Sample records for rectus muscle surgery

  1. Minimally Invasive Strabismus Surgery for Rectus Muscle Posterior Fixation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Mojon

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To present a novel, minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) technique for rectus muscle posterior fixation. Methods: This study reports the results of 32 consecutive MISS rectus muscle posterior fixation surgeries performed on 19 patients by applying only two small L-shaped openings where the two retroequatorial scleromuscular sutures were placed. Results: On the first postoperative day, in primary position, redness

  2. Surgical results of the slipped medial rectus muscle after hang back recession surgery

    PubMed Central

    Duranoglu, Yasar; Ilhan, Hatice Deniz; Guler Alis, Meryem

    2014-01-01

    AIM To analyze the surgical results of a slipped medial rectus muscle (MRM) after hang back recession surgery for esotropia. METHODS Twenty-one patients who underwent re-exploration for diagnosed slipped muscle after hang back recession surgery were included in this retrospective study. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed to identify the location of the slipped muscle. Ocular motility was evaluated with assessment with prism and cover test in gaze at cardinal positions. The operations were performed by the same consultant. Intraoperative forced duction test was performed under general anesthesia. The empty sheath of the slipped MRM was resected and the muscle was advanced to the original insertion site in all patients. RESULTS The average age of 21 patients who had consecutive exotropia with a slipped MRM at the time of presentation was 17.4±5.4y (5-50y). The average duration between the first operation and the diagnosis of the slipped muscle was 25mo (12 to 36mo). The mean follow up after the corrective surgery was 28mo. The mean preoperative adduction limitation in the field of action of the slipped muscle was -2.26 (ranging from -1 to -4). All patients had full adduction postoperatively. CONCLUSION The diagnosis of the slipped muscle should be confirmed during the strabismus surgery. The slipped muscle may be caused due to insufficient suture and excessive rubbing of the eye. When divergent strabismus is observed after the recession of the MRM, a slipped muscle should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:25540761

  3. Rectus abdominis muscle strains in tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan P; Kokalj, Antonio M

    2007-01-01

    Rectus abdominis muscle strains are common and debilitating injuries among competitive tennis players. Eccentric overload, followed by forced contraction of the non?dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion is the accepted injury mechanism. A tennis?specific rehabilitation program emphasising eccentrics and plyometric strengthening of the abdominal wall muscles, contributes to the complete functional recovery in tennis players, and could help reduce recurrences. PMID:17957025

  4. Predicting outcomes of rectus femoris transfer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Reinbolt, Jeffrey A.; Fox, Melanie D.; Schwartz, Michael H.; Delp, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    Rectus femoris transfer surgery is a common treatment for stiff knee gait in children with cerebral palsy. Unfortunately, the improvement in knee motion after surgery is inconsistent. There is great interest in understanding the causes of stiff knee gait and determining predictors of improved knee motion after surgery. This study demonstrates that it is possible to predict whether or not a patient’s knee motion will improve following rectus femoris transfer surgery with greater than 80% accuracy. A predictive model was developed that requires only a few preoperative gait analysis measurements, already collected as a routine part of treatment planning. Our examination of 62 patients before and after rectus femoris transfer revealed that a combination of hip power, knee power, and knee flexion velocity at toe-off correctly predicted postoperative outcome for 80% of cases. With the addition of two more preoperative measurements, hip flexion and internal rotation, prediction accuracy increased to nearly 88%. Other combinations preoperative gait analysis measurements also predicted outcomes with high accuracy. These results provide insight into factors related to positive outcomes and suggest that predictive models provide a valuable tool for determining indications for rectus femoris transfer. PMID:19411175

  5. [Plastic surgery coverage of osteocutaneous defects of the sternum area with the vertical and transversal rectus abdominis muscle (VRAM/TRAM) flap].

    PubMed

    Erdmann, D; Küntscher, M; Petracic, A; Sauerbier, M; Menke, H; Schirren, J; Dienemann, H; Germann, G

    2000-09-01

    Longitudinal osteocutaneous defects of the sternal region including the caudal third were reconstructed in 15 patients during a 3-year period by using the "vertical (VRAM)- and transverse rectus abdominis muscle" (TRAM) flap. The majority of the defects resulted from chronic osteomyelitis after previous cardiothoracic surgery or were due to former therapy of breast cancer. Three VRAM/TRAM flaps were primarily transferred as free flaps with microvascular anastomosis in the axilla region. Nine out of 12 pedicled VRAM or TRAM flaps required an additional microvascular anastomosis because of imminent venous or arterial insufficiency ("supercharging"). Therefore, operative technique and operating time of the pedicled and free flap for reconstruction of longitudinal sternal defects are comparable. Adequate reconstruction and rehabilitation was achieved in 11 cases. In 2 patients revision and partial secondary defect coverage was required. Two male patients died postoperatively due to their preexisting condition. PMID:11043136

  6. Traumatic transection of the lateral rectus muscle with chorioretinitis sclopetaria.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Kelly; Verity, David; Ali, Nadeem

    2015-03-01

    A man, aged 67 years, sustained monocular trauma to the left eye while gardening, presenting with light perception, complete absence of abduction, and chorioretinitis sclopetaria. At surgery, the lateral rectus was found to be transected at the equator of the globe, with an area of locally abraded sclera. A few posterior muscle fibers were identified and sutured to the residual anterior fibers. With a partial improvement of the esodeviation, after a further 6 months he proceeded to lateral transposition of the superior and inferior recti to healthy sclera 4?mm from the limbus, with adjunctive medial rectus botulinum toxin. Six months later, the angle of primary deviation remained stable at 4 prism diopters base out with improved abduction. Vision in the eye remained reduced at 20/200 (with eccentric fixation) due to macular changes secondary to the sclopetaria. In conclusion, this case describes a rare example of complete traumatic transection of the lateral rectus with chorioretinitis sclopetaria, due to orbital injury. With appropriate surgery, the angle of deviation can be considerably improved despite complete muscle transection and scleral injury. PMID:25790075

  7. Successful twin pregnancy and delivery following free rectus abdominis muscle flap at 15 weeks gestational age.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P J; Bentz, M L

    1998-01-01

    Although a vertical rectus abdominis flap would not have been selected for reconstruction of the patient's defect had her pregnancy been detected preoperatively, the present case does demonstrate the remarkable resiliency and integrity of the anterior abdominal wall after rectus abdominis muscle flap surgery. Meticulous closure of the abdominal wall is of utmost importance in maintaining abdominal wall competence. Although the merits of muscle splitting techniques and the use of mesh are beyond the scope of this report, there is no evidence that modification of technique should be performed in the patient considering future pregnancy. Our case supports other reports that rectus abdominis flap surgery is not a contraindication to future pregnancy. Intuitively waiting at least 1 year, as recommended by Chen et al., seems reasonable, although the present case demonstrated a successful pregnancy and delivery of twins after a vertical rectus abdominis flap was harvested during pregnancy. PMID:9427929

  8. Strabismus surgery complicated by “pulled in two syndrome” in a case of breast carcinoma metastatic to the medial rectus muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David K. Wallace; Steven R. Virata; Suresh K. Mukherji

    2000-01-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the extraocular muscles is extremely rare; it is reported to occur from breast, lung, and gastric carcinoma as well as skin melanoma.1–3 Overall, intraocular metastases occur much more frequently than orbital metastases.4 The most common primary tumors causing orbital metastases are breast and lung carcinomas.5 Strabismus due to orbital metastases from breast carcinoma usually results from fibrosis

  9. Treatment of subtotal medial rectus myectomy complicating functional endoscopic sinus surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William L. Trotter; Pamela Kaw; Dale R. Meyer; John W. Simon

    2000-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, the introduction of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has dramatically improved the treatment of sinus disorders. However, a variety of orbital complications have been reported, including optic nerve damage, hemorrhage, infection, compromise of the lacrimal drainage apparatus, and strabismus. At least 10 cases have reported damage to the medial rectus muscle.1–8 Treatment options for such

  10. Rectus abdominis muscle malignant fibrous histiocytoma causing a large abdominal wall defect: reconstruction with biological mesh.

    PubMed

    Falidas, Evangelos; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Goudeli, Christina; Mathioulakis, Stavros; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Villias, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a common soft tissue sarcoma usually involving limbs and retroperitoneum. MFH of the rectus abdominis muscle is extremely rare. Surgery in similar cases leads to large abdominal wall defects needing reconstruction. Biological and synthetic laminar absorbable prostheses are available for the repair of hernia defects in the abdominal wall. They share the important feature of being gradually degraded in the host, resulting the formation of a neotissue. We herein report the case of an 84-year-old man with MFH of the rectus abdominis muscle which was resected and the large abdominal wall defect was successfully repaired with a biological mesh. PMID:24653854

  11. Rectus Abdominis Muscle Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Causing a Large Abdominal Wall Defect: Reconstruction with Biological Mesh

    PubMed Central

    Falidas, Evangelos; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Goudeli, Christina; Mathioulakis, Stavros; Villias, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a common soft tissue sarcoma usually involving limbs and retroperitoneum. MFH of the rectus abdominis muscle is extremely rare. Surgery in similar cases leads to large abdominal wall defects needing reconstruction. Biological and synthetic laminar absorbable prostheses are available for the repair of hernia defects in the abdominal wall. They share the important feature of being gradually degraded in the host, resulting the formation of a neotissue. We herein report the case of an 84-year-old man with MFH of the rectus abdominis muscle which was resected and the large abdominal wall defect was successfully repaired with a biological mesh. PMID:24653854

  12. Isolated abscess in superior rectus muscle in a child

    PubMed Central

    Bhalerao, Sushank Ashok; Singh, Kamaljeet; Yadav, Birendra; Kumar, Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    Pyomyositis is a primary bacterial infection of striated muscles nearly always caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Development of the intramuscular abscess involving the extra-ocular muscles (EOMs) remains an extremely rare process. We herein present a case of isolated EOM pyomyositis involving superior rectus muscle in a 2-year male child who was referred with complaints of swelling in left eye (LE) and inability to open LE since last 1-month. Orbital computed tomography (CT) scan showed a well-defined, hypo-dense, peripheral rim-enhancing lesion in relation to left superior rectus muscle suggestive of left superior rectus abscess. The abscess was drained through skin approach. We concluded that pyomyositis of EOM should be considered in any patient presenting with acute onset of orbital inflammation and characteristic CT or magnetic resonance imaging features. Management consists of incision and drainage coupled with antibiotic therapy. PMID:25971183

  13. [Hematoma of the anterior rectus abdominis muscle diagnosed with CAT].

    PubMed

    Pérez Benítez, F; Martínez Ferriz, A; Guisado Barrilao, R; Leruite Larrainzar, F

    1989-02-01

    A case of hematoma of rectus anterior muscle of the abdomen is presented. We review the symptoms and all the diagnostic possibilities the diagnostic tests to clarify this clinical state are firstly the cat-scan and secondly the abdominal ultrasound. PMID:2535234

  14. Electromyography study of the portions of the abdominal rectus muscle.

    PubMed

    Negrao Filho, R de F; Bérzin, F; Souza, G da C

    1997-01-01

    This study objective was to verify the behavior of three portions of the abdominal rectus muscle through a quantitative analysis of the electromyographic signal in different types of abdominal exercises. Ten young male between 16 and 27 years old were studied and they had no previous history of muscle and joint illness. They were well-trained and did seven abdominal exercises chosen considering the types of contraction (isotonic and isometric) as well as the muscle fixation points. The electric activity of the superior, medium (above umbilicus) and inferior (below umbilicus) portions at the left side of the abdominal rectus muscle was taken using Beckman type surface mini-electrodes. The registers were collected from computerized 8-channel Nicholet electromyography equipment, model Viking II. The signals were quantified using the MVA (Maximum Volunteer Activity) software, being considered for analysis the values of RMS (Root Mean Square). The obtained data were submitted to a parametric analysis using the variance analysis (F test) and also the Tukey test, besides a descriptive graphic analysis starting from the average RMS values of each muscle portion. This study results suggest that for the majority of the subjects, the functional activities of the abdominal rectus muscle are performed with electric activity differences among their portions, showing a tendency of producing more electric activity in the superior portion than in the medium and inferior portions. The experiment also demonstrated an absence of a common behavior pattern in the three portions of the ten tested subjects. PMID:9444489

  15. Recession of the inferior rectus muscle in Graves’ orbitopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J De Hoog; S Stravers; R Kalmann

    2010-01-01

    PurposeTo identify the predictive factors for overcorrection and depression impairment after recession of the inferior rectus muscle (IRM) in patients with Graves’ orbitopathy.DesignRetrospective cohort study, single institution.MethodsThe charts of 124 consecutive patients who underwent recession of the IRM were retrospectively examined, as well as all literature with regard to the subject until January 2008. Ductions measurements, computed tomography (CT) appearance,

  16. Long-term evaluation of the abdominal wall competence after total and selective harvesting of the rectus abdominis muscle.

    PubMed

    Galli, A; Adami, M; Berrino, P; Leone, S; Santi, P

    1992-05-01

    Fifty patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction by transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap transposition between January 1987 and December 1989 are the object of this study. Every patient underwent selective harvesting of the medial portion of the muscle, whereas the lateral strip was left in place and studied intraoperatively by selective stimulation of the ninth intercostal motor nerve before closure of the fascial defect. Two separate ecographic scans of the abdominal wall were performed respectively 7 days and 6 months postoperatively, to evaluate the diameters of the residual portion of the rectus muscle and its long-term evolution. Our results show that in a considerable number of patients, the lateral strip of rectus was denervated at surgery. Long-term ecographic scans demonstrate, however, that in spite of this finding, the residual muscle usually maintains its diameters, thus significantly contributing to the competence of the abdominal wall, at least from the static point of view. PMID:1535765

  17. Superior Rectus Muscle Recession for Residual Head Tilt after Inferior Oblique Muscle Weakening in Superior Oblique Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Seong Joon; Choi, Jin; Yu, Young Suk

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Residual head tilt has been reported in patients with superior oblique muscle palsy (SOP) after surgery to weaken the inferior oblique (IO) muscle. The treatments for these patients have not received appropriate attention. In this study, we evaluated the superior rectus (SR) muscle recession as a surgical treatment. Methods The medical records of 12 patients with SOP were retrospectively reviewed. Each of these patients had unilateral SR muscle recession for residual head tilt after IO muscle weakening due to SOP. The residual torticollis was classified into three groups on the basis of severity: mild, moderate, or severe. Both IO muscle overaction and vertical deviation, features of SOP, were evaluated in all patients. The severity of the preoperative and postoperative torticollis and vertical deviation were compared using a paired t-test and Fisher's exact test. Results The torticollis improved in nine of 12 (75%) patients after SR muscle recession. The difference between the preoperative and postoperative severity of torticollis was statistically significant (p = 0.0008). After surgery, the mean vertical deviation was significantly reduced from 12.4 prism diopters to 1.3 prism diopters (p = 0.0003). Conclusions Unilateral SR muscle recession is an effective method to correct residual head tilt after IO muscle weakening in patients with SOP. This surgical procedure is believed to decrease head tilt by reducing the vertical deviation and thereby the compensatory head tilt. PMID:22870028

  18. [Paragliding-associated bilateral partial rupture of the rectus femoris muscle].

    PubMed

    Schulze Bertelsbeck, D; Veelken, D

    2004-12-01

    Pain in the thigh or groin due to a rupture of the rectus femoris muscle is rather uncommon. We report on a patient with a bilateral rupture of the rectus femoris muscle that occurred due to a landing maneuver while para-gliding. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound and MRI. Additionally, an old unilateral anterior cruciate ligament rupture was present. As a functional deficit of the quadriceps muscle could not be observed, a primarily conservative treatment seems to be appropriate. PMID:15221069

  19. Internal organization of medial rectus and inferior rectus muscle neurons in the C group of the oculomotor nucleus in monkey.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofang; Büttner-Ennever, Jean A; Mustari, Michael J; Horn, Anja K E

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian extraocular muscles contain singly innervated twitch muscle fibers (SIF) and multiply innervated nontwitch muscle fibers (MIF). In monkey, MIF motoneurons lie around the periphery of oculomotor nuclei and have premotor inputs different from those of the motoneurons inside the nuclei. The most prominent MIF motoneuron group is the C group, which innervates the medial rectus (MR) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle. To explore the organization of both cell groups within the C group, we performed small injections of choleratoxin subunit B into the myotendinous junction of MR or IR in monkeys. In three animals the IR and MR myotendinous junction of one eye was injected simultaneously with different tracers (choleratoxin subunit B and wheat germ agglutinin). This revealed that both muscles were supplied by two different, nonoverlapping populations in the C group. The IR neurons lie adjacent to the dorsomedial border of the oculomotor nucleus, whereas MR neurons are located farther medially. A striking feature was the differing pattern of dendrite distribution of both cell groups. Whereas the dendrites of IR neurons spread into the supraoculomotor area bilaterally, those of the MR neurons were restricted to the ipsilateral side and sent a focused bundle dorsally to the preganglionic neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, which are involved in the "near response." In conclusion, MR and IR are innervated by independent neuron populations from the C group. Their dendritic branching pattern within the supraoculomotor area indicates a participation in the near response providing vergence but also reflects their differing functional roles. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:1809-1823, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25684641

  20. A Novel Case of Superior Rectus Injury and Its Subsequent Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Ahmed; Wong, Vicki; Young, Jane; Durnian, Jon

    2015-01-01

    We report a presumed damage to the left superior rectus (SR) muscle following a dog bite injury that resulted in a marked weakness of elevation and vertical diplopia. A 30-year-old male presented in October 2010 following a dog bite around his left superotemporal orbit. An ophthalmic examination was unremarkable. The patient immediately complained of vertical diplopia, which did not settle during a period of observation lasting approximately 9 months following the attack. An orthoptist examination confirmed a marked restriction of upgaze. A diagnosis of isolated SR injury, secondary to the dog bite, was suspected. A left Knapp procedure was performed. The surgery was uneventful with scar tissue found around the SR. Three months following his surgery, the patient was orthophoric in both primary positions and in the downgaze with a residual 20-prism dioptre hypotropia in the upgaze. Our patient was unusual in that the bite weakened the SR in isolation. We also show the successful management of this novel case using a simple Knapp procedure. PMID:25759663

  1. Cut and paste: A novel method of re-attaching rectus muscles with cyanoacrylate during recessions in strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Darakshan, Anjum; Amitava, Abadan K

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Bio-adhesives like cyanoacrylate offer an alternative to sutures to attach tissues, including in ophthalmology. This prospective trial evaluated the suitability and bio-tolerance of iso-amyl cyanoacrylate in rectus muscle recession surgery for strabismus. Materials and Methods: We randomized one eye in each of 10 cases of bilateral horizontal rectus recessions to 6/0 polyglactin and the other to iso-amyl-cyanoacrylate. We compared time to reattachment (from disinsertion), complications and inflammatory scores (0 to +3: nil, mild, moderate and severe) on Day One, at two and at four to six weeks post surgery. Results: There were no significant group differences in inflammatory scores (Wilcoxon, all values of P>0.05). All attachments held firm. Gluing took significantly longer by 5.24±1.91 min (95% CI for difference: 3.87-6.61). There were no complications. Conclusion: We feel that although it takes marginally longer, iso-amyl cyanoacrylate offers an effective and safe alternative to sutures for muscle recession in strabismus surgery. Since it is cheaper (vs. polyglactin) and offers multi-use possibility it may also prove to be cost-effective. PMID:20689194

  2. Intraoperative monitoring of torsion to prevent vertical deviations during augmented vertical rectus transposition surgery

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Jonathan M.; Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Total transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscle laterally, with augmentation sutures, may be complicated by induction of an undesirable vertical deviation. Induced vertical misalignment may be associated with changes in torsion. We have developed a simple method to monitor intraoperative torsion that may reduce the incidence of vertical deviations. Methods We reviewed consecutive cases of total abducens palsy or esotropic Duane syndrome treated with augmented lateral transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscles, where the 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock intraoperative positions were initially marked with a dot at the limbus using a surgical pen. The location of the marks was monitored during tying of the augmentation sutures; changes in torsion were monitored intraoperatively. Results Records of 9 cases of augmented vertical rectus transposition were reviewed. Based on intraoperative assessment of torsion by observing the position of the preplaced limbal dots, the inferior rectus augmentation suture was tied less tightly than the superior rectus suture, leaving a gap of 1–3 mm between the inferior and lateral rectus muscles in 8 of 9 cases. The augmentation suture was totally removed in 1 case. Following these intraoperative adjustments, there was no induced intraoperative torsion, whereas further tightening of the inferior suture induced extorsion. Six weeks postoperatively, 8 of 9 patients did not experience a symptomatic vertical deviation. Conclusions When performing augmented transposition procedures, intraoperative monitoring of torsion may reduce the incidence of inadvertent vertical deviations and torsion. This technique may also be useful in other cases where correction or avoidance of torsion is needed. PMID:22525168

  3. Early Results of Slanted Recession of the Lateral Rectus Muscle for Intermittent Exotropia with Convergence Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung Min

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of slanted recession of the lateral rectus muscle for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency. This prospective study included 31 patients who underwent slanted lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency between June 2010 and June 2012. Following parameters were recorded and analyzed: patient sex, age, preoperative and postoperative near and distance ocular alignment, and changes in stereopsis. The mean age of the patients was 9.2 years. The preoperative mean deviation angle was 32.4?PD at distance and 43.4?PD at near. After 6 months, slanted lateral rectus recession reduced the deviation angles to 2?PD at distance and 3.4?PD at near. In addition, the mean difference between distance and near deviation angles was significantly reduced from 11?PD to 1.4?PD at 6 months postoperatively. Slanted lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency in children successfully reduced the distance and near exodeviations and the near-distance difference without increasing the risk of long-term postoperative esotropia or diplopia. PMID:25688298

  4. Early results of slanted recession of the lateral rectus muscle for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Chun, Bo Young; Kang, Kyung Min

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of slanted recession of the lateral rectus muscle for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency. This prospective study included 31 patients who underwent slanted lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency between June 2010 and June 2012. Following parameters were recorded and analyzed: patient sex, age, preoperative and postoperative near and distance ocular alignment, and changes in stereopsis. The mean age of the patients was 9.2 years. The preoperative mean deviation angle was 32.4?PD at distance and 43.4?PD at near. After 6 months, slanted lateral rectus recession reduced the deviation angles to 2?PD at distance and 3.4?PD at near. In addition, the mean difference between distance and near deviation angles was significantly reduced from 11?PD to 1.4?PD at 6 months postoperatively. Slanted lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia with convergence insufficiency in children successfully reduced the distance and near exodeviations and the near-distance difference without increasing the risk of long-term postoperative esotropia or diplopia. PMID:25688298

  5. Retrospective study of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle in periodic alternating nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kimura, Naoki; Kimura, Akiko; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a spontaneous horizontal nystagmus observed in disorders of the central nervous system. Patients with congenital PAN complain of oscillating vision at high rates. Medication is the first-choice treatment for PAN; however, clinicians still seek better therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle (R-FHR) in patients with congenital PAN. Patients and methods This study reports a retrospective case series of ten patients (seven males and three females; mean age 24.4±10.9) with congenital PAN who underwent R-FHR between 2007 and 2012, which was performed by the same surgeon at the Hyogo College of Medicine. Patients were evaluated for complications, recession amount, deviation angle, eye movements including a nystagmus amplitude, and visual acuity during pre- and post-operative periods. Results Pre-operatively, patients complained of oscillating vision, abnormal head posture, esotropia, and congenital superior oblique palsy. Post-operatively, changes from the previous observations of nystagmus amplitudes and abnormal head posture demonstrated a complete reversal in all patients. In addition, visual acuity determined with a Snellen chart improved in two patients. However, esotropia occurred in three patients who underwent additional strabismus surgery 2 days after R-FHR. R-FHR was particularly effective in eight patients who pre-operatively had periodic oscillating vision with a regular pattern of periodic nystagmus. Conclusion We demonstrated that ten patients with congenital PAN had improved vision following R-FHR, indicating that R-FHR was an effective procedure, especially in patients suffering PAN with periodic oscillating vision. PMID:25525330

  6. Large Asymmetric Hypertrophy of Rectus Abdominis Muscle in Professional Tennis Players

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Idoate, Fernando; Dorado, Cecilia; Alayón, Santiago; Calbet, Jose A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the musculus rectus abdominis (RA) in professional tennis players. Methods The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 8 professional male tennis players and 6 non-active male control subjects. Results Tennis players had 58% greater RA volume than controls (P?=?0.01), due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (34% greater volume, P?=?0.02) and non-dominant (82% greater volume, P?=?0.01) sides, after accounting for age, the length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI) as covariates. In tennis players, there was a marked asymmetry in the development of the RA, which volume was 35% greater in the non-dominant compared to the dominant side (P<0.001). In contrast, no side-to-side difference in RA volume was observed in the controls (P?=?0.75). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry increased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis (r?=?0.97, P<0.001). Conclusions Professional tennis is associated with marked hypertrophy of the musculus rectus abdominis, which achieves a volume that is 58% greater than in non-active controls. Rectus abdominis hypertrophy is more marked in the non-dominant than in the dominant side, particularly in the more distal regions. Our study supports the concept that humans can differentially recruit both rectus abdominis but also the upper and lower regions of each muscle. It remains to be determined if this disequilibrium raises the risk of injury. PMID:21209832

  7. Quantitative end qualitative analysis of the electrical activity of rectus abdominis muscle portions.

    PubMed

    Negrão Filho, R de Faria; Bérzin, F; Souza, G da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrical behavior pattern of the Rectus abdominis muscle by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the electromyographic signal obtained from its superior, medium and inferior portions during dynamic and static activities. Ten voluntaries (aged X = 17.8 years, SD = 1.6) athletic males were studied without history of muscle skeletal disfunction. For the quantitative analysis the RMS (Root Mean Square) values obtained in the electromyographic signal during the isometric exercises were normalized and expressed in maximum voluntary isometric contraction percentages. For the qualitative analysis of the dynamic activity the electromyographic signal was processed by full-wave rectification, linear envelope and normalization (amplitude and time), so that the resulting curve of the processed signal was submitted to descriptive graphic analysis. The results of the quantitative study show that there is not a statistically significant difference among the portions of the muscle. Qualitative analysis demonstrated two aspects: the presence of a common activation electric pattern in the portions of Rectus abdominis muscle and the absence of significant difference in the inclination angles in the electrical activity curve during the isotonic exercises. PMID:12964259

  8. Functional Morphometry of Horizontal Rectus Extraocular Muscles during Horizontal Ocular Duction

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Robert A.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We explored multiple quantitative measures of horizontal rectus extraocular muscle (EOM) morphology to determine the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measure best correlating with duction and thus contractility. Methods. Surface coil coronal MRI was obtained in target-controlled central gaze and multiple positions of adduction and abduction in 26 orbits of 15 normal volunteers. Duction angles were determined by position changes of the globe-optic nerve junction. Cross-sectional areas, partial volumes, and location of peak cross-sections of the horizontal rectus EOMs were computed in contiguous image planes 2-mm thick spanning the EOM origins to the globe equator. Results. All measures correlated significantly with duction angle (P < 0.0001). The best measures obtainable in single image planes were the maximum change in the cross-sectional area between equivalent image planes, with coefficients of determination R2 = 0.92 for medial rectus (MR) and 0.91 for lateral rectus (LR), and percentage change in maximum cross-section with R2 = 0.79 for MR and 0.78 for LR. The best partial volume measure of contractility was the change in partial volumes in four contiguous posterior planes (R2 = 0.86 MR and for 0.89 LR), particularly when combined with the corresponding change in partial volume for the antagonist EOM (R2 = 0.95 for MR and LR). Conclusions. EOM morphologic changes are highly correlated with degrees of duction and thus contractility. Both changes in single-plane maximum cross-sectional areas and posterior partial volumes provide accurate, quantitative measures of EOM contractility. PMID:22997285

  9. Surgical effects of nasal transposition of inferior rectus muscle - 135 cases of acquired superior oblique palsy.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Mana; Kimura, Akiko; Masuda, Akiko; Mimura, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Nasal transposition of the inferior rectus (IR) muscle, which is transposed nasally with the insertion parallel to the spiral of Tillaux, could correct excyclotropia. However, as far as we are aware, there have been no reports examining the surgical effects of this procedure in multiple cases. Therefore, we examined the surgical effects of IR nasal transposition in 135 cases with acquired trochlear nerve palsy at Hyogo College of Medicine Hospital, Nishinomiya, Japan. One muscle width of IR nasal transposition corrected an average 5.6° in excyclotorsion, while bilateral IR nasal transposition corrected average 10.9°. This result shows this procedure is accurate quantitatively. Moreover, IR nasal transposition in combination with IR recession or resection can correct vertical deviation and excyclotorsion simultaneously. The results of this study suggest that IR nasal transposition should become first-line treatment for acquired superior oblique palsy. PMID:25945030

  10. Renal Carcinoid Tumor Metastatic to the Uvea, Medial Rectus Muscle, and the Contralateral Lacrimal Gland.

    PubMed

    Kiratli, Hayyam; Uzun, Salih; Tarlan, Berçin; Ate?, Deniz; Baydar, Dilek Ertoy; Söylemezo?lu, Figen

    2015-01-01

    Renal carcinoid tumor is an exceedingly rare malignancy. A 57-year-old man with a renal carcinoid tumor discovered after metastasizing to intraocular and bilateral orbital structures is described. The patient presented with a blind painful OS and a right superotemporal subconjunctival mass. Imaging studies revealed a large left intraocular tumor, a mass in the left medial rectus muscle, and right lacrimal gland enlargement. The OS was enucleated, and incisional biopsies were performed from the other 2 lesions. Histopathological studies demonstrated metastatic neuroendocrine tumor with chromogranin and synaptophysin positivity. Systemic work up revealed a right renal mass and multiple hepatic metastatic lesions. Radical nephrectomy was performed, and octreotide, capecitabine, and temozolomide were administered. Removal of the primary tumor and the eye that had no prospect for useful vision and further treatment with octreotide, capecitabine, and temozolomide provided a disease progression-free period of 24 months and allowed the patient to function normally. PMID:24777267

  11. Sliding myofascial flap of the rectus abdominus muscles for the closure of recurrent ventral hernias.

    PubMed

    DiBello, J N; Moore, J H

    1996-09-01

    Despite a reported incidence of up to 11 percent of incisional/ventral hernias following celiotomies, there is no universally applicable preventive or reconstructive technique in practice. Among patients undergoing repair of ventral incisional herniation, the reported recurrence rates are typically in the 30- to 50-percent range. This study concentrates on the patient with a large, recurrent abdominal incisional hernia in whom conventional surgical repair has failed. We report our recent 4-year experience with the use of "components separation" of the myofascial layers of the abdominal wall for repair of these recurrent herniations. During 4-year period, 35 patients with large, recurrent ventral hernias underwent repair by the same surgeon (J. H. M.) using the method described below. Abdominal defects as large as 875 cm2 were repaired, with a median defect size of 255 cm2. The repair was based on the compound flap of the rectus muscle with its attached internal oblique-transversus abdominus muscle with advancement to the midline to recreate the linea alba. Any repairs that were attenuated were supported with either ePTFE (8.6 percent) or Vicryl mesh (34 percent). The study group consisted of 35 patients, 34 percent male and 66 percent female; mean age was 55 years. Length of follow-up ranged from 1 to 43 months, with a mean follow-up of 22 months. Overall recurrence rate for herniation was 8.5 percent (3/35). Additional complications, namely seroma, wound infection, and hematoma, occurred at rates of 2.8, 5.7, and 5.7 percent, respectively. There were no mortalities. The compound flap of the rectus and internal oblique-transversus can be advanced medially to recreate the linea alba to provide dynamic, stable support for defects as large as 875 cm2. A recurrence rate of 8.5 percent was achieved in a relatively high-risk population with acceptable morbidity and no mortalities. In our 4-year experience, the sliding rectus abdominus myofascial flap has proved to be a safe and effective tool for dealing with patients in whom conventional means of repair have failed. PMID:8700983

  12. A proposed etiology of cervicogenic headache: The neurophysiologic basis and anatomic relationship between the dura mater and the rectus posterior capitis minor muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew E. Alix; Deanna K. Bates

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To examine the neurophysiologic basis and anatomic relationship between the dura mater and the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle in the etiologic proposition of cervicogenic headache. Data Source: On-line searches in MEDLINE and the Index to Chiropractic Literature, manual citation searches, and peer inquiries. Results: Connective tissue bridges were noted at the atlanto-occipital junction between the rectus capitis posterior

  13. Predicting outcomes of rectus femoris transfer surgery Jeffrey A. Reinbolt a,

    E-print Network

    Delp, Scott

    is one of the most common gait abnormalities in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy [1]. Stiff knee with cerebral palsy following a variety of surgical treatments. Goldberg et al. [18] used statistical analysis Keywords: Predicting outcomes Rectus femoris transfer Stiff knee gait Cerebral palsy Gait analysis A B

  14. Enthesitis of the direct tendon of the rectus femoris muscle in a professional volleyball player: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, C; Coscia, D R; Ferrozzi, G

    2011-06-01

    Enthesitis of the direct tendon of the rectus femoris muscle is a rare pathology which mainly affects professional athletes, and it is caused by overuse and repetitive microtrauma. Athletic jumping and kicking exert a great stress on the direct tendon of the rectus femoris muscle, and volleyball and football players are therefore most frequently affected. Enthesitis may occur suddenly causing pain and functional impairment possibly associated with partial or complete tendon injuries, or it may be a chronic condition causing non-specific clinical symptoms.We present the case of a professional volleyball player who felt a sudden pain in the left side of the groin area during a training session although she had suffered no accidental injury. The pain was associated with impaired ipsilateral limb function. Tendon rupture was suspected, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. MRI showed a lesion at the myotendinous junction associated with marked inhomogeneity of the direct tendon. Ultrasound (US) examination confirmed the presence of both lesions and allowed a more detailed study of the pathology.This is a typical case of enthesitis which confirms that MRI should be considered the examination of choice in hip pain, particularly when the patient is a professional athlete, thanks to its panoramic visualization. However, also US is an ideal imaging technique for evaluating tendon injuries thanks to its high spatial resolution, and it can therefore be used effectively as a second line of investigation. PMID:23396666

  15. COPYRIGHT 2004 BY THE JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY, INCORPORATED Three-Dimensional Muscle-

    E-print Network

    Delp, Scott

    into the quadriceps tendon and reattachment to one of the knee flexor muscles. The purpose of the present study-Dimensional Muscle- Tendon Geometry After Rectus Femoris Tendon Transfer BY DEANNA S. ASAKAWA, PHD, SILVIA S. BLEMKER, California Background: Rectus femoris tendon transfer is performed in patients with cerebral palsy to improve

  16. Combined Eyelid and Strabismus Surgery: Examining Conventional Surgical Wisdom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Mccracken; Jonathan D. Del Prado; David B. Granet; Leah Levi; Don O. Kikkawa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether satisfactory results of both eyelid surgery and strabismus surgery can be obtained when these procedures are performed in the same setting in selected patients. Methods: Nine patients (16 eyelids) who had undergone surgery in the same setting for eyelid malposition and strabismus of the horizontal rec- tus muscles, with or without concurrent vertical rectus muscle surgery,

  17. Rectus abdominal muscle endometriosis in a patient with cesarian scar: case report.

    PubMed

    Sahin, L; Dinçel, O; Türk, B Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis is the existence of endometrial tissue out of the intrauterine cavity. Abdominal wall endometrioma is a well-defined mass composed of endometrial glands and stroma that may develop after gynecologic and obstetrical surgeries. A cyclic painful mass at the site of a cesarean section scar is most likely due to an endometrioma, and wide local excision is the advisable treatment. The authors present a case of endometrioma in the abdominal wall, which was treated with local excision. PMID:24597267

  18. Extraocular muscle surgery in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, J F; Elston, J S; Lee, J P; Fells, P

    1991-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is typically a disease of young people in active employment who need a field of binocular single vision. Although it is systemically controllable with a good chance of spontaneous remission, persistent loss of binocularity may cause chronic disability. We report our experience of extraocular muscle surgery in five patients with stable myasthenia gravis and persistent double vision. Extraocular muscle involvement was selective, giving rise to incomitant and concomitant squints, with individual muscle overactions as well as underactions. Treatment was by conventional recession and resection procedures with the additional use of Faden and adjustable sutures where appropriate. In all five cases a larger, stable field of binocular single vision was established. It is concluded that extraocular muscle surgery may be beneficial in selected cases of myasthenia gravis. PMID:2021593

  19. Two cases of hypotropia and dissociated vertical deviation treated with oblique muscle surgery.

    PubMed

    Niyaz, Leyla; Gursoy, Haluk Huseyin; Basmak, Hikmet

    2014-01-01

    The authors report two cases with vertical deviations. The first patient had right exotropia and hypotropia and left inferior oblique overaction and was treated with left inferior oblique muscle weakening and bilateral lateral rectus muscle recession. The second patient had chin-up posture and right dissociated vertical deviation and was treated with bilateral superior oblique posterior tenotomy. PMID:25490238

  20. The Role of Thyroid Eye Disease and Other Factors in the Overcorrection of Hypotropia Following Unilateral Adjustable Suture Recession of the Inferior Rectus (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Natalie C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Overcorrection of hypotropia subsequent to adjustable suture surgery following inferior rectus recession is undesirable, often resulting in persistent diplopia and reoperation. I hypothesized that overcorrection shift after suture adjustment may be unique to thyroid eye disease, and the use of a nonabsorbable suture may reduce the occurrence of overcorrection. Methods A retrospective chart review of adult patients who had undergone eye muscle surgery with an adjustable suture technique was performed. Overcorrection shifts that occurred between the time of suture adjustment and 2 months postoperatively were examined. Descriptive statistics, linear regression, Anderson-Darling tests, generalized Pareto distributions, odds ratios, and Fisher tests were performed for two overcorrection shift thresholds (>2 and >5 prism diopters [PD]). Results Seventy-seven patients were found: 34 had thyroid eye disease and inferior rectus recession, 30 had no thyroid eye disease and inferior rectus recession, and 13 patients had thyroid eye disease and medial rectus recession. Eighteen cases exceeded the 2 PD threshold, and 12 exceeded the 5 PD threshold. Statistical analyses indicated that overcorrection was associated with thyroid eye disease (P=6.7E-06), inferior rectus surgery (P=6.7E-06), and absorbable sutures (>2 PD: OR=3.7, 95% CI=0.4–35.0, P=0.19; and >5 PD: OR=6.0, 95% CI=1.1–33.5, P=0.041). Conclusions After unilateral muscle recession for hypotropia, overcorrection shifts are associated with thyroid eye disease, surgery of the inferior rectus, and use of absorbable sutures. Surgeons performing unilateral inferior rectus recession on adjustable suture in the setting of thyroid eye disease should consider using a nonabsorbable suture to reduce the incidence of postoperative overcorrection. PMID:22253487

  1. SOD mRNA and MDA Expression in Rectus Femoris Muscle of Rats with Different Eccentric Exercise Programs and Time Points

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Heng; Liu, Jiani; Pan, Shinong; Sun, Yingwei; Li, Qi; Li, Fei; Ma, Li; Guo, Qiyong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) affect Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS), their effects are unclear in rectus femoris muscles (RFM) of rats with different eccentric exercise programs and time points. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the various eccentric exercise programs at different time points on the SOD mRNA expression and MDA using rat as the animal model. Methods 248 male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (CTL, n?=?8), once-only exercise group (OEG, n?=?80), continuous exercise group (CEG, n?=?80), and intermittent exercise group (IEG, n?=?80). Each exercise group was divided into 10 subgroups that exercised 0.5 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 120 h, 144 h, or 168 h. Rats were sacrificed and their SOD mRNA expression, and MDA concentrations of skeletal muscle tissue were measured. Results The specimen in all eccentric exercise programs showed increased RFM SOD1 mRNA expression levels at 0.5 h (P<0.05), and decreased RFM SOD3 mRNA expression at 0.5 h (P<0.05). The continuous eccentric exercise (CE) significantly enhanced muscle SOD2 mRNA level at 0.5 h (P<0.05). After once-only eccentric exercise (OE), SOD1, SOD2, and SOD3 mRNA expression significantly increased at 96 h, whereas MDA concentrations decreased at 96 h. After CE, the correlation coefficients of SOD1, SOD2, SOD3 mRNA expression levels and MDA concentrations were ?0.814, ?0.763, ?0.845 (all P<0.05) at 12 h. Conclusion Regular eccentric exercise, especially CE could enhance SOD1 and SOD2 mRNA expression in acute stage and the SOD2 mRNA expression correlates to MDA concentration in vivo, which may improve the oxidative adaption ability of skeletal muscles. PMID:24058480

  2. Effect of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on tissue blood flow in the peritoneum, rectus abdominis, and diaphragm muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yavuz; K. Rønning; O. Lyng; J. E. Grønbech; R. Mårvik

    2003-01-01

    Background: Changes in local blood flow may play a role in the pathogenesis of port-site metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pneumoperitoneum induced by carbon dioxide (CO 2) on the blood flow in the peritoneum and abdominal wall muscle layers, which are target structures for this phenomenon. Methods: The study was performed on domestic farm swine of

  3. Changes in the Range of Motion of the Hip Joint and the Muscle Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris of Stroke Patients during Obstacles Crossing on the Ground and Underwater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Chul; Han, Seul-Ki; Kim, Seung-Kyun

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine range of motion (ROM) and the muscle activity of stroke patients during obstacle task on the ground and underwater. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were seven stroke patients in a hospital located in Daejeon, South Korea. [Methods] The measurements in this study were conducted in an exercise therapy room and a pool dedicated to underwater exercise (water temperature 33.5?°C, air temperature 27?°C) in the hospital building. The pool's water depth was determined by considering the levels of the xiphoid process of the study subjects. Ten-centimeter-high obstacles were used. An electrogoniometer was used to examine the ROM of flexion and extension of the hip joints on the affected side. An MP150 system a BioNomadix 2-channel wireless EMG transmitter was used to examine the muscle activity of the rectus femoris and biceps femoris of the affected side. [Conclusion] The results suggest that the unaffected side was supported, that the affected side moved, and that the hip joint was bent more underwater than on the ground. The rectus femoris and bicpes femoris were activated significantly less underwater than on the ground in all sections. PMID:25202169

  4. The contribution of the rectus abdominis and rectus femoris in twelve selected abdominal exercises. An electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, A C; Vaz, M A; De Campos, M I; Marantes, R

    1991-06-01

    The influence of twelve selected abdominal exercises on the muscle action potentials (MAP) of the rectus abdominis--upper and lower portions--and rectus femoris was investigated. Twenty physical education students executed twelve exercises. The results showed that the elevation of the lower limbs from the long lying and from the forearm supported positions elicited significantly lower MAP for the upper rectus abdominis than all other exercises. Elevation of the lower limbs with the body suspended by hands and the V-sit exercises elicited significantly higher MAP for the lower rectus abdominis than all other exercises. The use of extended or flexed knees with supported or unsupported feet in a horizontal or inclined plane did not affect the MAP of the upper and lower rectus abdominis. The results for the rectus femoris showed five significantly different groups of exercises. The curl-up elicited the lowest MAP. The elevation of the lower limbs with the body suspended by hands and the sit-ups--with extended and also with flexed knees--in an inclined plane elicited the highest MAP for the rectus femoris. The results suggested that sit-ups executed with supported feet required higher MAP of the rectus femoris than sit-ups with unsupported feet, no matter whether hips and knees were extended or flexed. This trend was observed for exercises performed in an horizontal and in an inclined plane. PMID:1836517

  5. Prevention and management of medial rectus injury.

    PubMed

    Bleier, Benjamin S; Schlosser, Rodney J

    2010-08-01

    Medial rectus injury is an uncommon but often devastating complication of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Prevention of these types of injuries is predicated on a thorough preoperative assessment of the position and integrity of the medial orbital wall coupled with excellent surgical technique. The use of powered instrumentation has led to more severe injuries and thus should be used with caution near critical structures such as the lamina papyracea. Early recognition and management of medial rectus and associated orbital injuries is critical to improve outcomes and prevent associated complications. Despite optimal surgical and medical interventions, the prognosis is relatively poor and patients should be counseled that the primary goal of these interventions is to reestablish a binocular single visual field. PMID:20599084

  6. Accessory lateral rectus in a patient with normal ocular motor control.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yaping Joyce; Hwang, Jaclyn J

    2014-06-01

    Although supernumerary extraocular muscles are common in monkeys and other species, they are relatively rare in humans and typically are noted in the context of childhood strabismus. We present a case of an incidentally found unilateral accessory lateral rectus muscle in a 51-year-old woman with normal ocular motor control. In this patient, the accessory lateral rectus was approximately 10% the size of a normally sized lateral rectus muscle. It originated from the orbital apex, traveled between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus and attached to the superolateral aspect of the globe. This unique case demonstrates that accessory lateral rectus in humans may have no impact on eye movement and ocular alignment. PMID:24796602

  7. Abdominal wall competence after free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap harvest: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Suominen, S; Asko-Seljavaara, S; Kinnunen, J; Sainio, P; Alaranta, H

    1997-09-01

    A prospective study was designed to evaluate the possible changes in abdominal wall strength following free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap surgery for breast reconstruction. Twenty-two patients were examined 1 day before surgery, and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Trunk muscle strength was measured by the same physiotherapist using an isokinetic dynamometer (Lido Multi Joint II, Loredan Biomedical Inc., Davies, CA). The peak torque and average torque for both flexion and extension at 60 degrees per second angular velocity were recorded from the curves obtained. There was a significant reduction in trunk flexion strength at 3 months postoperatively (peak torque mean, 92% of the preoperative value; p = 0.04), but this was corrected by 6 months (mean, 96%), and improved to 98% by 12 months. The patient's ability to do curled trunk sit-ups was evaluated by the same physiotherapist and graded on a scale from 1 to 6. In 9 of 19 patients the operation had no effect on sit-up performance during follow-up. In 10 of 19 patients there was a reduction of one or two grades at 3 months that did not improve by 12 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdominal wall was performed on 9 patients. The mean area of the upper third of both rectus muscles was measured on the axial images. At 3 months postoperatively the mean area of the upper third of the donor muscle was significantly larger than the contralateral (p = 0.03). There was no difference in size at 6 months, and by 12 months the donor side was smaller. This prospective study shows that harvesting of a free TRAM flap can cause a subclinical reduction in abdominal strength, although this was not noticed by the patients themselves. PMID:9326701

  8. Muscles of Head (and Neck, in part) muscles of facial expression

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    of mastication temporalis, masseter, med. and lat. pterygoideus, digastric muscles of tongue intrinsic (3 planes intercostal innermost intercostal (deepest) muscles of abdominal wall rectus abdominus (most superficial

  9. Differential Lateral Rectus Compartmental Contraction during Ocular Counter-Rolling

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Robert A.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The lateral rectus (LR) and medial rectus (MR) extraocular muscles (EOMs) have largely nonoverlapping superior and inferior innervation territories, suggesting functional compartmental specialization. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans to investigate differential compartmental activity in the rectus EOMs during head tilt, which evokes ocular counter-rolling, a torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Methods. MRI in quasi-coronal planes was analyzed during target-controlled central gaze in 90° right and left head tilts in 12 normal adults. Cross sections and posterior partial volumes of the transverse portions of the four rectus EOMs were compared in contiguous image planes 2 mm thick spanning the orbit from origins to globe equator, and used as indicators of contractility. Results. Horizontal rectus EOMs had significantly greater posterior volumes and maximum cross sections in their inferior compartments (P < 10?8). In orbit tilt up (extorted) compared with orbit tilt down (intorted) head tilts, contractile changes in LR maximum cross section (P < 0.0001) and posterior partial volume (P < 0.05) were significantly greater in the inferior but not in the superior compartment. These changes were not explainable by horizontal or vertical eye position changes. A weaker compartmental effect was suggested for MR. The vertical rectus EOMs did not exhibit significant compartmental contractile changes during head tilt. Mechanical modeling suggests that differential LR contraction may contribute to physiological cyclovertical effects. Conclusions. Selective activation of the two LR, and possibly MR, compartments correlates with newly recognized segregation of intramuscular innervation into distinct compartments, and probably contributes to noncommutative torsion during the VOR. PMID:22427572

  10. Uses of the Inferior Oblique Muscle in Strabismus Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stager, David; Dao, Lori M.; Felius, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Inferior oblique muscle weakening is typically performed for overaction of the muscle. In this article, we review inferior oblique muscle anatomy, different weakening procedures, and recent surgical techniques that take advantage of the muscle's unique anatomy for the treatment of additional indications such as excyclotorsion and hypertropia in primary gaze. PMID:26180466

  11. Human extraocular muscles in mitochondrial diseases: comparing chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Carta; V Carelli; T D’Adda; F N Ross-Cisneros; A A Sadun

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To compare the ultrastructural aspects of human extraocular muscles in two types of mitochondrial disease: chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).Methods: Muscle samples of the medial rectus obtained from surgery in a sporadic case of CPEO associated with deleted mitochondrial DNA, and post mortem in a case of 3460\\/ND1 LHON were processed for electron

  12. Muscle Union Procedure in Patients with Paralytic Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Ah; Lyu, Injeong; Yoon, Jungmin; Jeong, Unchang; Oh, Jae-Eung; Lim, Han Woong; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2015-01-01

    To present the surgical outcomes of a muscle union procedure in patients with paralytic strabismus, this retrospective study included 27 patients with paralytic strabismus who underwent a muscle union procedure. In this procedure, the two vertical rectus muscles are united with the paralytic horizontal muscle without splitting the muscles. Postoperative ocular deviations, complications, surgical success rates, and reoperation rates were obtained by examining the medical records of the patients. Seventeen patients had a sixth cranial nerve palsy, seven patients had a third cranial nerve palsy, and three patients had a medial rectus muscle palsy after endoscopic sinus surgery. The mean preoperative angle of horizontal deviation in the primary position was 56 ± 21 prism diopters. The mean follow-up period was 12 ± 9 months. The mean final postoperative ocular deviation was 8 ± 13 prism diopters. The success rate was 74%, and the reoperation rate was 0%. No significant complications, including anterior ischemia, occurred in any of the patients. One patient exhibited an increase in intraocular pressure in the immediate postoperative period, but this resolved spontaneously within 1 week. Our muscle union procedure was effective in patients with paralytic strabismus, especially in patients with a large angle of deviation. This muscle union procedure is potentially a suitable option for muscle transposition in patients with paralytic strabismus who have large-angle deviation or a significant residual angle after conventional surgery. PMID:26070148

  13. Decellularized Human Skeletal Muscle as Biologic Scaffold for Reconstructive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Sfriso, Maria Martina; Pontini, Alex; Macchi, Veronica; Petrelli, Lucia; Pavan, Piero G; Natali, Arturo N; Bassetto, Franco; Vindigni, Vincenzo; De Caro, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Engineered skeletal muscle tissues have been proposed as potential solutions for volumetric muscle losses, and biologic scaffolds have been obtained by decellularization of animal skeletal muscles. The aim of the present work was to analyse the characteristics of a biologic scaffold obtained by decellularization of human skeletal muscles (also through comparison with rats and rabbits) and to evaluate its integration capability in a rabbit model with an abdominal wall defect. Rat, rabbit and human muscle samples were alternatively decellularized with two protocols: n.1, involving sodium deoxycholate and DNase I; n.2, trypsin-EDTA and Triton X-NH4OH. Protocol 2 proved more effective, removing all cellular material and maintaining the three-dimensional networks of collagen and elastic fibers. Ultrastructural analyses with transmission and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the preservation of collagen, elastic fibres, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Implantation of human scaffolds in rabbits gave good results in terms of integration, although recellularization by muscle cells was not completely achieved. In conclusion, human skeletal muscles may be effectively decellularized to obtain scaffolds preserving the architecture of the extracellular matrix and showing mechanical properties suitable for implantation/integration. Further analyses will be necessary to verify the suitability of these scaffolds for in vitro recolonization by autologous cells before in vivo implantation. PMID:26140375

  14. The effect of torsional muscle dysfunction and surgery on eye position under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    McCall, L C; Isenberg, S J; Apt, L

    1993-01-01

    Under general anesthesia, normal eyes exhibit 2.0 degrees to 2.5 degrees of extorsion. To investigate the effect of torsional muscle dysfunction and surgery on eye position under general anesthesia, we measured the torsional change before and after torsional muscle surgery in 26 eyes of 18 patients with clinical torsional muscle dysfunction. Under general anesthesia, compared with normals, eyes with preoperative intorter overaction or extorter underaction demonstrated a significant intorsional change (P < .01). However, eyes with intorter underaction or extorter overaction did not demonstrate a significant extorsional change. Postoperatively, while patients remained under general anesthesia, intorter weakening procedures produced measurable extorsion while intorter strengthening procedures and extorter weakening procedures produced measurable intorsion. Superior oblique tenotomy produced a greater net torsional change than inferior oblique weakening surgery (P < .01). Under general anesthesia, eyes with preoperative torsional muscle dysfunction exhibit torsion in the direction consistent with the dysfunction. After surgery on the torsional muscles, a measurable torsional effect can be demonstrated while the patient is still under general anesthesia. PMID:8350223

