to investigate differential compartmental activity in the rectus EOMs during head tilt, which evokes ocular counter-rolling, a torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Methods. MRI in quasi-coronal planes was analyzed during target-controlled central gaze in 90° right and left head tilts in 12 normal adults. Cross sections and posterior partial volumes of the transverse portions of the four rectus EOMs were compared in contiguous image planes 2 mm thick spanning the orbit from origins to globe equator, and used as indicators of contractility. Results. Horizontal rectus EOMs had significantly greater posterior volumes and maximum cross sections in their inferior compartments (P < 10?8). In orbit tilt up (extorted) compared with orbit tilt down (intorted) head tilts, contractile changes in LR maximum cross section (P < 0.0001) and posterior partial volume (P < 0.05) were significantly greater in the inferior but not in the superior compartment. These changes were not explainable by horizontal or vertical eye position changes. A weaker compartmental effect was suggested for MR. The vertical rectus EOMs did not exhibit significant compartmental contractile changes during head tilt. Mechanical modeling suggests that differential LR contraction may contribute to physiological cyclovertical effects. Conclusions. Selective activation of the two LR, and possibly MR, compartments correlates with newly recognized segregation of intramuscular innervation into distinct compartments, and probably contributes to noncommutative torsion during the VOR. PMID:22427572

Clark, Robert A.; Demer, Joseph L.

2012-01-01

62

Comparison of rectus femoris transposition with traditional transfer for treatment of stiff knee gait in patients with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the outcome of children with cerebral palsy following reposition of the distal rectus femoris tendon for treatment of stiff knee gait. Methods Children with cerebral palsy with stiff knee gait who underwent rectus femoris transfer were studied retrospectively. Inclusion criteria were cerebral palsy of diplegic or quadriplegic type, preoperative and 1 year postoperative three-dimensional motion analysis, and no other surgery except rectus femoris transfer at the time of study. The patients were separated into two groups: in group I, the rectus femoris was transferred to the distal medial hamstring tendons, either the gracilis or the semitendinosus; in group II, the distal tendon of the rectus femoris was transposed laterally and attached to the iliotibial band/intermuscular septum. Results Peak knee flexion during swing phase, total dynamic knee range of motion, knee range of motion during swing phase, and time to peak knee flexion during swing phase were all improved in both groups. Hip and pelvic kinematics were not influenced by the surgery. Velocity, stride length, and cadence were all improved following the surgery. There was no difference between the transfer group and the transposition group. Conclusion These findings suggest that distal transfer of the rectus femoris is effective in improving swing phase knee function by diminishing the mechanical effect of the dysphasic swing phase activity of the rectus femoris, not by converting the rectus femoris to an active knee flexor. PMID:19308504

Hemo, Yoram; Aiona, Michael D.; Pierce, Rosemary A.; Dorociak, Robin

2007-01-01

63

Rectus abdominis overuse injury in a tennis athlete treated with traumeel  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Rectus abdominis injuries are common in tennis players at all levels of competition. Traumeel® injection can be used for treatment of muscle strains and hematomas. Case Report: A 21-year-old female tennis athlete was injured on the non-dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion. She suffered from pain and tenderness. One week later, during a serve, she experienced severe pain on the contralateral side of her abdomen. Conservative treatment was performed by the team physician with rest, ice therapy and analgesics for 20 days, but she had recurrent injuries. The ultrasonography and MRI showed hematoma of the rectus abdominis muscle. She was treated with 2 injections of Traumeel® on the 2nd, 4th, 6th post-traumatic day and received 1 injection on the 10th post-traumatic day. She also modified her serve technique. On the fourth post-treatment week the athlete had pain-free function and both the MRI appearance and the size of rectus abdominal muscle were normal. She returned to her sport activities. There is no recurrence of her injury 2 years later. Conclusions: Rectus abdominis hematoma must be diagnosed early. Traumeel® injections are effective, safe and well-tolerated for the treatment of overuse injury of the rectus abdominis following strain. PMID:23569472

Natsis, Konstantinos; Lyrtzis, Christos; Papathanasiou, Efthymia; Anastasopoulos, Nikos

2012-01-01

64

Review: minimally invasive strabismus surgery.  

PubMed

This article reviews the principles and different techniques used to perform minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS). This term is used for strabismus surgeries minimizing tissue disruption. Muscles are not accessed through one large opening, but using several keyhole openings placed where needed for the surgical steps. If necessary, tunnels are created between cuts, which will allow performing additional surgical steps. To keep the keyhole openings small, transconjunctival suturing techniques are used. The cuts are always placed as far away from the limbus as feasible. This will reduce the risk for postoperative corneal complications and it will ensure that all cuts will be covered by the eyelids, minimizing postoperative visibility of surgery and patient discomfort. Benefits from minimizing anatomical disruption between the muscle and the surrounding tissue are a better preservation of muscle function, less swelling, and pain, and more ease to perform reoperations. MISS openings allow to perform all types of strabismus surgeries, namely rectus muscle recessions, resections, plications, reoperations, retroequatorial myopexias, transpositions, oblique muscle recessions, or plications, and adjustable sutures, even in the presence of restricted motility.Eye advance online publication, 28 November 2014; doi:10.1038/eye.2014.281. PMID:25431106

Mojon, D S

2014-11-28

65

Laparoscopic surgery and muscle relaxants: is deep block helpful?  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that providing deep neuromuscular block (a posttetanic count of 1 or more, but a train-of-four [TOF] count of zero) when compared with moderate block (TOF counts of 1-3) for laparoscopic surgery would allow for the use of lower inflation pressures while optimizing surgical space and enhancing patient safety. We conducted a literature search on 6 different medical databases using 3 search strategies in each database in an attempt to find data substantiating this proposition. In addition, we studied the reference lists of the articles retrieved in the search and of other relevant articles known to the authors. There is some evidence that maintaining low inflation pressures during intra-abdominal laparoscopic surgery may reduce postoperative pain. Unfortunately most of the studies that come to these conclusions give few if any details as to the anesthetic protocol or the management of neuromuscular block. Performing laparoscopic surgery under low versus standard pressure pneumoperitoneum is associated with no difference in outcome with respect to surgical morbidity, conversion to open cholecystectomy, hemodynamic effects, length of hospital stay, or patient satisfaction. There is a limit to what deep neuromuscular block can achieve. Attempts to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy at an inflation pressure of 8 mm Hg are associated with a 40% failure rate even at posttetanic counts of 1 or less. Well-designed studies that ask the question "is deep block superior to moderate block vis-à-vis surgical operating conditions" are essentially nonexistent. Without exception, all the peer-reviewed studies we uncovered which state that they investigated this issue have such serious flaws in their protocols that the authors' conclusions are suspect. However, there is evidence that abdominal compliance was not increased by a significant amount when deep block was established when compared with moderate neuromuscular block. Maintenance of deep block for the duration of the pneumoperitoneum presents a problem for clinicians who do not have access to sugammadex. Reversal of block with neostigmine at a time when no response to TOF stimulation can be elicited is slow and incomplete and increases the potential for postoperative residual neuromuscular block. The obligatory addition of sugammadex to any anesthetic protocol based on the continuous maintenance of deep block is not without associated caveats. First, monitoring of neuromuscular function is still essential and second, antagonism of deep block necessitates doses of sugammadex of ?4.0 mg/kg. Thus, maintenance of deep block has substantial economic repercussions. There are little objective data to support the proposition that deep neuromuscular block (when compared with less intense block; TOF counts of 1-3) contributes to better patient outcome or improves surgical operating conditions. PMID:25625254

Kopman, Aaron F; Naguib, Mohamed

2015-01-01

66

Effects of preoperative inspiratory muscle training in obese women undergoing open bariatric surgery: respiratory muscle strength, lung volumes, and diaphragmatic excursion  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether preoperative inspiratory muscle training is able to attenuate the impact of surgical trauma on the respiratory muscle strength, in the lung volumes, and diaphragmatic excursion in obese women undergoing open bariatric surgery. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Meridional Hospital, Cariacica/ES, Brazil. SUBJECTS: Thirty-two obese women undergoing elective open bariatric surgery were randomly assigned to receive preoperative inspiratory muscle training (inspiratory muscle training group) or usual care (control group). MAIN MEASURES: Respiratory muscle strength (maximal static respiratory pressure – maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure), lung volumes, and diaphragmatic excursion. RESULTS: After training, there was a significant increase only in the maximal inspiratory pressure in the inspiratory muscle training group. The maximal expiratory pressure, the lung volumes and the diaphragmatic excursion did not show any significant change with training. In the postoperative period there was a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressure in both the groups. However, there was a decrease of 28% in the inspiratory muscle training group, whereas it was 47% in the control group. The decrease in maximal expiratory pressure and in lung volumes in the postoperative period was similar between the groups. There was a significant reduction in the measures of diaphragmatic excursion in both the groups. CONCLUSION: The preoperative inspiratory muscle training increased the inspiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory pressure) and attenuated the negative postoperative effects of open bariatric surgery in obese women for this variable, though not influencing the lung volumes and the diaphragmatic excursion. PMID:22012043

Barbalho-Moulim, Marcela Cangussu; Miguel, Gustavo Peixoto Soares; Forti, Eli Maria Pazzianotto; do Amaral Campos, Flávio; Costa, Dirceu

2011-01-01

67

Medial Rectus Recession Is as Effective as Lateral Rectus Resection in Divergence Paralysis Esotropia  

PubMed Central

Objective To propose medial rectus (MR) recession to be equally as effective as lateral rectus (LR) resection, which has heretofore been the preferred treatment for divergence paralysis esotropia (DPE). Methods We examined a 17-year surgical experience comparing LR resection with MR recession in adults with DPE, defined as symptomatic distance esotropia (ET) at least double the asymptomatic ET of 10 or less prism diopters (?) at near. Results Twenty-four patients with DPE underwent surgery. Six patients underwent bilateral LR resection and 2 underwent unilateral LR resection (group L), while 13 underwent bilateral MR recession and 3 underwent unilateral MR recession, with the target angle double the distance ET (group M). One of 8 patients in group L and 15 of 16 patients in group M underwent intraoperative adjustable surgery under topical anesthesia. Mean (SD) preoperative central gaze ET measured 15.0 (7.7) ? at distance and 4.1 (3.4) ? at near in group L, but 10.4 (6.8) ? at distance and 0.6 (1.7) ? at near in group M (P=.15; distance, 0.003, near). Postoperatively, no patient in either group had symptomatic diplopia or convergence insufficiency in follow-up from 8.5 to 40 months. Twice the usual surgical dose of MR recession per prism diopter was required to achieve correction of the distance deviation in DPE as compared with that recommended for ET generally and also for LR resection in the same condition. Conclusions Recession of the MR provides binocular single vision in DPE without convergence insufficiency at near, and it is convenient for intraoperative adjustment under topical anesthesia. PMID:22688183

Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

2013-01-01

68

Update on enucleation and evisceration surgery.  

PubMed

The best operative results with fewest complications after enucleation surgery can be achieved by following basic principles, some of which are those of conservative tissue excision, using spherical implants placed behind Tenon's capsule into the muscle cone and avoiding surgical techniques that overlap the extraocular muscles (especially the superior rectus) over the front of the implant. The presence of an intraocular tumor demands that an enucleation be done. When the possible development of sympathetic ophthalmia is not present, the surgeon should consider doing an evisceration because of the cosmetic and motility advantages. Mention is made of some developments in enucleation surgery, such as the scleral cap reinforcement, the "baseball" implant technique using donor sclera, the use of liquid nitrogen to freeze intraocular tumors before removal of the eye, the dermis-fat orbital graft, and the use of two spherical orbital implants instead of one. PMID:3940139

Walter, W L

1985-01-01

69

Simultaneous Prosthetic Mesh Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Abdominoplasty for Ventral Hernia and Severe Rectus Diastasis Repairs  

PubMed Central

Background: Standard abdominoplasty rectus plication techniques may not suffice for severe cases of rectus diastasis. In the authors’ experience, prosthetic mesh facilitates the repair of severe rectus diastasis with or without concomitant ventral hernias. Methods: A retrospective review of all abdominal wall surgery patients treated in the past 8 years by the senior author (G.A.D.) was performed. Patients with abdominoplasty and either rectus diastasis repair with mesh or a combined ventral hernia repair were analyzed. Results: Thirty-two patients, 29 women and three men, underwent mesh-reinforced midline repair with horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty. Patient characteristics included the following: mean age, 53 years; mean body mass index, 26 kg/m2; average width of diastasis or hernia, 6.7 cm; and average surgery time, 151 minutes. There were no surgical-site infections and two surgical-site occurrences—two seromas treated with drainage in the office. After an average of 471 days’ follow-up, none of the patients had recurrence of a bulge or a hernia. Conclusions: For patients with significant rectus diastasis, with or without concomitant hernias, the described mesh repair is both safe and durable. Although this operation requires additional dissection and placement of prosthetic mesh in the retrorectus plane, it may be safely combined with standard horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty skin excision techniques to provide an aesthetically pleasing overall result. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:25539311

Cheesborough, Jennifer E.

2015-01-01

70

Sternal Reconstruction of Deep Sternal Wound Infections Following Median Sternotomy by Single-stage Muscle Flaps Transposition.  

PubMed

Objective To assess clinical effectiveness of using bilateral pectoralis major or plus rectus abdominis muscle flaps in treating deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) following median sternotomy. Methods Between January 2009 and December 2013, 19 patients with DSWI after median sternotomy for cardiac surgery were admitted to our hospital, including 14 males (73.7%) and 5 females (26.3%), aged 55±13 (18-78) years. According to the Pairolero classification of infected median sternotomies, 3 (15.8%) patients were type II, and the other 16 (84.2%) were type III. Surgical procedure consisted of adequate debridement of infected sternum, costal cartilage, granulation, steel wires, suture residues and other foreign substances. Sternal reconstruction used the bilateral pectoralis major or plus rectus abdominis muscle flaps to obliterate dead space. The drainage tubes were placed and connected to a negative pressure generator for adequate drainage. Results There were no intraoperative deaths. In 15 patients (78.9%), bilateral pectoral muscle flaps were mobilized sufficiently to cover and stabilize the defect created by wound debridement. 4 patients (21.0%) needed bilateral pectoral muscle flaps plus rectus abdominis muscle flaps because their pectoralis major muscle flaps could not reach the lowest portion of the wound. 2 patients (10.5%) presented with subcutaneous infection, and 3 patients (15.8%) had hematoma. They recovered following local debridement and medication. 17 patients (89.5%) were examined at follow-up 12 months later, all healed and having stable sternum. No patients showed infection recurrence during the follow-up period over 12 months. Conclusion DSWI following median sternotomy may be effectively managed with adequate debridement of infected tissues and reconstruction with bilateral pectoralis major muscle or plus rectus abdominis muscle flap transposition. PMID:25429744

Wu, Song; Wan, Feng; Gao, Yong-Shun; Zhang, Zhe; Zhao, Hong; Cui, Zhong-Qi; Ji-Yan Xie, And

2014-11-28

71

Eye muscle surgery for infantile nystagmus syndrome in the first two years of life  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To report visual and elctrophysioloigcal effects of eye muscle surgery in young patients with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS). Methods: Prospective, interventional case cohort of 19 patients aged under 24 months who were operated on for combinations of strabismus, an anomalous head posture, and nystagmus. All patients were followed at least nine months. Outcome measures, part of an institutionally approved study, included Teller acuity, head position, strabismic deviation, and eye movement recordings, from which waveform types and a nystagmus optimal foveation fraction (NOFF). Computerized parametric and nonparametric statistical analysis of data were perfomed using standard software on both individual and group data. Results: Age averaged 17.7 months (13.1-month follow-up). Thirteen (68%) patients had associated optic nerve or retinal disease. 42% had amblyopia, 68% had refractive errors. Group means in binocular Teller acuity (P < 0.05), strabismic deviation (P < 0.05), head posture (P < 0.001), and the NOFF measures (P < 0.01) from eye movement recordings improved in all patients. There was a change in null zone waveforms to more favorable jerk types. There were no reoperations or surgical complications. Conclusions: Surgery on the extraocular muscles in patients aged less than two years with INS results in improvements in multiple aspects of ocular motor and visual function. PMID:19997564

Hertle, Richard W; Felius, Joost; Yang, Dongsheng; Kaufman, Matthew

2009-01-01

72

Contribution of the skin, rectus abdominis and their sheaths to the structural response of the abdominal wall ex vivo.  

PubMed

A better understanding of the abdominal wall biomechanics could help designing new treatments for incisional hernia. In the current study, an experimental protocol was developed to evaluate the contributions of the abdominal wall components to the structural response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall. The specimens underwent 3 dissections (removal of (1) skin and subcutaneous fat, (2) anterior rectus sheath, (3) rectus abdominis muscles). After each dissection, they were subjected to air pressure up to 3 kPa. Ultrasound images and associated elastographic maps were collected at 0, 2 and 3 kPa in the intact state and strains on the internal surface were calculated using stereo-correlation in all states. Strains on the rectus abdominis and linea alba were analyzed. After the dissection of the anterior sheath of the rectus abdominis, longitudinal strain was found significantly different on the linea alba (5% at 3 kPa) and on the rectus abdominis area (11% at 3 kPa). The current results highlight the importance of the rectus sheath in the structural response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall ex vivo. Geometrical characteristics such as thicknesses and radii of curvature and mechanical properties (shear modulus of the rectus abdominis, e.g. at 0 pressure the average value is 14 kPa) were provided in order to facilitate future modeling efforts. PMID:25065730

Tran, D; Mitton, D; Voirin, D; Turquier, F; Beillas, P

2014-09-22

73

Lateral rectus myositis mimicking an abducens nerve palsy in a pregnant woman.  

PubMed

Myositis is a rare unknown inflammatory disorder of the skeletal muscle tissue. Generalized inflammatory myopathies, polymyositis, and dermatomyositis have been reported during pregnancy. Isolated orbital myositis in pregnancy has not been previously described in the literature. The authors report a case of left isolated orbital myositis in a primigravida at 38 weeks gestation affecting the patient's left lateral rectus muscle. MRI of the orbit was consistent with the diagnosis. She showed remarkable clinical improvement with oral corticosteroids therapy. PMID:23531952

Haslinda, Abd-Rahim; Shatriah, Ismail; Azhany, Yaakub; Nik-Ahmad-Zuky, Nik-Lah; Yunus, Rohaizan

2014-01-01

74

Blunt transection of rectus abdominis following seatbelt related trauma with associated small and large bowel injury?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Closed rupture of rectus abdominis following seatbelt related trauma is rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the case of a 45 year old female who presented with closed rupture of the rectus abdominis in conjunction with damage to small bowel mesentery and infarction of small and large bowel following a high velocity road traffic accident. Multiple intestinal resections were required resulting in short bowel syndrome and abdominal wall reconstruction with a porcine collagen mesh. Post-operative complications included intra-abdominal sepsis and an enterocutaneous fistula. DISCUSSION The presence of rupture of rectus abdominis muscle secondary to seatbelt injury should raise the suspicion of intra-abdominal injury. CONCLUSION Our case highlights the need for suspicion, investigation and subsequent surgical management of intra-abdominal injury following identification of this rare consequence of seatbelt trauma. PMID:24055917

Patel, K.; Doolin, R.; Suggett, N.

2013-01-01

75

Characteristics of Back Muscle Strength in Patients with Scheduled for Lumbar Fusion Surgery due to Symptomatic Lumbar Degenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Study Design Cross sectional study. Purpose To evaluate characteristics of back muscle strength in patients scheduled for lumbar fusion surgery. Overview of Literature Little is known regarding muscle strength in patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases who require fusion surgery. Methods Consecutive 354 patients scheduled for posterior lumbar interbody fusion due to symptomatic degenerative diseases were approached for participation. 316 patients were enrolled. Before surgery, muscle strength was assessed by measuring maximal isometric extension strength at seven angular positions (0°, 12°, 24°, 36°, 48°, 60°, and 72°) and mean isometric strength was calculated. The Oswestry Disability Index (0-100) and visual analogue scale (0-100) for back pain were recorded. Muscle strength was compared according to gender, age (<60, 60-70, and ?70 years) and scheduled fusion level (short, <3; long, ?3). Results Isometric strength was significantly decreased compared with previously reported results of healthy individuals, particularly at extension positions (0°-48°, p<0.05). Mean isometric strength was significantly lower in females (p<0.001) and older patients (p<0.05). Differences of isometric strength between short and long level fusion were not significantly different (p>0.05). Isometric strengths showed significant, but weak, inverse correlations with age and Oswestry Disability Index (r<0.4, p<0.05). Conclusions In patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases, back muscle strength significantly decreased, particularly at lumbar extension positions, and in females and older patients. PMID:25346820

Park, Won Hah; Lee, Chong Suh; Kang, Kyung Chung

2014-01-01

76

Unilateral duplication of the anterior digastric muscle belly: a case report with implications for surgeries of the submental region  

PubMed Central

Anterior belly of the digastric muscle (ABDM) variations have been reported to occur in as few as 2.7% to as many as 69.6% of individuals. Therefore, it is important to understand the anatomical diversity of ABDM variants, particularly with regard to head and neck surgery. The report documents a unilateral duplication of the ABDM with an oblique belly which crosses the midline. Measurements of muscle length, width, orientation and inferior surface area are documented. ABDM variants may cause confusion during surgeries, including submental lipectomy, rhytidectomy, surgical alteration of the cervicomental angle via partial resection of the ABDM, muscle transfer for reanimation of the mouth and submental artery flap procedures. Therefore, knowledge of this particular variant may aid in surgical planning as well as prevent confusion and disorientation during operations in the submental region. PMID:25480836

Zdilla, Matthew J.; Soloninka, Hannah J.; Lambert, H. Wayne

2014-01-01

77

Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... for ENews Home > Lung Disease > COPD > Treating COPD Surgery Some COPD patients with very severe symptoms may ... lung surgery. Are You a Candidate for Lung Surgery? Some people with COPD have improved lung function ...

78

A quantitative analysis of extraocular muscle cooperation and squint.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of human extraocular muscles have recently been described. This allows one to use the force-balance equation of mechanics to solve for the complete mechanical state of all six extraocular muscles and the passive orbital tissues in any eye position. This includes each muscle's force, length, innervation, and unit action vector, which describes how its force is distributed to act horizontally, vertically, and in torsion. Most important, this calculation method allows one to predict the tropias that occur in an eye subject to any imaginable form of peripheral pathology. It also permitts, by calculation, an estimation of the correction that might be expected from any sort of muscle surgery. The tight lateral rectus syndrome is used to illustrate the application of the method in diagnosis and surgery. It also offers, for the first time, a quantitative estimate of the multitude of ways in which muscles can interact and interfere with each other when they hold the globe. Two of the results are interesting: because muscles have different lengths and sizes, their innervational participation in a movement can appear to be quite different than their mechanical participation. From an innervational standpoint, the vertical recti and obliques participate equally in vertical gaze. Muscles interfere with each other a good deal and necessitate changes of innervation to counteract these cross-couplings. This causes unexpected dependencies of innervation on eye position and leads, for example, to the fact that the superior rectus innervation in up gaze is just as large in adduction as in abduction. PMID:1184315

Robinson, D A

1975-11-01

79

[Radial fascio-cutaneous flap of the forearm and myocutaneous gracilis muscle flap in urologic surgery: surgical anatomy and techniques].  

PubMed

All the concepts and principles commonly espoused in plastic surgery are very useful in urologic reconstructive operations too. Hypospadia's repair, neo-bladder reconstruction, microsurgery of the seminal way require as certain rules as an absolute respect for anatomy, sparing of the finest tissue vascularization and tension free sutures. Pedicled skin flaps harvesting and utilisation are techniques typical of plastic surgery but are also largely used in urologic adult and paediatric surgery. They are adopted for urethral, penile and corpora cavernosa reconstruction. Pedicled flaps are utilised for the closure of large skin defect in case of complicated wound or when an urinary fistula is present, especially after radiotherapy. A perfect knowledge of the flap nourishment and of the method of harvesting is crucial if the best results must be obtained. In our work we describe the surgical technique for the utilisation of gracilis muscle and forearm flap. Special care is taken to the anatomical description. PMID:10953388

de Stefani, S; Liguori, G; Ciampalini, S; Trombetta, C; Pascone, M; Bertolotto, M; Belgrano, E

2000-06-01

80

Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma during rivaroxaban therapy  

PubMed Central

Rivaroxaban is an oral anticoagulant agent that directly inhibits Factor Xa and interrupts both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade and is currently indicated for use in patients for atrial fibrillation and prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis. The present case reports of spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma during rivaroxaban therapy for atrial fibrillation in a 75-year-old woman. PMID:24987185

Kocayigit, Ibrahim; Can, Yusuf; Sahinkus, Salih; Ayd?n, Ercan; Vatan, Mehmet Bulent; K?l?c, Harun; Gunduz, Huseyin

2014-01-01

81

Heterotopic muscle pulleys or oblique muscle dysfunction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The description of connective tissue sleeves that function as pulleys for the rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) suggests that abnormalities of EOM pulley position might provide a mechanical basis for some forms of incomitant strabismus. Pulleys determine the paths and thus the pulling directions of EOMs. Methods: High-resolution magnetic resonance images spanning the orbits were obtained in primary position, upgaze,

Robert A. Clark; Joel M. Miller; Arthur L. Rosenbaum; Joseph L. Demer

1998-01-01

82

Muscles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tendons are rope-like fibers that join muscles to bones. Muscles contract and lengthen and muscles get shorter when they contract. A ligament is a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects the bones and binds the joints together. They connect bones to bones and they sometimes act as guides for tendons.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

83

Compartmentalization of extraocular muscle function.  

PubMed

Ocular motor diversity exceeds capabilities of only six extraocular muscles (EOMs), but this deficiency is overcome by the plethora of fibers within individual EOMs surpassing requirements of homogeneous actuators. This paper reviews emerging evidence that regions of individual EOMs can be differentially innervated to exert independent oculorotary torques, broadening the oculomotor repertoire, and potentially explaining diverse strabismus pathophysiology. Parallel structure characterizes EOM and tendon fibers, with little transverse coupling of experimentally imposed or actively generated tension. This arrangement enables arbitrary groupings of tendon and muscle fibers to act relatively independently. Coordinated force generation among EOM fibers occurs only upon potentially mutable coordination of innervational commands, whose central basis is suggested by preliminary findings of apparent compartmental segregation of abducens motor neuron pools. Humans, monkeys, and other mammals demonstrate separate, nonoverlapping intramuscular nerve arborizations in the superior vs inferior compartments of the medial rectus (MR) and lateral rectus (LR) EOMs that could apply force at the superior vs inferior portions of scleral insertions, and in the medial vs lateral compartments of the superior oblique that act at the equatorial vs posterior scleral insertions that might preferentially implement incycloduction vs infraduction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the MR during several physiological ocular motor behaviors indicates differential compartmental function. Differential compartmental pathology can influence clinical strabismus. Partial abducens palsy commonly affects the superior LR compartment more than the inferior, inducing vertical strabismus that might erroneously be attributed to cyclovertical EOM pathology. Surgery may selectively manipulate EOM compartments.Eye advance online publication, 24 October 2014; doi:10.1038/eye.2014.246. PMID:25341434

Demer, J L

2014-10-24

84

The combined tensor fasciae latae/rectus femoris musculocutaneous flap: a possibility for major soft tissue reconstruction in the groin, hip, gluteal, perineal, and lower abdominal regions.  

PubMed

A 57-year-old man, with a long-lasting multiple hereditary cartilaginous exostoses, presented with a progressive tumor growth in the left iliac wing and in the gluteus maximus muscle. An open biopsy revealed a secondary chondrosarcoma, which had developed from an osteochondroma. A wide surgical resection, sparing the inferior limb, was the option for treatment. The fairly constant and reliable vascular anatomy of the lateral circumflex femoral artery, as confirmed by 27 previous anatomical dissections, gave us the opportunity to repair the wide postoperative defect by means of a single, very large flap, combining the vascular territories of the tensor fasciae latae and rectus femoris musculocutaneous flaps. The postoperative period was uneventful, and 1 year after surgery the man had no sign of local recurrence or metastases, and the flap was fully viable without sign of local complication. A functional evaluation was performed on a Kin-Com II dynamometer, showing major impairment of the limb that had undergone surgery. Despite the severe functional disturbance, the man prefers the impaired status to an amputation after a hemipelvectomy. PMID:8215135

Santanelli, F; Berlin, O; Fogdestam, I

1993-08-01

85

Mechanical characterisation of porcine rectus sheath under uniaxial and biaxial tension.  

PubMed

Incisional hernia development is a significant complication after laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is known to initiate the extrusion of intestines through the abdominal wall, but there is limited data on the mechanics of IAP generation and the structural properties of rectus sheath. This paper presents an explanation of the mechanics of IAP development, a study of the uniaxial and biaxial tensile properties of porcine rectus sheath, and a simple computational investigation of the tissue. Analysis using Laplace?s law showed a circumferential stress in the abdominal wall of approx. 1.1MPa due to an IAP of 11kPa, commonly seen during coughing. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were conducted on samples of porcine rectus sheath to characterise the stress-stretch responses of the tissue. Under uniaxial tension, fibre direction samples failed on average at a stress of 4.5MPa at a stretch of 1.07 while cross-fibre samples failed at a stress of 1.6MPa under a stretch of 1.29. Under equi-biaxial tension, failure occurred at 1.6MPa with the fibre direction stretching to only 1.02 while the cross-fibre direction stretched to 1.13. Uniaxial and biaxial stress-stretch plots are presented allowing detailed modelling of the tissue either in silico or in a surrogate material. An FeBio computational model of the tissue is presented using a combination of an Ogden and an exponential power law model to represent the matrix and fibres respectively. The structural properties of porcine rectus sheath have been characterised and add to the small set of human data in the literature with which it may be possible to develop methods to reduce the incidence of incisional hernia development. PMID:24725440

Lyons, Mathew; Winter, Des C; Simms, Ciaran K

2014-06-01

86

Three Cases of Severe Invasive Infections Caused by Campylobacter rectus and First Report of Fatal C. rectus Infection?  

PubMed Central

We report the first fatal case of Campylobacter rectus infection due to a subdural empyema and ruptured mycotic intracranial aneurysm and two cases of limb-threatening C. rectus necrotizing soft tissue and bone infection and empyema thoracis that responded to amoxicillin-clavulanate and surgical debridement and drainage. All three strains were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. PMID:21270212

Lam, Jimmy Y. W.; Wu, Alan K. L.; Ngai, Dickson C.; Teng, Jade L. L.; Wong, Elsa S. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Lee, Rodney A.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

2011-01-01

87

Responses of Medial Rectus Motoneurons in Monkeys with Strabismus  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Monkeys reared under conditions of alternating monocular occlusion during their first few months of life show large horizontal strabismus, “A” patterns, and dissociated vertical deviation. “A” patterns manifest as an inappropriate horizontal component in the deviated eye during vertical eye movements (cross-axis movement). The objective of this study was to investigate response properties of medial rectus motoneurons (MRMNs) in relation to strabismus properties. Methods. Burst-tonic activity of 21 MRMNs in the oculomotor nucleus were recorded from two monkeys with exotropia as they performed horizontal and vertical smooth pursuit (0.2 Hz, ±10°) under monocular viewing conditions. Neuronal responses and horizontal component of eye movements were used to identify regression coefficients in a first-order model for each tracking condition. Results. Comparison of position, velocity, and constant parameter coefficients, estimated from horizontal tracking data with either eye viewing, showed no significant differences (P > 0.07), indicating that neuronal activity could account for the horizontal misalignment. Comparison of the position, velocity, and constant parameter coefficients estimated from horizontal tracking and the cross-axis condition showed no significant differences (P > 0.07), suggesting that motoneuron activity could account for most of the inappropriate horizontal cross-axis movement observed in the covered eye during vertical smooth pursuit. Conclusions. These data suggest that, in animals with sensory-induced strabismus, central innervation to extraocular muscles is responsible for setting the state of strabismus. Mechanical factors such as muscle length adaptation (for horizontal misalignment) and pulley heterotopy or static torsion (for “A” patterns) likely do not play a major role in determining properties in a sensory-induced strabismus. PMID:21743010

Joshi, Anand C.

2011-01-01

88

Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

2001-01-01

89

Intramuscular Innervation of Primate Extraocular Muscles: Unique Compartmentalization in Horizontal Recti  

PubMed Central

Purpose. It has been proposed that the lateral rectus (LR), like many skeletal and craniofacial muscles, comprises multiple neuromuscular compartments subserving different physiological functions. To explore the anatomic potential of compartmentalization in all four rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs), evidence was sought of possible regional selectivity in intramuscular innervation of all rectus EOMs. Methods. Whole orbits of two humans and one macaque monkey were serially sectioned at 10 ?m thickness and stained with Masson's trichrome. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed of the intramuscular courses of motor nerves from the deep orbit to the anterior extents of their arborizations within all four rectus EOMs in each orbit. Results. Findings concorded in monkey and human orbits. Externally to the global surface of the lateral (LR) and medial rectus (MR) EOMs, motor nerve trunks bifurcated into approximately equal-sized branches before entering the global layer and observing a segregation of subsequent arborization into superior zones that exhibited minimal overlap along the length of the LR and only modest overlap for MR. In contrast, intramuscular branches of the superior and the nasal portion of the inferior rectus were highly mixed. Conclusions. Consistent segregation of intramuscular motor nerve arborization suggests functionally distinct superior and inferior zones within the horizontal rectus EOMs in both humans and monkeys. Reduced or absent compartmentalization in vertical rectus EOMs supports a potential functional role for differential innervation in horizontal rectus zones that could mediate previously unrecognized vertical oculorotary actions. PMID:21220556

da Silva Costa, Roberta Martins; Kung, Jennifer; Poukens, Vadims; Yoo, Lawrence; Tychsen, Lawrence

2011-01-01

90

Increased Muscle Proteasome Activity Correlates With Disease Severity in Gastric Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the state of activation of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system in the skeletal muscle of gastric cancer patients. Summary Background Data Muscle wasting in experimental cancer cachexia is frequently associated with hyperactivation of the ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic system. Increased muscle ubiquitin mRNA levels have been previously shown in gastric cancer patients, suggesting that this proteolytic system might be modulated also in human cancer. Methods Biopsies of the rectus abdominis muscle were obtained intraoperatively from 23 gastric cancer patients and 14 subjects undergoing surgery for benign abdominal diseases, and muscle ubiquitin mRNA expression and proteasome proteolytic activities were assessed. Results Muscle ubiquitin mRNA was hyperexpressed in gastric cancer patients compared to controls. In parallel, three proteasome proteolytic activities (CTL, chymotrypsin-like; TL, trypsin-like; PGP, peptidyl-glutamyl-peptidase) significantly increased in gastric cancer patients with respect to controls. Advanced tumor stage, poor nutritional status, and age more than 50 years were associated with significantly higher CTL activity but had no influence on TL and PGP activity. Conclusions These results confirm the involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic system in the pathogenesis of muscle protein hypercatabolism in cancer cachexia. The observation that perturbations of this pathway in gastric cancer patients occur even before clinical evidence of body wasting supports the thinking that specific pharmacologic and metabolic approaches aimed at counteracting the upregulation of this pathway should be undertaken as early as cancer is diagnosed. PMID:12616123

Bossola, Maurizio; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Costelli, Paola; Grieco, Gabriella; Bonelli, Gabriella; Pacelli, Fabio; Fanelli, Filippo Rossi; Doglietto, Giovanni Battista; Baccino, Francesco Maria

2003-01-01

91

Long-term postoperative outcomes of bilateral lateral rectus recession vs unilateral recession-resection for intermittent exotropia  

PubMed Central

AIM To discuss the long-term postoperative results of bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR) and unilateral lateral rectus recession-medial rectus resection (RR) in therapy of intermittent exotropia. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 213 cases of intermittent exotropia who underwent surgery between 2008 and 2010. The patients were grouped into BLR group and RR group. Motor outcomes were divided into three groups on the basis of the angle of deviation after surgery: overcorrection (esotropia/phoria >5?), orthophoria (esotropia/phoria ?5? to exotropia/phoria ?10?), and undercorrection/recurrence (exotropia/phoria >10?). Titmus test was used to evaluate stereoacuity, the stereoacuity <800s of arc meaned the patients had stereopsis. Surgical outcome including motor criteria and sensory status were compared at postoperative 6, 12, 24mo and at 36mo examination between groups. RESULTS At 12, 24mo after surgery, the motor outcomes had no difference (P>0.05) between groups. However, the motor outcomes at 6, 36mo were signally different in each group, indicating the success rate in RR group at 6mo was higher than that in BLR group (83.02% vs 82.24%, P<0.05) but the result was contrary at the 3y examination (60.75% vs 43.40%, P<0.05). No statistical significance were found in the sensory outcomes between the groups at mean of 3.7y follow-up. CONCLUSION The motor outcomes in RR group were better than in BLR group at 6mo after surgery, while the 3y outcomes were better in BLR group. This may be due to the recurrence rate of the BLR was lower than the RR group's.

Yang, Xian; Man, Teng-Teng; Tian, Qiao-Xia; Zhao, Gui-Qiu; Kong, Qing-Lan; Meng, Yan; Gao, Yan; Ning, Mei-Zhen

2014-01-01

92

A cadaver knee simulator to evaluate the biomechanics of rectus femoris transfer.  

PubMed

A cadaver knee simulator has been developed to model surgical transfer of the rectus femoris. The simulator allows knee specimens six degrees of freedom and is capable of modeling both the swing and stance phases of human gait. Experiments were conducted using a mechanical hinge analog of the knee to verify that time, flexion angle, and knee extension force measurements recorded when using the simulator were not influenced by its design or operation. A ballistic double pendulum model was used to model the swing phase of gait, and the contributions of hip and ankle torques and hamstrings cocontraction were included when modeling the stance phase of gait. When modeling swing, range of motion and time to peak knee flexion in swing for the hinge knee were similar to those of in vivo test subjects. Measurements of hinge knee extension force when modeling stance under various biomechanical conditions matched those predicted using an analytical model. Future studies using cadaver knee specimens will apply techniques described in this paper to further our understanding of changes in knee biomechanics caused by rectus femoris transfer surgery. PMID:19403312

Anderson, Michael C; Brown, Nicholas A T; Bachus, Kent N; Macwilliams, Bruce A

2009-07-01

93

Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma in the Elderly: An Unusual Case and Update on Proper Management  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (SRSH) is an uncommon medical emergency in the elderly. We present a case of SRSH with an atypical clinical presentation and discuss literature regarding diagnosis and proper management. A 75-year-old female patient was transferred to the emergency department due to acute dyspnoea and confusion. Her medical history revealed a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, and no coughing or use of anticoagulants. The clinical examination showed tenderness of the left lower abdomen, although palpation was misleading due to patient's obesity. Laboratory investigations showed light anaemia. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a large rectus sheath hematoma of the left abdominal wall. Despite further deterioration of the patient, conservative management including bed rest, fluid replacement, blood products transfusion, and proper analgesia was successful. No surgical intervention was needed. Prompt diagnosis and management of SRSH plays significant role in the prognosis, especially in elder patients. Independently of size and severity, conservative management remains the first therapeutic choice. Only by failure of supportive management, progressive and large hematoma or uncontrollable hemodynamic patients, interventional management including surgery or less invasive newer techniques is indicated. PMID:24839570

Galyfos, George; Karantzikos, Georgios; Palogos, Konstantinos; Sianou, Argiri; Filis, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Nikolaos

2014-01-01

94

The effect of early physiotherapy on the recovery of mandibular function after orthognathic surgery for class III correction. Part II: Electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles.  

PubMed

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of early physical rehabilitation by comparing the differences of surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles after surgical correction of skeletal class III malocclusion. The prospective study included 63 patients; the experimental groups contained 31 patients who received early systematic physical rehabilitation; the control group (32 patients) did not receive physiotherapy. The amplitude of sEMG in the masticatory muscles reached 72.6-121.3% and 37.5-64.6% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively at 6 weeks after orthognathic surgery (OGS). At 6 months after OGS, the sEMG reached 135.1-233.4% and 89.6-122.5% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively. Most variables in the sEMG examination indicated that recovery of the masticatory muscles in the experimental group was better than the control group as estimated in the early phase (T1 to T2) and the total phase (T1 to T3); there were no significant differences between the mean recovery percentages in the later phase (T2 to T3). Early physical rehabilitative therapy is helpful for early recovery of muscle activity in masticatory muscles after OGS. After termination of physical therapy, no significant difference in recovery was indicated in patients with or without early physiotherapy. PMID:25439089

Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Teng, Terry Te-Yi; Huang, Chiung Shing; Chen, Yu-Ray

2015-01-01

95

Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Patients with overcorrected strabismus (and several patients with undercorrection after extraocular muscle resection) underwent exploration of previously operated muscles, with the intention of advancing their tendons to prevent the need for surgery on additional muscles. Unexpectedly, it was found that, in many cases, an elongated scar segment of variable length was interposed between the muscle and its insertion site on the sclera. Laboratory investigations were carried out to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) and to create an animal model of the disorder. METHODS: Lengthened scars were repaired on 198 muscles during 134 procedures performed on 123 patients. The scars consisted of amorphous connective tissue interposed between the globe and normal tendon. Repair was accomplished by excision of the scar and reattachment of the muscle to sclera, using absorbable sutures in 64 cases and nonabsorbable sutures in 70 cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on 82 clinical specimens, and tissue culture studies were performed on 7 specimens. To develop an animal model, 10 New Zealand white rabbits underwent bilateral superior rectus resection. Half of the eyes received sub-Tenon's injections of collagenase over the operative site during weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6 postoperatively; the other half received saline solution injections on the same schedule. At 10 weeks, half the sites were studied histologically, and the other half underwent collagen creep analysis. In a second study, the use of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures was compared in the rabbit model. RESULTS: In the clinical cases, the mean length of the elongated scar segments was 4.2 mm. A total of 105 of the 134 repair procedures were judged successful. Thirty-one procedures resulted in recurrence of the original overcorrection; 7 of these had documented restretches. Factors that distinguished patients with stretched scars from patients with classic slipped muscles included minimal or no limitation of versions, less separation of the tendons from sclera, and thicker appearance of the scar segments. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in the repair procedure reduced the recurrence rate. Histologic examination of the clinical stretched scar specimens showed dense connective tissue that was less well organized compared with normal tendon. In the tissue culture studies, cells cultured from the stretched scar specimens grew rapidly and were irregularly shaped. A high-molecular-weight protein was identified in the culture medium. By contrast, cells cultured from normal tendon (controls) grew more slowly and regularly, stopped growing at 4 days, and produced less total protein than cultured stretched scar specimens. In the animal model studies, the collagenase-treated sites showed elongated scars with increased collagen between the muscle and the sclera, as well as increased collagen creep rates, compared with the saline-treated controls. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in collagenase-treated animal model surgery sites was associated with shorter, thicker scars compared with similar sites sutured with absorbable sutures. CONCLUSIONS: A lengthened or stretched, remodeled scar between an operated muscle tendon and sclera is a common occurrence and is a factor contributing to the variability of outcome after strabismus repair, even years later. This abnormality may be revealed by careful exploration of previously operated muscles. Definitive repair requires firm reattachment of tendon to sclera with nonabsorbable suture support. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 53 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 55 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 63

Ludwig, I H

1999-01-01

96

Activity of the Femoral Muscles during Toe-gripping Action  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] In the present study, we investigated femoral muscle activity during toe-gripping, and the role of the femoral muscles in toe-gripping strength. [Subjects] Fourteen healthy young women were selected. [Methods] We measured the maximum voluntary contraction of the rectus femoris and long head of the biceps femoris muscles. We then calculated the percent integrated EMG (%IEMG) during the toe-gripping action. [Results] We found that the %IEMG of the biceps femoris was significantly higher than that of the rectus femoris. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the %IEMG of the rectus femoris and that of the biceps femoris. [Conclusion] These results suggest that femoral muscles co-contract during the toe-gripping action, and thus possibly contribute to knee joint stability. PMID:25364128

Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke

2014-01-01

97

Purification and characterization of Campylobacter rectus surface layer proteins.  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter rectus is a putative periodontopathogen which expresses a proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) external to the outer membrane. S-layers are considered to play a protective role for the microorganism in hostile environments. The S-layer proteins from six different C. rectus strains (five human isolates and a nonhuman primate [NHP] isolate) were isolated, purified, and characterized. The S-layer proteins of these strains varied in molecular mass (ca. 150 to 166 kDa) as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. They all reacted with monospecific rabbit antiserum to the purified S-layer of C. rectus 314, but a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated a strong antigenic relationship among the five human strains, while the NHP strain, 6250, showed weaker reactivity. Amino acid composition analysis showed that the S-layers of four C. rectus strains contained large proportions of acidic amino acids (13 to 27%) and that >34% of the amino acid residues were hydrophobic. Amino acid sequence analysis of six S-layer proteins revealed that the first 15 amino-terminal amino acids were identical and showed seven residues of identity with the amino-terminal sequence of the Campylobacter fetus S-layer protein SapA1. CNBr peptide profiles of the S-layer proteins from C. rectus 314, ATCC 33238, and 6250 confirmed that the S-layer proteins from the human strains were similar to each other and somewhat different from that of the NHP isolate (strain 6250). However, the S-layer proteins from the two human isolates do show some structural heterogeneity. For example, there was a 17-kDa fragment unique to the C. rectus 314 S-layer. The amino-terminal sequence of this peptide had homology with the C. rectus 51-kDa porin and was composed of nearly 50% hydrophobic residues. Thus, the S-layer protein from C. rectus has structural heterogeneity among different human strains and immunoheterogeneity with the NHP strain. PMID:9009300

Nitta, H; Holt, S C; Ebersole, J L

1997-01-01

98

Evaluation of periosteal fixation of lateral rectus and partial VRT for cases of exotropic Duane retraction syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lateral rectus periosteal fixation and partial vertical rectus transpositioning (VRT) as treatment modalities to correct exotropic Duane retraction syndrome (Exo-DRS). Materials and Methods: Prospective interventional case study of cases of Exo-DRS with limitation of adduction. A total of 13 patients were subdivided into two groups. Six patients underwent only lateral rectus periosteal fixation (group A) and seven patients also underwent partial VRT (group B). Assessment involved prism bar cover test, abduction and adduction range, extent of binocular single visual field and exophthalmometry. These tests were repeated at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-operatively and data analyzed. Results: The pre-operative mean values and ranges were 26.2? (22-35) exotropia for group A and ?21.3? (14-30) exotropia for group B. The post-operative mean and range was +0.6? esotropia (+20 to ?8) for group A and 8? (?2 to ?20) exotropia for group B. Mean grade of limitation of abduction changed from ?3.8 to ?3.6 versus ?3.6 to ?2.8 and mean grade of limitation of adduction changed from ?1.9 to ?0.7 versus ?1.5 to ?0.5 in the groups A and B respectively. Mean binocular single visual field changed from 14.7° to 23.3° in group A and 11.8° to 26.4° in the group B respectively. Conclusion: Lateral rectus periosteal fixation is an effective surgery to correct the exodeviation, anomalous head posture and improving adduction in Exo-DRS and partial VRT in addition is effective in improving abduction and binocular single visual fields. PMID:24618490

Sharma, Pradeep; Tomer, Ruchi; Menon, Vimla; Saxena, Rohit; Sharma, Anudeepa

2014-01-01

99

Architecture and fiber type of the pyramidalis muscle  

PubMed Central

The paired pyramidalis muscles are small triangular-shaped muscles that lie between the anterior surface of the rectus abdominus and the posterior surface of the rectus sheath. The precise function of pyramidalis muscles is unclear, but together the muscles are thought to tense the linea alba. The muscles are not always present, or are often unilateral, and vary greatly in size. Their wider inferior margins attach to the pubic symphyses and pubic crests, whereas their narrow superior margins attach to the linea alba. The gross anatomy and innervation of the pyramidalis muscles has been described by others, but their architecture and fiber type have not been determined in previous publications. The purpose of the present paper was therefore to investigate these parameters and place the findings into context for the literature available on this muscle. An example of bilateral pyramidalis muscles was recently encountered in a male cadaver that provided ample tissue for an analysis of its architecture and fiber type. The muscle mass, muscle length, fiber length, and pennation angle of muscle fibers were measured to ascertain physiological cross-sectional area and thereby estimate force production. Fiber type composition was also examined using immunofluorescent labeling. The results show that this is a muscle of mixed fiber type composition, similar to the rectus abdominus, and that the estimated forces generated by this muscle are relatively small. PMID:19159363

Lovering, Richard M.; Anderson, Larry D.

2012-01-01

100

Architecture and fiber type of the pyramidalis muscle.  

PubMed

The paired pyramidalis muscles are small triangular-shaped muscles that lie between the anterior surface of the rectus abdominus and the posterior surface of the rectus sheath. The precise function of pyramidalis muscles is unclear, but together the muscles are thought to tense the linea alba. The muscles are not always present, or are often unilateral, and vary greatly in size. Their wider inferior margins attach to the pubic symphyses and pubic crests, whereas their narrow superior margins attach to the linea alba. The gross anatomy and innervation of the pyramidalis muscles has been described by others, but their architecture and fiber type have not been determined in previous publications. The purpose of the present paper was therefore to investigate these parameters and place the findings into context for the literature available on this muscle. An example of bilateral pyramidalis muscles was recently encountered in a male cadaver that provided ample tissue for an analysis of its architecture and fiber type. The muscle mass, muscle length, fiber length, and pennation angle of muscle fibers were measured to ascertain physiological cross-sectional area and thereby estimate force production. Fiber type composition was also examined using immunofluorescent labeling. The results show that this is a muscle of mixed fiber type composition, similar to the rectus abdominus, and that the estimated forces generated by this muscle are relatively small. PMID:19159363

Lovering, Richard M; Anderson, Larry D

2008-12-01

101

Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review.  

PubMed

Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

2012-04-01

102

Experience with 24 Cases of Reconstructive Anterior Skull Base Surgery  

PubMed Central

This article details our experience with 24 cases of anterior skull base reconstruction after tumor resection. They were classified into four types according to the resected region. In 11 cases of type I resection, the orbital part of frontal bone and/or cribriform plate of ethmoid bone were resected. In two cases of type II resection, the orbital contents and partial orbital bone were resected with the addition of type I. In five cases of type III resection, the maxillary bone was resected with the addition of type II. In six cases of type IV resection, the zygomatic bone and/or facial skin were resected with the addition of type III. The tumor originating from intracranial region was 25% of this series and all of them belonged to type I. The tumor originating from extracranial region tumor was 75% and its resected region was more extensive. In type I and II resections, the cranial flap, radial forearm free flap, or a combination of the two was used for reconstruction. The rectus abdominis myocutaneous/muscle free flap was used for reconstruction of massive defects in type III and IV defects. Total incidence of postoperative complications was 16.7%. Donor site deformity of the cranial flap at the frontal and temporal region in types I and II resections and facial contour deformity in zygomatic region and defect of upper and/or lower palpebra in type IV resection were major problems with postoperative facial appearance. Although use of the rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flap combined with costal cartilages improved the midfacial contour, palpebral reconstruction remained an unsolved problem in reconstructive skull base surgery. The reconstructive goals in skull base surgery are not only to obtain safe and reliable skull base reconstruction but also to restore the facial appearance postoperatively. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3p69-bFigure 4 PMID:17171103

Yamamoto, Yuhei; Minakawa, Hidehiko; Kawashima, Kunihiro; Sugihara, Tsuneki; Fukuda, Satoshi; Sawamura, Yutaka; Watanabe, Akihito; Nohira, Kunihiko

2000-01-01

103

Eye muscle repair - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... Resection and recession - discharge; Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... eyes. The medical term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children usually receive general anesthesia for this surgery. ...

104

[Smile "forced" smile versus "spontaneous": comparison of 3 techniques of reconstructive surgery of the face. Myoplasty temporal muscle, hypoglossal facial anastomosis and gracilis muscle free flap].  

PubMed

The facial palsy cause serious consequences for patients. Studies have also shown that in these patients, the inability to produce an appropriate and spontaneous smile would be a key factor of depression. When facial palsy is considered complete and the nerve cannot be repaired, the patient can benefit from palliative surgery to regain a better quality of life in the aesthetic, functional, and psychological aspects. The hypoglossal-facial anastomosis (AHF), temporal myoplasty (MAT) and gracilis transposition (TG) are the major surgeries currently used for this purpose. The aim of our study is to assess quantitatively and qualitatively the effects of each of these surgeries on the lip mobility and production of smile. From this perspective, we proposed a protocol of an evaluation of facial motricity, of quality of life, and more particularly on the quality and the analysis of the smile. The results underline that there is no significant difference in the recovery of the facial motricity according to the surgery. Only the slower, deferred deadline of recovery at the patients AHF and TG who have to wait several months, it is for the same levels as that of the patients' MAT. A premature and intensive rehabilitation such as the patients of our protocol benefited from it what is nevertheless essential to a good recovery whatever is the surgery. PMID:25252585

Lheureux-Portmann, A; Lapalus-Curtoud, Q; Robert, M; Tankéré, F; Disant, F; Pasche, P; Lamas, G; Gatignol, P

2013-01-01

105

Laughing: a demanding exercise for trunk muscles.  

PubMed

Social, psychological, and physiological studies have provided evidence indicating that laughter imposes an increased demand on trunk muscles. It was the aim of this study to quantify the activation of trunk muscles during laughter yoga in comparison with crunch and back lifting exercises regarding the mean trunk muscle activity. Muscular activity during laughter yoga exercises was measured by surface electromyography of 5 trunk muscles. The activation level of internal oblique muscle during laughter yoga is higher compared to the traditional exercises. The multifidus, erector spinae, and rectus abdominis muscles were nearly half activated during laughter yoga, while the activation of the external oblique muscle was comparable with the crunch and back lifting exercises. Our results indicate that laughter yoga has a positive effect on trunk muscle activation. Thus, laughter seems to be a good activator of trunk muscles, but further research is required whether laughter yoga is a good exercise to improve neuromuscular recruitment patterns for spine stability. PMID:24246140

Wagner, Heiko; Rehmes, Ulrich; Kohle, Daniel; Puta, Christian

2014-01-01

106

Arcuate line of the rectus sheath: clinical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rectus sheath has been extensively described in gross anatomic studies but there is very little information available\\u000a regarding the arcuate line (AL). The aim of the present study therefore was to explore and delineate the morphology, topography\\u000a and morphometry of the arcuate line and provide a comprehensive picture of its anatomy across a broad range of specimens.\\u000a The AL

Marios Loukas; Candice Myers; Rajnil Shah; R. Shane Tubbs; Christopher Wartmann; Nihal Apaydin; Jorge Betancor; Robert Jordan

2008-01-01

107

Electrical Stimulation Versus Electromyographic Biofeedback in the Recovery of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Function Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both electrical stimulation and electromyographic bibjeedback hat~e been shown to be more emtive than voluntary isometric exercise alone in the recovery of quadri- ceps fernoris muscle force following anterior cmiate ligament (ACL) recomtmc- tion. In a compa&n of these two modalities, 30 patients with ACL reconstmction were randomly mgned to either a group receiving electrical stimulation in con- jurution with

Vanessa Draper; Lori Ballard

108

Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling of Isometric Force Production in Primate Eye Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the oculomotor plant is usually modeled as a linear system, recent studies of ocular motoneuron behavior have drawn attention to the presence of significant nonlinearities. One source of these is the development of muscle force in response to changes in motoneuron firing rate. Here, we attempt to simulate the production of isometric force by the primate lateral rectus muscle

Sean R. Anderson; Nathan F. Lepora; John Porrill; Paul Dean

2010-01-01

109

Evidence for a Pulley of the Inferior Oblique Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS. The IO path from origin to the lateral border of the inferior rectus (IR) muscle was straight. Lateral to the IR, the IO curved to follow the globe. At the point of IR crossing, the IO moved anteriorly from infraduction to supraduction by approx- imately 53% of the IR insertion's travel. Gaze-related change in IO cross section was demonstrable

Joseph L. Demer; Sei Yeul Oh; Robert A. Clark; Vadims Poukens

2003-01-01

110

Increased muscle ubiquitin mRNA levels in gastric cancer patients.  

PubMed

The intramuscular ATP-dependent ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome proteolytic system is hyperactivated in experimental cancer cachexia. The present study aimed at verifying whether the expression of the muscle Ub mRNA is altered in patients with cancer. Total muscle RNA was extracted using the guanidinium isothiocyanate/phenol/chloroform method from rectus abdominis biopsies obtained intraoperatively from 20 gastric cancer (GC) patients and 10 subjects with benign abdominal diseases (CON) undergoing surgery. Ub mRNA levels were measured by northern blot analysis. Serum soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) was measured by ELISA. Ub mRNA levels (arbitrary units, means +/- SD) were 2,345 +/- 195 in GC and 1,162 +/- 132 in CON (P = 0.0005). Ub mRNA levels directly correlated with disease stage (r = 0.608, P = 0.005), being 1,945 +/- 786 in stages I and II, 2,480 +/- 650 in stage III, and 3,799 +/- 66 in stage IV. Ub mRNA and sTNFR did not correlate with age and nutritional parameters. This study confirms experimental data indicating an overexpression of muscle Ub mRNA in cancer cachexia. Lack of correlation with nutritional status suggests that Ub activation in human cancer is an early feature that precedes any clinical sign of cachexia. PMID:11294777

Bossola, M; Muscaritoli, M; Costelli, P; Bellantone, R; Pacelli, F; Busquets, S; Argilès, J; Lopez-Soriano, F J; Civello, I M; Baccino, F M; Rossi Fanelli, F; Doglietto, G B

2001-05-01

111

Experimental results and clinical impact of using autologous rectus fascia sheath for vascular replacement.  

PubMed

Vascular complications are major causes of graft failure in liver transplantation. The use of different vascular grafts is common but the results are controversial. The aim of this study was to create an 'ideal' arterial interponate for vascular replacements in the clinical field. An autologous, tubular graft prepared from the posterior rectus fascia sheath was used for iliac artery replacement in dogs for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Forty-one grafts were implanted and immunosuppression was used in separate groups. The patency rate was followed by Doppler ultrasound. Thirty-seven grafts remained patent, 2 cases with thrombosis and 2 cases with stenosis occurred. There was no evidence of necrosis or aneurysmatic formation. The histological analysis included conventional light microscopic and immunohistochemical examinations for CD34 and factor VIII. The explanted grafts showed signs of arterialisation, appearance of elastin fibres, and smooth muscle cells after 6 months. Electron microscopy showed intact mitochondrial structures without signs of hypoxia. In conclusion, the autologous graft presents acceptable long-term patency rate. It is easy to handle and the concept of beneficial presence of the anti-clot mesothelium until endothelialisation seems to work. The first clinical use was already reported by our group with more than 2 years survival. PMID:18828492

Kóbori, László; Németh, Tibor; Nagy, Péter; Dallos, Gábor; Sótonyi, Péter; Fehérvári, Imre; Nemes, Balázs; Görög, Dénes; Patonai, Attila; Monostory, Katalin; Doros, Attila; Sárváry, Eniko; Fazakas, János; Gerlei, Zsuzsanna; Benko, Tamás; Piros, László; Járay, Jeno; De Jong, Koert P

2008-09-01

112

Is there morphological difference between branchiomeric and somitic muscles submitted to alcohol consumption? An experimental study in rats (Rattus norvegicus).  

PubMed

Alcoholism is considered a physical dependence disorder. More than 18 million people are alcoholics in the USA and England and between 1/3 to ½ of them present some kind of physical disorder. In general the literature is focused on alcoholic trunk muscle disorders. These muscles have different embryological origins if compared to the masticatory muscles. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of alcohol on the masticatory muscles in order to compare them with the somitic muscles. For this purpose, 15 male Wistar rats weighing around 250g were used. The rats were divided into three groups: Normal control (N), Alcoholic (A) and Isocaloric (I). Slices of the masseter muscle, temporalis muscle and rectus abdominal muscle were harvested and submitted to histochemical reactions (m-ATPase: acid and alkaline pre incubation and NADH-TR). The myofibers were classified in SO, FOG and FG. The results showed atrophy of the fast fibers (FG and FOG) in the masticatory muscles but this atrophy was not statistically significant in this study (p< 0.05). On the other hand, significant atrophy occurred in the rectus abdominal muscle (p<0.05). Based on these data it can concluded that the effect of alcohol on the branchiomeric jaw elevator muscles (masseter and temporalis muscles) is different compared to the effect on somitic muscle (rectus abdominal muscle). PMID:20878034

Andreo, Jesus Carlos; Santos, Nícolas Bertolaccini Dos; Moraes, Luis Henrique Rapucci; Andreo, Matheus Bermejo; Andreo, Thiago Bermejo; Andreo, Camile Bermejo; Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro

2005-09-01

113

Effects of Barbell Deadlift Training on Submaximal Motor Unit Firing Rates for the Vastus Lateralis and Rectus Femoris  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age ?=?24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n?=?15) or control (n?=?9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d?=?.70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units. PMID:25531294

Stock, Matt S.; Thompson, Brennan J.

2014-01-01

114

Fixed Foot Balance Training Increases Rectus Femoris Activation During Landing and Jump Height in Recreationally Active Women  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of fixed foot and functionally directed balance training on static balance time, muscle activation during landing, vertical jump height and sprint time. Twenty-four recreationally active females were tested pre- and post-training (fixed foot balance training, n= 11, functionally directed balance training, n = 7 and control group, n = 6). Experimental subjects completed either fixed foot or functionally directed balance exercises 4 times/week for 6 weeks. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to assess preparatory and reactive muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), and the soleus during one- and two-foot landings following a jump. Maximum vertical jump height, static balance and 20-meter sprint times were also examined. The fixed foot balance-training group showed a 33% improvement (p < 0.05) in static balance time and 9% improvement in jump height. Neither type of training improved sprint times. Further analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05) overall (data collapsed over groups and legs) increases in reactive RF activity when landing. Independently, the fixed foot balance group showed a 33% increase in reactive RF activity (p < 0.01). Overall, there was also significantly less reactive co-activation following training (p < 0.05). It appears that fixed foot balance training for recreationally active women may provide greater RF activity when landing and increased countermovement jump height. Key points Balance training increased rectus femoris EMG activity upon landing from a stride. Fixed foot balance training improved countermovement jump height. Neither fixed foot nor functionally directed balance training elicited changes in sprint times. PMID:24198691

Kean, Crystal O.; Behm, David G.; Young, Warren B.

2006-01-01

115

Surgery-Induced Changes and Early Recovery of Hip-Muscle Strength, Leg-Press Power, and Functional Performance after Fast-Track Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background By measuring very early changes in muscle strength and functional performance after fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA), post-operative rehabilitation, introduced soon after surgery, can be designed to specifically target identified deficits. Objective(s) Firstly, to quantify changes (compared to pre-operative values) in hip muscle strength, leg-press power, and functional performance in the first week after THA, and secondly, to explore relationships between the muscle strength changes, and changes in hip pain, systemic inflammation, and thigh swelling. Design Prospective, cohort study. Setting Convenience sample of patients receiving a THA at Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark, between March and December 2011. Participants Thirty-five patients (65.9±7.2 years) undergoing THA. Main outcome measures Hip muscle strength, leg-press power, performance-based function, and self-reported disability were determined prior to, and 2 and 8 days after, THA (Day 2 and 8, respectively). Hip pain, thigh swelling, and C-Reactive Protein were also determined. Results Five patients were lost to follow-up. Hip muscle strength and leg press power were substantially reduced at Day 2 (range of reductions: 41–58%, P<0.001), but less pronounced at Day 8 (range of reductions: 23–31%, P<0.017). Self-reported symptoms and function (HOOS: Pain, Symptoms, and ADL) improved at Day 8 (P<0.014). Changes in hip pain, C-Reactive Protein, and thigh swelling were not related to the muscle strength and power losses. Conclusion(s) Hip muscle strength and leg-press power decreased substantially in the first week after THA – especially at Day 2 – with some recovery at Day 8. The muscle strength loss and power loss were not related to changes in hip pain, systemic inflammation, or thigh swelling. In contrast, self-reported symptoms and function improved. These data on surgery-induced changes in muscle strength may help design impairment-directed, post-operative rehabilitation to be introduced soon after surgery. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01246674. PMID:23614020

Holm, Bente; Thorborg, Kristian; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas

2013-01-01

116

Differences in the recurrence pattern after neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared to surgery alone in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.  

PubMed

In patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) confers a survival benefit compared to radical cystectomy (RC) alone. Recurrence is observed in many cases and is the most common cause of death in MIBC patients. However, the rate and pattern of recurrence after NAC in MIBC patients remain unclear. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 348 consecutive patients who underwent RC and bilateral pelvic node dissection between May 1994 and July 2012. Our study focused on patients with MIBC who had histologically confirmed stage T2-T4a urothelial carcinoma of the bladder without lymph node or distant metastasis. Accordingly, 265 patients were included in this analysis, of whom 130 received NAC and 135 underwent RC alone. Propensity score matching was used to adjust for potential selection biases associated with treatment type. Recurrence was defined as local recurrence and distant metastasis, according to site. Propensity score matching analysis identified 130 matched pairs from the two groups. For the neoadjuvant gemcitabine and carboplatin (GCarbo) and RC alone groups, the 5-year overall survival rates were 89.2 and 51.4 %, respectively (P < 0.0001), and the recurrence-free survival rates were 85.4 and 57.0 %, respectively (P < 0.0001). However, the total number of local recurrences was markedly lower in the neoadjuvant GCarbo group than in the RC alone group. Neoadjuvant GCarbo was associated with improved oncological outcomes and a different recurrence pattern in MIBC patients compared to RC alone. PMID:25471790

Koie, Takuya; Ohyama, Chikara; Yamamoto, Hayato; Imai, Atsushi; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Yoneyama, Tohru; Tobisawa, Yuki

2015-01-01

117

Penetration of ceforanide and cefamandole into the right atrial appendage, pericardial fluid, sternum, and intercostal muscle of patients undergoing open heart surgery.  

PubMed Central

Doses of 30 mg of ceforanide or cefamandole per kg were administered intravenously to 26 patients just before their chests were opened for coronary artery bypass or cardiac valve replacement surgery. Samples of right atrial appendage, pericardial fluid, plasma, aortic wall, intercostal muscle, and sternum were obtained at different times after the antibiotic was injected, and these samples were assayed for cephalosporin concentration. For ceforanide the pre-bypass plasma half-life was 2.5 h, and the atrial appendage half-life was 2.1 h; for cefamandole the pre-bypass plasma half-life was 0.75 h and the atrial appendage half-life was 0.72 h. At 3 h the concentrations of ceforanide and cefamandole in atrial appendages were 28.0 and 5.0 micrograms/g, respectively. Ceforanide achieved higher and more sustained concentrations in other tissues than cefamandole. Considering the minimal inhibitory concentrations of these drugs for staphylococci, cefamandole and ceforanide should provide adequate protection against infection by these organisms for the duration of the surgical procedure. PMID:7103445

Mullany, L D; French, M A; Nightingale, C H; Low, H B; Ellison, L H; Quintiliani, R

1982-01-01

118

Arcuate line of the rectus sheath: clinical approach.  

PubMed

The rectus sheath has been extensively described in gross anatomic studies but there is very little information available regarding the arcuate line (AL). The aim of the present study therefore was to explore and delineate the morphology, topography and morphometry of the arcuate line and provide a comprehensive picture of its anatomy across a broad range of specimens. The AL was present in all specimens examined. In addition, the AL was found to be located at a mean of 70.2% (67.3-75.2%) of the distance between the pubic symphysis and the umbilicus, and at 33.9% (30.2-35.4%) of the distance between the pubic symphysis and the xiphoid process. This location was found to be at a mean of 2.1 +/- 2.3 cm superior to the level of the anterior superior iliac spines. Furthermore, there were three distinct types of AL morphology. In type I (65%), the fibers of the posterior rectus sheath (PRS) gradually disappeared over the transversalis fascia, creating an incomplete demarcation of the actual location of the AL. In type II (25%) the termination of the fibers of the PRS was acutely demarcated over the transversalis fascia, creating a clear border with the AL. In type III (10%) the fibers of the PRS created a double and thickened aponeurotic line. In these cases a double AL was observed. Better preoperative knowledge of the location of the AL may, in some cases, help preoperative planning to facilitate primary fascial repair, which can then be supported with on-lay mesh, depending on the clinical situation. PMID:18956785

Loukas, Marios; Myers, Candice; Shah, Rajnil; Tubbs, R Shane; Wartmann, Christopher; Apaydin, Nihal; Betancor, Jorge; Jordan, Robert

2008-09-01

119

Perineal wound closure with the rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap after tumor ablation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We describe the transpelvic rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap for closing large, often irradiated, perineal defects in patients with cancer.\\u000aMethods: We studied 9 men and 17 women who underwent wide excision of advanced T3 and T4 tumors and who had preoperative chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. After tumor ablation, we used a transpelvic rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap to fill pelvic

William G. de Haas; Michael J. Miller; Walley J. Temple; Stephen S. Kroll; Mark A. Schusterman; Gregory P. Reece; John M. Skibber

1995-01-01

120

Endolymphatic sac surgery versus tenotomy of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles in the management of patients with unilateral definite Meniere's disease.  

PubMed

This study aims to compare the outcomes of patients with Meniere's disease submitted to either endolymphatic mastoid shunt (ES) or tenotomy of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles (TSTM). This is a retrospective chart review of patients treated with ES or TSTM between 2000 and 2010 and followed up for at least 12 months. The main outcomes were represented by: (1) vertigo class, hearing stage and functional level according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery criteria; (2) adjustment of dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) and (3) complete and substantial vertigo control using the Kaplan-Meier survival method. Sixty-three patients met the inclusion criteria: 34 underwent ES and 29 TSTM. The baseline demographic characteristics, the hearing stage, the functional level, the DHI and hearing levels were not different between the two groups. No significant difference in vertigo class was demonstrated: 66 % of TSTM patients attained class A compared to 44 % in the ES group (p = 0.14). Kaplan-Meier survival curves specific to class A showed significant differences, favoring TSTM (log-rank test, p = 0.022). TSTM patients demonstrated significantly improved functional level (p = 0.0004) and improved DHI scores (p = 0.001). Eight ES patients (25 %) demanded a second surgical attempt compared to none in the TSTM. Aural fullness was significantly improved in TSTM group (p = 0.01), while the difference in tinnitus improvement was non-significant. Hearing preservation was significantly better in TSTM group (p = 0.001). TSTM is a safe surgical procedure, with significant vertigo control rates, and important hearing preservation rates. More patients and longer follow-up are needed to support our preliminary findings. PMID:25488280

Albu, Silviu; Babighian, Gregorio; Amadori, Maurizio; Trabalzini, Franco

2014-12-01

121

Considering Surgery?  

MedlinePLUS

... to happen before, during, and after surgery. Outpatient Surgery Outpatient surgery, sometimes called same-day surgery, is ... outpatient surgery is right for you. Planning for Surgery There are many steps you can take to ...

122

ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVATION INCREASES LUMBAR SPINAL STABILITY: ANALYSIS OF CONTRIBUTIONS OF DIFFERENT MUSCLE GROUPS  

PubMed Central

Background Antagonistic activation of abdominal muscles and raised intra-abdominal pressure are associated with both spinal unloading and spinal stabilization. Rehabilitation regimens have been proposed to improve spinal stability via selective recruitment of certain trunk muscle groups. This biomechanical study used an analytical model to address whether lumbar spinal stability is increased by selective activation of abdominal muscles. Methods The biomechanical model included anatomically realistic three-layers of curved abdominal musculature connected by fascia, rectus abdominis and 77 symmetrical pairs of dorsal muscles. The muscle activations were calculated with the model loaded with either flexion, extension, lateral bending or axial rotation moments up to 60 Nm, along with intra-abdominal pressure up to 5 or 10 kPa (37.5 or 75 mm Hg) and partial bodyweight. After solving for muscle forces, a buckling analysis quantified spinal stability. Subsequently, different patterns of muscle activation were studied by forcing activation of selected abdominal muscles to at least 10% or 20% of maximum. Findings The spinal stability increased by an average factor of 1.8 with doubling of intra-abdominal pressure. Forced activation of obliques or transversus abdominis muscles to at least 10% of maximum increased stability slightly for efforts other than flexion, but forcing at least 20% activation generally did not produce further increase in stability. Forced activation of rectus abdominis did not increase stability. Interpretation Based on predictions from an analytical spinal buckling model, the degree of stability was not substantially influenced by selective forcing of muscle activation. This casts doubt on the supposed mechanism of action of specific abdominal muscle exercise regimens that have been proposed for low back pain rehabilitation. PMID:21571410

Stokes, Ian A.F.; Gardner-Morse, Mack G.; Henry, Sharon M.

2011-01-01

123

Optimizing Muscle Parameters in Musculoskeletal Modeling Using Monte Carlo Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts assigned to long-duration missions experience bone and muscle atrophy in the lower limbs. The use of musculoskeletal simulation software has become a useful tool for modeling joint and muscle forces during human activity in reduced gravity as access to direct experimentation is limited. Knowledge of muscle and joint loads can better inform the design of exercise protocols and exercise countermeasure equipment. In this study, the LifeModeler(TM) (San Clemente, CA) biomechanics simulation software was used to model a squat exercise. The initial model using default parameters yielded physiologically reasonable hip-joint forces. However, no activation was predicted in some large muscles such as rectus femoris, which have been shown to be active in 1-g performance of the activity. Parametric testing was conducted using Monte Carlo methods and combinatorial reduction to find a muscle parameter set that more closely matched physiologically observed activation patterns during the squat exercise. Peak hip joint force using the default parameters was 2.96 times body weight (BW) and increased to 3.21 BW in an optimized, feature-selected test case. The rectus femoris was predicted to peak at 60.1% activation following muscle recruitment optimization, compared to 19.2% activation with default parameters. These results indicate the critical role that muscle parameters play in joint force estimation and the need for exploration of the solution space to achieve physiologically realistic muscle activation.

Hanson, Andrea; Reed, Erik; Cavanagh, Peter

2011-01-01

124

SCIENTIFIC REPORT Reduction of ocular muscle torque by splitting of the rectus  

E-print Network

study, testing the effects of a new surgical technique on strabismus, nystagmus, and visual acuity. 228 patients (aged 6.8 (SD 6.0) years) with variable angle strabismus and nystagmus were treated by splitting later. Results: The operation reduced the strabismus, eliminated or weakened the nystagmus in primary

Haslwanter, Thomas

125

A Case of Postsurgical Necrotizing Fasciitis Invading the Rectus Abdominis Muscle and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening, soft tissue infection and an early diagnosis is needed to permit a prompt surgical and medical intervention. Due to the high fatal potential of the disease complications, the radiologist should distinguish necrotizing fasciitis from the most common soft tissue infections, in order to permit a prompt surgical and medical treatment. We present a case of a wide necrotizing fasciitis who presented at our emergency department and we also provide the basic tools, through a review of the literature, for the general radiologist to distinguish, with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, necrotizing fasciitis from the most common infections that could present during our routine practice. PMID:24707295

Cremona, Antonio; Guidi, Marco; Carusi, Valentina

2014-01-01

126

Leg Muscle Activation and Distance Setting of the Leg Cycle Ergometer for Use by the Elderly  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study verified the leg muscle activities of elderly subjects performing leg cycle ergometer exercise. [Subjects] Forty-one elderly persons were the subjects of this study. [Methods] For the three distances corresponding to knee flexion angles of 15, 45, and 70, the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius were measured while the subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer. [Results] The rectus femoris and biceps femoris showed statistically significant increases as the distance between the cycle ergometer and the body increased, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscle activation showed a statistically significant increase as the distance from the body to the cycle ergometer decreased. [Conclusion] When the elderly have limb muscle weakness, leg cycle ergometer distances should be adjusted. PMID:25364121

Kim, Seon-Chill; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lee, Young-Ik

2014-01-01

127

Cosmetic Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Looking and feeling your best Cosmetic surgery Cosmetic surgery Teens might have cosmetic surgery for a number ... my body? What are the risks of cosmetic surgery? top People who have cosmetic surgery face many ...

128

Arthroscopic excision of heterotopic calcification in a chronic rectus femoris origin injury: a case report.  

PubMed

Rectus femoris origin injuries in adult athletes are uncommon. In the acute phase, conservative treatment seems to have a favourable outcome, with surgical repair reserved for unsuccessful cases only. However, a group of patients may develop chronic pain and disability after recovery from the acute phase due to heterotopic calcification occurring at the site of injury. Open and arthroscopic excision of such calcifications has been described in the literature although arthroscopic excision of large calcified lesions in the rectus femoris has not been reported previously. A relevant case is presented and discussed. PMID:22507710

El-Husseiny, M; Sukeik, M; Haddad, F S

2012-04-01

129

Arthroscopic excision of heterotopic calcification in a chronic rectus femoris origin injury: a case report  

PubMed Central

Rectus femoris origin injuries in adult athletes are uncommon. In the acute phase, conservative treatment seems to have a favourable outcome, with surgical repair reserved for unsuccessful cases only. However, a group of patients may develop chronic pain and disability after recovery from the acute phase due to heterotopic calcification occurring at the site of injury. Open and arthroscopic excision of such calcifications has been described in the literature although arthroscopic excision of large calcified lesions in the rectus femoris has not been reported previously. A relevant case is presented and discussed. PMID:22507710

El-Husseiny, M; Sukeik, M; Haddad, FS

2012-01-01

130

Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p < 0.001). Individually, the suspended push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key PointsCompared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation.A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity.More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation.A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS. PMID:25177174

Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martín, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E; Behm, David G; Andersen, Lars L

2014-09-01

131

Proteome Analysis of Skeletal Muscle From Obese and Morbidly Obese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity-related diseases such as the metabolic syn- drome and type 2 diabetes originate, in part, from the progressive metabolic deterioration of skeletal muscle. A preliminary proteomic survey of rectus abdominus muscle detected a statistically significant increase in adenylate kinase (AK)1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and aldolase A in obese\\/over- weight and morbidly obese women relative to lean control subjects. AK1 is

Dustin S. Hittel; Yetrib Hathout; Eric P. Hoffman; Joseph A. Houmard

2005-01-01

132

Olfaction and muscle activity: an EMG pilot study.  

PubMed

The therapeutic significance of limbic system structures in general, and olfactory structures specifically, has been described by Fox, Ayres, Moore, and Farber in their professional presentations and publications. No data have yet been provided to substantiate claims of the effects of olfactory stimulation on muscle activity. Effects of olfactory stimulation on human muscle activity at rest were studied in seven normal children and seven normal adults. Upper trapezius, biceps brachii, rectus abdominis, and rectus femoris were monitored electromyographically for changes in muscle action potentials using peppermint oil and smelling salts in each of three positions--supine, seated quietly, and standing. Trapezius showed the greatest responsiveness in relation to other muscles. Using peppermint oil, only 18 out of 168 or 10.7 percent of the EMG recordings showed changes in muscle activity. Using smelling salts, only 21 out of 168 or 12.5 percent of the EMG recordings showed changes in muscle activity. Directional effects of peppermint oil could not be predicted, whereas stimulation with smelling salts, when effective, generally produced increased muscle activity. Children were more responsive to olfactory agents than were adults. Sex of subjects did not seem to effect the distribution of responses. When smelling salts was presented as an initial stimulus, subjects showed a greater responsiveness to all stimuli. The present data indicate that proposed effects of olfactory stimulation are more limited than was previously believed. Possible implications for clinical practice and suggestions for further study are presented. PMID:474334

Schwartz, R K

1979-03-01

133

Incomitant Strabismus Associated with Instability of Rectus Pulleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Connective tissue pulleys serve as functional mechan- ical origins of the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and are normally stable relative to the orbit during gaze shifts. This study eval- uated pulley stability in incomitant strabismus. METHODS. Contiguous 2- or 3-mm thick magnetic resonance images (MRIs) perpendicular to the orbital axis spanned the anteroposterior extents of 12 orbits of six patients

Sei Yeul Oh; Robert A. Clark; Federico Velez; Arthur L. Rosenbaum; Joseph L. Demer

2002-01-01

134

In muscle lengthening surgery multiple aponeurotomy does not improve intended acute effects and may counter-indicate: an assessment by finite element modelling.  

PubMed

The goal was to assess the effects of multiple aponeurotomy on mechanics of muscle with extramuscular myofascial connections. Using finite element modelling, effects of combinations of the intervention carried out at a proximal (P), an intermediate (I) and a distal (D) location were studied: (1) Case P, (2) Case P-I, (3) Case P-D and (4) Case P-I-D. Compared to Case P, the effects of multiple interventions on muscle geometry and sarcomere lengths were sizable for the distal population of muscle fibres: e.g. at high muscle length (1) summed gap lengths between the cut ends of aponeurosis increased by 16, 25 and 27% for Cases P-I, P-D and P-I-D, respectively, (2) characteristic substantial sarcomere shortening became more pronounced (mean shortening was 26, 29, 30 and 31% for Cases P, P-I, P-D and P-I-D, respectively) and (3) fibre stresses decreased (mean stress equalled 0.49, 0.39, 0.38 and 0.33 for Cases P, P-I, P-D and P-I-D, respectively). In contrast, no appreciable effects were shown for the proximal population. The overall change in sarcomere length heterogeneity was limited. Consequently, the effects of multiple aponeurotomy on muscle length-force characteristics were marginal: (1) a limited reduction in active muscle force (maximal 'muscle weakening effect' remained between 5 and 11%) and (2) an even less pronounced change in slack to optimum length range of force exertion (maximal 'muscle lengthening effect' distally was 0.2% for Case P-I-D) were shown. The intended effects of the intervention were dominated by the one intervention carried out closer to the tendon suggesting that aponeurotomies done additionally to that may counter-indicated. PMID:21806415

Yucesoy, Can A; Seref-Ferlengez, Zeynep; Huijing, Peter A

2013-01-01

135

Delayed immediate surgery for orbital floor fractures: Less can be more  

PubMed Central

Orbital floor fractures can result in diplopia, enophthalmos, hypoglobus and infraorbital dysthesia. Currently, the most common treatment for orbital floor fractures is immediate surgical intervention. However, there are a number of well-documented cases of unoperated orbital floor fractures in the literature, culminating in diplopia or enophthalmos in few patients. Of these, none reported the diplopia or enophthalmos to be bothersome. As reported previously in the ophthalmology literature, most orbital floor fracture-induced diplopia resolves as the swelling settles, and the few patients with remaining diplopia can successfully be treated with surgery on the uninvolved eye. It has also been commented that most patients with enophthalmos are asymptomatic. The authors’ institution has more than 50 surgeon-years experience with delaying immediate surgery for two weeks to allow time for the swelling-induced diplopia to resolve. In the authors’ experience, true entrapment of the inferior rectus muscle is rare. The present article describes a study of late follow-up (average 945 days) of 11 nonoperated patients with orbital floor fractures. In the eight patients who initially presented with diplopia, there was resolution of functionally limiting double vision. Only one patient had asymptomatic, but measurably significant, enophthalmos at ?3 mm. All patients had full restoration of extraocular movements and resolution of infraorbital dysthesia. None of the patients were exposed to the operative risks of ectropion, infection, implant extrusion, bleeding or blindness. The present study provides level IV evidence that delaying surgery up to two weeks after orbital floor fracture may avoid unnecessary surgical risks and inconveniences in many patients with orbital floor fracture. PMID:23204882

Tang, David T; Lalonde, Jan F; Lalonde, Donald H

2011-01-01

136

Delayed immediate surgery for orbital floor fractures: Less can be more.  