  15. Pharmakologische Untersuchungen am Musculus rectus des Frosche

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otto Riesser; Philipp Klein

    1933-01-01

    Zusammenfassung 1.Am M. rectus abdominis des Frosches läßt sich zeigen, daß die durch Einzelreiz ausgelöste Zuckung weitgehend unabhängig ist von der dem Muskel passiv, insbesondere unter dem Einfluß kleinster Mengen chemischer Kontraktursubstanzen, erteilten Ausgangsstellung.2.Der M. rectus reagiert zunächst gar nicht auf Lösungen von Digitoxin oder Strophanthin. Kurze Zeit aber nach Auswaschen der Glykosidlösung mit reiner Ringerlösung treten, bei unveränderter Zuckungshöhe,

  16. Extraocular muscle surgery for Graves' ophthalmopathy: does prior treatment influence surgical outcome?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Mourits; L. Koorneef; A. M. van Mourik-Noordenbos; H. M. van der Meulen-Schot; M. F. Prummel; W. M. Wiersinga; A. Berghout

    1990-01-01

    We analysed the results of extraocular muscle surgery in 38 patients with stable Graves' ophthalmopathy. Fixed sutures were used in all patients. A useful field of binocular single vision was achieved in 27 patients (71%) after one operation and in seven patients (18%) after more than one, whereas double vision was persistent in four (11%). No recurrence of diplopia was

  17. Change in proptosis following extraocular muscle surgery: Effects of muscle recession in thyroid-associated orbitopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cintia F. Gomi; Suk-Woo Yang; David B. Granet; Don O. Kikkawa; Kathryn A. Langham; Lydia R. Banuelos; Leah Levi

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-eight eyes in 22 patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy were studied before and after strabismus surgery. The mean change in exophthalmometry following strabis- mus surgery in all eyes was 0.6 mm ( p 0.01). Eyes with prior decompression averaged a 0.9 mm increase following strabismus surgery ( p 0.01); those without decompression averaged a 0.2 mm decrease ( p 0.658). In

  18. Simultaneous Prosthetic Mesh Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Abdominoplasty for Ventral Hernia and Severe Rectus Diastasis Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Cheesborough, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard abdominoplasty rectus plication techniques may not suffice for severe cases of rectus diastasis. In the authors’ experience, prosthetic mesh facilitates the repair of severe rectus diastasis with or without concomitant ventral hernias. Methods: A retrospective review of all abdominal wall surgery patients treated in the past 8 years by the senior author (G.A.D.) was performed. Patients with abdominoplasty and either rectus diastasis repair with mesh or a combined ventral hernia repair were analyzed. Results: Thirty-two patients, 29 women and three men, underwent mesh-reinforced midline repair with horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty. Patient characteristics included the following: mean age, 53 years; mean body mass index, 26 kg/m2; average width of diastasis or hernia, 6.7 cm; and average surgery time, 151 minutes. There were no surgical-site infections and two surgical-site occurrences—two seromas treated with drainage in the office. After an average of 471 days’ follow-up, none of the patients had recurrence of a bulge or a hernia. Conclusions: For patients with significant rectus diastasis, with or without concomitant hernias, the described mesh repair is both safe and durable. Although this operation requires additional dissection and placement of prosthetic mesh in the retrorectus plane, it may be safely combined with standard horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty skin excision techniques to provide an aesthetically pleasing overall result. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:25539311

  19. Medial rectus resection(s) with adjustable suture for intermittent exotropia of the convergence insufficiency type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Gyu Choi; Arthur L. Rosenbaum

    2001-01-01

    Background: The surgical results for intermittent exotropia of the convergence insufficiency type have been reported to be of varying success. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the surgical results of medial rectus muscle (MR) resection(s) with adjustable suture for this condition. Methods: Twenty-one consecutive patients with intermittent exotropia of the convergence insufficiency type were included in this retrospective

  20. Contribution of the skin, rectus abdominis and their sheaths to the structural response of the abdominal wall ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Tran, D; Mitton, D; Voirin, D; Turquier, F; Beillas, P

    2014-09-22

    A better understanding of the abdominal wall biomechanics could help designing new treatments for incisional hernia. In the current study, an experimental protocol was developed to evaluate the contributions of the abdominal wall components to the structural response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall. The specimens underwent 3 dissections (removal of (1) skin and subcutaneous fat, (2) anterior rectus sheath, (3) rectus abdominis muscles). After each dissection, they were subjected to air pressure up to 3 kPa. Ultrasound images and associated elastographic maps were collected at 0, 2 and 3 kPa in the intact state and strains on the internal surface were calculated using stereo-correlation in all states. Strains on the rectus abdominis and linea alba were analyzed. After the dissection of the anterior sheath of the rectus abdominis, longitudinal strain was found significantly different on the linea alba (5% at 3 kPa) and on the rectus abdominis area (11% at 3 kPa). The current results highlight the importance of the rectus sheath in the structural response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall ex vivo. Geometrical characteristics such as thicknesses and radii of curvature and mechanical properties (shear modulus of the rectus abdominis, e.g. at 0 pressure the average value is 14 kPa) were provided in order to facilitate future modeling efforts. PMID:25065730

  1. Use of the Rectus Sternalis in Augmentation Mammoplasty: Case Report and Literature Search

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umar Daraz Khan

    2008-01-01

    Breast augmentation is by far one of the most common aesthetic procedures currently performed by plastic surgeons. The plane\\u000a of dissection for prosthesis placement is quite often partial submuscular. The rectus sternalis, an nomalous muscle, may interfere\\u000a with the submuscular pocket dissection when an intraalveolar or submammary approach is used. The use of this muscle to cover\\u000a the prosthesis in

  2. A study of surgeons’ postural muscle activity during open, laparoscopic, and endovascular surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Y. Szeto; P. Ho; A. C. W. Ting; J. T. C. Poon; R. C. C. Tsang; S. W. K. Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Background  Different surgical procedures impose different physical demands on surgeons and high prevalence rates of neck and shoulder\\u000a pain have been reported among general surgeons. Past research has examined electromyography in surgeons mainly during simulated\\u000a conditions of laparoscopic and open surgery but not during real-time operations and not for long durations. The present study\\u000a compares the neck-shoulder muscle activities in three

  3. Rectus Fascial Wrap: Early Results of a Modification of the Rectus Fascial Sling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dixon R. Walker; Charles E. Flack; Bobbilynn Hawkins-Lee; David J. Lim; Herman Parramore; Raymond L. Hackett

    1995-01-01

    We describe an operation that increases bladder neck resistance in patients with urinary incontinence. It is a modification of the rectus fascial sling that was designed as an adjunct to augmentation cystoplasty and is used in association with clean intermittent catheterization. The operation is performed by circumferentially wrapping a rectus fascial defatted free graft around the bladder neck and suturing

  4. Multiple valve surgery for a patient with presternal oesophageal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Masaki; Kobayashi, Taira; Ozawa, Masamichi

    2015-08-01

    A 73-year old woman presented with progressive exertional dyspnoea. Echocardiography revealed severe regurgitation of the aortic, mitral and tricuspid valves, indicating the need for multiple valve surgery. The patient had a past history of oesophageal cancer that had been treated with chemoradiotherapy followed by oesophagectomy with presternal reconstruction using a gastric tube and a pedicled jejunum covered by the rectus abdominal muscle flap. She underwent aortic and mitral valve replacement with prostheses and tricuspid ring annuloplasty through a lower partial median sternotomy to avoid injury to the cervical oesophagus and a pedicled jejunum placed on the sternal manubrium. PMID:26059876

  5. Inferior oblique weakening surgery on ocular torsion in congenital superior oblique palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinho; Suh, Soh-Youn; Choung, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Joon

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate changes in fundus excyclotorsion after inferior oblique myectomy or myotomy. METHODS The records of 21 patients undergoing strabismus surgery by a single surgeon between 2009 and 2012 were examined. Only patients who had undergone an inferior oblique myectomy or myotomy, with or without horizontal rectus muscle surgery, were evaluated. Digital fundus photographs were obtained, and the angle formed by a horizontal line passing through the optic disc center and a reference line connecting the foveola and optic disc center was measured. Associated clinical factors examined include age at the time of surgery, presence or absence of a head tilt, degree of preoperative vertical deviation, torsional angle, inferior oblique muscle overaction/superior oblique muscle underaction, and surgery laterality. Whether the procedure was performed alone or in combination with a horizontal rectus muscle surgery was also examined. RESULTS Mean preoperative torsional angle was 12.0±6.4°, which decreased to 6.9±5.7° after surgery (P<0.001, paired t-test). Torsional angle also decreased from 15.1±7.0° to 6.2±4.3° in the myectomy group (P<0.001, paired t-test) but there were no significant changes in the myotomy group (P=0.093, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that preoperative torsional angle, degree of inferior oblique overaction, and age at surgery independently and significantly affected postoperative torsional angle. CONCLUSION Mean torsional angle decreased after inferior oblique myectomy. Degree of preoperative torsional angle, inferior oblique overaction, and age at surgery influence postoperative torsional angle. PMID:26086010

  6. Closure of the rectus sheath with a continuous looped suture and the skin with staples in dogs: speed, safety, and costs compared to closure of the rectus sheath with interrupted sutures and the skin with a continuous subdermal suture.

    PubMed

    Kummeling, A; van Sluijs, F J

    1998-10-01

    In dogs requiring a midline celiotomy, closure of the rectus sheath with a continuous polyglyconate looped suture and closure of the skin with stainless steel staples (group 1, 20 dogs) were compared with closure of the rectus sheath with interrupted polyglyconate sutures and closure of the skin with a continuous subdermal polyglactin suture (group 2, 20 dogs) with respect to speed, safety, and costs. The subcutis was closed with a continuous polyglactin suture in all dogs. The use of a looped suture saved 3.4 minutes and the use of staples saved 5.6 minutes. Total mean time saved for all layers was 7.7 minutes (38%). Wound healing was not significantly different between group 1 and group 2. There was one case of dehiscence of the rectus sheath in group 2 and two cases of wound infection in group 1. It was concluded that closing the rectus sheath with a continuous looped suture and the skin with staples is equally safe and significantly faster than closing the rectus sheath with simple interrupted sutures and the skin with a continuous subdermal suture. Additional costs were balanced by the reduction in surgery time. PMID:9810626

  7. Contemplation of the Surgical Normogram of Lateral Rectus Recession for Exotropia Associated with Superior Oblique Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo-Yeon; Yi, Sung-Tae; Lee, Tae-Eun; Cho, Yoonae A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To suggest a surgical normogram for lateral rectus recession in exotropia associated with unilateral or bilateral superior oblique muscle palsy (SOP). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 71 patients with exotropia who were successfully corrected over one year. Each patient had undergone unilateral or bilateral rectus recession associated with uni- or bilateral inferior oblique (IO) 14 mm recession, using a modified surgical normogram for lateral rectus (LR) recession, which resulted in 1 to 2 mm of reduction of LR recession. We divided all patients into 2 groups, the 34 patients who had undergone LR recession with unilateral IO (UIO) recession group and the remaining 37 patients who had undergone LR recession with bilateral IO (BIO) recession group. Lateral incomitancy was defined when the exoangle was reduced by more than 20% compared to the primary gaze angle. The surgical effects (prism diopters [PD]/mm) of LR recession were compared between the two groups using the previous surgical normogram as a reference (Parks' normogram). Results The mean preoperative exodeviation was 20.4 PD in the UIO group and 26.4 PD in the BIO group. The recession amount of the lateral rectus muscle ranged from 4 to 8.5 mm in the UIO group and 5 to 9 mm in the BIO group. Lateral incomitancy was noted as 36.4% and 70.3% in both groups, respectively (p = 0.02). The effect of LR recession was 3.23 ± 0.84 PD/mm in the UIO group and 2.98 ± 0.62 PD/mm in the BIO group and there was no statistically significant difference between two the groups (p = 0.15). Conclusions Reduction of the LR recession by about 1 to 2 mm was successful and safe to prevent overcorrection when using on IO weakening procedure, irrespective of the laterality of SOP. PMID:22670076

  8. Future prospects for reconstructive surgery in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gabka, C J; Bohmert, H

    1996-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery has become an integral part of primary breast cancer therapy in patients requiring total mastectomy. State-of-the-art reconstructions with autogenous tissue are transverse rectus abdominis (TRAM) flap procedures. Superior aesthetic results in terms of both appearance and consistency, seem to outweigh the disadvantages of impaired abdominal wall competence and donor site scars. The "free," microvascular TRAM flap may be the way to minimize abdominal wall weakness, since only a little portion of the rectus abdominis muscle must be sacrificed. Despite all discussions, breast reconstruction using silicone (gel) implants is a safe and reliable method and will be in the future. However, not every patient may be the right candidate for silicone reconstruction. Advantages of using silicone implants include (relatively) simple technique, short operation time, and no donor site morbidity. In patients suffering from breast-conserving therapy failures, plastic surgery has to address skin and parenchymal loss in an irradiated environment. Oncoplastic surgery, such as volume shrinking or volume replacement techniques, are useful for immediate reconstruction in breast-conserving therapy. PMID:8821412

  9. Rhabdomyolysis of Gluteal Muscles Leading to Renal Failure: A Potentially Fatal Complication of Surgery in the Morbidly Obese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Bostanjian; Gary J. Anthone; Nahid Hamoui; Peter F. Crookes

    2003-01-01

    Background: Rhabdomyolysis is a well-known cause of renal failure and is most commonly caused by ischemia\\/reperfusion or crush\\u000a injury. We describe a new cause of this syndrome in a series of 6 patients who underwent necrosis of the gluteal muscles after\\u000a bariatric surgery, 3 of whom eventually died of renal failure. Methods: Potential etiologic factors were studied by comparing\\u000a these

  10. Respiratory Muscle Training in Patients Recovering Recent Open Cardiothoracic Surgery: A Randomized-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Venturelli, Elena; Siscaro, Gherardo; Florini, Fabio; Papetti, Alessandra; Lugli, Daniela; Cerulli, Massimo; Clini, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and feasibility of an expiratory muscle training (EMT) device (Respilift) applied to patients recovering from recent open cardiothoracic surgery (CTS). Design. Prospective, double-blind, 14-day randomised-controlled trial. Participants and Setting. A total of 60 inpatients recovering from recent CTS and early admitted to a pulmonary rehabilitation program. Interventions. Chest physiotherapy plus EMT with a resistive load of 30?cm H2O for active group and chest physiotherapy plus EMT with a sham load for control group. Measures. Changes in maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) were considered as primary outcome, while maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP), dynamic and static lung volumes, oxygenation, perceived symptoms of dyspnoea, thoracic pain, and well being (evaluated by visual analogic scale—VAS) and general health status were considered secondary outcomes. Results. All outcomes recorded showed significant improvements in both groups; however, the change of MEP (+34.2?mmHg, P < 0.001 and +26.1%, P < 0.001 for absolute and % of predicted, resp.) was significantly higher in active group. Also VAS dyspnoea improved faster and more significantly (P < 0.05) at day 12, and 14 in active group when compared with control. The drop-out rate was 6%, without differences between groups. Conclusions. In patients recovering from recent CTS, specific EMT by Respilift is feasible and effective. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01510275. PMID:23984352

  11. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  12. Expression of TRAF6 and ubiquitin mRNA in skeletal muscle of gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognostic significance of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR),-associated factor 6 (TRAF6),-and ubiquitin in gastric cancer patients. Methods Biopsies of the rectus abdominis muscle were obtained intra operatively from 102 gastric cancer patients and 29 subjects undergoing surgery for benign abdominal diseases, and muscle TRAF6 and ubiquitin mRNA expression and proteasome proteolytic activities were assessed. Results TRAF6 was significantly upregulated in muscle of gastric cancer compared with the control muscles. TRAF6 was upregulated in 67.65% (69/102) muscle of gastric cancer. Over expression of TRAF6 in muscles of gastric cancer were associated with TNM stage, level of serum albumin and percent of weight loss. Ubiquitin was significantly upregulated in muscle of gastric cancer compared with the control muscles. Ubiquitin was upregulated in 58.82% (60/102) muscles of gastric cancer. Over expression of ubiquitin in muscles of gastric cancer were associated with TNM (Tumor-Node-Metastasis) stage and weight loss. There was significant relation between TRAF6 and ubiquitin expression. Conclusions We found a positive correlation between TRAF6 and ubiquitin expression, suggesting that TRAF6 may up regulates ubiquitin activity in cancer cachexia. While more investigations are required to understand its mechanisms of TRAF6 and ubiquitin in skeletal muscle. Correct the catabolic-anabolic imbalance is essential for the effective treatment of cancer cachexia. PMID:23013936

  13. Muscle haematoma due to antithrombotic treatment for ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Nakagawa, Yoko; Kamitsukasa, Ikuo; Suzuki, Takeshi; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical features of muscle haematoma in ischaemic stroke patients. Muscle haematomas are rare complications that occur during antithrombotic treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. Clinical and laboratory records of ischaemic stroke patients with muscle haematomas in the last 3.5years were retrospectively reviewed. Muscular haematoma developed in three of 694 (0.4%) consecutive patients with acute ischaemic stroke who were admitted to our institution. In addition, one outpatient presenting with muscle haematoma was found during the same period. The types of haematomas were rectus sheath haematoma in two patients and iliopsoas haematoma in the remaining two. All three acute patients received both antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies. The outpatient was treated with warfarin. Initial symptoms of haematoma included pain (n=3) and syncope (n=1). No patient was correctly diagnosed at the onset of muscle haematoma. At initial examination of muscle haematoma, no patients showed skin lesions. An ecchymosis developed in the abdominal area at an average of 3days after the initial symptoms. Mean decrease in haemoglobin was 6.8g/dL from baseline. None required surgery whereas two patients required blood transfusion. Muscle haematomas in stroke patients receiving antithrombotic therapy are rare complications that are difficult to diagnose at onset. The possibility of muscle haematoma should be considered in patients with ischaemic stroke undergoing antithrombotic therapy and presenting with acute pain and syncope, even if skin manifestations or a palpable mass are lacking. PMID:25882254

  14. Electrical Stimulation of the Rectus Femoris During Pre-swing Diminishes Hip and Knee Flexion During the Swing Phase of Normal Gait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Hernández; Amy L. Lenz; Darryl G. Thelen

    2010-01-01

    Individuals who have suffered cerebral insults often exhibit stiff-knee gait, a condition characterized by reduced knee flexion during swing. We investigated the effect that an increment in normal rectus femoris (RF) activity can have on hip and knee joint angles during swing, as a first step to determining this muscle's involvement in stiff-knee gait. For this, we developed a protocol

  15. Abdominal wall surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Abdominal wall surgery is surgery that improves the appearance of flabby, stretched-out abdominal (belly) muscles and skin. It ... tummy tuck" to more complicated, extensive surgery. Abdominal wall surgery is not the same as liposuction, which ...

  16. Anatomical mapping of the nasal muscles and application to cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Konschake, Marko; Fritsch, Helga

    2014-11-01

    We present an anatomical mapping of the most important muscles influencing the nose, incorporating constant anatomical structures, and their spatial correlations. At our disposal were the midfaces of 18 bodies of both sexes, obtained by informed consent from body donors aged between 60 and 80 years. Macroscopically, we dissected the nasal regions of eight corpses, six midfaces were prepared according to plastination histology, four by creating plastinated slices. On their way from their periosteal origin to the edge of the skin, the muscles of the nose cross the subcutaneous adipose tissue, dividing it into superficial and deep layers. The individual muscle fibers insert into the skin directly at the reticular corium. Sometimes, they reach the border of the epidermis which represents a special arrangement of corial muscle attachments. The course of the anatomical fibers of individual nasal muscles presented macroscopically and microscopically in this study offers surgeons a detailed overview of the anatomically important muscular landmarks of the midface. PMID:24863980

  17. Use of electrical stimulation and exercise to increase muscle strength in a patient after surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Donna

    2010-02-01

    Current literature offers little research on the restoration of function in patients following anterior decompression surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. This case report describes the functional outcomes for a physical therapy program using a protocol of alternate day electrical stimulation to hip and knee extensor muscles along with exercise. The protocol, designed to increase lower extremity strength necessary for ambulation in a patient who was status post anterior cervical decompression and fusion surgery, consisted of treatment sessions five times per week for 6 weeks and included electrical stimulation [medium frequency alternating current (MFAC)] in conjunction with active range of motion exercises, followed by functional mobility training and gait training. Outcome measures included Manual Muscle testing, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injuries (WISCI). Improvement was demonstrated in all three measures following the use of the treatment regimen, suggesting there may be a benefit to the use of electrical stimulation and exercise to increase lower extremity strength and improve gait outcomes in this population. Definitive conclusions regarding the correlation between this treatment protocol and the outcomes achieved are limited by the case report design. Carefully designed research studies are needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the protocol. PMID:20067363

  18. Efferent and afferent innervations of Mueller's muscle related to involuntary contraction of the levator muscle: important for avoiding injury during eyelid surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunsuke Yuzuriha; Kiyoshi Matsuo; Yoshimasa Ishigaki; Niroh Kikuchi; Kyutaro Kawagishi; Tetsuji Moriizumi

    2005-01-01

    Because stretching of Mueller's muscle induces involuntary contraction of the levator muscle, we hypothesised that Mueller's muscle functions as a serial kind of muscle spindle of the levator muscle. To confirm the presence and location of efferent and afferent innervations of Mueller's muscle, cadavers' eyelids were microscopically and macroscopically examined, and the resultant findings were physiologically confirmed in patients' eyelids

  19. Muscle MRI findings of X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadanori Hamano; Tatsuro Mutoh; Mikio Hirayama; Yasutaka Kawamura; Miwako Nagata; Jiro Fujiyama; Masaru Kuriyama

    2004-01-01

    We report here muscle MRI findings of the lower limb in X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). T1-weighted imaging of muscle MRI disclosed that the thigh muscles, including the semimembranosus, biceps femoris longus and the vastus lateralis muscles, showed high intensity signals with atrophy. Contrarily, the sartorius, gracilis and rectus femoris muscles were comparably preserved. Not only the thigh

  20. Major orbital complications of endoscopic sinus surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Rene; G E Rose; R Lenthall; I Moseley

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUNDThe paranasal sinuses are intimately related to the orbit and consequently sinus disease or surgery may cause severe orbital complications. Complications are rare but can result in serious morbidity, the most devastating of which is severe visual loss.METHODSA retrospective review was undertaken of four cases of severe orbital trauma during endoscopic sinus surgery.RESULTSAll the cases suffered medial rectus damage, one

  1. An Investigation into Reliability of Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements, and into the Relationship between Muscle Strength and Means of Independent Mobility in the Ward: Examinations of Patients Who Underwent Femoral Neck Fracture Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, Munenori; Kaneko, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery, as well as the relationship between independent mobility in the ward and knee muscle strength. [Subjects] The subjects were 75 patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery. [Methods] We used a hand-held dynamometer and a belt to measure isometric knee extension muscle strength three times, and used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to investigate the reliability of the measurements. We used a receiver operating characteristic curve to investigate the cutoff values for independent walking with walking sticks and non-independent mobility. [Results] ICCs (1, 1) were 0.9 or higher. The cutoff value for independent walking with walking sticks was 0.289 kgf/kg on the non-fractured side, 0.193 kgf/kg on the fractured side, and the average of both limbs was 0.238 kgf/kg. [Conclusion] We consider that the test-retest reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who have undergone femoral neck fracture surgery is high. We also consider that isometric knee extension muscle strength is useful for investigating means of independent mobility in the ward. PMID:24567667

  2. An Investigation into Reliability of Knee Extension Muscle Strength Measurements, and into the Relationship between Muscle Strength and Means of Independent Mobility in the Ward: Examinations of Patients Who Underwent Femoral Neck Fracture Surgery.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Munenori; Kaneko, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery, as well as the relationship between independent mobility in the ward and knee muscle strength. [Subjects] The subjects were 75 patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery. [Methods] We used a hand-held dynamometer and a belt to measure isometric knee extension muscle strength three times, and used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to investigate the reliability of the measurements. We used a receiver operating characteristic curve to investigate the cutoff values for independent walking with walking sticks and non-independent mobility. [Results] ICCs (1, 1) were 0.9 or higher. The cutoff value for independent walking with walking sticks was 0.289 kgf/kg on the non-fractured side, 0.193 kgf/kg on the fractured side, and the average of both limbs was 0.238 kgf/kg. [Conclusion] We consider that the test-retest reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who have undergone femoral neck fracture surgery is high. We also consider that isometric knee extension muscle strength is useful for investigating means of independent mobility in the ward. PMID:24567667

  3. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review

    PubMed Central

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Summary Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences. PMID:23738289

  4. Collagen of slow twitch and fast twitch muscle fibres in different types of rat skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kovanen; H. Suominen; E. Heikkinen

    1984-01-01

    Summary  The appearance of collagen around individual fast twitch (FT) and slow twitch (ST) muscle fibres was investigated in skeletal muscles with different contractile properties using endurance trained and untrained rats as experimental animals. The collagenous connective tissue was analyzed by measuring hydroxyproline biochemically and by staining collagenous material histochemically in M. soleus (MS), M. rectus femoris (MRF), and M. gastrocnemius

  5. Comparison of DXA and water measurements of body fat following gastric bypass surgery and a physiological model of body water, fat, and muscle composition.

    PubMed

    Levitt, David G; Beckman, Lauren M; Mager, Jennifer R; Valentine, Bret; Sibley, Shalamar D; Beckman, Tiffany R; Kellogg, Todd A; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Earthman, Carrie P

    2010-09-01

    Measurement of body composition changes following bariatric surgery is complicated because of the difficulty of measuring body fat in highly obese individuals that have increased photon absorption and are too large for the standard dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) table. We reproducibly measured body composition from half-body DXA scans and compared the values of total body fat estimated from total body water (TBW) and DXA measurements before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). DXA, TBW (deuterium dilution), extracellular water (ECW; bromide dilution), and intracellular water (ICW) measurement (by subtraction) were made before surgery and at 2 wk, 6 wk, 6 mo, and 12 mo after surgery. Twenty individuals completed baseline and at least four follow-up visits. DXA appeared to underestimate the fat and bone mass in extreme obesity (before surgery), whereas at 6 and 12 mo after surgery, the DXA and TBW fat measurements were similar. The ECW-to-ICW ratio was increased in obese individuals and increased slightly more after surgery. We describe a new model that explains this abnormal water composition in terms of the normal physiological changes that occur in body composition in obesity and weight loss. This model is also used to predict the muscle mass loss following RYGB. PMID:20558754

  6. Neuromuscular efficiency of the rectus abdominis differs with gender and sport practice.

    PubMed

    David, Pascal; Mora, Isabelle; Pérot, Chantal

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to distinguish the abilities of the rectus abdominis (RA) muscle according to gender and sport training by means of neuromuscular parameters extracted from electromyography (EMG)-torque relationships. Thirty-eight healthy students, divided into 4 groups (i.e., 8 male runners, 10 female gymnasts, 12 male controls, and 8 female controls) were asked to perform 6 seconds of isometric trunk flexions at 20%, 25%, 75%, and 100% of their maximal voluntary contraction. Flexion torque and surface EMG of the RA muscle were recorded simultaneously to construct a EMG-torque relationship. Under maximal and submaximal conditions, an index of neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was determined to characterize the capacity of the RA muscle to develop a torque. At each level of contraction, the area of data scattering (ADS), reflecting torque and EMG fluctuations, was computed to express the capacity to maintain a constant target torque. Flexion torque, NME, and ADS values differed significantly between genders, but when data were related to anthropometric characteristics, no difference was observed. Although runners were not distinguished from male controls, gymnasts had higher flexion torque, higher NME, and lower ADS values than female controls had. These differences should reflect neural and muscular adaptations linked to the specificity of gymnastic training. These findings revealed different functional abilities of the RA muscle, according to gender and sport practices. The indices of neuromuscular capacities used in this study could constitute complementary tools to athletic trainers and professionals in sports medicine for evaluating and following, during sport-specific training programs, the abdominal muscle performance implied in force transfers with a lower cost and lower risks of back pain. PMID:18978621

  7. Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, I H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with overcorrected strabismus (and several patients with undercorrection after extraocular muscle resection) underwent exploration of previously operated muscles, with the intention of advancing their tendons to prevent the need for surgery on additional muscles. Unexpectedly, it was found that, in many cases, an elongated scar segment of variable length was interposed between the muscle and its insertion site on the sclera. Laboratory investigations were carried out to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) and to create an animal model of the disorder. METHODS: Lengthened scars were repaired on 198 muscles during 134 procedures performed on 123 patients. The scars consisted of amorphous connective tissue interposed between the globe and normal tendon. Repair was accomplished by excision of the scar and reattachment of the muscle to sclera, using absorbable sutures in 64 cases and nonabsorbable sutures in 70 cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on 82 clinical specimens, and tissue culture studies were performed on 7 specimens. To develop an animal model, 10 New Zealand white rabbits underwent bilateral superior rectus resection. Half of the eyes received sub-Tenon's injections of collagenase over the operative site during weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6 postoperatively; the other half received saline solution injections on the same schedule. At 10 weeks, half the sites were studied histologically, and the other half underwent collagen creep analysis. In a second study, the use of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures was compared in the rabbit model. RESULTS: In the clinical cases, the mean length of the elongated scar segments was 4.2 mm. A total of 105 of the 134 repair procedures were judged successful. Thirty-one procedures resulted in recurrence of the original overcorrection; 7 of these had documented restretches. Factors that distinguished patients with stretched scars from patients with classic slipped muscles included minimal or no limitation of versions, less separation of the tendons from sclera, and thicker appearance of the scar segments. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in the repair procedure reduced the recurrence rate. Histologic examination of the clinical stretched scar specimens showed dense connective tissue that was less well organized compared with normal tendon. In the tissue culture studies, cells cultured from the stretched scar specimens grew rapidly and were irregularly shaped. A high-molecular-weight protein was identified in the culture medium. By contrast, cells cultured from normal tendon (controls) grew more slowly and regularly, stopped growing at 4 days, and produced less total protein than cultured stretched scar specimens. In the animal model studies, the collagenase-treated sites showed elongated scars with increased collagen between the muscle and the sclera, as well as increased collagen creep rates, compared with the saline-treated controls. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in collagenase-treated animal model surgery sites was associated with shorter, thicker scars compared with similar sites sutured with absorbable sutures. CONCLUSIONS: A lengthened or stretched, remodeled scar between an operated muscle tendon and sclera is a common occurrence and is a factor contributing to the variability of outcome after strabismus repair, even years later. This abnormality may be revealed by careful exploration of previously operated muscles. Definitive repair requires firm reattachment of tendon to sclera with nonabsorbable suture support. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 53 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 55 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 63

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of human extraocular muscles in convergence.

    PubMed

    Demer, Joseph L; Kono, Reika; Wright, Weldon

    2003-04-01

    Extraocular muscle (EOM) paths during asymmetrical convergence were evaluated by tri-planar, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits of eight young adults during binocular fixation of a target aligned to one eye at 800 and 15 cm distance. Cross sections and paths of EOMs were determined from area centroids. In convergence, the aligned eye rotated and translated negligibly, while its inferior oblique (IO) muscle exhibited significant contractile thickening. There were no significant contractile changes in the cross sections of aligned eye rectus or superior oblique (SO) muscles in convergence. The converging eye rotated nasally 22.4 degrees but translated negligibly. The converging eye medial (MR) and lateral rectus (LR) muscles exhibited large contractile cross-section changes, and the IO showed significant contractile thickening, while the vertical rectus muscles and the SO did not. Anterior paths of three aligned eye rectus EOMs could be determined in convergence and shifted consistent with a 1.9 degrees extorsion of the rectus pulley array. Such extorsional reconfiguration of the rectus pulleys would move the pulleys in coordination with globe extorsion and avoid imparting torsional action to these EOMs. Extorsional rectus pulley shift in convergence is inconsistent with the reconfiguration predicted to explain the temporal tilting of Listing's planes, instead suggesting that this temporal tilting is due to variations in oblique EOM innervation. Absence of globe translation in convergence argues against overall EOM co-contraction. The reconfiguration of EOM geometry in convergence has important implications for single-unit studies of neural control. PMID:12686579

  9. The contractile properties and movement dynamics of pigeon eye muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Stelling; Alistair Mc Vean

    1988-01-01

    The lateral rectus (LR) muscle of the pigeon was directly stimulated in situ at 41°C. The length tension relationships for active and passive tension were investigated to determine the optimum muscle length (Lo). Isometric responses to single and twin pulses, tetani and sinusoidal stimulation were measured

  10. Serum cytokines and muscle strength after anterior cruciate ligament surgery are not modulated by high-doses of vitamins E (?- and ?-tocopherol's) and C.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyler; Henriksen, Vanessa T; Rogers, Victoria E; Trawick, Roy H

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify if supplemental vitamin E (consisting of ?- and ?-tocopherol's) and C modulate serum cytokine and muscle strength following an ACL injury and surgery. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) placebo (n=14) or (2) vitamins E (?-[600mg RRR-?-tocopherol, ?T] and ?-[600mg of RRR-?T]) and C (1000mg ascorbic acid, AA) (EC; n=15). Supplements were taken daily starting ?2-wk prior to and concluding 16-wk after surgery. Fasting blood samples were obtained and single-leg peak isometric force measurements were performed at baseline (prior to supplementation), before surgery (?120-min - blood draw only), and 8-wk, 12-wk, and 16-wk after surgery. ?T, ?T, AA, and cytokines were measured in each blood sample, and peak isometric force was measured on the injured and non-injured legs separately at each testing session. An exercise protocol consisting of repetitive knee and hip extension and flexion contractions to exhaustion was performed on the injured limb at 16-wk. Vitamin E and C supplementation significantly (all p<0.05) increased plasma ?T (?40%), ?T (?160%), and AA (?50%) concentrations. Serum cytokine concentrations, peak isometric force, and time to exhaustion during the exercise protocol were not significantly different between groups. Based on these findings, we conclude that vitamin E and C supplementation increases their endogenous levels without minimizing muscular weakness or modulating serum cytokine concentrations after ACL surgery. PMID:25890874

  11. Minimally invasive strabismus surgery versus paralimbal approach: A randomized, parallel design study is minimally invasive strabismus surgery worth the effort?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Richa; Amitava, Abadan K; Bani, Sadat AO

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Minimal access surgery is common in all fields of medicine. We compared a new minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) approach with a standard paralimbal strabismus surgery (SPSS) approach in terms of post-operative course. Materials and Methods: This parallel design study was done on 28 eyes of 14 patients, in which one eye was randomized to MISS and the other to SPSS. MISS was performed by giving two conjunctival incisions parallel to the horizontal rectus muscles; performing recession or resection below the conjunctival strip so obtained. We compared post-operative redness, congestion, chemosis, foreign body sensation (FBS), and drop intolerance (DI) on a graded scale of 0 to 3 on post-operative day 1, at 2-3 weeks, and 6 weeks. In addition, all scores were added to obtain a total inflammatory score (TIS). Statistical Analysis: Inflammatory scores were analyzed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results: On the first post-operative day, only FBS (P =0.01) and TIS (P =0.04) showed significant difference favoring MISS. At 2-3 weeks, redness (P =0.04), congestion (P =0.04), FBS (P =0.02), and TIS (P =0.04) were significantly less in MISS eye. At 6 weeks, only redness (P =0.04) and TIS (P =0.05) were significantly less. Conclusion: MISS is more comfortable in the immediate post-operative period and provides better cosmesis in the intermediate period. PMID:24088635

  12. Unexpected role of the oblique muscles in the human vertical fusional reflex.

    PubMed Central

    Enright, J T

    1992-01-01

    1. If a weak vertically oriented prism is inserted before one eye, binocular single vision is restored by vertically divergent eye movements (one eye turning upward, the other downward); and it is usually assumed that the vertical rectus muscles mediate that fusional reflex. 2. When vertically divergent eye movements occur, both eyes also systematically rotate in parallel around their lines of sight (conjugate cyclotorsion). The direction of these unexpected eye movements demonstrates that they must be due to the oblique muscles, not the vertical recti. 3. The magnitude of these conjugate torsional movements is large enough to imply that the oblique muscles, in producing such torsion, would simultaneously effect all the divergent vertical re-orientation of the eyes required by the targets. 4. The cyclotorsion is accompanied by systematic translation of the eye along a nasal-temporal axis; the direction and extent of that non-rotational displacement indicate that the eye movements of the fusional reflex may well be mediated exclusively by the superior oblique muscles, acting against fixed tone in the inferior oblique muscles. 5. This revised understanding of the oculomotor co-ordination involved in the vertical fusional reflex has significant implications for both neurophysiology and oculomotor surgery. PMID:1403814

  13. Beta-adrenoceptors and human skeletal muscle characterisation of receptor subtype and effect of age.

    PubMed Central

    Elfellah, M S; Dalling, R; Kantola, I M; Reid, J L

    1989-01-01

    1. Rectus abdominis muscle biopsies were obtained from 28 patients undergoing abdominal surgery. In membranes prepared from these biopsies beta-adrenoceptor binding was examined. The apparent affinity (KD) and the density (Bmax) of the receptors for the radioligand (-)-[125I]cyanopindolol were 28.5 +/- 2.7 (pM) and 25.9 +/- 2.1 (fmol mg-1 protein) (mean +/- s.e. mean) respectively. In forceps biopsies from vastus lateralis muscle from four healthy volunteers the values for KD and Bmax were 22.5 +/- 4.4 (pM) and 16.4 +/- 2.2 (fmol mg-1 protein). The binding characteristics for the radioligand were similar in the biopsies from the two muscle sites. 2. Inhibition of the radioligand binding by the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118551 (KI = 117 +/- 45 nM) and selective beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist metoprolol (KI = 15229 +/- 5046 nM) suggests the dominance of beta 2-adrenoceptor subtype in human skeletal muscle. 3. There were no significant differences in the skeletal muscle beta-adrenoceptor densities or affinities between the young and older patients. PMID:2565118

  14. Functional Anatomy of the Extraocular Muscles During Vergence

    PubMed Central

    Demer, Joseph L.; Clark, Robert A.; Crane, Benjamin T.; Tian, Jun-Ru; Narasimhan, Anita; Karim, Shaheen

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now enables precise visualization of the mechanical state of the living human orbit, enabling inferences about the effects of mechanical factors on ocular kinematics. We used 3-dimensional magnetic search coil recordings and MRI to investigate the mechanical state of the orbit during vergence in humans. Horizontal convergence of 23° from a remote to a near target aligned on one eye was geometrically ideal, and was associated with lens thickening and extorsion of the rectus pulley array of the aligned eye with superior oblique muscle relaxation and inferior oblique muscle contraction. There was no rectus muscle cocontraction. Subjective fusion through a 1° vertical prism caused a clockwise (CW) torsion in both eyes, as well as variable vertical and horizontal vergences that seldom corresponded to prism amount or direction. MRI under these conditions did not show consistent torsion of the rectus pulley array, but a complex pattern of changes in rectus extraocular muscle (EOM) crossections, consistent with co-contraction. Binocular fusion during vergence is accomplished by complex, 3D eye rotations seldom achieving binocular retinal correspondence. Vergence eye movements are sometimes associated with changes in rectus EOM pulling directions, and may sometimes be associated with co-contraction. Thus, extraretinal information about eye position would appear necessary to interpret binocular correspondence, and to avoid diplopia. PMID:18718278

  15. Functional anatomy of the extraocular muscles during vergence.

    PubMed

    Demer, Joseph L; Clark, Robert A; Crane, Benjamin T; Tian, Jun-Ru; Narasimhan, Anita; Karim, Shaheen

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now enables precise visualisation of the mechanical state of the living human orbit, enabling inferences about the effects of mechanical factors on ocular kinematics. We used 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic search coil recordings and MRI to investigate the mechanical state of the orbit during vergence in humans. Horizontal convergence of 23 degrees from a remote to a near target aligned on one eye was geometrically ideal, and was associated with lens thickening and extorsion of the rectus pulley array of the aligned eye with superior oblique muscle relaxation and inferior oblique muscle contraction. There was no rectus muscle co-contraction. Subjective fusion through a 1 degree vertical prism caused a clockwise (CW) torsion in both eyes, as well as variable vertical and horizontal vergences that seldom corresponded to prism amount or direction. MRI under these conditions did not show consistent torsion of the rectus pulley array, but a complex pattern of changes in rectus extraocular muscle (EOM) crossections, consistent with co-contraction. Binocular fusion during vergence is accomplished by complex, 3D eye rotations seldom achieving binocular retinal correspondence. Vergence eye movements are sometimes associated with changes in rectus EOM pulling directions, and may sometimes be associated with co-contraction. Thus, extraretinal information about eye position would appear necessary to interpret binocular correspondence, and to avoid diplopia. PMID:18718278

  16. Laughing: a demanding exercise for trunk muscles.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Heiko; Rehmes, Ulrich; Kohle, Daniel; Puta, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Social, psychological, and physiological studies have provided evidence indicating that laughter imposes an increased demand on trunk muscles. It was the aim of this study to quantify the activation of trunk muscles during laughter yoga in comparison with crunch and back lifting exercises regarding the mean trunk muscle activity. Muscular activity during laughter yoga exercises was measured by surface electromyography of 5 trunk muscles. The activation level of internal oblique muscle during laughter yoga is higher compared to the traditional exercises. The multifidus, erector spinae, and rectus abdominis muscles were nearly half activated during laughter yoga, while the activation of the external oblique muscle was comparable with the crunch and back lifting exercises. Our results indicate that laughter yoga has a positive effect on trunk muscle activation. Thus, laughter seems to be a good activator of trunk muscles, but further research is required whether laughter yoga is a good exercise to improve neuromuscular recruitment patterns for spine stability. PMID:24246140

  17. Contralateral Component Separation Technique for Abdominal Wall Closure in Patients Undergoing Vertical Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap Transposition for Pelvic Exenteration Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-de-Los-Monteros, Antonio; Arista-de la Torre, Lilian; Vergara-Fernandez, Omar; Salgado-Nesme, Noel

    2014-09-01

    Pelvic floor reconstruction with pedicled vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap has been popularized in patients undergoing pelvic exenteration due to locally advanced rectal carcinoma. Abdominal wall fascial dehiscence and incisional hernia may occur as a result of large skin and fascia islands as well as muscle required to close these large defects. The purpose of this paper was to describe a novel technique, consisting of VRAM flap donor-site closure with component separation technique, performed on the contralateral side as the flap harvest, allowing for a lower tension closure between ipsilateral external oblique/internal oblique/transverse abdominis muscles complex and contralateral rectus abdominis muscle. In 10 patients undergoing this technique, no abdominal fascial dehiscence, incisional hernia, or parastomal hernia occurred during a mean follow-up of 15 months. Overall 3-year patient survival rate was 80% with abdominal hernia free-survival rate of 100%. The addition of this technique represents an advance in overall patient care to provide a more successful outcomes in this complex scenario. PMID:25188251

  18. Length-tension curves of human eye muscles during succinylcholine-induced contraction.

    PubMed

    Simonsz, H J; Kolling, G H; van Dijk, B; Kaufmann, H

    1988-08-01

    We have made intraoperative, continuous-registration, length-tension diagrams of detached eye muscles in 80 strabismus patients under general anaesthesia. In 47 of these we repeated the measurements after contraction evoked by succinylcholine chloride. In contracting horizontal and vertical rectus muscles, we found a linear relation between length and tension. In contracting oblique muscles, however, the relation between length and tension was frequently nonlinear. In superior oblique palsies, the superior oblique was found to be stiff after elongation and before injection of succinylcholine, and it did not contract after injection of succinylcholine. The ipsilateral inferior oblique did contract after injection of succinylcholine, but with a higher spring constant than usual (ie, contracture of the ipsilateral antagonist). In three cases the superior oblique contracted vividly after administration of succinylcholine despite the presence of excyclotropia, stereopsis, torticollis (two cases) and a hypertropia that increased in adduction, in down-gaze, in adduction and down-gaze and on ipsilateral head-tilt. In a case of general fibrosis syndrom we found almost normally contracting vertical recti, which is compatible only with a supranuclear or misdirectional cause. These cases demonstrate the usefulness of the assessment of the length-tension diagram of an eye muscle during surgery, before and during contraction evoked by succinylcholine chloride. PMID:3417416

  19. Contributions to enhanced activity in rectus femoris in response to Lokomat-applied resistance.

    PubMed

    Klarner, Taryn; Blouin, J-S; Carpenter, M G; Lam, T

    2013-03-01

    The application of resistance during the swing phase of locomotion is a viable approach to enhance activity in the rectus femoris (RF) in patients with neurological damage. Increased muscle activity is also accompanied by changes in joint angle and stride frequency, consequently influencing joint angular velocity, making it difficult to attribute neuromuscular changes in RF to resistance. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance on RF activity while constraining joint trajectories. Participants walked in three resistance conditions; 0 % (no resistance), 5 and 10 % of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Visual and auditory biofeedback was provided to help participants maintain the same knee joint angle and stride frequency as during baseline walking. Lower limb joint trajectories and RF activity were recorded. Increasing the resistance, while keeping joint trajectories constant with biofeedback, independently enhanced swing phase RF activity. Therefore, the observed effects in RF are related to resistance, independent of any changes in joint angle. Considering resistance also affects stride frequency, a second experiment was conducted to evaluate the independent effects of resistance and stride frequency on RF activity. Participants walked in four combinations of resistance at 0 and 10 %MVC and natural and slow stride frequency conditions. We observed significant increases in RF activity with increased resistance and decreased stride frequency, confirming the independent contribution of resistance on RF activity as well as the independent effect of stride frequency. Resistance and stride frequency may be key parameters in gait rehabilitation strategies where either of these may be manipulated to enhance swing phase flexor muscle activity in order to maximize rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:23183638

  20. Arcuate line of the rectus sheath: clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Myers, Candice; Shah, Rajnil; Tubbs, R Shane; Wartmann, Christopher; Apaydin, Nihal; Betancor, Jorge; Jordan, Robert

    2008-09-01

    The rectus sheath has been extensively described in gross anatomic studies but there is very little information available regarding the arcuate line (AL). The aim of the present study therefore was to explore and delineate the morphology, topography and morphometry of the arcuate line and provide a comprehensive picture of its anatomy across a broad range of specimens. The AL was present in all specimens examined. In addition, the AL was found to be located at a mean of 70.2% (67.3-75.2%) of the distance between the pubic symphysis and the umbilicus, and at 33.9% (30.2-35.4%) of the distance between the pubic symphysis and the xiphoid process. This location was found to be at a mean of 2.1 +/- 2.3 cm superior to the level of the anterior superior iliac spines. Furthermore, there were three distinct types of AL morphology. In type I (65%), the fibers of the posterior rectus sheath (PRS) gradually disappeared over the transversalis fascia, creating an incomplete demarcation of the actual location of the AL. In type II (25%) the termination of the fibers of the PRS was acutely demarcated over the transversalis fascia, creating a clear border with the AL. In type III (10%) the fibers of the PRS created a double and thickened aponeurotic line. In these cases a double AL was observed. Better preoperative knowledge of the location of the AL may, in some cases, help preoperative planning to facilitate primary fascial repair, which can then be supported with on-lay mesh, depending on the clinical situation. PMID:18956785

  1. Isolated extraocular muscle infiltration with plasmacytoma treated with localized injection of dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Painter, Sally L; Dickens, Emmy; Elston, John S

    2015-06-01

    Plasmacytoma of the orbit secondary to multiple myeloma is rare and has not previously been reported limited to an extraocular muscle. Conventional treatment is either localized radiotherapy or systemic chemotherapy. We report a case of plasmacytoma within the medial rectus muscle, which regressed completely with localized infiltration of dexamethasone. PMID:25742058

  2. Violation of the Rectus Complex Is Not a Contraindication to Component Separation for Abdominal Wall Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Patrick B; Bailey, Chad M; Baumann, Donald P; Liu, Jun; Butler, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Background Component separation (CS) is an effective technique for reconstructing complex abdominal wall defects. Violation of the rectus abdominis complex is considered a contraindication for CS, but we hypothesized that patients have similar outcomes with or without rectus complex violation. Study Design We retrospectively studied all consecutive patients who underwent CS for abdominal wall reconstruction over 8 years and compared outcomes of patients with and without rectus violation. Primary outcome measures included complications and hernia recurrence. Logistic regression analysis identified potential associations between patient, defect, and reconstructive characteristics and surgical outcomes. Results One hundred and sixty-nine patients were included: 115 (68%) with and 54 (32%) without rectus violation. Mean follow-up was 21.3 ± 14.5 months. Patient and defect characteristics were similar except for the rectus violation group having a higher body mass index (BMI). The overall complication rates were similar in the violation (24.3%) and the non-violation (24.0%) groups, as were the respective rates of recurrent hernia (7.8% vs. 9.2%, p=0.79), abdominal bulge (3.5% vs. 5.6%, p=0.71), skin dehiscence (20.0% vs. 22.2%, p=0.74), skin necrosis (6.1% vs. 3.7%, p=0.72), cellulitis (7.8% vs. 9.2%, p=0.75), and abscess (12.3% vs. 9.2%, p=0.58). Regression analysis demonstrated BMI to be the only factor predictive of complications. Conclusions CS surgical outcomes were similar whether or not the rectus complex was violated. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate the effects of rectus violation on surgical outcomes in CS patients. Surgeons should not routinely avoid CS when the rectus complex is violated. PMID:22169002

  3. Skeletal muscle metastasis from breast cancer: management and literature review.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle metastasis from breast cancer is a very rare clinical entity. We describe an extremely rare case of breast cancer metastasis to the rectus abdominis muscle. Our patient, who had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer four years ago, presented with a painful abdominal mass. Computed tomography scans showed a rim-enhancing mass with central hypoatennuation within the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle. A Fine needle aspiration biopsy was initially performed and the findings were suggestive of malignancy. The muscle lesion was then resected and the histopathological analysis showed metastasis of breast cancer. Through our review of the literature, we found that only two cases of rectus abdominis muscle metastasis from breast cancer have been reported so far. This case highlights the need to rule out muscle metastatic lesions in patients with history of breast cancer presenting with these clinical and imaging characteristics. Differentiation from primary sarcoma is of paramount importance. Skeletal muscle metastases usually indicate an advanced disease associated with poor prognosis. Treatment should be individualized depending on the patient's clinical condition. PMID:25159186

  4. A Case of Postsurgical Necrotizing Fasciitis Invading the Rectus Abdominis Muscle and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Cremona, Antonio; Guidi, Marco; Carusi, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening, soft tissue infection and an early diagnosis is needed to permit a prompt surgical and medical intervention. Due to the high fatal potential of the disease complications, the radiologist should distinguish necrotizing fasciitis from the most common soft tissue infections, in order to permit a prompt surgical and medical treatment. We present a case of a wide necrotizing fasciitis who presented at our emergency department and we also provide the basic tools, through a review of the literature, for the general radiologist to distinguish, with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, necrotizing fasciitis from the most common infections that could present during our routine practice. PMID:24707295

  5. Clinico-radiologic findings of entrapped inferior oblique muscle in a fracture of the orbital floor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo; Kim, Taik-Kun; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2009-09-01

    A 51-year old man presented with vertical and torsional diplopia after reduction of a blowout fracture at another hospital one year ago. He had no anormalies of head position and 14 prism diopters (PD) right hypertropia (RHT) in the primary position. In upgaze no vertical deviation was found, and hyperdeviation on downgaze was 35PD. Bielschowsky head tilt test showed a negative response. Distinct superior oblique (SO) and inferior rectus (IR) underaction of the right eye was noted but IO overaction was mild on the ocular version test. Double Maddox rod test (DMRT) revealed 10-degree extorsion, but fundus extorsion was minimal in the right eye.Thin-section coronal CT scan showed that there was no fracture line on the anterior orbital floor, but a fracture remained on the posterior orbital floor. Also, the anterior part of the right inferior oblique muscle was vertically reoriented and the medial portion of the inferior oblique muscle was not traced on the coronal CT scan. The patient underwent 14 mm right IO recession and 3 mm right IR resection. One month after the surgery, his vertical and torsional diplopia were eliminated in the primary position. PMID:19794954

  6. Clinico-Radiologic Findings of Entrapped Inferior Oblique Muscle in a Fracture of the Orbital Floor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo; Kim, Taik-Kun

    2009-01-01

    A 51-year old man presented with vertical and torsional diplopia after reduction of a blowout fracture at another hospital one year ago. He had no anormalies of head position and 14 prism diopters (PD) right hypertropia (RHT) in the primary position. In upgaze no vertical deviation was found, and hyperdeviation on downgaze was 35PD. Bielschowsky head tilt test showed a negative response. Distinct superior oblique (SO) and inferior rectus (IR) underaction of the right eye was noted but IO overaction was mild on the ocular version test. Double Maddox rod test (DMRT) revealed 10-degree extorsion, but fundus extorsion was minimal in the right eye. Thin-section coronal CT scan showed that there was no fracture line on the anterior orbital floor, but a fracture remained on the posterior orbital floor. Also, the anterior part of the right inferior oblique muscle was vertically reoriented and the medial portion of the inferior oblique muscle was not traced on the coronal CT scan. The patient underwent 14 mm right IO recession and 3 mm right IR resection. One month after the surgery, his vertical and torsional diplopia were eliminated in the primary position. PMID:19794954

  7. Volume measurement of horizontal extraocular muscles with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Y; Aoki, Y; Hayashi, O; Murata, T; Nishida, E; Kani, K

    1996-01-01

    The horizontal extraocular muscle volume of 11 normal adults and 3 ophthalmoplegic patients was measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using a 1.5 Tesla superconductive system which can provide T1 weighted images of 3 mm gapless slices of the orbit with the spin echo technique. The MRI film was projected and magnified on Kent paper with an overhead projector; muscle shapes were traced and cut from the paper. Muscle volume was defined as the total weight of the Kent paper shapes representing the muscles from all MRI slices. The average volumes of the medial and lateral rectus muscles (MRM, LRM) of the 11 subjects were 690 +/- 87 mm3 and 734 +/- 77 mm3. In two patients with peripheral nerve palsy, the small muscle volume was classified as atrophic; in the one patient with orbital myositis, the large muscle volume was classified as hypertrophic. This measurement technique is useful for evaluation of the extraocular muscles, especially in ophthalmoplegia. PMID:8988436

  8. Comparison of the Complications in Vertical Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap with Non-Reconstructed Cases after Pelvic Exenteration

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Heechang; You, Hi-Jin; Kim, Hyon-Surk; Lee, Byung-Il; Park, Seung Ha

    2014-01-01

    Background Perineal reconstruction following pelvic exenteration is a challenging area in plastic surgery. Its advantages include preventing complications by obliterating the pelvic dead space and minimizing the scar by using the previous abdominal incision and a vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (VRAM) flap. However, only a few studies have compared the complications and the outcomes following pelvic exenteration between cases with and without a VRAM flap. In this study, we aimed to compare the complications and the outcomes following pelvic exenteration with or without VRAM flap coverage. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of nine patients for whom transpelvic VRAM flaps were created following pelvic exenteration due to pelvic malignancy. The complications and outcomes in these patients were compared with those of another nine patients who did not undergo such reconstruction. Results Flap reconstruction was successful in eight cases, with minor complications such as wound infection and dehiscence. In all cases in the reconstructed group (n=9), structural integrity was maintained and major complications including bowel obstruction and infection were prevented by obliterating the pelvic dead space. In contrast, in the control group (n=9), peritonitis and bowel obstruction occurred in 1 case (11%). Conclusions Despite the possibility of flap failure and minor complications, a VRAM flap can result in adequate perineal reconstruction to prevent major complications of pelvic exenteration. PMID:25396186

  9. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia, prenuclear paresis of contralateral superior rectus, and bilateral ptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bogousslavsky; F. Regli; J. Ghika; J. P. Hungerbühler

    1983-01-01

    A patient with infarction of the paramedian part of the lower mid-brain on the right side is described, in whom internuclear ophthalmoplegia and bilateral ptosis were associated with limitation of elevation of the contralateral eye from paresis of the superior rectus. Supranuclear paresis was suggested by partial dissociation between phasic and tonic components of upward gaze. It is suggested that

  10. Use of Oral Mucoperiosteal and Pterygo-Masseteric Muscle Flaps as Interposition Material in Surgery of Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Anyanechi, CE; Osunde, OD; Bassey, GO

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most common complication of surgery for the release of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is relapse of the ankylosis. To prevent re-ankylosis, a variety of interpositional materials have been used. Aim: The aim was to compare the surgical outcome of oral mucoperiosteal flap, not hitherto used as interpositional material, with pterygo-masseteric muscles flap after surgical release of TMJ ankylosis. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective randomized study of all consecutive patients treated for the release of complete TMJ bony ankylosis, from January 2003 to December 2012, at the Oral and Maxillofacial unit of our institution. The patients were randomized into two groups: The pterygo-masseteric group comprises 22 patients while the oral mucoperiosteal group had 23 patients. Information on demographics, clinical characteristics, and postoperative complications over a 5 year follow-up period were obtained, and analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 13, Chicago, IL, USA). A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 15 to 28 mean 20.3 (3.35) years while the duration of ankylosis ranged from 2 to 16 mean 5.1 (3.4) years. The baseline demographic (gender; P = 0.92; side; P = 0.58) and clinical characteristics in terms of etiology (P = 0.60) and age (P = 0.52) were comparable in both treatment groups. All the patients presented with complete bony TMJ ankylosis with a preoperative inter-incisal distance of <0.5 cm. The intraoperative mouth opening achieved ranged from 4 cm to 5 cm, mean 4.6 (0.27) cm and this was not different for either group (P = 0.51). The patients were followed up postoperatively for a period ranging from 3 to 5 years, mean 3.4 (0.62) years. The mouth opening decreased, over the period of postoperative review, from the initial range of 4–5 cm to 2.9–3.6 cm, and this was not different in both groups (P = 0.18). Conclusion: This study suggests that oral mucoperiosteal flap could be an option in the choice of interpositional materials in surgery of TMJ ankylosis. PMID:25745573

  11. Effects of bridge exercise on trunk core muscle activity with respect to sling height and hip joint abduction and adduction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehee; Park, Jungseo; Lee, Sangyong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of bridge exercise on trunk core muscle activity with respect to sling height and hip joint abduction and adduction. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy adult males participated. [Methods] In the bridge exercise, the height of the sling was set low or high during hip joint abduction and adduction. Electromyography was used to compare the differences between the muscle activities of the transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae muscles. [Results] The muscle activities of the transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae were significantly higher in the high sling position. Furthermore, the activities of the transverse abdominis and erector spinae were significantly higher during hip joint adduction than abduction regardless of sling height. [Conclusion] A high sling height is the most effective intervention for increasing the muscle activities of the transverse abdominis and erector spinae muscles during hip joint adduction in a bridge exercise.