PubMed

Orbital floor fractures can result in diplopia, enophthalmos, hypoglobus and infraorbital dysthesia. Currently, the most common treatment for orbital floor fractures is immediate surgical intervention. However, there are a number of well-documented cases of unoperated orbital floor fractures in the literature, culminating in diplopia or enophthalmos in few patients. Of these, none reported the diplopia or enophthalmos to be bothersome. As reported previously in the ophthalmology literature, most orbital floor fracture-induced diplopia resolves as the swelling settles, and the few patients with remaining diplopia can successfully be treated with surgery on the uninvolved eye. It has also been commented that most patients with enophthalmos are asymptomatic. The authors' institution has more than 50 surgeon-years experience with delaying immediate surgery for two weeks to allow time for the swelling-induced diplopia to resolve. In the authors' experience, true entrapment of the inferior rectus muscle is rare. The present article describes a study of late follow-up (average 945 days) of 11 nonoperated patients with orbital floor fractures. In the eight patients who initially presented with diplopia, there was resolution of functionally limiting double vision. Only one patient had asymptomatic, but measurably significant, enophthalmos at -3 mm. All patients had full restoration of extraocular movements and resolution of infraorbital dysthesia. None of the patients were exposed to the operative risks of ectropion, infection, implant extrusion, bleeding or blindness. The present study provides level IV evidence that delaying surgery up to two weeks after orbital floor fracture may avoid unnecessary surgical risks and inconveniences in many patients with orbital floor fracture. PMID:23204882

Tang, David T; Lalonde, Jan F; Lalonde, Donald H

2011-01-01

137

Comparison of the Complications in Vertical Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap with Non-Reconstructed Cases after Pelvic Exenteration  

PubMed Central

Background Perineal reconstruction following pelvic exenteration is a challenging area in plastic surgery. Its advantages include preventing complications by obliterating the pelvic dead space and minimizing the scar by using the previous abdominal incision and a vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (VRAM) flap. However, only a few studies have compared the complications and the outcomes following pelvic exenteration between cases with and without a VRAM flap. In this study, we aimed to compare the complications and the outcomes following pelvic exenteration with or without VRAM flap coverage. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of nine patients for whom transpelvic VRAM flaps were created following pelvic exenteration due to pelvic malignancy. The complications and outcomes in these patients were compared with those of another nine patients who did not undergo such reconstruction. Results Flap reconstruction was successful in eight cases, with minor complications such as wound infection and dehiscence. In all cases in the reconstructed group (n=9), structural integrity was maintained and major complications including bowel obstruction and infection were prevented by obliterating the pelvic dead space. In contrast, in the control group (n=9), peritonitis and bowel obstruction occurred in 1 case (11%). Conclusions Despite the possibility of flap failure and minor complications, a VRAM flap can result in adequate perineal reconstruction to prevent major complications of pelvic exenteration. PMID:25396186

Jeon, Heechang; You, Hi-Jin; Kim, Hyon-Surk; Lee, Byung-Il; Park, Seung Ha

2014-01-01

138

Extraocular Muscle Motor Units Characterized By Spike-Triggered Averaging In Alert Monkey  

PubMed Central

Single-unit recording in macaque monkeys has been widely used to study extraocular motoneuron behavior during eye movements. However, primate extraocular motor units have only been studied using electrical stimulation in anesthetized animals. To study motor units in alert, behaving macaques, we combined chronic muscle force transducer (MFT) and single-unit extracellular motoneuron recordings. During steady fixation with low motoneuron firing rates, we used motoneuron spike-triggered averaging of MFT signals (STA-MFT) to extract individual motor unit twitches, thereby characterizing each motor unit in terms of twitch force and dynamics. It is then possible, as in conventional studies, to determine motoneuron activity during eye movements, but now with knowledge of underlying motor unit characteristics. We demonstrate the STA-MFT technique for medial rectus motor units. Recordings from 33 medial rectus motoneurons in three animals identified 20 motor units, which had peak twitch tensions of 0.5 – 5.25 mg, initial twitch delays averaging 2.4ms, and time to peak contraction averaging 9.3ms. These twitch tensions are consistent with those reported in unanesthetized rabbits, and with estimates of the total number of medial rectus motoneurons and twitch tension generated by whole-nerve stimulation in monkey, but are substantially lower than those reported for lateral rectus motor units in anesthetized squirrel monkey. Motor units were recruited in order of twitch tension magnitude with stronger motor units reaching threshold further in the muscle’s ON-direction, showing that, as in other skeletal muscles, medial rectus motor units are recruited according to the “size principle”. PMID:22108141

Gamlin, Paul D.; Miller, Joel M.

2011-01-01

139

Optimising muscle parameters in musculoskeletal models using Monte Carlo simulation.  

PubMed

The use of musculoskeletal simulation software has become a useful tool for modelling joint and muscle forces during human activity, including in reduced gravity because direct experimentation is difficult. Knowledge of muscle and joint loads can better inform the design of exercise protocols and exercise countermeasure equipment. In this study, the LifeModeler™ (San Clemente, CA, USA) biomechanics simulation software was used to model a squat exercise. The initial model using default parameters yielded physiologically reasonable hip-joint forces but no activation was predicted in some large muscles such as rectus femoris, which have been shown to be active in 1-g performance of the activity. Parametric testing was conducted using Monte Carlo methods and combinatorial reduction to find a muscle parameter set that more closely matched physiologically observed activation patterns during the squat exercise. The rectus femoris was predicted to peak at 60.1% activation in the same test case compared to 19.2% activation using default parameters. These results indicate the critical role that muscle parameters play in joint force estimation and the need for exploration of the solution space to achieve physiologically realistic muscle activation. PMID:24050838

Reed, Erik B; Hanson, Andrea M; Cavanagh, Peter R

2015-05-01

140

Electrical Stimulation of the Rectus Femoris During Pre-Swing Diminishes Hip and Knee Flexion During the Swing Phase of Normal Gait  

PubMed Central

Individuals who have suffered cerebral insults often exhibit stiff-knee gait, a condition characterized by reduced knee flexion during swing. We investigated the effect that an increment in normal rectus femoris (RF) activity can have on hip and knee joint angles during swing, as a first step to determining this muscle’s involvement in stiff-knee gait. For this, we developed a protocol that electrically stimulated the RF during pre-swing or after toe-off in randomly selected strides of treadmill walking, consistent with the timing of RF activity during normal gait. Seven healthy young adults participated in the study. Pre-swing stimulation induced a significant (p<0.05) reduction in peak knee flexion (avg 7.5deg) in all subjects, with an accompanying decrease in hip flexion in four of the subjects. RF stimulation after toe-off diminished peak knee flexion in three subjects and reduced hip flexion in four subjects. When compared to muscle-actuated gait simulations that were similarly perturbed, the induced motion measures were generally consistent in direction but exhibited greater variability across strides and subjects. We conclude that excess RF activity during pre-swing has the potential to contribute to stiff-knee gait, and that clinical treatment should consider the “counter-intuitive” function that the RF has in extending the hip. PMID:20934937

Hernandez, Antonio; Lenz, Amy; Thelen, Darryl G.

2011-01-01

141

Lung surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Lung tissue removal; Pneumonectomy; Lobectomy; Lung biopsy; Thoracoscopy; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery; VATS ... do surgery on your lungs are thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Lung surgery using a ...

142

Rhabdomyosarcoma: Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... is rhabdomyosarcoma treated? Next Topic Chemotherapy for rhabdomyosarcoma Surgery for rhabdomyosarcoma Surgery is an important part of ... be done at all. What to expect with surgery The type and extent of surgery can vary ...

143

Neuroblastoma: Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... neuroblastoma treated? Next Topic Chemotherapy for neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma surgery Surgery can be used both to help diagnose ... long, thin instruments and remove pieces of tumor. Surgery as treatment After neuroblastoma is diagnosed, surgery is ...

144

Cataract Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Cataract Vision Simulator Pre-operative tests for cataract surgery Before surgery, the length of your eye will ... calculate the correct IOL power. Medications and cataract surgery If you are having cataract surgery, be sure ...

145

Atlas of the muscle motor points for the lower limb: implications for electrical stimulation procedures and electrode positioning.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the uniformity of the muscle motor point location for lower limb muscles in healthy subjects. Fifty-three subjects of both genders (age range: 18-50 years) were recruited. The muscle motor points were identified for the following ten muscles of the lower limb (dominant side): vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus of the hamstring muscles, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, lateral and medial gastrocnemius. The muscle motor point was identified by scanning the skin surface with a stimulation pen electrode and corresponded to the location of the skin area above the muscle in which an electrical pulse evoked a muscle twitch with the least injected current. For each investigated muscle, 0.15 ms square pulses were delivered through the pen electrode at low current amplitude (<10 mA) and frequency (2 Hz). 16 motor points were identified in the 10 investigated muscles of almost all subjects: 3 motor points for the vastus lateralis, 2 motor points for rectus femoris, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior, 1 motor point for the remaining muscles. An important inter-individual variability was observed for the position of the following 4 out of 16 motor points: vastus lateralis (proximal), biceps femoris (short head), semimembranosus, and medial gastrocnemius. Possible implications for electrical stimulation procedures and electrode positioning different from those commonly applied for thigh and leg muscles are discussed. PMID:21796408

Botter, Alberto; Oprandi, Gianmosè; Lanfranco, Fabio; Allasia, Stefano; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Minetto, Marco Alessandro

2011-10-01

146

Correlation between Peak Expiratory Flow and Abdominal Muscle Thickness  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether forced expiration is correlated with abdominal muscle thickness. [Subjects] Twenty-three healthy male volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] The peak expiratory flow (PEF) was obtained using a peak flow meter with subjects in the sitting position. The thicknesses of the right rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominis muscles were measured using B-mode ultrasonography at the end of a relaxed expiration in the supine position. [Results] Among the abdominal muscles, only the thickness of the external oblique muscle displayed a significant correlation with PEF. [Conclusion] It appears that the thickness of the external oblique muscle might be associated with PEF during forced expiration. PMID:25435702

Ishida, Hiroshi; Kobara, Kenichi; Osaka, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Tadanobu; Ito, Tomotaka; Kurozumi, Chiharu; Watanabe, Susumu

2014-01-01

147

Muscle motion and EMG activity in vibration treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to highlight the relationship between muscle motion, generated by whole body vibration, and the correspondent electromyographic (EMG) activity and to suggest a new method to customize the stimulation frequency. Simultaneous recordings of EMG and tri-axial accelerations of quadriceps rectus femoris from fifteen subjects undergoing vibration treatments were collected. Vibrations were delivered via a sinusoidal oscillating platform at different frequencies (10-45 Hz). Muscle motion was estimated by processing the accelerometer data. Large EMG motion artifacts were removed using sharp notch filters centred at the vibration frequency and its superior harmonics. EMG-RMS values were computed and analyzed before and after artifact suppression to assess muscular activity. Muscles acceleration amplitude increased with frequency. Muscle displacements revealed a mechanical resonant-like behaviour of the muscle. Resonance frequencies and dumping factors depended on subject. Moreover, RMS of artifact-free EMG was found well correlated (R(2)=0.82) to the actual muscle displacement, while the maximum of the EMG response was found related to the mechanical resonance frequency of muscle. Results showed that maximum muscular activity was found in correspondence to the mechanical resonance of the muscle itself. Assuming the hypothesis that muscle activation is proportional to muscle displacement, treatment optimization (i.e. to choose the best stimulation frequency) could be obtained by simply monitoring local acceleration (resonance), leading to a more effective muscle stimulation. Motion artifact produced an overestimation of muscle activity, therefore its removal was essential. PMID:19671494

Fratini, Antonio; La Gatta, Antonio; Bifulco, Paolo; Romano, Maria; Cesarelli, Mario

2009-11-01

148

The MRC1/CD68 Ratio Is Positively Associated with Adipose Tissue Lipogenesis and with Muscle Mitochondrial Gene Expression in Humans  

PubMed Central

Background Alternative macrophages (M2) express the cluster differentiation (CD) 206 (MCR1) at high levels. Decreased M2 in adipose tissue is known to be associated with obesity and inflammation-related metabolic disturbances. Here we aimed to investigate MCR1 relative to CD68 (total macrophages) gene expression in association with adipogenic and mitochondrial genes, which were measured in human visceral [VWAT, n?=?147] and subcutaneous adipose tissue [SWAT, n?=?76] and in rectus abdominis muscle (n?=?23). The effects of surgery-induced weight loss were also longitudinally evaluated (n?=?6). Results MCR1 and CD68 gene expression levels were similar in VWAT and SWAT. A higher proportion of CD206 relative to total CD68 was present in subjects with less body fat and lower fasting glucose concentrations. The ratio MCR1/CD68was positively associated with IRS1gene expression and with the expression of lipogenic genes such as ACACA, FASN and THRSP, even after adjusting for BMI. The ratio MCR1/CD68 in SWAT increased significantly after the surgery-induced weight loss (+44.7%; p?=?0.005) in parallel to the expression of adipogenic genes. In addition, SWAT MCR1/CD68ratio was significantly associated with muscle mitochondrial gene expression (PPARGC1A, TFAM and MT-CO3). AT CD206 was confirmed by immunohistochemistry to be specific of macrophages, especially abundant in crown-like structures. Conclusion A decreased ratio MCR1/CD68 is linked to adipose tissue and muscle mitochondrial dysfunction at least at the level of expression of adipogenic and mitochondrial genes. PMID:23951013

Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco; Gómez-Serrano, María; García-Santos, Eva; Ricart, Wifredo; Tinahones, Francisco; Mingrone, Geltrude; Peral, Belén; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

2013-01-01

149

Muscles, Muscles Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students learn about the three different types of muscles and how outer space affects astronauts' muscles. They will discover how important it is for astronauts to get adequate exercise both on Earth and in outer space. Also, through the design of their own microgravity exercise machine, students learn about the exercise machines that engineers design specifically for astronaut use.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

150

Identification and Characterization of a Putative Chemotaxis Protein, CheY, from the Oral Pathogen Campylobacter rectus  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter rectus is an understudied oral bacterium that contributes to periodontitis. Processes that contribute to the disease-causing capabilities of pathogens, such as chemotaxis, are largely unknown in C. rectus. The aim of this study was to better understand C. rectus chemotaxis, by examining the C. rectus genome for the presence of a cheY gene. CheY proteins play a part in chemotaxis by acting as two-component response regulators. Significantly, CheY proteins from several pathogens, including the related species Campylobacter jejuni, have been shown to contribute to bacterial virulence. Degenerate PCR, RT-PCR, sequence analyses, and structural modeling showed that C. rectus encodes a gene (Cr-CheY) which shares significant homology with previously characterized CheY proteins. Functional studies of a recombinant form of the protein supports a likely role of Cr-CheY in C. rectus chemotaxis. Cr-CheY is the first CheY characterized from the oral campylobacters.

LaGier, Michael J.; Bilokopytov, Ihor; Cockerill, Bradley; Threadgill, Deborah S.

2014-01-01

151

Rectus fascia colpopexy for post-hysterectomy vault prolapse: a valid option  

PubMed Central

Objective Considering the great variety of techniques and disagreement about the ideal route, there is a need for a safe, simple and effective method for the management of apical prolapse. Material and Methods Twenty seven cases of post- hysterectomy vault prolapse (twenty four following vaginal and three after total abdominal hysterectomy) were treated surgically by anterior abdominal wall colpopexy with autogenous rectus fascia strips. Result Except for minor complaints like- vomiting, fever and urinary retention in 3.7% cases each (n=1), no major complications were encountered. Moreover, no recurrence, on follow-up thus far. Conclusion Using autogenous rectus fascia strips in anterior abdominal wall colpopexy is not only a simple, cheap and effective method of treating vault prolapse but is also devoid of any serious complications such as described with other techniques. PMID:24591901

Mahendru, Rajiv

2010-01-01

152

Successful Treatment of Rectus Femoris Calcification with Ultrasound-guided Injection: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Painful periarticular calcification most commonly occurs within the rotator cuff of the shoulder and rarely around the elbow, hip, foot, and neck. As acute inflammatory reaction develops, severe pain, exquisite tenderness, local swelling, and limitation of motion with pain occur. In case of calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, it can be easily diagnosed according to the symptoms and with x-ray. However, in lesions of the hip, as it is a rare location and usually involves pain in the posterolateral aspect of the thigh, which can simulate radicular pain from a lumbar intervertebral disc, it could be difficult to diagnose. Hence, physicians usually focus on lumbar lesions; therefore, misdiagnosis is common and leads to a delayed management. Here, we report the case of a 30-year-old female patient with calcific tendinitis of the rectus femoris that was successfully managed with ultrasound-guided steroid injection. This study offers knowledge about the rectus femoris calcification. PMID:25589947

Hong, Myong Joo; Park, Jeong Ki; Kang, Tai Ug

2015-01-01

153

Impact of osteoid osteomas of the hip on the size and fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles.  

PubMed

We aimed to assess the impact of osteoid osteomas of the hip on the size and fatty infiltration of the muscle thigh in 42 patients. The thigh circumference, cross-sectional areas, and fatty atrophy of four anterior muscles were assessed on magnetic resonance axial T1-weighted images. A significant fatty atrophy was found in the studied muscles of the ipsilateral thigh except for the rectus femoris. No significant association was demonstrated with pain duration suggesting that muscle atrophy may rather be related to the locoregional inflammation than subsequent to the disuse of the limb. PMID:25135371

Ladjeroud, Salima; Touraine, Sébastien; Laouénan, Cédric; Parlier-Cuau, Caroline; Bousson, Valérie; Laredo, Jean-Denis

2015-01-01

154

Surface Electromyographic Activity of the Abdominal Muscles During Pelvic-Tilt and Abdominal-Hollowing Exercises  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus abdominus and external oblique abdominus muscles during pelvic-tilt and abdominal-hollowing exercises performed in different positions. Design and Setting: 2 × 3 (exercise by position) within-subjects design with repeated measures on both factors. All testing was performed in a university laboratory. Subjects: Twenty-six healthy, active young adult females. Measurements: Surface EMG activity was recorded from the left and right rectus abdominus and external oblique muscles while the 2 exercises (pelvic tilt and abdominal hollowing) were performed in different positions (standard, legs supported, and legs unsupported). The standard position was supine in the crook-lying position, the supported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90° and legs supported on a platform, and the unsupported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90° without external support. Peak EMG activity was normalized to a maximum voluntary isometric contraction for each muscle. Results: For the rectus abdominus, there was an interaction between position and activity. Abdominal hollowing produced significantly less activity than the pelvic tilt in all positions. The difference between the 2 exercises with the legs unsupported was of a greater magnitude than the other 2 positions. For the external obliques, there was significantly lower activity during the abdominal hollowing compared with the pelvic tilting. The greatest muscle activity occurred with the legs-unsupported position during both exercises. Conclusions: Abdominal-hollowing exercises produced less rectus abdominus and external oblique activity than pelvic-tilting exercises. Abdominal hollowing may be performed with minimal activation of the large global abdominal muscles. PMID:15085209

Drysdale, Cheri L.; Earl, Jennifer E.

2004-01-01

155

Implanted Miniature Engineering Mechanisms in Tendon-Transfer Surgery Improve Robustness of Post-Surgery Hand Function  

E-print Network

Implanted Miniature Engineering Mechanisms in Tendon-Transfer Surgery Improve Robustness of Post-Surgery-extremity tendon transfer surgeries have been routinely performed since the 1970s for conditions such as stroke, paralysis, spinal muscle atrophy, nerve or mus- cle trauma, and congenital disorders. The surgery involves

Balasubramanian, Ravi

156

Real-time noninvasive optical imaging of exercising muscle and brain upon cognitive stimuli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of a single muscle location does not reflect the heterogeneity of the muscle groups activation during exercise. In the past, measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) at single muscle locations could be carried out non-invasively by near-infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRCWS) at rest or during isometric contractions. In the present study, human regional quadriceps (vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) VO2 was investigated at rest and during maximal voluntary contractions using a 12- channel NIRCWS system with an acquisition time of 0.1 s.

Quaresima, Valentina; van der Sluijs, Marco C.; Menssen, Jan; Grillotti, Lucia; Ferrari, Marco; Colier, Willy N.

2001-06-01

157

Robotic surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... computer station and directs the movements of a robot. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot's ...

158

Skeletal muscle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

159

Lower trunk muscle activity during the tennis serve.  

PubMed

Prior electromyographic (EMG) analyses of the tennis serve have focused on the muscles in the hitting arm and shoulder region. This preliminary study aimed to examine the muscle activation patterns of selected lower trunk muscles during three different types of tennis serve--flat, topspin, and slice. Five male highly skilled tennis players completed 10 trials for each type of serve. Surface EMG electrodes were used to monitor the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and lumbar erector spinae (ES) muscles. For each subject, the two trials with the highest self-reported ratings were analysed. Average EMG levels during each phase of a tennis serve for each muscle were analysed using a non-parametric ANOVA design. No major differences in muscle activation pattern were found across different serve types, and bilateral differences in muscle activation were more pronounced in RA and EO than in IO and ES muscles. The abdominal muscles were more active in the topspin than in the other two types of serves during the upward swing of the racket. An appreciable amount of abdominal/low back and bilateral co-activation was observed during certain phases of the serve. The co-activation of lower trunk muscles may help to stabilise the lumbar spine during the arch back and forward swing phases of the serve. The results reinforce the importance of abdominal and low back exercises in the strength and rehabilitation programs designed for tennis players. PMID:14723400

Chow, J W; Shim, J H; Lim, Y T

2003-12-01

160

Leg muscles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like many areas of the body, the legs contain bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. All of these are needed for movement. Muscles contract and lengthen as movement occurs. Muscles become shorter when they contract.

Uwe Gille (None;)

2007-07-29

161

Functional and Morphological Variety in Trunk Muscles of Urodela  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Trunk musculature in Urodela species varies by habitat. In this study, trunk musculature was examined in five species of adult salamanders representing three different habitats: aquatic species, Amphiuma tridactylum and Necturus maculosus; semi-aquatic species, Cynops pyrrhogaster; terrestrial species, Hynobius nigrescens and Ambystoma tigrinum. More terrestrial species have heavier dorsal and ventral trunk muscles than more aquatic forms. By contrast, the lateral hypaxial musculature was stronger in more aquatic species. The number of layers of lateral hypaxial musculature varied among Urodela species and did not clearly correlate with their habitats. The M. rectus abdominis was separated from the lateral hypaxial musculature in both terrestrial and semi-aquatic species. In aquatic species, M. rectus abdominis was not separated from lateral hypaxial musculature. Lateral hypaxial musculature differed in thickness among species and was relatively thinner in terrestrial species. In more terrestrial species, dorsal muscles may be used for stabilization and ventral flexing against gravity. Ventral muscle may be used in preventing dorsally concave curvature of the trunk by dorsal muscles and by weight. The lengthy trunk supported by limbs needs muscular forces along the ventral contour line in more terrestrial species. And, the locomotion on well-developed limbs seems to lead to a decrease of the lateral hypaxial musculature. PMID:24065082

OMURA, Ayano; ANZAI, Wataru; ENDO, Hideki

2013-01-01

162

Functional and morphological variety in trunk muscles of Urodela.  

PubMed

Trunk musculature in Urodela species varies by habitat. In this study, trunk musculature was examined in five species of adult salamanders representing three different habitats: aquatic species, Amphiuma tridactylum and Necturus maculosus; semi-aquatic species, Cynops pyrrhogaster; terrestrial species, Hynobius nigrescens and Ambystoma tigrinum. More terrestrial species have heavier dorsal and ventral trunk muscles than more aquatic forms. By contrast, the lateral hypaxial musculature was stronger in more aquatic species. The number of layers of lateral hypaxial musculature varied among Urodela species and did not clearly correlate with their habitats. The M. rectus abdominis was separated from the lateral hypaxial musculature in both terrestrial and semi-aquatic species. In aquatic species, M. rectus abdominis was not separated from lateral hypaxial musculature. Lateral hypaxial musculature differed in thickness among species and was relatively thinner in terrestrial species. In more terrestrial species, dorsal muscles may be used for stabilization and ventral flexing against gravity. Ventral muscle may be used in preventing dorsally concave curvature of the trunk by dorsal muscles and by weight. The lengthy trunk supported by limbs needs muscular forces along the ventral contour line in more terrestrial species. And, the locomotion on well-developed limbs seems to lead to a decrease of the lateral hypaxial musculature. PMID:24065082

Omura, Ayano; Anzai, Wataru; Endo, Hideki

2014-03-01

163

The Effects of Push-ups with the Trunk Flexed on the Shoulder and Trunk Muscles.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of the shoulder and trunk muscles in two push-up positions: standard push-ups and push-ups with the trunk flexed. [Subjects] Fifteen young adult males participated in the study. [Methods] This study measured the clavicular and sternocostal portions of the pectoralis major, the serratus anterior, and the rectus abdominis during push-ups under the two conditions. [Results] The activity of the sternocostal portion of the pectoralis major and that of the rectus abdominis were significantly greater under Condition 1 than under Condition 2. The activity of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major and that of the serratus anterior were significantly greater under Condition 2 compared with Condition 1. [Conclusion] These results indicate that exercises can selectively activate muscle parts under different clinical situations. PMID:25013294

Kang, Dong-Hyun; Jung, So-Young; Nam, Dong-Hun; Shin, Seung-Je; Yoo, Won-Gyu

2014-06-01

164

The Effects of Push-ups with the Trunk Flexed on the Shoulder and Trunk Muscles  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of the shoulder and trunk muscles in two push-up positions: standard push-ups and push-ups with the trunk flexed. [Subjects] Fifteen young adult males participated in the study. [Methods] This study measured the clavicular and sternocostal portions of the pectoralis major, the serratus anterior, and the rectus abdominis during push-ups under the two conditions. [Results] The activity of the sternocostal portion of the pectoralis major and that of the rectus abdominis were significantly greater under Condition 1 than under Condition 2. The activity of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major and that of the serratus anterior were significantly greater under Condition 2 compared with Condition 1. [Conclusion] These results indicate that exercises can selectively activate muscle parts under different clinical situations. PMID:25013294

Kang, Dong-hyun; Jung, So-young; Nam, Dong-hun; Shin, Seung-je; Yoo, Won-gyu

2014-01-01

165

Effect of using a suspension training system on muscle activation during the performance of a front plank exercise.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to examine the effect of suspension training on muscle activation during performance of variations of the plank exercise. Twenty-one participants took part. All individuals completed 2 repetitions each of 4 different plank exercises that consisted of a floor based plank, or planks with arms suspended, feet suspended, or feet and arms suspended using a TRX Suspension System. During plank performance, muscle activation was recorded from rectus abdominis, external oblique, rectus femoris, and serratus anterior (SA) muscles using electromyography. All planks were performed for a total of 3 seconds. Resulting muscle activation data were amplitude normalized, and root mean square activation was then determined over the full 3 second duration of the exercise. A significant main effect of plank type was found for all muscles. Post hoc analysis and effect size examination indicated that abdominal muscle activation was higher in all suspended conditions compared to the floor based plank. The highest level of abdominal muscle activation occurred in the arms suspended and arms/feet suspended conditions, which did not differ from one another. Rectus femoris activation was greatest during the arms suspended condition, whereas SA activity peaked during normal and feet suspended planks. These results indicate that suspension training as performed in this study seems to be an effective means of increasing muscle activation during the plank exercise. Contrary to expectations, the additional instability created by suspending both the arms and feet did not result in any additional abdominal muscle activation. These findings have implications in prescription and progression of core muscle training programs. PMID:24796979

Byrne, Jeannette M; Bishop, Nicole S; Caines, Andrew M; Crane, Kalynn A; Feaver, Ashley M; Pearcey, Gregory E P

2014-11-01

166

Influence of different control strategies on muscle activation patterns in trunk muscles.  

PubMed

Adequate training of the trunk muscles is essential to prevent low back pain. Although sit-ups are simple to perform, the perceived high effort is the reason why training the abdominal muscles is seldom continued over a longer period of time. It is well known that the abdominal muscles are inferior to the back muscles in terms of force, but this cannot explain the extreme difference in perceived effort between trunk flexion and extension tasks. Therefore, this study was aimed at the identification of control strategy influences on the muscular stress level. Thirty-nine subjects were investigated. The performed tasks were restricted to the sagittal plane and were implemented with simulated and realized tilt angles. Subjects were investigated in an upright position with their lower bodies fixed and their upper bodies free. Posture-controlled tasks involved graded forward and backward tilting, while force-controlled tasks involved the application of force based on a virtual tilt angle. The Surface EMG (SEMG) was taken from five trunk muscles on both sides. Control strategies seemed to have no systematic influence on the SEMG amplitudes of the back muscles. In contrast, the abdominal muscles exhibited significantly higher stress levels under posture-controlled conditions without relevantly increasing antagonistic co-activation of back muscles. The abdominal muscles' relative differences ranged from an average of 20% for the external oblique abdominal muscle to approximately 40% for the rectus abdominal muscle. The perceived high effort expended during sit-ups can now be explained by the posture-controlled contractions that are required. PMID:25501425

Hansen, Laura; Anders, Christoph

2014-12-01

167

Trunk Muscle Activities During Abdominal Bracing: Comparison Among Muscles and Exercises  

PubMed Central

Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank) and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench) exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG) activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax). The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60%) than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%). The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements. Key Points Trunk muscle activities during abdominal bracing was examined with regard to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Abdominal bracing preferentially activates internal oblique muscles even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements. Abdominal bracing should be included in exercise programs when the goal is to improve spine stability. PMID:24149153

Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

2013-01-01

168

Preliminary Study: The Impact of Moderate Exercises on Biomechanical Response of the Humans Muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electromyography (EMG) activity of the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and fourth lumbar (L4) and fifth\\u000a lumbar (L5) muscles of 5 male subjects was measured during a series of maneuvers which include standing, bowing, prostration,\\u000a and sitting. Raw EMG was processed by root-mean-square (RMS) technique using a time constant of 50 ms. The results show that\\u000a the gastrocnemius is

Mohd Helmy Rizal Salahuddin; W. A. B. Wan Abas; N. A. Abu Osman; F. Ibrahim; R. B. A. Rahim

169

Vanadate enhances but does not normalize glucose transport and insulin receptor phosphorylation in skeletal muscle from obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We compared the insulin-mimetic effects of vanadate, a protein-tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, with the effects of insulin on skeletal muscle glucose transport and insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 1 phosphorylation to test the hypothesis that protein-tyrosine phosphatases participate in pregnancy-induced insulin resistance. Study Design: Skeletal muscle fiber strips were obtained from the rectus abdominis during cesarean delivery in 7

Jianhua Shao; Patrick M. Catalano; Hiroshi Yamashita; Tatsuya Ishizuka; Jacob E. Friedman

2000-01-01

170

Delayed Soft Tissue Reconstruction with a Horizontal Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap following Hip Exarticulation  

PubMed Central

Coverage of large soft tissue defects at the hip region constitutes a challenge for plastic surgeons. We report the case of a 43-year-old female with necrotizing fasciitis of the right thigh, necessitating hip exarticulation and substantial debridement of necrotic tissue. An ipsilateral horizontal rectus abdominis myocutaneous (HRAM) flap was used to cover the defect. The reconstruction was carried out after the attempt of local tissue rearrangement. In light of the successful outcome, we propose that this flap be considered in the future planning of soft tissue reconstruction at the hip region. PMID:24024062

Rødgaard, Jes Christian; Tei, Troels Michael

2013-01-01

171

Delayed Soft Tissue Reconstruction with a Horizontal Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap following Hip Exarticulation.  

PubMed

Coverage of large soft tissue defects at the hip region constitutes a challenge for plastic surgeons. We report the case of a 43-year-old female with necrotizing fasciitis of the right thigh, necessitating hip exarticulation and substantial debridement of necrotic tissue. An ipsilateral horizontal rectus abdominis myocutaneous (HRAM) flap was used to cover the defect. The reconstruction was carried out after the attempt of local tissue rearrangement. In light of the successful outcome, we propose that this flap be considered in the future planning of soft tissue reconstruction at the hip region. PMID:24024062

Rødgaard, Jes Christian; Tei, Troels Michael

2013-01-01

172

Muscle-tendon structure and dimensions in adults and children.  

PubMed

Muscle performance is closely related to the architecture and dimensions of the muscle-tendon unit and the effect of maturation on these architectural characteristics in humans is currently unknown. This study determined whether there are differences in musculo-tendinous architecture between adults and children of both sexes. Fascicle length and pennation angle were measured from ultrasound images at three sites along the length of the vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, vastis medialis and rectus femoris muscles. Muscle volume and muscle-tendon length were measured from magnetic resonance images. Muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was calculated as the ratio of muscle volume to optimum fascicle length. Fascicle length was greater in the adult groups than in children (P < 0.05) but pennation angle did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). The ratios between fascicle and muscle length and between fascicle and tendon length were not different (P > 0.05) between adults and children for any quadriceps muscle. Quadriceps volume and PCSA of each muscle were greater in adults than children (P < 0.01) but the relative proportion of each head to the total quadriceps volume was similar in all groups. However, the difference in PCSA between adults and children (men approximately 104% greater than boys, women approximately 57% greater than girls) was greater (P < 0.05) than the difference in fascicle length (men approximately 37% greater than boys, women approximately 10% greater than girls). It is concluded that the fascicle, muscle and tendon lengthen proportionally during maturation, thus the muscle-tendon stiffness and excursion range are likely to be similar in children and adults but the relatively greater increase in PCSA than fascicle length indicates that adult muscles are better designed for force production than children's muscles. PMID:20345856

O'Brien, Thomas D; Reeves, Neil D; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Jones, David A; Maganaris, Constantinos N

2010-05-01

173

Tension-Free Vaginal Tape and Autologous Rectus Fascia Pubovaginal Sling for the Treatment of Urinary Stress Incontinence: A Medium-Term Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare two different procedures, tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and autologous rectus fascia sling, according to their medium-term subjective and objective outcomes and satisfaction rates in the treatment of urinary stress incontinence in women. Subjects and Methods: One hundred women with type II urinary stress incontinence were randomized to be treated with either TVT or autologous rectus fascia sling.

Farzaneh Sharifiaghdas; Nassrin Mortazavi

2008-01-01

174

Getting Ready for Surgery Evaluation by Internist  

E-print Network

stay) Return to sport activity more rapidly Lots of questions??? How does the Anterior Hip of muscles, minimal disruption of tissue Work between natural muscle interval without detaching them from pain (especially when sitting) No hip restrictions on activity after surgery Enhances post-op physical

Squire, Larry R.

175

Determination of passive viscoelastic response of the abdominal muscle and related constitutive modeling: stress-relaxation behavior.  

PubMed

In this paper, the authors investigate the passive viscoelastic properties of rabbit abdominal wall. In vitro strain relaxation tests were performed in the oblique muscle (in two perpendicular directions), the rectus abdominis and the linea alba in the longitudinal direction. Based on experimental data, a model for the viscoelastic mechanical properties of this tissue is presented here. In particular, we used a 3D non-linear viscoelastic model to fit data sets obtained from tissue of the rabbit abdominal wall. Uniaxial relaxation tests were carried out for samples obtained from the abdominal wall. The experimental results clearly demonstrate the anisotropy and nonlinearity of the abdominal tissue. The stress relaxation was higher in the transverse direction (closer to muscle fibers) with an average value of the final stress ratio of 48%, than in the longitudinal direction with around 56% of this ratio for the oblique muscle. These tests, at several stretch levels, presented a different behavior depending on the region where the tissue sample was located. There was no dependence between the stress relaxation ratio and the stretch level for the oblique muscles in their longitudinal or transverse directions (p>0.01). In contrast, for rectus abdominis and linea alba a dependence between the stress relaxation ratio and stretch level was found. Our study revealed an increase in the stress relaxation ratio for the rectus abdominis (p<0.01) and a decrease for the linea alba with higher stretch levels (p<0.01). Overall good predictions ?<0.115 were obtained with the model proposed for the oblique muscle (no dependence on the stretch level) and to reproduce the non-linear viscoelastic response of rectus abdominis and linea alba. PMID:24793173

Calvo, B; Sierra, M; Grasa, J; Muñoz, M J; Peña, E

2014-08-01

176

Echographic study of extraocular muscle thickness in normal Indian population  

PubMed Central

Purpose To establish normative data of extraocular muscle (EOM) dimensions, both vertically and horizontally, using a reproducible echographic method in various age groups. Methods Two hundred eyes of 100 healthy subjects (50 males and rest females) were included in this prospective observational study. All subjects were divided into 5 groups with an interval of 10 years from 10 to 60 years. Each group contained 10 male and 10 female healthy subjects. A single operator took measurements at 4 mm distance from the globe plane after drawing a perpendicular line on the globe to the muscle belly. Results The average age of subjects was 37.28 ± 17.14 years. Intraobserver reproducibility was very high (intersession concordance correlation co-efficient = 0.995). Mean horizontal and vertical diameters of recti were 3.0775 and 8.26 mm, respectively. Mean muscle thickness of superior rectus/levator palpebral superioris (LPS) muscle complex and LPS was 4.56 and 1.45 mm, respectively. Extraocular muscle diameter increases up to the middle age, then it starts decreasing. There was no statistically significant correlation between diameter of each EOM, both eye and gender (p ? 0.05). There was a non-significant change in extraocular muscle thickness with age. Conclusion The study provides normative data for extraocular muscle thickness in both genders of various age groups in Indian population. Muscle dimensions do not change significantly with age, between the eyes and gender. PMID:25473344

Chandra, Priyangshu; Sudhalkar, Aditya; Jalali, Subhadra; Pesala, Veerendranath; Narayanan, Raja; Sahu, Chinmaya; Chhablani, Jay

2014-01-01

177

Rodding Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... and After Their Child is in the Hospital.” Potential Complications Rodding is major surgery, and as with any major surgical procedure, there are potential complications. Complications from surgery include risks related to ...

178

Sinus Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... evaluation of chronic sinusitis. Sinus Surgical Options Include: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS): Developed in the 1950s, ... altered anatomical landmarks, or where a patient?s sinus anatomy is very unusual, making typical surgery difficult. Image ...

179

Plastic Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ... such treatments. Continue Why Do Teens Get Plastic Surgery? Most teens don't, of course. But some ...

180

Brain surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... Before surgery, the hair on part of the scalp is shaved and the area is cleaned. The doctor makes ...

181

Turbinate surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or part of the lower turbinate is taken out. This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

182

Hemorrhoid Surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Hemorrhoid Surgery Introduction Swollen hemorrhoids are a common condition that affects millions of people. Your doctor may recommend a ... months later. Hemorrhoids could come back. After the Surgery Most patients go home the same day of ...

183

After Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... side effects. There is usually some pain with surgery. There may also be swelling and soreness around ... the first few days, weeks, or months after surgery. Some other questions to ask are How long ...

184

Slow Expiration Reduces External Oblique Muscle Activity during Maximum Trunk Flexion  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of expiration on abdominal muscle activity during maximum trunk flexion. [Subjects] Twenty-one healthy university students (10 men, 11 women) participated in this study. [Methods] Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify the activity of the right rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique muscles. The paired t-test was used to examine the significance of differences in the abdominal muscles between maximum trunk flexion with breath holding and slow expiration. [Results] There was a significantly lower EMG activity in the external oblique muscle during maximum trunk flexion with slow expiration. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that slow expiration reduces external oblique muscle activity during maximum trunk flexion performed by healthy young subjects. PMID:25540498

Ishida, Hiroshi; Tajima, Saya; Masuno, Riyo; Kogame, Yoshiko; Ando, Suguru; Yokohata, Katsuhiko; Watanabe, Susumu

2014-01-01

185

Microanatomy of Adult Zebrafish Extraocular Muscles  

PubMed Central

Binocular vision requires intricate control of eye movement to align overlapping visual fields for fusion in the visual cortex, and each eye is controlled by 6 extraocular muscles (EOMs). Disorders of EOMs are an important cause of symptomatic vision loss. Importantly, EOMs represent specialized skeletal muscles with distinct gene expression profile and susceptibility to neuromuscular disorders. We aim to investigate and describe the anatomy of adult zebrafish extraocular muscles (EOMs) to enable comparison with human EOM anatomy and facilitate the use of zebrafish as a model for EOM research. Using differential interference contrast (DIC), epifluorescence microscopy, and precise sectioning techniques, we evaluate the anatomy of zebrafish EOM origin, muscle course, and insertion on the eye. Immunofluorescence is used to identify components of tendons, basement membrane and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), and to analyze myofiber characteristics. We find that adult zebrafish EOM insertions on the globe parallel the organization of human EOMs, including the close proximity of specific EOM insertions to one another. However, analysis of EOM origins reveals important differences between human and zebrafish, such as the common rostral origin of both oblique muscles and the caudal origin of the lateral rectus muscles. Thrombospondin 4 marks the EOM tendons in regions that are highly innervated, and laminin marks the basement membrane, enabling evaluation of myofiber size and distribution. The NMJs appear to include both en plaque and en grappe synapses, while NMJ density is much higher in EOMs than in somatic muscles. In conclusion, zebrafish and human EOM anatomy are generally homologous, supporting the use of zebrafish for studying EOM biology. However, anatomic differences exist, revealing divergent evolutionary pressures. PMID:22132088

Kasprick, Daniel S.; Kish, Phillip E.; Junttila, Tyler L.; Ward, Lindsay A.; Bohnsack, Brenda L.; Kahana, Alon

2011-01-01

186

Modeling Muscles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

2007-01-01

187

Your Muscles  

MedlinePLUS

... as large, but they are capable of some pretty amazing things: Try rotating your head around, back and forth, and up and down to feel the power of the muscles in your neck. These muscles also hold your head high. Back Continue Face Muscles You may not think of it as ...

188

Effects of slouching and muscle contraction on the strain of the iliolumbar ligament.  

PubMed

The study consisted of biomechanical modelling and in vitro experiments. The objective of the study was to find a mechanical cause of acute low back pain (LBP) in everyday situations. The precise mechanism producing LBP is still under discussion. Most biomechanical studies link the concepts of stooped postures and buckling instability of the spine under high compressive load. No biomechanical model addresses situations with small or neglectable compressive spinal load. The proposed conceptual model describes strain on the iliolumbar ligaments (ILs) when slouching from standing upright. Delayed or absent recruitment of back muscles that protect against hyperkyphosis of the lumbar spine is a conditional factor. Erector spinae and multifidus muscle forces are included, representing a bifurcation in back muscle force: one part acting on the iliac bones and one part acting on the sacrum. The multifidus muscle action on the sacrum may produce nutation which can be counteracted by pelvic floor muscles, which would link back problems and pelvic floor problems. The effect of simulated muscle tension on the ILs and the L5-S1 intervertebral disc angle was measured using embalmed specimens. Forces were applied to simulate erector spinae and sacral part of multifidus tension, bilateral up to 100 N each. Strain gauge sensors registered elongation of the ILs. Explorative biomechanical model calculations show that dynamic slouching, driven by upper body weight and (as an example) rectus abdominis muscle force may produce failure load of the spinal column and the ILs. The quasi-static test on embalmed specimens showed a significant increase of IL elongation with simulated rectus abdominis muscle force. Adding erector spinae or multifidus muscle tension eased the ILs. Sudden slouching of the upright trunk may create failure risk for the spine and ILs. This loading mode may be prevented by controlling loss of lumbar lordosis with erector spinae and multifidus muscle force. PMID:17553728

Snijders, Chris J; Hermans, Paul F G; Niesing, Ruud; Jan Kleinrensink, Gert; Pool-Goudzwaard, Annelies

2008-08-01

189

The gross morphology and histochemistry of respiratory muscles in bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus.  

PubMed

Most mammals possess stamina because their locomotor and respiratory (i.e., ventilatory) systems are mechanically coupled. These systems are decoupled, however, in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) as they swim on a breath hold. Locomotion and ventilation are coupled only during their brief surfacing event, when they respire explosively (up to 90% of total lung volume in approximately 0.3 s) (Ridgway et al. 1969 Science 166:1651-1654). The predominantly slow-twitch fiber profile of their diaphragm (Dearolf 2003 J Morphol 256:79-88) suggests that this muscle does not likely power their rapid ventilatory event. Based on Bramble's (1989 Amer Zool 29:171-186) biomechanical model of locomotor-respiratory coupling in galloping mammals, it was hypothesized that locomotor muscles function to power ventilation in bottlenose dolphins. It was further hypothesized that these muscles would be composed predominantly of fast-twitch fibers to facilitate the bottlenose dolphin's rapid ventilation. The gross morphology of craniocervical (scalenus, sternocephalicus, sternohyoid), thoracic (intercostals, transverse thoracis), and lumbopelvic (hypaxialis, rectus abdominis, abdominal obliques) muscles (n = 7) and the fiber-type profiles (n = 6) of selected muscles (scalenus, sternocephalicus, sternohyoid, rectus abdominis) of bottlenose dolphins were investigated. Physical manipulations of excised thoracic units were carried out to investigate potential actions of these muscles. Results suggest that the craniocervical muscles act to draw the sternum and associated ribs craniodorsally, which flares the ribs laterally, and increases the thoracic cavity volume required for inspiration. The lumbopelvic muscles act to draw the sternum and caudal ribs caudally, which decreases the volumes of the thoracic and abdominal cavities required for expiration. All muscles investigated were composed predominantly of fast-twitch fibers (range 61-88% by area) and appear histochemically poised for rapid contraction. These combined results suggest that dolphins utilize muscles, similar to those used by galloping mammals, to power their explosive ventilation. PMID:18777569

Cotten, Pamela B; Piscitelli, Marina A; McLellan, William A; Rommel, Sentiel A; Dearolf, Jennifer L; Pabst, D Ann

2008-12-01

190

The hyal and ventral branchial muscles in caecilian and salamander larvae: homologies and evolution.  

PubMed

Amphibians (Lissamphibia) are characterized by a bi-phasic life-cycle that comprises an aquatic larval stage and metamorphosis to the adult. The ancestral aquatic feeding behavior of amphibian larvae is suction feeding. The negative pressure that is needed for ingestion of prey is created by depression of the hyobranchial apparatus as a result of hyobranchial muscle action. Understanding the homologies of hyobranchial muscles in amphibian larvae is a crucial step in understanding the evolution of this important character complex. However, the literature mostly focuses on the adult musculature and terms used for hyal and ventral branchial muscles in different amphibians often do not reflect homologies across lissamphibian orders. Here we describe the hyal and ventral branchial musculature in larvae of caecilians (Gymnophiona) and salamanders (Caudata), including juveniles of two permanently aquatic salamander species. Based on previous alternative terminology schemes, we propose a terminology for the hyal and ventral branchial muscles that reflects the homologies of muscles and that is suited for studies on hyobranchial muscle evolution in amphibians. We present a discussion of the hyal and ventral branchial muscles in larvae of the most recent common ancestor of amphibians (i.e. the ground plan of Lissamphibia). Based on our terminology, the hyal and ventral branchial musculature of caecilians and salamanders comprises the following muscles: m. depressor mandibulae, m. depressor mandibulae posterior, m. hyomandibularis, m. branchiohyoideus externus, m. interhyoideus, m. interhyoideus posterior, m. subarcualis rectus I, m. subarcualis obliquus II, m. subarcualis obliquus III, m. subarcualis rectus II-IV, and m. transversus ventralis IV. Except for the m. branchiohyoideus externus, all muscles considered herein can be assigned to the ground plan of the Lissamphibia with certainty. The m. branchiohyoideus externus is either apomorphic for the Batrachia (frogs + salamanders) or salamander larvae depending on whether or not a homologous muscle is present in frog tadpoles. PMID:21374703

Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

2011-05-01

191

Lumbar muscle size and locations from CT scans of 96 women of age 40 to 63 years.  

PubMed

Computed tomography scans of 96 women aged between 40 and 63 years were systematically measured to determine torso muscle moment arms and cross-sectional areas at L 2L 3, L 3L 4 and L 4L 5 disc levels. The major findings were as follows: (1) the mean muscle moment arm and area data were not different bilaterally; (2) psoas, quadratus lumborum, and latissimus dorsi muscle moment arms consistently changed at the three disc levels, while erector spinae, rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis and the oblique muscles remained about the same distance from the three disc centroids; (3) psoas and quadratus lumborum muscles increased in mean size at the lower levels and (4 gross torso anthropometry and body weight had a significant (P < 0·01) but varied correlation (r(2) from 0·12 to 0·65) with the size of the erector spinae and psoas muscles, and with the moment arms of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, latissimus dorsi, and oblique muscles. PMID:23916102

Chaffin, D B; Redfern, M S; Erig, M; Goldstein, S A

1990-02-01

192

Is muscle coordination affected by loading condition in ballistic movements?  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effect of loading on lower limb muscle coordination involved during ballistic squat jumps. Twenty athletes performed ballistic squat jumps on a force platform. Vertical force, velocity, power and electromyographic (EMG) activity of lower limb muscles were recorded during the push-off phase and compared between seven loading conditions (0-60% of the concentric-only maximal repetition). The increase in external load increased vertical force (from 1962 N to 2559 N; P=0.0001), while movement velocity decreased (from 2.5 to 1.6ms(-1); P=0.0001). EMG activity of tibialis anterior first peaked at 5% of the push-off phase, followed by gluteus maximus (35%), vastus lateralis and soleus (45%), rectus femoris (55%), gastrocnemius lateralis (65%) and semitendinosus (75%). This sequence of activation (P=0.67) and the amplitude of muscle activity (P=0.41) of each muscle were not affected by loading condition. However, a main effect of muscle was observed on these parameters (peak value: P<0.001; peak occurrence: P=0.02) illustrating the specific role of each muscle during the push-off phase. Our findings suggest that muscle coordination is not influenced by external load during a ballistic squat jump. PMID:25467546

Giroux, Caroline; Guilhem, Gaël; Couturier, Antoine; Chollet, Didier; Rabita, Giuseppe

2014-10-30

193

Longitudinal changes in muscle activity during infants' treadmill stepping.  

PubMed

Previous research has described kinetic characteristics of treadmill steps in very stable steppers, in cross-sectional designs. In this study we examined, longitudinally, muscle activation patterns during treadmill stepping, without practice, in 12 healthy infants at 1, 6, and 12 mo of age. We assessed lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris as infants stepped on a treadmill during twelve 20-s trials. Infants showed clear changes in kinematics, such as increased step frequency, increased heel contact at touch down, and more flat-footed contact at midstance. Electromyographic data showed high variability in muscle states (combinations), with high prevalence of all muscles active initially, reducing with age. Agonist-antagonist muscle coactivation also decreased as age increased. Probability analyses showed that across step cycles, the likelihood a muscle was on at any point tended to be <50%; lateral gastrocnemius was the exception, showing an adultlike pattern of probability across ages. In summary, over time, healthy infants produce a wide variety of muscle activation combinations and timings when generating stepping patterns on a treadmill, even if some levels of muscle control arose with time. However, the kinematic stability improved much more clearly than the underlying kinetic strategies. We conclude that although innate control of limb movement improves as infants grow, explore, and acquire functional movement, stepping on a treadmill is a novel and unpracticed one. Hence, developing stable underlying neural activations will only arise as functional practice ensues, similarly to that observed for other functional movements in infancy. PMID:22490560

Teulier, Caroline; Sansom, Jennifer K; Muraszko, Karin; Ulrich, Beverly D

2012-08-01

194

Gluteal muscle composition differentiates fallers from non-fallers in community dwelling older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Impaired balance, loss of mobility and falls are major problems associated with changes in muscle in older adults. However, the extent to which muscle composition and related performance measures for different lower limb muscles are associated with falls in older individuals is unclear. This study evaluated lower limb muscle attenuation, intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) infiltration and muscle performance in older fallers and non-fallers. Methods For this cross-sectional study, fifty-eight community dwelling older individuals (>65 years) were classified into fallers (n?=?15) or non-fallers (n?=?43). Computed tomography (CT) was used to determine muscle attenuation and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) of multiple thigh and hip muscles. Muscle performance was assessed with isokinetic dynamometry. Results For both groups, Rectus Femoris showed the highest muscle attenuation and lowest IMAT infiltration, and Gluteus Maximus and Gluteus Medius/Minimus muscles had the lowest muscle attenuation and highest IMAT infiltration. Fallers exhibited lower muscle attenuation and higher IMAT infiltration than non-faller participants in most muscles, where the gluteal muscles were the most affected (p?muscle composition, with the strongest associations between Gluteus Medius/Minimus and hip abduction strength. Conclusions While fallers were generally differentiated from non-fallers by muscle composition, the most affected muscles were the proximal gluteal muscles of the hip joint accompanied by lower hip abduction strength, which may contribute to impaired balance function and increased risk for falls. PMID:24666603

2014-01-01

195

The Effects of Sling Exercise Using Vibration on Trunk Muscle Activities of Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study compared the effects of sling exercises with and without vibration on the muscular activity of the internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), and erector spinae (ES) muscles of healthy adults. [Methods] Eleven healthy university students (11 men) with a mean age of 22.8?years were enrolled in this study. Subjects performed supine and prone bridge exercises with the knees flexed using a sling suspension system with and without vibration. The amplitudes of the EMG activities of selected trunk muscles (internal oblique, rectus abdominis, erector spinae, multifidus) were recorded. Two types of exercise conditions were executed in a random sequence for 5 seconds each. The signals detected from the middle 3 seconds (after discarding the signals of the first and the last one seconds) were used in the analysis. A 3-minute break was given after each exercise to minimize muscle fatigue. [Results] During the supine bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES muscles were significantly higher than those of the supine bridge exercise without vibration. Additionally, during the prone bridge exercise with vibration, the activities of the IO, RA, MF, and ES were significantly higher than those of the prone bridge exercise without vibration. [Conclusion] Sling exercises with vibration improved the trunk muscle activities of healthy adults compared to the sling exercises without vibration. The information presented here is important for clinicians who use lumbar stabilization exercises as an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise. PMID:24259778

Choi, Youngin; Kang, Hyungkyu

2013-01-01

196

Breakpoints in ventilation, cerebral and muscle oxygenation, and muscle activity during an incremental cycling exercise.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to locate the breakpoints of cerebral and muscle oxygenation and muscle electrical activity during a ramp exercise in reference to the first and second ventilatory thresholds. Twenty-five cyclists completed a maximal ramp test on an electromagnetically braked cycle-ergometer with a rate of increment of 25 W/min. Expired gazes (breath-by-breath), prefrontal cortex and vastus lateralis (VL) oxygenation [Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)] together with electromyographic (EMG) Root Mean Square (RMS) activity for the VL, rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were continuously assessed. There was a non-linear increase in both cerebral deoxyhemoglobin (at 56 ± 13% of the exercise) and oxyhemoglobin (56 ± 8% of exercise) concomitantly to the first ventilatory threshold (57 ± 6% of exercise, p > 0.86, Cohen's d < 0.1). Cerebral deoxyhemoglobin further increased (87 ± 10% of exercise) while oxyhemoglobin reached a plateau/decreased (86 ± 8% of exercise) after the second ventilatory threshold (81 ± 6% of exercise, p < 0.05, d > 0.8). We identified one threshold only for muscle parameters with a non-linear decrease in muscle oxyhemoglobin (78 ± 9% of exercise), attenuation in muscle deoxyhemoglobin (80 ± 8% of exercise), and increase in EMG activity of VL (89 ± 5% of exercise), RF (82 ± 14% of exercise), and BF (85 ± 9% of exercise). The thresholds in BF and VL EMG activity occurred after the second ventilatory threshold (p < 0.05, d > 0.6). Our results suggest that the metabolic and ventilatory events characterizing this latter cardiopulmonary threshold may affect both cerebral and muscle oxygenation levels, and in turn, muscle recruitment responses. PMID:24782786

Racinais, Sebastien; Buchheit, Martin; Girard, Olivier

2014-01-01

197

Breakpoints in ventilation, cerebral and muscle oxygenation, and muscle activity during an incremental cycling exercise  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to locate the breakpoints of cerebral and muscle oxygenation and muscle electrical activity during a ramp exercise in reference to the first and second ventilatory thresholds. Twenty-five cyclists completed a maximal ramp test on an electromagnetically braked cycle-ergometer with a rate of increment of 25 W/min. Expired gazes (breath-by-breath), prefrontal cortex and vastus lateralis (VL) oxygenation [Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)] together with electromyographic (EMG) Root Mean Square (RMS) activity for the VL, rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were continuously assessed. There was a non-linear increase in both cerebral deoxyhemoglobin (at 56 ± 13% of the exercise) and oxyhemoglobin (56 ± 8% of exercise) concomitantly to the first ventilatory threshold (57 ± 6% of exercise, p > 0.86, Cohen's d < 0.1). Cerebral deoxyhemoglobin further increased (87 ± 10% of exercise) while oxyhemoglobin reached a plateau/decreased (86 ± 8% of exercise) after the second ventilatory threshold (81 ± 6% of exercise, p < 0.05, d > 0.8). We identified one threshold only for muscle parameters with a non-linear decrease in muscle oxyhemoglobin (78 ± 9% of exercise), attenuation in muscle deoxyhemoglobin (80 ± 8% of exercise), and increase in EMG activity of VL (89 ± 5% of exercise), RF (82 ± 14% of exercise), and BF (85 ± 9% of exercise). The thresholds in BF and VL EMG activity occurred after the second ventilatory threshold (p < 0.05, d > 0.6). Our results suggest that the metabolic and ventilatory events characterizing this latter cardiopulmonary threshold may affect both cerebral and muscle oxygenation levels, and in turn, muscle recruitment responses. PMID:24782786

Racinais, Sebastien; Buchheit, Martin; Girard, Olivier

2014-01-01

198

Chiton myogenesis: perspectives for the development and evolution of larval and adult muscle systems in molluscs.  

PubMed

We investigated muscle development in two chiton species, Mopalia muscosa and Chiton olivaceus, from embryo hatching until 10 days after metamorphosis. The anlagen of the dorsal longitudinal rectus muscle and a larval prototroch muscle ring are the first detectable muscle structures in the early trochophore-like larva. Slightly later, a ventrolaterally situated pair of longitudinal muscles appears, which persists through metamorphosis. In addition, the anlagen of the putative dorsoventral shell musculature and the first fibers of a muscular grid, which is restricted to the pretrochal region and consists of outer ring and inner diagonal muscle fibers, are generated. Subsequently, transversal muscle fibers form underneath each future shell plate and the ventrolateral enrolling muscle is established. At metamorphic competence, the dorsoventral shell musculature consists of numerous serially repeated, intercrossing muscle fibers. Their concentration into seven (and later eight) functional shell plate muscle bundles starts after the completion of metamorphosis. The larval prototroch ring and the pretrochal muscle grid are lost at metamorphosis. The structure of the apical grid and its atrophy during metamorphosis suggests ontogenetic repetition of (parts of) the original body-wall musculature of a proposed worm-shaped molluscan ancestor. Moreover, our data show that the "segmented" character of the polyplacophoran shell musculature is a secondary condition, thus contradicting earlier theories that regarded the Polyplacophora (and thus the entire phylum Mollusca) as primarily eumetameric (annelid-like). Instead, we propose an unsegmented trochozoan ancestor at the base of molluscan evolution. PMID:11748697

Wanninger, Andreas; Haszprunar, Gerhard

2002-02-01

199

Muscle Activation Patterns When Passively Stretching Spastic Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n?=?35/19; 10.8±3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n?=? 32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I–IV) of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG) compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01). The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between incremental position zones during low velocity stretches was found to be the most sensitive in categorizing muscles into activation patterns (p<0.01). Future studies should investigate whether muscles with different patterns react differently to treatment. PMID:24651860

Bar-On, Lynn; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

2014-01-01

200

Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises.  

PubMed

The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility. PMID:22580983

Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce

2013-03-01

201

Timing of Muscle Response to a Sudden Leg Perturbation: Comparison between Adolescents and Adults with Down Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Movement disturbances associated with Down syndrome reduce mechanical stability, worsening the execution of important tasks such as walking and upright standing. To compensate these deficits, persons with Down syndrome increase joint stability modulating the level of activation of single muscles or producing an agonist-antagonist co-activation. Such activations are also observed when a relaxed, extended leg is suddenly released and left to oscillate passively under the influence of gravity (Wartenberg test). In this case, the Rectus femoris of adults with Down syndrome displayed peaks of activation after the onset of the first leg flexion. With the aim to verify if these muscular reactions were acquired during the development time and to find evidences useful to give them a functional explanation, we used the Wartenberg test to compare the knee joint kinematics and the surface electromyography of the Rectus femoris and Biceps femoris caput longus between adolescents and adults with Down syndrome. During the first leg flexion, adolescents and adults showed single Rectus femoris activations while, a restricted number of participants exhibited agonist-antagonist co-activations. However, regardless the pattern of activation, adults initiated the muscle activity significantly later than adolescents. Although most of the mechanical parameters and the total movement variability were similar in the two groups, the onset of the Rectus femoris activation was well correlated with the time of the minimum acceleration variability. Thus, in adolescents the maximum mechanical stability occurred short after the onset of the leg fall, while adults reached their best joint stability late during the first flexion. These results suggest that between the adolescence and adulthood, persons with Down syndrome explore a temporal window to select an appropriate timing of muscle activation to overcome their inherent mechanical instability. PMID:24278374

Valle, Maria Stella; Cioni, Matteo; Pisasale, Mariangela; Pantò, Maria Rosita; Casabona, Antonino

2013-01-01

202

Effectiveness of the Wavelet Transform on the Surface EMG to Understand the Muscle Fatigue During Walk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muscle fatigue is the decline in ability of a muscle to create force. Electromyography (EMG) is a medical technique for measuring muscle response to nervous stimulation. During a sustained muscle contraction, the power spectrum of the EMG shifts towards lower frequencies. These effects are due to muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue is often a result of unhealthy work practice. In this research, the effectiveness of the wavelet transform applied to the surface EMG (SEMG) signal as a means of understanding muscle fatigue during walk is presented. Power spectrum and bispectrum analysis on the EMG signal getting from right rectus femoris muscle is executed utilizing various wavelet functions (WFs). It is possible to recognize muscle fatigue appreciably with the proper choice of the WF. The outcome proves that the most momentous changes in the EMG power spectrum are symbolized by WF Daubechies45. Moreover, this research has compared bispectrum properties to the other WFs. To determine muscle fatigue during gait, Daubechies45 is used in this research to analyze the SEMG signal.

Hussain, M. S.; Mamun, Md.

2012-01-01

203

An Uncommon Presentation of Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma with Acute Kidney Injury due to Obstructive Uropathy and Prerenal Azotemia  

PubMed Central

Rectus Sheath Hematoma (RSH) represents an unusual entity which is characterized by acute abdominal pain and tender palpable abdominal mass usually, among elderly patients receiving anticoagulant therapy. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman admitted to our department due to acute abdominal pain and oligoanuria. The patient had recently been hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and atrial fibrillation (AF) and received both anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapies. The radiological assessments revealed an extended Rectus Sheath Hematoma and bilateral hydronephrosis. Treatment of the hematoma required cessation of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, immobilization, blood and fresh frozen plasma transfusion, and administration of vasopressors. The patient recovered gradually and was discharged home fifteen (15) days later. PMID:25126429

Mourounoglou, Maria; Sabanis, Nikolaos

2014-01-01

204

An Uncommon Presentation of Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma with Acute Kidney Injury due to Obstructive Uropathy and Prerenal Azotemia.  

PubMed

Rectus Sheath Hematoma (RSH) represents an unusual entity which is characterized by acute abdominal pain and tender palpable abdominal mass usually, among elderly patients receiving anticoagulant therapy. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman admitted to our department due to acute abdominal pain and oligoanuria. The patient had recently been hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and atrial fibrillation (AF) and received both anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapies. The radiological assessments revealed an extended Rectus Sheath Hematoma and bilateral hydronephrosis. Treatment of the hematoma required cessation of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, immobilization, blood and fresh frozen plasma transfusion, and administration of vasopressors. The patient recovered gradually and was discharged home fifteen (15) days later. PMID:25126429

Paschou, Eleni; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Kalaitzoglou, Asterios; Mourounoglou, Maria; Sabanis, Nikolaos

2014-01-01

205

Muscle Excursion Does Not Correlate with Increased Serial Sarcomere Number after Muscle Adaptation to Stretched Tendon Transfer  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Chronic skeletal muscle stretch typically increases serial muscle fiber sarcomere number. Since serial sarcomere number correlates with functional excursion in normal muscle, observed changes in sarcomere number are often extrapolated to their new assumed function. However, this has not been well demonstrated experimentally. Thus, we measured the functional properties of muscles stretched due to tendon transfer surgery. Muscle active and passive length-tension curves were measured 1 week and 4 weeks after surgery, and then each muscle was further examined to determine structural adaptation as well as single fiber and fiber bundle passive mechanical properties. We found a disconnect between the functional and structural muscle properties. Specifically, muscle excursion was significantly lower in the transferred muscle compared to controls, even though serial sarcomere number had increased. Furthermore, maximum tetanic tension was significantly reduced, though the two groups had similar physiological cross sectional areas. Passive tension increased in the transferred muscle, which was deemed to be due to proliferation of extracellular matrix. These data are the first to report that muscle morphological adaptation after chronic stretch does not accurately predict the muscle’s functional properties. These data have significant implications for examining muscle physiological properties under surgical interventions. PMID:22532301

Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Ward, Samuel R.; Fridén, Jan; Lieber, Richard L.

2012-01-01

206

The vastus lateralis muscle: an anatomical investigation.  

PubMed

Anterior knee pain or patellofemoral pain syndrome is commonly encountered by clinicians, but the pathogenesis of this condition is not well understood. While much research has centred around the relationship between vastus medialis and anterior knee pain, little is known about the most lateral of the quadriceps muscle group, vastus lateralis (VL). Knowledge of the anatomical organization of VL is not only necessary to understand its precise function, but to also assist in the development of clinical and biomechanical models of knee dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed morphology of VL, specifically to provide data relating to architecture, attachment sites, innervation, and the presence of anatomical partitioning within the muscle. The VL muscle was examined in 10 cadaveric lower limbs using macrodissection techniques. On the basis of architecture and innervation, this muscle comprised four partitions with each receiving its own unique nerve branch. The mean fascicular length of VL was 7 cm and the mean fascicular and muscle physiological cross-sectional areas were 1.2 cm(2) and 21.6 cm(2), respectively. In addition to inserting proximally at the base of the greater trochanter and distally into the superolateral border and base of the patella, three additional attachment sites were identified: the lateral intermuscular septum, iliotibial band, and the rectus tendon. The results of this study suggest that the gross morphology of VL is more complex than previously described, and the information provided regarding architecture will contribute to knowledge regarding the function of VL as well as its role in knee joint dysfunction. PMID:20309954

Becker, I; Baxter, G D; Woodley, S J

2010-07-01

207

Long-term outcomes of unilateral lateral rectus recession versus recess-resect for intermittent exotropia of 20-25 prism diopters  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to compare surgical outcomes of unilateral lateral rectus recession (ULR) and unilateral recess-resect (RR) for intermittent exotropia of 20-25 prism diopters (PD). Methods In this retrospective study, ULR was performed on 82 patients and RR on 98 patients for the treatment of intermittent exotropia of 20-25 PD with a follow-up period of 24 months or more. The main outcome measures were postoperative exodeviation angles and final success rates. A surgical success was considered to be an alignment within 10 PD. Results The mean follow-up duration after the surgery was 53.8?±?26.4 months in the ULR group and 52.5?±?27.4 months in the RR group (p?=?0.482). The mean deviation angles at postoperative 1 day were -0.49 PD (esodeviation) in the ULR group and -1.98 PD in the RR group. Subsequently, at postoperative 1 week, 1 and 3 months, the deviations became more exotropic in the ULR group than in the RR group (p?

2014-01-01

208

Bariatric Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... to monitor the effects of surgery. How are postoperative nutritional deficiencies managed? Because your body absorbs fewer ... Vomiting occurs most commonly during the first few postoperative months, when you are adapting to a small ...

209

Thyroid Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... especially true if you had surgery for thyroid cancer. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy may be delayed for several ... you are to receive radioactive iodine therapy (see Thyroid Cancer brochure ). Further Information Further details on this and ...

210

Osseous Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Before your surgery, you need to have basic periodontal treatment called scaling and root planing. You also ... be covered with a bandage known as a periodontal pack or dressing. Follow-Up You may get ...

211

Thyroid surgery.  

PubMed

Diseases of the thyroid are common and surgical treatment is often the preferred option. Thyroid surgery is becoming subspecialised and falls within the repertoire of maxillofacial, and head and neck surgeons. Multidisciplinary management of most patients with diseases of the thyroid is key to providing the best care particularly for those with malignancies and retrosternal extension. To reduce postoperative complications a meticulous search for, and protection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands, with an incision along the skin crease in the lower neck, which can be extended for neck dissection, are paramount. Recent advances in thyroid surgery include ultrasound-guided cervical plexus block, use of the Harmonic Scalpel(®) (Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc., USA), intraoperative nerve stimulation to monitor the recurrent laryngeal nerve, use of TissuePatch™ 3 (Tissuemed Ltd., Leeds, UK) adhesive sealant, and minimal access surgery. PMID:22192610

Cheng, Leo H-H; Hutchison, Iain L

2012-10-01

212

Oculoplastic surgery.  

PubMed

Esthetic and functional surgery in the periocular region falls into the domain of oculoplastic surgeons, as well as plastic surgeons and otorhinolaryngologists with training in facial plastic surgery. This article provides a description of 8 common eyelid procedures that are routinely performed under local anesthesia, with or without mild intravenous sedation. Serious complications are rare. The rate of postoperative infection in the highly vascularized eyelid tissues is less than 1% in our experience. PMID:24093658

Mehta, Sonul; Belliveau, Michel J; Oestreicher, James H

2013-10-01

213

Fatty degeneration of gluteus minimus muscle as a predictor of falls.  

PubMed

The cause of falls is multifactorial, however, hip fractures in elderly would be prevented if accidental falls are predictable. We assessed magnetic resonance images of 38 patients with groin pain after taking a fall whose fracture could not be detected by plain X-rays, and 45 patients with no episode of falls. Their ages were over 65 years. Fatty degeneration of muscles, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, obturator externus, adductor longus, rectus femoris and iliopsoas muscles, were evaluated by Goutallier's staging. Odds ratio was calculated by a logistic regression analysis allocating dependent variable for falls and independent variables for Goutallier's stage, age and gender. The fatty degeneration of gluteus maximus muscle was generalized, while that of gluteus minimus muscle was unevenly distributed, especially in anterior area. Gluteus minimus muscle initiated its fatty degeneration earlier than gluteus medius muscle. Odds ratio of falling was 3.2 (95% confidence intervals: 1, 14, 8.94) for Goutallier' stage of the gluteus medius muscle. Fatty degeneration of gluteus medius muscle has a crucial role in providing stability of the pelvis including hip joint. Evaluating fatty streaks in the gluteus minimus muscle could help give early indication to those who have a higher risk of falling. PMID:25440137

Kiyoshige, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Emi

2015-01-01

214

Muscle moment arms of the gibbon hind limb: implications for hylobatid locomotion.  

PubMed

Muscles facilitate skeletal movement via the production of a torque or moment about a joint. The magnitude of the moment produced depends on both the force of muscular contraction and the size of the moment arm used to rotate the joint. Hence, larger muscle moment arms generate larger joint torques and forces at the point of application. The moment arms of a number of gibbon hind limb muscles were measured on four cadaveric specimens (one Hylobates lar, one H. moloch and two H. syndactylus). The tendon travel technique was used, utilizing an electro-goniometer and a linear voltage displacement transducer. The data were analysed using a technique based on a differentiated cubic spline and normalized to remove the effect of body size. The data demonstrated a functional differentiation between voluminous muscles with short fascicles having small muscle moment arms and muscles with longer fascicles and comparatively smaller physiological cross-sectional area having longer muscle moment arms. The functional implications of these particular configurations were simulated using a simple geometric fascicle strain model that predicts that the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles are more likely to act primarily at their distal joints (knee and ankle, respectively) because they have short fascicles. The data also show that the main hip and knee extensors maintain a very small moment arm throughout the range of joint angles seen in the locomotion of gibbons, which (coupled to voluminous, short-fascicled muscles) might help facilitate rapid joint rotation during powerful movements. PMID:20447251

Channon, Anthony J; Crompton, Robin H; Günther, Michael M; Vereecke, Evie E

2010-04-01

215

Muscle moment arms of the gibbon hind limb: implications for hylobatid locomotion  

PubMed Central

Muscles facilitate skeletal movement via the production of a torque or moment about a joint. The magnitude of the moment produced depends on both the force of muscular contraction and the size of the moment arm used to rotate the joint. Hence, larger muscle moment arms generate larger joint torques and forces at the point of application. The moment arms of a number of gibbon hind limb muscles were measured on four cadaveric specimens (one Hylobates lar, one H. moloch and two H. syndactylus). The tendon travel technique was used, utilizing an electro-goniometer and a linear voltage displacement transducer. The data were analysed using a technique based on a differentiated cubic spline and normalized to remove the effect of body size. The data demonstrated a functional differentiation between voluminous muscles with short fascicles having small muscle moment arms and muscles with longer fascicles and comparatively smaller physiological cross-sectional area having longer muscle moment arms. The functional implications of these particular configurations were simulated using a simple geometric fascicle strain model that predicts that the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles are more likely to act primarily at their distal joints (knee and ankle, respectively) because they have short fascicles. The data also show that the main hip and knee extensors maintain a very small moment arm throughout the range of joint angles seen in the locomotion of gibbons, which (coupled to voluminous, short-fascicled muscles) might help facilitate rapid joint rotation during powerful movements. PMID:20447251

Channon, Anthony J; Crompton, Robin H; Günther, Michael M; Vereecke, Evie E

2010-01-01

216

The Effect of Backpack Load on Muscle Activities of the Trunk and Lower Extremities and Plantar Foot Pressure in Flatfoot  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in muscle activation of the trunk and lower extremities and plantar foot pressure due to backpack loads of 0, 10, 15, and 20% of body weight during level walking in individuals with flatfoot. [Methods] Fourteen young flatfoot subjects and 12 normal foot subjects participated in this study. In each session, the subjects were assigned to carry a backpack load, and there were four level walking modes: (1) unloaded walking (0%), (2) 10% body weight (BW) load, (3) 15% BW load, and (4) 20% BW load. Trunk and lower extremity muscle activities were recorded by surface EMG, and contact area and plantar foot pressure were determined using a RS scan system. [Results] The erector spinae, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle activities, but not the rectus femoris and rectus abdominis muscle activities of flatfoot subjects significantly and progressively increased as load increased in flatfoot subjects. Contact area and pressure of the lateral and medial heel zones were significantly increased too. [Conclusion] Based on this data, the weight of a backpack could influence muscle activation and plantar foot pressure in flatfoot. PMID:24396193

Son, Hohee

2013-01-01

217

Muscle excursion does not correlate with increased serial sarcomere number after muscle adaptation to stretched tendon transfer.  

PubMed

Chronic skeletal muscle stretch typically increases serial muscle fiber sarcomere number. Since serial sarcomere number correlates with functional excursion in normal muscle, observed changes in sarcomere number are often extrapolated to their new assumed function. However, this has not been well demonstrated experimentally. Thus, we measured the functional properties of muscles stretched due to tendon transfer surgery. Muscle active and passive length-tension curves were measured 1 week and 4 weeks after surgery, and then each muscle was further examined to determine structural adaptation as well as single fiber and fiber bundle passive mechanical properties. We found a disconnect between the functional and structural muscle properties. Specifically, muscle excursion was significantly lower in the transferred muscle compared to controls, even though serial sarcomere number had increased. Furthermore, maximum tetanic tension was significantly reduced, though the two groups had similar physiological cross sectional areas. Passive tension increased in the transferred muscle, which was deemed to be due to proliferation of extracellular matrix. These data are the first to report that muscle morphological adaptation after chronic stretch does not accurately predict the muscle's functional properties. These data have significant implications for examining muscle physiological properties under surgical interventions. PMID:22532301

Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Ward, Samuel R; Fridén, Jan; Lieber, Richard L

2012-11-01

218

The Effect of Warm-Up and Cool-Down Exercise on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in the Quadriceps Muscle: a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of warm-up and cool-down exercise on delayed onset of muscle soreness at the distal and central parts of rectus femoris following leg resistance exercise. Thirty-six volunteers (21 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the warm-up (20 min ergometer cycling prior to the resistance exercise), cool-down (20 min cycling after the resistance exercise), or control group performing resistance exercise only. The resistance exercise consisted of front lunges (10×5 repetitions/sets) with external loading of 40% (women) and 50% (men) of body mass. Primary outcomes were pressure pain threshold along rectus femoris and maximal isometric knee extension force. Data were recorded before the resistance exercise and on the two consecutive days. Pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced for the control group on both day 2 and 3 (p?0.003) but not for the warm-up group (p?0.21). For the cool-down group, pressure pain threshold at the central muscle belly was significantly reduced on day 2 (p?0.005) and was also lower compared to the warm-up group (p=0.025). Force was significantly reduced on day 2 and 3 for all groups (p<0.001). This study indicates that aerobic warm-up exercise performed prior to resistance exercise may prevent muscle soreness at the central but not distal muscle regions, but it does not prevent loss of muscle force. PMID:23486850

Olsen, Olav; Sjøhaug, Mona; van Beekvelt, Mireille; Mork, Paul Jarle

2012-01-01

219

Muscle Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... as sprains or strains, cramps or tendinitis A genetic disorder, such as muscular dystrophy Some cancers Inflammation, such as myositis Diseases of nerves that affect muscles Infections Certain medicines Sometimes the cause is not known.

220

Muscle Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Muscle Physiology Lab at the University of California-San Diego provides this comprehensive source of information on the neuromuscular system. The Web site appears as a extensive menu of subtopics, each leading to pages of detailed text and diagrams. Students studying muscle structure and function should find this well-organized and authoritative resource extremely useful. The Web site also includes a search tool for quickly finding pages of interest, and a list of related links for additional information.

2000-01-01

221

Robotic Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review the history, development, and current applications of robotics in surgery. Background: Surgical robotics is a new technology that holds significant promise. Robotic surgery is often heralded as the new revolution, and it is one of the most talked about subjects in surgery today. Up to this point in time, however, the drive to develop and obtain robotic devices has been largely driven by the market. There is no doubt that they will become an important tool in the surgical armamentarium, but the extent of their use is still evolving. Methods: A review of the literature was undertaken using Medline. Articles describing the history and development of surgical robots were identified as were articles reporting data on applications. Results: Several centers are currently using surgical robots and publishing data. Most of these early studies report that robotic surgery is feasible. There is, however, a paucity of data regarding costs and benefits of robotics versus conventional techniques. Conclusions: Robotic surgery is still in its infancy and its niche has not yet been well defined. Its current practical uses are mostly confined to smaller surgical procedures. PMID:14685095

Lanfranco, Anthony R.; Castellanos, Andres E.; Desai, Jaydev P.; Meyers, William C.

2004-01-01

222

DEHN SURGERY 1. Introduction  

E-print Network

DEHN SURGERY 1. Introduction Dehn surgery hyperbolic knot exceptional surgery (§2) link Dehn surgery (§3) 2. Exceptional surgery and boundary slopes hyperbolic knot exceptional surgery ? S3 ( S3 homotopy S3 ) Dehn surgery K S3 knot E(K) = S3 -intN(K) exterior prim- itive class H1(E(K); Z) ( ) m K

Hachimori, Masahiro

223

Abnormal muscle activation during gait in diabetes patients with and without neuropathy.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization warns that, in 2000, as many as 33 million Europeans suffered from diabetes, approximately 15% will likely develop foot ulcers, and approximately 15-20% of these patients will face lower-extremity amputation. Changes in some gait parameters that appear to be specific in diabetes have been identified in the literature: shorter stride length, reduced walking speed, and altered lower limb and trunk mobility. The present study aimed at evaluating the role of altered muscle activity in gait alterations of diabetic subjects with and without neuropathy. This study involved 50 subjects: 10 controls (BMI 24.4 ± 2.8, age 61.2 ± 5.07), 20 diabetics (BMI 26.4 ± 2.5, age 56.53 ± 13.29) and 20 neuropathics (BMI 26.8 ± 3.4, age 61.2 ± 7.7). The electrical activity of six muscles was collected bilaterally on the lower limb during gait: gluteus medius, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, peroneous longus, gastrocnemius lateralis, and extensor digitorum communis. Electromyographic activity was represented through linear envelopes. Time and space parameters were also evaluated by means of two Bertec force plates and a six cameras motion capture system (BTS, 60-120 Hz). At initial contact and loading response, an early peak of rectus femoris activity occurred in diabetic subjects with and without neuropathy. During midstance a delay of gastrocnemius activity was observed in diabetic non-neuropathic subjects. During terminal swing a delay of rectus femoris and gluteus medius activity was seen in diabetic non-neuropathic subjects'. The results suggest that important muscle activity deviations are present in diabetic subjects although these are not directly related to neuropathy. PMID:22098824

Sawacha, Zimi; Spolaor, Fabiola; Guarneri, Gabriella; Contessa, Paola; Carraro, Elena; Venturin, Andrea; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

2012-01-01

224

Elderly oarsmen have larger trunk and thigh muscles and greater strength than age-matched untrained men.  

PubMed

To evaluate whether regularly performed rowing exercise affects the trunk muscles size and function, and to examine the effect of rowing exercise on thigh muscle size and function in elderly rowers, we compared the cross-sectional area (CSA) and strength of these muscles in elderly male rowers and in age-matched untrained men. Participants were 16 elderly rowing-trained men (ROW age, 67.8 +/- 2.3 years) and 18 elderly untrained men (CON 66.2 +/- 3.0 years). CSA was measured by MRI in the trunk and thigh muscles. Isometric trunk flexion force and leg extension power were measured. ROW had a 20% larger total trunk muscle CSA than CON (P < 0.01); rectus abdominis was 27% larger, psoas major 64% larger, and erector spinae 14% larger in ROW than in CON (P < 0.05-0.001). Isometric trunk flexion force was related to the CSA of the rectus abdominis (r = 0.777, P < 0.001) and psoas major (r = 0.694, P < 0.001), and was 42% larger in ROW than in CON (P < 0.001). However, force adjusted for the CSA of the muscles did not differ significantly between CON and ROW. In ROW, the CSA was 13% larger in the total thigh muscles (P < 0.01), and leg extension power was 43% higher than in CON (P < 0.001). These results suggest that rowing exercise is a favorable training modality for the trunk muscles, especially psoas major and that it improves thigh muscle size and function in elderly men. PMID:20039055

Asaka, Meiko; Usui, Chiyoko; Ohta, Megumi; Takai, Yohei; Fukunaga, Tetsuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

2010-04-01

225

Wound surgery.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to review the concepts behind, and practice of, wound surgery. The techniques of wound surgery, born of necessity in the art of military surgeons, have found their renaissance in the modern age of wound care driven by the economic and functional considerations inherent to the outcome-based management of chronic disease. Over 300 years of literature on wound healing has shown an innate ability of the wound (in the absence of infection and repeated trauma) to control its progress, largely through the local inflammatory cells. This article discusses several historical works on wound surgery and healing, topical wound therapy, minimal intervention, and emphasizes the closure of chronic wounds. PMID:21074031

Caldwell, Michael D

2010-12-01

226

Craniopharyngioma surgery.  