  12. Phenotypic heterogeneity may occur in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A C Reck; R Manners; E Hatchwell

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND\\/AIMSCongenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) is an autosomal dominant, non-progressive disorder characterised by congenital ptosis and external ophthalmoplegia. CFEOM has previously been divided into several clinical entities; general fibrosis syndrome, strabismus fixus, vertical retraction syndrome, and congenital fibrosis of the inferior rectus. The purpose of this study was to identify families with CFEOM in this geographical region in

  13. Previous Multiple Abdominal Surgeries: A Valid Contraindication to Abdominal Free Flap Breast Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Di Candia, Michele; Asfoor, Ahmed Al; Jessop, Zita M.; Kumiponjera, Devor; Hsieh, Frank; Malata, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Presented in part at the following Academic Meetings: 57th Meeting of the Italian Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, September 24-27, 2008, Naples, Italy.45th Congress of the European Society for Surgical Research (ESSR), June 9-12, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Summer Scientific Meeting, June 30-July 2, 2010, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK. Background: Patients with previous multiple abdominal surgeries are often denied abdominal free flap breast reconstruction because of concerns about flap viability and abdominal wall integrity. We therefore studied their flap and donor site outcomes and compared them to patients with no previous abdominal surgery to find out whether this is a valid contraindication to the use of abdominal tissue. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with multiple previous abdominal operations who underwent abdominal free flap breast reconstruction by a single surgeon (C.M.M., 2000-2009) were identified and retrospectively compared with a cohort of similar patients without previous abdominal surgery (sequential allocation control group, n = 20). Results: The index and control groups were comparable in age, body mass index, comorbidities, previous chemotherapy, and RT exposure. The index patients had a mean age of 54 years (r, 42-63) and an average body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 (r, 22-38). The main previous surgeries were Caesarean sections (19), hysterectomies (8), and cholecystectomies (6). They underwent immediate (n = 9) or delayed (n = 11) reconstructions either unilaterally (n = 18) or bilaterally (n = 2) and comprising 9 muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis muscle and 13 deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps. All flaps were successful, and there were no significant differences in flap and donor site outcomes between the 2 groups after an average follow up of 26 months (r, 10-36). Conclusion: Multiple previous abdominal surgeries did not predispose to increased flap or donor site morbidity. On the basis of our experience, we have proposed some recommendations for successful abdominal free flap breast reconstruction in patients with previous multiple scars. Careful preoperative planning and the use of some intraoperative adaptations can allow abdominal free flap breast reconstruction to be reliably undertaken in such patients. PMID:22848775

  14. Localization of motoneurons innervating individual abdominal muscles of the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a systematic investigation of the innervation of the cat's individual abdominal muscles. The segmental distribution of the different motor pools was determined by using electrical microstimulation of the ventral horn to produce visible localized muscle twitches and by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase injected into individual muscles. The segmental distribution of each motor pool was as follows: rectus abdominis, T4-L3; external oblique, T6-L3; transverse abdominis, T9-L3; and internal oblique, T13-L3.

  15. Electrical Stimulation of the Rectus Femoris During Pre-Swing Diminishes Hip and Knee Flexion During the Swing Phase of Normal Gait

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Antonio; Lenz, Amy; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals who have suffered cerebral insults often exhibit stiff-knee gait, a condition characterized by reduced knee flexion during swing. We investigated the effect that an increment in normal rectus femoris (RF) activity can have on hip and knee joint angles during swing, as a first step to determining this muscle’s involvement in stiff-knee gait. For this, we developed a protocol that electrically stimulated the RF during pre-swing or after toe-off in randomly selected strides of treadmill walking, consistent with the timing of RF activity during normal gait. Seven healthy young adults participated in the study. Pre-swing stimulation induced a significant (p<0.05) reduction in peak knee flexion (avg 7.5deg) in all subjects, with an accompanying decrease in hip flexion in four of the subjects. RF stimulation after toe-off diminished peak knee flexion in three subjects and reduced hip flexion in four subjects. When compared to muscle-actuated gait simulations that were similarly perturbed, the induced motion measures were generally consistent in direction but exhibited greater variability across strides and subjects. We conclude that excess RF activity during pre-swing has the potential to contribute to stiff-knee gait, and that clinical treatment should consider the “counter-intuitive” function that the RF has in extending the hip. PMID:20934937

  16. Optimizing Muscle Parameters in Musculoskeletal Modeling Using Monte Carlo Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Andrea; Reed, Erik; Cavanagh, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts assigned to long-duration missions experience bone and muscle atrophy in the lower limbs. The use of musculoskeletal simulation software has become a useful tool for modeling joint and muscle forces during human activity in reduced gravity as access to direct experimentation is limited. Knowledge of muscle and joint loads can better inform the design of exercise protocols and exercise countermeasure equipment. In this study, the LifeModeler(TM) (San Clemente, CA) biomechanics simulation software was used to model a squat exercise. The initial model using default parameters yielded physiologically reasonable hip-joint forces. However, no activation was predicted in some large muscles such as rectus femoris, which have been shown to be active in 1-g performance of the activity. Parametric testing was conducted using Monte Carlo methods and combinatorial reduction to find a muscle parameter set that more closely matched physiologically observed activation patterns during the squat exercise. Peak hip joint force using the default parameters was 2.96 times body weight (BW) and increased to 3.21 BW in an optimized, feature-selected test case. The rectus femoris was predicted to peak at 60.1% activation following muscle recruitment optimization, compared to 19.2% activation with default parameters. These results indicate the critical role that muscle parameters play in joint force estimation and the need for exploration of the solution space to achieve physiologically realistic muscle activation.

  17. Insulin receptor phosphorylation, insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity are decreased in intact skeletal muscle strips from obese subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Goodyear, L J; Giorgino, F; Sherman, L A; Carey, J; Smith, R J; Dohm, G L

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether the impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in obese individuals is associated with altered insulin receptor signaling, we measured both glucose uptake and early steps in the insulin action pathway in intact strips of human skeletal muscle. Biopsies of rectus abdominus muscle were taken from eight obese and eight control subjects undergoing elective surgery (body mass index 52.9 +/- 3.6 vs 25.7 +/- 0.9). Insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake was 53% lower in muscle strips from obese subjects. Additional muscle strips were incubated in the basal state or with 10(-7) M insulin for 2, 15, or 30 min. In the lean subjects, tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), measured by immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, was significantly increased by insulin at all time points. In the skeletal muscle from the obese subjects, insulin was less effective in stimulating tyrosine phosphorylation (maximum receptor and IRS-1 phosphorylation decreased by 35 and 38%, respectively). Insulin stimulation of IRS-1 immunoprecipitable phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity also was markedly lower in obese subjects compared with controls (10- vs 35-fold above basal, respectively). In addition, the obese subjects had a lower abundance of the insulin receptor, IRS-1, and the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase (55, 54, and 64% of nonobese, respectively). We conclude that impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle from severely obese subjects is accompanied by a deficiency in insulin receptor signaling, which may contribute to decreased insulin action. Images PMID:7537758

  18. Analysis of muscle activation during different leg press exercises at submaximum effort levels.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Eduardo Marczwski; Brentano, Michel Arias; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; De Almeida, Ana Paula Viola; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2008-07-01

    Many studies have analyzed muscle activity during different strength exercises. Although the leg press (LP) is one of the most common exercises performed, there is little evidence of lower limb muscle activity patterns during this exercise and its variations. Thus, this study aimed to verify how mechanical changes and loads affect lower limb muscle activity during the performance of different LP exercises. Fourteen women performed 3 LP exercises: 45 degrees LP (LP45), LP high (LPH), and LP low (LPL) at 40% and 80% of the 1 repetition maximum. The electromyographic activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, and gluteus maximus was recorded. Results suggested that mechanical changes affect lower limb muscle activity and that it is related to the load used. At moderate effort levels, the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius were more active during the LP45 and LPL than during the LPH. At a high effort level, the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis (quadriceps) were more active during the LPL than the LPH. Again, the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius were more active during the LP45 and LPL than the LPH. On the other hand, gluteus maximus activity was greater during the LPH than the LPL. This study found that coordination patterns of muscle activity are different when performing LP variations at high or moderate effort levels because of mechanical changes and different loads lifted during the different LP exercises. These results suggest that if the goal is to induce greater rectus femoris and vastus lateralis (quadriceps) activation, the LPL should be performed. On the other hand, if the goal is to induce gluteus maximus activity, the LPH should be performed. PMID:18545207

  19. Pubovaginal or Vicryl Mesh Rectus Fascia Sling in Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Maher; M. Carey; P. Dwyer; P. Moran

    2001-01-01

    :   The aim of this study was to compare the pubovaginal sling with a new Vicryl mesh rectus fascia (VMRF) sling in the surgical\\u000a treatment of low urethral pressure genuine stress incontinence. Fifty-one consecutive women who had a VMRF (n= 27) or a pubovaginal sling (n= 24) procedure between March 1995 and December 1997 were evaluated. The patient-determined subjective success

  20. Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Extraocular Muscles in Rabbits Results in Increased Myofiber Remodeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irma Ugalde; Stephen P. Christiansen; Linda K. McLoon

    2005-01-01

    METHODS. The superior rectus muscles of adult rabbits were each injected with 5 units of Botox. The contralateral muscle received injections of saline only. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered for various periods after Botox treatment, followed by various BrdU-free periods. Myonuclear addition, the number of BrdU-positive satellite cells, and the number of MyoD-positive satellite cells were quantified, as were alter- ations

  1. Responses of intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal muscle activity during dynamic trunk loading in man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Cresswell

    1993-01-01

    Summary  The purpose of this study was to determine and compare interactions between the abdominal musculature and intea-abdominal pressure (IAP) during controlled dynamic and static trunk muscle loading. Myoelectric activity was recorded in six subjects from the rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, obliquus internus, transversus abdominis and erector spinae muscles using surface and intea-muscular fine-wire electrodes. The IAP was recorded intea-gastrically. Trunk

  2. Relation between Length of Muscle and Breakdown of Phosphorylcreatine in Isometric Tetanic Contractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Infante; Dzintra Klaupiks; R. E. Davies

    1964-01-01

    RECENT experiments have shown that adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) is actually utilized by working muscles during single contractions but is normally resynthesized during the contraction by the action of ATP-Cr transphosphorylase and ATP-AMP transphosphorylase (myokinase)1-4. A breakdown of phosphorylcreatine (PCr) at 0° C during single isotonic contractions has been observed directly in frog rectus abdominis muscles (Rana pipiens) treated with 2,4-dinitrophenol

  3. Lumbar spinal loads and muscle activity during a golf swing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Tae Lim; John W. Chow; Woen-Sik Chae

    2012-01-01

    This study estimated the lumbar spinal loads at the L4–L5 level and evaluated electromyographic (EMG) activity of right and left rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi muscles during a golf swing. Four super VHS camcorders and two force plates were used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) kinematics and kinetics of golf swings performed by five male

  4. Abstract Motor unit firing rates of the triceps brachii muscle have been shown to decline during sustained iso-

    E-print Network

    Griffin, Lisa

    in a variety of human muscles: the- nar, 45­90% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) (Gatev et al. 1986); biceps brachii, 11­60% MVC (Ivan- ova 1990; Garland et al. 1994); deltoid, (DeLuca and Forrest 1973); rectus femoris, 17­35% MVC (Person and Kudina 1972); and triceps brachii, 20% MVC (Garland et al. 1997

  5. Variation in palatability and biochemical traits within and among eleven beef muscles1,2,3,4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Rhee; T. L. Wheeler; S. D. Shackelford; M. Koohmaraie; Roman L. Hruska

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to deter- mine the extent of variation in, and relationships among, biochemical and palatability traits within and among 11 major beef muscles. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LD), psoas major (PM), gluteus medius (GM), semimembranosus (SM), adductor (AD), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), rectus femoris (RF), triceps brachii (TB), infraspinatus (IS), and supraspi- natus (SS)

  6. Extraocular Muscle Motor Units Characterized By Spike-Triggered Averaging In Alert Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Gamlin, Paul D.; Miller, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    Single-unit recording in macaque monkeys has been widely used to study extraocular motoneuron behavior during eye movements. However, primate extraocular motor units have only been studied using electrical stimulation in anesthetized animals. To study motor units in alert, behaving macaques, we combined chronic muscle force transducer (MFT) and single-unit extracellular motoneuron recordings. During steady fixation with low motoneuron firing rates, we used motoneuron spike-triggered averaging of MFT signals (STA-MFT) to extract individual motor unit twitches, thereby characterizing each motor unit in terms of twitch force and dynamics. It is then possible, as in conventional studies, to determine motoneuron activity during eye movements, but now with knowledge of underlying motor unit characteristics. We demonstrate the STA-MFT technique for medial rectus motor units. Recordings from 33 medial rectus motoneurons in three animals identified 20 motor units, which had peak twitch tensions of 0.5 – 5.25 mg, initial twitch delays averaging 2.4ms, and time to peak contraction averaging 9.3ms. These twitch tensions are consistent with those reported in unanesthetized rabbits, and with estimates of the total number of medial rectus motoneurons and twitch tension generated by whole-nerve stimulation in monkey, but are substantially lower than those reported for lateral rectus motor units in anesthetized squirrel monkey. Motor units were recruited in order of twitch tension magnitude with stronger motor units reaching threshold further in the muscle’s ON-direction, showing that, as in other skeletal muscles, medial rectus motor units are recruited according to the “size principle”. PMID:22108141

  7. Number and arrangement of extraocular muscles in primitive gnathostomes: evidence from extinct placoderm fishes.

    PubMed

    Young, Gavin C

    2008-02-23

    Exceptional braincase preservation in some Devonian placoderm fishes permits interpretation of muscles and cranial nerves controlling eye movement. Placoderms are the only jawed vertebrates with anterior/posterior obliques as in the jawless lamprey, but with the same function as the superior/inferior obliques of other gnathostomes. Evidence of up to seven extraocular muscles suggests that this may be the primitive number for jawed vertebrates. Two muscles innervated by cranial nerve 6 suggest homologies with lampreys and tetrapods. If the extra muscle acquired by gnathostomes was the internal rectus, Devonian fossils show that it had a similar insertion above and behind the eyestalk in both placoderms and basal osteichthyans. PMID:18077236

  8. The JACS prospective cohort study of newly diagnosed women with breast cancer investigating joint and muscle pain, aches, and stiffness: pain and quality of life after primary surgery and before adjuvant treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer affects one in eight UK women during their lifetime: many of these women now receive adjuvant chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Joint and muscle pains, aches, and stiffness are common but the natural history, aetiology and impact of these symptoms are unknown. A cohort study of newly diagnosed women with primary breast cancer was established to explore this. In this paper we present study methods and sample characteristics, describe participants’ experience of musculoskeletal pain at baseline interview, and explore its impact on quality of life. Methods Women with non-metastatic breast cancer were recruited following primary surgery into a multi-centre cohort study. They received questionnaires by post five times (baseline, 3, 6 , 9 and 12 months) to investigate prevalence, severity, location and correlates of musculoskeletal pain, and impact on quality-of-life. Pain was measured by the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire, the Brief Pain Inventory, and MSK-specific questions, and quality of life by the SF-36 and FACIT scales. Results 543 women (mean age 57 years, range 28–87, 64% postmenopausal) were recruited following surgery for primary breast cancer from breast cancer clinics in eight hospitals. Fifteen per cent of the eligible cohort was missed; 28% declined to participate. Joint or muscle aches, pains or stiffness were reported by 69% women with 28% specifically reporting joint pain/aches/stiffness. Quality of life, as measured by the FACT-B and adjusted for age, depression, surgery and analgesic use, is significantly worse in all domains in those with musculoskeletal problems than those without. Conclusions Our findings highlights the importance of a better understanding of these symptoms and their impact on the lives of women with primary breast cancer so that healthcare professionals are better equipped to support patients and to provide accurate information to inform treatment decisions. Further papers from this study will address these issues. PMID:24964929

  9. The MRC1/CD68 Ratio Is Positively Associated with Adipose Tissue Lipogenesis and with Muscle Mitochondrial Gene Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco; Gómez-Serrano, María; García-Santos, Eva; Ricart, Wifredo; Tinahones, Francisco; Mingrone, Geltrude; Peral, Belén; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Alternative macrophages (M2) express the cluster differentiation (CD) 206 (MCR1) at high levels. Decreased M2 in adipose tissue is known to be associated with obesity and inflammation-related metabolic disturbances. Here we aimed to investigate MCR1 relative to CD68 (total macrophages) gene expression in association with adipogenic and mitochondrial genes, which were measured in human visceral [VWAT, n?=?147] and subcutaneous adipose tissue [SWAT, n?=?76] and in rectus abdominis muscle (n?=?23). The effects of surgery-induced weight loss were also longitudinally evaluated (n?=?6). Results MCR1 and CD68 gene expression levels were similar in VWAT and SWAT. A higher proportion of CD206 relative to total CD68 was present in subjects with less body fat and lower fasting glucose concentrations. The ratio MCR1/CD68was positively associated with IRS1gene expression and with the expression of lipogenic genes such as ACACA, FASN and THRSP, even after adjusting for BMI. The ratio MCR1/CD68 in SWAT increased significantly after the surgery-induced weight loss (+44.7%; p?=?0.005) in parallel to the expression of adipogenic genes. In addition, SWAT MCR1/CD68ratio was significantly associated with muscle mitochondrial gene expression (PPARGC1A, TFAM and MT-CO3). AT CD206 was confirmed by immunohistochemistry to be specific of macrophages, especially abundant in crown-like structures. Conclusion A decreased ratio MCR1/CD68 is linked to adipose tissue and muscle mitochondrial dysfunction at least at the level of expression of adipogenic and mitochondrial genes. PMID:23951013

  10. Cardiac muscle tissue engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Papadaki

    2003-01-01

    Cell-based therapy has emerged as a novel approach for replacing heart muscle, which is known not to regenerate after injury such as that caused by infarction or reconstructive surgery. Two types of cell-based therapies have been employed: injection of isolated cells or the implantation of in-vitro-grown cardiac muscle tissue equivalents In the first case, several cell types - including skeletal

  11. Influence of exercise training on the oxidative capacity of rat abdominal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uribe, J. M.; Stump, C. S.; Tipton, C. M.; Fregosi, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine if endurance exercise training would increase the oxidative capacity of the abdominal expiratory muscles of the rat. Accordingly, 9 male rats were subjected to an endurance training protocol (1 h/day, 6 days/week, 9 weeks) and 9 litter-mates served as controls. Citrate synthase (CS) activity was used as an index of oxidative capacity, and was determined in the following muscles: soleus, plantaris, costal diaphragm, crural diaphragm, and in all four abdominal muscles: rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique. Compared to their non-trained litter-mates, the trained rats had higher peak whole body oxygen consumption rates (+ 16%) and CS activities in plantaris (+34%) and soleus (+36%) muscles. Thus, the training program caused substantial systemic and locomotor muscle adaptations. The CS activity of costal diaphragm was 20% greater in the trained animals, but no difference was observed in crural diaphragm. The CS activity in the abdominal muscles was less than one-half of that in locomotor and diaphragm muscles, and there were no significant changes with training except in the rectus abdominis where a 26% increase was observed. The increase in rectus abdominis CS activity may reflect its role in postural support and/or locomotion, as none of the primary expiratory pumping muscles adapted to the training protocol. The relatively low levels of CS activity in the abdominal muscles suggests that they are not recruited frequently at rest, and the lack of an increase with training indicates that these muscles do not contribute significantly to the increased ventilatory activity accompanying exercise in the rat.

  12. Cervical radiculopathy: Pain, muscle weakness and sensory loss in patients with cervical radiculopathy treated with surgery, physiotherapy or cervical collar A prospective, controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. G. Persson; U. Moritz; L. Brandt; C.-A. Carlsson

    1997-01-01

    This prospective, randomised study compares the efficacy of surgery, physiotherapy and cervical collar with respect to pain, motor weakness and sensory loss in 81 patients with long-lasting cervical radiculopathy corresponding to a nerve root that was significantly compressed by spondylotic encroachment, with or without an additional bulging disk, as verified by MRI or CT-myelography. Pain intensity was registered on a

  13. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePLUS

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  14. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePLUS

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy. Disuse atrophy occurs from a lack of physical activity. In most people, muscle atrophy is caused by not using the ...

  15. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  16. Evaluating potential biomarkers of cachexia and survival in skeletal muscle of upper gastrointestinal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Nathan A; Skipworth, Richard J E; Gallagher, Iain J; Greig, Carolyn A; Guttridge, Denis C; Ross, James A; Fearon, Kenneth C H

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to grow the potential therapeutic armamentarium in the cachexia domain of supportive oncology, there is a pressing need to develop suitable biomarkers and potential drug targets. This pilot study evaluated several potential candidate biomarkers in skeletal muscle biopsies from a cohort of upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGIC) patients. Methods One hundred seven patients (15 weight-stable healthy controls (HC) and 92 UGIC patients) were recruited. Mean (standard deviation) weight-loss of UGIC patients was 8.1 (9.3%). Cachexia was defined as weight-loss ?5%. Rectus?abdominis muscle was obtained at surgery and was analysed by western blotting or quantitative real-time–polymerase chain reaction. Candidate markers were selected according to previous literature and included Akt and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt, n?=?52), forkhead box O transcription factors (n?=?59), ubiquitin E3 ligases (n?=?59, control of muscle anabolism/catabolism), BNIP3 and GABARAPL1 (n?=?59, as markers of autophagy), myosin heavy-chain (MyHC, n?=?54), dystrophin (n?=?39), ?-dystroglycan (n?=?52), and ?-sarcoglycan (n?=?52, as markers of structural alteration in a muscle). Patients were followed up for an average of 1255?days (range 581–1955?days) or until death. Patients were grouped accordingly and analysed by (i) all cancer patients vs. HC; (ii) cachectic vs. non-cachectic cancer patients; and (iii) cancer patients surviving ?1 vs. >1?year post operatively. Results Cancer compared with HC patients had reduced mean (standard deviation) total Akt protein [0.49 (0.31) vs. 0.89 (0.17), P?=?0.001], increased ratio of phosphorylated to total Akt [1.33 (1.04) vs. 0.32 (0.21), P?=?0.002] and increased expression of GABARAPL1 [1.60 (0.76) vs. 1.10 (0.57), P?=?0.024]. ?-Dystroglycan levels were higher in cachectic compared with non-cachectic cancer patients [1.01 (0.16) vs. 0.87 (0.20), P?=?0.007]. Survival was shortened in patients with low compared with high MyHC levels (median 316 vs. 1326?days, P?=?0.023) and dystrophin levels (median 341 vs. 660?days, P?=?0.008). Conclusions The present study has identified intramuscular protein level of ?-dystroglycan as a potential biomarker of cancer cachexia. Changes in the structural elements of muscle (MyHC or dystrophin) appear to be survival biomarkers. PMID:26136412

  17. Preliminary observations of muscle fibre cross sectional area of flexor digitorum brevis in cadaver feet with and without claw toes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to facilitate normal gait, toes require to be in a rectus position during the propulsive phase. This requires a correct balance and sequence of activity of the intrinsic musculature of the feet. Alteration of this balance and sequence may lead to the development of claw toes. Atrophy of the lumbricals occurs in the development of claw toes, but it is not known if changes occur in any other intrinsic muscles, including flexor digitorum brevis. This study set out to investigate whether hypertrophic changes were evident in flexor digitorum brevis in feet with claw toes. Methods Four cadaver feet were investigated, two with rectus toes and two with claw toes. Flexor digitorum brevis was removed from each, and seven anatomically significant tissue sections from each muscle were routinely processed, cut and stained. One hundred and sixty muscle fibre cross sectional areas were measured from each section. Results The mean age of the donors was 81.5 years, and three of the four were female. Results showed that the cross sectional area of fibres from feet with claw toes was 417 ?g2 significantly greater (p < 0.01) than the cross sectional area of fibres from feet with rectus toes, which was 263 ?g2. Conclusions Although this study has several limitations, preliminary observations reveal that flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibre cross sectional area is significantly reduced in feet with claw toes. This would indicate a relationship between muscle fibre atrophy of flexor digitorum brevis and clawing of the lesser toes. PMID:21176213

  18. Autologous, cadaveric, and synthetic materials used in sling surgery: comparative biomechanical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong M Choe; Rupa Kothandapani; Laura James; Doug Bowling

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the biomechanical properties of allografts, autografts, and synthetic materials used in sling surgery using the Instron tensinometer.Methods. The sling grafts we studied consisted of autologous tissues (dermis, rectus fascia, and vaginal mucosa), cadaver tissues (decellularized dermis and freeze-dried, gamma-irradiated fascia lata), and synthetics (Gore-Tex and polypropylene mesh). The sling grafts were constructed into two types of slings:

  19. Extent of intraoperative muscle dissection does not affect long-term outcomes after minimally invasive surgery versus open-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery: A prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Adogwa, Owoicho; Johnson, Kwame; Min, Elliot T.; Issar, Neil; Carr, Kevin R.; Huang, Kevin; Cheng, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background: Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) versus open TLIF, addressing lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) or grade I spondylolisthesis (DS), are associated with shorter hospital stays, decreased blood loss, quicker return to work, and equivalent short- and long-term outcomes. However, no prospective study has assessed whether the extent of intraoperative muscle trauma utilizing creatinine phosphokinase levels (CPK) differently impacts long-term outcomes. Methods: Twenty-one patients underwent MIS-TLIF (n = 14) versus open-TLIF (n = 7) for DDD or DS. Serum CPK levels were measured at baseline, and postoperatively (days 1, 7, and 1.5, 3 and 6 months). The correlation between the extent of intraoperative muscle trauma and two-year improvement in functional disability was evaluated (multivariate regression analysis). Additionally, baseline and two-year changes in Visual Analog Scale (VAS)-leg pain (LP), VAS-back pain (BP), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short-Form-36 (SF-36) Physical Component Score (PCS) and SF-36 Mental Component Score (MCS), and postoperative satisfaction with surgical care were assessed. Results: Although the mean change from baseline in the serum creatine phosphokinase level on POD 1 was greater for MIS-TLIF (628.07) versus open-TLF (291.42), this did not correlate with lesser two-year improvement in functional disability. Both cohorts also showed similar two-year improvement in VAS-LP, ODI, and SF-36 PCS/MCS. Conclusion: Increased intraoperative muscle trauma unexpectedly observed in higher postoperative CPK levels for MIS-TLIF versus open-TLIF did not correlate with any differences in two-year improvement in pain and functional disability. PMID:23248754

  20. Abdominal muscle training in sport.

    PubMed Central

    Norris, C M

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates several abdominal exercises, and highlights factors which are important for their safe prescription and effective use. The function of the abdominal muscles and hip flexors is considered, and the importance of the infra-umbilical portion of the rectus abdominis is emphasized. The effects of flexion on the lumbar spine are outlined. The trunk curl, sit-up, and straight leg raise are analysed, together with modifications of these exercises. The effect of foot fixation and hip flexion during the performance of the sit-up is discussed. The sit-up performed with foot fixation, and the bilateral straight leg raise can compound hip muscle imbalance, and both hyperextend and hyperflex the lumbar spine and are therefore not recommended. The importance of muscular control of pelvic tilt is considered with reference to muscle imbalance around the pelvis. It is recommended that a musculoskeletal assessment should be performed before prescribing abdominal exercises. Exercise therapy to re-educate control of pelvic tilt is described. Intra-abdominal pressure, and the effects of abdominal exercise on this mechanism, and lumbar stabilization are examined. The importance of training specificity is stressed. PMID:8457806

  1. Oxidative proteome alterations during skeletal muscle ageing

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço dos Santos, Sofia; Baraibar, Martin A.; Lundberg, Staffan; Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar; Larsson, Lars; Friguet, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia corresponds to the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength associated with ageing and leads to a progressive impairment of mobility and quality of life. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. A hallmark of cellular and tissular ageing is the accumulation of oxidatively modified (carbonylated) proteins, leading to a decreased quality of the cellular proteome that could directly impact on normal cellular functions. Although increased oxidative stress has been reported during skeletal muscle ageing, the oxidized protein targets, also referred as to the ‘oxi-proteome’ or ‘carbonylome’, have not been characterized yet. To better understand the mechanisms by which these damaged proteins build up and potentially affect muscle function, proteins targeted by these modifications have been identified in human rectus abdominis muscle obtained from young and old healthy donors using a bi-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach coupled with immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. Among evidenced protein spots, 17 were found as increased carbonylated in biopsies from old donors comparing to young counterparts. These proteins are involved in key cellular functions such as cellular morphology and transport, muscle contraction and energy metabolism. Importantly, impairment of these pathways has been described in skeletal muscle during ageing. Functional decline of these proteins due to irreversible oxidation may therefore impact directly on the above-mentioned pathways, hence contributing to the generation of the sarcopenic phenotype. PMID:26073261

  2. Successful pregnancy “during” pedicled transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction with normal vaginal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Siew Cheng; Umayaal, Shahlini; Saad, Arman Zaharil Mat

    2015-01-01

    A transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is a popular choice for breast reconstruction. Pregnancies in women following a TRAM flap present concerns regarding both safety and the integrity of the abdominal wall. We report a case of a patient who was pregnant during immediate breast reconstruction with pedicled TRAM flap and had a successful spontaneous vaginal delivery. We also conducted a literature review using PubMed on pregnancy post TRAM flap, type of reconstruction, timing of pregnancy after TRAM flap, complication, and mode of delivery, which are summarised in this report. We concluded that patients may have safe pregnancies and normal deliveries following TRAM flap breast reconstruction regardless of the time frame of pregnancy after the procedure. Therefore, TRAM flaps can continue to be a reconstruction option, even in women of childbearing age. PMID:25991893

  3. Intercostal thorascopic harvesting of the internal mammary artery for supercharging a pedicled rectus abdominis flap.

    PubMed

    Kaddoura, I L; Hashim, H; Kayle, D; Shabb, B

    1998-06-01

    Thorascopic harvesting of the internal mammary artery for supercharging the rectus abdominis pedicled flap for breast reconstruction is presented. The procedure was carried on a woman who had previously undergone a mastectomy and who was obese and a diabetic. The patient underwent a "high" flap delay 2 weeks earlier. At the time of operative transfer and setting, the flap's vascularity was found to be compromised. Instead of turbocharging the deep inferior epigastric pedicle to the irradiated axillary vessels, it was possible to harvest and utilize the internal mammary artery without rib resection for the supercharging, thus saving the flap and reconstruction. The technical aspects, and possible advantages and disadvantages of such a procedure are discussed. PMID:9641287

  4. "Boomerang" rectus abdominis musculocutaneous free flap in head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Nohira, K; Minakawa, H; Sasaki, S; Yoshida, T; Sugihara, T; Shintomi, Y; Yamashita, T; Hosokawa, M; Ohura, T

    1995-01-01

    Immediate head and neck reconstruction after cancer resection using the "boomerang" rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (RAM) free flap was performed in 13 patients over the past 2 years. The skin paddle of the flap is designed as a boomerang shape based on the anatomical construction of the dominant perforators from the inferior epigastric vascular system. A versatile technique of the boomerang RAM flap provides effective use for reconstruction of the complex defects at the skull base, orbital, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, oropharynx, palate, buccal mucosa, tongue, floor of mouth, and neck. It also allows a reconstructive surgical team to elevate the flap simultaneously with a head and neck surgical team before the size and location of the defect are exactly determined and greatly reduces operating time. This flap will be a routine technique for immediate head and neck reconstruction after cancer resection. PMID:7702301

  5. Functional and morphological variety in trunk muscles of Urodela.

    PubMed

    Omura, Ayano; Anzai, Wataru; Endo, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    Trunk musculature in Urodela species varies by habitat. In this study, trunk musculature was examined in five species of adult salamanders representing three different habitats: aquatic species, Amphiuma tridactylum and Necturus maculosus; semi-aquatic species, Cynops pyrrhogaster; terrestrial species, Hynobius nigrescens and Ambystoma tigrinum. More terrestrial species have heavier dorsal and ventral trunk muscles than more aquatic forms. By contrast, the lateral hypaxial musculature was stronger in more aquatic species. The number of layers of lateral hypaxial musculature varied among Urodela species and did not clearly correlate with their habitats. The M. rectus abdominis was separated from the lateral hypaxial musculature in both terrestrial and semi-aquatic species. In aquatic species, M. rectus abdominis was not separated from lateral hypaxial musculature. Lateral hypaxial musculature differed in thickness among species and was relatively thinner in terrestrial species. In more terrestrial species, dorsal muscles may be used for stabilization and ventral flexing against gravity. Ventral muscle may be used in preventing dorsally concave curvature of the trunk by dorsal muscles and by weight. The lengthy trunk supported by limbs needs muscular forces along the ventral contour line in more terrestrial species. And, the locomotion on well-developed limbs seems to lead to a decrease of the lateral hypaxial musculature. PMID:24065082

  6. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risks of cosmetic surgery? top People who have cosmetic surgery face many of the same risks as anyone having surgery. These include: Infection Not healing well Damage to nerves Bleeding Not being happy with the results Risks ...

  7. Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... significant defects or problems. But what about having cosmetic surgery just to change your appearance? Is it a ... are right and wrong reasons to have surgery. Cosmetic surgery is unlikely to change your life. Most board- ...

  8. Effect of prolonged walking with backpack loads on trunk muscle activity and fatigue in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youlian Hong; Jing-Xian Li; Daniel Tik-Pui Fong

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of prolonged walking with load carriage on muscle activity and fatigue in children. Fifteen Chinese male children (age=6 years, height=120.0±5.4cm, mass=22.9±2.6kg) performed 20-min walking trials on treadmill (speed=1.1ms?1) with different backpack loads (0%, 10%, 15% and 20% body weight). Electromyography (EMG) signals from upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT) and rectus abdominis (RA) were recorded

  9. Effect of using a suspension training system on muscle activation during the performance of a front plank exercise.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Jeannette M; Bishop, Nicole S; Caines, Andrew M; Crane, Kalynn A; Feaver, Ashley M; Pearcey, Gregory E P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of suspension training on muscle activation during performance of variations of the plank exercise. Twenty-one participants took part. All individuals completed 2 repetitions each of 4 different plank exercises that consisted of a floor based plank, or planks with arms suspended, feet suspended, or feet and arms suspended using a TRX Suspension System. During plank performance, muscle activation was recorded from rectus abdominis, external oblique, rectus femoris, and serratus anterior (SA) muscles using electromyography. All planks were performed for a total of 3 seconds. Resulting muscle activation data were amplitude normalized, and root mean square activation was then determined over the full 3 second duration of the exercise. A significant main effect of plank type was found for all muscles. Post hoc analysis and effect size examination indicated that abdominal muscle activation was higher in all suspended conditions compared to the floor based plank. The highest level of abdominal muscle activation occurred in the arms suspended and arms/feet suspended conditions, which did not differ from one another. Rectus femoris activation was greatest during the arms suspended condition, whereas SA activity peaked during normal and feet suspended planks. These results indicate that suspension training as performed in this study seems to be an effective means of increasing muscle activation during the plank exercise. Contrary to expectations, the additional instability created by suspending both the arms and feet did not result in any additional abdominal muscle activation. These findings have implications in prescription and progression of core muscle training programs. PMID:24796979

  10. Muscles, Muscles Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    This activity helps students learn about the three different types of muscles and how outer space affects astronauts' muscles. They will discover how important it is for astronauts to get adequate exercise both on Earth and in outer space. Also, through the design of their own microgravity exercise machine, students learn about the exercise machines that engineers design specifically for astronaut use.

  11. Treatment of gummy smile: Gingival recontouring with the containment of the elevator muscle of the upper lip and wing of nose. A surgery innovation technique.

    PubMed

    Storrer, Carmen Lucia Mueller; Valverde, Fabiane Kristine Bochenek; Santos, Felipe Rychuv; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda

    2014-09-01

    The containment of the elevator muscle of the upper lip and wing of nose was used for the treatment of patients with gummy smile. This technique had corrected esthetic alterations of smile, reducing the upper lip elevation, which results in a smaller gingival display. An upper lip lengthening as well as a reduction in the upper lip shortening when the patient smiled could be observed. The high smile line was corrected without compromising the labial harmony. This study presents an innovative and effective therapeutic option to obtain a natural and harmonious smile. The patient expressed a high degree of satisfaction. PMID:25425832

  12. Treatment of gummy smile: Gingival recontouring with the containment of the elevator muscle of the upper lip and wing of nose. A surgery innovation technique

    PubMed Central

    Storrer, Carmen Lucia Mueller; Valverde, Fabiane Kristine Bochenek; Santos, Felipe Rychuv; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda

    2014-01-01

    The containment of the elevator muscle of the upper lip and wing of nose was used for the treatment of patients with gummy smile. This technique had corrected esthetic alterations of smile, reducing the upper lip elevation, which results in a smaller gingival display. An upper lip lengthening as well as a reduction in the upper lip shortening when the patient smiled could be observed. The high smile line was corrected without compromising the labial harmony. This study presents an innovative and effective therapeutic option to obtain a natural and harmonious smile. The patient expressed a high degree of satisfaction. PMID:25425832

  13. Change in onset times of the abdominal muscles following functional task in lumbar spinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun Seung; Park, Seong Doo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the onset times of the abdominal muscle following a rapid arm task in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). In total, 32 patients with LSS were recruited from W oriental hospital. Muscle activity onset of the internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG) activity with a rapid arm movement and during the performance of a walking task. The LSS group demonstrated a significantly later onset of the IO, EO, and rectus abdominal (RA) muscles than the normal group. The deltoid reaction time of the normal group demonstrated significantly earlier activations of IO and EO, while the deltoid reaction time of the LSS group demonstrated significantly delayed activations of IO and RA. The EMG measurements of the IO, EO, and RA muscles while standing and walking were reliable and they offer empirical information about the trunk muscle activation of LSS patients. PMID:25426468

  14. Imaging of Regional Differences of Muscle Oxygenation during Exercise Using Spatially Resolved NIRS.

    PubMed

    Kek, K; Samizo, M; Miyakawa, T; Kudo, N; Yamamoto, K

    2005-01-01

    The development of imaging systems using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has enabled noninvasive measurement of regional changes in muscle oxygenation. A spatially resolved NIRS (SR-NIRS) imaging instrument was utilized for real-time measurement of spatial-temporal changes in muscle oxygenation during exercises. Changes in muscle oxygenation and localized O2consumption in the quadriceps muscle were measured during sustained isometric knee extension without and with leg-press to the ground exercises. In the former exercise, the level of tissue oxygen saturation (TOS) of the rectus femoris (RF) muscle was found to be lower than that of vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles. The highest localized O2consumption rate, VO2, reflecting the localization in distribution of muscle metabolism, was detected in the RF muscle at the initial stage of exercise. As exercise progressed, VO2of the RF muscle decreased whereas that of the VL and VM muscles increased. In contrast, TOS decreased to about the same level for the VL, RF and VM muscles in the latter exercise. Also, VO2of all three muscles decreased as exercise progressed. Initial results demonstrated that the SR-NIRS instrument enables measurement of regional differences in muscle oxygenation in the quadriceps muscle during different exercises. PMID:17282776

  15. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  16. Pressure-induced Rhabdomyolysis after Bariatric Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gonzalo Torres-Villalobos; Eric Kimura; Juan Luis Mosqueda; Eduardo García-García; Miguel F. Herrera

    2003-01-01

    Rhabdomyolisis most commonly occurs after muscle injury, alcohol ingestion, drug intake and exhaustive exercise. Prolonged\\u000a muscle compression at the time of surgery may produce this complication. Obesity has been reported as a risk factor for pressure-induced\\u000a rhabdomyolysis, but no reports associated with bariatric surgery could be found in the literature. We report 3 superobese\\u000a patients who developed rhabdomyolysis after bariatric

  17. Leg muscles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Uwe Gille (None; )

    2007-07-29

    Like many areas of the body, the legs contain bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. All of these are needed for movement. Muscles contract and lengthen as movement occurs. Muscles become shorter when they contract.

  18. Muscle aches

    MedlinePLUS

    Muscle pain is most frequently related to tension, overuse, or muscle injury from exercise or physically-demanding ... are: Injury or trauma including sprains and strains Overuse: using a muscle too much, too soon, too ...

  19. Assessment of muscle fatigue during biking.

    PubMed

    Knaflitz, Marco; Molinari, Filippo

    2003-03-01

    The analysis of the surface myoelectric signal recorded while a muscle is performing a sustained contraction is a valuable tool for assessing the progression of localized fatigue. It is well known that the modifications of the spectral content of the myoelectric signal are mainly related to changes in the interstitial fluid pH, which, in turn, affect the membrane excitability of the active muscle fibers. This paper describes the effects of muscle fatigue on the surface myoelectric signal recorded from three thigh and leg muscles during biking, on a population consisting of 22 young healthy volunteers. The purpose of this study was to obtain normative data relative to an exercise protocol mild enough to be applicable, in the future, to pathological subjects as well. Each subject was asked to exercise 30 min on a cycloergometer at a constant velocity and against a constant torque. While subjects were biking, the surface myoelectric signal was recorded from the rectus femoris, the biceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius muscles. In this study, we considered two different aspects of muscle fatigue: first, the localized muscle fatigue as shown by the decrement of the instantaneous frequency of the myoelectric signal during the exercise; second, the modifications of the muscle ON-OFF timing, which could be explained as a strategy for increasing endurance by modifying the role of different muscles during the exercise. The first aspect was studied by obtaining the spectral characteristics of the signals by means of bilinear time-frequency transforms and by applying an original estimator of the instantaneous frequency of stochastic processes based on cross time-frequency transforms. Our results demonstrated that none of the subjects showed significant signs of localized muscle fatigue, since the decrement of the instantaneous frequency during the exercise was always lower than 5% of its initial value. Muscle ON-OFF timing was obtained by applying to the raw myoelectric signal a double threshold statistical detector to identify the time intervals during which the observed muscles were active. This demonstrated that the subjective feeling of fatigue each subject reported during the exercise did not cause a change of the activation strategy of the observed muscles. It is concluded that the experimental protocol herein described and the signal processing procedures adopted are appropriate for monitoring different effects of muscle fatigue during biking. Moreover, data obtained from our sample population can be considered as a reference for studying the manifestations of muscle fatigue in pathological subjects asked to follow a similar experimental protocol. PMID:12797721

  20. Polyglactin 910 mesh for support of the donor defect of the double-pedicled rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Hallock, G G; Altobelli, J A

    1989-04-01

    The most significant concern in using the lower rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap is creation of an eventration or even a frank hernia of the abdominal wall. Frequently, reinforcement using an alloplastic implant following closure of the double-pedicled donor defect is required. In an effort to avoid the use of any foreign materials, particularly if the goal in breast reconstruction is to use only autogenous tissues, strong consideration for incorporating an absorbable mesh is advocated to provide abdominal wall support. PMID:2523209

  1. The long-term result of slanted medial rectus resection in exotropia of the convergence insufficiency type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Y Choi; J-M Hwang

    2006-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the long-term results of slanted medial rectus (MR) resection for intermittent exotropia (X(T)) of the convergence insufficiency type.MethodsIn all, 10 patients with an X(T) greater at near than at distance by 10 prism diopters (PD) or more were included in this prospective study. Patients received slanted bilateral MR resection. The upper edge of the MR was resected according

  2. Immediate autologous breast reconstruction using muscle-sparing TRAM flaps with superficial epigastric system turbocharging: a salvage option.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Al B; Walton, Robert L

    2006-04-01

    Current breast reconstruction trends favor the use of muscle-sparing abdominal flaps to minimize abdominal morbidity. When compared to the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap, the muscle-sparing deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap and the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flap are common options that minimize donor-site morbidity. For patients with inadequate flap perfusion via either system, alternative surgical options that permit preservation of the abdominal musculature are limited. Using both the DIEP and SIEA systems, the authors describe a turbocharged construct that also facilitates flap perfusion without the need for violation of the anterior rectus sheath. This turbocharged system can provide adequate blood supply in a flap with questionable DIEP or SIEA perfusion alone. PMID:16780043

  3. Delayed synapse elimination in mouse levator palpebrae superioris muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Michael A.; Tapia, Juan Carlos; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Lichtman, Jeff W.

    2012-01-01

    At birth, synaptic sites in developing rodent muscles are innervated by numerous motor axons. During subsequent weeks, this multiple innervation disappears as one terminal strengthens and all the others are eliminated. Experimental perturbations that alter neuromuscular activity affect the rate of synaptic refinement with more activity accelerating the time to single innervation and neuromuscular blockade retarding it. But it remains unclear whether patterns of muscle use (driven by endogenous neuronal activity) contribute to the rate of synapse elimination. For this reason we examined the timing of supernumerary nerve terminal elimination at synapses in extraocular muscles (EOMs), a specialized set of muscles that control eye movements. On the basis of their exceptionally high patterns of activity, we hypothesized that synaptic refinement would be greatly accelerated at these synapses. We found, however, that rates of synaptic refinement were only modestly accelerated in rectus and oblique EOMs compared with synapses in somite-derived skeletal muscle. In contrast to these results, we observed a dramatic delay in the elimination of supernumerary nerve terminals from synapses in the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) muscle, a specialized EOM that initiates and maintains eye-lid elevation. In mice, natural eye-opening occurs at the end of the second postnatal week of development. Thus, while synapse elimination is occurring in most EOMs and somite-derived skeletal muscles it appears dramatically delayed in a set of specialized eyelid muscles that remain immobile during early postnatal development. PMID:21681746

  4. The effect of unilateral hockey bag carriage on the muscle activities of the trunk and lower limb of young healthy males during gait.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Liam Patrick; Li, Jing Xian

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the trunk and lower limb muscle activity of 15 males during unilateral hockey bag carriage of 10%, 20%, and 30% of one's body weight (BW) compared with without a load during walking. The electromyography (EMG) activities of the left and right erector spinae, rectus abdominis, gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and the medial gastrocnemius were studied. A 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine the differences between the load weight and muscle side. Results showed significant increase in peak EMG and iEMG in the carrying side vastus medialis, rectus abdominis, semitendinosus, and gastrocnemii (p < 0.05) at the 30% BW load. The noncarrying side showed a greater peak EMG in the semitendinosus and rectus femoris at the 30% BW load when compared with the carrying side (p < 0.05). It was concluded that unilateral hockey bag carriage is similar to both backpack and side-pack carriage styles. PMID:24392769

  5. Fiber Composition of the Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck 1827) Thigh Muscle: An Enzyme-histochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bakou, Serge Niangoran; Nteme Ella, Gualbert Simon; Aoussi, Serge; Guiguand, Lydie; Cherel, Yannick; Fantodji, Agathe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe de fiber composition in the thigh muscles of grass cutter (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck 1827). Ten 4 to 6-month-old (3 to 4 kg) male grasscutter were used in this study. Eleven skeletal muscles of the thigh [M. biceps femoris (BF), M. rectus femoris (RF), M. vastus lateralis (VL), M. vastus medialis (VM), M. tensor fasciae latae (TFL), M. semitendinosus (ST), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semimembranosus accessorius (SMA), M. Sartorius (SRT), M. pectineus (PCT), M. adductor magnus (AM)] were collected after animals euthanasia and examined by light microscopy. Three muscle fiber types (I, IIB and IIA) were found in these muscles using enzyme histochemical techniques [myosine adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase (NADH-TR)]. Ten of these eleven muscles are composed by 89% to 100% of fast contracting fibers (types IIA and IIB), while the SMA was almost exclusively formed by slow contracting fibers.