PubMed

Ideal surgical treatment of craniopharyngiomas remains a major challenge for neurosurgeons. Craniopharyngiomas grow in the deep-seated hypothalamic area that is paramount for vegetative, emotional and endocrine function, and for maintaining worthwhile life. The benign histological nature of craniopharyngiomas belies their biological behavior and the propensity to recur is a major threat. Surgical treatment has to weigh the risk of hypothalamic damage against the risk of tumor recurrence or progression. Both aggressive surgery and conservative minor surgery followed by radiotherapy has been proclaimed by the proponents of different schools. During the past decade, the pendulum has swung back to surgery with the attempt at radical removal. Refined neurosurgical techniques and innovative approaches yielded improved surgical results. The contemporary neurosurgical strategy of treating craniopharyngiomas with early and late outcome data is presented. Neurosurgical therapy is only beneficial in the context of an interdisciplinary treatment concept as discussed here. PMID:18636330

Honegger, Jürgen; Tatagiba, Marcos

2008-01-01

227

[Metabolic surgery].  

PubMed

The prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 is constantly rising worldwide and is one of the most threatening global health and health economic problems. Whereas bariatric surgery is well established in the treatment of morbid obesity, the surgical treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus alone are still under discussion (metabolic surgery). Bariatric procedures differ considering weight loss and influencing associated comorbidities. Detailed knowledge of available surgical treatment options for morbid obesity, the risks and requirements of laparoscopic skills, effectiveness and, as far as already known, mechanisms of action are crucial for appropriate implementation. PMID:22695815

Jurowich, C; Germer, C T; Seyfried, F; Thalheimer, A

2012-06-01

228

Use of the Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator for Muscle Activity Detection in Children  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of the Teager-Kaiser Energy (TKE) operator to assess surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity from the hip and trunk muscles during pediatric gait in children with and without cerebral palsy (CP). Muscle activity was recorded from the trapezius, erector spinae, rectus abdominus, external oblique, gluteus maximus and medius, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus bilaterally in ten children with typical development (TD) and five children with CP ages 44.4 ± 18.6 months. Duration of muscle activity was calculated as a percentage of the gait cycle, and compared to two common onset detection methods, a standard deviation (SD) amplitude threshold method, and the visual inspection from two raters (R1, R2). Relative and absolute agreement was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Of the two automated methods, the TKE method demonstrated better agreement with visual inspection (0.45–0.89) than the SD (0.11–0.76) method. The Bland-Altman plots indicated a smaller bias and 95% confidence interval for the TKE method in comparison to the raters (TKE to R1: ?5, 113%; TKE to R2: 4, 95%; SD to R1: ?24, 170%; SD to R2: ?15, 151%). The use of the TKE operator may better detect sEMG activity in children than the standard amplitude method. PMID:19484385

Lauer, Richard T.; Prosser, Laura A.

2009-01-01

229

Pulmonary Function After Pedicled Transverse Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap Breast Reconstruction.  

PubMed

Tight abdominal closures, as can be seen during transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction, have been shown to increase intra-abdominal pressure, thereby decreasing thoracopulmonary compliance and increasing the workload of breathing. The purpose of this article was to quantitate pulmonary function in patients who underwent pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction.A prospective clinical trial was conducted involving 22 women undergoing unilateral or bilateral pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. Pulmonary function testing was conducted 1 week before the operation, 24 hours postoperatively, and 2 months postoperatively. The patients were stratified by age (<50 years vs ?50 years), type of TRAM flap (unilateral vs bilateral), tobacco use (smoker vs nonsmoker), and body mass index. Changes were analyzed using 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t tests. All comparisons used a 2-tailed test at the 0.05 level of significance.Other than residual volume, the 24-hour postoperative values were significantly lower than the preoperative values. The smokers had less change in functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and forced vital capacity values than the nonsmokers at 24 hours postoperatively; however, they were noted to have decreased pulmonary function at baseline. The patients 50 years or older had significantly greater decline in functional residual capacity and residual volume compared with the younger cohort. No significant difference in pulmonary function testing values existed between those undergoing bilateral versus unilateral pedicled TRAM flap reconstruction. Pulmonary function tests returned to baseline at 2-month follow-up.Pulmonary function test values were significantly decreased at 24 hours after pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. PMID:25046670

Shultz, Kevin J; Don, Scott; Mahabir, Raman C; Verheyden, Charles N

2014-07-17

230

Comparison of Lower Limb Muscle Activity during Eccentric and Concentric Exercises in Runners with Achilles Tendinopathy  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study aimed to identify changes in muscle activation by comparing muscle activities of the affected side (AS) and non-affected side (NAS) during eccentric and concentric exercises in runners with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. [Subjects] The study included 18 participants consisting of men and women with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in a single leg who had more than 1?year of running experience. [Methods] All subjects performed concentric and eccentric exercise with the Achilles tendon moving from full plantar flexion to full dorsiflexion for 8 seconds, and electromyography data was obtained. [Results] All muscles examined showed a significant increase in %maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with concentric exercise compared with eccentric exercise. Compared with the NAS, the AS showed significant increases in %MVC of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius. All interaction effects of exercise methods and injuries showed statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] Runners with Achilles tendinopathy show increases in medial gastrocnemius activity when performing eccentric exercise. PMID:25276014

Yu, Jaeho

2014-01-01

231

Comparison of Lower Limb Muscle Activity during Eccentric and Concentric Exercises in Runners with Achilles Tendinopathy.  

PubMed

[Purpose] This study aimed to identify changes in muscle activation by comparing muscle activities of the affected side (AS) and non-affected side (NAS) during eccentric and concentric exercises in runners with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. [Subjects] The study included 18 participants consisting of men and women with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in a single leg who had more than 1?year of running experience. [Methods] All subjects performed concentric and eccentric exercise with the Achilles tendon moving from full plantar flexion to full dorsiflexion for 8 seconds, and electromyography data was obtained. [Results] All muscles examined showed a significant increase in %maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with concentric exercise compared with eccentric exercise. Compared with the NAS, the AS showed significant increases in %MVC of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius. All interaction effects of exercise methods and injuries showed statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] Runners with Achilles tendinopathy show increases in medial gastrocnemius activity when performing eccentric exercise. PMID:25276014

Yu, Jaeho

2014-09-01

232

Dual encoding of muscle tension and eye position by abducens motoneurons  

PubMed Central

Extraocular muscle tension associated with spontaneous eye movements has a pulse-slide-step profile similar to that of motoneuron firing rate. Existing models only relate motoneuron firing to eye position, velocity and acceleration. We measured and quantitatively compared lateral rectus muscle force and eye position with the firing of abducens motoneurons in the cat to determine fundamental encoding correlations. During fixations (step), muscle force increased exponentially with eccentric eye position, consistent with a model of estimate ensemble motor innervation based on neuronal sensitivities and recruitment order. Moreover, firing rate in all motoneurons tested was better related to eye position than to muscle tension during fixations. In contrast, during the postsaccadic slide phase, the time constant of firing rate decay was closely related to that of muscle force decay, suggesting that all motoneurons encode muscle tension as well. Discharge characteristics of abducens motoneurons formed overlapping clusters of phasic and tonic motoneurons, thus, tonic units recruited earlier and had a larger slide signal. We conclude that the slide signal is a discharge characteristic of the motoneuron that controls muscle tension during the post-saccadic phase and that motoneurons are specialized for both tension and position-related properties. The organization of signal content in the pool of abducens motoneurons from the very phasic to the very tonic units is possibly a result of the differential trophic background received from distinct types of muscle fibers. PMID:21307263

Davis-López de Carrizosa, María A.; Morado-Díaz, Camilo J.; Miller, Joel M.; de la Cruz, Rosa R.; Pastor, Ángel M.

2011-01-01

233

Changes in tibiofemoral forces due to variations in muscle activity during walking.  

PubMed

Muscles induce large forces in the tibiofemoral joint during walking and thereby influence the health of tissues like articular cartilage and menisci. It is possible to walk with a wide variety of muscle coordination patterns, but the effect of varied muscle coordination on tibiofemoral contact forces remains unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of varied muscle coordination on tibiofemoral contact forces. We developed a musculoskeletal model of a subject walking with an instrumented knee implant. Using an optimization framework, we calculated the tibiofemoral forces resulting from muscle coordination that reproduced the subject's walking dynamics. We performed a large set of optimizations in which we systematically varied the coordination of muscles to determine the influence on tibiofemoral force. Model-predicted tibiofemoral forces arising with minimum muscle activation matched in vivo forces measured during early stance, but were greater than in vivo forces during late stance. Peak tibiofemoral forces during late stance could be reduced by increasing the activation of the gluteus medius, uniarticular hip flexors, and soleus, and by decreasing the activation of the gastrocnemius and rectus femoris. These results suggest that retraining of muscle coordination could substantially reduce tibiofemoral forces during late stance. PMID:24615885

Demers, Matthew S; Pal, Saikat; Delp, Scott L

2014-06-01

234

Single motor unit activity in human extraocular muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex  

PubMed Central

Motor unit activity in human eye muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is not well understood, since the associated head and eye movements normally preclude single unit recordings. Therefore we recorded single motor unit activity following bursts of skull vibration and sound, two vestibular otolith stimuli that elicit only small head and eye movements. Inferior oblique (IO) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle activity was measured in healthy humans with concentric needle electrodes. Vibration elicited highly synchronous, short-latency bursts of motor unit activity in the IO (latency: 10.5 ms) and IR (14.5 ms) muscles. The activation patterns of the two muscles were similar, but reciprocal, with delayed activation of the IR muscle. Sound produced short-latency excitation of the IO muscle (13.3 ms) in the eye contralateral to the stimulus. Simultaneous needle and surface recordings identified the IO as the muscle of origin of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) thus validating the physiological basis of this recently developed clinical test of otolith function. Single extraocular motor unit recordings provide a window into neural activity in humans that can normally only be examined using animal models and help identify the pathways of the translational VOR from otoliths to individual eye muscles. PMID:22526888

Weber, Konrad P; Rosengren, Sally M; Michels, Rike; Sturm, Veit; Straumann, Dominik; Landau, Klara

2012-01-01

235

Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

1995-01-01

236

Fetal Surgery  

PubMed Central

Fetal surgery has come of age. For decades experimental fetal surgery proved essential in studying normal fetal physiology and development, and pathophysiology of congenital defects. Clinical fetal surgery started in the 1960s with intrauterine transfusions. In the 1970s, the advent of ultrasonography revolutionized fetal diagnosis and created a therapeutic vacuum. Fetal treatment, medical and surgical, is slowly trying to fill the gap. Most defects detected are best treated after birth, some requiring a modification in the time, mode and place of delivery for optimal obstetrical and neonatal care. Surgical intervention in utero should be considered for malformations that cause progressive damage to the fetus, leading to death or severe morbidity; that can be corrected or palliated in utero with a reasonable expectation of normal postnatal development; that cannot wait to be corrected after birth, even considering pre-term delivery; that are not accompanied by chromosomal or other major anomalies. At present, congenital hydronephrosis is the most common indication for fetal surgery, followed by obstructive hydrocephalus. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia also fulfills the criteria, but its correction poses more problems, and no clinical attempts have been reported so far. In the future many other malformations or diseases may become best treated in utero. The ethical and moral issues are complex and need to be discussed as clinical and experimental progress is made. PMID:21267309

Laberge, Jean-Martin

1986-01-01

237

Arthroscopic Surgery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arthroscopic surgery (or microsurgery) is a significant breakthrough in treating knee injuries. Its applications range from basic diagnosis to arthroscopic menisectomy, although its use in some procedures is still highly controversial. Many surgeons perform the diagnostic procedure, but follow this with the conventional surgical approach.…

Connors, G. Patrick

238

Robotic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of an active surgical robot, the Surgical Assistant Robot for Prostatectomy (SARP), to transurethral resection of the prostate is discussed. SARP performs surgery under the supervision of a surgeon. The mechanical construction computing system, software, motion controller and image system of SARP are discussed

W. S. Ng; B. L. Davies; R. D. Hibberd; A. G. Timoney

1993-01-01

239

Muscle mri in neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy carrying mutation c.187+1G>A.  

PubMed

Introduction: We describe the clinical and thigh MRI changes in 2 siblings with neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) carrying the mutation c.187+1G>A. Methods: Peripheral blood smears, genetic tests, and muscle biopsies were performed. Thigh MRI was performed to observe fatty replacement, muscle edema, and muscle bulk from axial sections. Results: The siblings showed similarity in fatty infiltration and edema. T1-weighted images of the gluteus maximus, adductor magnus, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus revealed marked and diffuse fatty infiltration. There was asymmetric involvement in biceps femoris and quadriceps. There was extensive fatty infiltration in the quadriceps, except for the rectus femoris. Gracilis and sartorius were relatively spared. Thigh muscle volume was decreased, while the gracilis and sartorius appeared to show compensatory hypertrophy. Conclusions: Compared with previously reported NLSDM, MRI changes in this myopathy tended to be more severe. Asymmetry and relatively selective fatty infiltration were characteristics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25363365

Xu, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yawen; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Yuan, Yun

2014-10-31

240

[Laparoscopic surgery in day surgery].  

PubMed

Since ten years laparoscopic techniques have been employed as alternatives of many established open procedures in gynecologic, abdominal and finally urologic surgery. Laparoscopic techniques show significant advantages compared to open surgery, such as less hospitalization, reduced need of analgesic drugs, quick return to daily activities and far a better cosmetic results. Laparoscopic surgery has been advocated for urologic, uro-gynecologic and andrologic diseases. Since 1983 one-day surgery was proposed for only a few gynecologic and abdominal procedures and only recently for laparoscopic renal biopsy and abdominal testis evaluation. In these preliminary experiences the conditions for a correct management of laparoscopic one-day surgery have been clearly pointed out: 1. correct surgical indication; 2. through knowledge of surgical technique; 3. duration of the procedure less than 90 minutes; 4. correct anesthesia. Technique of anesthesia must be adapted to the surgical procedure required, its duration and the physical features of the patient. General anesthesia is usually preferred for either longer and more complex procedures or when a higher abdominal insufflation pressure is needed. Spinal or local anesthesia are preferred for simpler procedures or when only one trocar is required. At date only few urologic procedures seem to be suitable to one-day laparoscopic surgery. 1) Varicocele: although laparoscopic varicocelectomy in one-day surgery has never been reported previously, it can be performed in a short time, only 3 trocars are needed and insufflation pressure can be maintained within 15 mm Hg. 2) Renal biopsy and marsupialization of renal cysts. These are usually managed percutaneously but in some particular indications procedures under direct vision should be preferable. Both are short-lasting and only superficial general anesthesia is required; as surgical access is retroperitoneal only two trocars are sufficient; at date only renal biopsies have previously been reported. 3) Diagnostic procedures on abdominal testis. The procedure is brief only superficial general anesthesia is needed and only one trocar is required. Conclusions. One-day laparoscopic surgery will require in the future a more and more strict cooperation between urologists and anesthetists in order to tailor the correct anesthesiological and laparoscopic technique to the procedure required and the features of the patient. PMID:9707775

Micali, S; Bitelli, M; Torelli, F; Valitutti, M; Micali, F

1998-06-01

241

Effects of weight loss and exercise on trunk muscle composition in older women  

PubMed Central

Background Aging and obesity increase the risk for mobility limitations in women. Although trunk muscle composition is important to physical function, the implication of ectopic fat in the trunk muscles with respect to physical fitness and its potential for modification by lifestyle changes is unknown. Methods The effects of a 6-month period of either weight loss (WL) alone or of aerobic exercise (AEX) plus WL (AEX+WL), on trunk body composition, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (to measure trunk fat and lean mass) and computed tomography (CT) (to measure the erector spinae, psoas, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominis muscle, and intramuscular fat, and the intramuscular adipose tissue [IMAT] areas) was determined in 65 overweight and obese postmenopausal women (aged 50–76 years). Results The area of the erector spinae, psoas, and rectus abdominis muscles declined with age in the women (P<0.05). Both the spinal and abdominal muscle areas were related to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) (P<0.05). Body weight decreased by 8% after both AEX+WL and WL (P<0.001). The VO2max increased by 11% after AEX+WL (P<0.001) but did not change with WL alone (group effect, P<0.001). The DXA-measured trunk fat mass decreased by 16% after AEX+WL (P<0.001) and by 12% after WL (P<0.001). When both groups were combined, the IMAT decreased in all four muscle groups ? by 6% in the erector spinae (P<0.01), by 9% in the psoas (P<0.01), by 11% in the lateral abdominals (P<0.001), and by 6% in the rectus abdominis (P<0.05). The loss of fat mass was related to the loss of IMAT of the erector spinae and the lateral abdominals. Conclusions A lifestyle modification of diet-induced WL alone, or with AEX training, results in a significant reduction of the fat infiltration in the abdominal and spinal muscles of the trunk region. Our finding that losses of total body fat predict a reduction in the IMAT of the trunk supports the idea that WL reduces fat depots throughout the body. PMID:24623974

Ryan, Alice S; Harduarsingh-Permaul, Aruna Selina

2014-01-01

242

Gallbladder Cancer: Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... treated? Next Topic Radiation therapy for gallbladder cancer Surgery for gallbladder cancer There are 2 general types ... gallbladder: Potentially curative surgery Palliative surgery Potentially curative surgery is done when imaging tests or the results ...

243

Ear Plastic Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/F can ... weight earrings. Does Insurance Pay for Cosmetic Ear Surgery? Insurance usually does not cover surgery solely for ...

244

Pediatric heart surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... outside the heart. Some heart defects may need surgery right after the baby is born. For others, ...

245

[Rectus sheath haematoma as an early complication of laparoscopic hemicolectomy: a case report and review of the literature].  

PubMed

We report a case of rectus sheath haematoma (RSH) in a patient undergoing laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and anticoagulant prophylaxis of a pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) with low molecular weight heparin. This pathological condition is rare and could be a cause of misdiagnosis in patients with acute abdominal pain. It can be a serious complication in the course of anticoagulant therapy. A rapid, correct diagnosis may lead to better treatment which must be timely, aggressive and ultimately curative. Our patient, with acute onset and swift worsening of his general condition, benefited from an immediate surgical procedure, with ligature of the epigastric artery stumps and drainage of the haematoma. PMID:19845270

Procacciante, Fabio; Diamantini, Giulia; Paolelli, Daniele; Picozzi, Pietro

2009-01-01

246

Extensive dural sinus thrombosis and bilateral lateral rectus palsy as an uncommon complication of chronic suppurative otitis media  

PubMed Central

Dural venous sinus thrombosis, especially of the sigmoid sinus, is a known but uncommon intracranial extradural complication of chronic suppurative otitis media. Even rarer is the simultaneous occurrence of bilateral abducens palsy in the same patient. We report the case of an adolescent male who presented with signs of raised intracranial pressure, diplopia and bilateral lateral rectus palsy associated with a history of left ear discharge and neck swelling. Extensive dural sinus thrombosis extending right up to the left internal jugular vein was confirmed on CT imaging. The patient was successfully treated with thrombolytic agents and antibiotic therapy. The pathophysiology of the concurrent complications is discussed. PMID:23355565

Balasubramanian, Anusha; Mohamad, Irfan; Sidek, Dinsuhaimi

2013-01-01

247

Respiratory and Limb Muscle Dysfunction in COPD.  

PubMed

Abstract In the next decade, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) will be a major leading cause of death worldwide. Impaired muscle function and mass are common systemic manifestations in COPD patients and negatively influence survival. Respiratory and limb muscles are usually affected in these patients, thus contributing to poor exercise tolerance and reduced quality of life (QoL). Muscles from the lower limbs are more severely affected than those of the upper limbs and the respiratory muscles. Several epidemiological features of COPD muscle dysfunction are being reviewed. Moreover, the most relevant etiologic factors and biological mechanisms contributing to impaired muscle function and mass loss in respiratory and limb muscles of COPD patients are also being discussed. Currently available therapeutic strategies such as different modalities of exercise training, neuromuscular electrical and magnetic stimulation, respiratory muscle training, pharmacological interventions, nutritional support, and lung volume reduction surgery are also being reviewed, all applied to COPD patients. We claim that body composition and quadriceps muscle strength should be routinely explored in COPD patients in clinical settings, even at early stages of their disease. Despite the progress achieved over the last decade in the description of this relevant systemic manifestation in COPD, much remains to be investigated. Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in muscle dysfunction, muscle mass loss and poor anabolism will help design novel therapeutic targets. Exercise and muscle training, alone or in combination with nutritional support, is undoubtedly the best treatment option to improve muscle mass and function and QoL in COPD patients. PMID:25438125

Barreiro, Esther; Gea, Joaquim

2014-12-01

248

Medial smooth muscle cell loss in arterial allografts occurs by cytolytic cell induced apoptosis 1 Presented at the 11th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery, Copenhagen, Denmark, September 28 – October 1, 1997. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Experimental arterial allografts, used as models of chronic rejection, undergo marked loss of smooth muscle cells (SMC) from their media prior to the development of occlusive, intimal proliferative lesions. Medial SMC loss has been described in human heart transplants, and may be related to the development of occlusive coronary lesions which are the hallmark of chronic rejection. This SMC

Gregory M. Hirsch; Joy Kearsey; Trevor Burt; Morris J. Karnovsky; Timothy Lee

1998-01-01

249

Lower Extremity Muscle Thickness During 30-Day 6 degrees Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Muscle thickness was measured in 19 Bed-Rested (BR) men (32-42 year) subjected to IsoTonic (ITE, cycle orgometer) and IsoKi- netic (IKE, torque orgometer) lower extremity exercise training, and NO Exercise (NOE) training. Thickness was measured with ultrasonography in anterior thigh-Rectus Femoris (RF) and Vastus Intermadius (VI), and combined posterior log-soleus, flexor ballucis longus, and tibialis posterior (S + FHL +TP) - muscles. Compared with ambulatory control values, thickness of the (S + FHL + TP) decreased by 90%-12% (p less than 0.05) In all three test groups. The (RF) thickness was unchanged in the two exercise groups, but decreased by 10% (p less than 0.05) in the NOE. The (VI) thickness was unchanged In the ITE group, but decreased by 12%-l6% (p less than 0.05) in the IKE and NOE groups. Thus, intensive, alternating, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise training is as effective as intensive, intermittent, isokinetic exercise training for maintaining thicknesses of rectus femoris and vastus lntermedius anterior thigh muscles, but not posterior log muscles, during prolonged BR deconditioning.

Ellis, S.; Kirby, L. C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

1993-01-01

250

Comparison of Hip Stabilization Muscle Use during Neutral Sit to Stand and Sit to Stand Involving Isometric Hip Abduction in Elderly Females  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activation of the gluteus medius (Gmed), rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles during neutral (N) sit to stand (STS) and STS involving hip abduction (ABD) in elderly females. [Subjects] We recruited 16 healthy elderly females with no pain in the knee joint or any other orthopedic problems of the lower limbs. [Methods] The activities of the dominant lower extremity muscles were measured using a wireless electromyography (EMG) system. Subjects then undertook a total of six STS trials: three for neutral STS and three for STS involving hip abduction. [Results] In the pre-TO phase, activation of the RF muscle was significantly increased during hip ABD. In the post-TO phase during hip ABD, Gmed muscle activation was significantly increased, and RF muscle activation was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] This study suggests that STS involving hip ABD is more effective in decreasing Gmed activation and reducing RF effort in elderly females.

Jang, Eun-Mi; Yoo, Won-Gyu

2014-01-01

251

Gait muscle activity during walking on an inclined icy surface.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explain the contribution of lower extremity muscle activity to gait kinetic and kinematic adaptations for maintaining gait dynamic balance when walking on an inclined icy surface and the biomechanical mechanisms used to counteract slip risk. A two-way factorial experimental design was applied. The two independent variables were the walkway surface (ice and treadmill) and the walkway inclination (0 masculine, 6 masculine, 8 masculine). The dependent variable was the amplitude of the surface EMG of four right lower extremity muscles (tibialis anterior TA, gastrocnemius lateralis GL, rectus femoris RF, and biceps femoris BF). Twelve healthy subjects (7 males and 5 females) participated in the walking trials. A two-way ANOVA analysis showed that on the icy surface in the heel contact phase, EMG amplitudes significantly decreased in TA and RF compared to those for the treadmill surface. In the mid-stance phase, the GL muscle activity significantly decreased on ice compared to treadmill and all four muscle activities increased significantly with the inclination. During the toe off phase, GL and RF activities increased with the inclination. The mechanisms identified may be applied to develop intervention, rehabilitation and training techniques, and to improve performance in human locomotion, such as for winter sports. PMID:18270446

Gao, Chuansi; Oksa, Juha; Rintamäki, Hannu; Holmér, Ingvar

2008-01-01

252

Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine  

E-print Network

Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine How Does Arthroscopic Shoulder Instability Surgery Work? Rev. 2/13 1 Table of Contents · Introduction to Shoulder Instability Surgery (Page 1) · Shoulder Instability Surgery Illustrations (Page 2) · Preparing for Shoulder Surgery (Pages 3-4) · General Post Surgery (Pages

Kim, Duck O.

253

Replantation surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a In the early days of replantation surgery, if viability was restored the operation was judged a success. Nowadays restoration\\u000a of viability alone is not sufficient to fulfill the criteria of successful replantation, which are as follows: Lack of severe\\u000a systemic disturbances due to the replantation, a “functional extremity” according to the definition of Chen et al. (1978),\\u000a no or

A. Berger; R. Hierner; M. H.-J. Becker; B. Rieck; F. Lassner

1997-01-01

254

Three-dimensional Location of Human Rectus Pulleys by Path Inflections in Secondary Gaze Positions  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. Connective tissue pulleys serve as the functional mechanical origins of the extraocular muscles (EOMs). Anterior to these pulleys, EOM paths shift with gaze to follow the scleral insertions, whereas posterior EOM paths are stable in the orbit. Inflections in EOM paths produced by gaze shifts can be used to define the functional location of pulleys in three dimensions (3-D).

Robert A. Clark; Joel M. Miller; Joseph L. Demer

2000-01-01

255

Functional Reconstruction of a Combined Tendocutaneous Defect of the Achilles Using a Segmental Rectus Femoris Myofascial Construct: A Viable Alternative  

PubMed Central

The composite anterolateral thigh flap with vascularized fascia lata has emerged as a workhorse at our institution for complex Achilles defects requiring both tendon and soft tissue reconstruction. Safe elevation of this flap, however, is occasionally challenged by absent or inadequate perforators supplying the anterolateral thigh. When discovered intraoperatively, alternative options derived from the same vascular network can be pursued. We present the case of a 74-year-old male who underwent composite Achilles defect reconstruction using a segmental rectus femoris myofascial free flap. Following graduated rehabilitation, postoperatively, the patient resumed full activity and was able to ambulate on his tip-toes. At 1-year follow-up, active total range of motion of the reconstructed ankle exceeded 85% of the unaffected side, and donor site morbidity was negligible. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Short Form-36 scores improved by 78.8% and 28.8%, respectively, compared to preoperative baseline assessments. Based on our findings, we advocate for use of the combined rectus femoris myofascial free flap as a rescue option for reconstructing composite Achilles tendon/posterior leg defects in the setting of inadequate anterolateral thigh perforators. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe use of this flap for such an indication. PMID:24883281

DeFazio, Michael Vincent; Han, Kevin Dong

2014-01-01

256

Surgical Sciences Cardiovascular Surgery, Thoracic Surgery ------------------------------------------------------  

E-print Network

38 Surgical Sciences Cardiovascular Surgery, Thoracic Surgery ------------------------------------------------------ http://ctstokyo.umin.ne.jp/ We are leading in Japan by annual surgery case volume of 700. New knowledge. ·Clinical research · Brain and spinal cord protection in thoracic aortic surgery · Minimally invasive

Miyashita, Yasushi

257

Assessment of magnetic resonance techniques to measure muscle damage 24?h after eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

The study examined which of a number of different magnetic resonance (MR) methods were sensitive to detecting muscle damage induced by eccentric exercise. Seventeen healthy, physically active participants, with muscle damage confirmed by non-MR methods were tested 24?h after performing eccentric exercise. Techniques investigated whether damage could be detected within the quadriceps muscle as a whole, and individually within the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and vastus intermedius (VI). Relative to baseline values, significant changes were seen in leg and muscle cross-sectional areas and volumes and the resting inorganic phosphate concentration. Significant time effects over all muscles were also seen in the transverse relaxation time (T2) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, with individually significant changes seen in the VL, VM, and VI for T2 and in the VI for ADC. A significant correlation was found between muscle volume and the average T2 change (r?=?0.59) but not between T2 and ADC or Pi alterations. There were no significant time effects over all muscles for magnetization transfer contrast images, for baseline pH, phosphocreatine (PCr), phosphodiester, or ATP metabolite concentrations or the time constant describing the rate of PCr recovery following exercise. PMID:24738493

Fulford, J; Eston, R G; Rowlands, A V; Davies, R C

2015-02-01

258

Assessment of muscle fatigue after an ultra-endurance triathlon using tensiomyography (TMG).  

PubMed

In this study, we used tensiomyography (TMG) to assess muscle status immediately after an ultra-endurance triathlon. Maximal radial displacement or deformation of the muscle belly, contraction time, delay time, sustain time, and relaxation time were measured for both legs, and dependent t-tests were used to compare means between the beginning and end of the race. The 19 men assessed (age 37.9 ± 7.1 years; height 177.5 ± 4.6 cm; weight: 73.6 ± 6.5 kg) participated in the 2009 edition of the Lanzarote Ironman. Deterioration in the neural response was observed for contraction time (P = 0.008) and relaxation time (P = 0.011), with a moderate decrease in the response time (sustain time) and a loss in muscle stiffness (deformation of the muscle belly). The effect of muscle fatigue on the rectus femoris and biceps femoris was different. Barely any changes in contraction time, relaxation time, sustain time, and deformation of the muscle belly were observed, while only the contraction response time decreased to a significant extent (reduction in delay time; P = 0.003). The considerable loss in contractile capacity induced by a long-distance race was reflected in changes in the neuromuscular response and fluctuations in the contractile capacity of the muscle. These modifications, derived from a prolonged, exhausting effort, can be assessed in a simple, non-aggressive, non-invasive way using tensiomyography. PMID:21391085

García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez-Ruiz, David; Rodríguez-Matoso, Dario; de Saa, Yves; Sarmiento, Samuel; Quiroga, Miriam

2011-03-01

259

Frequent low-load ischemic resistance exercise to failure enhances muscle oxygen delivery and endurance capacity.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of frequent low-load ischemic resistance exercise performed to failure on quadriceps size and performance, muscle activation, oxygen kinetics and cardiovascular responses. Ten healthy males performed knee-extension exercise for 4 weeks (4 sessions/week) at 15% maximal voluntary muscle contraction (MVC). One leg was trained with free blood flow (C-leg) while in the other leg (I-leg) ischemia was induced by an inflatable cuff (?230 mmHg). Quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) of the I-leg increased by 3.4% (P<0.05). A tendency for smaller increase in muscle CSAs at the cuff level was observed. MVC force did not change in either leg, whereas the number of repetitions during exercise test to failure increased (P<0.01) by 63% in I-leg and 36% in C-leg. The decrease in muscle oxygenated hemoglobin concentration acquired by NIRS was attenuated (P<0.01) by 56% in I-leg and 21% in C-leg. Electromyographic amplitude of rectus femoris in I-leg was ?45% lower (P<0.025) during the ischemic test. Also, ?9% increase (P<0.05) in pre-exercise diastolic pressure was observed. In conclusion, substantial gains in muscle endurance capacity were induced, which were associated with enhanced muscle oxygen delivery. The potential negative effects of ischemic exercise with high cuff pressure on muscle and nerve and on arterial pressure regulation need further investigation. PMID:21385216

Kacin, A; Strazar, K

2011-12-01

260

[Distribution of skeletal muscle involvement in myotonic dystrophy--a computed tomographic study].  

PubMed

The computed tomography (CT) scan was performed on 8 myotonic dystrophy (MD) and 3 congenital myotonic dystrophy (CMD) patients on the following seven levels; the jaw, the neck, the shoulder girdle, the abdomen, the pelvic girdle, the thigh and the lower leg. Muscle atrophy was shown as low density areas or a reduction in the cross-sectional area of the muscles. The earliest finding in the disease was severe atrophy of the sternocleidomastoid and mild atrophy of the masseter and the pterygoid medialis. In addition, spinal, abdominal wall and lower leg muscles were involved. The distal muscles were more markedly affected than the proximal in the lower limbs. These changes were characteristically observed in cases without apparent muscle symptoms. Levator scapulae, psoas major, rectus femoris, peroneal longus et brevis and tibialis posterior were relatively well preserved and were even hypertrophic in some cases. The shoulder girdle muscles were more markedly affected than the pelvic girdle muscles. There was no substantial difference in the CT findings between MD and CMD. PMID:2242623

Odajima, N; Matsunaga, T; Furukawa, T; Tsukagoshi, H

1990-07-01

261

Asymmetry of electromechanical delay (EMD) and torque in the muscles stabilizing spinal column.  

PubMed

Stabilization of the spinal column is ensured by the activity of trunk flexor and erector muscles, including rectus abdominis (RA) and erector spinae (ES). The goal of this study was to evaluate the symmetry of action potential and electromechanical delay (EMD) in RA and ES during generation of maximal muscle torque. In the present study, the symmetry of EMG activity in the right and left parts of RA and ES was tested under isometric conditions. The subjects (N = 13) were selected from the university population. Electromyographic signals and muscles torques were recorded with the sampling frequency of 1000 Hz. Lack of significant differences in EMD between left and right sides in both muscles studied and lack of correlation between EMD and maximal muscle torque were observed. Analysis aimed at assessing the symmetry of EMG signals amplitude revealed crossed laterality characterized by increased activity in the right side of RA muscle and left side of ES. The proportion of maximal muscle torque in ES to RA in the women examined amounted to 1.7:1. PMID:21361251

Szpala, Agnieszka; Rutkowska-Kucharska, Alicja; Drapa?a, Jaros?aw; Brzostowski, Krzysztof; Zawadzki, Jerzy

2010-01-01

262

An electromyographical comparison of trunk muscle activity during isometric trunk and dynamic strengthening exercises.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare rectus abdominis and erector spinae muscle activity during isometric (prone bridge [PB] and superman [SM]) and dynamic strengthening exercises (back squat, front squat [FS], and military press). Participants (n = 10, age 21.8 ± 2.6 years; body mass 82.65 ± 10.80 kg, 174.5± 7.2 cm), performed each exercise in a randomized order, using a repeated-measures design. Electromyographical (EMG) activity (sampling at 2,000 Hz) of the rectus abdominis (RA) and the erector spinae (ES) muscles was recorded throughout the duration of the exercises. Intraclass correlations demonstrated the highest levels of reliability for muscle activity during the isometric exercises; however, all exercises demonstrated high level of reliability (r = 0.764-0.998, p ? 0.01). The PB demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.01) RA activity compared to all other exercises. The ES activity was significantly (p < 0.01) greater during the FS (1.010 ± 0.308 root mean square value [RMS (V)]) and SM (0.951 ± 0.217 RMS[V]) and compared to all other exercises, although there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the FS and the SM exercise. The PB may be the most suitable exercise for strengthening the RA, compared to dynamic exercises at a low to moderate load, because of a higher level of muscle activity. The FS may be a useful alternative to isometric exercises when strengthening the ES, because it results in slightly higher muscle activity levels when using only a light to moderate load. Because of the dynamic nature of the FS, this may also be more beneficial in transferring to activities of daily living and sporting environments. PMID:21157393

Comfort, Paul; Pearson, Stephen J; Mather, David

2011-01-01

263

[Robotic surgery].  

PubMed

Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures. PMID:24144815

Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

2013-10-01

264

Importance of sarcomere length when determining muscle physiological cross-sectional area: a spine example.  

PubMed

Muscle physiological cross-sectional area predicts the maximum capability of a muscle to generate isometric force. Biomechanical models often use estimates of individual muscle physiological cross-sectional area to partition internal forces among different muscles and predict joint forces and stability. In the spine literature, these physiological cross-sectional area values are generally obtained from imaging or cadaveric studies that have not accounted for a potential lengthened or shortened (and thus thinned or thickened, respectively) state of the muscles in question. Sarcomere length measurements can be used to normalize muscle lengths and correct for these length discrepancies. This article was designed to demonstrate potential effects of not accounting for instantaneous sarcomere length when calculating the physiological cross-sectional area of muscles of the spine region. Because some muscles of the spine region appear to be shortened and others lengthened in the neutral spine posture, both over- and under-estimations of physiological cross-sectional area are possible. Specifically, it is shown that the muscle physiological cross-sectional area could be over-estimated or under-estimated by as much as + 36% (multifidus) and -21% (rectus abdominis), respectively. This differential error effect poses difficulties in accurately estimating individual muscle forces and subsequent spine forces and stability that result from biomechanical models incorporating physiological cross-sectional area data obtained in the absence of sarcomere length measurements. Future work is needed to measure the dynamic range of sarcomere lengths of all spinal muscles to ensure correct inputs to biomechanical models. PMID:22720391

Brown, Stephen H M; Gerling, Michael E

2012-05-01

265

Age and side-related morphometric MRI evaluation of trunk muscles in people without back pain.  

PubMed

This study evaluated lumbar spine muscle volume and Muscle Fatty Infiltrate (MFI) across two age groups of healthy adults. Twenty-four participants (young group - YG: age 18-25, n = 12; mature group - MG: age 45-60, n = 12) without low back pain underwent T1-weighted axial MRI. Muscle volume and MFI were obtained from the left and right lumbar erector spinae (ES), multifidus (M), rectus abdominis (RA) and psoas (PS) muscles. For MFI, mean pixel intensity (MPI) of muscles was reported as a percentage of subcutaneous fat MPI. Within-group comparison of left and right side muscle volume was not significantly different in the YG. In the MG, right RA and ES were significantly smaller than left (RA p = 0.049; ES p = 0.03). In both groups, left PS, M and ES MFI was significantly smaller compared to the right side and left RA MFI was significantly greater compared to right side (all p ? 0.001). For M volume, 81.7-84.6% of variance was explained by age, height and Body Mass Index (BMI). For ES volume, 81.6-82.8% of variance was explained by height and BMI. Age explained 18.1%-36.0% of variance in M and ES right MFI. Therefore, age and BMI are relevant factors for extensor muscle volume, but not for flexor muscle volume. Also, age significantly influences MFI for right-sided extensors only. The age effect is apparently independent of full subjective back functionality. For future spinal muscle research, the side-and muscle-specific effect of age on muscle morphology should be considered. PMID:25085813

Valentin, Stephanie; Licka, Theresia; Elliott, James

2015-02-01

266

Muscle Fibers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about human anatomy (page 20 of PDF), learners investigate the structure of muscles by comparing yarn and cooked meat. Learners will record their observations in a data table and draw conclusions based on their findings. Beef brisket or stew meat should be cooked in advance so learners can observe at least one, 1-inch cube of cooked meat. This guide includes background information, extensions, and a data table.