  6. Use of the SF-36 quality of life scale to assess the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise on aging males who received transurethral prostate surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chen-Pang; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Chang, Chia-Chi; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chen, Chien-Lun; Hsu, Yu-Chao; Tsui, Ke-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We used the Short Form (SF)-36® Health Survey scale to assess the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFE) on aging males who received transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P). Methods From April 2010 to December 2010, a total of 66 patients who underwent TUR-P were enrolled in this study. They were randomized into two groups (with 33 patients in each group) – an experimental group who performed postoperative PFE every day and a control group. Data, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), uroflowmetry study, and the SF-36 quality of life measure, were collected before the operation, and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the operation. We analyzed the differences between the two groups with respect to their IPSS scores, maximal urinary flow rate, residual urine amount, and life quality. Results A total of 61 patients (experimental group: 32 patients, and control group: 29 patients) completed this study. We found that at 12 weeks postop, patients who performed PFE every day had a better maximal urinary flow rate (16.41 ± 6.20 vs 12.41 ± 7.28 mL/min) (P = 0.026) compared with patients in the control group. The experimental group had a much greater decrease in IPSS score (P < 0.001). As for the SF-36 scale, the experimental group had higher scores than did the control group on both the physiological domain (54.86 vs 49.86) (P = 0.029) and the psychological domain (61.88 vs 52.69) (P = 0.005). However, there were no significant differences with respect to the postvoiding residual urine between the two groups (57.24 ± 52.95 vs 64.68 ± 50.63 mL) (P = 0.618). Conclusion Compared with the control group, patients who performed PFE for 12 weeks after TUR-P showed improvement in their maximal urinary flow rate and lower urinary tract symptoms, and had a better quality of life. The immediate initiation of PFE is suggested for patients who undergo TUR-P. PMID:23766642

  7. Orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Gehrig, Laura M B

    2011-09-01

    Orthopedic surgery is a specialty of surgery dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases and injuries of the musculoskeletal system in all age groups. Careers in orthopedic surgery span the spectrum from general orthopedics to those of subspecialty expertise in orthopedic trauma, hand, pediatrics, total joint, foot and ankle, sports medicine, and oncology to name a few. PMID:21871990

  8. Eyelid Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Neoh; A. Eckstein

    2010-01-01

    Eyelid lengthening with or without blepharoplasty (dermatochalasis correction) is usually the final step of surgical rehabilitation. A pleasing outcome after orbital decompression and squint surgery, if indicated, is very much dependent on correcting any remaining lid deformity satisfactorily. This is often more challenging than the preceding surgery. The most common indication for lid surgery is upper lid retraction with poor

  9. The hyal and ventral branchial muscles in caecilian and salamander larvae: homologies and evolution.

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    Amphibians (Lissamphibia) are characterized by a bi-phasic life-cycle that comprises an aquatic larval stage and metamorphosis to the adult. The ancestral aquatic feeding behavior of amphibian larvae is suction feeding. The negative pressure that is needed for ingestion of prey is created by depression of the hyobranchial apparatus as a result of hyobranchial muscle action. Understanding the homologies of hyobranchial muscles in amphibian larvae is a crucial step in understanding the evolution of this important character complex. However, the literature mostly focuses on the adult musculature and terms used for hyal and ventral branchial muscles in different amphibians often do not reflect homologies across lissamphibian orders. Here we describe the hyal and ventral branchial musculature in larvae of caecilians (Gymnophiona) and salamanders (Caudata), including juveniles of two permanently aquatic salamander species. Based on previous alternative terminology schemes, we propose a terminology for the hyal and ventral branchial muscles that reflects the homologies of muscles and that is suited for studies on hyobranchial muscle evolution in amphibians. We present a discussion of the hyal and ventral branchial muscles in larvae of the most recent common ancestor of amphibians (i.e. the ground plan of Lissamphibia). Based on our terminology, the hyal and ventral branchial musculature of caecilians and salamanders comprises the following muscles: m. depressor mandibulae, m. depressor mandibulae posterior, m. hyomandibularis, m. branchiohyoideus externus, m. interhyoideus, m. interhyoideus posterior, m. subarcualis rectus I, m. subarcualis obliquus II, m. subarcualis obliquus III, m. subarcualis rectus II-IV, and m. transversus ventralis IV. Except for the m. branchiohyoideus externus, all muscles considered herein can be assigned to the ground plan of the Lissamphibia with certainty. The m. branchiohyoideus externus is either apomorphic for the Batrachia (frogs + salamanders) or salamander larvae depending on whether or not a homologous muscle is present in frog tadpoles. PMID:21374703

  10. The neurofibrovascular bundle of the inferior oblique muscle as its ancillary origin.

    PubMed Central

    Stager, D R

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish that the neurofibrovascular bundle (NFVB) of the inferior oblique muscle (IO) has ligamentous qualities that enable it to function as an ancillary origin to the muscle. Also, to show that the NFVB does function as the ancillary origin for the IO muscle, particularly when recessing and anteriorly transposing its insertion. METHODS: Fresh (no formaldehyde preservative) cadaver and patient eyes were studied anatomically, histologically, and physiologically. Eighteen orbits were dissected to isolate the IO, the inferior rectus (IR), and the NFVB to demonstrate the linear course of the NFVB and its adjacent fibrous bands. The shape of the muscle was documented. Coronal sections of the two whole, intact orbits were analyzed histologically. Light and electron microscopic sections of an autopsy specimen and a surgical specimen were used to evaluate the capsule of the NFVB and the adjacent fibrous bands near the anterior portion of the NFVB and their attachment to the IR and IO muscle capsules. The elastic modulus was measured in six in situ and six in vitro cadaver NFVB specimens and in six in vivo surgical cases at the time of denervation of the NFVB. For additional comparison, four in vitro cadaver superior oblique tendons were similarly tested. Six eyes that developed recurrent IO overaction following an anterior transposition procedure were surgically explored to determine what structure was serving as its ancillary origin. RESULTS: Gross anatomic and microscopic studies showed a linear orientation of the NFVB with adjacent fibrous bands anteriorly joining the IO and IR muscle capsules. The surgical specimens of the anterior portion of the NFVB show about 50% nerve and 50% fibrocollagenous capsule with the collagen fibers aligned parallel to the NFVB. The elastic modulus was highest (stiffest) in surgical specimens of the NFVB and in situ cadaver NFVB, followed by in vitro cadaver NFVB and, finally, in vitro cadaver superior oblique tendon. In patients who have undergone anterior transposition surgery, the NFVB served as the ancillary origin of the IO. CONCLUSIONS: The name of the neurovascular bundle should be changed to the NFVB, since it has a prominent fibrocollagenous capsule and it is encased in fibrous tissue bands anteriorly. The NFVB has a linear course in the orbit from the apex to the IO muscle and is relatively stiff. The associated fibrous band extends posteriorly from the IO muscle capsule, encasing the nerve anteriorly and attaching 3 to 7 mm posteriorly into the capsule of the IR. The NFVB binds the mid posterior portion of the IO posteriorly. Its ligamentous qualities enable the NFVB to function as an ancillary origin for the IO. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 A FIGURE 13 B FIGURE 13 C PMID:8981719

  11. Longitudinal changes in muscle activity during infants' treadmill stepping

    PubMed Central

    Teulier, Caroline; Sansom, Jennifer K.; Muraszko, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has described kinetic characteristics of treadmill steps in very stable steppers, in cross-sectional designs. In this study we examined, longitudinally, muscle activation patterns during treadmill stepping, without practice, in 12 healthy infants at 1, 6, and 12 mo of age. We assessed lateral gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris as infants stepped on a treadmill during twelve 20-s trials. Infants showed clear changes in kinematics, such as increased step frequency, increased heel contact at touch down, and more flat-footed contact at midstance. Electromyographic data showed high variability in muscle states (combinations), with high prevalence of all muscles active initially, reducing with age. Agonist-antagonist muscle coactivation also decreased as age increased. Probability analyses showed that across step cycles, the likelihood a muscle was on at any point tended to be <50%; lateral gastrocnemius was the exception, showing an adultlike pattern of probability across ages. In summary, over time, healthy infants produce a wide variety of muscle activation combinations and timings when generating stepping patterns on a treadmill, even if some levels of muscle control arose with time. However, the kinematic stability improved much more clearly than the underlying kinetic strategies. We conclude that although innate control of limb movement improves as infants grow, explore, and acquire functional movement, stepping on a treadmill is a novel and unpracticed one. Hence, developing stable underlying neural activations will only arise as functional practice ensues, similarly to that observed for other functional movements in infancy. PMID:22490560

  12. Pelvic floor muscle training in males: practical applications.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Andrew L

    2014-07-01

    The pelvic floor muscles are vital to male genitourinary health. Pelvic floor muscle training may prove helpful in a variety of clinical circumstances: stress urinary incontinence that follows prostate surgery, overactive bladder, postvoid dribbling, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation issues including premature ejaculation, and pelvic pain due to levator muscle spasm. PMID:24821468

  13. Ultrastructural Analysis of Extraocular Muscle in Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arturo Carta; Tiziana D'Adda; Franco Carrara; Massimo Zeviani

    xtraocular muscles are primarily involved in many mitochondrial diseases, but no re- ports exist regarding the morphological appearance of the muscles in cases of long- standing ocular myopathies. For this reason, muscle samples obtained from surgery in a sporadic case of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) were used for ultrastructural investigation and molecular analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Genetic testing re-

  14. Chiton myogenesis: perspectives for the development and evolution of larval and adult muscle systems in molluscs.

    PubMed

    Wanninger, Andreas; Haszprunar, Gerhard

    2002-02-01

    We investigated muscle development in two chiton species, Mopalia muscosa and Chiton olivaceus, from embryo hatching until 10 days after metamorphosis. The anlagen of the dorsal longitudinal rectus muscle and a larval prototroch muscle ring are the first detectable muscle structures in the early trochophore-like larva. Slightly later, a ventrolaterally situated pair of longitudinal muscles appears, which persists through metamorphosis. In addition, the anlagen of the putative dorsoventral shell musculature and the first fibers of a muscular grid, which is restricted to the pretrochal region and consists of outer ring and inner diagonal muscle fibers, are generated. Subsequently, transversal muscle fibers form underneath each future shell plate and the ventrolateral enrolling muscle is established. At metamorphic competence, the dorsoventral shell musculature consists of numerous serially repeated, intercrossing muscle fibers. Their concentration into seven (and later eight) functional shell plate muscle bundles starts after the completion of metamorphosis. The larval prototroch ring and the pretrochal muscle grid are lost at metamorphosis. The structure of the apical grid and its atrophy during metamorphosis suggests ontogenetic repetition of (parts of) the original body-wall musculature of a proposed worm-shaped molluscan ancestor. Moreover, our data show that the "segmented" character of the polyplacophoran shell musculature is a secondary condition, thus contradicting earlier theories that regarded the Polyplacophora (and thus the entire phylum Mollusca) as primarily eumetameric (annelid-like). Instead, we propose an unsegmented trochozoan ancestor at the base of molluscan evolution. PMID:11748697

  15. Breakpoints in ventilation, cerebral and muscle oxygenation, and muscle activity during an incremental cycling exercise

    PubMed Central

    Racinais, Sebastien; Buchheit, Martin; Girard, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to locate the breakpoints of cerebral and muscle oxygenation and muscle electrical activity during a ramp exercise in reference to the first and second ventilatory thresholds. Twenty-five cyclists completed a maximal ramp test on an electromagnetically braked cycle-ergometer with a rate of increment of 25 W/min. Expired gazes (breath-by-breath), prefrontal cortex and vastus lateralis (VL) oxygenation [Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)] together with electromyographic (EMG) Root Mean Square (RMS) activity for the VL, rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were continuously assessed. There was a non-linear increase in both cerebral deoxyhemoglobin (at 56 ± 13% of the exercise) and oxyhemoglobin (56 ± 8% of exercise) concomitantly to the first ventilatory threshold (57 ± 6% of exercise, p > 0.86, Cohen's d < 0.1). Cerebral deoxyhemoglobin further increased (87 ± 10% of exercise) while oxyhemoglobin reached a plateau/decreased (86 ± 8% of exercise) after the second ventilatory threshold (81 ± 6% of exercise, p < 0.05, d > 0.8). We identified one threshold only for muscle parameters with a non-linear decrease in muscle oxyhemoglobin (78 ± 9% of exercise), attenuation in muscle deoxyhemoglobin (80 ± 8% of exercise), and increase in EMG activity of VL (89 ± 5% of exercise), RF (82 ± 14% of exercise), and BF (85 ± 9% of exercise). The thresholds in BF and VL EMG activity occurred after the second ventilatory threshold (p < 0.05, d > 0.6). Our results suggest that the metabolic and ventilatory events characterizing this latter cardiopulmonary threshold may affect both cerebral and muscle oxygenation levels, and in turn, muscle recruitment responses. PMID:24782786

  16. Timing of Muscle Response to a Sudden Leg Perturbation: Comparison between Adolescents and Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Maria Stella; Cioni, Matteo; Pisasale, Mariangela; Pantò, Maria Rosita; Casabona, Antonino

    2013-01-01

    Movement disturbances associated with Down syndrome reduce mechanical stability, worsening the execution of important tasks such as walking and upright standing. To compensate these deficits, persons with Down syndrome increase joint stability modulating the level of activation of single muscles or producing an agonist-antagonist co-activation. Such activations are also observed when a relaxed, extended leg is suddenly released and left to oscillate passively under the influence of gravity (Wartenberg test). In this case, the Rectus femoris of adults with Down syndrome displayed peaks of activation after the onset of the first leg flexion. With the aim to verify if these muscular reactions were acquired during the development time and to find evidences useful to give them a functional explanation, we used the Wartenberg test to compare the knee joint kinematics and the surface electromyography of the Rectus femoris and Biceps femoris caput longus between adolescents and adults with Down syndrome. During the first leg flexion, adolescents and adults showed single Rectus femoris activations while, a restricted number of participants exhibited agonist-antagonist co-activations. However, regardless the pattern of activation, adults initiated the muscle activity significantly later than adolescents. Although most of the mechanical parameters and the total movement variability were similar in the two groups, the onset of the Rectus femoris activation was well correlated with the time of the minimum acceleration variability. Thus, in adolescents the maximum mechanical stability occurred short after the onset of the leg fall, while adults reached their best joint stability late during the first flexion. These results suggest that between the adolescence and adulthood, persons with Down syndrome explore a temporal window to select an appropriate timing of muscle activation to overcome their inherent mechanical instability. PMID:24278374

  17. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  18. Your Muscles

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as large, but they are capable of some pretty amazing things: Try rotating your head around, back and forth, and up and down to feel the power of the muscles in your neck. These muscles also hold your head high. Back Continue Face Muscles You may not think of it as ...

  19. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... had surgery to repair a tendon in your elbow . The surgeon made a cut (incision) over the ...

  20. Muscle Activation Patterns When Passively Stretching Spastic Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Bar-On, Lynn; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2014-01-01

    The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n?=?35/19; 10.8±3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n?=? 32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I–IV) of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG) compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01). The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between incremental position zones during low velocity stretches was found to be the most sensitive in categorizing muscles into activation patterns (p<0.01). Future studies should investigate whether muscles with different patterns react differently to treatment. PMID:24651860

  1. Whole Body Muscle Activity during the FIFA 11+ Program Evaluated by Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nakase, Junsuke; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Toratani, Tatsuhiro; Kosaka, Masahiro; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Taki, Junichi; Yahata, Tetsutaro; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the effect of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program on whole body muscle activity using positron emission tomography. Methods Ten healthy male volunteers were divided into a control group and a group that performed injury prevention exercises (The 11+). The subjects of the control group were placed in a sitting position for 20 min and 37 MBq of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was injected intravenously. The subjects then remained seated for 45 min. The subjects of the exercise group performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, after which FDG was injected. They then performed part 2 of the 11+for 20 min, and rested for 25 min in a sitting position. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography images were obtained 50 min after FDG injection in each group. Regions of interest were defined within 30 muscles. The standardized uptake value was calculated to examine the FDG uptake of muscle tissue per unit volume. Results FDG accumulation within the abdominal rectus, gluteus medius and minimus were significantly higher in the exercise group than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The hip abductor muscles and abdominal rectus were active during part 2 of the FIFA 11+ program. PMID:24066082

  2. Signal intensity of MR-images of thigh muscles following acute open- and closed chain kinetic knee extensor exercise - index of muscle use.

    PubMed

    Enocson, A G; Berg, H E; Vargas, R; Jenner, G; Tesch, P A

    2005-07-01

    Exercise-induced shifts in signal intensity (SI) of magnetic resonance (MR) images were examined to assess indirectly muscle use in closed- and open-chain knee extensor exercises. Eight men performed five sets of 8-12 repetitions in the leg press (LP) and the seated knee extension (KE) exercises at 50, 75 and 100%, respectively of the 5 x 10 repetition maximum (RM) load. Prior to exercise and after each load setting, images of the thigh were obtained. The increase in SI (Delta SI) of the quadriceps at 100% load was greater (P < 0.05) after KE (32.1 +/- 9.0%) than after LP (21.9 +/- 9.2%). Regardless of load, the four individual muscles of the quadriceps showed similar changes in SI after LP. The three vastii muscles showed comparable increases in SI after KE. M. rectus femoris showed greater (P < 0.05) Delta SI than the vastii muscles at 100%. Neither exercise produced increase in SI of mm. semimembranosus, semitendinosus, gracilis or biceps femoris. Mm. adductor magnus and longus showed increased (13.3 +/- 6.5%; P < 0.05) SI after LP, but not after KE, at 100% load. The present data also infer greater involvement of the quadriceps muscle in the open-chain knee extension than in the closed-chain leg press exercise. The results of the current investigation also indicate similar over-all use among the three vastii muscles in LP and KE, but differential m. rectus femoris use between the two exercises. This report extends the merits of the MR imaging technique as an aid to study individual muscle involvement in a particular exercise task. PMID:15918061

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Muscle Fatigue Substance with Anti-Tumor Activities

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Ruben M.; Han, Haiyong; Tegeler, Tony; Petritis, Konstantinos; Von Hoff, Daniel D.; Hoffman, Stanley A.

    2013-01-01

    Research during the 1950's indicated that exercise played a role in the reduction of tumor growth. In the 1960's our studies confirmed that tumor-bearing rats, exercised to fatigue, demonstrated tumor inhibition. Our further studies isolated an extract (Fatigue Substance, or F-Substance) from rectus femoris muscles of rats which had been electrically stimulated to fatigue. This extract significantly inhibited growth of transplanted rat tumors. Research continued until 1978 when it became apparent the methodology at that time was not able to further identify the substance's active components. Using current technology, we now report on the further isolation and characterization of F-Substance. In cell proliferation assays, extracts from electrically stimulated rat rectus femoris muscles had more significant inhibitory effect on the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 than those isolated from unstimulated muscles. To identify the molecule(s) responsible for the antitumor activity, a rat cytokine antibody array was used to profile the cytokines in the substances. Among the 29 different cytokines contained on the array, 3 showed greater than 3-fold difference between the substances isolated from the stimulated and unstimulated muscles. LIX (also known as CXCL5) is 6-fold higher in the substances isolated from stimulated muscles than those from the unstimulated muscles. TIMP-1 is 4.6 fold higher and sICAM is 3.6 fold higher in the substances from the stimulated muscles. Our results indicated that cytokines released from contracting muscles might be responsible for the antitumor effect of F-Substance. PMID:23678371

  4. Reconstruction of cranial and hyobranchial muscles in the Triassic temnospondyl Gerrothorax provides evidence for akinetic suction feeding.

    PubMed

    Witzmann, Florian; Schoch, Rainer R

    2013-05-01

    The cranial and hyobranchial muscles of the Triassic temnospondyl Gerrothorax have been reconstructed based on direct evidence (spatial limitations, ossified muscle insertion sites on skull, mandible, and hyobranchium) and on phylogenetic reasoning (with extant basal actinopterygians and caudates as bracketing taxa). The skeletal and soft-anatomical data allow the reconstruction of the feeding strike of this bottom-dwelling, aquatic temnospondyl. The orientation of the muscle scars on the postglenoid area of the mandible indicates that the depressor mandibulae was indeed used for lowering the mandible and not to raise the skull as supposed previously and implies that the skull including the mandible must have been lifted off the ground during prey capture. It can thus be assumed that Gerrothorax raised the head toward the prey with the jaws still closed. Analogous to the bracketing taxa, subsequent mouth opening was caused by action of the strong epaxial muscles (further elevation of the head) and the depressor mandibulae and rectus cervicis (lowering of the mandible). During mouth opening, the action of the rectus cervicis muscle also rotated the hyobranchial apparatus ventrally and caudally, thus expanding the buccal cavity and causing the inflow of water with the prey through the mouth opening. The strongly developed depressor mandibulae and rectus cervicis, and the well ossified, large quadrate-articular joint suggest that this action occurred rapidly and that powerful suction was generated. Also, the jaw adductors were well developed and enabled a rapid mouth closure. In contrast to extant caudate larvae and most extant actinopterygians (teleosts), no cranial kinesis was possible in the Gerrothorax skull, and therefore suction feeding was not as elaborate as in these extant forms. This reconstruction may guide future studies of feeding in extinct aquatic tetrapods with ossified hyobranchial apparatus. PMID:23280767

  5. The effect of backpack load on muscle activities of the trunk and lower extremities and plantar foot pressure in flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Son, Hohee

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in muscle activation of the trunk and lower extremities and plantar foot pressure due to backpack loads of 0, 10, 15, and 20% of body weight during level walking in individuals with flatfoot. [Methods] Fourteen young flatfoot subjects and 12 normal foot subjects participated in this study. In each session, the subjects were assigned to carry a backpack load, and there were four level walking modes: (1) unloaded walking (0%), (2) 10% body weight (BW) load, (3) 15% BW load, and (4) 20% BW load. Trunk and lower extremity muscle activities were recorded by surface EMG, and contact area and plantar foot pressure were determined using a RS scan system. [Results] The erector spinae, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle activities, but not the rectus femoris and rectus abdominis muscle activities of flatfoot subjects significantly and progressively increased as load increased in flatfoot subjects. Contact area and pressure of the lateral and medial heel zones were significantly increased too. [Conclusion] Based on this data, the weight of a backpack could influence muscle activation and plantar foot pressure in flatfoot. PMID:24396193

  6. The Effect of Backpack Load on Muscle Activities of the Trunk and Lower Extremities and Plantar Foot Pressure in Flatfoot

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hohee

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in muscle activation of the trunk and lower extremities and plantar foot pressure due to backpack loads of 0, 10, 15, and 20% of body weight during level walking in individuals with flatfoot. [Methods] Fourteen young flatfoot subjects and 12 normal foot subjects participated in this study. In each session, the subjects were assigned to carry a backpack load, and there were four level walking modes: (1) unloaded walking (0%), (2) 10% body weight (BW) load, (3) 15% BW load, and (4) 20% BW load. Trunk and lower extremity muscle activities were recorded by surface EMG, and contact area and plantar foot pressure were determined using a RS scan system. [Results] The erector spinae, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle activities, but not the rectus femoris and rectus abdominis muscle activities of flatfoot subjects significantly and progressively increased as load increased in flatfoot subjects. Contact area and pressure of the lateral and medial heel zones were significantly increased too. [Conclusion] Based on this data, the weight of a backpack could influence muscle activation and plantar foot pressure in flatfoot. PMID:24396193

  7. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... find out more. Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons ... here to find out more. Dental Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, ...

  8. How different modes of child delivery influence abdominal muscle activities in the active straight leg raise.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yu-Jeong; Hyung, Eun-Ju; Yang, Kyung-Hye; Lee, Hyun-Ok

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the activities of the abdominal muscles of women who had experienced vaginal delivery in comparison with those who had experienced Cesarean childbirth. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 14 subjects (7 vaginal delivery, 7 Cesarean section) performed an active straight leg raise to 20?cm above the ground, and we measured the activities of the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the external oblique abdominal muscle, and the rectus abdominal muscle on both sides using electromyography. The effort required to raise the leg was scored on a Likert scale. Then, the subjects conducted maximum isometric contraction for hip joint flexion with the leg raised at 20?cm, and maximum torque and abdominal muscle activities were measured using electromyography. [Results] During the active straight leg raise, abdominal muscle activities were higher in the Cesarean section subjects. The Likert scale did not show a significant difference. The activities of the abdominal muscles and the maximum torque of the hip joint flexion at maximum isometric contraction were higher in the vaginal delivery subjects. [Conclusion] The abdominal muscles of Cesarean section subjects showed greater recruitment for maintaining pelvic stability during the active straight leg raising, but were relatively weaker when powerful force was required. Therefore, we consider that more abdominal muscle training is necessary for maintaining pelvic stability of Cesarean section subjects. PMID:25202194

  9. Fatty degeneration of gluteus minimus muscle as a predictor of falls.

    PubMed

    Kiyoshige, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The cause of falls is multifactorial, however, hip fractures in elderly would be prevented if accidental falls are predictable. We assessed magnetic resonance images of 38 patients with groin pain after taking a fall whose fracture could not be detected by plain X-rays, and 45 patients with no episode of falls. Their ages were over 65 years. Fatty degeneration of muscles, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, obturator externus, adductor longus, rectus femoris and iliopsoas muscles, were evaluated by Goutallier's staging. Odds ratio was calculated by a logistic regression analysis allocating dependent variable for falls and independent variables for Goutallier's stage, age and gender. The fatty degeneration of gluteus maximus muscle was generalized, while that of gluteus minimus muscle was unevenly distributed, especially in anterior area. Gluteus minimus muscle initiated its fatty degeneration earlier than gluteus medius muscle. Odds ratio of falling was 3.2 (95% confidence intervals: 1, 14, 8.94) for Goutallier' stage of the gluteus medius muscle. Fatty degeneration of gluteus medius muscle has a crucial role in providing stability of the pelvis including hip joint. Evaluating fatty streaks in the gluteus minimus muscle could help give early indication to those who have a higher risk of falling. PMID:25440137

  10. In situ Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap: A Rat Model of Myocutaneous Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Marie-Claire; Wigmore, Stephen; Kluth, David

    2013-01-01

    Free tissue transfer is the gold standard of reconstructive surgery to repair complex defects not amenable to local options or those requiring composite tissue. Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a known cause of partial free flap failure and has no effective treatment. Establishing a laboratory model of this injury can prove costly both financially as larger mammals are conventionally used and in the expertise required by the technical difficulty of these procedures typically requires employing an experienced microsurgeon. This publication and video demonstrate the effective use of a model of IRI in rats which does not require microsurgical expertise. This procedure is an in situ model of a transverse abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap where atraumatic clamps are utilized to reproduce the ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with this surgery. A laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) scanner is employed to assess flap perfusion and the image processing software, Image J to assess percentage area skin survival as a primary outcome measure of injury. PMID:23770929

  11. Mohs Surgery

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... contact Share | Mohs Surgery A A A Mohs Learning Series Mohs for Melanoma Ninety percent of nonmelanoma ... Cell Carcinoma (BCC) Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) Mohs Learning Series Insight from Dr. Sherrif Ibrahim Why Isn’ ...

  12. Mastoid surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Joshi

    1950-01-01

    Summary  562 cases of mastoiditis admitted to the King Edward VII Memorial Hospital in the last 12 years have been reviewed. Though\\u000a the incidence of mastoiditis has been lowered and there are reports of recoveries of cases of acute mastoiditis now and then\\u000a with sulpha and penicillin therapy, the place of surgery in mastoiditis is unchanged. These drugs supplement surgery but

  13. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Portillo, Mucio; Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Quiroz-Guadarrama, César David; Pachecho-Gahbler, Carlos; Rojano-Rodríguez, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Medicine has experienced greater scientific and technological advances in the last 50 years than in the rest of human history. The article describes relevant events, revises concepts and advantages and clinical applications, summarizes published clinical results, and presents some personal reflections without giving dogmatic conclusions about robotic surgery. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) defines robotic surgery as a surgical procedure using technology to aid the interaction between surgeon and patient. The objective of the surgical robot is to correct human deficiencies and improve surgical skills. The capacity of repeating tasks with precision and reproducibility has been the base of the robot´s success. Robotic technology offers objective and measurable advantages: -?Improving maneuverability and physical capacity during surgery. -?Correcting bad postural habits and tremor. -?Allowing depth perception (3D images). -?Magnifying strength and movement limits. -?Offering a platform for sensors, cameras, and instruments. Endoscopic surgery transformed conceptually the way of practicing surgery. Nevertheless in the last decade, robotic assisted surgery has become the next paradigm of our era. PMID:25643879

  14. Electromechanical behaviour of human muscles in vertical jumps.

    PubMed

    Viitasalo, J T; Bosco, C

    1982-01-01

    The relationships of muscle structure to the potentiation of myoelectrical activity and to the use of prestretching in five lower limb muscles were studied in different vertical jumping conditions. The subjects for the study were six male students, divided according to the muscle fiber distribution in m. vastus lateralis into "fast" and "slow" groups. The subjects performed vertical jumps (1) from a static squatting position (DJ) from five different heights. Myoelectrical (EMG) activity was recorded from mm. gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius in each jumping condition and integrated (IEMG) for the eccentric and concentric phases of contact. EMG activity showed potentiation during the eccentric phase of movement when compared to the concentric phase. The "fast" and "slow" groups did not differ significantly in this respect, whereas in DJ conditions the relative (% from SJ) height of rise of the center of gravity was greater in the "slow" than in the "fast" group. The result indicated that the utilization of elastic energy during jumping was possible better in subjects having a high percentage of slow twitch muscle fibres in their vastus lateralis muscles. PMID:7200010

  15. Electromechanical delay of abdominal muscles is modified by low back pain prevention exercise.

    PubMed

    Szpala, Agnieszka; Rutkowska-Kucharska, Alicja; Drapala, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to assess the effect of a 4-week-long training program on selected parameters: electromechanical delay (EMD) and amplitude of electromyographic signal (EMG). Fourteen female students of the University School of Physical Education participated in the study. Torques and surface electromyography were evaluated under static conditions. Surface electrodes were glued to both sides of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles. The 4-week-long program was aimed at strengthening the abdominal muscles and resulted in increased EMD during maximum torque production by flexors of the trunk, increased amplitudes of the signals of the erector spinae ( p = 0.005), and increased EMG amplitude asymmetry of the lower ( p = 0.013) and upper part ( p = 0.006) of the rectus abdominis muscle. In a training program composed of a large number of repetitions of strength exercises, in which the training person uses their own weight as the load (like in exercises such as curl-ups), the process of recruitment of motor units is similar to that found during fatiguing exercises and plyometric training. PMID:25307027

  16. The effect of backpack heaviness on trunk-lower extremity muscle activities and trunk posture.

    PubMed

    Al-Khabbaz, Yusuf S S M; Shimada, Tomoaki; Hasegawa, Masashi

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze trunk-lower extremity muscle activities and trunk postural changes during the carriage of different backpacks. Nineteen male university students (21+/-3 years) participated in the experiment's four standing modes: (1) unloaded standing, (2) 10% body weight (BW) load (in the form of a backpack), (3) 15% BW load and (4) 20% BW load. Bilateral rectus abdominis, erector spinae, vastus medialis and biceps femoris muscle activities were recorded using surface electromyography (SEMG), while trunk inclination, side flexion and rotation were measured by using VICON 250 during all standing modes. The results showed that rectus abdominis muscle activities increased progressively and disproportionably as the backpack load increased. As for the trunk posture, almost the same backward inclination was adapted even with increasing backpack heaviness. Twenty percent BW backpack causes the most significant muscular and postural changes so it should be avoided. However, it is recommended to study other backpack factors such as frequency of usage, usage time, type of the backpack and age to come up with a complete usage recommendation. PMID:18329270

  17. DEHN SURGERY 1. Introduction

    E-print Network

    Hachimori, Masahiro

    DEHN SURGERY 1. Introduction Dehn surgery hyperbolic knot exceptional surgery (§2) link Dehn surgery (§3) 2. Exceptional surgery and boundary slopes hyperbolic knot exceptional surgery ? S3 ( S3 homotopy S3 ) Dehn surgery K S3 knot E(K) = S3 -intN(K) exterior prim- itive class H1(E(K); Z) ( ) m K

  18. [Significance of the "V" syndrome with double "up shoot". Insufficiency of the two superior oblique muscles in craniofacial malformations].

    PubMed

    Morax, S; Pascal, D; Barraco, P

    1983-01-01

    Craniofacial malformations (telorbitism, craniofaciostenosis, plagiocephalia, Franceschetti's syndrome) are frequently associated with oculomotor anomalies. The most common vertical anomaly is the existence of a "V" syndrome with double "up shoot", with deficiencies in the two superior oblique muscles. Several mechanisms may be involved in the origin of this anomaly, related to the anatomical orbital malformation: orbital torsion with antimongoloid clefts responsible for a syndrome of macular pseudo-ectopia with extorsion of the 4 rectus muscles; plagiocephalia responsible for sagitallization of the inferior obliques; retromaxillia with exorbitism responsible for modification of muscle contact arches. Muscle agenesis is very rarely observed. The pathogenesis of these different mechanisms is discussed based on a study of 64 cases. PMID:6875213

  19. Changes in Tibiofemoral Forces due to Variations in Muscle Activity during Walking

    PubMed Central

    DeMers, Matthew S.; Pal, Saikat; Delp, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Muscles induce large forces in the tibiofemoral joint during walking and thereby influence the health of tissues like articular cartilage and menisci. It is possible to walk with a wide variety of muscle coordination patterns, but the effect of varied muscle coordination on tibiofemoral contact forces remains unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of varied muscle coordination on tibiofemoral contact forces. We developed a musculoskeletal model of a subject walking with an instrumented knee implant. Using an optimization framework, we calculated the tibiofemoral forces resulting from muscle coordination that reproduced the subject’s walking dynamics. We performed a large set of optimizations in which we systematically varied the coordination of muscles to determine the influence on tibiofemoral force. Model-predicted tibiofemoral forces arising with minimum muscle activation matched in vivo forces measured during early stance, but were greater than in vivo forces during late stance. Peak tibiofemoral forces during late stance could be reduced by increasing the activation of the gluteus medius, uniarticular hip flexors, and soleus, and by decreasing the activation of the gastrocnemius and rectus femoris. These results suggest that retraining of muscle coordination could substantially reduce tibiofemoral forces during late stance. PMID:24615885

  20. [Volume measurement of the horizontal extraocular muscles using magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Nishida, Y; Hayashi, O; Nishida, E; Murata, T; Aoki, Y; Inatomi, A; Kani, K; Mabuchi, N; Furutani, Y

    1993-07-01

    The volume of the horizontal extraocular muscles of 11 normal adults and three patients with ophthalmoplegia was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI examinations were carried out with a Signa Advantage, 1.5 tesla superconductive magnetic system manufactured by General Electric. This method employs the spin echo technique with a 3.0 mm gapless slice, a 350 ms. repetition time, and a 17.0 ms. echo time. The MRI films were projected and magnified on Kent paper using an overhead projector. Then the shapes of the horizontal extraocular muscles were traced. The volume of the muscles was measured as the total weight of Kent papers which were cut out from muscle shapes in all the slices. The average volume of the normal medial and lateral rectus muscles was 690 +/- 87 mm3 and 734 +/- 77 mm3, respectively. Two cases with peripheral nerve palsy showed typical atrophy of the paretic muscles. A case with orbital myositis showed typical hypertrophy of the inflamed muscles. This measurement may prove useful in the analysis and evaluation of extraocular muscles, especially in ophthalmoplegia. PMID:8352080

  1. Total and regional blood flows in vascularized skeletal muscle grafts in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, H.W.; Stevenson, T.R.; Dysko, R.C.; Gallagher, K.P.; Faulkner, J.A. (Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1988-11-01

    The transplantation of whole skeletal muscles is a common clinical procedure. Although atypical blood flows have been reported in small free muscle grafts, the blood flow of large neurovascular-intact (NVI) and neurovascular-anastomosed (NVA) grafts have not been measured. Because the maximum specific force (N/cm{sup 2}) of NVI and NVA grafts is 65% that of control muscles, we hypothesized that total and regional blood flows of NVI and NVA grafts at rest and during twitch contractions are significantly lower than lower flows of control muscles. In rabbits, blood flows of control rectus femoris (RFM) muscles and NVI and NVA grafts of RFM muscles were measured by the radioactive-microsphere technique. Total blood flows in grafts were not different from the control RFM muscle values, except for a higher resting flow in NVA grafts and a lower flow at 3 Hz in NVI grafts. Minor variations in regional flows were observed. We conclude that the operative procedures of grating and repair of blood vessels affect the vascular bed of muscles minimally, and the deficits observed in grafts do not arise from inadequate perfusion.

  2. Single motor unit activity in human extraocular muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Konrad P; Rosengren, Sally M; Michels, Rike; Sturm, Veit; Straumann, Dominik; Landau, Klara

    2012-01-01

    Motor unit activity in human eye muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is not well understood, since the associated head and eye movements normally preclude single unit recordings. Therefore we recorded single motor unit activity following bursts of skull vibration and sound, two vestibular otolith stimuli that elicit only small head and eye movements. Inferior oblique (IO) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle activity was measured in healthy humans with concentric needle electrodes. Vibration elicited highly synchronous, short-latency bursts of motor unit activity in the IO (latency: 10.5 ms) and IR (14.5 ms) muscles. The activation patterns of the two muscles were similar, but reciprocal, with delayed activation of the IR muscle. Sound produced short-latency excitation of the IO muscle (13.3 ms) in the eye contralateral to the stimulus. Simultaneous needle and surface recordings identified the IO as the muscle of origin of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) thus validating the physiological basis of this recently developed clinical test of otolith function. Single extraocular motor unit recordings provide a window into neural activity in humans that can normally only be examined using animal models and help identify the pathways of the translational VOR from otoliths to individual eye muscles. PMID:22526888

  3. [Presbyopia surgery].

    PubMed

    Gatinel, Damien

    2008-05-31

    Presbyopia surgery is a compensation option which aims at creating an increased depth of field. Monovision preserves a good close-vision quality for myopes. Multifocality is well tolerated by hyperopes if it is compatible with good far-vision quality. Conductive keratoplasty and Lasik multifocal ablation patterns are newly emerging methods. Monovision and multifocality can be applied to surgery by using corneal or intraocular implantation techniques. Multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) are growing in popularity among patients and surgeons, and opened the way to refractive lens exchange. Still they are not used routinely in cataract surgery, for reasons probably connected to the frequently observed reduction in contrast sensitivity. Accommodative IOL provides new method to compensate accommodation of presbyopes. Indications depend on preoperative ametropia, patient age and visual needs. PMID:18652400

  4. Lower Extremity Muscle Thickness During 30-Day 6 degrees Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.; Kirby, L. C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Muscle thickness was measured in 19 Bed-Rested (BR) men (32-42 year) subjected to IsoTonic (ITE, cycle orgometer) and IsoKi- netic (IKE, torque orgometer) lower extremity exercise training, and NO Exercise (NOE) training. Thickness was measured with ultrasonography in anterior thigh-Rectus Femoris (RF) and Vastus Intermadius (VI), and combined posterior log-soleus, flexor ballucis longus, and tibialis posterior (S + FHL +TP) - muscles. Compared with ambulatory control values, thickness of the (S + FHL + TP) decreased by 90%-12% (p less than 0.05) In all three test groups. The (RF) thickness was unchanged in the two exercise groups, but decreased by 10% (p less than 0.05) in the NOE. The (VI) thickness was unchanged In the ITE group, but decreased by 12%-l6% (p less than 0.05) in the IKE and NOE groups. Thus, intensive, alternating, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise training is as effective as intensive, intermittent, isokinetic exercise training for maintaining thicknesses of rectus femoris and vastus lntermedius anterior thigh muscles, but not posterior log muscles, during prolonged BR deconditioning.

  5. Hip flexor muscle size, strength and recruitment pattern in patients with acetabular labral tears compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mendis, M Dilani; Wilson, Stephen J; Hayes, David A; Watts, Mark C; Hides, Julie A

    2014-10-01

    Acetabular labral tears are a source of hip pain and are considered to be a precursor to hip osteoarthritis. Hip flexor muscles contribute to hip joint stability and function but it is unknown if their size and function is altered in the presence of labral pathology. This study aimed to investigate hip flexor muscle size, strength and recruitment pattern in patients with hip labral pathology compared to control subjects. 12 subjects diagnosed with an unilateral acetabular labral tear were compared to 12 control subjects matched for age and gender. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their lumbo-pelvic region. Average muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the iliacus, psoas, iliopsoas, sartorius, tensor fascia latae and rectus femoris muscles were measured. Hip flexion strength was measured by an externally fixed dynamometer. Individual muscle recruitment pattern during a resisted hip flexion exercise task was measured by muscle functional MRI. Hip flexor muscle strength was found to be decreased in patients with labral pathology compared to control subjects (p < 0.01). No difference between groups or sides was found for hip flexor muscle size (all p > 0.17) and recruitment pattern (all p > 0.53). Decreased hip flexor muscle strength may affect physical function in patients with hip labral pathology by contributing to altered gait patterns and functional tasks. Clinical rehabilitation of these patients may need to include strengthening exercises for the hip flexor muscles. PMID:24646662

  6. Bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    2014-08-26

    Essential facts: Type 2 diabetes is linked closely to obesity. Bariatric surgery can lead to dramatic improvements in the management of the condition, according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). There are two main types of bariatric surgery. A gastric band procedure uses a band to reduce the size of the stomach so a smaller amount of food is required to make the patient feel full. A gastric bypass is where the digestive system is re-routed past most of the stomach so less food is digested. PMID:25138853

  7. Acne Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Acne surgery consists of comedone extraction of non-inflamed lesions, triamcinolone acetate injections of some inflamed lesions, and extraction of milia. Prevention is a very important part of comedone treatment, especially avoidance of picking, moisturizers and harsh soaps. Instruments are also very important: even the finest may be too thick and may have to be filed down. Acne surgery is only an adjunct of good medical therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:21283373

  8. Identifying masked superior oblique involvement in thyroid eye disease to avoid postoperative A-pattern exotropia and intorsion

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Jonathan M.; Hatt, Sarah R.; Bradley, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report masked superior oblique tightness as a possible mechanism causing A-pattern exotropia with intorsion following inferior rectus recession in the context of thyroid eye disease. Methods Three patients with thyroid eye disease and involvement of the superior oblique muscle are presented, along with a fourth comparison case without superior oblique involvement. Intraoperative torsion assessment and exaggerated traction testing were performed after detachment of the involved rectus muscles. A surgical procedure involving recession of tight superior oblique(s) when recessing inferior rectus muscle(s) is presented, along with surgical results. Results The first case illustrated the problem of A-pattern exotropia and intorsion following inferior rectus muscle recessions and subsequent treatment with superior oblique tendon recessions. Patients 2 and 3 demonstrated signs of coexisting inferior rectus involvement and superior oblique involvement both preoperatively and intraoperatively, with a tight superior oblique muscle and marked intorsion, suggesting the need for superior oblique tendon recession at the time of inferior rectus recession. Postoperatively there was no symptomatic intorsion or A-pattern exotropia and both patients were heterophoric distance and near with only rare diplopia. The fourth case, without superior oblique involvement, illustrated management with inferior rectus muscle recessions alone. Conclusions Superior oblique involvement may be masked by coexistent inferior rectus involvement and if not identified and addressed at the time of the first surgery may result in symptomatic intorsion and A-pattern exotropia. The clinical finding of minimal extorsion, or frank intorsion, in the presence of a tight inferior rectus muscle, may be an important sign of masked superior oblique tightness. Intraoperative assessment of torsion and superior oblique tension may also help identify patients at risk. Superior oblique tendon recession, at the time of inferior rectus muscle recession, prevented development of a postoperative A-pattern exotropia and intorsion. PMID:22681947

  9. Muscle cramps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The most common cause of muscle cramps during sports activity is not getting enough fluids. Often, drinking ... alone doesn't always help. Salt tablets or sports drinks, which also replenish lost minerals, can be ...

  10. Bariatric Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schweitzer; A. Lidor; T. Magnuson

    2006-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the only effective long-term treatment of morbid obesity and its related co-morbidities. Gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding, and duodenal switch with biliopancreatic diversion are the three most common operations performed in the United States to induce sustained weight loss. Patient selection is important since compliance postoperatively leads to a successful outcome in over 80% of patients.

  11. After Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or accidental injury. Some people have a greater risk of complications because of other medical conditions. Your surgeon can tell you how you might feel and what you will be able to do - or not do - the first few days, weeks, or months after surgery. Some other questions to ask are How long ...

  12. Arthroscopic Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Arthroscopic surgery (or microsurgery) is a significant breakthrough in treating knee injuries. Its applications range from basic diagnosis to arthroscopic menisectomy, although its use in some procedures is still highly controversial. Many surgeons perform the diagnostic procedure, but follow this with the conventional surgical approach.…

  13. Muscle Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    The Muscle Physiology Lab at the University of California-San Diego provides this comprehensive source of information on the neuromuscular system. The Web site appears as a extensive menu of subtopics, each leading to pages of detailed text and diagrams. Students studying muscle structure and function should find this well-organized and authoritative resource extremely useful. The Web site also includes a search tool for quickly finding pages of interest, and a list of related links for additional information.

  14. Muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Holmes, K C

    1998-01-01

    Understanding muscle contraction goes to the heart of one of the fundamental questions posed by classical philosophy, namely the nature of the pi nu epsilon upsilon mu alpha psi nu chi iota kappa omicron nu. The nature of 'understanding' has altered greatly during the last two millenia, particularly in response to the development of the concept of energy. Moreover, understanding contraction depends on understanding muscle structure. Galen was the first to make a detailed anatomical examination of the mode of action of muscles and recognized the heart as a muscle, but this line of research was not pursued until Leonardo da Vinci rediscovered it 1400 years later. Vesalius used the phrase Machina Carnis, but it was first Descartes who proposed a neuromuscular machine. However, the level of understanding of the physiology of muscle depends critically on the resolution of the available anatomy. Radical new insight was provided by electron microscopy. But an understanding at a physicochemical level is only possible if the structures of the components are known at atomic resolution. These have become known in the last five years and have led to dramatic progress. The present level of understanding of muscle is a physicochemical explanation of how the hydrolysis of ATP by the component proteins actin and myosin leads to movement. PMID:9653716

  15. Skeletal muscle damage during tourniquet-induced ischaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-J. Appell; S. Glöser; J. A. R. Duarte; A. Zellner; J. M. C. Soares

    1993-01-01

    Summary  Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle of patients who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament surgery under conditions of tourniquet-induced ischaemia were examined under the electron microscope at different periods of time up to 90 min of ischaemia. The severity of the alterations in ultrastructure appeared to depend on the period of ischaemia. The pathological changes consisted of accumulation of

  16. Abdominal perforator vs. muscle sparing flaps for breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liza C.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominally based free flaps have become the mainstay for women that desire to use their own tissue as a means of breast reconstruction after mastectomy. As the techniques have evolved, significant effort has been invested in finding the best means of minimizing morbidity to the abdominal donor site while ensuring a viable reconstructed breast that is aesthetically pleasing. This manuscript reviews and compares the muscle sparing free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MsfTRAM), the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP), and the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flaps, regarding flap success rate, operative times, abdominal donor site morbidity and residual functionality, hospital lengths of stay and associated costs, impact of co-morbid conditions, and resilience after adjuvant radiation treatment. PMID:26161306

  17. Asymmetry of electromechanical delay (EMD) and torque in the muscles stabilizing spinal column.

    PubMed

    Szpala, Agnieszka; Rutkowska-Kucharska, Alicja; Drapa?a, Jaros?aw; Brzostowski, Krzysztof; Zawadzki, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    Stabilization of the spinal column is ensured by the activity of trunk flexor and erector muscles, including rectus abdominis (RA) and erector spinae (ES). The goal of this study was to evaluate the symmetry of action potential and electromechanical delay (EMD) in RA and ES during generation of maximal muscle torque. In the present study, the symmetry of EMG activity in the right and left parts of RA and ES was tested under isometric conditions. The subjects (N = 13) were selected from the university population. Electromyographic signals and muscles torques were recorded with the sampling frequency of 1000 Hz. Lack of significant differences in EMD between left and right sides in both muscles studied and lack of correlation between EMD and maximal muscle torque were observed. Analysis aimed at assessing the symmetry of EMG signals amplitude revealed crossed laterality characterized by increased activity in the right side of RA muscle and left side of ES. The proportion of maximal muscle torque in ES to RA in the women examined amounted to 1.7:1. PMID:21361251

  18. The determination of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in normal human muscle and other tissues

    PubMed Central

    Emery, A. E. H.

    1967-01-01

    1. A technique has been developed, based on preferential inhibition by urea, for determining the amounts and proportions of the M and H sub-units of lactate dehydrogenase (referred to as LDH-M and LDH-H respectively) in human tissues, including muscle. 2. There was good agreement between the results obtained with urea inhibition and those obtained with starch-gel electrophoresis. 3. With increasing age there was a significant decrease in the total amount of lactate dehydrogenase and the amount of LDH-M in skeletal muscle. This could not be accounted for by the replacement of functioning muscle tissue by fibrous connective tissue. 4. The proportion of LDH-M was less in certain muscles (e.g. soleus and extra-ocular) than in other muscles (e.g. gastrocnemius and rectus abdominis). 5. The proportions of LDH-M and LDH-H did not differ significantly in different superficial limb muscles and were not significantly affected by either age or sex. 6. Specimens of muscle from 86 different individuals (all Europeans) have been subjected to electrophoresis, but no variants of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes have been found. PMID:5584002

  19. Skeletal Muscle Metastases from Urothelial Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Doo, Seung Whan; Kim, Woong Bin; Kim, Bong Ki; Yang, Won Jae; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Choi, In Ho

    2012-01-01

    Hematogenous metastasis to skeletal muscle from urothelial carcinoma is extremely rare and metastatic disease to skeletal muscle tends to be found in people with advanced-stage neoplasm. We report in this paper a case of left sartorius muscle metastasis from urothelial cell carcinoma. A left nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision was performed and revealed a high-grade papillary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the pelvis. And 6 month later, recurrent bladder cancer was found regular cystoscopy and then treated with transurethral resection of the bladder. After 6 times resection of bladder, an invasion into the bladder muscle layer was found. We recommended additional radical cystectomy to prevent the disease from advancing. However, the patient refused additional surgery. 6 month later, the patient complained of left thigh pain, so ultrasonography-guided biopsy of the nodular mass lesion in the left sartorius muscle was performed. The pathological analysis of the biopsy specimen revealed poorly differentiated metastatic urothelial carcinoma. PMID:22323978

  20. A Comparison of Flexi-bar and General Lumbar Stabilizing Exercise Effects on Muscle Activity and Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hee; So, Ki-Hyun; Bae, Yu-Ri; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to compare the effects of flexi-bar training and general lumbar stabilization training on muscle activity and fatigue. [Methods] Twenty normal persons participated in this study. After warm up and a Maximum Voluntary Isomeric Contraction (MVIC) test, participants performed bridging exercise, quadruped lumbar stabilization exercise on quadruped and curl-up, with and without the flexi-bar training, each exercise lasting for 30 seconds. Electromyography was used for the assessment of the muscle activity and fatigue of the rectus abdominis, erector spinae, external oblique and internal oblique muscles. [Results] The bridging and quadruped exercises with the flexi-bar elicited significant increases in the muscle activates of the muscle groups. The curl-up exercise with the flexi-bar showed significant differences in external oblique and internal oblique muscle activities compared to the exercise without the flexi-bar. Muscle fatigue showed different results depending on the exercise. [Conclusion] Generally, flexi-bar exercise induced greater muscle activation and fatigue. However, because there were differences of effect dependent on the posture, we should prescribe the appropriate exercise for the target muscles. PMID:24648637

  1. Motor nucleus activity fails to predict extraocular muscle forces in ocular convergence

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Ryan C.; Gamlin, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    For a given eye position, firing rates of abducens neurons (ABNs) generally (Mays et al. 1984), and lateral rectus (LR) motoneurons (MNs) in particular (Gamlin et al. 1989a), are higher in converged gaze than when convergence is relaxed, whereas LR and medial rectus (MR) muscle forces are slightly lower (Miller et al. 2002). Here, we confirm this finding for ABNs, report a similarly paradoxical finding for neurons in the MR subdivision of the oculomotor nucleus (MRNs), and, for the first time, simultaneously confirm the opposing sides of these paradoxes by recording physiological LR and MR forces. Four trained rhesus monkeys with binocular eye coils and custom muscle force transducers on the horizontal recti of one eye fixated near and far targets, making conjugate saccades and symmetric and asymmetric vergence movements of 16–27°. Consistent with earlier findings, we found in 44 ABNs that the slope of the rate-position relationship for symmetric vergence (kV) was lower than that for conjugate movement (kC) at distance, i.e., mean kV/kC = 0.50, which implies stronger LR innervation in convergence. We also found in 39 MRNs that mean kV/kC = 1.53, implying stronger MR innervation in convergence as well. Despite there being stronger innervation in convergence at a given eye position, we found both LR and MR muscle forces to be slightly lower in convergence, ?0.40 and ?0.20 g, respectively. We conclude that the relationship of ensemble MN activity to total oculorotary muscle force is different in converged gaze than when convergence is relaxed. We conjecture that LRMNs with kV < kC and MRMNs with kV > kC innervate muscle fibers that are weak, have mechanical coupling that attenuates their effective oculorotary force, or serve some nonoculorotary, regulatory function. PMID:21451064

  2. Tissue reactivity and degradation patterns of absorbable vascular ligating clips implanted in peritoneum and rectus fascia.

    PubMed

    Chegini, N; Metz, S A; Masterson, B J

    1990-07-01

    Absorbable vascular ligating clips are finding increasing use in intraabdominal surgery. We report the results of a light and scanning electron microscope investigation of the tissue reactivity and clip degradation patterns of two such materials, Absolok (polydioxanone) and Lactomer (copolymer of glycolic and lactic acid), implanted in the fascia and peritoneum of rabbits for intervals of 2 to 70 days. Cellular response to the clips, defined as the number of inflammatory cells/10(4) microns 2, was maximum at day 4 postimplantation, then gradually declined as the duration of implantation increased. This pattern, seen with both types of clips, was similar to that seen with polydioxanone (PDS) suture, but significantly greater than that associated with polypropylene (Prolene) suture. Although cellular response to the clips was greater in peritoneum than in fascia, especially on two occasions associated with adhesion formation, this was not statistically significant. Based on our morphological observations, the signs of clip degradation which were indicated by the appearance of surface crazing and cracks occurred earlier in peritoneum than in fascia. PMID:2118910

  3. Cancer Reduces the Metabolic Response of Muscle to Surgical Stress in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. de Blaauw; N. E. P. Deutz; M. F. von Meyenfeldt

    1998-01-01

    The metabolic response to surgical stress is characterized by muscle protein breakdown and mobilization of amino acids, e.g., glutamine, from peripheral tissue to visceral organs. Cancer is related to increased protein breakdown of muscle which may influence the normal metabolic response after surgery. The aim was to study the effects of cancer on postoperative peripheral muscle protein and glutamine turnover.

  4. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  5. Age and side-related morphometric MRI evaluation of trunk muscles in people without back pain.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Stephanie; Licka, Theresia; Elliott, James

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated lumbar spine muscle volume and Muscle Fatty Infiltrate (MFI) across two age groups of healthy adults. Twenty-four participants (young group - YG: age 18-25, n = 12; mature group - MG: age 45-60, n = 12) without low back pain underwent T1-weighted axial MRI. Muscle volume and MFI were obtained from the left and right lumbar erector spinae (ES), multifidus (M), rectus abdominis (RA) and psoas (PS) muscles. For MFI, mean pixel intensity (MPI) of muscles was reported as a percentage of subcutaneous fat MPI. Within-group comparison of left and right side muscle volume was not significantly different in the YG. In the MG, right RA and ES were significantly smaller than left (RA p = 0.049; ES p = 0.03). In both groups, left PS, M and ES MFI was significantly smaller compared to the right side and left RA MFI was significantly greater compared to right side (all p ? 0.001). For M volume, 81.7-84.6% of variance was explained by age, height and Body Mass Index (BMI). For ES volume, 81.6-82.8% of variance was explained by height and BMI. Age explained 18.1%-36.0% of variance in M and ES right MFI. Therefore, age and BMI are relevant factors for extensor muscle volume, but not for flexor muscle volume. Also, age significantly influences MFI for right-sided extensors only. The age effect is apparently independent of full subjective back functionality. For future spinal muscle research, the side-and muscle-specific effect of age on muscle morphology should be considered. PMID:25085813

  6. Muscle activation patterns during walking from transtibial amputees recorded within the residual limb-prosthetic interface

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Powered lower limb prostheses could be more functional if they had access to feedforward control signals from the user’s nervous system. Myoelectric signals are one potential control source. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle activation signals could be recorded from residual lower limb muscles within the prosthetic socket-limb interface during walking. Methods We recorded surface electromyography from three lower leg muscles (tibilias anterior, gastrocnemius medial head, gastrocnemius lateral head) and four upper leg muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus medius) of 12 unilateral transtibial amputee subjects and 12 non-amputee subjects during treadmill walking at 0.7, 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 m/s. Muscle signals were recorded from the amputated leg of amputee subjects and the right leg of control subjects. For amputee subjects, lower leg muscle signals were recorded from within the limb-socket interface and from muscles above the knee. We quantified differences in the muscle activation profile between amputee and control groups during treadmill walking using cross-correlation analyses. We also assessed the step-to-step inter-subject variability of these profiles by calculating variance-to-signal ratios. Results We found that amputee subjects demonstrated reliable muscle recruitment signals from residual lower leg muscles recorded within the prosthetic socket during walking, which were locked to particular phases of the gait cycle. However, muscle activation profile variability was higher for amputee subjects than for control subjects. Conclusion Robotic lower limb prostheses could use myoelectric signals recorded from surface electrodes within the socket-limb interface to derive feedforward commands from the amputee’s nervous system. PMID:22882763

  7. The influence of visual information on multi-muscle control during quiet stance: a spectral analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Degani, Adriana M; Boonstra, Tjeerd W; Mochizuki, Luis; Harney, Allison M; Schmeckpeper, Megan M; Tabor, Lori C; Leonard, Charles T

    2015-02-01

    Standing upright requires the coordination of neural drives to a large set of muscles involved in controlling human bipedal stance (i.e., postural muscles). The coordination may deteriorate in situations where standing is performed under more challenging circumstances, such as standing on a smaller base of support or not having adequate visual information. The present study investigates the role of common neural inputs in the organization of multi-muscle synergies and the effects of visual input disruption to this mechanism of control. We analyzed the strength and distribution of correlated neural inputs (measured by intermuscular coherence) to six postural muscles previously recognized as components of synergistic groups involved in the maintenance of the body's vertical positioning. Two experimental conditions were studied: quiet bipedal stance performed with opened eyes (OEs) and closed eyes (CEs). Nine participants stood quietly for 30 s while the activity of the soleus, biceps femoris, lumbar erector spinae, tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles were recorded using surface electrodes. Intermuscular (EMG-EMG) coherence was estimated for 12 muscle pairs formed by these muscles, including pairs formed solely by either posterior, anterior, or mixed (one posterior and one anterior) muscles. Intermuscular coherence was only found to be significant for muscle pairs formed solely by either posterior or anterior muscles, and no significant coherence was found for mixed muscle pairs. Significant intermuscular coherence was only found within a distinct frequency interval bounded between 1 and 10 Hz when visual input was available (OEs trials). The strength of correlated neural inputs was similar across muscle pairs located in different joints but executing a similar function (pushing body either backward or forward) suggesting that synergistic postural groups are likely formed based on their functional role instead of their anatomical location. Absence of visual information caused a significant decrease in intermuscular coherence. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that correlated neural inputs are a mechanism used by the CNS to assemble synergistic muscle groups. Further, this mechanism is affected by interruption of visual input. PMID:25407521

  8. Muscle "Building."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of constructivism in teaching human anatomy. Provides directions for constructing arm-hand and leg-foot models that include extensor and flexor muscles and that are easily and cheaply constructed. Lists resources that provide ideas for using such models depending upon the curriculum implemented in a school or the course that is…

  9. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures. PMID:24144815

  10. Assessing viability of extracorporeal preserved muscle transplants using external field stimulation: a novel tool to improve methods prolonging bridge-to-transplantation time

    PubMed Central

    Taeger, Christian D.; Friedrich, Oliver; Dragu, Adrian; Weigand, Annika; Hobe, Frieder; Drechsler, Caroline; Geppert, Carol I.; Arkudas, Andreas; Münch, Frank; Buchholz, Rainer; Pollmann, Charlotte; Schramm, Axel; Birkholz, Torsten; Horch, Raymund E.; Präbst, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Preventing ischemia-related cell damage is a priority when preserving tissue for transplantation. Perfusion protocols have been established for a variety of applications and proven to be superior to procedures used in clinical routine. Extracorporeal perfusion of muscle tissue though cumbersome is highly desirable since it is highly susceptible to ischemia-related damage. To show the efficacy of different perfusion protocols external field stimulation can be used to immediately visualize improvement or deterioration of the tissue during active and running perfusion protocols. This method has been used to show the superiority of extracorporeal perfusion using porcine rectus abdominis muscles perfused with heparinized saline solution. Perfused muscles showed statistically significant higher ability to exert force compared to nonperfused ones. These findings can be confirmed using Annexin V as marker for cell damage, perfusion of muscle tissue limits damage significantly compared to nonperfused tissue. The combination of extracorporeal perfusion and external field stimulation may improve organ conservation research. PMID:26145230

  11. Assessing viability of extracorporeal preserved muscle transplants using external field stimulation: a novel tool to improve methods prolonging bridge-to-transplantation time.

    PubMed

    Taeger, Christian D; Friedrich, Oliver; Dragu, Adrian; Weigand, Annika; Hobe, Frieder; Drechsler, Caroline; Geppert, Carol I; Arkudas, Andreas; Münch, Frank; Buchholz, Rainer; Pollmann, Charlotte; Schramm, Axel; Birkholz, Torsten; Horch, Raymund E; Präbst, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Preventing ischemia-related cell damage is a priority when preserving tissue for transplantation. Perfusion protocols have been established for a variety of applications and proven to be superior to procedures used in clinical routine. Extracorporeal perfusion of muscle tissue though cumbersome is highly desirable since it is highly susceptible to ischemia-related damage. To show the efficacy of different perfusion protocols external field stimulation can be used to immediately visualize improvement or deterioration of the tissue during active and running perfusion protocols. This method has been used to show the superiority of extracorporeal perfusion using porcine rectus abdominis muscles perfused with heparinized saline solution. Perfused muscles showed statistically significant higher ability to exert force compared to nonperfused ones. These findings can be confirmed using Annexin V as marker for cell damage, perfusion of muscle tissue limits damage significantly compared to nonperfused tissue. The combination of extracorporeal perfusion and external field stimulation may improve organ conservation research. PMID:26145230

  12. Effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles on the nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint in a sedentary worker with nonspecific sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old female complained of pain in the sacroiliac joints. [Methods] The subject performed individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles for nutation torque of the sacroiliac joint for 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were evaluated before and after the exercises. [Results] After performing the individual strengthening exercises for the erector spinae, rectus abdominis, and biceps femoris muscles for 3 weeks, the subject displayed no pain in the pain provocation tests, and the VAS score was 2/10. [Conclusion] The individual strengthening exercises for the stabilization muscles of the sacroiliac joint performed in the present study appear to be effective for sedentary workers with sacroiliac joint pain. PMID:25642098

  13. Maternal germline mosaicism of kinesin family member 21A (KIF21A) mutation causes complex phenotypes in a Chinese family with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Chen, Xue; Sun, Xiantao; Liu, Hu; Zhao, Kanxing; Chang, Qinglin; Pan, Xinyuan; Wang, Xiuying; Yuan, Songtao; Liu, Qinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify the causative mutation with its possible origin in a Chinese family with congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) and to characterize the ocular phenotypes and lesions in the corresponding intracranial nerves. Methods Three affected siblings and their asymptomatic parents underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations and neuropathologic analysis involving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). KIF21A, PHOX2A, and TUBB3 genes were sequenced on the leukocyte-derived DNA to detect variants. The disease-linked haplotype was analyzed using four microsatellite markers across the KIF21A locus. Results All three affected individuals displayed typical CFEOM1. MRI revealed complicated but consistent neuromuscular abnormalities in the two patients examined, including hypoplastic oculomotor nerves, complete absence of bilateral superior rectus muscles, and unilateral absence of the abducens nerve with marked atrophy of the corresponding lateral rectus muscle. A heterozygous hotspot mutation KIF21A c.2860C>T was identified in all patients, but it was absent in both parents. Haplotype analysis of the disease locus showed the likely maternal inheritance of the disease-associated haplotype to all three affected offspring, strongly suggesting maternal germline mosaicism of the mutation. Conclusions Germline mosaicism of KIF21A c.2860C>T is likely to cause the high occurrence of this mutation in the population. This information may be useful for genetic counseling. KIF21A mutations can affect the abducens nerve and cause complete absence of the bilateral superior rectus muscles. MRI characterization of new CFEOM1 phenotypes would assist clinical management. PMID:24426772

  14. DEHN SURGERY SIDDHARTHA GADGIL

    E-print Network

    Gadgil, Siddhartha

    DEHN SURGERY SIDDHARTHA GADGIL Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Co-ordinates for surgery 1 3. Some algebraic topology 2 4. The theorem of Lickorish and Wallace 3 5. Surgeries and Cobordisms 4 6. The Kirby Calculus 5 7. Constructing knots using surgery 5 8. Surgeries about knots 5 References 6 1. Introduction

  15. Adductor accessorius - an unusual supernumerary adductor muscle of thigh.

    PubMed

    Goel, S; Arora, J; Mehta, V; Sharma, M; Suri, R K; Rath, G; Das, S

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of variant anatomy of medial compartment of thigh is extremely important in surgical procedures requiring obturator nerve block. The nerve block is also recommended for providing additional analgesia following major knee surgeries and for relieving painful adductor muscle spasm. The interfascial injection technique is commonly followed in ultrasound guided obturator nerve block. For this procedure it is imperative to identify the adductor muscles on sonography to inject the anesthetic solution in the intermuscular fascial planes. The presence of an additional muscle can prove useful in myocutaneous flap surgeries for reconstruction especially of perineum. We hereby report a case of such an anomalous supernumerary adductor muscle present between adductor brevis and proximal part of adductor magnus, in an adult Indian male cadaver, recorded during routine dissection in Department of Anatomy, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital. The muscle was innervated by the posterior division of obturator nerve. The morphology, embryological basis and clinical aspects are also discussed. PMID:26152618

  16. Refuting The Polemic Against the Extraocular Muscle Pulleys: Jampel and Shi’s Platygean View of Extraocular Muscle Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Demer, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Late in the 20th Century, it was recognized that connective tissue structures in the orbit influence the paths of the extraocular muscles, and constitute their functional origins. Targeted investigations of these connective tissue “pulleys” led to the formulation of the active pulley hypothesis, which proposes that pulling directions of the rectus extraocular muscles are actively controlled via connective tissues. Purpose This review rebuts a series of criticisms of the active pulley hypothesis published by Jampel, and Jampel and Shi, in which these authors have disputed the existence and function of the pulleys. Methods The current paper reviews published evidence for the existence of orbital pulleys, the active pulley hypothesis, and physiologic tests of the active pulley hypothesis. Magnetic resonance imaging in a living subject, and histological examination of a human cadaver directly illustrate the relationship of pulleys to extraocular muscles. Results Strong scientific evidence is cited that supports the existence of orbital pulleys, and their role in ocular motility. The criticisms of have ignored mathematical truisms and strong scientific evidence. Conclusions Actively controlled orbital pulleys play a fundamental role in ocular motility. Pulleys profoundly influence the neural commands required to control eye movements and binocular alignment. Familiarity with the anatomy and physiology of the pulleys is requisite for a rational approach to diagnosing and treating strabismus using emerging methods. Conversely, approaches that deny or ignore the pulleys risk the sorts of errors that arise in geography and navigation from incorrect assumptions such as those of a flat (“platygean”) earth. PMID:17022164

  17. Effect of acute noxious stimulation to the leg or back on muscle synergies during walking.

    PubMed

    van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul W; van Dieën, Jaap H; Hug, François

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine how acute muscle pain affects muscle coordination during gait with consideration of muscle synergies (i.e., group of muscles activated in synchrony), amplitude of muscle activity and kinematics. A secondary aim was to determine whether any adaptation was specific to pain location. Sixteen participants walked on a treadmill during 5 conditions [control, low back pain (LBP), washout LBP, calf pain (CalfP), and washout CalfP]. Five muscle synergies were identified for all of the conditions. Cross-validation analysis showed that muscle synergy vectors extracted for the control condition accounted for >81% of variance accounted for from the other conditions. Muscle synergies were altered very little in some participants (n = 7 for LBP; n = 10 for CalfP), but were more affected in the others (n = 9 for LBP; n = 6 for CalfP). No systematic differences between pain locations were observed. Considering all participants, synergies related to propulsion and weight acceptance were largely unaffected by pain, whereas synergies related to other functions (trunk control and leg deceleration) were more affected. Gastrocnemii activity was less during both CalfP and LBP than control. Soleus activity was further reduced during CalfP, and this was associated with reduced plantar flexion. Some lower leg muscles exhibited adaptations depending on pain location (e.g., greater vastus lateralis and rectus femoris activity during CalfP than LBP). Overall, these changes in muscle coordination involve a participant-specific strategy that is important to further explore, as it may explain why some people are more likely to develop persistence of a painful condition. PMID:25298391

  18. The Role of Robotic Surgery for Rectal Cancer: Overcoming Technical Challenges in Laparoscopic Surgery by Advanced Techniques.

    PubMed

    Park, Seungwan; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2015-07-01

    The conventional laparoscopic approach to rectal surgery has several limitations, and therefore many colorectal surgeons have great expectations for the robotic surgical system as an alternative modality in overcoming challenges of laparoscopic surgery and thus enhancing oncologic and functional outcomes. This review explores the possibility of robotic surgery as an alternative approach in laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer. The da Vinci® Surgical System was developed specifically to compensate for the technical limitations of laparoscopic instruments in rectal surgery. The robotic rectal surgery is associated with comparable or better oncologic and pathologic outcomes, as well as low morbidity and mortality. The robotic surgery is generally easier to learn than laparoscopic surgery, improving the probability of autonomic nerve preservation and genitourinary function recovery. Furthermore, in very complex procedures such as intersphincteric dissections and transabdominal transections of the levator muscle, the robotic approach is associated with increased performance and safety compared to laparoscopic surgery. The robotic surgery for rectal cancer is an advanced technique that may resolve the issues associated with laparoscopic surgery. However, high cost of robotic surgery must be addressed before it can become the new standard treatment. PMID:26130943

  19. Preparing for Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Preparing for Surgery If you are preparing for surgery, there are some critical steps you can take to help ensure the ... eat or drink anything after midnight before your surgery. Under some circumstances, your physician anesthesiologist may give ...

  20. Cosmetic breast surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Cosmetic breast surgery is done at an outpatient surgery clinic or in a hospital. Most women receive general anesthesia ... with a plastic surgeon if you are considering cosmetic breast surgery. Discuss how you expect to look and feel ...

  1. Capillary muscle.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Caroline; Mouterde, Timothée; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2015-05-19

    The contraction of a muscle generates a force that decreases when increasing the contraction velocity. This "hyperbolic" force-velocity relationship has been known since the seminal work of A. V. Hill in 1938 [Hill AV (1938) Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 126(843):136-195]. Hill's heuristic equation is still used, and the sliding-filament theory for the sarcomere [Huxley H, Hanson J (1954) Nature 173(4412):973-976; Huxley AF, Niedergerke R (1954) Nature 173(4412):971-973] suggested how its different parameters can be related to the molecular origin of the force generator [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255-318; Deshcherevski? VI (1968) Biofizika 13(5):928-935]. Here, we develop a capillary analog of the sarcomere obeying Hill's equation and discuss its analogy with muscles. PMID:25944938

  2. Muscle Fibers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kimberly Chang

    2000-01-01

    In this activity about human anatomy (page 20 of PDF), learners investigate the structure of muscles by comparing yarn and cooked meat. Learners will record their observations in a data table and draw conclusions based on their findings. Beef brisket or stew meat should be cooked in advance so learners can observe at least one, 1-inch cube of cooked meat. This guide includes background information, extensions, and a data table.

  3. Adynamic and dynamic muscle transposition techniques for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Bariši?, Goran; Krivokapi?, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Gracilis muscle transposition is well established in general surgery and has been the main muscle transposition technique for anal incontinence. Dynamization, through a schedule of continuous electrical stimulation, converts the fatigue-prone muscle fibres to a tonic fatigue-resistant morphology with acceptable results in those cases where there is limited sphincter muscle mass. The differences between gluteoplasty and graciloplasty, as well as the techniques and complications of both procedures, are outlined in this review. Overall, these techniques are rarely carried out in specialized units with experience, as there is a high revision and explantation rate. PMID:24759348

  4. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Loss Surgery: Stacie's Story (Video) Weight and Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Healthy Eating Preparing Your Child for Surgery Body ... Mass Index (BMI) Staying at a Healthy Weight Metabolic Syndrome How Can I Lose Weight Safely? When Being ...

  5. Differences in adaptation rates after virtual surgeries provide direct evidence for modularity.

    PubMed

    Berger, Denise J; Gentner, Reinhard; Edmunds, Timothy; Pai, Dinesh K; d'Avella, Andrea

    2013-07-24

    Whether the nervous system relies on modularity to simplify acquisition and control of complex motor skills remains controversial. To date, evidence for modularity has been indirect, based on statistical regularities in the motor commands captured by muscle synergies. Here we provide direct evidence by testing the prediction that in a truly modular controller it must be harder to adapt to perturbations that are incompatible with the modules. We investigated a reaching task in which human subjects used myoelectric control to move a mass in a virtual environment. In this environment we could perturb the normal muscle-to-force mapping, as in a complex surgical rearrangement of the tendons, by altering the mapping between recorded muscle activity and simulated force applied on the mass. After identifying muscle synergies, we performed two types of virtual surgeries. After compatible virtual surgeries, a full range of movements could still be achieved recombining the synergies, whereas after incompatible virtual surgeries, new or modified synergies would be required. Adaptation rates after the two types of surgery were compared. If synergies were only a parsimonious description of the regularities in the muscle patterns generated by a nonmodular controller, we would expect adaptation rates to be similar, as both types of surgeries could be compensated with similar changes in the muscle patterns. In contrast, as predicted by modularity, we found strikingly faster adaptation after compatible surgeries than after incompatible ones. These results indicate that muscle synergies are key elements of a modular architecture underlying motor control and adaptation. PMID:23884944

  6. Lower Extremity Muscle Activity During a Women's Overhand Lacrosse Shot.

    PubMed

    Millard, Brianna M; Mercer, John A

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of this study was to describe lower extremity muscle activity during the lacrosse shot. Participants (n=5 females, age 22±2 years, body height 162.6±15.2 cm, body mass 63.7±23.6 kg) were free from injury and had at least one year of lacrosse experience. The lead leg was instrumented with electromyography (EMG) leads to measure muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (GA). Participants completed five trials of a warm-up speed shot (Slow) and a game speed shot (Fast). Video analysis was used to identify the discrete events defining specific movement phases. Full-wave rectified data were averaged per muscle per phase (Crank Back Minor, Crank Back Major, Stick Acceleration, Stick Deceleration). Average EMG per muscle was analyzed using a 4 (Phase) × 2 (Speed) ANOVA. BF was greater during Fast vs. Slow for all phases (p<0.05), while TA was not influenced by either Phase or Speed (p>0.05). RF and GA were each influenced by the interaction of Phase and Speed (p<0.05) with GA being greater during Fast vs. Slow shots during all phases and RF greater during Crank Back Minor and Major as well as Stick Deceleration (p<0.05) but only tended to be greater during Stick Acceleration (p=0.076) for Fast vs. Slow. The greater muscle activity (BF, RF, GA) during Fast vs. Slow shots may have been related to a faster approach speed and/or need to create a stiff lower extremity to allow for faster upper extremity movements. PMID:25114727

  7. Guinea pig stapedius muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jovita Burgener; Robert Mayr

    1980-01-01

    Guinea pig stapedius muscle is exceptional among all skeletal and even stapedius muscles of mammals: Muscle size (0.75 mm long, 0.3 mm of maximal diameter) as well as muscle fibres (about 200 µm long, about 6 µm in diameter) are extremely small, and many characteristics of developing muscle persist up to the adult stage. Quantitative data on blood supply seem

  8. Radioimmunoguided surgery.

    PubMed

    Veroux, G; Nicosia, A S; Veroux, P; Cardillo, P; Veroux, M; Amodeo, C

    1999-01-01

    Although clinical staging of neoplastic diseases has long remained the only approach to prognosis and treatment, parameters for stage determination, such as tumor size (T) and lymph-node involvement (N), do not always provide effective indication of optimal treatment. Molecular medicine has also provided useful indications as to an alternative and/or integration to clinical staging. Despite the numerous possibilities afforded by pre-operative staging techniques, failures in defining the real spread of neoplasias into surrounding structures have remained a very important diagnostic problem. The labeling of monoclonal antibodies binding with neoplastic target cells by way of radioactive isotopes introduced the techniques known as immunoscintigraphy and SPECT, which then evolved into radioimmunoguided surgery. Fourty patients suffering from colorectal cancer whose age ranged between 42-82 years were singled out for this study. Before undergoing surgery, they were administered pancoloscopy and macrobiopsies, AP-LL chest x-rays, hepatobiliary ECT, echoendoscopy, abdomen and pelvis CT with nephrostographic phase, and total body bone scintigraphy. They were treated with 125I-B72.3 and 125I-FO23C5 (5% and 95% of patients, respectively). Thyrosuppression was achieved by Lugol solution (15 drops x 3/die) from the 6th day before infusion and until the day of surgical operation. Radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS) has also been tested on staging and second-look of ovarian tumors. Five years after surgical operation the survival rate of Dukes A patients (15%) was confirmed to amount to 100%, whereas for Dukes B patients (50%) having undergone RIGS-guided exeresis on single unrecognized metastases (2 patients) and on unrecognized n+ (5 patients) the survival rate was found to be 85% after 5 years; 2 patients deceased due to relapse; 1 patient deceased due to e.p.a. Finally, for Dukes C patients; (35%) having undergone RIGS-guided exeresis on unrecognized liver micrometastases (1 patient), on single isolated metastases (2 patients) and in the occurrence of multicentric lymph-node positivity (9 patients), the survival rate after 5 years was found to amount to 64%; 5 patients deceased due to relapse. Out of 19 patients without pre-operative evidence of ovarian tumor as opposed to just 1 patient suspected of pelvic recurrence, after intra-operative surgical radicalization (45%), 1 patient was diagnosed fibrosis (suspicious lesion on CT) and 1 other patient peritoneal MTS (negative CT) by means of RIGS. RIGS has made it possible: to localize primary and/or metastatic lesions; to determine tumor-free margins, loco-regional disease spread; to differentiate suspicious foci on inspection and palpation (biotopic sampling); to detect invisible and impalpable tumor foci (occult sites); to verify radical exeresis; to evaluate lymphatic drainage stations; to enable guided exeresis of liver metastases. PMID:10626169

  9. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath catheters: A feasible and effective, opioid-sparing, post-operative pain management technique: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Sumitra; Mapari, Amol; Paliwal, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Epidural analgesia, though the gold standard of post-operative pain management for laparotomies, is associated with limitations and is contraindicated in many patients. Opioid-based pain management, which is an alternative to epidural, has been implicated in post-operative nausea, vomiting, and ileus. We report successful management of post operative pain with ultrasound guided rectus sheath (RS) catheters. RS block is a promising alternative in scenarios were epidural is contraindicated, has failed or in case of unexpected change in the surgical plan. PMID:25788745

  10. Independent Passive Mechanical Behavior of Bovine Extraocular Muscle Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew; Yoo, Lawrence; Chaudhuri, Zia; Demer, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Intramuscular innervation of horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is segregated into superior and inferior (transverse) compartments, while all EOMs are also divided into global (GL) and orbital (OL) layers with scleral and pulley insertions, respectively. We sought evidence of potential independent action by examining passive mechanical coupling between EOM compartments. Methods. Putative compartments of each of the six whole bovine anatomical EOMs were separately clamped to a physiologically controlled, dual channel microtensile load cell (5-mN force resolution) driven by independent, high-speed, linear motors having 20-nm position resolution. One channel at a time was extended or retracted by 3 to 5 mm, with the other channel stationary. Fiducials distributed on the EOM global surface enabled optical tracking of local deformation. Loading rates of 5 to 100 mm/sec were applied to explore speeds from slow vergence to saccades. Control loadings employed transversely loaded EOM and isotropic latex. Results. All EOM bellies and tendons exhibited substantial compartmental independence when loaded in the physiologic direction, both between OL and GL, and for arbitrary transverse parsings of EOM width ranging from 60%:40% to 80%:20%. Intercompartmental force coupling in the physiologic direction was less than or equal to 10% in all six EOMS even for saccadic loading rates. Coupling was much higher for nonphysiologic transverse EOM loading and isotropic latex. Optical tracking demonstrated independent strain distribution between EOM compartments. Conclusions. Substantial mechanical independence exists among physiologically loaded fiber bundles in bovine EOMs and tendons, providing biomechanical support for the proposal that differential compartmental function in horizontal rectus EOMs contributes to novel torsional and vertical actions. PMID:23188730

  11. Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Background Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of at last 30 kg/m2.1 Morbid obesity is defined as a BMI of at least 40 kg/m2 or at least 35 kg/m2 with comorbid conditions. Comorbid conditions associated with obesity include diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemias, obstructive sleep apnea, weight-related arthropathies, and stress urinary incontinence. It is also associated with depression, and cancers of the breast, uterus, prostate, and colon, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity is also associated with higher all-cause mortality at any age, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors like smoking. A person with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 has about a 50% higher risk of dying than does someone with a healthy BMI. The risk more than doubles at a BMI of 35 kg/m2. An expert estimated that about 160,000 people are morbidly obese in Ontario. In the United States, the prevalence of morbid obesity is 4.7% (1999–2000). In Ontario, the 2004 Chief Medical Officer of Health Report said that in 2003, almost one-half of Ontario adults were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m2). About 57% of Ontario men and 42% of Ontario women were overweight or obese. The proportion of the population that was overweight or obese increased gradually from 44% in 1990 to 49% in 2000, and it appears to have stabilized at 49% in 2003. The report also noted that the tendency to be overweight and obese increases with age up to 64 years. BMI should be used cautiously for people aged 65 years and older, because the “normal” range may begin at slightly above 18.5 kg/m2 and extend into the “overweight” range. The Chief Medical Officer of Health cautioned that these data may underestimate the true extent of the problem, because they were based on self reports, and people tend to over-report their height and under-report their weight. The actual number of Ontario adults who are overweight or obese may be higher. Diet, exercise, and behavioural therapy are used to help people lose weight. The goals of behavioural therapy are to identify, monitor, and alter behaviour that does not help weight loss. Techniques include self-monitoring of eating habits and physical activity, stress management, stimulus control, problem solving, cognitive restructuring, contingency management, and identifying and using social support. Relapse, when people resume old, unhealthy behaviour and then regain the weight, can be problematic. Drugs (including gastrointestinal lipase inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and appetite suppressants) may be used if behavioural interventions fail. However, estimates of efficacy may be confounded by high rates of noncompliance, in part owing to the side effects of the drugs. In addition, the drugs have not been approved for indefinite use, despite the chronic nature of obesity. The Technology Morbidly obese people may be eligible for bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity is considered an intervention of last resort for patients who have attempted first-line forms of medical management, such as diet, increased physical activity, behavioural modification, and drugs. There are various bariatric surgical procedures and several different variations for each of these procedures. The surgical interventions can be divided into 2 general types: malabsorptive (bypassing parts of the gastrointestinal tract to limit the absorption of food), and restrictive (decreasing the size of the stomach so that the patient is satiated with less food). All of these may be performed as either open surgery or laparoscopically. An example of a malabsorptive technique is Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Examples of restrictive techniques are vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) and adjustable gastric banding (AGB). The Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) Schedule of Benefits for Physician Services includ

  12. Effects of combined exercise on changes of lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaehyun; Lee, Joongsook; Yang, Jeongok; Lee, Bomjin; Han, Dongwook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of combined exercise for a period of 12 weeks on the changes in lower extremity muscle activation during walking in older women. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 22 elderly women who were 65?years of age or older and living in B-City. The subjects had no nervous system or muscular system diseases that might affect walking in the previous two years. [Methods] Muscle activation was measured by using surface EMG (QEMG-8, Laxtha, Daejeon, Republic of Korea). The subjects were asked to walk on an 8?m of footpath at a natural speed. In order to minimize the noise from the cable connecting the EMG measuring instrument to the electrodes, tape was used to affix the electrodes so that they would not fall off the subjects. The EMG data were analyzed by using the RMS. [Results] Muscle activation of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius was increased significantly after combined exercise for 12 weeks. However, no increase was observed in the left biceps femoris. [Conclusion] It was demonstrated that our exercise program, which includes aerobic walking exercises, senior-robics, and muscle strengthening exercises using elastic bands, is very effective for reorganizing the normal gait pattern in the cerebral cortex and improving muscle strength. PMID:26157253

  13. Maintenance of skeletal muscle energy homeostasis during prolonged wintertime fasting in the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides).

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Sanni; Mänttäri, Satu; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Saarela, Seppo

    2015-05-01

    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid species with autumnal fattening and prolonged wintertime fasting. Nonpathological body weight cycling and the ability to tolerate food deficiency make this species a unique subject for studying physiological mechanisms in energy metabolism. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor regulating energy homeostasis. During acute fasting, AMPK promotes fatty acid oxidation and enhances glucose uptake. We evaluated the effects of prolonged fasting on muscle energy metabolism in farm-bred raccoon dogs. Total and phosphorylated AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4), insulin receptor and protein kinase B (Akt) protein expressions of hind limb muscles were determined by Western blot after 10 weeks of fasting. Plasma insulin, leptin, ghrelin, glucose and free fatty acid levels were measured, and muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition analyzed. Fasting had no effects on AMPK phosphorylation, but total AMPK expression decreased in m. rectus femoris, m. tibialis anterior and m. extensor digitorum longus resulting in a higher phosphorylation ratio. Decreased total expression was also observed for ACC. Fasting did not influence GLUT 4, insulin receptor or Akt expression, but Akt phosphorylation was lower in m. flexor digitorum superficialis and m. extensor digitorum longus. Three MHC isoforms (I, IIa and IIx) were detected without differences in composition between the fasted and control animals. The studied muscles were resistant to prolonged fasting indicating that raccoon dogs have an effective molecular regulatory system for preserving skeletal muscle function during wintertime immobility and fasting. PMID:25652584

  14. Do Palisade Endings in Extraocular Muscles Arise from Neurons in the Motor Nuclei?

    PubMed Central

    Lienbacher, Karoline; Mustari, Michael; Ying, Howard S.; Büttner-Ennever, Jean A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to localize the cell bodies of palisade endings that are associated with the myotendinous junctions of the extraocular muscles. Methods. Rhesus monkeys received tract-tracer injections (tetramethylrhodamine dextran [TMR-DA] or choleratoxin subunit B [CTB]) into the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei, which contain the motoneurons of extraocular muscles. All extraocular muscles were processed for the combined immunocytochemical detection of the tracer and SNAP-25 or synaptophysin for the visualization of the complete muscle innervation. Results. In all muscles—except the lateral rectus—en plaque and en grappe motor endings, but also palisade endings, were anterogradely labeled. In addition a few tracer-labeled tendon organs were found. One group of tracer-negative nerve fibers was identified as thin tyrosine hydroxylase-positive sympathetic fibers, and a second less numerous group of tracer-negative fibers may originate from the trigeminal ganglia. No cellular or terminal tracer labeling was present within the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus or the trigeminal ganglia. Conclusions. These results confirm those of earlier studies and furthermore suggest that the somata of palisade endings are located close to the extraocular motor nuclei—in this case, probably within the C and S groups around the periphery of the oculomotor nucleus. The multiple en grappe endings have also been shown to arise from these cells groups, but it is not possible to distinguish different populations in these experiments. PMID:21228383

  15. Electromechanical delay of the knee extensor muscles: comparison among young, middle-age and older individuals.

    PubMed

    Libardi, Cleiton A; Souza, Thiago M F; Conceição, Miguel S; Bonganha, Valéria; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia T; Cavaglieri, Cláudia R; de Moraes, Antonio C; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the ageing process in the electromechanical delay (EMD), rate of torque development (RTD) and peak torque (PT) of the knee extensor muscles. The volunteers were assigned to three groups: young group (YG - 23·44 ± 4·74 years, 78·14 ± 15·11 kg, 1·72 ± 0·05 m), middle-aged group (MAG - 49·56 ± 6·06 years, 72·01 ± 14·07 kg, 1·67 ± 0·06 m) and elderly group (EG - 68·67 ± 9·06 years, 67·96 ± 7·60 kg, 1·64 ± 0·07 m). The PT and RTD were assessed during maximal voluntary ballistic isometric contractions (MVBIC) in the isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle electrical activity was recorded (EMG) during MVBIC in the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles. The EMD was calculated during the MVBIC, through the time interval between the EMG onset and torque onset. The PT and RTD were higher in the YG than in the MAG (P = 0·02; P = 0·01, respectively) and in the EG (P = 0·002; P = 0·0004, respectively). There were no significant differences in EMD among the three age groups for the VL, VM and RF (P>0·05) muscles. We conclude that age affects the PT and RTD, but not EMD of the VL, VM and RF muscles. PMID:24797398

  16. Fitness: My Muscles

    MedlinePLUS

    Fitness: My Muscles Posted under Health Guides . Updated 22 May 2014. +Related Content Fitness is fun! It’s a great way to ... with your own health care provider. M y Muscles Understanding the names and locations of your muscles ...

  17. Frontalis Suspension Surgery in Upper Eyelid Blepharoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Leibovitch, Igal; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2010-01-01

    Frontalis suspension is a commonly used surgery that is indicated in patients with blepharoptosis and poor levator muscle function. The surgery is based on connecting the tarsal plate to the eyebrow with various sling materials. Although fascia lata is most commonly used due to its long-lasting effect and low rate of complications, it has several limitations such as difficulty of harvesting, insufficient amounts in small children, and postoperative donor-site complications. Other sling materials have overcome these limitations, but on the other hand, have been reported to be associated with other complications. In this review we focus on the different techniques and materials which are used in frontalis suspension surgeries, as well as the advantage and disadvantage of these techniques. PMID:21331314

  18. Journal of Biomechanics 41 (2008) 23622369 Importance of preswing rectus femoris activity in stiff-knee gait

    E-print Network

    Delp, Scott

    2008-01-01

    reserved. Keywords: Dynamic simulation; Muscle function; Knee flexion; Stiff-knee gait; Cerebral palsy 1. Introduction Stiff-knee gait is a debilitating consequence of cerebral palsy characterized by diminished knee one or more of the symptoms of cerebral palsy (CDC, 2004). The ambulatory types of cerebral palsy

  19. Healthy Muscles Matter Basic facts about muscles

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    shape. If the muscles around your knee, for example, get weak, you may be more likely to injure that knee. Strong muscles also help you keep your balance, so you are less likely to slip or fall strong! What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles after exercising or working too

  20. Types of muscle tissue (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... types of muscle tissue are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Cardiac muscle cells are located in the walls of the heart, appear striated, and are under involuntary control. Smooth muscle ... Skeletal muscle fibers occur in muscles which are attached ...

  1. Reliability and validity of panoramic ultrasound for muscle quantification.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jessica M; Martin, David S; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Caine, Timothy; Matz, Timothy; Arzeno, Natalia M; Buxton, Roxanne; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of using customized templates to acquire panoramic ultrasound (US) images for determining cross-sectional area (CSA) and volume in the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), medial gastrocnemius (MG) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG). Panoramic US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were analyzed by two trained investigators. The inter-experimenter reliability (coefficient of variation [CV]) of panoramic US ranged from 2.4% to 4.1% and the intraclass correlation (ICC) ranged from 0.963 to 0.991, whereas the inter-experimenter CV of MRI ranged from 2.8% to 3.8% and the ICC from 0.946 to 0.986. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated high agreement between US and MRI; however, values obtained from MRI were systematically larger than those obtained from US. The present results indicate that using a customized US template provides reliable measures of leg muscle CSA and, thus, could be used to characterize muscle CSA and volume. PMID:22749820

  2. Architectural Analysis of Human Abdominal Wall Muscles: Implications for Mechanical Function

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen H. M.; Ward, Samuel R.; Cook, Mark S.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Cadaveric analysis of human abdominal muscle architecture. Objective To quantify the architectural properties of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO) and transverse abdominis (TrA), and model mechanical function in light of these new data. Summary of Background Data Knowledge of muscle architecture provides the structural basis for predicting muscle function. Abdominal muscles greatly affect spine loading, stability, injury prevention and rehabilitation; however, their architectural properties are unknown. Methods Abdominal muscles from eleven elderly human cadavers were removed intact, separated into regions and micro-dissected for quantification of physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), fascicle length and sarcomere length. From these data, sarcomere operating length ranges were calculated. Results IO had the largest PCSA and RA the smallest, and would thus generate the largest and smallest isometric forces, respectively. RA had the longest fascicle length, followed by EO, and would thus be capable of generating force over the widest range of lengths. Measured sarcomere lengths, in the post-mortem neutral spine posture, were significantly longer in RA and EO (3.29±0.07 and 3.18±0.11 ?m) compared to IO and TrA (2.61±0.06 and 2.58±0.05 ?m) (p < 0.0001). Biomechanical modeling predicted that RA, EO and TrA act at optimal force-generating length in the mid-range of lumbar spine flexion, where IO can generate approximately 90% of its maximum force. Conclusions These data provide clinically relevant insights into the ability of the abdominal wall muscles to generate force and change length throughout the lumbar spine range of motion. This will impact the understanding of potential postures in which the force-generating and spine stabilizing ability of these muscles become compromised, which can guide exercise/rehabilitation development and prescription. Future work should explore the mechanical interactions among these muscles and their relationship to spine health and function. PMID:21325932

  3. Move Your Muscles!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    This lesson covers the topic of muscles. Students learn about the three different types of muscles in the human body and the effects of microgravity on muscles. Students also learn how astronauts need to exercise in order to lessen muscle atrophy in space. Students discover what types of equipment engineers design to help the astronauts exercise while in space.

  4. Septoplasty and Turbinate Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may be asked to use saline sprays or irrigations after your surgery. Please check with your surgeon ... may be asked to use saline sprays or irrigations after your surgery. Please check with your surgeon ...

  5. Complications of TMJ surgery.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, David; Puig, Leann

    2015-02-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery can be divided into 3 types of surgery: Arthroscopy, arthroplasty, and total joint replacement. The complications associated with these procedures increase with complexity. They all include injury to adjacent structures, infections, and bleeding problems. PMID:25483447

  6. Diabetic Vitrectomy Surgery

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Magwire, who is a registered nurse and certified diabetes educator. 00:01:06 MELISSA MAGWIRE, RN, CDE: ... questions you may have during the surgery about diabetes or the surgery. You can e-mail these ...

  7. The Development of a Flexible Measuring System for Muscle Volume Using Ultrasonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Kiyotaka; Fukuda, Osamu; Tsubai, Masayoshi; Muraki, Satoshi

    Quantification of muscle volume can be used as a means for the estimation of muscle strength. Its measuring process does not need the subject's muscular contractions so it is completely safe and particularly suited for elderly people. Therefore, we have developed a flexible measuring system for muscle volume using ultrasonography. In this system, an ultrasound probe is installed on a link mechanism which continuously scans fragmental images along the human body surface. These images are then measured and composed into a wide area cross-sectional image based on the spatial compounding method. The flexibility of the link mechanism enables the operator to measure the images under any body postures and body site. The spatial compounding method significantly reduces speckle and artifact noises from the composed cross-sectional image so that the operator can observe the individual muscles, such as Rectus femoris, Vastus intermedius, and so on, in detail. We conducted the experiments in order to examine the advantages of this system we have developed. The experimental results showed a high accuracy of the measuring position which was calculated using the link mechanism and presented the noise reduction effect based on the spatial compounding method. Finally, we confirmed high correlations between the MRI images and the ones of the developed system to verify the validity of the system.

  8. Effect of armor and carrying load on body balance and leg muscle function.

    PubMed

    Park, Huiju; Branson, Donna; Kim, Seonyoung; Warren, Aric; Jacobson, Bert; Petrova, Adriana; Peksoz, Semra; Kamenidis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of weight and weight distribution of body armor and load carriage on static body balance and leg muscle function. A series of human performance tests were conducted with seven male, healthy, right-handed military students in seven garment conditions with varying weight and weight distributions. Static body balance was assessed by analyzing the trajectory of center of plantar pressure and symmetry of weight bearing in the feet. Leg muscle functions were assessed by analyzing the peak electromyography amplitude of four selected leg muscles during walking. Results of this study showed that uneven weight distribution of garment and load beyond an additional 9 kg impaired static body balance as evidenced by increased sway of center of plantar pressure and asymmetry of weight bearing in the feet. Added weight on non-dominant side of the body created greater impediment to static balance. Increased garment weight also elevated peak EMG amplitude in the rectus femoris to maintain body balance and in the medial gastrocnemius to increase propulsive force. Negative impacts on balance and leg muscle function with increased carrying loads, particularly with an uneven weight distribution, should be stressed to soldiers, designers, and sports enthusiasts. PMID:24021525

  9. The effect of the weight of equipment on muscle activity of the lower extremity in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Tobias; Schulze, Christoph; Woitge, Sandra; Finze, Susanne; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Due to their profession and the tasks it entails, soldiers are exposed to high levels of physical activity and strain. This can result in overexertion and pain in the locomotor system, partly caused by carrying items of equipment. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent of muscle activity in the lower extremities caused by carrying specific items of equipment. For this purpose, the activity of selected groups of muscles caused by different items of equipment (helmet, carrying strap, backpack, and rifle) in the upper and lower leg was measured by recording dynamic surface electromyograms. Electrogoniometers were also used to measure the angle of the knee over the entire gait cycle. In addition to measuring muscle activity, the study also aimed to determine out what influence increasing weight load has on the range of motion (ROM) of the knee joint during walking. The activity of recorded muscles of the lower extremity, that is, the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris, was found to depend on the weight of the items of equipment. There was no evidence, however, that items of equipment weighing a maximum of 34% of their carrier's body weight had an effect on the ROM of the knee joint. PMID:22973179

  10. On high heels and short muscles: a multiscale model for sarcomere loss in the gastrocnemius muscle.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Alexander M; Pok, Jacquelynn M; McWalter, Emily J; Gold, Garry E; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-21

    High heels are a major source of chronic lower limb pain. Yet, more than one third of all women compromise health for looks and wear high heels on a daily basis. Changing from flat footwear to high heels induces chronic muscle shortening associated with discomfort, fatigue, reduced shock absorption, and increased injury risk. However, the long-term effects of high-heeled footwear on the musculoskeletal kinematics of the lower extremities remain poorly understood. Here we create a multiscale computational model for chronic muscle adaptation to characterize the acute and chronic effects of global muscle shortening on local sarcomere lengths. We perform a case study of a healthy female subject and show that raising the heel by 13cm shortens the gastrocnemius muscle by 5% while the Achilles tendon remains virtually unaffected. Our computational simulation indicates that muscle shortening displays significant regional variations with extreme values of 22% in the central gastrocnemius. Our model suggests that the muscle gradually adjusts to its new functional length by a chronic loss of sarcomeres in series. Sarcomere loss varies significantly across the muscle with an average loss of 9%, virtually no loss at the proximal and distal ends, and a maximum loss of 39% in the central region. These changes reposition the remaining sarcomeres back into their optimal operating regime. Computational modeling of chronic muscle shortening provides a valuable tool to shape our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of muscle adaptation. Our study could open new avenues in orthopedic surgery and enhance treatment for patients with muscle contracture caused by other conditions than high heel wear such as paralysis, muscular atrophy, and muscular dystrophy. PMID:25451524

  11. Do Changes in Muscle Architecture Affect Post-Activation Potentiation?

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Danielle; Hoffman, Jay R.; Mangine, Gerald T.; Wells, Adam J.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Townsend, Jeremy R.; McCormack, William P.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Fragala, Maren S.; Fukuda, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized, cross-over design study was to examine the effect of three different muscle potentiation protocols on acute changes in muscle architecture and vertical jump performance. Eleven experienced, resistance trained men (25.2±3.6y) completed three potentiation squat protocols using moderate intensity (MI; 75%, 3 sets x 10 repetitions), high intensity (HI; 90%, 3 sets x 3 repetitions) and 100% (1RM; 1 set x 1repetition) of their 1RM. In addition, all participants completed a control session (CTL) in which no protocol was performed. During each testing session, muscle architecture and vertical jump testing were assessed at baseline (BL), 8min post (8P) and 20min post (20P) workout. Ultrasound measures included cross sectional area (CSA) and pennation angle (PANG) of both the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL). Following each ultrasound measure, peak vertical jump power (PVJP) and mean (MVJP) power was assessed using an accelerometer. Magnitude based inferences were used to make comparisons between trials. The MI trial resulted in a likely greater increase from BL to 8P and 20P in RF-CSA and VL-CSA, while the HI trial resulted in a likely greater change from BL to 20P in both RF-CSA and VL-CSA. Meanwhile, changes in PVJP and MVJP for the MI trial was likely decreased at BL-8P and BL–20P, while the HI trial was shown to result in a likely or possible decrease compared to CTL at BL-8P and BL–20P, respectively. A likely negative relationship was observed between changes in VL-PANG and MVJP (r = -0.35; p , 0.018) at BL-8P, and between changes in PVJP and RF-CSA (r = -0.37; p , 0.014) at BL–20P. Results of this study were unable to demonstrate any potentiation response from the trials employed, however these protocols did result in acute muscle architectural changes. Key points Three squat protocols using moderate intensity (75% 1-RM; 3 sets x 10 repetitions), high intensity (90% 1-RM, 3 sets x 3 repetitions) and maximal intensity (100% 1RM; 1 set x 1repetition) were unable to potentiate jump height or jump power in experienced, resistance trained men. Experienced, resistance trained athletes who are not competitive may be limited in regards to potentiation due to a poor level of conditioning. Both the moderate and high intensity potentiation protocols stimulated acute changes in muscle architecture. Greater increases in the CSA of both the RF and VL muscles were noted. A different potentiation protocol may have elicited greater changes in muscle architecture. PMID:25178394

  12. [Blepharoplasty in aesthetic facial surgery].

    PubMed

    Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Schouten, H J; Vissink, A

    2014-01-01

    Blepharoplasty is the most commonly performed procedure in aesthetic facial surgery. The upper eyelid is part of the same aesthetic subunit as the eyebrow and the lower eyelid is part of the same aesthetic subunit as the cheek. In upper eyelid blepharoplasty the excess skin and possibly also a portion of the sphincter is removed. A low-hanging eyebrow is preferably corrected by lifting the brow instead of over excising the redundant eyelid skin. Blepharoplasty of the lower eyelid is generally carried out by a very limited excision of the skin and the orbicularis oculi muscle in order to prevent lower lid retraction (ectropion). Rejuvenation in the lower lid region is also achieved by fat resection or redistribution, by means of which the double convex contour deformity is reduced. Blepharoplasty is generally performed under local anaesthesia and complications are rare. Patient satisfaction is generally high. PMID:25174189

  13. Adjustable sutures in eyelid surgery for ptosis and lid retraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J R Collin; B A ODonnell

    1994-01-01

    New techniques are described and illustrated for ptosis and lid retraction surgery in which the sutures holding the upper eyelid position are adjustable postoperatively. In the anterior approach, the sutures pass from the levator muscle through the anterior surface of the tarsal plate at the position of the skin crease and are tied at the skin crease incision. In the

  14. Robotic liver surgery.

    PubMed

    Leung, Universe; Fong, Yuman

    2014-10-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  15. Creating and Simulating Skeletal Muscle from the Visible Human Data Set

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Teran; Eftychios Sifakis; Silvia S. Blemker; Victor Ng-thow-hing; Cynthia Lau; Ronald Fedkiw

    2005-01-01

    Simulation of the musculoskeletal system has important applications in biomechanics, biomedical engineering, surgery simulation and computer graphics. The accuracy of the muscle, bone and tendon geometry as well as the accuracy of muscle and tendon dynamic deformation are of paramount impor- tance in all these applications. We present a framework for extracting and simulating high resolution musculoskeletal geometry from the

  16. Simulation of Endoscopic Surgery

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Simulation of Endoscopic Surgery Nicholas AYACHE 1 - Stéphane COTIN 1 - Hervé DELINGETTE 1 Jean of therapy. This is particularly true for video-surgery, where the use of video-images during, in order to rehearse a difficult surgical procedure. In the future, we believe that surgery simulators

  17. Pediatric Surgery Gallengangatresie

    E-print Network

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    1 Pediatric Surgery Gallengangatresie: eine seltene Erkrankung fällt durch die Maschen eines Versorgungsnetzes C. Petersen, B. M. Ure Pediatric Surgery Warum machen wir so viel Wirbel um eine seltene Surgery Die Gallengangatresie ist ein Problem! Seltene Erkrankung: ca. 1: 18.000 In Deutschland ca. 40

  18. Wrong site surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. García-Germán Vázquez; J. Sanz-Martín; F. Canillas del Rey; J. Sanjurjo-Navarro

    2009-01-01

    The term “wrong site surgery” refers to surgery carried out on the wrong side, in the wrong anatomical area or in the wrong patient. It can also indicate that the surgical procedure employed was not the one intended. In spite of being a rather neglected topic, wrong site surgery is a fairly usual complication in a surgeon's professional life -

  19. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  20. In children undergoing umbilical hernia repair is rectus sheath block effective at reducing post-operative pain? Best evidence topic (bet).