Kimberly Chang

2000-01-01

267

Functional Recovery of Completely Denervated Muscle: Implications for Innervation of Tissue-Engineered Muscle  

PubMed Central

Tissue-engineered muscle has been proposed as a solution to repair volumetric muscle defects and to restore muscle function. To achieve functional recovery, engineered muscle tissue requires integration of the host nerve. In this study, we investigated whether denervated muscle, which is analogous to tissue-engineered muscle tissue, can be reinnervated and can recover muscle function using an in vivo model of denervation followed by neurotization. The outcomes of this investigation may provide insights on the ability of tissue-engineered muscle to integrate with the host nerve and acquire normal muscle function. Eighty Lewis rats were classified into three groups: a normal control group (n=16); a denervated group in which sciatic innervations to the gastrocnemius muscle were disrupted (n=32); and a transplantation group in which the denervated gastrocnemius was repaired with a common peroneal nerve graft into the muscle (n=32). Neurofunctional behavior, including extensor postural thrust (EPT), withdrawal reflex latency (WRL), and compound muscle action potential (CMAP), as well as histological evaluations using alpha-bungarotoxin and anti-NF-200 were performed at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks (n=8) after surgery. We found that EPT was improved by transplantation of the nerve grafts, but the EPT values in the transplanted animals at 12 weeks postsurgery were still significantly lower than those measured for the normal control group at 4 weeks (EPT, 155.0±38.9 vs. 26.3±13.8?g, p<0.001; WRL, 2.7±2.30 vs. 8.3±5.5?s, p=0.027). In addition, CMAP latency and amplitude significantly improved with time after surgery in the transplantation group (p<0.001, one-way analysis of variance), and at 12 weeks postsurgery, CMAP latency and amplitude were not statistically different from normal control values (latency, 0.9±0.0 vs. 1.3±0.7?ms, p=0.164; amplitude, 30.2±7.0 vs. 46.4±26.9?mV, p=0.184). Histologically, regeneration of neuromuscular junctions was seen in the transplantation group. This study indicates that transplanted nerve tissue is able to regenerate neuromuscular junctions within denervated muscle, and thus the muscle can recover partial function. However, the function of the denervated muscle remains in the subnormal range even at 12 weeks after direct nerve transplantation. These results suggest that tissue-engineered muscle, which is similarly denervated, could be innervated and become functional in vivo if it is properly integrated with the host nerve. PMID:22559300

Kang, Sung-Bum; Olson, Jennifer L.; Atala, Anthony

2012-01-01

268

Changes in Quadriceps Muscle Activity During Sustained Recreational Alpine Skiing  

PubMed Central

During a day of skiing thousands of repeated contractions take place. Previous research on prolonged recreational alpine skiing show that physiological changes occur and hence some level of fatigue is inevitable. In the present paper the effect of prolonged skiing on the recruitment and coordination of the muscle activity was investigated. Six subjects performed 24 standardized runs. Muscle activity during the first two (PREskiing) and the last two (POSTskiing) runs was measured from the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) using EMG and quantified using wavelet and principal component analysis. The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF on outside leg. A significant pronounced outside leg loading occurred during POSTskiing and the timing of muscle activity peaks occurred more towards turn completion. Specific EMG frequency changes were observed at certain time points throughout the time windows and not over the whole double turn. It is suggested that general muscular fatigue, where additional specific muscle fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers did not occur. The EMG frequency decrease and intensity changes for RF and VL are caused by altered timing (coordination) within the turn towards a most likely more uncontrolled skiing technique. Hence, these data provide evidence to suggest recreational skiers alter their skiing technique before a potential change in muscle fiber recruitment occurs. Key points The frequency content of the EMG signal shifted in seven out of eight cases significantly towards lower frequencies with highest effects observed for RF. General muscular fatigue, where additional specific fibers have to be recruited due to the reduced power output of other fibers, did not occur. A modified skiing style towards a less functional and hence more uncontrolled skiing technique seems to be a key issue with respect to the influence on muscle recruitment for applied prolonged skiing session. PMID:24149299

Kröll, Josef; Müller, Erich; Seifert, John G.; Wakeling, James M.

2011-01-01

269

Muscle Architecture Predicts Maximum Strength and Is Related to Activity Levels in Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle architecture is known to be predictive of muscle function. However, it is unknown whether this relationship is similar in children and adolescents with and without cerebral palsy (CP). Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether the architecture of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles was predictive of maximum voluntary knee extensor torque in children and adolescents with and without CP and whether these measures were related to activity and participation levels. Design A case-control design was used. Methods Eighteen participants with CP (mean age=12.0 years, SD=3.2) at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I through IV and 12 age-matched peers with typical development (mean age=12.3 years, SD=3.9) were evaluated. Muscle thickness, fascicle length, and fascicle angle of the RF and VL muscles were measured with 2-dimensional, B-mode ultrasound imaging. The activity and participation measures used for participants with CP were the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) and the Activities Scale for Kids, Performance Version (ASKp). Results When age and GMFCS level were controlled for, VL muscle thickness was the best predictor of knee extensor isometric torque in the group with CP (R2=.85). This prediction was similar to the prediction from VL muscle thickness and age in participants with typical development (R2=.91). Rectus femoris muscle fascicle length was significantly correlated with the Sports and Physical Functioning Scale of the PODCI (?=.49), and VL muscle fascicle angle was correlated with the Transfers and Basic Mobility Scale of the PODCI (r=.47) and with ASKp Locomotion subdomain (r=.50). Limitations A limitation of this study was the small sample size. Conclusions Ultrasound measures of VL muscle thickness, adjusted for age and GMFCS level, were highly predictive of maximum torque and have the potential to serve as surrogate measures of voluntary strength (force-generating capacity) in children and adolescents with and without CP. PMID:20847035

Simpson, Kit N.; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Damiano, Diane L.

2010-01-01

270

[Hand surgery training].  

PubMed

Training of the hand surgeon HAND SURGEON A CONCEPT: The hand surgeon is supposed to be in charge of all the hand lesions regarding, skeleton, muscles, tendons, nerves and vessels. He has to be able to insure reparation and coverage of all of them. So he is involved in all the structures, which insure integrity and function of the hand. PURPOSE AND WAYS OF TRAINING: To obtain the asked ability, the hand surgeon training has to be global and sustained by two underlying surgical specialities: orthopedic surgery and plastic and reconstructive surgery. From 2000 after many years of dealings, a Right to the Title in Hand Surgery was born. This Right to the Title wants to be the formal recognition of the specific training of the hand surgeon. For the well-recognized ancient hand surgeons they need to be confirmed by one's peers. Now a day the hand surgeon has to satisfy to this specific training: Passed the complete training and exam of the Orthopedic or Plastic surgery board. Spent at least 6 months as resident in the other underlying specialty. Passed a microsurgery examination. Passed one of the four national Hand Surgery diplomas (DIU/Inter-Universitary Diploma). The examinations have been harmonized. A common formation is delivered regarding hand surgery, the way of examination is the same and the formation is 2 years long. The final exam is presented in front of board of examiners where a teacher of one of the other three national diplomas is present. Spent at least 2 years in a formative hand surgery unit, listed by the French College of Hand Surgeons, as senior surgeon. Those requirements are heavy to assume and need a heavy personal involvement. That seems to be necessary to have an ability level as high as possible. Emergency surgery practice is absolutely necessary in this training. All the 17 university formative hand surgery units listed by the French College of Hand Surgeons are members of the FESUM (European Federation of the Emergency Hand Units). Unfortunately it is non-sufficient to train the necessary number of hand surgeons needed in France today. So we try to obtain from the authority the formal recognition of a training period in private practice. Eleven out of the 28 hand units listed as formative by the French College of Hand Surgeons are in private practice and may be recognized as formative in the hand surgeon training. That needs to create an official agreement between university and private Units. This part of the training is yet accepted by the Right to the Title commission for a 6-month training period. But this needs a legal modification or adaptation of the private units legal status so they will be able to offer a quite equivalent conditions of training. Now a days 233 surgeons in France passed the Right to the Title. Among them, the oldest do not have emergency practice any more. So unfortunately, out of 1,400,000 hand injuries a year in France, only few are actually cared by hand surgeons. The emergency training needs at least a three to four senior surgeons team, operating and caring emergencies, 24 h a day, 365 days a year. They need to be surrounded by high-level technical facilities for this type of surgery. Only this type of unit may have a frequent severe hand traumatology practice, especially regarding microsurgery. But on the other hand a less complex hand unit operating only planed surgery and less complicated emergencies, may also be definitively formative. This only depends on the hand surgeon's qualification. It is only with a very demanding and high-level training program that our credibility as hand surgeon may be definitively established. The mainstay of this training is the combined action of the FESUM, the French College of Hand Surgeons and the DIU diploma. The Right to the Title formally confirms that training. For university or private unit, to be a member of the FESUM, must continue to guarantee a high level training regarding emergencies as in number as in complexity. We proposed as minimum level of practice (a year) to be a formative hand surgery unit: 10-15 hand and up

Moutet, F; Haloua, J P

2003-10-01

271

Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine  

E-print Network

Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine How Does Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Surgery Work? Rev. 2 Surgical Illustrations (Pages 2-4) · Preparing for Rotator Cuff Surgery (Pages 5-6) · General Post Surgery to embark on the arthroscopic rotator cuff repair journey. The goal of rotator cuff repair surgery is create

Kim, Duck O.

272

DEHN SURGERY SIDDHARTHA GADGIL  

E-print Network

DEHN SURGERY SIDDHARTHA GADGIL Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Co-ordinates for surgery 1 3. Some algebraic topology 2 4. The theorem of Lickorish and Wallace 3 5. Surgeries and Cobordisms 4 6. The Kirby Calculus 5 7. Constructing knots using surgery 5 8. Surgeries about knots 5 References 6 1. Introduction

Gadgil, Siddhartha

273

The influence of visual information on multi-muscle control during quiet stance: a spectral analysis approach.  

PubMed

Standing upright requires the coordination of neural drives to a large set of muscles involved in controlling human bipedal stance (i.e., postural muscles). The coordination may deteriorate in situations where standing is performed under more challenging circumstances, such as standing on a smaller base of support or not having adequate visual information. The present study investigates the role of common neural inputs in the organization of multi-muscle synergies and the effects of visual input disruption to this mechanism of control. We analyzed the strength and distribution of correlated neural inputs (measured by intermuscular coherence) to six postural muscles previously recognized as components of synergistic groups involved in the maintenance of the body's vertical positioning. Two experimental conditions were studied: quiet bipedal stance performed with opened eyes (OEs) and closed eyes (CEs). Nine participants stood quietly for 30 s while the activity of the soleus, biceps femoris, lumbar erector spinae, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles were recorded using surface electrodes. Intermuscular (EMG-EMG) coherence was estimated for 12 muscle pairs formed by these muscles, including pairs formed solely by either posterior, anterior, or mixed (one posterior and one anterior) muscles. Intermuscular coherence was only found to be significant for muscle pairs formed solely by either posterior or anterior muscles, and no significant coherence was found for mixed muscle pairs. Significant intermuscular coherence was only found within a distinct frequency interval bounded between 1 and 10 Hz when visual input was available (OEs trials). The strength of correlated neural inputs was similar across muscle pairs located in different joints but executing a similar function (pushing body either backward or forward) suggesting that synergistic postural groups are likely formed based on their functional role instead of their anatomical location. Absence of visual information caused a significant decrease in intermuscular coherence. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that correlated neural inputs are a mechanism used by the CNS to assemble synergistic muscle groups. Further, this mechanism is affected by interruption of visual input. PMID:25407521

Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Degani, Adriana M; Boonstra, Tjeerd W; Mochizuki, Luis; Harney, Allison M; Schmeckpeper, Megan M; Tabor, Lori C; Leonard, Charles T

2015-02-01

274

Functional imaging of muscle oxygenation and oxygen consumption in the knee extensor muscles during isometric contractions by spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we showed that exercise type- and intensity-dependent regional differences in muscle oxygenation and oxygen consumption rate (Vo II) of the knee extensor muscles could be imaged in real time with a multi-channel spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SR-NIRS) imaging device. Healthy subjects performed isometric knee extension exercise for 30 s (without- or with-leg-press action) at different exercise intensities [10%, 40% and 70% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)]. "Separation-type" probes were attached to the skin over the major knee extensor muscles: vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus medialis (VM). Placement of the probes enabled simultaneously measurement of 12 sites over a skin area of about 30 cm2 (temporal resolution = 0.25 s). Local Vo II of each muscle, resting Vo II (Vo II, rest) and recovery Vo II (Vo II, rec ), were determined with arterial occlusion before the start and after the end of contraction, respectively. There was no significant difference between the values of Vo II rest, in the muscles. However, during knee extension exercise without-leg-press action, Vo II rec, value of the RF was significantly greater than the values of the VL and VM at all exercise intensities. In contrast, during exercise with-leg-press action, Vo II rec, values of the RF and VM were greater than those of the VL, especially during exercise at 40% and 70% MVC. In summary, the regional differences in muscle oxygenation and Vo II of the knee extensor muscles, probably due to the differences in relative contributions of muscles to exercise and in muscle architecture, were imaged using SR-NIRS.

Kek, Khai Jun; Miyakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Nobuki; Yamamoto, Katsuyuki

2007-02-01

275

Myotonic discharges discriminate chloride from sodium muscle channelopathies.  

PubMed

Non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of clinically quite similar diseases sharing the feature of myotonia. These syndromes can be separated into chloride and sodium channelopathies, with gene-defects in chloride or sodium channel proteins of the sarcolemmal membrane. Myotonia has its basis in an electrical instability of the sarcolemmal membrane. In the present study we examine the discriminative power of the resulting myotonic discharges for these disorders. Needle electromyography was performed by an electromyographer blinded for genetic diagnosis in 66 non-dystrophic myotonia patients (32 chloride and 34 sodium channelopathy). Five muscles in each patient were examined. Individual trains of myotonic discharges were extracted and analyzed with respect to firing characteristics. Myotonic discharge characteristics in the rectus femoris muscle almost perfectly discriminated chloride from sodium channelopathy patients. The first interdischarge interval as a single variable was longer than 30?ms in all but one of the chloride channelopathy patients and shorter than 30?ms in all of the sodium channelopathy patients. This resulted in a detection rate of over 95%. Myotonic discharges of a single muscle can be used to better guide toward a molecular diagnosis in non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes. PMID:25454733

Drost, Gea; Stunnenberg, Bas C; Trip, Jeroen; Borm, George; McGill, Kevin C; Ginjaar, Ieke H B; van der Kooi, Arendina W; Zwarts, Machiel J; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Faber, Catharina G; Stegeman, Dick F; Lateva, Zoia

2015-01-01

276

Minimally Invasive Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... incisions made. Benefits of minimally invasive surgery Fewer scars on the outside Scars from minimally invasive surgery ... womb) from the vagina into the uterus. Fewer scars on the inside In general, all surgery can ...

277

Scoliosis surgery - child  

MedlinePLUS

Spinal curvature surgery - child; Kyphoscoliosis surgery - child; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - child; VATS - child ... may also do the procedure using a special video camera. A surgical cut in the back is ...

278

Surgery for Testicular Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... treated? Next Topic Radiation therapy for testicular cancer Surgery for testicular cancer Surgery is typically the first ... very experienced. Possible risks and side effects of surgery The short-term risks of any type of ...

279

Pancreatic Cancer: Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Topic Ablation or embolization treatments for pancreatic cancer Surgery for pancreatic cancer There are 2 general types ... and risks of such surgery carefully. Potentially curative surgery Fewer than 1 in 5 pancreatic cancers appear ...

280

Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

281

Laser surgery - skin  

MedlinePLUS

Surgery using a laser ... used is directly related to the type of surgery being performed and the color of the tissue ... Laser surgery can be used to: Close small blood vessels to reduce blood loss Remove warts , moles , sunspots, and ...

282

Cavus Foot Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... the Smaller Toes AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Cavus Foot Surgery Page Content What is a cavus foot? A ... problems. What are the goals of cavus foot surgery? The main goal of surgery is to reduce ...

283

Lower Extremity Muscle Activity during Cycling in Adolescents with and without Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Background In individuals with cerebral palsy (CP), adaptation and plasticity in the neuromuscular system can lead to detrimental changes affecting gait. Cycling may be an effective method to improve mobility. The biomechanics of cycling in adolescents with CP have been studied, but further analysis of the frequency and amplitude characteristics of the electromyographic (EMG) signals can assist with interpretation of the cycling kinematics. Methods Data were analyzed from ten adolescents with typical development (TD) (mean = 14.9 SD = 1.4 years) and ten adolescents with CP (mean = 15.6 SD = 1.8 years) as they cycled at two different cadences. Analyses of the lower extremity EMG signals involved frequency and amplitude analysis across the cycling revolution. Findings Examination of cycling cadence revealed that adolescents with CP had altered EMG characteristics in comparison to adolescents with typical development across the entire crank revolution for all muscles. Analyses of individual muscles indicated both inappropriate muscle activation and weakness. Interpretation A more comprehensive analysis of EMG activity has the potential to provide insight into how a task is accomplished. In this study, the control of the several muscles, especially the rectus femoris, was significantly different in adolescents with cerebral palsy. This, combined with muscle weakness, may have contributed to the observed deviations in joint kinematics. Interventions that increase muscle strength with feedback to the nervous system about appropriate activation timing may be beneficial to allow individuals with CP to cycle more efficiently. PMID:18082920

Lauer, Richard T.; Johnston, Therese E.; Smith, Brian T.; Lee, Samuel C.K.

2008-01-01

284

Endodontic surgery.  

PubMed

Conventional endodontic therapy is successful approximately 80-85% of the time. Many of these failures will occur after one year. The presence of continued pain, drainage, mobility or an increasing size of a radiolucent area are some of the indications to treat the case surgically. Since many of these cases may have had final restorations placed by the dentist, the salvage of these cases is of importance to the patient. Advances in periapical surgery have included the use of ultrasonic root end preparation. With the use of these piezoelectric devices, a more controlled apical preparation can be achieved. Additionally, isthmus areas between canals can be appropriately prepared and sealed. The precision afforded with these devices reduces the chances for a malpositioned fill and a more successful outcome. PMID:22117946

Lieblich, Stuart E

2012-01-01

285

Robotic Surgery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

2000-01-01

286

Effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old female complained of pain in the sacroiliac joints. [Methods] The subject performed individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles for nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint for 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were evaluated before and after the exercises. [Results] After performing the individual strengthening exercises for the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and biceps femoris muscles for 3 weeks, the subject displayed no pain in the pain provocation tests, and the VAS score was 2/10. [Conclusion] The individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles of the sacroiliac joint performed in the present study appear to be effective for sedentary workers with sacroiliac joint pain.

Yoo, Won-gyu

2015-01-01

287

The interrelation of spinal curves, pelvic tilt and muscle lengths in the adolescent female.  

PubMed

Thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt were measured in standing in one hundred and three adolescent females, using a specially designed inclinometer. Indices of the muscle lengths (abdominals, erector spinae, iliopsoas, gluteals, rectus femoris and hamstrings) were measured using inclinometry and goniometry and expressed as angles of joint position. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the index of erector spinae length was negatively correlated with lumbar lordosis (r = - 0.24, p < 0.05). The abdominal length index was positively correlated with lumbar lordosis (r = 0.209, p < 0.05), and the hamstring length index was negatively correlated with lordosis (r = - 0.213, p < 0.05). No muscle length index was significantly related to pelvic tilt. A negative association between the degree of thoracic kyphosis and the abdominal length index was found (r = -0.245, p < 0.05). PMID:25026316

Toppenberg, R M; Bullock, M I

1986-01-01

288

The effects of surface condition on abdominal muscle activity during single-legged hold exercise.  

PubMed

To treat low-back pain, various spinal stability exercises are commonly used to improve trunk muscle function and strength. Because human movement for normal daily activity occurs in multi-dimensions, the importance of exercise in multi-dimensions or on unstable surfaces has been emphasized. Recently, a motorized rotating platform (MRP) for facilitating multi-dimensions dynamic movement was introduced for clinical use. However, the abdominal muscle activity with this device has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the abdominal muscle activity (rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique muscles) during an active single-leg-hold (SLH) exercise on a floor (stable surface), foam roll, and motorized rotating platform (MRP). Thirteen healthy male subjects participated in this study. Using electromyography, the abdominal muscle activity was measured while the subjects performed SLH exercises on floor (stable surface), foam roll, and MRP. There were significant differences in the abdominal muscle activities among conditions (P<.05), except for left EO (P>.05) (Fig. 2). After the Bonferroni correction, however, no significant differences among conditions remained, except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor and foam roll conditions (padj<0.017). The findings suggest that performing the SLH exercises on a foam roll and MRP is more effective increased activities of both side of RA and IO, and Rt. EO compared to floor condition. However, there were no significant differences in abdominal muscles activity in the multiple comparison between conditions (mean difference were smaller than the standard deviation in the abdominal muscle activities) (padj>0.017), except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor (stable surface) and foam roll (padj<0.017) (effect size: 0.79/0.62 (non-supporting/supporting leg) for foam-roll versus floor). PMID:25066516

Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop; Jeon, In-Cheol; Kwon, Oh-Yun

2015-02-01

289

Effect of acute noxious stimulation to the leg or back on muscle synergies during walking.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine how acute muscle pain affects muscle coordination during gait with consideration of muscle synergies (i.e., group of muscles activated in synchrony), amplitude of muscle activity and kinematics. A secondary aim was to determine whether any adaptation was specific to pain location. Sixteen participants walked on a treadmill during 5 conditions [control, low back pain (LBP), washout LBP, calf pain (CalfP), and washout CalfP]. Five muscle synergies were identified for all of the conditions. Cross-validation analysis showed that muscle synergy vectors extracted for the control condition accounted for >81% of variance accounted for from the other conditions. Muscle synergies were altered very little in some participants (n = 7 for LBP; n = 10 for CalfP), but were more affected in the others (n = 9 for LBP; n = 6 for CalfP). No systematic differences between pain locations were observed. Considering all participants, synergies related to propulsion and weight acceptance were largely unaffected by pain, whereas synergies related to other functions (trunk control and leg deceleration) were more affected. Gastrocnemii activity was less during both CalfP and LBP than control. Soleus activity was further reduced during CalfP, and this was associated with reduced plantar flexion. Some lower leg muscles exhibited adaptations depending on pain location (e.g., greater vastus lateralis and rectus femoris activity during CalfP than LBP). Overall, these changes in muscle coordination involve a participant-specific strategy that is important to further explore, as it may explain why some people are more likely to develop persistence of a painful condition. PMID:25298391

van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul W; van Dieën, Jaap H; Hug, François

2015-01-01

290

Refuting The Polemic Against the Extraocular Muscle Pulleys: Jampel and Shi’s Platygean View of Extraocular Muscle Mechanics  

PubMed Central

Background Late in the 20th Century, it was recognized that connective tissue structures in the orbit influence the paths of the extraocular muscles, and constitute their functional origins. Targeted investigations of these connective tissue “pulleys” led to the formulation of the active pulley hypothesis, which proposes that pulling directions of the rectus extraocular muscles are actively controlled via connective tissues. Purpose This review rebuts a series of criticisms of the active pulley hypothesis published by Jampel, and Jampel and Shi, in which these authors have disputed the existence and function of the pulleys. Methods The current paper reviews published evidence for the existence of orbital pulleys, the active pulley hypothesis, and physiologic tests of the active pulley hypothesis. Magnetic resonance imaging in a living subject, and histological examination of a human cadaver directly illustrate the relationship of pulleys to extraocular muscles. Results Strong scientific evidence is cited that supports the existence of orbital pulleys, and their role in ocular motility. The criticisms of have ignored mathematical truisms and strong scientific evidence. Conclusions Actively controlled orbital pulleys play a fundamental role in ocular motility. Pulleys profoundly influence the neural commands required to control eye movements and binocular alignment. Familiarity with the anatomy and physiology of the pulleys is requisite for a rational approach to diagnosing and treating strabismus using emerging methods. Conversely, approaches that deny or ignore the pulleys risk the sorts of errors that arise in geography and navigation from incorrect assumptions such as those of a flat (“platygean”) earth. PMID:17022164

Demer, Joseph L.

2007-01-01

291

Maternal germline mosaicism of kinesin family member 21A (KIF21A) mutation causes complex phenotypes in a Chinese family with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify the causative mutation with its possible origin in a Chinese family with congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) and to characterize the ocular phenotypes and lesions in the corresponding intracranial nerves. Methods Three affected siblings and their asymptomatic parents underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations and neuropathologic analysis involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). KIF21A, PHOX2A, and TUBB3 genes were sequenced on the leukocyte-derived DNA to detect variants. The disease-linked haplotype was analyzed using four microsatellite markers across the KIF21A locus. Results All three affected individuals displayed typical CFEOM1. MRI revealed complicated but consistent neuromuscular abnormalities in the two patients examined, including hypoplastic oculomotor nerves, complete absence of bilateral superior rectus muscles, and unilateral absence of the abducens nerve with marked atrophy of the corresponding lateral rectus muscle. A heterozygous hotspot mutation KIF21A c.2860C>T was identified in all patients, but it was absent in both parents. Haplotype analysis of the disease locus showed the likely maternal inheritance of the disease-associated haplotype to all three affected offspring, strongly suggesting maternal germline mosaicism of the mutation. Conclusions Germline mosaicism of KIF21A c.2860C>T is likely to cause the high occurrence of this mutation in the population. This information may be useful for genetic counseling. KIF21A mutations can affect the abducens nerve and cause complete absence of the bilateral superior rectus muscles. MRI characterization of new CFEOM1 phenotypes would assist clinical management. PMID:24426772

Liu, Gang; Chen, Xue; Sun, Xiantao; Liu, Hu; Zhao, Kanxing; Chang, Qinglin; Pan, Xinyuan; Wang, Xiuying; Yuan, Songtao; Liu, Qinghuai

2014-01-01

292

Hip fracture surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... neck fracture repair; Trochanteric fracture repair; Hip pinning surgery ... You may receive general anesthesia before this surgery. This means ... spinal anesthesia. With this kind of anesthesia, medicine is ...

293

Electromyographic amplitude vs. concentric and eccentric squat force relationships for monoarticular and biarticular thigh muscles.  

PubMed

This study examined the linearity of the electromyographic (EMG) amplitude vs. concentric and eccentric squat force relationships for monoarticular and biarticular thigh muscles. Fourteen resistance-trained men (mean age ± SD: 22 ± 2 years; estimated thigh muscle cross-sectional area: 221.9 ± 22.7 cm) performed concentric and eccentric squats using a novel testing device from 10 to 90% of their maximum average force. Surface EMG signals were detected from the right vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris. Linear regression was used to examine the relationships between EMG amplitude and force, and repeated measures analyses of variance were used to assess differences among the muscles. Moderate-to-high coefficients of determination were found for the vastus lateralis for both concentric and eccentric testings (r = 0.587-0.992). For the biceps femoris, the mean linear slope coefficient was significantly greater for concentric vs. eccentric testing (0.044 vs. 0.013 ?V RMS·N; p = 0.002; effect size = 1.44). Although EMG amplitude for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris increased with changes in eccentric force output, the electrical activity of the biceps femoris remained stable. These results demonstrated that the EMG amplitude vs. force relationships for the vastus lateralis were linear, despite the fact that force production during the squat is related to the activation of muscles that must simultaneously function as agonists and antagonists. Our findings for eccentric force testing are in agreement with investigations showing reduced hip extensor activity during concurrent extension at the hip and knee joints. PMID:23897014

Luera, Micheal J; Stock, Matt S; Chappell, Andrew D W

2014-02-01

294

Vestibular schwannoma surgery and headache.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate aetiological factors for postoperative headache after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery with respect to asymmetric activation of vestibular reflexes. After surgery, 27 VS patients with persistent postoperative headache, 16 VS patients without headache and 9 healthy controls were examined. The vestibular, cervicocollic and cervicospinal reflexes were evaluated to study whether asymmetric activation of vestibular reflexes could cause headache. The effect of neck muscle and occipital nerve anaesthesia and the effect of sumatriptan on headache were also evaluated. The vestibular function of VS patients with headache did not differ from that of VS patients without headache, but was abnormal when compared to that of normal controls. The cervicospinal and cervicocollic reflexes did not differ in the patient groups. Injection of lidocaine around the operation scar gave pain relief to two patients, and one of them had occipital nerve entrapment. Infiltration of lidocaine deep in the neck muscles in the vicinity of the C2 root did not alleviate headache, but caused vertigo. Nine patients with musculogenic headache got pain relief from supportive neck collars, and two patients with cervicobrachial syndrome got pain relief from manual neck traction. The study shows that asymmetric activation of cervicocollic reflexes does not seem to be the reason for headache. Headache seems to be linked to neuropathic pain, allegedly caused by trigeminal irritation of the inner ear and the posterior fossa, which has recently been linked to vascular pain. PMID:10908966

Levo, H; Blomstedt, G; Pyykkö, I

2000-01-01

295

Bariatric Surgery  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Background Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of at last 30 kg/m2.1 Morbid obesity is defined as a BMI of at least 40 kg/m2 or at least 35 kg/m2 with comorbid conditions. Comorbid conditions associated with obesity include diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemias, obstructive sleep apnea, weight-related arthropathies, and stress urinary incontinence. It is also associated with depression, and cancers of the breast, uterus, prostate, and colon, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity is also associated with higher all-cause mortality at any age, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors like smoking. A person with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 has about a 50% higher risk of dying than does someone with a healthy BMI. The risk more than doubles at a BMI of 35 kg/m2. An expert estimated that about 160,000 people are morbidly obese in Ontario. In the United States, the prevalence of morbid obesity is 4.7% (1999–2000). In Ontario, the 2004 Chief Medical Officer of Health Report said that in 2003, almost one-half of Ontario adults were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m2). About 57% of Ontario men and 42% of Ontario women were overweight or obese. The proportion of the population that was overweight or obese increased gradually from 44% in 1990 to 49% in 2000, and it appears to have stabilized at 49% in 2003. The report also noted that the tendency to be overweight and obese increases with age up to 64 years. BMI should be used cautiously for people aged 65 years and older, because the “normal” range may begin at slightly above 18.5 kg/m2 and extend into the “overweight” range. The Chief Medical Officer of Health cautioned that these data may underestimate the true extent of the problem, because they were based on self reports, and people tend to over-report their height and under-report their weight. The actual number of Ontario adults who are overweight or obese may be higher. Diet, exercise, and behavioural therapy are used to help people lose weight. The goals of behavioural therapy are to identify, monitor, and alter behaviour that does not help weight loss. Techniques include self-monitoring of eating habits and physical activity, stress management, stimulus control, problem solving, cognitive restructuring, contingency management, and identifying and using social support. Relapse, when people resume old, unhealthy behaviour and then regain the weight, can be problematic. Drugs (including gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and appetite suppressants) may be used if behavioural interventions fail. However, estimates of efficacy may be confounded by high rates of noncompliance, in part owing to the side effects of the drugs. In addition, the drugs have not been approved for indefinite use, despite the chronic nature of obesity. The Technology Morbidly obese people may be eligible for bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity is considered an intervention of last resort for patients who have attempted first-line forms of medical management, such as diet, increased physical activity, behavioural modification, and drugs. There are various bariatric surgical procedures and several different variations for each of these procedures. The surgical interventions can be divided into 2 general types: malabsorptive (bypassing parts of the gastrointestinal tract to limit the absorption of food), and restrictive (decreasing the size of the stomach so that the patient is satiated with less food). All of these may be performed as either open surgery or laparoscopically. An example of a malabsorptive technique is Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Examples of restrictive techniques are vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) and adjustable gastric banding (AGB). The Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) Schedule of Benefits for Physician Services includ

2005-01-01

296

Healthy Muscles Matter Basic facts about muscles  

E-print Network

. (Representation) #12; Healthy muscles let you move freely and keep your body strong. Muscles of the Arm · Smooth actually tears). Maybe you lifted something that was too heavy and the muscles in your arms were stretched like soccer, football, hockey, and wrestling can often cause strains. Sports in which you grip

Baker, Chris I.

297

The oculocardiag reflex during strabismus surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  The oculocardiac reflex was noted m 44 of 66 patients undergoing strabismus surgery Disturbances occurred at the time of extraocular\\u000a muscle traction in the absence of hypercarbia and hypoxia The oculocardiac reflex proved to be much more active than the vago-vagal\\u000a reflex associated with intubation Arrhythmias were not produced during intubation of a group of 9 patients, but later 6

George T Moonie; Donald L Rees; Denzil Elton

1964-01-01

298

The role of orthopaedic surgery in sports medicine.  

PubMed Central

Orthopaedic surgery must play a significant role in the development of sports medicine as a viable academic discipline. Potential areas in which orthopaedic surgery can specifically contribute to such an evolution are discussed. Particular areas include skeletal development, the role of athletics on skeletal growth and trauma response, the mechanics of specific sports and the predisposition of specific sports to certain injury patterns, the role of muscle physiology and muscle stimulation in rehabilitation, and differing responses of the male and female skeletal system. Each of these areas is discussed in detail. PMID:7445534

Ogden, J. A.

1980-01-01

299

Robotic mitral valve surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally mitral valve surgery has been performed via median sternotomy. However, a renaissance in cardiac surgery is occurring. Cardiac operations are being performed through smaller and alternative incisions with enhanced technological assistance. Specifically, minimally invasive mitral valve surgery has become standard for many surgeons. At our institution, we have developed a robotic mitral surgery program with the da VinciTM telemanipulation

Alan P. Kypson; L. Wiley Nifong; W. Randolph Chitwood

2003-01-01

300

Architectural and morphological assessment of rat abdominal wall muscles: comparison for use as a human model.  

PubMed

The abdominal wall is a composite of muscles that are important for the mechanical stability of the spine and pelvis. Tremendous clinical attention is given to these muscles, yet little is known about how they function in isolation or how they interact with one another. Given the morphological, vascular, and innervation complexities associated with these muscles and their proximity to the internal organs, an appropriate animal model is important for understanding their physiological and mechanical significance during function. To determine the extent to which the rat abdominal wall resembles that of human, 10 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed and formalin-fixed for architectural and morphological analyses of the four abdominal wall muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis). Physiological cross-sectional areas and optimal fascicle lengths demonstrated a pattern that was similar to human abdominal wall muscles. In addition, sarcomere lengths measured in the neutral spine posture were similar to human in their relation to optimal sarcomere length. These data indicate that the force-generating and length change capabilities of these muscles, relative to one another, are similar in rat and human. Finally, the fiber lines of action of each abdominal muscle were similar to human over most of the abdominal wall. The main exception was in the lower abdominal region (inferior to the pelvic crest), where the external oblique becomes aponeurotic in human but continues as muscle fibers into its pelvic insertion in the rat. We conclude that, based on the morphology and architecture of the abdominal wall muscles, the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat is a good candidate for a model representation of human, particularly in the middle and upper abdominal wall regions. PMID:20646108

Brown, Stephen H M; Banuelos, Karina; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

2010-09-01

301

Architectural and morphological assessment of rat abdominal wall muscles: comparison for use as a human model  

PubMed Central

The abdominal wall is a composite of muscles that are important for the mechanical stability of the spine and pelvis. Tremendous clinical attention is given to these muscles, yet little is known about how they function in isolation or how they interact with one another. Given the morphological, vascular, and innervation complexities associated with these muscles and their proximity to the internal organs, an appropriate animal model is important for understanding their physiological and mechanical significance during function. To determine the extent to which the rat abdominal wall resembles that of human, 10 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed and formalin-fixed for architectural and morphological analyses of the four abdominal wall muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis). Physiological cross-sectional areas and optimal fascicle lengths demonstrated a pattern that was similar to human abdominal wall muscles. In addition, sarcomere lengths measured in the neutral spine posture were similar to human in their relation to optimal sarcomere length. These data indicate that the force-generating and length change capabilities of these muscles, relative to one another, are similar in rat and human. Finally, the fiber lines of action of each abdominal muscle were similar to human over most of the abdominal wall. The main exception was in the lower abdominal region (inferior to the pelvic crest), where the external oblique becomes aponeurotic in human but continues as muscle fibers into its pelvic insertion in the rat. We conclude that, based on the morphology and architecture of the abdominal wall muscles, the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat is a good candidate for a model representation of human, particularly in the middle and upper abdominal wall regions. PMID:20646108

Brown, Stephen H M; Banuelos, Karina; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

2010-01-01

302

Imidazoline use in sinonasal surgery.  

PubMed

The nasal mucosa is very vascular, receiving more blood flow per cubic centimeter of tissue than does muscle, brain or liver (Drettner and Aust, 1974; [1]). This vascularity can present a major problem during sinus surgery. Surgeons routinely use topical vasoconstrictors in endoscopic sinus surgery however, the optimal regimen is not clear. Imidazoline nasal sprays are often used up to 1hour before sinonasal surgery to aid in intraoperative vasoconstriction. After the induction of anaesthesia, epinephrine-based topical and submucosal preparations are subsequently administered to further enhance vasoconstriction. Imidazolines are non-selective, partial alpha adrenoceptor agonists with a higher affinity, yet lower potency, for alpha adrenoceptors when compared to epinephrine. It is hypothesized that imidazolines block the action of epinephrine on the alpha adrenoceptors of the nasal mucosa resulting in less vasoconstriction, and a poorer intra-operative field, when compared to the use of epinephrine alone. This paper hypothesizes that preoperative imidazoline administration may adversely affect optimal intra-operative vasoconstriction. PMID:24690300

Campbell, R G; Nair, S; Sacks, R; Douglas, R G

2014-06-01

303

Effects of BOSU ball(s) during sit-ups with body weight and added resistance on core muscle activation.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the electromyographic activity of the rectus abdominis (upper and lower part) and external oblique during sit-ups performed on BOSU ball(s). Twenty-four men participated in a familiarization session, and in the next session, they performed the experimental tests in randomized order. The sit-ups were performed with 10 repetitions with body weight and with 10 repetition maximum (10RM) using elastic bands as external resistance under 4 different conditions: (a) on a stable surface, (b) with the BOSU ball under their feet (dome side down, lower-body instability), (c) BOSU ball under the low back (dome side up, upper-body instability), and (d) with BOSU balls under both feet and the low back (dual instability). The feet were not attached to the surface. We observed that with body weight, external oblique activation was decreased by upper-body instability and dual instability by 22-24% (p = 0.002-0.006), whereas the rectus abdominis was not affected by the surface. Using 10RM loads, the upper and lower rectus abdominis activities were increased by upper body and dual instability by 21-24% compared with that for a stable surface (P ? 0.001-0.036). Further, lower-body instability did not affect muscle activities significantly with either load for any condition. Hence, BOSU balls under the low back can increase and decrease abdominal muscle activation depending on the load, whereas placing a BOSU ball under the feet with the dome side down had little impact. PMID:24936903

Saeterbakken, Atle H; Andersen, Vidar; Jansson, June; Kvellestad, Ann C; Fimland, Marius S

2014-12-01

304

Electromechanical delay of the knee extensor muscles: comparison among young, middle-age and older individuals.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the ageing process in the electromechanical delay (EMD), rate of torque development (RTD) and peak torque (PT) of the knee extensor muscles. The volunteers were assigned to three groups: young group (YG - 23·44 ± 4·74 years, 78·14 ± 15·11 kg, 1·72 ± 0·05 m), middle-aged group (MAG - 49·56 ± 6·06 years, 72·01 ± 14·07 kg, 1·67 ± 0·06 m) and elderly group (EG - 68·67 ± 9·06 years, 67·96 ± 7·60 kg, 1·64 ± 0·07 m). The PT and RTD were assessed during maximal voluntary ballistic isometric contractions (MVBIC) in the isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle electrical activity was recorded (EMG) during MVBIC in the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles. The EMD was calculated during the MVBIC, through the time interval between the EMG onset and torque onset. The PT and RTD were higher in the YG than in the MAG (P = 0·02; P = 0·01, respectively) and in the EG (P = 0·002; P = 0·0004, respectively). There were no significant differences in EMD among the three age groups for the VL, VM and RF (P>0·05) muscles. We conclude that age affects the PT and RTD, but not EMD of the VL, VM and RF muscles. PMID:24797398

Libardi, Cleiton A; Souza, Thiago M F; Conceição, Miguel S; Bonganha, Valéria; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia T; Cavaglieri, Cláudia R; de Moraes, Antonio C; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

2014-05-01

305

Use of optical flow to estimate continuous changes in muscle thickness from ultrasound image sequences.  

PubMed

Muscle thickness is one of the most widely used parameters for quantifying muscle function. Ultrasonography is frequently used to estimate changes in muscle thickness in both static and dynamic contractions. Conventionally, most such measurements are conducted by manual analysis of ultrasound images. This manual approach is time consuming, subjective, susceptible to error and not suitable for measuring dynamic change. In this study, we developed an automated tracking method based on an optical flow algorithm using an affine motion model. The goal of the study was to evaluate the performance of the proposed method by comparing it with the manual approach and by determining its repeatability. Real-time B-mode ultrasound was used to examine the rectus femoris during voluntary contraction. The coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) was used to quantify the level of agreement between the two methods and the repeatability of the proposed method. The two methods were also compared by linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis. The findings indicated that the results obtained using the proposed method were in good agreement with those obtained using the manual approach (CMC = 0.97 ± 0.02, difference = -0.06 ± 0.22 mm) and were highly repeatable (CMC = 0.91 ± 0.07). In conclusion, the automated method proposed here provides an accurate, highly repeatable and efficient approach to the estimation of muscle thickness during muscle contraction. PMID:23969163

Li, Qiaoliang; Ni, Dong; Yi, Wanguan; Chen, Siping; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Xin

2013-11-01

306

The development of trunk muscles in male wrestlers assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the development of trunk musculature among Elite, Sub-elite, and Elite junior wrestlers. The performance level of these groups, ordered highest to lowest, is as follows: Elite (n = 20), Sub-elite (n = 25), and Elite junior (n = 39). A magnetic resonance imaging device was used to measure the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the trunk muscles. The whole trunk muscle cross-sectional area (t-MCSA) of the Elite group was significantly larger than that of the Elite junior group (p < 0.05). The rectus abdominis muscle CSA of the Elite group was significantly larger than that of the Elite junior group (p < 0.01). The psoas major muscle CSA of the Elite group was significantly larger than that of the Elite junior group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the CSA of any of the trunk muscles between the Elite and Sub-elite groups. In conclusion, compared with Elite junior wrestlers, it is conceivable that a greater CSA of trunk flexors of Elite wrestlers is one factor which supports increased performance. PMID:18076225

Kubo, Junjiro; Ohta, Akemi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kukidome, Takeshi; Funato, Kazuo

2007-11-01

307

Move Your Muscles!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson covers the topic of muscles. Students learn about the three different types of muscles in the human body and the effects of microgravity on muscles. Students also learn how astronauts need to exercise in order to lessen muscle atrophy in space. Students discover what types of equipment engineers design to help the astronauts exercise while in space.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

308

[Neuroleptic malignant syndrome after cardiac surgery].  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man without any psychiatric disease, including Parkinson's disease underwent aortic valve replacement and mitral valve replacement for rheumatic valvular disease. One day after the cardiac surgery, he developed hyperthermina, muscle rigidity, coma and delirium, and his serum creatine kinase (CK) level was elevated. In spite of his negative brain computed tomography(CT), his consciousness remained unclear. He had received diazepam, flunitrazepam and buprenorphine after the cardiac surgery because of his hyper-reactivity. Although these drugs were not typical antipsychotics' causing neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), NMS was strongly suspected because of his clinical appearance. Dantrolene was administered in a dose of 60 mg per day and he recovered consciousness and his CK level began to decrease. We reported a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome after cardiac surgery. PMID:24322311

Uehara, Mayuko; Inaoka, Masami; Miyaki, Yasuko; Nakashima, Shinji; Fuzii, Akira; Higami, Tetsuya

2013-11-01

309

Infectious muscle disease.  