    PubMed

    Rajwani, Kapil M; Butler, Sarah; Mahomed, Anies

    2014-12-01

    A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: In children undergoing umbilical hernia repair is a rectus sheath block (RSB) better than local anaesthetic infiltration of the surgical site, at reducing post-operative pain? From a total of 34 papers, three studies provided the best available evidence on this topic. One randomised clinical trial showed RSB had a better analgesic effect in the immediate post-operative period. In another randomised trial opioid consumption in the peri-operative period was found to be significantly lower in patients administered RSB. These improvements in pain and analgesia consumption need to be balanced against the expertise, training, equipment required, time implications and complications of performing a RSB. PMID:25463042

  1. No effect of sex steroids on compensatory muscle hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of orchiectomy and/or subcutaneously implanted testosterone propionate (TP) on the hypertrophic response of rat plantaris muscles to functional overload (induced by bilateral removal of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) are investigated experimentally. Muscle wet weight, metabolic substrate oxidation, and cytosolic androgen-receptor binding are measured, and the results are presented in tables. Eight weeks after surgery, the plantaris muscle weight as a percentage of body weight is found to be about twice that in rats without muscle overload, regardless of the sex-hormone status. Overloading causes decreased ability to oxidize glucose and pyruvate, decreased succinate dehydrogenase specific activity, and no change in the ability to oxidize beta-hydroxybutyrate or in androgen-receptor binding. The oxidative response is unaffected by orchiectomy or TP or both. It is argued that the actions of sex hormones and functional overload are not synergistic.

  2. Compensatory responses of the insulin signaling pathway restore muscle glucose uptake following long-term denervation

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Zachary J; Oxendine, Michael; Wheatley, Joshua L; Menke, Chelsea; Cassell, Emily A; Bartos, Amanda; Geiger, Paige C; Schaeffer, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of muscle activity in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis via transection of the sciatic nerve, an extreme model of disuse atrophy. Mice were killed 3, 10, 28, or 56 days after transection or sham surgery. There was no difference in muscle weight between sham and transected limbs at 3 days post surgery, but it was significantly lower following transection at the other three time points. Transected muscle weight stabilized by 28 days post surgery with no further loss. Myocellular cross-sectional area was significantly smaller at 10, 28, and 56 days post transection surgery. Additionally, muscle fibrosis area was significantly greater at 56 days post transection. In transected muscle there was reduced expression of genes encoding transcriptional regulators of metabolism (PPAR?, PGC-1?, PGC-1?, PPAR?), a glycolytic enzyme (PFK), a fatty acid transporter (M-CPT 1), and an enzyme of mitochondrial oxidation (CS) with transection. In denervated muscle, glucose uptake was significantly lower at 3 days but was greater at 56 days under basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. Although GLUT 4 mRNA was significantly lower at all time points in transected muscle, Western blot analysis showed greater expression of GLUT4 at 28 and 56 days post surgery. GLUT1 mRNA was unchanged; however, GLUT1 protein expression was also greater in transected muscles. Surgery led to significantly higher protein expression for Akt2 as well as higher phosphorylation of Akt. While denervation may initially lead to reduced glucose sensitivity, compensatory responses of insulin signaling appeared to restore and improve glucose uptake in long-term-transected muscle. PMID:25896980

  3. Functional Imaging of Human Extraocular Muscles In Head Tilt Dependent Hypertropia

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Jennifer; Clark, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Although alteration in hypertropia induced by head tilt is considered a clinical criterion for diagnosis of superior oblique (SO) palsy, the mechanism of this head-tilt–dependent hypertropia (HTDHT) is unclear. In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to study extraocular muscle (EOM) responses to head tilt in HTDHT. Methods. Orbital MRI was used to study 16 normal subjects and 22 subjects with HTDT, of whom 12 had unilateral SO atrophy and 10 had “masquerading” SO palsy with normal SO size. Sizes and paths of all EOMs were compared in 90° roll tilts. Results. Normal subjects exhibited the expected 3° to 7° physiologic extorsion of all four rectus pulleys in the orbit up-versus-down roll positions, corresponding to ocular counterrolling. In orbits with SO atrophy, the lateral (LR) and inferior rectus (IR) pulleys paradoxically intorted by approximately 2°. Subjects with HTDHT but normal SO size exhibited reduced or reversed extorsion of the medial, superior, and LR pulleys, whereas pulley shift was normal in nonhypertropic fellow orbits in HTDHT. In normal subjects and in SO atrophy, the inferior oblique (IO) muscle contracted in the orbit up-versus-down roll position, but paradoxically relaxed in HTDHT without SO atrophy. Conclusions. The ipsilesional IR and LR pulleys shift abnormally during head tilt in HTDHT with SO atrophy. In HTDHT without SO atrophy, the ipsilesional MR, SO, and LR pulleys shift abnormally, and the IO relaxes paradoxically during head tilt. These widespread alterations in EOM pulling directions suggest that complex neural adjustments to the otolith–ocular reflexes mediate HTDHT. PMID:21282574

  4. Using Electromyography to Detect the Weightings of the Local Muscle Factors to the Increase of Perceived Exertion During Stepping Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ya-Ju; Liu, Chin-Chih; Lin, Cheng-Hsiang; Tsaih, Peih-Ling; Hsu, Miao-Ju

    2008-01-01

    Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) is a clinically convenient indicator for monitoring exercise intensity in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. It might not be sensitive enough for clinicians to determine the patients' physiological status because its association with the cardiovascular system and local muscle factors is unknown. This study used the electromyographic sensor to detect the local muscle fatigue and stabilization of patella, and analyzed the relationship between various local muscle and cardiovascular factors and the increase of RPE during stepping exercise, a common exercise program provided in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation. Ten healthy adults (4 males and 6 females) participated in this study. Each subject used their right bare foot to step up onto a 23-cm-high step at a constant speed until the RPE score reached 20. The RPE, heart rate (HR), and surface EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis, and vastus lateralis were recorded at 1-minute intervals during the stepping exercise. The generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis indicated that the increase in RPE significantly correlated with the increase in HR, and decrease in median frequency (MF) of the EMG power spectrum of the RF. Experimental results suggest that the increase in RPE during stepping exercise was influenced by the cardiovascular status, localized muscle fatigue in the lower extremities. The weighting of the local muscle factors was more than half of the weighting of the cardiovascular factor.

  5. Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

  6. The effects of progressive functional training on lower limb muscle architecture and motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, MiHye; Ko, YoungJun; Shin, Mary Myong Sook; Lee, Wanhee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of progressive functional training on lower limb muscle architecture and motor function of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 26 children with spastic CP. [Methods] Thirteen subjects in the experimental group performed general neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) and additional progressive functional trainings and 13 subjects in the control group performed only general NDT 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Ultrasonography, gross motor function measurement (GMFM) and the mobility questionnaire (MobQue) were evaluated. [Results] After the intervention, the muscle thickness of the quadriceps femoris (QF), cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris (RF), pennation angle of the gastrocnemius (GCM) and the MobQue score of the experimental group were significantly greater than those of the control group. The muscle thickness of QF correlated with the cross-sectional area (CSA) of RF and the pennation angle of GCM, and GMFM score correlated with the pennation angle of GCM. [Conclusion] Progressive functional training can increase muscle thickness, CSA, and the pennation angle of the lower limb muscles, and improve the mobility of spastic CP children making it useful as a practical adjunct to rehabilitation therapy.

  7. Engineered Smooth Muscle Tissues: Regulating Cell Phenotype with the Scaffold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-Soo Kim; Janeta Nikolovski; Jeffrey Bonadio; Elizabeth Smiley; David J. Mooney

    1999-01-01

    Culturing cells on three-dimensional, biodegradable scaffolds may create tissues suitable either for reconstructive surgery applications or as novel in vitro model systems. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that the phenotype of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in three-dimensional, engineered tissues is regulated by the chemistry of the scaffold material. Specifically, we have directly compared cell growth and patterns

  8. Endoscopic transnasal intraorbital surgery: our experience with 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Castelnuovo, Paolo; Dallan, Iacopo; Locatelli, Davide; Battaglia, Paolo; Farneti, Paolo; Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Seccia, Veronica; Karligkiotis, Apostolos; Karligktios, Apostolous; Pasquini, Ernesto; Stammberger, Heinz

    2012-08-01

    The objective of the study is to present our multicentric experience on intraorbital lesions managed by means of an endonasal endoscopic approach. The study design used was multi-institutional retrospective review. We collected data on 16 intraorbital medially-located lesions, all managed by means of an endonasal route, treated in four different skull base centers. We retrospectively reviewed the technical details, complications, histology, and general outcome. The endoscopic endonasal approach was effective in removing completely intraorbital extra-intraconal tumors in 8 cases, in performing biopsies for histological diagnosis in 6 intraorbital intraconal tumors, and in draining 1 extraconal abscess. No major complications were observed; in particular, there was no optic nerve damage. Minor, temporary complications (diplopia) were seen in 3 cases; only 2 patients experienced a permanent diplopia related to medial rectus muscle impairment, in 1 case associated with enophthalmos. Our preliminary multi-centric clinical experience suggests that medially located intraorbital lesions, and in particular the infero-medial ones, can be successfully and safely managed by such an approach. The well-known advantages of the endoscopic techniques, namely the lack of external scars, less bleeding, shorter hospital stay, and fewer complications, are confirmed. PMID:22237761

  9. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePLUS

    Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women ... have fecal incontinence Pelvic floor muscle training exercises ...

  10. Muscle activation and knee biomechanics during squatting and lunging after lower extremity fatigue in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Longpré, Heather S; Acker, Stacey M; Maly, Monica R

    2015-02-01

    Muscle activations and knee joint loads were compared during squatting and lunging before and after lower extremity neuromuscular fatigue. Electromyographic activations of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris, and the external knee adduction and flexion moments were collected on 25 healthy women (mean age 23.5 years, BMI of 23.7 kg/m(2)) during squatting and lunging. Participants were fatigued through sets of 50 isotonic knee extensions and flexions, with resistance set at 50% of the peak torque achieved during a maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Fatigue was defined as a decrease in peak isometric knee extension or flexion torque ?25% from baseline. Co-activation indices were calculated between rectus femoris and biceps femoris; and between vastus lateralis and biceps femoris. Fatigue decreased peak isometric extension and flexion torques (p<0.05), mean vastus lateralis activation during squatting and lunging (p<0.05), and knee adduction and flexion moments during lunging (p<0.05). Quadriceps activations were greater during lunging than squatting (p<0.05). Thus, fatigue altered the recruitment strategy of the quadriceps during squatting and lunging. Lunging challenges quadriceps activation more than squatting in healthy, young women. PMID:25258248

  11. Muscle Tissue Overview

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Wendy M Rappazzo (Harford Community College Science, Technology, Engineering & Math)

    2007-08-15

    This is a short overview of the three types of muscle tissue. Each type of muscle tissue is briefly described with a histology view of the tissue. This presentation also incorporates information regarding each muscle tissue and its role in attaining VO2 max.

  12. Physiological and electromyographic responses during 40-km cycling time trial: relationship to muscle coordination and performance.

    PubMed

    Bini, Rodrigo R; Carpes, Felipe P; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; Mota, Carlos B; Guimarães, Antônio Carlos S

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the oxygen uptake (VO(2)), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), cadence and muscle activity during cycling a 40-km time trial (TT), and to analyse the relationship between muscle activity and power output (PO). Eight triathletes cycled a 40-km TT on their own bicycles, which were mounted on a stationary cycle simulator. The VO(2), RER and muscle activity (electromyography, EMG) from tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius medialis (GA), biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) of the lower limb were collected. The PO was recorded from the cycle simulator. The data were collected at the 3rd, 10th, 20th, 30th and 38th km. The root mean square envelope (RMS) of EMG was calculated. The VO(2) and PO presented a significant increase at the 38th km (45.23+/-8.35 ml kg min(-1) and 107+/-7.11% of mean PO of 40-km, respectively) compared to the 3rd km (38.12+/-5.98 ml kg min(-1) and 92+/-8.30% of mean PO of 40-km, respectively). There were no significant changes in cadence and RER throughout the TT. The VL was the only muscle that presented significant increases in the RMS at the 10th km (22.56+/-3.05% max), 20th km (23.64+/-2.52% max), 30th km (25.27+/-3.00% max), and 38th km (26.28+/-3.57%max) when compared to the 3rd km (21.03+/-1.88%max). The RMS of VL and RF presented a strong relationship to PO (r=0.89 and 0.86, respectively, p<0.05). The muscular steady state reported for cycling a 30-min TT seems to occur in the 40-km TT, for almost all assessed muscles, probably in attempt to avoid premature muscle fatigue. PMID:17703997

  13. Weight-Bearing Exercise Accuracy Influences Muscle Activation Strategies of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Shields, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dynamic stability of the knee joint is a research topic of increasing focus after ACL injury, stroke, and incomplete spinal cord injury. Since rehabilitation programs use functional weight-bearing tasks to improve neuromuscular control of the knee, it is important to understand the adaptability of muscle control strategies during weight-bearing exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation patterns during a single leg squat (SLS) exercise performed before and after feedback-controlled training. Methods This was a cross-sectional comparative study. Fifteen young, healthy individuals performed the SLS exercise while tracking a sinusoidal target with flexion and extension of the knee. The SLS instrument provided bidirectional resistance that was normalized to body weight. Six trials of 10 repetitions of the SLSs were performed to quantify improved performance (learning). Electromyographic activity from five muscles that cross the knee was analyzed. Accuracy of performance was measured by calculating the error between the target and actual knee displacement. Results Reduction in error measurements verified that individuals increased the accuracy of performance in each trial and retained this improvement across trials (p < 0.05). Modulation in muscle activity as a result of learning was reflected mainly in the biceps femoris, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis muscles. Conclusion Increased accuracy with the SLS exercise was accompanied by a decrease in coactivation of selected musculature around the knee. This study presents a novel approach to quantify the effect of performance on muscle synergistic activation patterns during weight-bearing exercise. Controlled strengthening, as defined in this study, emphasizes accuracy of performance in conjunction with principles of strength training and has implications to knee control. PMID:17419885

  14. General surgery career resource.

    PubMed

    Parsee, Ana M; Ross, Sharona B; Gantt, Nancy L; Kichler, Kandace; Hollands, Celeste

    2013-11-01

    General surgery residency training can lead to a rewarding career in general surgery and serve as the foundation for careers in several surgical subspecialties. It offers broad-based training with exposure to the cognitive and technical aspects of several surgical specialties and prepares graduating residents for a wide range of career paths. This career development resource discusses the training aspects of general surgery. PMID:24157351

  15. Breeds and muscle types modulate performance of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict the fatty acid composition of bovine meat.

    PubMed

    Mourot, B P; Gruffat, D; Durand, D; Chesneau, G; Mairesse, G; Andueza, D

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy feasibility for predicting beef fatty acid (FA) composition. Experimental scheme included four breeds (Angus, Blond d'Aquitaine, Charolais, Limousin) and three muscles, Longissimus thoracis (LT), Rectus abdominis (RA), Semitendinosus (ST). The results showed that 1) increasing FA content variability with several breeds increased calibration model reliability (R(2)CV>0.86) for the major individual and groups of FA unless polyunsaturated FAs, 2) Longissimus thoracis FAs were better predicted than RA FAs while no ST FAs were correctly predicted (R(2)CV<0.71). This difference could be explained by FA content, FA variability or specific muscle physico-chemical characteristics. PMID:25443970

  16. Hyperoxaluria and Bariatric Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplin, John R.

    2007-04-01

    Bariatric surgery as a means to treat obesity is becoming increasingly common in the United States. An early form of bariatric surgery, the jejunoileal bypass, had to be abandoned in 1980 due to numerous complications, including hyperoxaluria and kidney stones. Current bariatric procedures have not been systematically evaluated to determine if they cause hyperoxaluria. Presented here are data showing that hyperoxaluria is the major metabolic abnormality in patients with bariatric surgery who form kidney stones. Further studies are needed to assess the prevalence of hyperoxaluria in all patients with bariatric surgery.

  17. Anesthesia for colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Gabriele; Fawcett, William J

    2015-03-01

    Anesthesiologists play a pivotal role in facilitating recovery of patients undergoing colorectal surgery, as many Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) elements are under their direct control. Successful implementation of ERAS programs requires that anesthesiologists become more involved in perioperative care and more aware of the impact of anesthetic techniques on surgical outcomes and recovery. Key to achieving success is strict adherence to the principle of aggregation of marginal gains. This article reviews anesthetic and analgesic care of patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery in the context of an ERAS program, and also discusses anesthesia considerations for emergency colorectal surgery. PMID:25701931

  18. Microcirculation in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hudlicka, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Summary The role of microcirculation in skeletal muscle is to provide the supply of oxygen and various nutrients and to remove waste products of muscle metabolism. As skeletal muscles are composed of different fibre types, this review tries to elucidate the question of capillary supply and flow with respect to these. It reviews the current knowledge of structure of microcirculation and its nervous, hormonal, and local (myogenic, metabolic and endothelial) control. It also discuss factors involved in the increase in blood flow and changes in microcirculation occurring during muscle contractions, exercise training, muscle hypertrophy and atrophy, hypoxia, ageing, hypertension, diabetes and limited blood supply. PMID:23738238

  19. Supersonic shear imaging provides a reliable measurement of resting muscle shear elastic modulus.

    PubMed

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Nordez, Antoine

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of shear elastic modulus measurements performed using supersonic shear imaging (SSI) in nine resting muscles (i.e. gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachioradialis, adductor pollicis obliquus and abductor digiti minimi) of different architectures and typologies. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to the intra-session reliability (n = 20), inter-day reliability (n = 21) and the inter-observer reliability (n = 16) experiments. Muscle shear elastic modulus ranged from 2.99 (gastrocnemius medialis) to 4.50 kPa (adductor digiti minimi and tibialis anterior). On the whole, very good reliability was observed, with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4.6% to 8%, except for the inter-operator reliability of adductor pollicis obliquus (CV = 11.5%). The intraclass correlation coefficients were good (0.871 ± 0.045 for the intra-session reliability, 0.815 ± 0.065 for the inter-day reliability and 0.709 ± 0.141 for the inter-observer reliability). Both the reliability and the ease of use of SSI make it a potentially interesting technique that would be of benefit to fundamental, applied and clinical research projects that need an accurate assessment of muscle mechanical properties. PMID:22370174

  20. Olympic weightlifting training causes different knee muscle-coactivation adaptations compared with traditional weight training.

    PubMed

    Arabatzi, Fotini; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an Olympic weightlifting (OL) and traditional weight (TW) training program on muscle coactivation around the knee joint during vertical jump tests. Twenty-six men were assigned randomly to 3 groups: the OL (n = 9), the TW (n = 9), and Control (C) groups (n = 8). The experimental groups trained 3 d · wk(-1) for 8 weeks. Electromyographic (EMG) activity from the rectus femoris and biceps femoris, sagittal kinematics, vertical stiffness, maximum height, and power were collected during the squat jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), and drop jump (DJ), before and after training. Knee muscle coactivation index (CI) was calculated for different phases of each jump by dividing the antagonist EMG activity by the agonist. Analysis of variance showed that the CI recorded during the preactivation and eccentric phases of all the jumps increased in both training groups. The OL group showed a higher stiffness and jump height adaptation than the TW group did (p < 0.05). Further, the OL showed a decrease or maintenance of the CI recorded during the propulsion phase of the CMJ and DJs, which is in contrast to the increase in the CI observed after TW training (p < 0.05). The results indicated that the altered muscle activation patterns about the knee, coupled with changes of leg stiffness, differ between the 2 programs. The OL program improves jump performance via a constant CI, whereas the TW training caused an increased CI, probably to enhance joint stability. PMID:21997458

  1. Intrathoracic muscle flaps. An account of their use in the management of 100 consecutive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, P G; Pairolero, P C

    1990-01-01

    One hundred consecutive patients underwent intrathoracic muscle transposition between May 1977 and February 1988. Seventy-three procedures were performed to manage the complications of infection, which included treatment of bronchopleural fistula, postpneumonectomy empyema, perforations of the heart or great vessels, and fistulae of the esophagus and trachea. Prophylactic reinforcement of the repaired viscus was done in the remaining 27 patients because of either increased airway tension or previous intrathoracic radiation. There were 71 male and 29 female patients. Ages ranged from 16 to 82 years (median, 58 years). One hundred thirty muscle transpositions were performed and included 60 serratus anterior flaps, 33 latissimus dorsi, 28 pectoralis major, 3 intercostal, 2 rectus abdominus, and 4 others. The number of operations per patient ranged from 1 to 13 (median, 2). Seventy-six complications occurred in 35 patients. There were 16 operative deaths. Follow-up ranged from 3.4 to 150.7 months (median, 41 months). Infection was controlled or avoided in 73 patients. Forty-three of the operative survivors died. Cause of death was cancer in 27 patients, cardiac in 4, pulmonary in 3, infection in 3, suicide in 1, and unknown in 5. We conclude that although associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, intrathoracic muscle transposition when there is an actual or potential leak of an intrathoracic viscus can be life saving. Long-term survival, however, is determined by the pre-existing thoracic disorder. PMID:2357128

  2. Orthodromic Transfer of the Temporalis Muscle in Incomplete Facial Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Aum, Jae Ho; Oh, Sang Ah; Gu, Ja Hea

    2013-01-01

    Background Temporalis muscle transfer produces prompt surgical results with a one-stage operation in facial palsy patients. The orthodromic method is surgically simple, and the vector of muscle action is similar to the temporalis muscle action direction. This article describes transferring temporalis muscle insertion to reconstruct incomplete facial nerve palsy patients. Methods Between August 2009 and November 2011, 6 unilateral incomplete facial nerve palsy patients underwent surgery for orthodromic temporalis muscle transfer. A preauricular incision was performed to expose the mandibular coronoid process. Using a saw, the coronoid process was transected. Three strips of the fascia lata were anchored to the muscle of the nasolabial fold through subcutaneous tunneling. The tension of the strips was adjusted by observing the shape of the nasolabial fold. When optimal tension was achieved, the temporalis muscle was sutured to the strips. The surgical results were assessed by comparing pre- and postoperative photographs. Three independent observers evaluated the photographs. Results The symmetry of the mouth corner was improved in the resting state, and movement of the oral commissure was enhanced in facial animation after surgery. Conclusions The orthodromic transfer of temporalis muscle technique can produce prompt results by applying the natural temporalis muscle vector. This technique preserves residual facial nerve function in incomplete facial nerve palsy patients and produces satisfying cosmetic outcomes without malar muscle bulging, which often occurs in the turn-over technique. PMID:23898430

  3. Ultrasound Guided Surgery: Multimodal Visualization and

    E-print Network

    , particularly the Departments of Neurosurgery, Vascular Surgery, and Laparoscopic Surgery. My supervisors have: Geirmund Unsgård, Neurosurgery, Hans Olav Myhre, Vascular Surgery and Ronald Mårvik, Laparoscopic Surgery

  4. Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine Trauma and Post______________________________: This letter is to welcome you to the University of California, Davis Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

  5. Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine Trauma and Post OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS Department of Orthopaedic Surgery 4860 Y Street, Suite 3800 Sacramento, CA 95817 P: 916

  6. Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Adult Reconstructive Surgery Foot and Ankle Surgery Hand, Upper Extremity and Microvascular Surgery Oncology Orthopaedic Research Pediatric Surgery Spine Surgery Sports Medicine Trauma and Post Department of Orthopaedic Surgery 4860 Y Street, 1700 Sacramento, CA 95817 P: 916.734.2700 F: 916

  7. Validation of a high-power, time-resolved, near-infrared spectroscopy system for measurement of superficial and deep muscle deoxygenation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Koga, Shunsaku; Barstow, Thomas J; Okushima, Dai; Rossiter, Harry B; Kondo, Narihiko; Ohmae, Etsuko; Poole, David C

    2015-06-01

    Near-infrared assessment of skeletal muscle is restricted to superficial tissues due to power limitations of spectroscopic systems. We reasoned that understanding of muscle deoxygenation may be improved by simultaneously interrogating deeper tissues. To achieve this, we modified a high-power (?8 mW), time-resolved, near-infrared spectroscopy system to increase depth penetration. Precision was first validated using a homogenous optical phantom over a range of inter-optode spacings (OS). Coefficients of variation from 10 measurements were minimal (0.5-1.9%) for absorption (?a), reduced scattering, simulated total hemoglobin, and simulated O2 saturation. Second, a dual-layer phantom was constructed to assess depth sensitivity, and the thickness of the superficial layer was varied. With a superficial layer thickness of 1, 2, 3, and 4 cm (?a = 0.149 cm(-1)), the proportional contribution of the deep layer (?a = 0.250 cm(-1)) to total ?a was 80.1, 26.9, 3.7, and 0.0%, respectively (at 6-cm OS), validating penetration to ?3 cm. Implementation of an additional superficial phantom to simulate adipose tissue further reduced depth sensitivity. Finally, superficial and deep muscle spectroscopy was performed in six participants during heavy-intensity cycle exercise. Compared with the superficial rectus femoris, peak deoxygenation of the deep rectus femoris (including the superficial intermedius in some) was not significantly different (deoxyhemoglobin and deoxymyoglobin concentration: 81.3 ± 20.8 vs. 78.3 ± 13.6 ?M, P > 0.05), but deoxygenation kinetics were significantly slower (mean response time: 37 ± 10 vs. 65 ± 9 s, P ? 0.05). These data validate a high-power, time-resolved, near-infrared spectroscopy system with large OS for measuring the deoxygenation of deep tissues and reveal temporal and spatial disparities in muscle deoxygenation responses to exercise. PMID:25840439

  8. Pale poultry muscle syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, D P; Northcutt, J K

    2009-07-01

    Muscle that exhibits a pale color, soft texture, and exudative nature (PSE) was first described by the swine industry. Some turkey breast muscle has been found to be lighter or paler than what is considered normal. A comparable phenomenon has also been observed in broiler chicken breast muscle. Similar to PSE pork, pale poultry muscles may have reduced water-holding capacity and higher drip loss than normal muscles. However, the lighter color poultry may also have normal water-holding and drip loss. Based on these findings, researchers have adopted the PSE term to describe pale avian muscle. The scientific literature describes porcine PSE as a much more severe meat quality defect than the poultry version. The genetic basis for the PSE syndrome between turkey and pork muscle also appears to differ. Finally, the halothane screening method used to detect PSE-susceptible live swine does not work when used to screen suspect turkeys or chickens. Most of the PSE-like avian muscle is usually chosen by researchers based on the color of the muscle. However, many factors affect muscle color and the literature shows substantial differences in research relative to the definition of pale and normal avian muscles. Therefore, we propose using other terminology than PSE when describing avian breast muscle that exhibits some degree of paleness, reduced water-holding capacity, and increased drip loss. Two recommendations are: pale chicken muscle or pale poultry muscle syndrome. Continued use of PSE to describe pale poultry meat may be misleading because the conditions in swine and avian resulting in the defect are not the same. PMID:19531722

  9. [Future of surgery].

    PubMed

    Idezuki, Y

    2000-03-01

    Most current surgical techniques were developed in the 20th century, especially during the past 50 years. Open heart surgery, vascular surgery, neonatal surgery, organ transplantation and artificial organs, microsurgery, intravenous hyperalimentation, and, more recently, endoscopic surgery emerged during the past five decades. Many of the dreams of surgeons in the past have now been realized. These advances in surgery were made possible by the development of new technologies and instrumentation, but most importantly were initiated by the pioneering spirit of surgeons. This will continue on in the next century, since history shows that classical or conventional treatment modalities are constantly changing and being replaced by new ones based on new ideas and technologies. In this age of molecular biology, gene therapy, computer science, and the Internet, the pace of change in medicine and surgery will accelerate. Systems for training and communications, and even medical ethics, will inevitably change. We may not be able to predict precisely the future changes in surgery and surgeons, but we must be prepared for them and steer the future of surgery for the benefit of patients. PMID:10773985

  10. Lung Volume Reduction Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm M. DeCamp; Robert J. McKenna; Claude C. Deschamps; Mark J. Krasna

    2008-01-01

    The objective of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) is the safe, effective, and durable palliation of dyspnea in appropriately se- lected patients with moderate to severe emphysema. Appropriate patient selection and preoperative preparation are prerequisites for successful LVRS. An effective LVRS program requires participation by and communication between experts from pulmonary medicine, thoracic surgery, thoracic anesthesiology, critical care medicine, rehabilitation

  11. Refractive surgery survey 2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry D Solomon; Mike P Holzer; Helga P Sandoval; Luis G Vargas; Liliana Werner; David T Vroman; Terrance J Kasper; David J Apple

    2002-01-01

    In February 2001, a questionnaire on the practice of refractive surgery was sent worldwide to all 8196 members of the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery; 1511 responses (18.4%) were received. Although laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) was the most common refractive procedure reported, phakic intraocular lenses, clear lens extraction, and photorefractive keratectomy were also widespread. Nineteen percent of

  12. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is breast cancer treated? Surgery for breast cancer Radiation therapy for breast cancer Chemotherapy for breast cancer Hormone therapy for breast ... Topic How is breast cancer treated? Next Topic Radiation therapy for breast cancer Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast ...

  13. Effect of passive movements on reaction time of the rectus femoris in normal subjects and patients with paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Sajiki, N; Moriai, N; Nakamura, R

    1983-03-01

    Electromyographic reaction times (EMG-RTs) of the right knee extension were examined in eight normal subjects and eight patients with paraparesis under three conditions; during passive knee flexion (PFLX), passive extension (PEXT) and no passive movements (STAT). EMG-RTs of the three conditions were not significantly different between the normal and the patient group. A two-way analysis of variance (condition x group) showed that the main effect of condition was significant, but that of group and the interaction were not. Both in the normal and the patient group the shortest EMG-RTs of all was obtained in PEXT, followed by that of STAT and PFLX. Effect of passive movements on EMG-RTs in the patients whose position sense of the knee and muscle strength of the knee extension were within normal range did not vary with the abnormality of tactile sense and/or myotatic reflexes. The results indicated that activities of the pyramidal tract neurons in carrying out a movement were directly influenced by kinesthetic information of the moving limb. PMID:6857651

  14. Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resources ??. Alternate Language URL Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity Page Content Bariatric Surgery for Adults Bariatric Surgery ... especially if they have a disease linked to obesity. Severe obesity is a chronic condition that is ...

  15. Anatomy of sartorius muscle.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, D; Bogacka, U; Ciszek, B

    2014-08-01

    A sartorius muscle is the longest muscle of the human system. It runs over 2 joints- hip and knee joints. In the study 10 sartorius muscles were examined. They were dissected free of lower human limbs. Dimensions of limbs which these muscles come from and dimensions of the muscles and their component parts were examined. The attention was paid mainly to parts of tendon located inside the muscle belly. The results show that they are either of a comparable length (distal tendon) or several times longer (proximal tendon) than visible parts located outside of the muscle. Moreover, a complex structure of the distal tendon which includes 2 tracts of different places of insertion was stated. Inferior tract inserted in the same place as muscle tendons: semitendinosus and gracilis. The superior tract inserted transversely against the former one. The tendon of the sartorius muscle forms additionally an aponeurosis whose fibres enter into the deep fascia of crus. The muscle belly is characterised with various width on different levels of its length. In half of casess word-like distal segment of belly is formed. PMID:25242250

  16. Functional variation of neck muscles and their relation to feeding style in Tyrannosauridae and other large theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Snively, Eric; Russell, Anthony P

    2007-08-01

    Reconstructed neck muscles of large theropod dinosaurs suggest influences on feeding style that paralleled variation in skull mechanics. In all examined theropods, the head dorsiflexor m. transversospinalis capitis probably filled in the posterior dorsal concavity of the neck, for a more crocodilian- than avian-like profile in this region. The tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurids Daspletosaurus and Tyrannosaurus had relatively larger moment arms for latero-flexion by m. longissimus capitis superficialis and m. complexus than albertosaurine tyrannosaurids, and longer dorsiflexive moment arms for m. complexus. Areas of dorsiflexor origination are significantly larger relative to neck length in adult Tyrannosaurus rex than in other tyrannosaurids, suggesting relatively large muscle cross-sections and forces. Tyrannosaurids were not particularly specialized for neck ventro-flexion. In contrast, the hypothesis that Allosaurus co-opted m. longissimus capitis superficialis for ventro-flexion is strongly corroborated. Ceratosaurus had robust insertions for the ventro-flexors m. longissimus capitis profundus and m. rectus capitis ventralis. Neck muscle morphology is consistent with puncture-and-pull and powerful shake feeding in tyrannosaurids, relatively rapid strikes in Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus, and ventroflexive augmentation of weaker jaw muscle forces in the non tyrannosaurids. PMID:17654673

  17. Impact of different body positions on bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles in nulliparous continent women.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, Daria; Stania, Magdalena; Sobota, Grzegorz; Kwa?na, Krystyna; B?aszczak, Edward; Taradaj, Jakub; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    We examined pelvic floor muscles (PFM) activity (%MVC) in twenty nulliparous women by body position during exercise as well as the activation of abdominal muscles and the gluteus maximus during voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Pelvic floor muscle activity was recorded using a vaginal probe during five experimental trials. Activation of transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis, and gluteus maximus during voluntary PFM contractions was also assessed. Significant differences in mean normalized amplitudes of baseline PFM activity were revealed between standing and lying (P < 0.00024) and lying and ball-sitting positions (P < 0.0053). Average peak, average time before peak, and average time after peak did not differ significantly during the voluntary contractions of the PFMs. Baseline PFM activity seemed to depend on the body position and was the highest in standing. Pelvic floor muscles activity during voluntary contractions did not differ by position in continent women. Statistically significant differences between the supine lying and sitting positions were only observed during a sustained 60-second contraction of the PFMs. PMID:25793212

  18. Endoscopic surgery: ideal for endocrine surgery?

    PubMed

    Marescaux, J; Mutter, D; Vix, M; Leroy, J

    1999-08-01

    The laparoscopic approach of endocrine tumors is recent, the first reported resection of an adrenal gland in 1992. It represents a revolution in endocrine surgery equivalent to that observed in general surgery after the first cholecystectomy was performed in 1987. This new approach needs evaluation in terms of feasibility, indications, safety, and surgical procedure to define its potential advantages. The surgical technique and operative approaches of laparoscopic adrenalectomies are at the present time well defined and mostly accepted. Pancreatic approaches and resections, thyroidectomies, and parathyroidectomies are more confidential and performed only by rare teams. Nevertheless, the development of this technique is ineluctable. The spread of this technique, partly due to the increased quality of the technologies available, especially cameras, encounter a major brake that limits its generalization: If general surgeons commonly perform laparoscopy in their daily practice, they treat few patients presenting endocrine disorders. On the other hand, endocrine surgeons to whom many patients are referred do not have regular videoscopic practice. Endocrine surgery benefit few patients for these reasons. An analysis of the present state of the art allows us to imagine the evolution and future of videoscopic endocrine surgery. PMID:10415209

  19. Suppression of proliferation of a human B-cell leukaemic cell line derived from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia by soluble factor(s) from Campylobacter rectus.

    PubMed

    Saito, S; Hayakawa, M; Takiguchi, H; Abiko, Y

    1993-06-01

    Soluble sonic extracts of several strains were examined for their ability to alter proliferation of a cell line derived from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BALL-1). Extracts of all strains tested caused dose-dependent suppression of proliferation when assessed by DNA (tritiated thymidine incorporation), RNA (tritiated uridine incorporation) and protein (tritiated leucine incorporation) synthesis. There was no effect on the viability of BALL-1 as measured by either trypan-blue exclusion or extracellular release of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. The suppressive factor(s) was separated in a well-defined peak by high-pressure liquid DEAE ion-exchange chromatography, which revealed a single active peak with a molecular mass of 48 kDa. Characterization of the peak indicated that the suppressive factor(s) was heat labile (activity destroyed at 80 degrees C) and sensitive to the proteolytic enzyme pronase P. The soluble suppressive factor(s) from Campylobacter rectus thus has protein-like properties and no cytotoxicity to a human B-cell leukaemic cell line. PMID:8343067

  20. Modeling Skeletal Muscle Contraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh R. Devasahayam

    \\u000a Skeletal muscles in amphibians and mammals have been subjected to extensive investigation due to their relatively easy access\\u000a and simple structure compared to other physiological systems. Consequently fairly detailed models exist for skeletal muscle\\u000a behavior. Several competing models have been proposed that succeed to varying extents in explaining skeletal muscle behavior.\\u000a Although abundant experimental data exists, no existing model is

  1. Muscle pain prophylaxis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary A. Dudley

    1999-01-01

    Most individuals experience muscle soreness one or two days following novel physical activity such as the first down-hill,\\u000a snow skiing trip of the season. This arises from forced lengthening of skeletal muscles fibers while they are active, for\\u000a example, as the skier absorbs the shock of each mogul she\\/he encounters. Some muscle fibers are injured, force is reduced\\u000a and an

  2. [Surgery for thoracic tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Kilani, T; Boudaya, M S; Zribi, H; Ouerghi, S; Marghli, A; Mestiri, T; Mezni, F

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is mainly a medical disease. Surgery has been the unique therapeutic tool for a long time before the advent of specific antituberculous drugs, and the role of surgery was then confined to the treatment of the sequelae of tuberculosis and their complications. The resurgence of tuberculosis and the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB combined to immunosuppressed patients represent a new challenge for tuberculosis surgery. Surgery may be indicated for a diagnostic purpose in patients with pulmonary, pleural, mediastinal or thoracic wall involvement, or with a therapeutic purpose (drainage, resection, residual cavity obliteration). Modern imaging techniques and the advent of video-assisted thoracic surgery allowed a new approach of this pathology; the majority of diagnostic interventions and selected cases requiring lung resection can be performed through a mini-invasive approach. Patients proposed for aggressive surgery may be treated with the best results thanks to a good evaluation of the thoracic lesions, of the patients' nutritional, infectious and general status combined with a good coordination between the specialized medical team for an optimal preparation to surgery. PMID:24894967

  3. An artificial muscle computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc O'Brien, Benjamin; Alexander Anderson, Iain

    2013-03-01

    We have built an artificial muscle computer based on Wolfram's "2, 3" Turing machine architecture, the simplest known universal Turing machine. Our computer uses artificial muscles for its instruction set, output buffers, and memory write and addressing mechanisms. The computer is very slow and large (0.15 Hz, ˜1 m3); however by using only 13 artificial muscle relays, it is capable of solving any computable problem given sufficient memory, time, and reliability. The development of this computer shows that artificial muscles can think—paving the way for soft robots with reflexes like those seen in nature.

  4. Respiratory Muscle Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gransee, Heather M.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle’s plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles. PMID:23798306

  5. Muscles And Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    The following resource is fromLessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. In this particular lesson, students will learn several important characteristics about muscles and how muscles and bones work together to produce motion. Students will learn about the role of practice in strengthening muscles and muscle memory.

  6. Anabolic-androgenic steroid does not enhance compensatory muscle hypertrophy but significantly diminish muscle damages in the rat surgical ablation model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuro Tamaki; Yoshiyasu Uchiyama; Yoshinori Okada; Kayoko Tono; Masahiro Nitta; Akio Hoshi; Akira Akatsuka

    2009-01-01

    Cellular responses in the compensatory hypertrophied (plantaris) muscle induced by surgical ablation of synergistic muscles\\u000a (soleus and gastrocnemius) were determined during 10-week anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) treatment. Adult Wistar male rats\\u000a were divided randomly into the Control and Steroid groups, and contralateral surgery was performed. Nandrolone decanoate was\\u000a administered to the Steroid group. [3H]thymidine and [14C]leucine labeling were used to

  7. Nodular smooth muscle metaplasia in multiple peritoneal endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report here an unusual presentation of peritoneal endometriosis with smooth muscle metaplasia as multiple protruding masses on the lateral pelvic wall. Smooth muscle metaplasia is a common finding in rectovaginal endometriosis, whereas in peritoneal endometriosis, smooth muscle metaplasia is uncommon and its nodular presentation on the pelvic wall is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of nodular smooth muscle metaplasia occurring in peritoneal endometriosis. As observed in this case, when performing laparoscopic surgery in order to excise malignant tumors of intra-abdominal or pelvic organs, it can be difficult for surgeons to distinguish the metastatic tumors from benign nodular pelvic wall lesions, including endometriosis, based on the gross findings only. Therefore, an intraoperative frozen section biopsy of the pelvic wall nodules should be performed to evaluate the peritoneal involvement by malignant tumors. Moreover, this report implies that peritoneal endometriosis, as well as rectovaginal endometriosis, can clinically present as nodular lesions if obvious smooth muscle metaplasia is present. The pathological investigation of smooth muscle cells in peritoneal lesions can contribute not only to the precise diagnosis but also to the structure and function of smooth muscle cells and related cells involved in the histogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis.

  8. Core Muscle Activity during TRX Suspension Exercises with and without Kinesiology Taping in Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: Implications for Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S. M.; Tam, Y. T.; Macfarlane, Duncan J.; Ng, Shamay S. M.; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Chan, Eleanor W. Y.; Guo, X.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of kinesiology taping (KT) and different TRX suspension workouts on the amplitude of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the core muscles among people with chronic low back pain (LBP). Each participant (total n = 21) was exposed to two KT conditions: no taping and taping, while performing four TRX suspension exercises: (1) hamstring curl, (2) hip abduction in plank, (3) chest press, and (4) 45-degree row. Right transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrAIO), rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and superficial lumbar multifidus (LMF) activity was recorded with surface EMG and expressed as a percentage of the EMG amplitude recorded during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the respective muscles. Hip abduction in plank increased TrAIO, RA, and LMF EMG amplitude compared with other TRX positions (P < 0.008). Only the hamstring curl was effective in inducing a high EMG amplitude of LMF (P < 0.001). No significant difference in EMG magnitude was found between the taping and no taping conditions overall (P > 0.05). Hip abduction in plank most effectively activated abdominal muscles, whereas the hamstring curl most effectively activated the paraspinal muscles. Applying KT conferred no immediate benefits in improving the core muscle activation during TRX training in adults with chronic LBP. PMID:26185520

  9. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  10. A new dimension in endo surgery: Micro endo surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pecora, Gabriele Edoardo; Pecora, Camilla Nicole

    2015-01-01

    There is an immense difference between tradizional Endodontic Surgery and Micro-Endo Surgery. Microsurgical techniques made possible and accessible results,that were unimaginable before. Under microscopic control,the operative techniques reached continous changes,allowing a better precision and quality standards. The dramatic evolution from Endo Surgery to Micro-Endo Surgery has enlarged the horizon of therapeutic options. Illumination and magnification through the Microscope has fundamentally and radically changed the way endo surgery can be performed. PMID:25657519

  11. Anti-reflux surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mark IV) fundoplication; Toupet fundoplication; Thal fundoplication; Hiatal hernia repair; Endoluminal fundoplication ... surgery, your surgeon will: First repair the hiatal hernia, if present. This involves tightening the opening in ...

  12. Periodontal Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the teeth and to recreate a normal appearance. Periodontal Disease Periodontal disease is diagnosed when gingival or gum ... changes and extending to periodontal plastic surgery. Treating Periodontal Disease Periodontal disease does not always respond to conservative ...

  13. Heart bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgery. The twisting involved in turning the steering wheel may pull on your incision. Ask your provider ... You have problems taking any of your heart medicines. Your weight goes up by more than 2 ...

  14. Plastic Surgery for Teenagers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for referrals to ASPS Member Surgeons and to learn more about cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery. The ... publication and is subject to change as scientific knowledge and technology advances and as practice patterns evolve. ...

  15. From Simulation to Surgery and Back Again: Dialogues in Translational Research Biomechanical models are frequently used to simulate surgical procedures in order

    E-print Network

    Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

    applied to investigate the consequences of muscle re-attachment and tendon transfer and experimental findings describing the outcomes of tendon transfer surgeries performed following cervical spinal cord injury. This work illustrates the potential impact

  16. Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Postoperative Instructions Following Facial Surgery 1. Your surgery will be performed in the Surgery Center on the 4th floor of the Center for Health and Healing (CHH) at Oregon Health & Sciences University. The procedure is done under anesthesia administered by an anesthesiologist. After surgery, you

  17. Department of Surgery Reunion Gala

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    Department of Surgery Reunion Gala Report A celebration of over 40 years of the Department of Surgery October25th&26th2013 #12;October25th2013:Wine&Cheese Surgery Reunion Gala Weekend: Wine & Cheese On Friday October 25, 2013 the Surgery Reunion Gala weekend kicked off with a wine and cheese event

  18. 2013 PLASTIC SURGERY VISITING PROFESSOR

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    2013 PLASTIC SURGERY VISITING PROFESSOR Dr. Mutaz B. Habal June 6, 2013 McGill University Division of Plastic Surgery 2013 PLASTIC SURGERY VISITING PROFESSOR Special thanks to our sponsors: Representative Surgery MUHC McGill University Campagne Les meilleurs soins pour la vie The Best Care for Life Campaign

  19. Cosmetic Eyelid and Facial Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy J. Ben Simon; John D. McCann

    2008-01-01

    The goal of cosmetic surgery is to reverse anatomical changes that occur in the face with aging. It is a rapidly growing subdiscipline of ophthalmic plastic surgery and includes forehead, eyelid, mid-face, lower face, and neck surgery, most performed by ophthalmic plastic surgeons. The current article reviews updates in cosmetic eyelid and facial surgery, including minimally invasive techniques such as

  20. Sexual dysfunction after pelvic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Zippe; K Nandipati; A Agarwal; R Raina

    2006-01-01

    Pelvic surgeries are among the most common causes of organic sexual dysfunction in men and women. The impact of nerve-sparing surgery on potency has been well documented in radical prostatectomy. However, its impact on potency needs to be evaluated in other pelvic surgeries. Sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent even after multiple technical advances in the field of oncological surgeries. The

  1. Endoscopic pituitary surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Cappabianca; Luigi Maria Cavallo; Oreste de Divitiis; Domenico Solari; Felice Esposito; Annamaria Colao

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary surgery is a continuous evolving speciality of the neurosurgeons’ armamentarium, which requires precise anatomical\\u000a knowledge, technical skills and integrated appreciation of the pituitary pathophysiology. What we consider “pure” endoscopic\\u000a transsphenoidal surgery is a procedure performed through the nose and the sphenoid bone, with the endoscope alone throughout\\u000a the whole approach to visualize the surgical target area and without the

  2. Vet Med & Surgery Staff 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    1971 Major Subject: Veterinary Medicine and Surgery THE EFFECTS OF NECLOFENAMIC ACID ON OSTEOARTHRITIS IN THE HORSE A Thesis by FLOYD LITTLETON GUNN Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Co ittee ead of Department ember Nember..., Texas; 1945-1966. Assistant Professor; Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, Texas A&N University; 1966-present. The typist for this thesis was Mrs. Ed Thielemann. gg$&3 ...

  3. Mitral Valve Surgery in a Patient with Spinal Progressive Muscular Atrophy: Report of a Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiyuki Takami; Hiroshi Ina; Akihiro Terasawa; Masahide Nakao

    2003-01-01

    We describe our experience in treating a 69-year-old man with spinal progressive muscular atrophy (SPMA), who underwent a\\u000a mitral valve replacement. He was admitted for dyspnea, and surgery was indicated for severe mitral insufficiency associated\\u000a with inferior myocardial infarction. He had been aware of muscle weakness and received a diagnosis of SPMA 18 years previously.\\u000a Worsening muscle atrophy had led

  4. Cholestrol in muscle membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis R. Headon; Edward J. Barrett; Norma M. Joyce; John O'Flaherty

    1977-01-01

    Summary The composition of skeletal muscle microsomes is reviewed. Evidence for the involvement of cholesterol in the transport of calcium by vesicles derived from the sarcoplasmic reticulum is considered. Results obtained by non aqueous extractions of skeletal muscle microsomes, and by use of the cholesterol analogue 20, 25 diazacholesterol indicate that cholesterol is not involved in calcium transport by vesicles

  5. Photobiomodulation in laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Rong, Dong-Liang; Huang, Jin; Deng, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-01-01

    Laser surgery provides good exposure with clear operating fields and satisfactory preliminary functional results. In contrast to conventional excision, it was found that matrix metalloproteinases and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases -1 mRNA expression is higher, myofibroblasts appeared and disappeared slower in laser excision wounds. It has been suggested that the better anatomical and functional results achieved following laser cordectomy may be explained by the fact that such procedures result in better, more rapid healing processes to recover vocal cord for early glottic tumors and better. In this paper, the role of photobiomodulation in laser surgery will be discussed by the cultured monolayer normal human skin fibroblast model of the photobiomodulation of marginal irradiation of high intensity laser beam, the photobiomodulation related to the irradiated tissue, the biological information model of photobiomodulation and the animal models of laser surgery. Although high intensity laser beam is so intense that it destroys the irradiated cells or tissue, its marginal irradiation intensity is so low that there is photobiomodulation on non-damage cells to modulate the regeneration of partly damaged tissue so that the surgery of laser of different parameters results in different post-surgical recovery. It was concluded that photobiomodulation might play an important role in the long-term effects of laser surgery, which might be used to design laser surgery.

  6. Robotic surgery in gynecology.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rooma; Sanjay, Madhumati; Rupa, B; Kumari, Samita

    2015-01-01

    FDA approved Da Vinci Surgical System in 2005 for gynecological surgery. It has been rapidly adopted and it has already assumed an important position at various centers where this is available. It comprises of three components: A surgeon's console, a patient-side cart with four robotic arms and a high-definition three-dimensional (3D) vision system. In this review we have discussed various robotic-assisted laparoscopic benign gynecological procedures like myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometriosis, tubal anastomosis and sacrocolpopexy. A PubMed search was done and relevant published studies were reviewed. Surgeries that can have future applications are also mentioned. At present most studies do not give significant advantage over conventional laparoscopic surgery in benign gynecological disease. However robotics do give an edge in more complex surgeries. The conversion rate to open surgery is lesser with robotic assistance when compared to laparoscopy. For myomectomy surgery, Endo wrist movement of robotic instrument allows better and precise suturing than conventional straight stick laparoscopy. The robotic platform is a logical step forward to laparoscopy and if cost considerations are addressed may become popular among gynecological surgeons world over. PMID:25598600

  7. Muscle Atlas: Musculoskeletal Radiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Not enough people know about the world of musculoskeletal radiology, but this site can address some of those glaring gaps in medical and physiological knowledge. Created by Doctor Michael Richardson at the University of Washington, this online muscle atlas covers the lower and upper extremity, and is primarily designed for use by health science professionals. The site also includes some teaching and instructional materials related to radiology. Visitors will note that the site contains a table of contents, and all of the major muscles are listed alphabetically, from the Adductor Brevis to the Vastus Medialis. Additionally, for each muscle, visitors can view a high-quality image of the related muscle groups and the function of each muscle in question.

  8. Onion artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 ?m; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 ?N at 1000 V.

  9. Regional Myosin Heavy Chains Distribution in Selected Paraspinal Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Regev, Gilad J.; Kim, Choll W.; Thacker, Bryan E.; Tomiya, Akihito; Garfin, Steven R.; Ward, Samuel R.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study with repeated measures design. Objective To compare the myosin heavy chain isoform distribution within and between paraspinal muscles and to test the theory that fiber type gradients exist as a function of paraspinal muscle depth. Summary of Background Data There is still uncertainty regarding the fiber type distributions within different paraspinal muscles. It has been previously proposed that deep fibers of the multifidus muscle may contain a higher ratio of type I to type II fibers, because, unlike superficial fibers, they primarily stabilize the spine, and may therefore have relatively higher endurance. Using a minimally invasive surgical approach, utilizing tubular retractors that are placed within anatomic inter-muscular planes, it was feasible to obtain biopsies from the multifidus, longissimus, iliocostalis and psoas muscles at specific predefined depths. Methods Under an IRB approved protocol, muscle biopsies were obtained from 15 patients who underwent minimally invasive spinal surgery, using the posterior paramedian (Wiltse) approach or the minimally invasive lateral approach. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform distribution was analyzed using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Since multiple biopsies were obtained from each patient, MyHC distribution was compared using both within- and between-muscle repeated measures analyses. Results The fiber type distribution was similar among the posterior paraspinal muscles and was composed of relatively high percentage of type I (63%), compared to type IIA (19%) and type IIX (18%) fibers. In contrast, the psoas muscle was found to contain a lower percentage of type I fibers (42%) and a higher percentage of type IIA (33%) and IIX fibers (26%; P<0.05). No significant difference was found for fiber type distribution among three different depths of the multifidus and psoas muscles. Conclusion Fiber type distribution between the posterior paraspinal muscles is consistent and is composed of relatively high percentage of type I fibers, consistent with a postural function. The psoas muscle, on the other hand, is composed of a higher percentage of type II fibers such as in the appendicular muscles. Our data do not support the idea of a fiber type gradient as a function of depth for any muscle studied. PMID:20461040

  10. Muscle inflammation susceptibility: a prognostic index of recovery potential after hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Bamman, Marcas M; Ferrando, Arny A; Evans, Richard P; Stec, Michael J; Kelly, Neil A; Gruenwald, Johannes M; Corrick, Katie L; Trump, Jesse R; Singh, Jasvinder A

    2015-04-15

    While elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) for end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) improves pain, mobility function, and quality of life in most cases, a large proportion of patients suffer persistent muscle atrophy, pain, and mobility impairment. Extensive skeletal muscle damage is unavoidable in these surgical procedures, and it stands to reason that poor recovery and long-term mobility impairment among some individuals after THA is linked to failed muscle regeneration and regrowth following surgery and that local muscle inflammation susceptibility (MuIS) is a major contributing factor. Here we present results of two integrated studies. In study 1, we compared muscle inflammation and protein metabolism signaling in elective THA (n=15) vs. hip fracture/trauma (HFX; n=11) vs. nonsurgical controls (CON; n=19). In study 2, we compared two subgroups of THA patients dichotomized into MuIS? (n=7) or MuIS? (n=7) based on muscle expression of TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) receptor (Fn14). As expected, HFX demonstrated overt systemic and local muscle inflammation and hypermetabolism. By contrast, no systemic inflammation was detected in elective THA patients; however, local muscle inflammation in the perioperative limb was profound in MuIS? and was accompanied by suppressed muscle protein synthesis compared with MuIS?. Muscle from the contralateral limb of MuIS? was unaffected, providing evidence of a true inflammation susceptibility localized to the muscle surrounding the hip with end-stage OA. We suggest MuIS status assessed at the time of surgery may be a useful prognostic index for muscle recovery potential and could therefore provide the basis for a personalized approach to postsurgery rehabilitation. PMID:25670829

  11. Robotic Surgery for Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jandee; Chung, Woong Youn

    2013-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an innovation in thyroid surgery that may compensate for the drawbacks of conventional endoscopic surgery. A surgical robot provides strong advantages, including three-dimensional imaging, motion scaling, tremor elimination, and additional degrees of freedom. We review here recent adaptations, experience and applications of robotics in thyroid surgery. Robotic thyroid surgeries include thyroid lobectomy, total thyroidectomy, central compartment neck dissection, and radical neck dissection for benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Most of the current literature consists of case series of robotic thyroidectomies. Recent retrospective and prospective analyses have evaluated the safety and oncologic efficacy of robotic surgery for thyroid cancer. Although robotic thyroid surgery is often associated with longer operation times than conventional open surgery, robotic techniques have shown similar or superior levels of surgical completeness and safety compared with conventional open or endoscopic surgery. Compared to open thyroidectomy, robotic thyroidectomy has been associated with several quality-of-life benefits, including excellent cosmetic results, reduced neck pain and sensory changes, and decreased voice and swallowing discomfort after surgery. For surgeons, robotic surgery has improved ergonomics and has a shorter learning curve than open or endoscopic surgery. The advantages of robotic thyroid surgery over conventional surgery suggest that robotic thyroidectomy with or without neck dissection may become the preferred surgical option for thyroid diseases. Robotic thyroid surgery will likely continue to develop as more endocrine and head-and-neck surgeons are trained and more patients seek this newly developed surgical option. PMID:24783046

  12. Oxygen supply-consumption balance in the thigh muscles during exhausting knee-extension exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Kazumi; Homma, Sachiko; Kagaya, Atsuko

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in muscle oxygenation between the individual muscles involved in an exhaustive knee-extension exercise. Eight active women performed exercise by extending the knee joint from 90 degree(s) to 30 degree(s) (60 extensions min-1) at 20%, 30%, and 40% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Changes in oxy-((Delta) HbO2), deoxy-((Delta) Hb), and total ((Delta) HbT) hemoglobin concentrations, and oxygen saturation ((Delta) SO2NIRS equals HbO2/HbT) in the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were measured with a spatially resolved near-infrared spectrometer. The (Delta) SO2NIRS in the VL and RF decreased rapidly from the pre-exercise control value (VL: 75.6 +/- 0.9%; RF: 81.6 +/- 1.6%) at the onset of exercise at three different intensities, although no significant difference in (Delta) SO2NIRS was found between the two muscles at this time. However, the (Delta) SO2NIRS decreased more rapidly thereafter and reached a lower value at exhaustion in the VL than in the RF. The difference in (Delta) SO2NIRS between the VL (-10.3 +/- 1.7%) and RF (-4.0 +/- 1.0%) was significant (p < 0.05) when exercise intensity was 30% MVC. When the decreases in (Delta) HbO2 and (Delta) HbT (p < 0.05) were compared at different exercise intensities; the values at 30% and 40% MVC were significantly lower ((Delta) HbO2: p LS 0.01; (Delta) HbT: p < 0.05) than those at 20% MVC in the VL, but there was no significant difference in any of the parameters in the RF, or in (Delta) Hb in the VL. These results suggest that the muscle oxidative response to exhaustive knee- extension exercise differed between the VL and RF muscles. At exhaustion, oxygen saturation decreased to a lower level in the VL than in the RF, and an intensity-dependence differences in muscle oxygenation parameters was observed at 30% MVC in the VL but not in the RF muscles.

  13. Caring for muscle spasticity or spasms

    MedlinePLUS

    High muscle tone - care; Increased muscle tension - care; Upper motor neuron syndrome - care; Muscle stiffness - care ... Muscle spasticity, or spasms, causes your muscles to become stiff or rigid. It can also cause exaggerated, ...

  14. Muscle-related differences in mechanomyography frequency-force relationships are model dependent.

    PubMed

    Herda, Trent J; Cooper, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the surface mechanomyographic mean power frequency (MMG MPF)-force relationships with linear regression models applied to the absolute and log-transformed values for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles. Thirteen healthy males performed isometric ramp contractions of the leg extensors and index finger from 10 to 80 % of their maximal voluntary contraction with MMG sensors positioned on the VL, RF, and FDI. Simple linear regression models were fit to the absolute and log-transformed MMG MPF-force relationships. Skinfold thickness measurements were taken at each sensor site. There were significant differences for the slopes from the log-transformed MMG MPF-force relationships between the FDI and the leg extensors (P < 0.001) but not the absolute model (P = 0.168). The Y-intercepts were greater for the FDI than the leg extensors for the absolute (P < 0.001) and log-transformed models (P < 0.001), which reflected similar muscle-related differences (P < 0.001) for skinfold thickness. However, there were no significant correlations between Y-intercepts and skinfold thicknesses. Differences in the patterns of response between the FDI and leg extensors were only quantified with the log-transformed model. PMID:25805064

  15. Phenotypic heterogeneity may occur in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles

    PubMed Central

    Reck, A; Manners, R; Hatchwell, E

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) is an autosomal dominant, non-progressive disorder characterised by congenital ptosis and external ophthalmoplegia. CFEOM has previously been divided into several clinical entities; general fibrosis syndrome, strabismus fixus, vertical retraction syndrome, and congenital fibrosis of the inferior rectus. The purpose of this study was to identify families with CFEOM in this geographical region in order to perform a study of the clinical presentation of this disorder and to estimate its minimum prevalence in the population.?METHODS—Four families were identified with CFEOM in the Wessex region from whom a full history with a pedigree was obtained. All individuals underwent ophthalmological examination.?RESULTS/CONCLUSION—This study shows that several of the CFEOM entities can be present within one family suggesting that these are variants of the same condition. It is suggested that subclassification is, therefore, not appropriate. The minimum prevalence of this disorder was found to be 1/230 000?? Keywords: congenital fibrosis; extraocular muscles; phenotypic heterogeneity PMID:9797671

  16. [Minimal invasive surgery: historical review, current status and perspective].

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Stienen, Martin N; Corniola, Marco V; Schaller, Karl

    2014-10-29

    Lumbar spine surgery has been performed for decades using the so-called «dorsal open approach». Although established as a safe and effective procedure, it is associated to some extent with extensive collateral damage in the area of the operative field. For over ten years, minimal-invasive spine surgery (MISS) techniques, which are considerably less destructive and less traumatic, have earned their place as valuable and at times superior to the established dorsal open approach. Advantages include smaller skin incisions, less soft tissue and muscle damage, less peri-operative blood loss, lower infection rates, earlier postoperative return to function or work as well as shorter hospital stays. All these advantages, however, have to be carefully balanced against the potential disadvantages of MISS techniques, notably reduced orientation, steep learning curves, and increased radiation exposure from repeated imaging for guidance. This article gives an overview about the evolution and current role of MISS in lumbar spine surgery. PMID:25351695

  17. STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Structure of an Individual Muscle Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Robin L.

    STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Structure of an Individual Muscle Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 The Connective Tissue System within the Muscle Belly

  18. Free Boomerang-shaped Extended Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous flap: The longest possible skin/myocutaneous free flap for soft tissue reconstruction of extremities

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Ashok R.; Nahar, Sushil; Prabhu, Jagdish; Kale, Subhash M.; Kumar, Praveen H. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A soft tissue defect requiring flap cover which is longer than that provided by the conventional “long” free flaps like latissimus dorsi (LD) and anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is a challenging problem. Often, in such a situation, a combination of flaps is required. Over the last 3 years, we have managed nine such defects successfully with a free “Boomerang-shaped” Extended Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous (BERAM) flap. This flap is the slightly modified and “free” version of a similar flap described by Ian Taylor in 1983. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent free BERAM flap reconstruction of soft tissue defects of extremity over the last 3 years. We also did a clinical study on 30 volunteers to compare the length of flap available using our design of BERAM flap with the maximum available flap length of LD and ALT flaps, using standard markings. Results: Our clinical experience of nine cases combined with the results of our clinical study has confirmed that our design of BERAM flap consistently provides a flap length which is 32.6% longer than the standard LD flap and 42.2% longer than the standard ALT flap in adults. The difference is even more marked in children. The BERAM flap is consistently reliable as long as the distal end is not extended beyond the mid-axillary line. Conclusion: BERAM flap is simple in design, easy to harvest, reliable and provides the longest possible free skin/myocutaneous flap in the body. It is a useful new alternative for covering long soft tissue defects in the limbs. PMID:22279271

  19. Artificial MusclesArtificial Muscles Douglas ThorDouglas Thor

    E-print Network

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    muscles to cure problems suchreplacement muscles to cure problems such as muscular atrophy, certain types ofas muscular atrophy, certain types of paralysis, or muscle death.paralysis, or muscle deathDisadvantages Nonlinear systemNonlinear system Gas is compressibleGas is compressible Requires large and heavy electric

  20. Autophagy Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Infarcted Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jannig, Paulo R.; Moreira, Jose B. N.; Bechara, Luiz R. G.; Bozi, Luiz H. M.; Bacurau, Aline V.; Monteiro, Alex W. A.; Dourado, Paulo M.; Wisløff, Ulrik; Brum, Patricia C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF)-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is often associated to exercise intolerance and poor prognosis. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying HF-induced muscle atrophy may contribute to the development of pharmacological strategies to prevent or treat such condition. It has been shown that autophagy-lysosome system is an important mechanism for maintenance of muscle mass. However, its role in HF-induced myopathy has not been addressed yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate autophagy signaling in myocardial infarction (MI)-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Methods/Principal Findings Wistar rats underwent MI or Sham surgeries, and after 12 weeks were submitted to echocardiography, exercise tolerance and histology evaluations. Cathepsin L activity and expression of autophagy-related genes and proteins were assessed in soleus and plantaris muscles by fluorimetric assay, qRT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. MI rats displayed exercise intolerance, left ventricular dysfunction and dilation, thereby suggesting the presence of HF. The key findings of the present study were: a) upregulation of autophagy-related genes (GABARAPL1, ATG7, BNIP3, CTSL1 and LAMP2) was observed only in plantaris while muscle atrophy was observed in both soleus and plantaris muscles, and b) Cathepsin L activity, Bnip3 and Fis1 protein levels, and levels of lipid hydroperoxides were increased specifically in plantaris muscle of MI rats. Conclusions Altogether our results provide evidence for autophagy signaling regulation in HF-induced plantaris atrophy but not soleus atrophy. Therefore, autophagy-lysosome system is differentially regulated in atrophic muscles comprising different fiber-types and metabolic characteristics. PMID:24427319

  1. Expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms by smooth muscle cells in cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsumi Hoya; Akio Asai; Tomio Sasaki; Kazuya Nagata; Kenjiro Kimura; Takaaki Kirino

    2003-01-01

    We have characterised the blood vessels found in normal cerebral vasculature and in arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), based on the expression of smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific proteins. The marker proteins used were smooth muscle f-actin and four myosin heavy chain isoforms (SM1, SM2, SMemb and NMHC-A). Specimens of AVM obtained during surgery, and normal cerebral vessels from autopsy cases were studied

  2. [Denervation of mimic muscles during endoscopic lifting of the upper part of face].

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, V D; Tkach, O S

    2013-08-01

    Endoscopic lifting of the upper part of face carry out in 28 patients Chemical or surgical denervation had been done for decreasing of mimic muscles activity. Medical glue with folic acid had been used for tissues fixation. Use of medical glue in conjunction with preliminary chemical denervation of mimic muscles with botulin toxin application decreases surgery duration, prevents complications and increases satisfaction of patients. PMID:24171296

  3. Collagen matrices from sponge to nano: new perspectives for tissue engineering of skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justus P Beier; Dorothee Klumpp; Markus Rudisile; Roland Dersch; Joachim H Wendorff; Oliver Bleiziffer; Andreas Arkudas; Elias Polykandriotis; Raymund E Horch; Ulrich Kneser

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue engineering of vascularised skeletal muscle is a promising method for the treatment of soft tissue defects in reconstructive surgery. In this study we explored the characteristics of novel collagen and fibrin matrices for skeletal muscle tissue engineering. We analyzed the characteristics of newly developed hybrid collagen-I-fibrin-gels and collagen nanofibers as well as collagen sponges and OPLA®-scaffolds. Collagen-fibrin gels

  4. Respiratory muscle failure.

    PubMed

    Rochester, D F; Arora, N S

    1983-05-01

    The diseases which are commonly complicated by hypercapnic respiratory failure also compromise the respiratory muscles in several ways. Increased work of breathing, mechanical disadvantage, neuromuscular disease, impaired nutritional status, shock, hypoxemia, acidosis, and deficiency of potassium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphorus are the major non-neurologic factors which contribute to respiratory muscle fatigue and failure. Respiratory muscle fatigue has two components. High frequency fatigue occurs rapidly with intense contractile efforts but is usually not severe. It also recovers rapidly with rest. Low frequency fatigue develops more slowly but is severe and requires hours for recovery. Since the spontaneous rate of neural stimulation is predominantly in the low frequency range, this component of fatigue is of particular clinical importance. Fatigue of the inspiratory muscles leads to acute respiratory acidosis, but before carbon dioxide retention occurs, it can be recognized from characteristic symptoms and signs. These include dyspnea which responds to mechanical ventilation, rapid shallow breathing, and asynchronous movements of the chest and abdomen. Inspiratory muscle fatigue must be treated by putting these muscles to rest, by mechanically supporting ventilation. In addition, underlying metabolic nutritional and circulatory abnormalities must be corrected and infection treated. Aminophylline and isoproterenol can restore inspiratory muscle contractility, but controlled clinical trials remain to be done regarding their application in acute and chronic respiratory failure. Inspiratory muscle training improves strength and endurance in patients with obstructive lung disease, cystic fibrosis, and spinal cord injury, but does not always improve physical exercise performance. Again, more work is needed to develop the indications for inspiratory muscle training and to determine the optimum type and duration of the training regimen. PMID:6341727

  5. Slow expiration reduces sternocleidomastoid activity and increases transversus abdominis and internal oblique muscle activity during abdominal curl-up.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae-Lim; Kim, Ki-Song; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quiet inspiration versus slow expiration on sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and abdominal muscle activity during abdominal curl-up in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy subjects participated in this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to collect activity of bilateral SCM, rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO) muscles. A paired t-test was used to determine significant differences in the bilateral SCM, RF, EO, and TrA/IO muscles between abdominal curl-up with quiet inspiration and slow expiration. There were significantly lower EMG activity of both SCMs and greater EMG activity of both IOs during abdominal curl-up with slow expiration, compared with the EMG activity of both SCMs and IOs during abdominal curl-up with quiet inspiration (p<.05). The results of this study suggest that slow expiration would be recommended during abdominal curl-up for reduced SCM activation and selective activation of TrA/IO in healthy subjects compared with those in abdominal curl up with quiet inspiration. PMID:24210796

  6. Laparoscopic renal surgery.

    PubMed

    Sountoulides, P G; Kaufmann, O G; Kaplan, A G; Louie, M K; McDougall, E M; Clayman, R V

    2009-08-01

    Renal surgery, radical nephrectomy in particular, was historically the first application of laparoscopic techniques in urology. Since then, laparoscopy has been constantly evolving to claim its position in the surgical armamentarium of the urologist for the treatment of both malignant and benign diseases of the kidney and upper urinary tract. Over the years of increasing surgical experience and exposure, along with the evolution in the techniques and instruments used, laparoscopy has emerged as an equally effective and even more attractive alternative to open surgery for certain indications. The currently available load of literature is able to prove beyond any doubt the oncologic efficacy and minimal morbidity of laparoscopy for the treatment of renal masses in the form of radical or partial laparoscopic nephrectomy and nephroureterectomy. On the other hand, one can claim that laparoscopy is not far from replacing open surgery for the management of benign conditions such as ureteropelvic junction obstruction and donor nephrectomy. This review on laparoscopic renal surgery will discuss the major applications, indications, techniques and outcomes of laparoscopy in the contemporary management of benign and malignant renal diseases while focusing on its benefits and drawbacks compared to open surgery. PMID:19648858

  7. Double Muscling in Cattle. 

    E-print Network

    Kieffer, Nat M.; Cartwright, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    TOOC - ZTA245.7 B873 r\\O.1325 ,;J Cover photo: This lO-month-old bull is the product of a two-breed cross. He shows classic symptoms of double muscling and illustrates that the double-muscled gene is the same in different breeds of cattlr... Double Muscling ......... In Cattle Nat M. Kieffer Professor T. C. Cartwright Professor The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (Department of Animal Science) 2 Contents 2 Summary 3 Introduction 3 Historical Background 4 Physical...

  8. Muscle Fiber Types and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Jason R.

    2001-01-01

    The specific types of fibers that make up individual muscles greatly influence how people will adapt to their training programs. This paper explains the complexities of skeletal muscles, focusing on types of muscle fibers (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), recruitment of muscle fibers to perform a motor task, and determining fiber type. Implications…

  9. Application of ultrasound imaging of upper lip orbicularis oris muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Hao; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Jun-Jie; Liao, Xin-Hong; Du, Yang-Chun; Gao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aim to understand the morphology and structure of upper lip orbicularis oris muscle, and to provide clinical evidence for evaluating the effect of repair operation in cleft lip. Subjects included 106 healthy people and 36 postoperative patients of unilateral cleft lip. The upper lip orbicularis oris muscle was scanned using ultrasound in natural closure and pout states. Our results showed that the hierarchical structure of upper lip tissue was demonstrated clearly in ultrasonic images. After reconstruction of unilateral cleft lip, the left and right philtrum columns were still obviously asymmetric, their radian displayed clearly and showed better continuity. In the place of cleft lip side equivalent to philtrum columns, orbicularis oris muscle showed discontinuity and unclear hierarchical structure, which was replaced by hyperechoic scar tissue. The superficial layer would become thicker when pouting. In reconstructed unilateral cleft lip, the superficial layer was thinner than that of healthy controls. In normal upper lip orbicularis oris muscle, the superficial layer thickness was no less than 2.89 mm in philtrum dimple and no less than 3.92 mm in philtrum column, and the deep layer thickness was no less the 1.12 mm. Otherwise, the layer thickness less than above reference values may be considered as diagnostic criteria for dysplasia of upper lip orbicularis oris muscle. In conclusions, ultrasound imaging is able to clearly show the hierarchical structure of upper lip orbicularis oris muscle, and will be beneficial in guiding the upper lip repair and reconstruction surgery. PMID:26064229

  10. [Experiences with shorter surgery].

    PubMed

    Rückert, K; Nahrstedt, U

    2001-05-01

    Through the introduction of new computer-based forms of organisation, the hospital stay for both general and visceral surgery has been significantly reduced. A short stay ward with 15 beds and a dedicated functional unit was established in 1994 where approximately 1,000 operations take place each year with a 2.3 day average hospital stay. At this center laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic herniorrhaphy, arthroscopy and perforating vein surgery are performed on ASA-I- and ASA-II-patients. Experience indicates that patients satisfaction has dramatically increased. This is due to a shorter waiting period, a guaranteed operation in accordance with the time scheduled, a comfortable hotel-like-atmosphere and minimal hospital stay without an increase of the perioperative risk. In this way hospitals can maximize their profits using special payment arrangements (all-inclusive prices). Even after introduction of the new DRG-systems short stay surgery will be attractive considering economic aspects. PMID:11396242

  11. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263984

  12. Open surgery simulation.

    PubMed

    Bielser, Daniel; Gross, Markus H

    2002-01-01

    The design of simulators for surgical training and planning poses a great number of technical challenges. Therefore the focus of systems and algorithms was mostly on the more restricted minimal invasive surgery. This paper tackles the more general problem of open surgery and presents efficient solutions to several of the main difficulties. In addition to an improved collision detection scheme for computing interactions with even heavily moving tissue, a hierarchical system for the haptic rendering has been realized in order to reach the best performance of haptic feedback. A flexible way of modeling complex surgical tools out of simple basic components is proposed. In order to achieve a realistic and at the same time fast relaxation of the tissue, the approach of explicit finite elements has been substantially improved. We are able to demonstrate realistic simulations of interactive open surgery scenarios. PMID:15458060

  13. [Refractive surgery: techniques and reliability].

    PubMed

    Zanen, A

    2003-09-01

    Refractive surgery modifies anatomic properties of the eye, in order to improve vision without the recourse to optical devices. It includes corneal surgery (radial keratotomy, excimer laser keratectomy), intraocular surgery (artificial lens implantation) and scleral surgery. The level of satisfaction of the patients who have benefit from this surgery is usually high, but is related to the selection of the subjects, which depends on the motivation and also on the default to be corrected. Despite the continuous progress of that surgery, it is not devoid of risks and complications. PMID:14606294

  14. Cardiac muscle cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nathanael Reveal (None; )

    2007-07-02

    Cardiac muscles are found only in the heart. They work together to bring deoxygenated blood in and push oxygenated blood out into the body. Essentially, they keep your heart pumping and your body alive.

  15. Metabolic Diseases of Muscle

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or debrancher enzyme deficiency may eventually need a wheelchair to get around and, as respiratory muscles weaken, ... t usually progress to the degree that a wheelchair or any other mechanical assistance is needed. Special ...

  16. Thermal comfort during surgery 

    E-print Network

    Manning, David Harold

    1978-01-01

    Lewis, D. G. and A. Nackenzie. Cooling During Major Vascular Surgery. British Journal of Anesthesioioqnf, August 1972, 44(8), 859-864. Nackenzie, A. Hazards in the Operating Theatre, Environmental Control. Royal ~tulle e of 3~enon of Ella d. R als, ko...THERMAL COMFORT DURING SURGERY A Thesis by DAVID HAROLD MANNING Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject: Industrial...

  17. [Breast cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Delpech, Yann; Barranger, Emmanuel

    2013-12-01

    The surgery for breast cancer is frequently the first step in a multi-disciplinary care. It allows for local control, but also to establish crucial prognostic factor indicating potential adjuvant therapy. The current trend s towards de-escalation of surgical treatment for reducing the functional and aesthetic morbidity. At the local level, this de-escalation has been made possible by performing most often breast conservative surgery because of the development of oncoplastic techniques, but also because of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. At the axillary level, the reduction of morbidity has been made possible by the advent of the sentinel node biopsy which is more and more indicated year after year. PMID:24579336

  18. Complications in periorbital surgery.

    PubMed

    Terella, Adam M; Wang, Tom D; Kim, Michael M

    2013-02-01

    Comprehensive rejuvenation of the periorbital region commonly involves management of the brow, as well as the upper and lower eyelids. Browlifting, upper and lower blepharoplasty, fat transfer, and neuromodulators are frequently utilized with excellent results. However, surgery in this region can be fraught with potential complications ranging from a poor cosmetic outcome to orbital hematoma and vision loss. Although avoidance of complications is preferred, it is incumbent on the surgeon to have a detailed understanding of the pathophysiology, prevention, and management of these complications. The authors examine the more common complications of periorbital surgery. PMID:23426754

  19. A difficult case: omental transposition flap reconstruction of a large radionecrotic axillary ulcer in a patient with extensive previous abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christoph E A; Ko, Loretta W L; Ion, Lucion; Jemec, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    Radionecrotic ulcers due to breast cancer treatment is a highly morbid and disabling condition, causing pain, malodour, need for frequent dressings, reduced range of shoulder movements and an unacceptable cosmetic appearance. In patients with radiotherapy to the chest and/or axilla and general poor health the usual reconstructive options may not be suitable due to regional tissue damage and inappropriate long anaesthetic time, respectively. Described procedures include the pedicled latisimus dorsi flap, transverse rectus abdominal flap (TRAM) and omental transposition flap, as well as free tissue transfer (e.g. free TRAM, DIEP). We report a case of a morbidly obese female patient presenting with a large radionecrotic ulcer in her left axilla, following mastectomy, axillary clearance and local radiotherapy to left chest and axilla for breast cancer. She underwent reconstruction using an omental transposition flap, despite previous abdominal surgery. PMID:22871429

  20. Eye muscle repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Techniques of strabismus surgery. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology . 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 11.14. Olitsky SE, Hug D, Plummer LS, Stass-Isern M. Disorders of eye movement ...

  1. To what extent is mean EMG frequency during gait a reflection of functional muscle strength in children with cerebral palsy?

    PubMed

    Van Gestel, L; Wambacq, H; Aertbeliën, E; Meyns, P; Bruyninckx, H; Bar-On, L; Molenaers, G; De Cock, P; Desloovere, K

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current paper was to analyze the potential of the mean EMG frequency, recorded during 3D gait analysis (3DGA), for the evaluation of functional muscle strength in children with cerebral palsy (CP). As walking velocity is known to also influence EMG frequency, it was investigated to which extent the mean EMG frequency is a reflection of underlying muscle strength and/or the applied walking velocity. Surface EMG data of the lateral gastrocnemius (LGAS) and medial hamstrings (MEH) were collected during 3DGA. For each muscle, 20 CP children characterized by a weak and 20 characterized by a strong muscle (LGAS or MEH) were selected. A weak muscle was defined as a manual muscle testing score <3; a strong muscle was defined as a manual muscle testing score ?4. Patient selection was based on the following inclusion criteria: (a) predominantly spastic type of CP (3-15 years old), (b) either (near) normal muscle strength or muscle weakness in at least one of the studied lower limb muscles, (c) no lower limb Botulinum Toxin-A treatment within 6 months prior to the 3DGA, (d) no history of lower limb surgery, and (e) high-quality noise-free EMG-data. For each muscle, twenty age-related typically developing (TD) children were included as controls. In both muscles a consistent pattern of increasing mean EMG frequency with decreasing muscle strength was observed. This was significant in the LGAS (TD versus weak CP). Walking velocity also had a significant effect on mean EMG frequency in the LGAS. Furthermore, based on R(2) and partial correlations, it could be concluded that both walking velocity and muscle strength have an impact on EMG, but the contribution of muscle strength was always higher. These findings underscore the potential of the mean EMG frequency recorded during 3DGA, for the evaluation of functional muscle strength in children with CP. PMID:22245734

  2. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Hibner, Micha?; Marianowski, Piotr; Szymusik, Iwona; Wielgós, Miros?aw

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of robotic surgery in the first decade of the 21 century was one of the biggest breakthroughs in surgery since the introduction of anesthesia. For the first time in history the surgeon was placed remotely from the patient and was able to operate with the device that has more degrees of freedom than human hand. Initially developed for the US Military in order to allow surgeons to be removed from the battlefield, surgical robots quickly made a leap to the mainstream medicine. One of the first surgical uses for the robot was cardiac surgery but it is urology and prostate surgery that gave it a widespread popularity Gynecologic surgeons caught on very quickly and it is estimated that 31% of hysterectomies done in the United States in 2012 will be done robotically. With over half a million hysterectomies done each year in the US alone, gynecologic surgery is one of the main driving forces behind the growth of robotic surgery Other applications in gynecology include myomectomy oophorectomy and ovarian cystectomy resection of endometriosis and lymphadenectomy Advantages of the surgical robot are clearly seen in myomectomy The wrist motion allows for better more precise suturing than conventional "straight stick" laparoscopy The strength of the arms allow for better pulling of the suture and the third arm for holding the suture on tension. Other advantage of the robot is scaling of the movements when big movement on the outside translates to very fine movement on the inside. This enables much more precise surgery and may be important in the procedures like tubal anastomosis and implantation of the ureter Three-dimensional vision provides excellent depth of field perception. It is important for surgeons who are switching from open surgeries and preliminary evidence shows that it may allow for better identification of lesions like endometriosis. Another big advantage of robotics is that the surgeon sits comfortably with his/her arms and head supported. This results in much less fatigue and therefore increases precision and potentially may decrease the number of medical errors. The eyes of the surgeon are directed at where the hands should be, which is more natural, allows for a more natural body position and mimics open surgery Robot also enables better teaching, especially when two consoles are used. The surgeon and the student may be either sharing the instruments with two consoles or switching between one another. In a situation where the student operates, the surgeon can use the telestation to teach. Robotic simulator attached to one of the consoles allows students to practice after hours. In summary surgical robot is a great tool, especially in gynecology but also in urology cardiac surgery general surgery and laryngology The device will evolve and most likely with time will eliminate laparoscopy PMID:23488297

  3. Muscle hardness characteristics of the masseter muscle after repetitive muscle activation: comparison to the biceps brachii muscle.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Koji; Higashinaka, Shuichi; Watanabe, Naoshi; Maeda, Sho; Shiba, Ryosuke

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare hardness characteristics of the masseter muscle to those of the biceps brachii muscle during repetitive muscle movements. Seventeen asymptomatic female subjects participated in this study. Each subject, on separate days, undertook a 5-minute unilateral chewing gum task on the right side and a 5-minute flexion-extension exercise on the right hand with a 2kg dumbbell. Using a handheld hardness meter, muscle hardness was measured in the right masseter and in the biceps brachii muscle at eight time points (before the task, immediately after the task, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the task), and the data obtained before and after the task on each muscle were compared. Comparisons of the normalized data were also performed between the two muscles at each time point. As a result, a significant increase in muscle hardness was seen at 1 minute after the task in the biceps brachii muscle (p=0.0093). In contrast, the masseter muscle showed a tendency to lower hardness, with the lowest point of hardness occurring at 10 minutes after the task (p = 0.0160). Between the two muscles, there was a difference in the normalized data immediately after the task, and at 1, 5, and 10 minutes after the task (0.01 muscle hardness characteristics of the masseter muscle completely differed from those of the biceps brachii muscle after repetitive muscle activation. PMID:15532311

  4. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery.

    E-print Network

    1/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Simon;2/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic surgery. Motivation #12;2/ 17 Spines, backbones and orthopedic motion with a near critical drift towards an absorbing barrier at the origin. #12;3/ 17 Spines, backbones

  5. Anaesthesia for robotic gynaecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Gupta, K; Mehta, Y; Sarin Jolly, A; Khanna, S

    2012-07-01

    Robotic surgery is gaining widespread popularity due to advantages such as reduced blood loss, reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay and better visualisation of fine structures. Robots are being used in urological, cardiac, thoracic, orthopaedic, gynaecological and general surgery. Robotic surgery received US Food and Drug Administration approval for use in gynaecological surgery in 2005. The various gynaecological robotic operations being performed are myomectomy, total and supracervical hysterectomy, ovarian cystectomy, sacral colpopexy, tubal reanastomosis, lymph node dissection, surgery of retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy, Moskowitz procedure and endometriosis surgery. The anaesthetic considerations include difficult access to the patient intraoperatively, steep Trendelenburg position, long surgical duration and the impact of pneumoperitoneum. We highlight the complications encountered in these surgeries and methods to prevent these complications. Robotic gynaecological surgery can be safely performed after considering the physiological effects of the steep Trendelenburg position and of pneumoperitoneum. The benefits of the surgical procedure should be weighed against the risks in patients with underlying cardiorespiratory problems. PMID:22813488

  6. What Happens After Heart Surgery?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doctors. This is where patients go after open-heart surgery or a heart attack. You’re watched around ... for several days, depending on the type of heart surgery and the time you need to recover. Then ...

  7. TECHNIQUES IN ASEPTIC RODENT SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstraten-Miller, Shelley L.; Brown, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Performing aseptic survival surgery in rodents can be challenging. This unit describes some basic principles to assist clinicians, researchers, and technicians in becoming proficient in performing aseptic rodent surgery. PMID:18729061

  8. Advances in surgery. Volume 17

    SciTech Connect

    Shires, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the advancements made in surgery. The topics discussed are: Diagnostic uses of computerized tomography of abdomen; kidney surgery advancements, evaluation and management of pheochromocytomas; trauma of spleen and liver and microsurgery applications.

  9. Cataract Surgery in Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Murthy, Somashiela; Ganesh, Sudha K.; Phaik, Chee Soon; Sangwan, Virender; Biswas, Jyotimai

    2012-01-01

    Cataract surgery in uveitic eyes is often challenging and can result in intraoperative and postoperative complications. Most uveitic patients enjoy good vision despite potentially sight-threatening complications, including cataract development. In those patients who develop cataracts, successful surgery stems from educated patient selection, careful surgical technique, and aggressive preoperative and postoperative control of inflammation. With improved understanding of the disease processes, pre- and perioperative control of inflammation, modern surgical techniques, availability of biocompatible intraocular lens material and design, surgical experience in performing complicated cataract surgeries, and efficient management of postoperative complications have led to much better outcome. Preoperative factors include proper patient selection and counseling and preoperative control of inflammation. Meticulous and careful cataract surgery in uveitic cataract is essential in optimizing the postoperative outcome. Management of postoperative complications, especially inflammation and glaucoma, earlier rather than later, has also contributed to improved outcomes. This manuscript is review of the existing literature and highlights the management pearls in tackling complicated cataract based on medline search of literature and experience of the authors. PMID:22518338

  10. Refractive Surgery Survey 2001.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Kerry D; Holzer, Mike P; Sandoval, Helga P; Vargas, Luis G; Werner, Liliana; Vroman, David T; Kasper, Terrance J; Apple, David J

    2002-02-01

    In February 2001, a questionnaire on the practice of refractive surgery was sent worldwide to all 8196 members of the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery; 1511 responses (18.4%) were received. Although laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) was the most common refractive procedure reported, phakic intraocular lenses, clear lens extraction, and photorefractive keratectomy were also widespread. Nineteen percent of the respondents said they had had refractive surgery, and that group reported performing significantly more procedures than those who had not had a refractive procedure (P < .0001). The most common complication of LASIK was dry eyes, occurring in more than half of the cases in one fourth of the practices; however, only 30% of surgeons said they perform a Schirmer test before surgery. High-volume surgeons reported seeing fewer cases of flap striae (P = .002) and slipped flaps (P = .02) than low-volume surgeons. Seventy-seven percent said that wavefront LASIK ablation will increase the quality of vision and of those already performing wavefront ablation, 92% stated they believe it will improve outcomes. PMID:11821220

  11. IVF after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Doblado, Manuel A.; Lewkowksi, Beth M.; Odem, Randall R.; Jungheim, Emily S.

    2010-01-01

    Little data exist regarding in vitro fertilization in women who have undergone bariatric surgery. Our experience with five patients suggests IVF is a safe and effective fertility treatment for these women although special considerations should be made including the type of bariatric procedure the patient underwent and relating this knowledge to symptoms the patient may experience during their IVF cycle. PMID:20667406

  12. Pathways in general surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Carty

    Surgery is an ideal fi eld for the application of care pathways. There is typically a single evaluation and diagnostic episode followed by a defi ned treatment. Where follow-up is required, this usually has a predictable schedule. In contrast, many other medical specialities are concerned with the treatment of diseases, which, by their nature, are less easily defi ned. This

  13. Cataract surgery in uveitis.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Murthy, Somashiela; Ganesh, Sudha K; Phaik, Chee Soon; Sangwan, Virender; Biswas, Jyotimai

    2012-01-01

    Cataract surgery in uveitic eyes is often challenging and can result in intraoperative and postoperative complications. Most uveitic patients enjoy good vision despite potentially sight-threatening complications, including cataract development. In those patients who develop cataracts, successful surgery stems from educated patient selection, careful surgical technique, and aggressive preoperative and postoperative control of inflammation. With improved understanding of the disease processes, pre- and perioperative control of inflammation, modern surgical techniques, availability of biocompatible intraocular lens material and design, surgical experience in performing complicated cataract surgeries, and efficient management of postoperative complications have led to much better outcome. Preoperative factors include proper patient selection and counseling and preoperative control of inflammation. Meticulous and careful cataract surgery in uveitic cataract is essential in optimizing the postoperative outcome. Management of postoperative complications, especially inflammation and glaucoma, earlier rather than later, has also contributed to improved outcomes. This manuscript is review of the existing literature and highlights the management pearls in tackling complicated cataract based on medline search of literature and experience of the authors. PMID:22518338

  14. Emergence of Refractive Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. McDonnell

    major story of the last 2 decades of the 20th century has been the emergence of re- fractive surgery. Initially extremely controversial, with modest predictability and de- batable safety and long-term stability,1 surgical modification of corneal curvature has come to be well accepted by the profession and the public. The number of these pro- cedures that will be performed in

  15. Stereotactic Surgery of Erythromelalgia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward I. Kandel

    1990-01-01

    Erythromelalgia is a very rare vascular disease affecting children and is accompanied by severe burning pain in the extremities. The disease is practically incurable. There are no recommendations in the literature concerning the possibility of managing the disease by stereotactic surgery. We operated on 3 children with severe pain due to erythromelalgia. The stereotactic destruction of VPL and CM was

  16. Ovary Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Ovary C569 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 17 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen sent to pathology from surgical event

  17. Testis Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Testis C620–C 629 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 12 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen sent to pathology from surgical

  18. Computer assisted planning and orbital surgery: Patient-related prediction of osteotomy size

    E-print Network

    Payan, Yohan

    radiography is required. The osteotomy size can be monitored using optical guided instruments. Ó 2005 Elsevier- tion and pathological loading of the optic nerve, orbital blood vessels and ocular muscles. It mayComputer assisted planning and orbital surgery: Patient-related prediction of osteotomy size

  19. The Relationship Between Lower Limb Bone and Muscle in Military Recruits, Response to Physical Training, and Influence of Smoking Status

    PubMed Central

    Puthucheary, Zudin; Kordi, Mehdi; Rawal, Jai; Eleftheriou, Kyriacos I.; Payne, John; Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between bone and skeletal muscle mass may be affected by physical training. No studies have prospectively examined the bone and skeletal muscle responses to a short controlled exercise-training programme. We hypothesised that a short exercise-training period would affect muscle and bone mass together. Methods: Femoral bone and Rectus femoris Volumes (RFVOL) were determined by magnetic resonance imaging in 215 healthy army recruits, and bone mineral density (BMD) by Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and repeated after 12 weeks of regulated physical training. Results: Pre-training, RFVOL was smaller in smokers than non-smokers (100.9 ± 20.2 vs. 108.7 ± 24.5, p = 0.018; 96.2 ± 16.9 vs. 104.8 ± 21.3, p = 0.002 for dominant/non-dominant limbs), although increases in RFVOL with training (of 14.2 ± 14.5% and 13.2 ± 15.6%] respectively, p < 0.001) were independent of prior smoking status. Pre-training RFVOL was related to bone cortical volume (r2 = 0.21 and 0.30, p < 0.001 for dominant and non-dominant legs), and specifically to periosteal (r2 = 0.21 and 0.23, p < 0.001) volume. Pre-training dominant RFVOL was independently associated with Total Hip BMD (p < 0.001). Training-related increases in RFVOL and bone volumes were related. Whilst smokers demonstrated lower muscle mass than non-smokers, differences were abolished with training. Training-related increases in muscle mass were related to increases in periosteal bone volume in both dominant and non-dominant legs. PMID:25792356

  20. College of Medicine SUR Surgery

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Medicine SUR Surgery KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 SUR 815 FIRST-YEAR ELECTIVE, SURGERY. (1-3) With the advice by the Department of Surgery. The intent is to provide the student an opportunity for exploration and study

  1. Psychiatric aspects of bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yung-Chieh; Huang, Chih-Kuan; Tai, Chi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Bariatric surgery has been consistently shown to be effective in long-term marked weight loss and in bringing significant improvement to medical comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome. Empirical data suggest a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among bariatric surgery candidates. In this review, we focus on the studies published recently with a high impact on our understanding of the role of psychiatry in bariatric surgery. Recent findings This article reviews the specific psychopathologies before surgery, changes in psychopathologies after surgery, suicide risk related to bariatric surgery, factors associated with weight loss, and recommendations for presurgical and postsurgical assessment and management. Research indicates a decrease in certain psychiatric symptoms after weight loss with bariatric surgery. However, the risk of suicide and unsuccessful weight loss in some bariatric surgery patients make monitoring following surgery as important as careful assessment and management before surgery. Specific considerations for youth and older populations and future potential research foci are discussed. Summary Recent publications suggest new directions for psychiatric evaluation and interventions for bariatric surgery patients. Future research on outcomes of specific populations, effectiveness of psychopharmacotherapy, and underlying pathophysiology are warranted for the advancement of treating bariatric surgery patients. PMID:25036421

  2. CALCIUM EQUILIBRIUM IN MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Daniel L.; Fenn, Wallace O.

    1957-01-01

    1. A study of the calcium equilibrium in isolated frog muscle has been attempted. 2. When sartorius muscles were immersed in Ca45 Ringer's solution, the surface phase took up the Ca45 in about 1 minute; the extracellular water space and connective tissue in about 30 minutes; and the intracellular space in about 300 minutes. 3. The percentages of total calcium in the whole muscle immersed in Ringer's solution was as follows: 10 per cent in the surface phase; 12 per cent in the extracellular water space; 17 per cent in the dry connective tissue; 24 per cent in the intracellular space; and 37 per cent as non-exchangeable calcium. 4. The exchange constants of isolated frog sartorius muscle to calcium has been determined. The flux of intracellular calcium in the steady state was approximately 0.8 mM/(liter hr). 5. It appears that there is a calcium pump pushing calcium out of the cell against an electrochemical gradient of about 4 cal./mM of calcium. However, since the flux is low, the maximum energy required per hour to pump calcium out of the cell against this high gradient is only about 2 cal./kg. muscle or about 1 per cent of the resting energy. PMID:13398571

  3. Penile rehabilitation after pelvic cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Fouad; Peltier, Alexandre; van Velthoven, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is the most common complication after pelvic radical surgery. Rehabilitation programs are increasingly being used in clinical practice but there is no high level of evidence supporting its efficacy. The principle of early penile rehabilitation stems from animal studies showing early histological and molecular changes associated with penile corporal hypoxia after cavernous nerve injury. The concept of early penile rehabilitation was developed in late nineties with a subsequent number of clinical studies supporting early pharmacologic penile rehabilitation. These studies included all available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection and intraurethral use of prostaglandin E1 and to lesser extent vacuum erectile devices. However, these studies are of small number, difficult to interpret, and often with no control group. Furthermore, no studies have proven an in vivo derangement of endothelial or smooth muscle cell metabolism secondary to a prolonged flaccid state. The purpose of the present report is a synthetic overview of the literature in order to analyze the concept and the rationale of rehabilitation program of erectile dysfunction following radical pelvic surgery and the evidence of such programs in clinical practice. Emphasis will be placed on penile rehabilitation programs after radical cystoprostatectomy, radical prostatectomy, and rectal cancer treatment. Future perspectives are also analyzed. PMID:25785286

  4. Short-term strength training improves muscle quality and functional capacity of elderly women.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Correa, Cleiton Silva; Radaelli, Regis; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Brown, Lee E; Bottaro, Martim

    2014-02-01

    To assess effects of a short-term strength training (ST) program on muscle quality (MQ) and functional capacity, 36 sedentary elderly women (age = 66.0 ± 8 year, height = 159.1 ± 9.2 cm, body mass = 68.3 ± 12.1 kg, body fat = 37.0 ± 4.2 %) were randomly divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 19) or a control group (CG; n = 17). The EG performed two to three sets of 12-15 repeats of leg press, knee extension, and knee flexion exercises, 2 days/week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, lower body one repetition maximum (1RM), functional performance tests, quadriceps femoris muscle thickness (MT), and muscle quality (MQ) (1RM and quadriceps MT quotient) were assessed. After training, only the EG showed significant improvements in 1RM (p < 0.05), 30-s sit-to-stand (p < 0.001), and 8 foot up-and-go (p < 0.001). In addition, only in the EG, significant increases in all quadriceps femoris MT measurements (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, and rectus femoris) (p ? 0.05), and MQ (p < 0.001) were demonstrated. No changes were observed in the CG. Furthermore, there were significant associations between individual changes in MQ and corresponding changes in 30-s sit-to-stand (r = 0.62, p < 0.001), and 8 foot up-and-go (r = -0.71, p < 0.001). In conclusion, a ST program of only 6 weeks was sufficient to enhance MQ of the knee extensors in elderly women, which resulted in beneficial changes in functional capacity. PMID:23881608

  5. Effects of a 10-week resistance exercise program on soccer kick biomechanics and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Manolopoulos, Evaggelos; Katis, Athanasios; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos; Kalapotharakos, Vasileios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a resistance exercise program on soccer kick biomechanics. Twenty male amateur soccer players were divided in the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG), each consisting of 10 players. The EG followed a 10-week resistance exercise program mainly for the lower limb muscles. Maximal instep kick kinematics, electromyography, and ground reaction forces (GRFs) as well as maximum isometric leg strength were recorded before and after training. A 2-way analysis of variance showed significantly higher ball speed values only for the EG (26.14 ± 1.17 m·s vs. 27.59 ± 1.49 m·s before and after training, respectively), whereas no significant differences were observed for the CG. The EG showed a decline in joint angular velocities and an increase in biceps femoris electromyography of the swinging leg during the backswing phase followed by a significant increase in segmental and joint velocities and muscle activation of the same leg during the forward swing phase (p < 0.05). The EG also showed significantly higher vertical GRFs and rectus femoris and gastrocnemius activation of the support leg (p < 0.05). Similarly, maximum and explosive isometric force significantly increased after training only for the EG (p < 0.05). These results suggest that increases in soccer kicking performance after a 10-week resistance training program were accompanied by increases in maximum strength and an altered soccer kick movement pattern, characterized by a more explosive backward-forward swinging movement and higher muscle activation during the final kicking phase. PMID:23539080

  6. Gluteus Medius Muscle Atrophy is Related to Contralateral and Ipsilateral Hip Joint Osteoarthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Amaro; F. Amado; J. A. Duarte; H.-J. Appell

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the role of thegluteus mediusmuscle (GM) in hip joint osteoarthritis, the objective of this study was to analyze the cor- relation between morphometric data of GM sam- ples with osteoarthritis scores of ipsilateral and contralateral hips in 41 patients. GM samples ob- tained during unilateral hip replacement surgery were used to evaluate muscle fibers in the

  7. Corneoplastique™: Art of vision surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gulani, Arun C

    2014-01-01

    Corneoplastique incorporates the entire spectrum of Vision corrective surgery including Lasik, premium cataract surgery, corneal surgery, ocular surface surgery and the full range of anterior segment surgery itself in manipulating the optics of every eye towards unaided emmetropia to define each and every eye surgeon as a “Vision Corrective Surgeon”. This concept of approaching each case individually and designing vision therewith enables surgeons to correct not only virgin eyes but also approach complex cases and complications with the goal of 20/20 vision. Armed with this holistic approach, eye surgeons can use minimally invasive, aesthetically pleasing and visually focused surgery in single or staged process aiming for each patient's Best Vision Potential (BVP) raising eye surgery itself then to an Art! PMID:24492495

  8. Minimal access surgery (MAS)-related surgeon morbidity syndromes.

    PubMed

    Reyes, D A G; Tang, B; Cuschieri, A

    2006-01-01

    The benefits of minimal access surgery (MAS) in terms of accelerated recovery, reduced period of short-term disability, and patient outcome account for the widespread use of the laparoscopic approach by the majority of general surgeons. In adopting this approach with its current limitations and poor ergonomics, surgeons have been known to sustain surgery-related injuries encompassed by a spectrum best described as MAS-related surgeon morbidity syndromes, some of which are currently overlooked and poorly researched. Equivalent morbidities including the overuse syndrome (from overuse of certain muscle groups during long operations) have been documented in open surgery but are nowadays rare occurrences. As more advanced MAS operations are performed with long execution times, new patterns of neuromusculoskeletal injuries are being recognized. The surgical fatigue syndrome has also been described, though its complex nature is not fully understood. Virtually little is known on other long-term adverse effects on the surgeon following many years of operating from images displayed on a television monitor or LCD screen, and these include deterioration of visual acuity and function of the ocular muscles responsible for fixation-refixation of the eyeballs. The limited reported literature on the MAS-related surgeon morbidity syndromes identifies certain risk factors for these injuries pertaining to central and peripheral domains. Only improved knowledge of the etiology and underlying ergonomic factors based on investigative studies followed by improved instrumentation and operating room (OR) ergonomics will provide near- and long-term solutions. PMID:16333542

  9. Artificial muscles on heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas G.; Shin, Dong Ki; Percy, Steven; Knight, Chris; McGarry, Scott; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Many devices and processes produce low grade waste heat. Some of these include combustion engines, electrical circuits, biological processes and industrial processes. To harvest this heat energy thermoelectric devices, using the Seebeck effect, are commonly used. However, these devices have limitations in efficiency, and usable voltage. This paper investigates the viability of a Stirling engine coupled to an artificial muscle energy harvester to efficiently convert heat energy into electrical energy. The results present the testing of the prototype generator which produced 200 ?W when operating at 75°C. Pathways for improved performance are discussed which include optimising the electronic control of the artificial muscle, adjusting the mechanical properties of the artificial muscle to work optimally with the remainder of the system, good sealing, and tuning the resonance of the displacer to minimise the power required to drive it.

  10. [Cytoreductive surgery and immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Samsoniia, M D; Lesnovskaia, E E; Kandelaki, M A

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the article was to treat Pliss lymphosarcoma by means of Cytoreductive surgery to improve patient outcomes by taking into consideration the dynamics of Blood Auto-Proteolytic Activity (BAPA). In rats suffering from tumour proves to be obvious that higher the BAPA, more intensive is the process of invasive growth of tumour. Therefore, the performance of cytoreductive surgery is more reasonable when BAPA is at its minimal level, i. e. either at the early stage of tumour, though this may sound as a paradox. Removal of the tumour at the maximal level of BAPA will favour rapid development of a recurrent tumour. This can be explained by the fact that the remained cells tend to be more serious threat when BAPA level appears to be high. PMID:17660610

  11. Lateral Skull Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Manolidis, Spiros; Jackson, C. Gary; Von Doersten, Peter G.; Pappas, Dennis; Glasscock, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    Lateral skull base surgery has remained the surgical frontier of new developments in the treatment of lesions heretofore difficult to access. Examination of surgical results stimulates technical innovation and provides an intervention risk-benefit ratio assessment for particular lesions useful in management planning. With this in mind, we report the updated collective experience with lateral skull base surgery at the Otology Group over the past 20 years. Two hundred ninety-eight patients underwent surgical intervention for lateral skull base lesions. In 81 patients these lesions were malignant; in 217, benign. Of the benign lesions, 165 were glomus tumors: 139 glomus jugulare, 19 glomus vagale, and 7 glomus tympanicum. The remainder comprised 21 menigniomas, 14 neuromas, two neurofibromas, and a small group of much rarer entities. The philosophy of surgical approach, results, and follow-up are discussed. PMID:17171022

  12. Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Brent A

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic skull base surgery has undergone rapid advancement in the past decade moving from pituitary surgery to suprasellar lesions and now to a myriad of lesions extending from the cribriform plate to C2 and laterally out to the infratemporal fossa and petrous apex. Evolution of several technological advances as well as advances in understanding of endoscopic anatomy and the development of surgical techniques both in resection and reconstruction have fostered this capability. Management of benign disease via endoscopic methods is largely accepted now but more data is needed before the controversy on the role of endoscopic management of malignant disease is decided. Continued advances in surgical technique, navigation systems, endoscopic imaging technology, and robotics assure continued brisk evolution in this expanding field. PMID:19434274

  13. Surgery in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hamberger, B

    1998-03-01

    Sweden has 9 university and regional hospitals and about 75 county hospitals. These hospitals are funded by counties that directly tax their inhabitants. In addition, the university hospitals use state money for education and research. The private sector performing major surgical procedures is small but slowly increasing. Reorganizations and closings of smaller hospitals are continually occurring, and various organizational models are being tested. Surgical care for inpatients is free for Swedish citizens; however, there is a small fee for outpatient care (US $10-$20 per visit). Education in surgery is changing rapidly with the introduction of new methods. Clinical research closely connected to basic sciences will be of profound importance for future development. The present article is confined mainly to general surgery in Sweden, but it also covers some general aspects of medicine in Sweden. PMID:9517748

  14. Computer Assisted Orthognathic Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoit Mollard; Stéphane Lavallée; Georges Bettega

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a surgical simulator for orthognathic surgery based on the integration of dental models and 3D cephalometry.\\u000a The objective of dental models integration is to make coherent informations gathered from different sources (occlusal analysis\\u000a and CT scan), and for that purpose, a system using a 3D optical localizer is used. The 3D Cephalometry analysis is used for\\u000a the

  15. Laparoscopy in General Surgery

    PubMed Central

    O'Regan, Patrick J.; Anderson, Dawn L.