PubMed

Infectious muscle diseases have very different aetiologies. The viral myositides are proved by clinical and laboratory evidences in various etiologic settings (Influenza A and B, Coxsackie and HIV). The bacterial myositis was considered in the near past a tropical disease, but in our days with migration of people from South to North and the endemia of AIDS it became a problem of the "civilized" world. On the other hand, tuberculous endemia in Central-Eastern Europe, including Romania, results in quite high incidence of osteoarticular tuberculosis. In this section the authors take into consideration some clinical entities, such as psoas abscess, postanginal sepsis, beta-haemolytic streptococcus infection and that caused by Koch bacillus. Other rare musculoskeletal infections such as gas gangrene and non-clostridial anaerobic myonecrosis are also reviewed. Immune depression caused by underlying diseases, therapies, alcoholism or old age is often encountered. The parasitic aetiologies include infestations with Trichinella spiralis, Cysticercus cellulosae, Toxoplasma and Amoeba. The contribution of imagistic methods to diagnosis is emphasised. Ultrasonography associated with CT imaging are usually used, while MRI should be reserved for cases in which axial skeleton is involved. The management is based on appropriate antibiotic therapy and surgery. PMID:17236294

Parasca, I; Damian, Laura; Albu, Adriana

2006-01-01

310

Effects of replacing free weights with elastic band resistance in squats on trunk muscle activation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of adding elastic bands to free-weight squats on the neuromuscular activation of core muscles. Twenty-five resistance trained women with 4.6 ± 2.1 years of resistance training experience participated in the study. In randomized order, the participants performed 6 repetition maximum in free-weight squats, with and without elastic bands (i.e., matched relative intensity between exercises). During free-weight squats with elastic bands, some of the free weights were replaced with 2 elastic bands attached to the lowest part of the squat rack. Surface electromyography (EMG) activity was measured from the erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis, whereas a linear encoder measured the vertical displacement. The EMG activities were compared between the 2 lifting modalities for the whole repetition and separately for the eccentric, concentric, and upper and lower eccentric and concentric phases. In the upper (greatest stretch of the elastic band), middle, and lower positions in squats with elastic bands, the resistance values were approximately 117, 105, and 93% of the free weight-only trial. Similar EMG activities were observed for the 2 lifting modalities for the erector spinae (p = 0.112-0.782), external oblique (p = 0.225-0.977), and rectus abdominis (p = 0.315-0.729) in all analyzed phases. In conclusion, there were no effects on the muscle activity of trunk muscles of substituting some resistance from free weights with elastic bands in the free-weight squat. PMID:24832981

Saeterbakken, Atle H; Andersen, Vidar; Kolnes, Maria K; Fimland, Marius S

2014-11-01

311

Reliability and validity of panoramic ultrasound for muscle quantification.  

PubMed

This study examined the reliability and validity of using customized templates to acquire panoramic ultrasound (US) images for determining cross-sectional area (CSA) and volume in the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), medial gastrocnemius (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG). Panoramic US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were analyzed by two trained investigators. The inter-experimenter reliability (coefficient of variation [CV]) of panoramic US ranged from 2.4% to 4.1% and the intraclass correlation (ICC) ranged from 0.963 to 0.991, whereas the inter-experimenter CV of MRI ranged from 2.8% to 3.8% and the ICC from 0.946 to 0.986. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated high agreement between US and MRI; however, values obtained from MRI were systematically larger than those obtained from US. The present results indicate that using a customized US template provides reliable measures of leg muscle CSA and, thus, could be used to characterize muscle CSA and volume. PMID:22749820

Scott, Jessica M; Martin, David S; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Caine, Timothy; Matz, Timothy; Arzeno, Natalia M; Buxton, Roxanne; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

2012-09-01

312

Assessing contractile ability of the quadriceps muscle using ultrasound imaging.  

PubMed

Muscle dimension changes on ultrasound imaging (USI) indicate contractile activity. Quadriceps force and rectus femoris (RF) dimensions were examined to assess USI for estimating contraction level. In 15 healthy males, mean age 24.8 years, isometric quadriceps force was measured in 90° knee flexion during submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and at MVC in extension. Mid-thigh cross-sectional area (CSA), depth and width, and surface electromyography (EMG) of RF were recorded. Muscle width decreased curvilinearly as both force and EMG increased. At MVC, width was 3.2 ± 0.5 cm, 25% smaller than at rest (4.4 ± 0.7 cm), and similar to MVC in extension (-23%). CSA decreased linearly to -18% at MVC. RF thickness increased by only 10% (at 30% to MVC). Similar width changes at MVC in flexion and extension indicate the clinical potential of USI for assessing quadriceps contractility. Sensitivity is limited to assessing strength to within 25% of MVC in young males. PMID:20665511

Delaney, Sinead; Worsley, Peter; Warner, Martin; Taylor, Mark; Stokes, Maria

2010-10-01

313

Architectural Analysis of Human Abdominal Wall Muscles: Implications for Mechanical Function  

PubMed Central

Study Design Cadaveric analysis of human abdominal muscle architecture. Objective To quantify the architectural properties of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO) and transverse abdominis (TrA), and model mechanical function in light of these new data. Summary of Background Data Knowledge of muscle architecture provides the structural basis for predicting muscle function. Abdominal muscles greatly affect spine loading, stability, injury prevention and rehabilitation; however, their architectural properties are unknown. Methods Abdominal muscles from eleven elderly human cadavers were removed intact, separated into regions and micro-dissected for quantification of physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), fascicle length and sarcomere length. From these data, sarcomere operating length ranges were calculated. Results IO had the largest PCSA and RA the smallest, and would thus generate the largest and smallest isometric forces, respectively. RA had the longest fascicle length, followed by EO, and would thus be capable of generating force over the widest range of lengths. Measured sarcomere lengths, in the post-mortem neutral spine posture, were significantly longer in RA and EO (3.29±0.07 and 3.18±0.11 ?m) compared to IO and TrA (2.61±0.06 and 2.58±0.05 ?m) (p < 0.0001). Biomechanical modeling predicted that RA, EO and TrA act at optimal force-generating length in the mid-range of lumbar spine flexion, where IO can generate approximately 90% of its maximum force. Conclusions These data provide clinically relevant insights into the ability of the abdominal wall muscles to generate force and change length throughout the lumbar spine range of motion. This will impact the understanding of potential postures in which the force-generating and spine stabilizing ability of these muscles become compromised, which can guide exercise/rehabilitation development and prescription. Future work should explore the mechanical interactions among these muscles and their relationship to spine health and function. PMID:21325932

Brown, Stephen H. M.; Ward, Samuel R.; Cook, Mark S.; Lieber, Richard L.

2010-01-01

314

Abdominal muscle activation changes if the purpose is to control pelvis motion or thorax motion.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare trunk muscular recruitment and lumbar spine kinematics when motion was constrained to either the thorax or the pelvis. Nine healthy women performed four upright standing planar movements (rotations, anterior-posterior translations, medial-lateral translations, and horizontal circles) while constraining pelvis motion and moving the thorax or moving the pelvis while minimizing thorax motion, and four isometric trunk exercises (conventional curl-up, reverse curl-up, cross curl-up, and reverse cross curl-up). Surface EMG (upper and lower rectus abdominis, lateral and medial aspects of external oblique, internal oblique, and latissimus dorsi) and 3D lumbar displacements were recorded. Pelvis movements produced higher EMG amplitudes of the oblique abdominals than thorax motions in most trials, and larger lumbar displacements in the medial-lateral translations and horizontal circles. Conversely, thorax movements produced larger rotational lumbar displacement than pelvis motions during rotations and higher EMG amplitudes for latissimus dorsi during rotations and anterior-posterior translations and for lower rectus abdominis during the crossed curl-ups. Thus, different neuromuscular compartments appear when the objective changes from pelvis to thorax motion. This would suggest that both movement patterns should be considered when planning spine stabilization programs, to optimize exercises for the movement and muscle activations desired. PMID:21925900

Vera-Garcia, Francisco J; Moreside, Janice M; McGill, Stuart M

2011-12-01

315

Muscle Flaps and Their Role in Limb Salvage  

PubMed Central

Muscle flaps have proved to be a valuable and versatile tool in the surgical treatment of the severely compromised lower extremity. Utilized as both local pedicle flaps and free tissue transfers, muscles have been successfully employed to cover complex wounds, manage osteomyelitis, salvage infected vascular grafts, treat recalcitrant venous stasis ulcers, preserve amputation levels, and restore motion following compartment syndrome. Free flap pedicles have also been used in a flow-through fashion to create a distal arterial bypass. This article explores the multipurpose role of muscle flaps in limb salvage surgery and their beneficial physiologic characteristics in hostile wound environments. PMID:23805342

Klebuc, Michael; Menn, Zachary

2013-01-01

316

American Board of Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Appeals Re-entry to Surgical Practice Replacement of Certificate Reporting of Status and Clinically Inactive Representation of Certification Status Revocation of Certificate Substance Abuse Specialty Definitions General Surgery Vascular Surgery ...

317

Laser Eye Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... vision so they no longer need glasses or contact lenses. Laser eye surgery reshapes the cornea, the clear front part of the eye. This changes its focusing power. There are different types of laser eye surgery. ...

318

Weight Loss Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

319

Who Needs Heart Surgery?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Heart Surgery? Heart surgery is used to treat many heart problems. For example, it's used to: Treat heart failure and coronary heart disease (CHD) Fix heart ...

320

Joint Replacement Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... and extend your arm. Will My Surgery Be Successful? The success of your surgery depends a lot ... learn why some types of prostheses are more successful than others. Other scientists are also trying to ...

321

Arthroscopic gluteal muscle contracture release with radiofrequency energy.  

PubMed

Gluteal muscle contracture is common after repeated intramuscular injections and sometimes is sufficiently debilitating to require open surgery. We asked whether arthroscopic release of gluteal muscle contracture using radiofrequency energy would decrease complications with clinically acceptable results. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients with bilateral gluteal muscle contractures (57 males, 51 females; mean age, 23.7 years). We used inferior, anterosuperior, and posterosuperior portals. With the patient lying laterally, we developed and enlarged a potential space between the gluteal muscle group and the subcutaneous fat using blunt dissection. Under arthroscopic guidance through the inferior portal, we débrided and removed fatty tissue overlying the contractile band of the gluteal muscle group using a motorized shaver introduced through the superior portal. Radiofrequency then was introduced through the superior portal to gradually excise the contracted bands from superior to inferior. Finally, hemostasis was ensured using radiofrequency. Patients were followed a minimum of 7 months (mean, 17.4 months; range, 7-42 months). At last followup, the adduction and flexion ranges of the hip were 45.3 degrees +/- 8.7 degrees and 110.2 degrees +/- 11.9 degrees, compared with 10.4 degrees +/- 7.2 degrees and 44.8 degrees +/- 14.1 degrees before surgery. No hip abductor contracture recurred and no patient had residual hip pain or gluteal muscle wasting. We found gluteal muscle contracture could be released effectively with radiofrequency energy. PMID:18975040

Liu, Yu-Jie; Wang, Yan; Xue, Jing; Lui, Pauline Po-Yee; Chan, Kai-Ming

2009-03-01

322

Lung surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - ...

323

Brain surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Craniotomy - discharge; Surgery - brain - discharge; Neurosurgery - discharge; Craniectomy - discharge; Stereotactic craniotomy - discharge; Stereotactic brain biopsy - discharge; Endoscopic craniotomy - discharge

324

No effect of sex steroids on compensatory muscle hypertrophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.

Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.

1984-01-01

325

Tensiomyography method used for neuromuscular assessment of muscle training  

PubMed Central

Background Within the structure of the skeletal muscle, there are fascicles of muscular fibers that are made up of serially distributed contractile elements. These elements are controlled by the nervous system, control which results in obtaining the muscular strength required for movement and its control. This study presents the neuromuscular assessment using tensiomyography method (TMG). Methods We studied two groups of soccer junior players, group 1 (experimental group) and group 2 (control group), each containing 15 soccer players; we have considered two situations of muscle training: the combination between the isometric-concentric contraction for group 1 and the concentric contraction for group 2. TMG is the electrical stimulation of the muscle group and the recording of the muscle parameters resulting after the isometric contraction: time contraction (Tc) and displacement (Dm) at rectus femoris muscle (RF), pointing out two moments T1 and T2. Results Tc decreasing and the Dm increasing involve a good response following the muscle training. For group 1, the Tc evolution is 22.54 ms/22.45 ms (T1/T2) for the right RF and 22.65 ms/22.26 ms for the left RF, while for group 2 results in a Tc evolution of 24.33 ms/28.57 ms (T1/T2) for the right RF and 25.74 ms/28.61 ms for the left RF. Dm for group 1, results in a 6.57 mm/6.85 mm (T1/T2) for the right RF and 6.92 mm/7.06 mm for the left RF, while for group 2, the Dm evolution shows 7.45 mm/5.83 mm (T1/T) for the right RF and 7.41 mm/6.26 mm for the left RF. Also, the evaluation on motor test indicated better results on T2 for the experimental group. Summarizing the results of Student t-test, we found significant differences between the averages of the two groups in all parameters (p?muscle training which can be monitored through TMG. PMID:23822158

2013-01-01

326

Individuals with intellectual disability have lower voluntary muscle activation level.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the voluntary activation level during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) versus individuals without ID using the twitch interpolation technique. Ten individuals with mild ID (ID group) and 10 sedentary men without ID (control group) participated in this study. The evaluation of neuromuscular function consisted in three brief MVCs (3s) of the knee extension superimposed with electrical nerve stimulation (NES) to measure voluntary activation. Muscle activity levels were also measured with surface EMG. The root mean square (RMS) was extracted from the EMG signal. The RMS/Mmax ratio and the neuromuscular efficiency (NME) were calculated. Our results reported that individuals with ID present lower muscle strength (p < 0.001), lower voluntary activation level (p < 0.001), lower RMS values of vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), vastus medialis (p < 0.05), and rectus femoris (p < 0.001) muscles. In addition, our results showed lower RMS/Mmax values in the ID group than in the control group for the VM (0.05 ± 0.01 mV vs. 0.04 ± 0.01 mV; p < 0.05) and the RF (0.06 ± 0.02 mV vs. 0.05 ± 0.02 mV; p < 0.05) muscles. However, no significant difference was reported for the VL muscle (0.05 ± 0.02 mV vs. 0.05 ± 0.02 mV; p=0.463). Moreover, Individuals with ID present smaller potentiated twitch (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference was reported in the NME ratio. These results suggest that the lower muscle strength known in individuals with ID is related to a central nervous system failure to activate motor units and to some abnormal intrinsic muscle properties. It seems that the inactive lifestyle adopted by individuals with ID is one of the most important factors of their lower voluntary activation levels. Therefore, physical activities should be introduced in life style of individuals with ID to improve their neuromuscular function. PMID:25241117

Borji, Rihab; Zghal, Firas; Zarrouk, Nidhal; Sahli, Sonia; Rebai, Haithem

2014-12-01

327

Elec 331 -Minimally Invasive Surgery Minimally Invasive Surgery  

E-print Network

Elec 331 - Minimally Invasive Surgery 1 Minimally Invasive Surgery · Small incision ­ Low risk surgery ­ Laparoscopic surgery ­ Arthroscopic surgery Instruments Laparoscope / Arthroscope Trocar Forceps / Scissors Elevator / Retractor Stapler #12;Elec 331 - Minimally Invasive Surgery 2 Instrument Types · Trocar

Pulfrey, David L.

328

Intracranial Hypertension: Medication and Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Espanol. STORE Shop the IHRF Store Medication and Surgery Medication and Surgery Both drugs and surgery are used to treat ... http://www.ihrfoundation.org/intracranial/hypertension/info/C172 Surgery Optic Nerve Fenestration When sight is at risk ...

329

Surgery for an Inguinal Hernia  

MedlinePLUS

... Inguinal Hernia" /> Consumer Summary – Jul. 24, 2013 Surgery for an Inguinal Hernia Formats View PDF (PDF) ... pronounced lah-puh-ruh-SKAHP-ik) surgery. Open Surgery In an open surgery, the surgeon makes a ...

330

Types of Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... heart transplants, and place VADs and TAHs. Off-Pump Heart Surgery Surgeons also use off-pump, or beating heart, surgery to do CABG. This ... heart-lung bypass machine isn't used. Off-pump heart surgery isn't right for all patients. ...

331

Pediatric Surgery Gallengangatresie  

E-print Network

1 Pediatric Surgery Gallengangatresie: eine seltene Erkrankung fällt durch die Maschen eines Versorgungsnetzes C. Petersen, B. M. Ure Pediatric Surgery Warum machen wir so viel Wirbel um eine seltene Surgery Die Gallengangatresie ist ein Problem! Seltene Erkrankung: ca. 1: 18.000 In Deutschland ca. 40

Manstein, Dietmar J.

332

Simulation of Endoscopic Surgery  

E-print Network

Simulation of Endoscopic Surgery Nicholas AYACHE 1 - Stéphane COTIN 1 - Hervé DELINGETTE 1 Jean of therapy. This is particularly true for video-surgery, where the use of video-images during, in order to rehearse a difficult surgical procedure. In the future, we believe that surgery simulators

Boyer, Edmond

333

Gastric bypass surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Breathing problems Heart attack or stroke during or after surgery Infection, including in the cut, lungs (pneumonia), bladder, or kidney There are a number of risks for any weight-loss surgery. ... also risks that are more likely after gastric bypass surgery.

334

Surgery for Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... side effects of breast surgery Aside from pain after the surgery and the change in the shape of the breast(s), the possible side effects of mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery include wound infection, build-up of blood in the wound, and ...

335

Human Muscle Fiber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stimulus of gravity affects RNA production, which helps maintain the strength of human muscles on Earth (top), as seen in this section of muscle fiber taken from an astronaut before spaceflight. Astronauts in orbit and patients on Earth fighting muscle-wasting diseases need countermeasures to prevent muscle atrophy, indicated here with white lipid droplets (bottom) in the muscle sample taken from the same astronaut after spaceflight. Kerneth Baldwin of the University of California, Irvine, is conducting research on how reducing the stimulus of gravity affects production of the RNA that the body uses as a blueprint for making muscle proteins. Muscle proteins are what give muscles their strength, so when the RNA blueprints aren't available for producing new proteins to replace old ones -- a situation that occurs in microgravity -- the muscles atrophy. When the skeletal muscle system is exposed to microgravity during spaceflight, the muscles undergo a reduced mass that translates to a reduction in strength. When this happens, muscle endurance decreases and the muscles are more prone to injury, so individuals could have problems in performing extravehicular activity [space walks] or emergency egress because their bodies are functionally compromised.

2003-01-01

336

Back Muscle Changes after Pedicle Based Dynamic Stabilization  

PubMed Central

Objective Many studies have investigated paraspinal muscle changes after posterior lumbar surgery, including lumbar fusion. However, no study has been performed to investigate back muscle changes after pedicle based dynamic stabilization in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal diseases. In this study, the authors compared back muscle cross sectional area (MCSA) changes after non-fusion pedicle based dynamic stabilization. Methods Thirty-two consecutive patients who underwent non-fusion pedicle based dynamic stabilization (PDS) at the L4-L5 level between February 2005 and January 2008 were included in this retrospective study. In addition, 11 patients who underwent traditional lumbar fusion (LF) during the same period were enrolled for comparative purposes. Preoperative and postoperative MCSAs of the paraspinal (multifidus+longissimus), psoas, and multifidus muscles were measured using computed tomographic axial sections taken at the L4 lower vertebral body level, which best visualize the paraspinal and psoas muscles. Measurements were made preoperatively and at more than 6 months after surgery. Results Overall, back muscles showed decreases in MCSAs in the PDS and LF groups, and the multifidus was most affected in both groups, but more so in the LF group. The PDS group showed better back muscle preservation than the LF group for all measured muscles. The multifidus MCSA was significantly more preserved when the PDS-paraspinal-Wiltse approach was used. Conclusion Pedicle based dynamic stabilization shows better preservation of paraspinal muscles than posterior lumbar fusion. Furthermore, the minimally invasive paraspinal Wiltse approach was found to preserve multifidus muscles better than the conventional posterior midline approach in PDS group. PMID:23634268

Moon, Kyung Yun; Lee, Soo-Eon; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Jib

2013-01-01

337

Trunk kinematics and trunk muscle activity during a rapidly applied load.  

PubMed

This study investigated the trunk kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of eight trunk muscles when "expected" and "unexpected" loads were applied directly to the torso. Twenty individuals (mean age: 25.1 yr; range 20-33 yr) participated in this mixed model study in which gender was the between-subjects factor, and expectancy and symmetry of the applied load were within-subject factors. The sudden load was delivered to the subject via a cable attached to a thoracic harness and motion was restricted to the lumbar spine by strapping the pelvis to a rigid fixation apparatus. Surface EMG was recorded bilaterally from the longissimus thoracis (LGT), erector spinae (ERS), rectus abdominis (RAB) and the external obliques (EXO). Trunk kinematics were measured with a Lumbar Motion Monitor. During expected loading conditions, the peak muscle activity was reduced for the RAB and EXO bilaterally, and for the ERS(R) (p < 0.01) relative to the unexpected conditions. Conversely, the normalized area of EMG activity prior to the onset of load was increased for the ERS and EXO bilaterally, and for the RAB(R) (p < 0.05) during an expected loading event. Trunk motion in the sagittal and frontal planes was reduced during expected loading. Activation of the trunk muscles just prior to a rapid loading event increases trunk stiffness, decreasing trunk displacement and peak muscle activity. PMID:9779395

Thomas, J S; Lavender, S A; Corcos, D M; Andersson, G B

1998-08-01

338

The influence of sudden perturbations on trunk muscle activity and intra-abdominal pressure while standing.  

PubMed

Unexpected ventral and dorsal perturbations and expected, self-induced ventral perturbations were delivered to the trunk by suddenly loading a vest strapped to the torso. Six male subjects were measured for intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and intra-muscular electromyography of the transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus abdominis (OI), obliquus externus abdominis (OE) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles. Erector spinae (ES) activity was recorded using surface electromyography. Displacements of the trunk and head were registered using a video-based system. Unexpected ventral loading produced activity in TrA, OI, OE and RA, and an IAP increase well in advance of activity from ES. Expected ventral loading produced pre-activation of all muscles and an increased IAP prior to the perturbation. The TrA was always the first muscle active in both the unexpected and self-loading conditions. Of the two ventral loading conditions, forward displacement of the trunk was significantly reduced during the self-loading. Unexpected dorsal loading produced coincident activation of TrA, OI, OE, RA and ES. These results indicate a response of the trunk muscles to sudden expected and unexpected ventral loadings other than the anticipated immediate extensor torque production through ES activation. It is suggested that the increase in IAP is a mechanism designed to improve the stability of the trunk through a stiffening of the whole segment. PMID:8050518

Cresswell, A G; Oddsson, L; Thorstensson, A

1994-01-01

339

The effect of the weight of equipment on muscle activity of the lower extremity in soldiers.  

PubMed

Due to their profession and the tasks it entails, soldiers are exposed to high levels of physical activity and strain. This can result in overexertion and pain in the locomotor system, partly caused by carrying items of equipment. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent of muscle activity in the lower extremities caused by carrying specific items of equipment. For this purpose, the activity of selected groups of muscles caused by different items of equipment (helmet, carrying strap, backpack, and rifle) in the upper and lower leg was measured by recording dynamic surface electromyograms. Electrogoniometers were also used to measure the angle of the knee over the entire gait cycle. In addition to measuring muscle activity, the study also aimed to determine out what influence increasing weight load has on the range of motion (ROM) of the knee joint during walking. The activity of recorded muscles of the lower extremity, that is, the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris, was found to depend on the weight of the items of equipment. There was no evidence, however, that items of equipment weighing a maximum of 34% of their carrier's body weight had an effect on the ROM of the knee joint. PMID:22973179

Lindner, Tobias; Schulze, Christoph; Woitge, Sandra; Finze, Susanne; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

2012-01-01

340

Effect of armor and carrying load on body balance and leg muscle function.  

PubMed

This study investigated the impact of weight and weight distribution of body armor and load carriage on static body balance and leg muscle function. A series of human performance tests were conducted with seven male, healthy, right-handed military students in seven garment conditions with varying weight and weight distributions. Static body balance was assessed by analyzing the trajectory of center of plantar pressure and symmetry of weight bearing in the feet. Leg muscle functions were assessed by analyzing the peak electromyography amplitude of four selected leg muscles during walking. Results of this study showed that uneven weight distribution of garment and load beyond an additional 9 kg impaired static body balance as evidenced by increased sway of center of plantar pressure and asymmetry of weight bearing in the feet. Added weight on non-dominant side of the body created greater impediment to static balance. Increased garment weight also elevated peak EMG amplitude in the rectus femoris to maintain body balance and in the medial gastrocnemius to increase propulsive force. Negative impacts on balance and leg muscle function with increased carrying loads, particularly with an uneven weight distribution, should be stressed to soldiers, designers, and sports enthusiasts. PMID:24021525

Park, Huiju; Branson, Donna; Kim, Seonyoung; Warren, Aric; Jacobson, Bert; Petrova, Adriana; Peksoz, Semra; Kamenidis, Panagiotis

2014-01-01

341

Changes in Muscle Activation Patterns when Running Step Rate is Increased  

PubMed Central

Running with a step rate 5–10% greater than one’s preferred can substantially reduce lower extremity joint moments and powers, and has been suggested as a possible strategy to aid in running injury management. The purpose of this study was to examine how neuromuscular activity changes with an increase in step rate during running. Forty-five injury-free, recreational runners participated in this study. Three-dimensional motion, ground reaction forces, and electromyography (EMG) of 8 muscles (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, medial and lateral hamstrings, and gluteus medius and maximus) were recorded as each subject ran at their preferred speed for three different step rate conditions: preferred, +5% and +10% of preferred. Outcome measures included mean normalized EMG activity for each muscle at specific periods during the gait cycle. Muscle activities were found to predominantly increase during late swing, with no significant change in activities during the loading response. This increased muscle activity in anticipation of foot-ground contact likely alters the landing posture of the limb and the subsequent negative work performed by the joints during stance phase. Further, the increased activity observed in the gluteus maximus and medius suggests running with a greater step rate may have therapeutic benefits to those with anterior knee pain. PMID:22424758

Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Wille, Christa M.; Michalski, Max P.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

2012-01-01

342

Skeletal muscle apoptosis is not increased in gastric cancer patients with mild-moderate weight loss.  

PubMed

Numerous experimental and clinical studies have shown that skeletal muscle apoptotis may increase in wasting conditions and suggest that apoptosis might contribute to the loss of lean body mass. Data in cancer patients are still lacking. The present study aimed at verifying whether apoptosis was enhanced in the skeletal muscle of 16 patients with gastric cancer with respect to controls. A biopsy specimen was obtained from the rectus abdominis muscle. The occurrence of apoptosis in muscle biopsies was determined morphologically by the fluorescent transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay and by immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and caspase-1. Mean weight loss was 6+/-2% in cancer patients and 0.5+/-0.1% in controls (p<0.0001). Serum albumin levels (g/dL) were 3.7+/-0.3 in cancer patients and 4.1+/-0.2 in controls (p<0.05). The percentage of apoptotic myonuclei was similar in cancer patients and in controls (1.5+/-0.3 versus 1.4+/-0.2, respectively; p=ns), in gastric cancer patients with mild (1.6+/-0.4) or moderate-severe weight loss (1.4+/-0.5) (p=ns), and in the different stages of disease (stages I-II: 1.5+/-0.7; stage III: 1.3+/-0.4; stage IV: 1.6+/-0.3; p=ns). By immunohistochemistry, caspase-1 and caspase-3 positive fibers were absent in controls and in neoplastic patients. Poly-ADP-ribosyl polymerase, a typical caspase-3 substrate whose processing is indicative of caspase-3 activation, was not cleaved in muscle biopsies of cancer patients. These data suggest that skeletal muscle apoptosis is not increased in neoplastic patients with mild-moderate weight loss and argue against the hypotheses that caspase-3 activation might be an essential step of myofibrillar proteolysis in cancer-related muscle wasting. PMID:16697691

Bossola, Maurizio; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Ricci, Enzo; Costelli, Paola; Pacelli, Fabio; Tortorelli, Antonio Pio; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Rossi Fanelli, Filippo; Baccino, Francesco Maria; Tonali, Pietro Attilio; Doglietto, Giovan Battista

2006-01-01

343

An Artificial Tendon with Durable Muscle Interface  

PubMed Central

A coupling mechanism that can permanently fix a forcefully contracting muscle to a bone anchor or any totally inert prosthesis would meet a serious need in orthopaedics. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to satisfy these demands. The objective of this study was to test OrthoCoupler’s performance in vitro and in vivo in the goat semitendinosus tendon model. For in vitro evaluation, 40 samples were fatigue-tested, cycling at 10 load levels, n=4 each. For in vivo evaluation, the semitendinosus tendon was removed bilaterally in 8 goats. Left sides were reattached with an OrthoCoupler, and right sides were reattached using the Krackow stitch with #5 braided polyester sutures. Specimens were harvested 60 days post-surgery and assigned for biomechanics and histology. Fatigue strength of the devices in vitro was several times the contractile force of the semitendinosus muscle. The in vivo devices were built equivalent to two of the in vitro devices, providing an additional safety factor. In strength testing at necropsy, suture controls pulled out at 120.5 ± 68.3 N, whereas each OrthoCoupler was still holding after the muscle tore, remotely, at 298±111.3N (mean ± SD)(p<0.0003). Muscle tear strength was reached with the fiber-muscle composite produced in healing still soundly intact. This technology may be of value for orthopaedic challenges in oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and sports-injury reconstruction. PMID:19639642

Melvin, Alan; Litsky, Alan; Mayerson, Joel; Witte, David; Melvin, David; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia

2010-01-01

344

Muscle Tissue Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short overview of the three types of muscle tissue. Each type of muscle tissue is briefly described with a histology view of the tissue. This presentation also incorporates information regarding each muscle tissue and its role in attaining VO2 max.

Ms. Wendy M Rappazzo (Harford Community College Science, Technology, Engineering & Math)

2007-08-15

345

Neurogenic muscle hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle hypertrophy is rare in denervating diseases. A patient with calf enlargement associated with L5–S1 radiculopathy and another with thenar, hypothenar, forearm and calf muscle hypertrophy in the course of chronic relapsing inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are described. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsy revealed both type I and type II fibre hypertrophy in the former case and predominant type I fibre hypertrophy in

D. Pareyson; L. Morandi; V. Scaioli; R. Marazzi; A. Boiardi; A. Sghirlanzoni

1989-01-01

346

Precision in liver surgery.  

PubMed

Continuous theoretical and technological progress in the face of increasing expectations for quality health care has transformed the surgical paradigm. The authors systematically review these historical trends and propose the novel paradigm of "precision surgery," featuring certainty-based practice to ensure the best result for each patient with multiobjective optimization of therapeutic effectiveness, surgical safety, and minimal invasiveness. The main characteristics of precision surgery may be summarized as determinacy, predictability, controllability, integration, standardization, and individualization. The strategy of precision in liver surgery is to seek a balance of maximizing the removal of the target lesion, while maximizing the functional liver remnant and minimizing surgical invasiveness. In this article, the authors demonstrate the application of precision approaches in specific settings in complex liver surgery. They propose that the concept of precision surgery should be considered for wider application in liver surgery and other fields as a step toward the ultimate goal of perfect surgery. PMID:23943100

Dong, Jiahong; Yang, Shizhong; Zeng, Jianping; Cai, Shouwang; Ji, Wenbin; Duan, Weidong; Zhang, Aiqun; Ren, Weizheng; Xu, Yinzhe; Tan, Jingwang; Bu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Xuedong; Wang, Xianqiang; Meng, Xiangfei; Jiang, Kai; Gu, Wanqing; Huang, Zhiqiang

2013-08-01

347

Altered muscle coordination when pedaling with independent cranks  

PubMed Central

Pedaling with independent cranks ensures each leg cycles independently of the other, and thus eliminates the contribution of the contralateral leg during the upstroke phase. Consequently the subject is required to actively pull-up the pedal to complete the cycle. The present study aimed to determine the acute effect of the use of independent cranks on muscle coordination during a submaximal pedaling exercise. Ten healthy males were asked to perform submaximal pedaling exercises at 100 Watts with normal fixed cranks (control condition) or independent cranks. Both 2-D pedal forces and electromyographic (EMG) SIGNALS of 10 lower limb muscles were recorded. When the mean EMG activity across the cycle was considered, the use of independent cranks significantly increased the activity level compared to control for Tibialis anterior (TA) (P = 0.0017; +336 ± 302%), Gastrocnemius medialis (GM) (P = 0.0005; +47 ± 25%), Rectus femoris (RF) (P = 0.005; +123 ± 153%), Biceps femoris (BF)—long head (P = 0.0001; +162 ± 97%), Semimembranosus (SM) (P = 0.0001; +304 ± 192%), and Tensor fascia latae (P = 0.0001; +586 ± 262%). The analysis of the four pedaling sectors revealed that the increased activity of hip and knee flexors mainly occurred during the top dead center and the upstroke phase. In addition, a high inter-individual variability was found in the way the participants adapted to pedaling with independent cranks. The present results showed that the enforced pull-up action required when using independent cranks was achieved by increasing the activation of hip and knee flexors. Further studies are needed to determine whether training with independent cranks has the potential to induce long-term changes in muscle coordination, and, if so, whether these changes are beneficial for cycling performance. PMID:24009587

Hug, François; Boumier, Florian; Dorel, Sylvain

2013-01-01

348

Oxidative Metabolism in Muscle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantages and problems of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements, in resting and exercising skeletal muscles studies, are discussed through some representative examples.

Ferrari, M.; Binzoni, T.; Quaresima, V.

1997-06-01

349

Oxidative metabolism in muscle.  

PubMed Central

Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantages and problems of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements, in resting and exercising skeletal muscles studies, are discussed through some representative examples. PMID:9232855

Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T; Quaresima, V

1997-01-01

350

Optical characterization of muscle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical characterization and internal structure of biological tissues is highly important for biomedical optics. In particular for optical clearing processes, such information is of vital importance to understand the mechanisms involved through the variation of the refractive indices of tissue components. The skeletal muscle presents a fibrous structure with an internal arrangement of muscle fiber cords surrounded by interstitial fluid that is responsible for strong light scattering. To determine the refractive index of muscle components we have used a simple method of measuring tissue mass and refractive index during dehydration. After performing measurements for natural and ten dehydration states of the muscle samples, we have determined the dependence between the refractive index of the muscle and its water content. Also, we have joined our measurements with some values reported in literature to perform some calculations that have permitted to determine the refractive index of the dried muscle fibers and their corresponding volume percentage inside the natural muscle.

Oliveira, Luís; Lage, Armindo; Pais Clemente, Manuel; Tuchin, Valery V.

2012-03-01

351

Optical characterization of muscle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical characterization and internal structure of biological tissues is highly important for biomedical optics. In particular for optical clearing processes, such information is of vital importance to understand the mechanisms involved through the variation of the refractive indices of tissue components. The skeletal muscle presents a fibrous structure with an internal arrangement of muscle fiber cords surrounded by interstitial fluid that is responsible for strong light scattering. To determine the refractive index of muscle components we have used a simple method of measuring tissue mass and refractive index during dehydration. After performing measurements for natural and ten dehydration states of the muscle samples, we have determined the dependence between the refractive index of the muscle and its water content. Also, we have joined our measurements with some values reported in literature to perform some calculations that have permitted to determine the refractive index of the dried muscle fibers and their corresponding volume percentage inside the natural muscle.

Oliveira, Luís; Lage, Armindo; Pais Clemente, Manuel; Tuchin, Valery V.

2011-10-01

352

Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

2014-11-01

353

Trunk Control Ability after Minimally Invasive Lumbar Fusion Surgery during the Early Postoperative Phase  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Lumbar fusion has been used for spinal disorders when conservative treatment fails. The minimally invasive approach causes minimal damage to the back muscles and shortens the postoperative recovery time. However, evidence regarding functional recovery in patients after minimally invasive lumbar spinal fusion is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate how trunk control ability is affected after minimally invasive lumbar fusion surgery during the early postoperative phase. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen patients and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy participants were recruited. Participants were asked to perform a maximum forward reaching task and were evaluated 1 day before and again 1 month after the lumbar fusion surgery. Center of pressure (COP) displacement, back muscle strength, and scores for the Visual Analog Scale, and Chinese version of the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were recorded. [Results] The healthy control group exhibited more favorable outcomes than the patient group both before and after surgery in back strength, reaching distance, reaching velocity, and COP displacement. The patient group improved significantly after surgery in all clinical outcome measurements. However, reaching distance decreased, and the reaching velocity as well as COP displacement did not differ before and after surgery. [Conclusion] The LBP patients with lumbar fusion surgery showed improvement in pain intensity 1 month after surgery but no improvement in trunk control during forward reaching. The results provide evidence that the back muscle strength was not fully recovered in patients 1 month after surgery and limited their ability to move their trunk forward. PMID:25202174

Pao, Jwo-Luen; Yang, Rong-Sen; Hsiao, Chen-Hsi; Hsu, Wei-Li

2014-01-01

354

General surgery career resource.  

PubMed

General surgery residency training can lead to a rewarding career in general surgery and serve as the foundation for careers in several surgical subspecialties. It offers broad-based training with exposure to the cognitive and technical aspects of several surgical specialties and prepares graduating residents for a wide range of career paths. This career development resource discusses the training aspects of general surgery. PMID:24157351

Parsee, Ana M; Ross, Sharona B; Gantt, Nancy L; Kichler, Kandace; Hollands, Celeste

2013-11-01

355

CV Surgery Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stanford University's HighWire Press has announced the online publication of several journals. CV Surgery Online offers "a fully searchable online compilation of articles pertinent to the cardiothoracic and vascular surgeon from the 5 American Heart Association Journals: Circulation, Circulation Research, Hypertension, Stroke, and Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Surgery." Published by the American Heart Association in conjunction with HighWire Press, the free trial period for CV Surgery Online ended December 31, 2000.

1999-01-01

356

Strategies to Improve Regeneration of the Soft Palate Muscles After Cleft Palate Repair  

PubMed Central

Children with a cleft in the soft palate have difficulties with speech, swallowing, and sucking. These patients are unable to separate the nasal from the oral cavity leading to air loss during speech. Although surgical repair ameliorates soft palate function by joining the clefted muscles of the soft palate, optimal function is often not achieved. The regeneration of muscles in the soft palate after surgery is hampered because of (1) their low intrinsic regenerative capacity, (2) the muscle properties related to clefting, and (3) the development of fibrosis. Adjuvant strategies based on tissue engineering may improve the outcome after surgery by approaching these specific issues. Therefore, this review will discuss myogenesis in the noncleft and cleft palate, the characteristics of soft palate muscles, and the process of muscle regeneration. Finally, novel therapeutic strategies based on tissue engineering to improve soft palate function after surgical repair are presented. PMID:22697475

Carvajal Monroy, Paola L.; Grefte, Sander; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Wagener, Frank A.D.T.G.

2012-01-01

357

Treating Strabismus by Injecting the Agonist Muscle with Bupivacaine and the Antagonist with Botulinum Toxin  

PubMed Central

Purpose: We report the results of injection of bupivacaine (BUP) and botulinum toxin (BT) into agonist and antagonist muscles, respectively, to treat horizontal strabismus. Methods: We treated both horizontal muscles of 7 patients with comitant horizontal strabismus, 2 patients with partial lateral rectus (LR) paralysis, and one elderly myopic patient with acquired esotropia, injecting the agonist muscle with BUP in concentrations of 0.75% to 3.0% and volumes of 3.0 to 5.0 mL, and the antagonist with BT in about half the usual therapeutic dose to prevent it from stretching the BUP-treated muscle during its regeneration following BUP myotoxicity. We reinjected BT in one patient who had an inadequate response from the initial BT dose. Results: The 7 comitant patients were corrected (on average) 19.7 prism diopters (?), from 28.3? to 8.6?, at 193 days after injection. Muscle volume increase after BUP injection was 5.8% at 158 days. One LR palsy patient without LR atrophy was changed 55?; the other, with LR atrophy, was corrected 4?. Two patients had transient vertical deviations from the BT injection. The myopic patient with esotropia was unchanged. Conclusions: Injections of BUP and BT corrected 7 patients with comitant horizontal strabismus an average of 19.7?, about double the correction reported from BUP injection alone. BUP-injected muscles increased size by 5.8%. Of 2 patients with LR weakness, one without LR atrophy was changed by 55?, but another with LR atrophy was corrected only 4?. PMID:20126486

Scott, Alan B.; Miller, Joel M.; Shieh, Kevin R.

2009-01-01

358

Weight-Bearing Exercise Accuracy Influences Muscle Activation Strategies of the Knee  

PubMed Central

Purpose Dynamic stability of the knee joint is a research topic of increasing focus after ACL injury, stroke, and incomplete spinal cord injury. Since rehabilitation programs use functional weight-bearing tasks to improve neuromuscular control of the knee, it is important to understand the adaptability of muscle control strategies during weight-bearing exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation patterns during a single leg squat (SLS) exercise performed before and after feedback-controlled training. Methods This was a cross-sectional comparative study. Fifteen young, healthy individuals performed the SLS exercise while tracking a sinusoidal target with flexion and extension of the knee. The SLS instrument provided bidirectional resistance that was normalized to body weight. Six trials of 10 repetitions of the SLSs were performed to quantify improved performance (learning). Electromyographic activity from five muscles that cross the knee was analyzed. Accuracy of performance was measured by calculating the error between the target and actual knee displacement. Results Reduction in error measurements verified that individuals increased the accuracy of performance in each trial and retained this improvement across trials (p < 0.05). Modulation in muscle activity as a result of learning was reflected mainly in the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis muscles. Conclusion Increased accuracy with the SLS exercise was accompanied by a decrease in coactivation of selected musculature around the knee. This study presents a novel approach to quantify the effect of performance on muscle synergistic activation patterns during weight-bearing exercise. Controlled strengthening, as defined in this study, emphasizes accuracy of performance in conjunction with principles of strength training and has implications to knee control. PMID:17419885

Madhavan, Sangeetha; Shields, Richard K.

2014-01-01

359

Pediatric heart surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - discharge; Tetralogy of Fallot repair - discharge; Coarctation of the aorta repair - discharge; ...

360

Electromyographic analysis of trunk and lower extremity muscle activities during pulley-based shoulder exercises performed on stable and unstable surfaces  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of an unstable support surface (USS) on the activities of trunk and lower extremity muscles during pulley-based shoulder exercise (PBSE). [Subjects] Twenty healthy college students were included in this study. [Methods] Surface EMG was carried out in twenty healthy adult men. The activities of trunk and lower extremity muscles performed during PBSE using a resistance of 14?kg on a stable or unstable support surface were compared. The PBSE included shoulder abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, internal rotation, and external rotation. [Results] On the unstable surface, the rectus abdominis and erector spinae showed significantly less activation during shoulder external rotation, but the extent of activation was not significantly different during other shoulder exercises. The external oblique and rectus femoris showed no significant difference during any shoulder exercises. The tibialis anterior showed significantly greater activation during all shoulder exercises, except flexion and extension. The gastrocnemius showed significantly greater activation during shoulder abduction, extension, and internal rotation. However, during shoulder adduction, flexion, and external rotation, the gastrocnemius showed no significant difference. [Conclusion] The use of USS to increase core stability during PBSE is probably not effective owing to compensatory strategies of the ankle. PMID:25642041

Shin, Doochul; Cha, Jaeyun; Song, Changho

2015-01-01

361

Effects of Push-ups Plus Sling Exercise on Muscle Activation and Cross-sectional Area of the Multifidus Muscle in Patients with Low Back Pain.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of lumbar stability exercises on chronic low back pain by using sling exercise and push-ups. [Subjects] Thirty adult subjects with chronic back pain participated, with 10 adults being assigned to each of 3 exercise groups: general physical therapy (PT), lumbar stability using sling exercises (Sling Ex), and sling exercise plus push-ups (Sling Ex+PU). Each group trained for 30 minutes 3 times a week for 6 weeks. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of the lumbar muscles, and cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle on computed tomography (CT) were evaluated before and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of therapy. [Results] A significant decrease in ODI was seen in all therapy groups, and this change was greater in the Sling Ex and Sling Ex+PU groups than in the PT group. No changes in sEMG activity were noted in the PT group, whereas significant increases in the sEMG activities of all lumbar muscles were found in the other 2 groups. The increases in the sEMG activities of the rectus abdominis and internal and external oblique muscles of the abdomen were greater in the Sling Ex+PU group than in the other 2 groups. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that Sling Ex+PU, similar to normal lumbar stabilization exercise, is effective in activating and improving the function of the lumbar muscles. These results suggest that Sling Ex+PU has a positive impact on stabilization of the lumbar region. PMID:24409023

Kim, Gye-Yeop; Kin, Se-Hun

2013-12-01

362

Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine  

E-print Network

Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine Trauma and Post Department of Orthopaedic Surgery 4860 Y Street, 1700 Sacramento, CA 95817 P: 916.734.2700 F: 916

Leistikow, Bruce N.

363

Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine  

E-print Network

Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine Trauma and Post______________________________: This letter is to welcome you to the University of California, Davis Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

Leistikow, Bruce N.

364

Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine  

E-print Network

Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine Trauma and Post OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS Department of Orthopaedic Surgery 4860 Y Street, Suite 3800 Sacramento, CA 95817 P: 916

Leistikow, Bruce N.

365

Muscle development and obesity  

PubMed Central

The formation of skeletal muscle from the epithelial somites involves a series of events triggered by temporally and spatially discrete signals resulting in the generation of muscle fibers which vary in their contractile and metabolic nature. The fiber type composition of muscles varies between individuals and it has now been found that there are differences in fiber type proportions between lean and obese animals and humans. Amongst the possible causes of obesity, it has been suggested that inappropriate prenatal environments may ‘program’ the fetus and may lead to increased risks for disease in adult life. The characteristics of muscle are both heritable and plastic, giving the tissue some ability to adapt to signals and stimuli both pre and postnatally. Given that muscle is a site of fatty acid oxidation and carbohydrate metabolism and that its development can be changed by prenatal events, it is interesting to examine the possible relationship between muscle development and the risk of obesity. PMID:19279728

2008-01-01

366

Muscle activation and knee biomechanics during squatting and lunging after lower extremity fatigue in healthy young women.  

PubMed

Muscle activations and knee joint loads were compared during squatting and lunging before and after lower extremity neuromuscular fatigue. Electromyographic activations of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris, and the external knee adduction and flexion moments were collected on 25 healthy women (mean age 23.5years, BMI of 23.7kg/m(2)) during squatting and lunging. Participants were fatigued through sets of 50 isotonic knee extensions and flexions, with resistance set at 50% of the peak torque achieved during a maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Fatigue was defined as a decrease in peak isometric knee extension or flexion torque ?25% from baseline. Co-activation indices were calculated between rectus femoris and biceps femoris; and between vastus lateralis and biceps femoris. Fatigue decreased peak isometric extension and flexion torques (p<0.05), mean vastus lateralis activation during squatting and lunging (p<0.05), and knee adduction and flexion moments during lunging (p<0.05). Quadriceps activations were greater during lunging than squatting (p<0.05). Thus, fatigue altered the recruitment strategy of the quadriceps during squatting and lunging. Lunging challenges quadriceps activation more than squatting in healthy, young women. PMID:25258248

Longpré, Heather S; Acker, Stacey M; Maly, Monica R

2014-09-01

367

Journal of Biomechanics 41 (2008) 23622369 Importance of preswing rectus femoris activity in stiff-knee gait  

E-print Network

reserved. Keywords: Dynamic simulation; Muscle function; Knee flexion; Stiff-knee gait; Cerebral palsy 1. Introduction Stiff-knee gait is a debilitating consequence of cerebral palsy characterized by diminished knee one or more of the symptoms of cerebral palsy (CDC, 2004). The ambulatory types of cerebral palsy

Delp, Scott

368

Muscle Changes in Aging  

PubMed Central

Muscle physiology in the aging athlete is complex. Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in lean muscle mass, can alter activity level and affect quality of life. This review addresses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in muscle with age, recognizes contributing factors including nutrition and changes in hormone levels, and identifies potential pharmacologic agents in clinical trial that may aid in the battle of this complex, costly, and disabling problem. Level of Evidence: Level 5. PMID:24427440

Siparsky, Patrick N.; Kirkendall, Donald T.; Garrett, William E.

2014-01-01

369

Is Knee Laxity Change after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Surgery Related to Open Kinetic Chain Knee Extensor Training Load?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether knee anterior laxity changes after ACL injury and surgery are related to aspects of thigh muscle resistance training during rehabilitation. One hundred and two subjects (22 females) diagnosed with an ACL deficient knee or who had undergone ACL reconstructive surgery participated in this study. The subjects trained their knee extensors in

Matthew C. Morrissey; Mark C. Perry; John B. King

2008-01-01

370

Muscle force redistributes segmental power for body progression during walking.  

PubMed

The ankle plantar flexors were previously shown to support the body in single-leg stance to ensure its forward progression [J. Biomech. 34 (2001) 1387]. The uni- (SOL) and biarticular (GAS) plantar flexors accelerated the trunk and leg forward, respectively, with each opposing the effect of the other. Around mid-stance their net effect on the trunk and the leg was negligible, consistent with the body acting as an inverted pendulum. In late stance, their net effect was to accelerate the leg and trunk forward, consistent with an active push-off. Because other muscles are active in the beginning and end of stance, we hypothesized that their active concentric and eccentric force generation also supports the body and redistributes segmental power to enable body forward progression. Muscle-actuated forward dynamical simulations that emulated observed walking kinematics and kinetics of young adult subjects were analyzed to quantify muscle contributions to the vertical and horizontal ground reaction force, and to the acceleration and mechanical power of the leg and trunk. The eccentric uniarticular knee extensors (vasti, VAS) and concentric uniarticular hip extensors (gluteus maximus, GMAX) were found to provide critical support to the body in the beginning of stance, before the plantar flexors became active. VAS also decelerated the forward motion of both the trunk and the leg. Afterwards when VAS shortens in mid-stance, it delivered the power produced to accelerate the trunk and also redistributed segmental power to the trunk by continuing to decelerate the leg. When present, rectus femoris (RF) activity in the beginning of stance had a minimal effect. But in late stance the lengthening RF accelerated the knee and hip into extension, which opposed swing initiation. Though RF was lengthening, it still accelerated the trunk forward by decelerating the leg and redistributing the leg segmental power to the trunk, as SOL does though it is shortening instead of lengthening. Force developed from highly stretched passive hip structures and active force produced by the uniarticular hip flexors assisted GAS in swing initiation. Hamstrings (HAM) decelerated the leg in late swing while lengthening and accelerated the leg in the beginning of stance while shortening. We conclude that the uniarticular knee and hip extensor muscles are critical to body support in the beginning of stance and redistribution of segmental power by muscles throughout the gait cycle is critical to forward progression of the trunk and legs. PMID:15013508

Neptune, R R; Zajac, F E; Kautz, S A

2004-04-01

371

Radioisotopic assays of CoASH and carnitine and their acetylated forms in human skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Radioisotopic assays for the determination of acetyl-CoA, CoASH, and acetylcarnitine have been modified for application to the amount of human muscle tissue that can be obtained by needle biopsy. In the last step common to all three methods, acetyl-CoA is condensed with [14C]oxaloacetate by citrate synthase to give [14C]-citrate. For determination of CoASH, CoASH is reacted with acetylphosphate in a reaction catalyzed by phosphotransacetylase to yield acetyl-CoA. In the assay for acetylcarnitine, acetylcarnitine is reacted with CoASH in a reaction catalyzed by carnitine acetyltransferase to form acetyl-CoA. Inclusion of new simple steps in the acetylcarnitine assay and conditions affecting the reliability of all three methods are also described. Acetylcarnitine and free carnitine levels in human rectus abdominis muscle were 3.0 +/- 1.5 (SD) and 13.5 +/- 4.0 mumol/g dry wt, respectively. Values for acetyl-CoA and CoASH were about 500-fold lower, 6.7 +/- 1.8 and 21 +/- 8.9 nmol/g dry wt, respectively. A strong correlation between acetylcarnitine (y) and short-chain acylcarnitine (x), determined as the difference between total and free carnitine, was found in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle obtained during intense muscular effort, y = 1.0x + 0.5; r = 0.976. PMID:2339783

Cederblad, G; Carlin, J I; Constantin-Teodosiu, D; Harper, P; Hultman, E

1990-03-01

372

Paraneoplastic muscle disease.  

PubMed

In paraneoplastic muscle disease, the malignancy may remotely affect neuromuscular transmission or incite muscle inflammation or necrosis. In several of these diseases, an autoimmune basis for the muscle disease has been established and has become a defining feature. These paraneoplastic muscle diseases may be the first manifestation of a malignancy, and their diagnosis thus demands a vigilant search for an underlying tumor. This article is focused on inflammatory and necrotizing myopathies and disorders of neuromuscular transmission that may arise in the setting of malignancy and are considered paraneoplastic phenomena. PMID:21444019

Baer, Alan N

2011-05-01

373

An artificial muscle computer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built an artificial muscle computer based on Wolfram's "2, 3" Turing machine architecture, the simplest known universal Turing machine. Our computer uses artificial muscles for its instruction set, output buffers, and memory write and addressing mechanisms. The computer is very slow and large (0.15 Hz, ˜1 m3); however by using only 13 artificial muscle relays, it is capable of solving any computable problem given sufficient memory, time, and reliability. The development of this computer shows that artificial muscles can think—paving the way for soft robots with reflexes like those seen in nature.

Marc O'Brien, Benjamin; Alexander Anderson, Iain

2013-03-01

374

Muscle Loss in Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students measure the change in the area of calf muscle from transverse MRI images collected from an astronaut before and after a prolonged journey in space. They measure and compare the total area of calf muscle from before and after flight to determine if muscle loss has occurred. The lesson introduces some reasons for the muscle loss, measures to reduce the loss, and other effects of space flight. Students perform the image analysis with WebImage, a customized version of ImageJ running in a browser.

375

Periodontal Plastic Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Periodontal plastic surgery is designed to restore form and function to the gum tissue, periodontal ligament, and the bone that supports your teeth ... tooth. The real long-term goal of any periodontal surgery is to increase the life expectancy of ...

376

Virtual Knee Surgery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, learners assist in performing a virtual total knee replacement surgery. There is a great deal of information about this procedure specifically as well as general surgical information, along with questions the learner must answer (using information given onscreen) before the surgery can proceed.

Edheads; Cosi

2007-01-01

377

Complications of Sinus Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... be aware of potential changes in their voice after sinus surgery. Infection: The most common reason to undergo sinus surgery ... is therefore at risk of developing certain other infections in this area ... nose and sinus after the operation During the postoperative visits the scar ...

378

Preparing for Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... have an increased chance of complications during and after surgery, including wound infections, pneumonia and heart attacks. The earlier you quit smoking before surgery, the lower your chances of complications. Make ... adult to take you home after your anesthetic or sedation. You will not be ...

379

Breast Cancer Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... the best option for you. What to expect after surgery Before surgery, ask your doctor what changes you might expect afterwards. These may include: • Risk of infection, bleeding or slow healing of the wound. If lymph nodes have been removed, you may ...

380

Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries Updated:Oct 24,2014 If you've had a heart attack, you may have already had certain procedures to ... artery disease (CAD) you have. Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries Angioplasty Also known as Percutaneous Coronary Interventions [PCI], ...

381

Robot assisted knee surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses establishing a force control strategy incorporating active motion constraint. The following subjects are considered: problems with conventional surgery; robot assisted surgery; control strategy; representing the motion constraint; design of the desired position; force control strategy; implicit force control; modified damping control; experimental results

S. C. Ho; R. D. Hibberd; B. L. Davies

1995-01-01

382

Corpus Uteri Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Corpus Uteri C540–C559 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) [SEER Note: Do not code dilation and curettage (D&C) as Surgery of Primary Site for invasive cancers] Codes 00 None; no surgery

383

Cervix Uteri Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Cervi x Uteri C530–C539 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) [SEER Note: Do not code dilation and curettage (D&C) as Surgery of Primary Site for invasive cancers] Codes 00 None; no surgery

384

Homologous Muscle Contraction during Unilateral Movement Does Not Show a Dominant Effect on Leg Representation of the Ipsilateral Primary Motor Cortex  

PubMed Central

Co-activation of homo- and heterotopic representations in the primary motor cortex (M1) ipsilateral to a unilateral motor task has been observed in neuroimaging studies. Further analysis showed that the ipsilateral M1 is involved in motor execution along with the contralateral M1 in humans. Additionally, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have revealed that the size of the co-activation in the ipsilateral M1 has a muscle-dominant effect in the upper limbs, with a prominent decline of inhibition within the ipsilateral M1 occurring when a homologous muscle contracts. However, the homologous muscle-dominant effect in the ipsilateral M1 is less clear in the lower limbs. The present study investigates the response of corticospinal output and intracortical inhibition in the leg representation of the ipsilateral M1 during a unilateral motor task, with homo- or heterogeneous muscles. We assessed functional changes within the ipsilateral M1 and in corticospinal outputs associated with different contracting muscles in 15 right-handed healthy subjects. Motor tasks were performed with the right-side limb, including movements of the upper and lower limbs. TMS paradigms were measured, consisting of short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and recruitment curves (RCs) of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the right M1, and responses were recorded from the left rectus femoris (RF) and left tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. TMS results showed that significant declines in SICI and prominent increases in MEPs of the left TA and left RF during unilateral movements. Cortical activations were associated with the muscles contracting during the movements. The present data demonstrate that activation of the ipsilateral M1 on leg representation could be increased during unilateral movement. However, no homologous muscle-dominant effect was evident in the leg muscles. The results may reflect that functional coupling of bilateral leg muscles is a reciprocal movement. PMID:23991067

Chiou, Shin-Yi; Wang, Ray-Yau; Liao, Kwong-Kum; Yang, Yea-Ru

2013-01-01

385

Influence of Gender and Muscle Architecture Asymmetry on Jump and Sprint Performance  

PubMed Central

Muscle architecture is a determinant for sprinting speed and jumping power, which may be related to anaerobic sports performance. In the present investigation, the relationships between peak (PVJP) and mean (MVJP) vertical jump power, 30m maximal sprinting speed (30M), and muscle architecture were examined in 28 college-aged, recreationally-active men (n = 14; 24.3 ± 2.2y; 89.1 ± 9.3kg; 1.80 ± 0.07 m) and women (n = 14; 21.5 ± 1.7y; 65.2 ± 12.4kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m). Ultrasound measures of muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle (PNG), cross-sectional area (CSA), and echo intensity (ECHO) were collected from the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) of both legs; fascicle length (FL) was estimated from MT and PNG. Men possessed lower ECHO, greater muscle size (MT & CSA), were faster, and were more powerful (PVJP & MVJP) than women. Stepwise regression indicated that muscle size and quality influenced speed and power in men. In women, vastus lateralis asymmetry negatively affected PVJP (MT: r = –0.73; FL: r = –0.60) and MVJP (MT: r = –0.76; FL: r = –0.64), while asymmetrical ECHO (VL) and FL (RF) positively influenced MVJP (r = 0.55) and 30M (r = 0.57), respectively. Thigh muscle architecture appears to influence jumping power and sprinting speed, though the effect may vary by gender in recreationally-active adults. Appropriate assessment of these ultrasound variables in men and women prior to training may provide a more specific exercise prescription. Key points The manner in which thigh muscle architecture affects jumping power and sprinting speed varies by gender. In men, performance is influenced by the magnitude of muscle size and architecture. In women, asymmetrical muscle size and architectural asymmetry significantly influence performance. To develop effective and precise exercise prescription for the improvement of jumping power and/or sprinting speed, muscle architecture assessment prior to the onset of a training program is advised. PMID:25435784

Mangine, Gerald T.; Fukuda, David H.; LaMonica, Michael B.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Wells, Adam J.; Townsend, Jeremy R.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Fragala, Maren S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Hoffman, Jay R.

2014-01-01

386

[Cataract surgery in Togo].  

PubMed

Cataract remains a major cause of blindness in sub-Sahara and a major public health problem. Blindness prevalence in Togo is equal to 1%, more than half of it is due to cataract, while the number of cataract surgeries is low because of the lack of resources. We assessed the eye healthcare in Togo by cataract surgery. The aim was to estimate the number of cataract surgeries and the Cataract Surgery Rate (CSR) in the administrative regions. The demographic data (denominator) was collected from the Demography and Health Survey (1998) while the number of cataract surgeries (numerator) was obtained from medical registers. The Cataract Surgery Rate (CSR, operated cataracts per million) was assessed from 1995 to 2001. From 1995 to 2001, 3,885 cataract surgeries were performed. Public services predominated with 53.03% (n=2061) of the cataracts operated followed by confessional hospitals with 37.1% (n=1443) and private clinics 3.4% (n=143). Decentralised eye healthcares provided 241 cataract extractions. The University hospital centre of Lome Tokoin was the leader, with 32.5% (n=1,262) of operated cataracts followed by the confessional hospital of Glei, 27.2% (n=1,058). The average per centre per year was 43 cataract surgeries. The mean CSR was 126 and varied from 52 to 163 cataract surgeries per million people per year. There was an important concentration of cataract services in Lome where 41% (n=1,586) of cataracts were operated and the CSR was 334. The unequal distribution of cataract services (41% in Lome) leaves many regions without any resources. Since 1999, the CSR increased by 37% in 2000 and 14% in 2001. The Togolese eye healthcare system is poor and substantial further efforts are necessary to make it accessible and affordable to all those in need. This may be the way to reduce cataract surgery barriers and the unacceptable high prevalence of operable cataract blindness. PMID:12925316

Mensah, A; Balo, K P; Kondi, G; Banla, M; Koffigue, K B; Resnikoff, S; Astagneau, P; Brücker, G

2003-01-01

387

Complications in Ankle Fracture Surgery.  

E-print Network

??Mikko Ovaska. Complications in Ankle Fracture Surgery. Helsinki Bone and Joint Research Group, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki,… (more)

Ovaska, Mikko

2014-01-01

388

Aging and Muscle Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging is associated with a decrease in fat-free mass, an increase in fat mass, and progressive impairment of muscle function and performance. Diminishing anabolic hormone levels and progressive declines in muscle protein turnover contribute to the multifactorial pathophysiology of age-associated sarcopenia. The potential effects of anabolic hormone replacement on body composition and functional capacity are only beginning to be studied.

Rachelle Bross; Tom Storer; Shalender Bhasin

1999-01-01

389

SMOOTH MUSCLE STEM CELLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) originate from multiple types of progenitor cells. In the embryo, the most well-studied SMC progenitor is the cardiac neural crest stem cell. Smooth muscle differentiation in the neural crest lineage is controlled by a combination of cell intrinsic factors, includ...

390

Respiratory muscle plasticity.  

PubMed

Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle's plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles. PMID:23798306

Gransee, Heather M; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

2012-04-01

391

Functional variation of neck muscles and their relation to feeding style in Tyrannosauridae and other large theropod dinosaurs.  

PubMed

Reconstructed neck muscles of large theropod dinosaurs suggest influences on feeding style that paralleled variation in skull mechanics. In all examined theropods, the head dorsiflexor m. transversospinalis capitis probably filled in the posterior dorsal concavity of the neck, for a more crocodilian- than avian-like profile in this region. The tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurids Daspletosaurus and Tyrannosaurus had relatively larger moment arms for latero-flexion by m. longissimus capitis superficialis and m. complexus than albertosaurine tyrannosaurids, and longer dorsiflexive moment arms for m. complexus. Areas of dorsiflexor origination are significantly larger relative to neck length in adult Tyrannosaurus rex than in other tyrannosaurids, suggesting relatively large muscle cross-sections and forces. Tyrannosaurids were not particularly specialized for neck ventro-flexion. In contrast, the hypothesis that Allosaurus co-opted m. longissimus capitis superficialis for ventro-flexion is strongly corroborated. Ceratosaurus had robust insertions for the ventro-flexors m. longissimus capitis profundus and m. rectus capitis ventralis. Neck muscle morphology is consistent with puncture-and-pull and powerful shake feeding in tyrannosaurids, relatively rapid strikes in Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus, and ventroflexive augmentation of weaker jaw muscle forces in the non tyrannosaurids. PMID:17654673

Snively, Eric; Russell, Anthony P

2007-08-01

392

Responses of muscle mass, strength and gene transcripts to long-term heat stress in healthy human subjects.  

PubMed

The present study was performed to investigate the effects of long-term heat stress on mass, strength and gene expression profile of human skeletal muscles without exercise training. Eight healthy men were subjected to 10-week application of heat stress, which was performed for the quadriceps muscles for 8 h/day and 4 days/week by using a heat- and steam-generating sheet. Maximum isometric force during knee extension of the heated leg significantly increased after heat stress (~5.8%, P < 0.05). Mean cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of vastus lateralis (VL, ~2.7%) and rectus femoris (~6.1%) muscles, as well as fiber CSA (8.3%) in VL, in the heated leg were also significantly increased (P < 0.05). Statistical analysis of microarrays (SAM) revealed that 10 weeks of heat stress increased the transcript level of 925 genes and decreased that of 1,300 genes, and gene function clustering analysis (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery: DAVID) showed that these regulated transcripts stemmed from diverse functional categories. Transcript level of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) was significantly increased by 10 weeks of heat stress (~3.0 folds). UQCRB is classified as one of the oxidative phosphorylation-associated genes, suggesting that heat stress can stimulate ATP synthesis. These results suggested that long-term application of heat stress could be effective in increasing the muscle strength associated with hypertrophy without exercise training. PMID:20803152

Goto, Katsumasa; Oda, Hideshi; Kondo, Hidehiko; Igaki, Michihito; Suzuki, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Shuichi; Murase, Takatoshi; Hase, Tadashi; Fujiya, Hiroto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Naito, Hisashi; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada

2011-01-01

393

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids in muscle lipids of lambs from the Patagonian area of Argentina.  

PubMed

The concentrations of fatty acids were measured in total lipids, triacyglycerol and phospholipid fractions of intramuscular fat (IMF) from the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of 10 lambs reared to approximately 30kg live weight on natural pasture with their dams. Fatty acid composition was also measured in 25 (five of each) Semitendinosus (ST), Semimembranosus (SM), Rectus femoris (RF), Gluteus (GLU) and Tensor fascia latea (TFL) muscles. Intramuscular fat percentages were similar for all muscles. Aspects of the fatty-acid patterns of relevance to human nutrition tended to favor the leg muscles with lower saturated fatty acids (SFA %), n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios (p<0.01) and higher concentrations of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (p<0.05). The estimated fatty acid concentrations (mg/100g of meat) showed higher contribution of arachidonic (C20:4 n-6), eicosapentanoic (C20:5 n-3), docosapentanoic (C22:5 n-3) and docosahexanoic (C22:6 n-3) acids in leg compared to LD lipids. PMID:22062915

Garcia, P T; Casal, J J; Fianuchi, S; Magaldi, J J; Rodríguez, F J; Nancucheo, J A

2008-07-01

394

Getting Surgery Right  

PubMed Central

Objective: We sought to identify factors contributing to wrong-site surgery (wrong patient, procedure, side, or part). Methods: We examined all reports from all hospitals and ambulatory surgical centers—in a state that requires reporting of wrong-site surgery—from the initiation of the reporting requirement in June 2004 through December 2006. Results: Over 30 months, there were 427 reports of near misses (253) or surgical interventions started (174) involving the wrong patient (34), wrong procedure (39), wrong side (298), and/or wrong part (60); 83 patients had incorrect procedures done to completion. Procedures on the lower extremities were the most common (30%). Common contributions to errors resulting in the initiation of wrong-site surgery involved patient positioning (20) and anesthesia interventions (29) before any planned time-out process, not verifying consents (22) or site markings (16), and not doing a proper time-out process (17). Actions involving operating surgeons contributed to 92. Common sources of successful recovery to prevent wrong-site surgery were patients (57), circulating nurses (30), and verifying consents (43). Interestingly, 31 formal time-out processes were unsuccessful in preventing “wrong” surgery. Conclusions: Wrong-site surgery continues to occur regularly, especially wrong-side surgery, even with formal site verification. Many errors occur before the time-out; some persist despite the verification protocol. Patients and nurses are the surgeons’ best allies. Verification, starting with verification of the consent, needs to occur at multiple points before the incision. PMID:17717443

Clarke, John R.; Johnston, Janet; Finley, Edward D.

2007-01-01

395

Changes in exercises are more effective than in loading schemes to improve muscle strength.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of varying strength exercises and loading scheme on muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and maximum strength after 4 strength training loading schemes: constant intensity and constant exercise (CICE), constant intensity and varied exercise (CIVE), varied intensity and constant exercise (VICE), varied intensity and varied exercise (VIVE). Forty-nine individuals were allocated into 5 groups: CICE, CIVE, VICE, VIVE, and control group (C). Experimental groups underwent twice a week training for 12 weeks. Squat 1 repetition maximum was assessed at baseline and after the training period. Whole quadriceps muscle and its heads CSA were also obtained pretraining and posttraining. The whole quadriceps CSA increased significantly (p ? 0.05) in all of the experimental groups from pretest to posttest in both the right and left legs: CICE: 11.6 and 12.0%; CIVE: 11.6 and 12.2%; VICE: 9.5 e 9.3%; and VIVE: 9.9 and 11.6%, respectively. The CIVE and VIVE groups presented hypertrophy in all of the quadriceps muscle heads (p ? 0.05), whereas the CICE and VICE groups did not present hypertrophy in the vastus medialis and rectus femoris (RF), and in the RF muscles, respectively (p > 0.05). The CIVE group had greater strength increments than the other training groups (effect size confidence limit of the difference [ESCLdiff] CICE: 1.41-1.56; VICE: 2.13-2.28; VIVE: 0.59-0.75). Our findings suggest: (a) CIVE is more efficient to produce strength gains for physically active individuals; (b) as long as the training intensity reaches an alleged threshold, muscle hypertrophy is similar regardless of the training intensity and exercise variation. PMID:24832974

Fonseca, Rodrigo M; Roschel, Hamilton; Tricoli, Valmor; de Souza, Eduardo O; Wilson, Jacob M; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Aihara, André Y; de Souza Leão, Alberto R; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

2014-11-01

396

Lower Extremity Muscle Activity During a Women’s Overhand Lacrosse Shot  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to describe lower extremity muscle activity during the lacrosse shot. Participants (n=5 females, age 22±2 years, body height 162.6±15.2 cm, body mass 63.7±23.6 kg) were free from injury and had at least one year of lacrosse experience. The lead leg was instrumented with electromyography (EMG) leads to measure muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (GA). Participants completed five trials of a warm-up speed shot (Slow) and a game speed shot (Fast). Video analysis was used to identify the discrete events defining specific movement phases. Full-wave rectified data were averaged per muscle per phase (Crank Back Minor, Crank Back Major, Stick Acceleration, Stick Deceleration). Average EMG per muscle was analyzed using a 4 (Phase) × 2 (Speed) ANOVA. BF was greater during Fast vs. Slow for all phases (p<0.05), while TA was not influenced by either Phase or Speed (p>0.05). RF and GA were each influenced by the interaction of Phase and Speed (p<0.05) with GA being greater during Fast vs. Slow shots during all phases and RF greater during Crank Back Minor and Major as well as Stick Deceleration (p<0.05) but only tended to be greater during Stick Acceleration (p=0.076) for Fast vs. Slow. The greater muscle activity (BF, RF, GA) during Fast vs. Slow shots may have been related to a faster approach speed and/or need to create a stiff lower extremity to allow for faster upper extremity movements. PMID:25114727

Millard, Brianna M.; Mercer, John A.

2014-01-01

397

ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY AND INSURANCE ISSUES 1. Orthognathic surgery (surgery for the treatment of a dentofacial deformity) is  

E-print Network

ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY AND INSURANCE ISSUES 1. Orthognathic surgery (surgery for the treatment. 2. Although there are some medical plans that specifically exclude orthognathic surgery, most insurance plans in California do permit the authorization of orthognathic surgery "when medically necessary

Mullins, Dyche

398

Pelvic floor muscle training exercises  

MedlinePLUS

Kegel exercises ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women with urinary stress incontinence People who have fecal incontinence Pelvic floor muscle training exercises can help ...

399

Relationships between Muscle Contributions to Walking Subtasks and Functional Walking Status in Persons with Post-Stroke Hemiparesis  

PubMed Central

Background Persons with post-stroke hemiparesis usually walk slowly and asymmetrically. Stroke severity and functional walking status are commonly predicted by post-stroke walking speed. The mechanisms that limit walking speed, and by extension functional walking status, need to be understood to improve post-stroke rehabilitation methods. Methods Three-dimensional forward dynamics walking simulations of hemiparetic subjects (and speed-matched controls) with different levels of functional walking status were developed to investigate the relationships between muscle contributions to walking subtasks and functional walking status. Muscle contributions to forward propulsion, swing initiation and power generation were analyzed during the pre-swing phase of the gait cycle and compared between groups. Findings Contributions from the paretic leg muscles (i.e., soleus, gastrocnemius and gluteus medius) to forward propulsion increased with improved functional walking status, with the non-paretic leg muscles (i.e., rectus femoris and vastii) compensating for reduced paretic leg propulsion in the limited community walker. Contributions to swing initiation from both paretic (i.e., gastrocnemius, iliacus and psoas) and non-paretic leg muscles (i.e., hamstrings) also increased as functional walking status improved. Power generation was also an important indicator of functional walking status, with reduced paretic leg power generation limiting the paretic leg contribution to forward propulsion and leg swing initiation. Interpretation These results suggest that deficits in muscle contributions to the walking subtasks of forward propulsion, swing initiation and power generation are directly related to functional walking status and that improving output in these muscle groups may be an effective rehabilitation strategy for improving post-stroke hemiparetic walking. PMID:21251738

Hall, A.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Kautz, S.A.; Neptune, R.R.

2011-01-01

400

[Bariatric and metabolic surgery].  

PubMed

The prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities is constantly rising and is one of the most threatening global health and economic problems worldwide. Whereas bariatric surgery is well accepted in the treatment of morbid obesity, surgical treatment for ist comorbidities (metabolic surgery) such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and other diseases are still under discussion. A more profound knowledge of its physiologic mechanisms is crucial for the future implementation of the bariatric and metabolic surgery to treat obesity-related comorbidities. PMID:23385191

Nett, Philipp C

2013-02-01

401

UCF COLLEGE OF MEDICINE M.D. CURRICULUM Surgery Surgery  

E-print Network

UCF COLLEGE OF MEDICINE M.D. CURRICULUM May Vacation Surgery Surgery Vacation IM/FM (Continued) Internal Medicine/Family Medicine Surgery FIREMiniConference Longitudinal Curricular Themes Ethics wks) S-6 Brain and Behavior (7 wks) March April FIREMiniConference Capstone Surg Select Surgery Select

Foroosh, Hassan

402

Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery.  

E-print Network

1/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Simon;2/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Motivation #12;2/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Motivation Recent work (B-boys & Schweinsberg, Aidekon-Harris) considers branching Brownian

403

[Urology and ambulatory surgery].  

PubMed

The ambulatory surgery is the realization of a surgical act with entrance and taken out the same day. The evolution of the surgery in traditional hospitalization towards the ambulatory is a cultural revolution. The function care and accommodation of our establishments of health are disconnected. The ambulatory surgery is source of progress for the surgery, the anesthesia, our organizations. She corresponds to a demand of the public. She is ethical. There is an institutional will shared by all the actors of health today. The AFU measured its delay and has the objective to facilitate to the urologic community this mode of taken care. Learned recommendations are going to be produced in association with the HAS. The role of the IDE of urology is specified there. PMID:23101963

Cuvelier, G

2012-11-01

404

Carpal Tunnel Surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... carried out for the condition of carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a neuropathy where the median nerve gets ... of the hand. The surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome consists of a release of the transverse carpal ...

405

Laparoscopic Spine Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Global: Global Affairs and Humanitarian Efforts SAGES HELPS: Humanity Education Leadership Perspective Support SAGES STEP: Surgeons Training ... for a surgery. Specific recommendations may vary among health care professionals. If you have a question about ...

406

Expectations of Sinus Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... after surgery, it can be treated with antibiotics. Steroids - One of the underlying causes of some forms ... forms of swelling, your doctor may prescribe oral steroids or topical (spray, irrigation) steroids or both. Packing – ...

407

Brain Tumor Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... The surgical removal of a portion of the skull. Doing so allows the neurosurgeon to find the ... much of it as possible. The piece of skull that was removed is replaced following surgery. Craniectomy: ...

408

Preparing for Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... some types of surgery. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ080 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ... allergies, or allergies to food or latex (some surgical gloves are made of latex). You will be ...

409

Gastric bypass surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... to your weight loss and your weight becomes stable. Because of this quick weight loss, you will ... week: Start walking after surgery. Move around the house and shower, and use the stairs at home. ...

410

Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... of artificial lenses. Following are some of the alternative refractive surgery procedures to LASIK . Wavefront-Guided LASIK ... that releases controlled amounts of radio frequency (RF) energy, instead of a laser, to apply heat to ...

411

Electromyographic Activities of Trunk Muscles Due to Different Exercise Intensities during Pulley-based Shoulder Exercises on an Unstable Surface  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study examined the relationship between core stability and exercise intensity during a pulley-based shoulder exercise (PBSE) on an unstable support surface. [Subjects] Twenty healthy college students enrolled in this study. [Methods] Surface EMG was carried out in twenty healthy adult men. The electromyographic activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES), exercises with 14?kg or 26?kg of resistance and external oblique (EO) muscles during pulley-based shoulder on an unstable support surface (USS) were compared. [Results] The EMG signals of the RA, ES, and EO did not increase with increasing exercise resistance. [Conclusion] Increasing the exercise intensity to increase the core stability during PBSE on a USS may be ineffective. PMID:24926144

Cha, Jae Yun; Shin, Doo Chul; Shin, Seung Ho; Lee, Myung Mo; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Song, Chang Ho

2014-01-01

412

Electromyographic Activities of Trunk Muscles Due to Different Exercise Intensities during Pulley-based Shoulder Exercises on an Unstable Surface.  

PubMed

[Purpose] This study examined the relationship between core stability and exercise intensity during a pulley-based shoulder exercise (PBSE) on an unstable support surface. [Subjects] Twenty healthy college students enrolled in this study. [Methods] Surface EMG was carried out in twenty healthy adult men. The electromyographic activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES), exercises with 14?kg or 26?kg of resistance and external oblique (EO) muscles during pulley-based shoulder on an unstable support surface (USS) were compared. [Results] The EMG signals of the RA, ES, and EO did not increase with increasing exercise resistance. [Conclusion] Increasing the exercise intensity to increase the core stability during PBSE on a USS may be ineffective. PMID:24926144

Cha, Jae Yun; Shin, Doo Chul; Shin, Seung Ho; Lee, Myung Mo; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Song, Chang Ho

2014-05-01

413

New approach in strabismus surgery in high myopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo develop appropriate methods of eye muscle surgery in highly myopic patients with esotropia and hypotropia, with respect to the pathological findings in high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).METHODS35 patients with unilateral or bilateral high myopia and strabismus—that is, axial length of the globe averaged 29.4 mm. Multiple coronal, transverse, and parasagittal MRI image planes were obtained using a Siemens

Thomas H Krzizok; Herbert Kaufmann; Horst Traupe

1997-01-01

414

Robotic surgery, telerobotic surgery, telepresence, and telementoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy rapidly became the standard of care for the surgical treatment of cholelithiasis, very\\u000a few other abdominal or cardiac operations are currently performed using minimally invasive surgical techniques. The inherent\\u000a limitations of traditional laparoscopic surgery make it difficult to perform these operations. We, and others, have attempted\\u000a to use robotic technology to (a) provide a stable camera platform,

G. H. Ballantyne

2002-01-01

415

A new dimension in endo surgery: Micro endo surgery  

PubMed Central

There is an immense difference between tradizional Endodontic Surgery and Micro-Endo Surgery. Microsurgical techniques made possible and accessible results,that were unimaginable before. Under microscopic control,the operative techniques reached continous changes,allowing a better precision and quality standards. The dramatic evolution from Endo Surgery to Micro-Endo Surgery has enlarged the horizon of therapeutic options. Illumination and magnification through the Microscope has fundamentally and radically changed the way endo surgery can be performed.

Pecora, Gabriele Edoardo; Pecora, Camilla Nicole

2015-01-01

416

GIP and Bariatric Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bariatric surgery is the most effective modality of achieving weight loss as well as the most effective treatment for type\\u000a 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin and is implicated in the pathogenesis\\u000a of obesity and T2DM. Its role in weight loss and resolution of T2DM after bariatric surgery is very controversial. We have\\u000a made an

Raghavendra S. Rao; Subhash Kini

2011-01-01

417

Neurological surgery planning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer-assisted neurological surgery planning system (NSPS), developed by the Neurological Surgery Department, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, is designed to offer neurosurgeons a safe and accurate method to approach intracranial lesions. Software consisting of the most advanced technologies in computer vision, computer graphics, and stereotactic numeric analysis forms the kernel of the system. Our paper discusses the functionalities and background theories used in NSPS.

Jiang, Charlie Z. W.; Zamorano, Lucia J.; Kadi, A. Majeed

1993-09-01

418

Surgery in advanced borderline tumors.  

PubMed

Our retrospective study evaluates the role of conservative surgery, performed in 10 of 22 patients affected by advanced stage serous borderline ovarian tumor. Although patients who underwent conservative surgery had a higher recurrence rate (60% after conservative surgery and 8% after radical surgery), all patients are alive without evidence of disease. PMID:20036359

Viganò, Riccardo; Petrone, Micaela; Pella, Francesca; Rabaiotti, Emanuela; De Marzi, Patrizia; Mangili, Giorgia

2010-08-01

419

Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery  

E-print Network

Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery 1. Your surgery will be performed in the Surgery Center on the 4th floor of the Center for Health and Healing (CHH) at Oregon Health & Sciences University. The procedure is done under anesthesia administered by an anesthesiologist. After surgery, you

Chapman, Michael S.