    1992-01-01

    After a period of rather slow initial acceptance by general surgeons, laparoscopy and video endoscopic surgery have suddenly burst on to the surgical scene. Almost overnight many of the surgical procedures once requiring a large incision are now being performed through small punctures. This article describes some of the more common procedures and discusses the merits and difficulties associated with these innovations. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21221367

  16. Delirium After Cardiac Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Rudolph

    \\u000a Delirium is an acute change in cognitive functioning, characterized by inattention and associated with disorganized thinking\\u000a or altered level of consciousness, which preferentially affects the older patients (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental\\u000a disorders, fourth edition, text revision. Washington: American Psychiatric Association; 2000). After cardiac surgery, the\\u000a incidence of delirium has been reported between 2 and 73%, depending on the

  17. Complications of Sling Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzette E. Sutherland

    \\u000a Until recently, abdominal Burch colposuspension was considered the gold standard for the surgical treatment of stress urinary\\u000a incontinence (SUI) (1,2). However, the introduction of vaginal sling surgery has been met with great enthusiasm because of comparable efficacy, but\\u000a with lower surgical morbidity (3). With the advent of minimally invasive, tension-free, midurethral vaginal slings (4), colposuspension has been replaced as the

  18. Heart muscle engineering: An update on cardiac muscle replacement therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann; Michael Didie; Stephan Doker; Ivan Melnychenko; Hiroshi Naito; Christina Rogge; Malte Tiburcy; Thomas Eschenhagen

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac muscle engineering aims at providing functional myocardium to repair diseased hearts and model cardiac development, physiology, and disease in vitro. Several enabling technologies have been established over the past 10 years to create functional myocardium. Although none of the presently employed technologies yields a perfect match of natural heart muscle, it can be anticipated that human heart muscle equivalents

  19. Neural control of muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.; Markelonis, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    Cholinergic innervation regulates the physiological and biochemical properties of skeletal muscle. The mechanisms that appear to be involved in this regulation include soluble, neurally-derived polypeptides, transmitter-evoked muscle activity and the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, itself. Despite extensive research, the interacting neural mechanisms that control such macromolecules as acetylcholinesterase, the acetylcholine receptor and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase remain unclear. It may be that more simplified in vitro model systems coupled with recent dramatic advances in the molecular biology of neurally-regulated proteins will begin to allow researchers to unravel the mechanisms controlling the expression and maintenance of these macromolecules.

  20. Partial Cutting of Sternothyroid Muscle during Total Thyroidectomy: Impact on Postoperative Vocal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyoung Shin; Kim, Sung Won; Park, Hyo Sang; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Ji Soo; Hong, Jong Chul; Kim, Yong-Ki; Baek, Seon Mi; Lee, Kang Dae

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cutting the sternothyroid (ST) muscle is a useful technique to expose the superior pole of thyroid gland during thyroidectomy. In this study, we evaluated the impact of partial cutting of the ST muscle on postoperative vocal outcomes after total thyroidectomy. Methods. A retrospective review of 57 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection for micropapillary thyroid carcinoma was conducted. Group A (n = 26) included those without cutting the ST muscle, while group B (n = 31) included patients whose muscle was partially cut at the superior pole. All patients underwent voice analysis before the operation and 2 weeks and 1 month after the surgery, and the outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results. There were no differences between the two groups regarding the outcomes at each time of voice analysis. Group A showed a decrease of maximum frequency 2 weeks after surgery but showed no difference after 1 month. Group B showed a mild decrease in maximum frequency 2 weeks after surgery, but the difference was not significant. Conclusion. Partial cutting of ST muscle during thyroidectomy is useful to expose the superior pole without significant negative impact on postoperative outcomes of vocal analysis. PMID:24174915

  1. Rural pediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Don K

    2015-03-01

    Published outcome studies support regionalization of pediatric surgery, in which all children suspected of having surgical disease are transferred to a specialty center. Transfer to specialty centers, however, is an expensive approach to quality, both in direct costs of hospitalization and the expense incurred by families. A related question is the role of well-trained rural surgeons in an adequately resourced facility in the surgical care of infants and children. Local community facilities provide measurably equivalent results for straightforward emergencies in older children such as appendicitis. With education, training, and support such as telemedicine consultation, rural surgeons and hospitals may be able to care for many more children such as single-system trauma and other cases for which they have training such as pyloric stenosis. They can recognize surgical disease at earlier stages and initiate appropriate treatment before transfer so that patients are in better shape for surgery when they arrive for definitive care. Rural and community facilities would be linked in a pediatric surgery system that covers the spectrum of pediatric surgical conditions for a geographical region. PMID:25760196

  2. Active vs. inactive muscle (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may lose 20 to 40 percent of their muscle -- and, along with it, their strength -- as they ... have found that a major reason people lose muscle is because they stop doing everyday activities that ...

  3. Eye muscle repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

  4. Smooth Muscle Contraction and Relaxation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD R. Clinton Webb (Medical College of Georgia Department of Physiology)

    2003-12-01

    This brief review serves as a refresher on smooth muscle physiology for those educators who teach in medical and graduate courses of physiology. Additionally, those professionals who are in need of an update on smooth muscle physiology may find this review to be useful. Smooth muscle lacks the striations characteristic of cardiac and skeletal muscle. Layers of smooth muscle cells line the walls of various organs and tubes in the body, and the contractile function of smooth muscle is not under voluntary control. Contractile activity in smooth muscle is initiated by a Ca2+-calmodulin interaction to stimulate phosphorylation of the light chain of myosin. Ca2+ sensitization of the contractile proteins is signaled by the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway to inhibit the dephosphorylation of the light chain by myosin phosphatase, thereby maintaining force generation. Removal of Ca2+ from the cytosol and stimulation of myosin phosphatase initiate the process of smooth muscle relaxation.

  5. Fluid mechanics of muscle vibrations.

    PubMed Central

    Barry, D T; Cole, N M

    1988-01-01

    The pressure field produced by an isometrically contracting frog gastrocnemius muscle is described by the fluid mechanics equations for a vibrating sphere. The equations predict a pressure amplitude that is proportional to the lateral acceleration of the muscle, inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the muscle, and cosinusoidally related to the major axis of lateral movement. The predictions are confirmed by experiments that measure the pressure amplitude distribution and by photographs of muscle movement during contraction. The lateral movement of muscle has the appearance of an oscillating system response to a step function input--the oscillation may be at the resonant frequency of the muscle and therefore may provide a means to measure muscle stiffness without actually touching the muscle. PMID:3260803

  6. Surface Electromyographic Amplitude-to-Work Ratios During Isokinetic and Isotonic Muscle Actions

    PubMed Central

    Purkayastha, Sushmita; Cramer, Joel T; Trowbridge, Cynthia A; Fincher, A. Louise; Marek, Sarah M

    2006-01-01

    Context: Isokinetic and isotonic resistance training exercises are commonly used to increase strength during musculoskeletal rehabilitation programs. Our study was designed to examine the efficacy of isokinetic and isotonic muscle actions using surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude-to-work ratios (EMG/WK) and to extend previous findings to include a range of isokinetic velocities and isotonic loads. Objective: To examine work (WK), surface EMG amplitude, and EMG/WK during concentric-only maximal isokinetic muscle actions at 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300°/s and isotonic muscle actions at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque during leg extension exercises. Design: A randomized, counterbalanced, cross-sectional, repeated-measures design. Setting: A university-based human muscle physiology research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten women (mean age = 22.0 ± 2.6 years) and 10 men (mean age = 20.8 ± 1.7 years) who were apparently healthy and recreationally active. Intervention(s): Using the dominant leg, each participant performed 5 maximal voluntary concentric isokinetic leg extension exercises at randomly ordered angular velocities of 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300°/s and 5 concentric isotonic leg extension exercises at randomly ordered loads of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the isometric MVIC. Main Outcome Measure(s): Work was recorded by a Biodex System 3 dynamometer, and surface EMG was recorded from the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and vastus medialis) during the testing and was normalized to the MVIC. The EMG/WK ratios were calculated as the quotient of EMG amplitude (?Vrms) and WK (J) during the concentric phase of each exercise. Results: Isotonic EMG/WK remained unchanged ( P > .05) from 10% to 50% MVIC, but isokinetic EMG/WK increased ( P < .05) from 60 to 300°/s. Isotonic EMG/WK was greater ( P < .05) than isokinetic EMG/WK for 50% MVIC versus 60°/s, 40% MVIC versus 120°/s, and 30% MVIC versus 180°/s; however, no differences were noted ( P > .05) between 20% MVIC versus 240°/s or 10% MVIC versus 300°/s. An 18% decrease in active range of motion was seen for the isotonic muscle actions, from 10% to 50% MVIC, and a 3% increase in range of motion for the isokinetic muscle actions from 60 to 300°/s was also observed. Furthermore, the peak angular velocities for the isotonic muscle actions ranged from 272.9 to 483.0°/s for 50% and 10% MVIC, respectively. Conclusions: When considering EMG/WK, peak angular velocity, and range of motion together, our data indicate that maximal isokinetic muscle actions at 240°/s or controlled-velocity isotonic muscle actions at 10%, 20%, or 30% MVIC may maximize the amount of muscle activation per unit of WK done during the early stages of musculoskeletal rehabilitation. These results may be useful to allied health professionals who incorporate open-chain resistance training exercises during the early phases of rehabilitation and researchers who use isotonic or isokinetic modes of resistance exercise to examine muscle function. PMID:17043700

  7. Fiber typing in aging muscle.

    PubMed

    Purves-Smith, Fennigje M; Sgarioto, Nicolas; Hepple, Russell T

    2014-04-01

    It is accepted widely that fast-twitch muscle fibers are preferentially impacted in aging muscle, yet we hypothesize that this is not valid when aging muscle atrophy becomes severe. In this review, we summarize the evidence of fiber type-specific effect in aging muscle and the potential confounding roles of fibers coexpressing multiple myosin heavy-chain isoforms and their histochemical identification. PMID:24508741

  8. Controlled digital motion by electrical stimulation of the flexor muscle in chickens.

    PubMed

    Herbert, M A; James, J S; Farkas, L G

    1980-10-01

    A method for producing motion in the deep flexor tendon by electrical stimulation of its muscle was devised and applied in 38 chickens whose legs were immobilized after tendon repair. Six days prior to tendon surgery, stainless steel electrode wires were implanted in the muscle belly. Stimulation was carried out from day 18 to day 35 after tendon surgery. Stimulation consisted of trains of pulses (50 pulses per second for 0.5 seconds) repeated every 2 seconds with the output voltage adjusted to produce only slight flexion of the distal phalanges of the toes. The stimulation was well tolerated by the chickens and produced the desired tendon motion. Muscle fiber changes were minimal and appeared to be related to the trauma of electrode implantation. PMID:6985511

  9. CHAPTER VIn THE ADDUCTOR MUSCLE

    E-print Network

    CHAPTER VIn THE ADDUCTOR MUSCLE ---------------- ---- ------- TABLE I8.-Relative weight of the adductor muscle of six adult C. virginica (4- to 5 inches in height) during the spawning season (August the attachment of the larva. Shortly after the metamorphosis of the larva the posterior adductor muscle develops

  10. MUSCLE HYPOTHROPHY: LESSONS FROM SPACE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the space-flight era, weightlessness was shown to lead to substantial changes of muscle function, similar to those brought about by ageing or long term immobilisation. These changes consist mainly of loss of muscle mass, force and power, increased muscle fatigability, and abnormal reflex patterns. They are due to a combination of factors among which an increased

  11. Muscles get dendrites into shape.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Parrish, Jay Z

    2015-05-26

    Sensory neurons interact with muscles in many contexts, but muscle-derived signals that pattern sensory dendrites have not been extensively characterized. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Liang et al. (2015) report a signaling system in which positional cues from muscle are transduced to hypodermal cells to direct sensory dendrite outgrowth. PMID:26017767

  12. Skeletal muscle channelopathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Jurkat-Rott; Holger Lerche; Frank Lehmann-Horn

    2002-01-01

    .   Ion channelopathies have common clinical features, recurrent patterns of mutations, and almost predictable mechanisms of\\u000a pathogenesis. In skeletal muscle, disorders are associated with mutations in voltage-gated Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Cl? channels leading to hypoexcitability, causing periodic paralysis and to hyperexcitabilty, resulting in myotonia or susceptibility\\u000a to malignant hyperthermia.

  13. Heart muscle disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siân E Hughes

    2006-01-01

    Primary cardiomyopathies are heart muscle diseases intrinsic to the myocardium. This group includes dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ARVC), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) and unclassified cardiomyopathy. The cardiomyopathies may be classified pathophysiologically and display unique pathological and clinical features. ARVC is characterized by fibroadipose substitution of right ventricular myocardium and a high risk of sudden cardiac death. HCM

  14. OBLIQUELY STRIATED MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbluth, Jack

    1968-01-01

    Body muscle cells of the bloodworm Glycera, a polychaete annelid, were studied by electron microscopy and compared with muscle cells of the more slowly acting nematode Ascaris, which have been described previously. Both muscles are obliquely striated. The predominant type of bloodworm fiber is characterized by a prominent transversely oriented sarcoplasmic reticulum with numerous dyads at the surface of each cell. Thick myofilaments are ?3 µ long and overlap along ?60% of their length in extended fibers and ?80% in shortened fibers. There is virtually no endomysium and very little intracellular skeleton, and the cells are attached by desmosomes to one another rather than to connective tissue. Dense bodies are absent from the fibers and in their place are Z lines, which are truly linear rather than planar. Scattered among the predominant fibers are others, less orderly in arrangement, in which the SR is much less prominent and in which the thick filaments are thicker and longer and overlap to an even smaller degree. It is suggested that physiological differences between bloodworm and Ascaris muscles derive from differences in the proportion of series to parallel linkages between the contractile elements, differences in the amount and disposition of the SR, and differences in the impedance to shear within the myofibrils. PMID:19806704

  15. Scalable synthetic muscle actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen M. Bobbio; Michael A. Pennington; Stephen W. Smith; Jason Zara; Harry J. Leamy; John A. Hudak; Jennifer Pagan; Paul C. Elliot

    2000-01-01

    We will discuss our work to build, characterize, and scale- up a metallized plastic muscle-like actuator called a Spiral Wound Transducer (SWT). Prototype SWTs have been built using microelectronics fabrication methods. The prototypes have demonstrated large amplitude motion and analog response. The prototypes, though small, have demonstrated forces equivalent to 12 grams for compressions of more than 15 percent at

  16. Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Activity in Relation to Knee Angles during Abdominal Drawing-in Exercises Using Pressure Biofeedback

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The leg angles that are the most effective for abdominal muscle activation were investigated by performing abdominal drawing-in exercises at different leg angles with a biofeedback pressure unit. [Methods] Subjects were asked to adopt a supine position, and the tip of the biofeedback pressure unit was placed under the posterior superior iliac spine. Then, the pressure was adjusted to 40 mmHg while referring to the pressure gauge connected to the biofeedback pressure unit. Subjects were instructed to increase the pressure by 10 mmHg using the drawing-in technique upon the oral instruction, “Start,” and to maintain the drawn-in state. The time during which the pressure was maintained within an error range of ±1–2mmHg was measured in seconds. [Result] During the abdominal drawing-in exercises, the activity of the rectus abdominis, the internal and external obliques, and the transverse abdominis increased as the knee joint flexion angle increased from 45° to 120°. [Conclusion] When trunk stabilization exercises are performed at the same pressure to reduce damage after the acute phase of low back pain, trunk muscle strength can be efficiently increased by increasing the knee joint angle gradually, while performing abdominal drawing-in exercises with a biofeedback pressure unit. PMID:24259770

  17. Effects of lifting the non-paretic foot on muscle activity during the semi-squat exercise in hemiplegic patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Yu, Il-Young; Jung, In-Gui; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the electromyographic activity of the quadriceps in hemiplegic patients during the downward, maintenance, and upward phases of squat exercises performed with the feet parallel and with the non-paretic foot lifted. [Subjects] A total of 17 hemiplegic patients (9 males and 8 females) volunteered for this study. [Methods] All subjects performed squat exercises with the knees flexed to 30° and with the feet parallel (shoulder-width apart) or with lifting of the non-paretic foot (normalized to 25% of the knee height). [Results] The activity of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis oblique, and vastus lateralis muscles was significantly higher during squat exercises performed with the non-paretic foot lifted than with the feet parallel to each other. The activity of all muscles during the maintenance phase of the exercises was greater than that during the downward and upward phases. [Conclusion] Lifting the non-paretic foot during squats may represent an effective exercise for motor function rehabilitation in hemiplegic patients. PMID:26180338

  18. Muscle activation and its distribution within human triceps surae muscles.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2005-09-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to quantify the volume of activated parts within a whole muscle and 2) to examine activated area distributions along the length of muscle. Seven male subjects performed five sets of 10 repetitions of a single-leg calf-raise exercise with the knee fully extended. Transverse relaxation time (T2)-weighted spin echo images were acquired before and immediately after the exercise. A range of pixels with a T2 greater than the mean +1 SD of the region of interest (ROI) from the preexercise image and pixels with a T2 lower than the mean + SD of the ROI from the postexercise image were defined as "active" muscle. The active muscle images were three dimensionally reconstructed, from which the volume of the activated muscle was determined for individual triceps surae (TS) muscles. Our data indicate that approximately 46% of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle was activated during the exercise, with activation of the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and soleus (Sol) muscles being approximately 35%. In the MG, distal portions had a greater percentage area of activated muscle than the proximal portions (P < 0.05), which was consistent with the results regarding electromyogram activity. In contrast, regional activation differences were not observed in the LG and Sol. These findings suggest that the amounts of activated muscle and its distribution would be different among TS muscles. PMID:15890750

  19. Cardiac muscle strip model parameters and muscle elastance.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Joseph L

    2013-01-01

    A recent functional model of the left ventricle as a pressure generator that is time and volume dependent was adapted to describe the mechanical aspects of heart muscle contraction. Muscle's complex dynamics develop from a single equation based on the formation and relaxation of crossbridge bonds. Muscle is modeled as a force generator that is time and length dependent. This equation permits the calculation of muscle elastance via Em = ?fm/?lm from muscle force and length, both as functions of time. This muscle model is defined independently from load properties, and elastance is dynamic and reflects changing numbers of crossbridge bonds. The model parameters were extracted from measured force and length data from cat papillary muscle experiments in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to present in some detail how to describe a particular muscle strip from measured data. The resulting model is tested under a wide range of mechanical conditions, such as isometric and isotonic contractions for normal and varied inotropic state, and muscle velocity is computed for different loads. Computed results compare favorably with similar measurements from the literature. The resulting lumped muscle model is a compact, yet comprehensive functional description of muscle dynamics. PMID:24111400

  20. Antifibrinolytics in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Achal

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac surgery exerts a significant strain on the blood bank services and is a model example in which a multi-modal blood-conservation strategy is recommended. Significant bleeding during cardiac surgery, enough to cause re-exploration and/or blood transfusion, increases morbidity and mortality. Hyper-fibrinolysis is one of the important contributors to increased bleeding. This knowledge has led to the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents especially in procedures performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. Nothing has been more controversial in recent times than the aprotinin controversy. Since the withdrawal of aprotinin from the world market, the choice of antifibrinolytic agents has been limited to lysine analogues either tranexamic acid (TA) or epsilon amino caproic acid (EACA). While proponents of aprotinin still argue against its non-availability. Health Canada has approved its use, albeit under very strict regulations. Antifibrinolytic agents are not without side effects and act like double-edged swords, the stronger the anti-fibrinolytic activity, the more serious the side effects. Aprotinin is the strongest in reducing blood loss, blood transfusion, and possibly, return to the operating room after cardiac surgery. EACA is the least effective, while TA is somewhere in between. Additionally, aprotinin has been implicated in increased mortality and maximum side effects. TA has been shown to increase seizure activity, whereas, EACA seems to have the least side effects. Apparently, these agents do not differentiate between pathological and physiological fibrinolysis and prevent all forms of fibrinolysis leading to possible thrombotic side effects. It would seem prudent to select the right agent knowing its risk-benefit profile for a given patient, under the given circumstances. PMID:23545866

  1. Effects of Gastric Bypass Surgery on Female Reproductive Function

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, William C.; Gnatuk, Carol L.; Estes, Stephanie J.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Meadows, Juliana W.; Kesner, James S.; Krieg, Edward F.; Rogers, Ann M.; Haluck, Randy S.; Cooney, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Reproductive function may improve after bariatric surgery, although the mechanisms and time-related changes are unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether ovulation frequency/quality as well as associated reproductive parameters improve after Roux en Y gastric bypass surgery. Design: This was a prospective cohort study that enrolled female subjects from 2005 to 2008 with study visits at baseline and then 1, 3, 6, 12, and up to 24 months after surgery. Setting: The study was conducted at an academic health center. Patients: Twenty-nine obese, reproductive-aged women not using confounding medications participated in the study. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was integrated levels of urinary progestin (pregnanediol 3-glururonide) from daily urinary collections at 12 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were changes in vaginal bleeding, other biometric, hormonal, ultrasound, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measures, and Female Sexual Function Index. Results: Ninety percent of patients with morbid obesity had ovulatory cycles at baseline, and the ovulatory frequency and luteal phase quality (based on integrated pregnanediol 3-glururonide levels) were not modified by bariatric surgery. The follicular phase was shorter postoperatively [6.5 d shorter at 3 months and 7.9–8.9 d shorter at 6–24 months (P < 0.01)]. Biochemical hyperandrogenism improved, largely due to an immediate postoperative increase in serum SHBG levels(P < 0.01), with no change in clinical hyperandrogenism (sebum production, acne, hirsutism). Bone density was preserved, contrasting with a significant loss of lean muscle mass and fat (P < 0.001), reflecting preferential abdominal fat loss (P < 0.001). Female sexual function improved 28% (P = 0.02) by 12 months. Conclusions: Ovulation persists despite morbid obesity and the changes from bypass surgery. Reproductive function after surgery is characterized by a shortened follicular phase and improved female sexual function. PMID:23066115

  2. Symptomatic intercostal lung hernia secondary to sternal dehiscence surgery

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Sezai; Aydemir, Cüneyt; Gürer, Onur; I??k, Ömer

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 60 Final Diagnosis: Iatrogenic intercostal lung hernia Symptoms: — Medication: No medication Clinical Procedure: Surgically cerrected Specialty: Thoracic surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Iatrogenic intercostal lung hernia is a rare thoracic pathology. Injury of intercostal muscles and costocondral separation during median sternotomy and sternal dehiscence surgery are important factors in the development of hernia. We report for the first time a case of a 60-year-old man with acquired lung hernia after sternal dehiscence surgery, presenting as chest pain and exertional dyspnea. Case Report: A 60-year-old man presented with a 6-week history of progressive exertional dyspnea, particularly following vigorous coughing. Past medical history included slight chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery 8 weeks previously, using the left internal mammary artery for the left anterior descending artery via median sternotomy and sternal dehiscence by the Robicsek method. A chest X-ray showed intact sternal and parasternal wires, but the bilateral lung parenchyma appeared normal. A spiral computed tomography scan of the chest found intercostal herniation of the anterior segment of the left upper lobe. The lung hernia was repaired surgically to relieve exertional dyspnea and incarceration, and to improve respiratory function. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient recovered well. Conclusions: Intercostal lung hernia after median sternotomy and sternal dehiscence surgery is rare, and it has been previously reported on. Preventive techniques include gentle manipulation of the sternal retractor, avoidance of rib fractures, and using a protective method of intercostal arteries and nerves such as Sharma technique. Thoracic surgeons should be aware of this rare complication in sternal dehiscence surgery. PMID:23826467

  3. Complications in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Niebuhr, H; Nahrstedt, U; Hollmann, S; Rückert, K

    1995-01-01

    Over the last few years, laparoscopic surgery has gained widespread acceptance in surgical practice. The indications range has expanded extraordinarily in that time. Some of the practiced procedures are already considered the gold standard, while others are still on the way there. The fascinating technique and results notwithstanding, a number of risks, mistakes, and complications are possible in both the initial and the advanced states. We present our experience from 2118 laparoscopic operations performed between February 1991 to March 1995, focusing on the intraoperative complications (Tables 1, 2). PMID:21400429

  4. Mitral and tricuspid valve surgery for Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Ohashi, Takeki; Furui, Masato; Kageyama, Souichirou; Kodani, Noriko; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Hirai, Yasutaka; Sakakura, Reo

    2015-05-01

    Coffin-Lowry syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, mental retardation, short stature, and hypotonia. An 18-year-old man with morphologic features characteristic of Coffin-Lowry syndrome was referred to our institution for valve disease surgery for worsening cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed severe mitral valve regurgitation associated with tricuspid valve regurgitation. Mitral valve implantation with a biological valve and tricuspid annular plication with a ring was performed. The ascending aorta was hypoplastic. Both the mitral papillary muscle originating near the mitral annulus and the chordae were shortened. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and his cardiac failure improved. PMID:23873216

  5. Relationship between skin temperature and muscle activation during incremental cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Priego Quesada, Jose I; Carpes, Felipe P; Bini, Rodrigo R; Salvador Palmer, Rosario; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, Rosa M

    2015-02-01

    While different studies showed that better fitness level adds to the efficiency of the thermoregulatory system, the relationship between muscular effort and skin temperature is still unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the relationship between neuromuscular activation and skin temperature during cycle exercise. Ten physically active participants performed an incremental workload cycling test to exhaustion while neuromuscular activations were recorded (via surface electromyography - EMG) from rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis. Thermographic images were recorded before, immediately after and 10 min after finishing the cycling test, at four body regions of interest corresponding to the muscles where neuromuscular activations were monitored. Frequency band analysis was conducted to assess spectral properties of EMG signals in order to infer on priority in recruitment of motor units. Significant inverse relationship between changes in skin temperature and changes in overall neuromuscular activation for vastus lateralis was observed (r<-0.5 and p<0.04). Significant positive relationship was observed between skin temperature and low frequency components of neuromuscular activation from vastus lateralis (r>0.7 and p<0.01). Participants with larger overall activation and reduced low frequency component for vastus lateralis activation presented a better adaptive response of their thermoregulatory system by showing fewer changes in skin temperature after incremental cycling test. PMID:25660627

  6. National Epilepsy Surgery Support Activity

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, K.; Rathore, Chaturbhuj; Rao, Malla Bhaskara

    2014-01-01

    While there are over one million people with drug-resistant epilepsy in India, today, there are only a handful of centers equipped to undertake presurgical evaluation and epilepsy surgery. The only solution to overcome this large surgical treatment gap is to establish comprehensive epilepsy care centers across the country that are capable of evaluating and selecting the patients for epilepsy surgery with the locally available technology and in a cost-effective manner. The National Epilepsy Surgery Support Activity (NESSA) aims to provide proper guidance and support in establishing epilepsy surgery programs across India and in neighboring resource-poor countries, and in sustaining them. PMID:24791081

  7. Bassett healthcare rural surgery experience.

    PubMed

    Borgstrom, David C; Heneghan, Steven J

    2009-12-01

    The surgical training at Bassett is naturally broader than in many university settings, with a survey showing that nearly 70% of graduates who practice general surgery remain in a rurally designated area. Rural surgery experience falls into 3 categories: undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate. The general surgery training program has no competing fellowships or subspecialty residencies; residents get significant experience with endoscopy; ear, nose, and throat; plastic and hand surgery; and obstetrics and gynecology. The rural setting lifestyle is valued by the students, residents, and fellows alike. It provides an ideal setting for recognizing the specific nuances of small-town American life, with a high-quality education and surgical experience. PMID:19944814

  8. Standing male equine urogenital surgery.

    PubMed

    Adams, Aric; Hendrickson, Dean A

    2014-04-01

    The advantages of performing standing male urogenital surgeries are numerous when compared with performing the same surgery in the anesthetized animal. Some traditional standing male urogenital surgeries, such as castrations, may be faster and cheaper to perform. Laparoscopic standing male urogenital surgeries may allow for improved visualization of the surgical field, decreased hemorrhage, and decreased morbidity and convalescence. Limitations of standing procedures may include increased danger to the surgeon because of fractious behavior of the patient, and increased expense and training associated with instrumentation for specialized procedures such as laparoscopy. PMID:24680211

  9. Tarsal tunnel syndrome. Outcome of surgery in longstanding cases.

    PubMed

    Turan, I; Rivero-Melián, C; Guntner, P; Rolf, C

    1997-10-01

    Cases of longstanding (median, 60 months) tarsal tunnel syndrome were decompressed surgically in 14 female and four male patients. Patients reported intermittent dysesthesia, paresthesia, or anesthesia at the medial plantar aspect of the foot. Symptoms were aggravated by physical activities. Previous trauma was noted in four patients. Tinel's sign was positive in 16 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 10 patients but was conclusive in only two. At surgery, the posterior tibial nerve or one of its branches was found to be entrapped in 15 patients. Entrapments were observed isolated or in combination within the fascial septa (n = 5), varicose veins (n = 6), scar tissues (n = 4), tenosynovitis and edema (n = 1), or within the abductor hallucis muscle (n = 1). Two neuromas were excised. In three patients no obvious entrapments were found. Clinical followup was performed a median 18 months after surgery. Relief of symptoms was reported as long as 1 year after surgery. All symptoms were relieved in 11 (61%) patients. Three (17%) patients with previous trauma had relatively severe pain after surgery and were considered to have failed results. Surgical decompression was beneficial in most patients with longstanding tarsal tunnel syndrome. PMID:9345220

  10. Regulation of the muscle fiber microenvironment by activated satellite cells during hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Christopher S.; Lee, Jonah D.; Jackson, Janna R.; Kirby, Tyler J.; Stasko, Shawn A.; Liu, Honglu; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.; McCarthy, John J.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the current study was to determine the necessity of satellite cells for long-term muscle growth and maintenance. We utilized a transgenic Pax7-DTA mouse model, allowing for the conditional depletion of > 90% of satellite cells with tamoxifen treatment. Synergist ablation surgery, where removal of synergist muscles places functional overload on the plantaris, was used to stimulate robust hypertrophy. Following 8 wk of overload, satellite cell-depleted muscle demonstrated an accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and fibroblast expansion that resulted in reduced specific force of the plantaris. Although the early growth response was normal, an attenuation of hypertrophy measured by both muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area occurred in satellite cell-depleted muscle. Isolated primary myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs) negatively regulated fibroblast ECM mRNA expression in vitro, suggesting a novel role for activated satellite cells/MPCs in muscle adaptation. These results provide evidence that satellite cells regulate the muscle environment during growth.—Fry, C. S., Lee, J. D., Jackson, J. R., Kirby, T. J., Stasko, S. A., Liu, H., Dupont-Versteegden, E. E., McCarthy, J. J., Peterson, C. A. Regulation of the muscle fiber microenvironment by activated satellite cells during hypertrophy. PMID:24376025

  11. High Resolution Muscle Measurements Provide Insights into Equinus Contractures in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, Margie A.; Ward, Samuel R.; Chambers, Henry G.; Lieber, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contractures that occur after upper motor neuron lesion are often surgically released or lengthened. However, surgical manipulation of muscle length changes a muscle’s sarcomere length (Ls), which can affect force production. To predict effects of surgery, both macro- (fascicle length (Lf)) and micro- (Ls) level structural measurements are needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify both Ls and Lf in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) as well as typically developing (TD) children. Soleus ultrasound images were obtained from children with CP and TD children. Lf was determined and, with the joint in the same position, CP biopsies were obtained, formalin fixed and Ls measured by laser diffraction. Since soleus Ls values were not measurable in TD children, TD Ls values were obtained using three independent methods. While average Lf did not differ between groups (CP=3.6±1.2 cm, TD=3.5±0.9 cm; p>0.6), Ls was dramatically longer in children with CP (4.07±0.45 ?m vs. TD=2.17±0.24 ?m; p<0.0001). While Lf values were similar between children with CP and TD children, this was due to highly stretched sarcomeres within the soleus muscle. Surgical manipulation of muscle-tendon unit length will thus alter muscle sarcomere length and change force generating capacity of the muscle. PMID:25242618

  12. Evaluation of upper body muscle activity during cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance in simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waye, A. B.; Krygiel, R. G.; Susin, T. B.; Baptista, R.; Rehnberg, L.; Heidner, G. S.; de Campos, F.; Falcão, F. P.; Russomano, T.

    2013-09-01

    Performance of efficient single-person cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is vital to maintain cardiac and cerebral perfusion during the 2-4 min it takes for deployment of advanced life support during a space mission. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential differences in upper body muscle activity during CPR performance at terrestrial gravity (+1Gz) and in simulated microgravity (?G). Muscle activity of the triceps brachii, erector spinae, rectus abdominis and pectoralis major was measured via superficial electromyography in 20 healthy male volunteers. Four sets of 30 external chest compressions (ECCs) were performed on a mannequin. Microgravity was simulated using a body suspension device and harness; the Evetts-Russomano (ER) method was adopted for CPR performance in simulated microgravity. Heart rate and perceived exertion via Borg scores were also measured. While a significantly lower depth of ECCs was observed in simulated microgravity, compared with +1Gz, it was still within the target range of 40-50 mm. There was a 7.7% decrease of the mean (±SEM) ECC depth from 48 ± 0.3 mm at +1Gz, to 44.3 ± 0.5 mm during microgravity simulation (p < 0.001). No significant difference in number or rate of compressions was found between the two conditions. Heart rate displayed a significantly larger increase during CPR in simulated microgravity than at +1Gz, the former presenting a mean (±SEM) of 23.6 ± 2.91 bpm and the latter, 76.6 ± 3.8 bpm (p < 0.001). Borg scores were 70% higher post-microgravity compressions (17 ± 1) than post +1Gz compressions (10 ± 1) (p < 0.001). Intermuscular comparisons showed the triceps brachii to have significantly lower muscle activity than each of the other three tested muscles, in both +1Gz and microgravity. As shown by greater Borg scores and heart rate increases, CPR performance in simulated microgravity is more fatiguing than at +1Gz. Nevertheless, no significant difference in muscle activity between conditions was found, a result that is favourable for astronauts, given the inevitable muscular and cardiovascular deconditioning that occurs during space travel.

  13. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESIDENTS GENERAL SURGERY RESIDENTS

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    Davenport, Michael Urology 1 2362 Esquivel, Micaela General Surgery 1 2608 Jopling, Jeffrey General Surgery, Harsha Urology 2 2301 Pridgen, Brian Plastic Surgery 2 2302 Read, Blake General Surgery 2 2303 Rustad 2 2310 Stauffer, Craig Urology 2 2312 Della Valle, Jessica General Surgery Prelim 1 2399 Hyun, Jeong

  14. Frontal skull base surgery combined with endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motohiro Morioka; Jun-ichiro Hamada; Shigetoshi Yano; Yutaka Kai; Norihisa Ogata; Eiji Yumoto; Yukitaka Ushio; Jun-ichi Kuratsu

    2005-01-01

    BackgroundPostoperative infection remains a serious complication after radical resection of anterior skull base lesions because intracranial, nasal, and paranasal cavities are opened during surgery. To prevent complications from postoperative infection, we combined endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) with the frontal transbasal approach in patients with skull base lesions.

  15. Robotic surgery: urologic implications.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2003-11-01

    Current medical robots have nothing in common with the anthropomorphic robots in science fiction classics. They are in fact, manipulators, working on a master-slave principle. Robots can be defined as "automatically controlled multitask manipulators, which are freely programmable in three or more spaces." The success of robots in surgery is based on their precision, lack of fatigue, and speed of action. This review describes the theory, advantages, disadvantages, and clinical utilization of mechanical and robotic arm systems to replace the second assistant and provide camera direction and stability during laparoscopic surgery. The Robotrac system (Aesculap, Burlingame, CA), the First Assistant (Leonard Medical Inc, Huntingdon Valley, PA), AESOP (Computer Motion, Goleta, CA), ZEUS (Computer Motion), and the da Vinci (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, CA) system are reviewed, as are simple mechanical-assist systems such as Omnitract (Minnesota Scientific, St. Paul, MN), Iron Intern (Automated Medical Products Corp., New York, NY), the Bookwalter retraction system (Codman , Somerville, NJ), the Surgassistant trade mark (Solos Endoscopy, Irvine, CA), the Trocar Sleeve Stabilizer (Richard Wolf Medical Instruments Corp., Rosemont, IL), and the Endoholder (Codman, Somerville, NJ). PMID:14642026

  16. [Modern surgery of cataracts].

    PubMed

    Izák, M

    1990-03-01

    Surgery of cataract has a history of almost 250 years. The first 150 years were in the sign of extracapsular extracion. The subsequent 70 years were devoted to the development and improvement of the technique of intracapsular extraction and the last more than 20 years are a return to extracapsular extraction. This is due in particular to the development of microsurgery. "Modern surgery of cataract" is thus extracapsular extraction at a microsurgical level, in indicated cases associated also with implantation of an intraocular lens. The author analyzes recent aspects of indication for operation, preoperative examination techniques, preoperative preparation of the patient, anaesthesia, the operation proper, correction of aphakia, and postoperative care. In the author's opinion the future of microsurgery of cataract will involve improvement and wider use of phakoemulsification and laser systems as well as new models and materials for artificial lenses. It is no longer an unreal dream to make through a minimal paracentesis a microincision of the capsule, remove the nucleus and mass intracapsularity and replace them by injection of a transparent, artificial gel. PMID:2334988

  17. Adolescent bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Daniel S; Fallon, Sara C; Brandt, Mary L

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity has increased from a relatively uncommon problem to one of the most important public health problems facing children today. Typical "adult" diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, have become increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population. The earlier presentation of these comorbidities will have a significant impact for the future because this population of children will require more medical resources at an earlier age and will have a significantly decreased life expectancy. The significant morbidity of obesity in the pediatric population has led to consideration of more aggressive treatment protocols for obesity in children, including the introduction of surgical management at an earlier age. Surgery for obesity in adolescents has particular risks and benefits that must be accounted for when considering this approach. The unique psychological and emotional needs of adolescent patients make the patient selection process and perioperative management substantially different from those of adult patients. Initial outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents are comparable to those seen in adults in the short term. However, the long-term effects of these procedures on the adolescent population are not known. This review discusses the epidemiology of pediatric obesity, the indications for operative therapy in adolescent patients, the common surgical procedures used for weight loss, the reported outcomes of these procedures, and the importance of multidisciplinary management for this unique patient population. PMID:22869408

  18. [Micronutrients in bariatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Amaya García, M J; Vilchez López, F J; Campos Martín, C; Sánchez Vera, P; Pereira Cunill, J L

    2012-01-01

    The morbid obesity is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence and that associates an important morbility and mortality. The bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to secure a weight reduction maintained in the time and a diminution in the rates of complications associated to the obesity. The overweight and the obesity are risk factors for the deficit of several micronutrients like vitamins B1, B6, C, folic acid and D, minerals like the iron and trace elements like zinc, generally by dietetic deficit. In spite of it, at the moment a consensus don't exist about the monitoring of micronutrients in the preoperative one, although it seems reasonable in view of his considerable prevalence. The bariatric surgery can bring about deficit of micronutrients or to intensify previous deficiencies, as much by limitation of the ingestion like by the maldigestión and malabsorption in the malabsortives techniques, being the parallel risk to the ponderal loss. It is precise to monitor of by life the different micronutrients, mainly after the malabsortives surgical techniques. The use of a polivitamínic complex of systematic form is recommended and in the cases in which he is insufficient, it will be precise to use specific suplementación. PMID:22732956

  19. [Ethics in aesthetic surgery].

    PubMed

    de Fontaine, S

    2013-09-01

    The use of aesthetic medicine and surgery is increasingly popular, and becomes a true phenomenon of society. Many women and men are asking for such treatments. A large proportion of the population carry the idea that this branch of medicine is a true consumer product. The acts of aesthetic medicine and surgery are not without consequences. They produce important changes in the human body, and carry risks of complications that must be taken into account. The overrated media interest of this subject produce commercial drifts that act against the general health of the patients. The invasive acts of medical aesthetics must be placed in a precise legal and ethical framework to protect the patients. A project of a new Belgian law is on the way, awaiting for publication in "Le Moniteur": this law (proposed by Senator Dominique Tilmans) clarifies the competences required for performing non-surgical aesthetic treatments and specific aesthetic invasive treatments. Other projects of law are being studied, and will concern publicity, information of the public, and rules of private clinics where aesthetic invasive acts are performed. Recent international news have shown, with the PIP breast prosthesis scandal, that surveillance of the medical aesthetic field is mandatory. To provide a better protection of patients, the legislator has decided legislate over the subject. PMID:24195242

  20. Fibronectin and craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; AlShomer, Feras; Alqahtani, Abdullah; Alhadlg, Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Fibronectin is an essential component of the extracellular matrix. The role of fibronectin in craniofacial surgery has not been previously reviewed. Fibronectin mediates bone differentiation and development of the skull. Studies have shown that normal development of the skull requires a specific pattern of expression around the epithelial-mesenchymal interface of the neurocranium. Fibronectin is also essential in mediating the migration of neural crest cells to form the facial skeleton. The calvaria of patients with Apert and Crouzon syndromes have an abnormally elevated collagen level. However, fibronectin levels are elevated in the former syndrome and decreased in the latter syndrome. The significance of this requires further research. Fibronectin gene expression is increased in port wine-derived fibroblasts in patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome. Normal palatogenesis also requires a specific pattern of expression of fibronectin around the maxillary process as well as the roof of the stomodeum, and several studies have linked the development of cleft lip/palate to an imbalance of fibronectin content of the extracellular matrix. Fibronectin mediates cell-to-cell attachment during repair of calvarial defects; hence, fibronectin has been used as a carrier for bone morphogenetic proteins to treat calvarial defects. Finally, fibronectin is now an essential component in stem cell technology related to craniofacial surgery. PMID:24322634

  1. Bariatric metabolic surgery.

    PubMed

    Scopinaro, N

    2014-08-01

    According to the WHO, the worldwide prevalence of obesity body mass index (BMI) 30 kg/m² nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008, with 10% of men and 14% of women and a total of more than half a billion adults (aged >20 years old) being classed as obese. At least 2.8 million people die each year worldwide as a result of being overweight or obese, usually from the inevitable related comorbidities. It has been reported that approximately 65% of the worlds population inhabits countries where overweight and obesity are responsible for higher mortality than underweight. The recently published Interdisciplinary European Guidelines on Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery note that despite the WHO stating that excess weight is considered the fifth leading risk for deaths worldwide, it has not yet been possible to successfully curb the obesity epidemic. Moreover, severe obesity (BMI>35 kg/m²) represents a rapidly growing segment of the epidemic in which the negative effects on health and disability are especially marked. Excess weight drastically elevates a persons risk of developing a number of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidaemia, sleep apnoea, cancer, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and other serious comorbidities. The WHO emphasises that 44% of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 23% of ischaemic heart disease and around 741% of certain cancers are attributable to overweight and obesity. In the majority of European countries, overweight and obesity are responsible for about 80% of cases of type 2 diabetes, 35% of cases of ischaemic heart disease and 55% of cases of hypertensive disease among adults. Additionally, a range of debilitating conditions such as osteoarthritis, respiratory difficulties, gallbladder disease, infertility, and psychosocial problems, among others, which lead to reduced life expectancy, quality of life and disability, are extremely costly in terms of both absence from work and use of health resources. Noteworthy, the lifespan of severely obese individuals is decreased by an estimated 5-20 years depending on gender, age, and race. Weight loss and maintenance are the obvious aims of bariatric surgery. The ideal bariatric operation should be easy and quick to perform, with minimal perioperative and long-term complications. It should result in excellent weight loss and indefinite weight maintenance in the vast majority of operated patients, necessitating minimal follow-up care, and be equally suitable for all patients, independent of individual characteristics such as compliance, age, and different degrees of overweight. It is immediately apparent that such a surgical procedure does not exist, and therefore we must carefully evaluate all the different features and characteristics of each operation and of each patient to try to select the procedure that provides the greatest probability of long-term success for a particular patient, with the best cost/benefit ratio. Bariatric surgery has proven to be the most effective mode of treatment for morbidly obese patients, with recent long-term studies providing evidence of a substantial reduction of mortality in bariatric surgery patients, as well as a decreased risk of developing new health-related comorbidities. Furthermore, a reduction in the use of healthcare services and therefore a reduction in direct healthcare costs was also observed. Bariatric surgery is an established and integral part of the comprehensive management of morbidly obese patients. PMID:25230385

  2. Minimally invasive spine surgery in chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Spoor, A B; Öner, F C

    2013-09-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 85%. The pathophysiology of LBP can be various depending on the underlying problem. Only in about 10% of the patients specific underlying disease processes can be identified. Patients with scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, herniated discs, adjacent disc disease, disc degeneration, failed back surgery syndrome or pseudoartrosis all have symptoms of LBP in different ways. Chronic low back pain patients are advised to stay active, however, there is no strong evidence that exercise therapy is significantly different than other nonsurgical therapies. Not every patient with symptoms of LBP is an appropriate candidate for surgery. Even with thorough systematic reviews, no proof can be found for the benefit of surgery in patients with low back pain, without serious neurologic deficit. And subjects like psychologic and socio-demographic factors also seem to be influencing a patients perception of back pain, expectations of treatment, and outcomes of treatment. Open lumbar fusion procedures are typically lengthy procedures and require a long exposure, which may result in ischemic necrosis of the paraspinal musculature, atrophy, and prolonged back pain. Minimally invasive spine surgery needed to take care of a decrease in muscle injuries due to retraction and avoidance of disruption of the osseotendineous complex of the paraspinal muscles, especially the multifidus attachment to the spinous process and superior articular process. Therefore, effort has been made to develop percutaneous fusion, as well as fixation methods, which avoid the negative effects of open surgery. Several minimally invasive fusion strategies have been described, like anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and two lateral approaches (XLIF and DLIF), all with pro's and con's compared to open surgery and each other. The effect of MIS of all type is that patients have less blood loss, faster postoperative ambulation, lower use of opioids, and shorter in hospital stay, which is nearly always significantly better than an open procedure. And most of the studies show a significant improvement of VAS leg-and back pain, Oswestry Disability Index and a high fusion rate, but most of the times not significantly different than the open counterpart. When it comes to cost-effectiveness there is a trend in favor of MIS, but to when we want to differentiate MIS from open surgery, comorbidities and complications significantly affect general and disease-specific outcome measures. In our opinion, the actual better outcome of minimal invasive surgery comes down to obtain a good cost-effectiveness study, provided that minimally invasive surgery has an equal or better clinical and radiologic outcome, given that socio-economic, demographic and psychological influencers are equal for both types of surgery. There are no studies done on the subject MIS and low back pain solely. Deriving answers from the difference in VAS back pain in MIS studies reveal a 100% improvement of back pain after surgery. But that does not imply that this procedure, which is still in its childhood, will be the solution to all low back pain patients. PMID:23877267

  3. Double Muscling in Cattle.

    E-print Network

    Kieffer, Nat M.; Cartwright, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    /or no assistance given. 2 - Light assistance-mechanical aids not used. 3 - Mechanical aid necessary for delivery. 4 - Caesarean section. "Dead at birth. .... Cow died from calving difficulties. 5 TABLE 3. REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF COWS PRO DUCED..., no calving difficulty was observed. After the first few calves were lost in the double-muscled herd, the decision was made to routinely perform Caesarean sections. The decision accounts for the birth by Caesarean section of light weight calves (Table 2...

  4. Skeletal Muscle Alpha-Actin Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn N. North; Nigel G. Laing

    Skeletal muscle ?-actin is the principal protein component of the adult skeletal muscle thin filament. The interaction between\\u000a skeletal, muscle ?-actin and the various myosin heavy chain proteins in the different muscle fibre types generates the force\\u000a of muscle contraction. Skeletal muscle ?-alpha actin is thus of fundamental importance to normal muscle contraction. To date\\u000a over 140 different disease-causing mutations

  5. Muscle paralysis in thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Fraz Anwar; Sheikh, Aisha

    2015-01-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a condition characterised by muscle paralysis due to hypokalaemia usually secondary to thyrotoxicosis. We report a case of a 31-year-old man with no known comorbidities who presented to a tertiary healthcare unit with a 1-month history of difficulty in breathing, palpitations, weight loss and hoarseness of voice. On examination, his thyroid gland was palpable and fine hand tremors were present. An initial provisional diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was made. Three months after initial presentation, the patient presented in emergency with severe muscle pain and inability to stand. Laboratory results revealed hypokalaemia. All the symptoms reverted over the next few hours on administration of intravenous potassium. A diagnosis of TTP was established. After initial presentation, the patient was treated with carbimazole and propranolol. Once he was euthyroid, radioactive iodine ablation therapy (15?mCi) was carried out as definitive therapy, after which the patient's symptoms resolved; he is currently doing fine on levothyroxine replacement and there has been no recurrence of muscle paralysis. PMID:26025973

  6. Interaction between Muscle and Bone.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    The clinical significance of sarcopenia and osteoporosis has increased with the increase in the population of older people. Sarcopenia is defined by decreased muscle mass and impaired muscle function, which is related to osteoporosis independently and dependently. Numerous lines of clinical evidence suggest that lean body mass is positively related to bone mass, which leads to reduced fracture risk. Genetic, endocrine and mechanical factors affect both muscle and bone simultaneously. Vitamin D, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis and testosterone are physiologically and pathologically important as endocrine factors. These findings suggest the presence of interactions between muscle and bone, which might be very important for understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Muscle/bone relationships include two factors: local control of muscle to bone and systemic humoral interactions between muscle and bone. As a putative local inducer of muscle ossification, we found Tmem119, a parathyroid hormone-responsive osteoblast differentiation factor. Moreover, osteoglycin might be one of the muscle-derived humoral bone anabolic factors. This issue may be important for the development of novel drugs and biomarkers for osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Further research will be necessary to clarify the details of the linkage of muscle and bone. PMID:24707465

  7. Interaction between Muscle and Bone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The clinical significance of sarcopenia and osteoporosis has increased with the increase in the population of older people. Sarcopenia is defined by decreased muscle mass and impaired muscle function, which is related to osteoporosis independently and dependently. Numerous lines of clinical evidence suggest that lean body mass is positively related to bone mass, which leads to reduced fracture risk. Genetic, endocrine and mechanical factors affect both muscle and bone simultaneously. Vitamin D, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis and testosterone are physiologically and pathologically important as endocrine factors. These findings suggest the presence of interactions between muscle and bone, which might be very important for understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Muscle/bone relationships include two factors: local control of muscle to bone and systemic humoral interactions between muscle and bone. As a putative local inducer of muscle ossification, we found Tmem119, a parathyroid hormone-responsive osteoblast differentiation factor. Moreover, osteoglycin might be one of the muscle-derived humoral bone anabolic factors. This issue may be important for the development of novel drugs and biomarkers for osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Further research will be necessary to clarify the details of the linkage of muscle and bone. PMID:24707465

  8. Telemedicine, virtual reality, and surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormack, Percival D.; Charles, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Two types of synthetic experience are covered: virtual reality (VR) and surgery, and telemedicine. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: geometric models; physiological sensors; surgical applications; virtual cadaver; VR surgical simulation; telesurgery; VR Surgical Trainer; abdominal surgery pilot study; advanced abdominal simulator; examples of telemedicine; and telemedicine spacebridge.

  9. Virtual reality orthopedic surgery simulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Dar Tsai; Ming-Shium Hsieh; Shyan-Bin Jou

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a highly interactive virtual reality orthopedic surgery simulator. The simulator allows surgeons to use various surgical instruments to operate on virtual rigid anatomic structures, such bones, prostheses and bone grafts, to simulate every procedure on the rigid structures for complex orthopedic surgeries, including arthroplasty, corrective or open osteotomy, open reduction of fractures and amputation. A comparative study

  10. Respiratory muscle function and activation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, David K; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C

    2009-08-01

    Inspiratory muscles are uniquely adapted for endurance, but their function is compromised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to increased loads, reduced mechanical advantage, and increased ventilatory requirements. The hyperinflation of COPD reduces the flow and pressure-generating capacity of the diaphragm. This is compensated by a threefold increase in neural drive, adaptations of the chest wall and diaphragm shape to accommodate the increased volume, and adaptations of muscle fibers to preserve strength and increase endurance. Paradoxical indrawing of the lower costal margin during inspiration in severe COPD (Hoover's sign) correlates with high inspiratory drive and severe airflow obstruction rather than contraction of radially oriented diaphragm fibers. The inspiratory muscles remain highly resistant to fatigue in patients with COPD, and the ultimate development of ventilatory failure is associated with insufficient central drive. Sleep is associated with reduced respiratory drive and impairments of lung and chest wall function, which are exaggerated in COPD patients. Profound hypoxemia and hypercapnia can occur in rapid eye movement sleep and contribute to the development of cor pulmonale. Inspiratory muscles adapt to chronic loading with an increased proportion of slow, fatigue-resistant fiber types, increased oxidative capacity, and reduced fiber cross-sectional area, but the capacity of the diaphragm to increase ventilation in exercise is compromised in COPD. In COPD, neural drive to the diaphragm increases to near maximal levels in exercise, but it does not develop peripheral muscle fatigue. The improvement in exercise capacity and dyspnea following lung volume reduction surgery is associated with a substantial reduction in neural drive to the inspiratory muscles. PMID:19390004

  11. Muscle atrophy and metal-on-metal hip implants

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Reshid; Khoo, Michael; Cook, Erica; Guppy, Andrew; Hua, Jia; Miles, Jonathan; Carrington, Richard; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Muscle atrophy is seen in patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) hip implants, probably because of inflammatory destruction of the musculo-tendon junction. However, like pseudotumors, it is unclear when atrophy occurs and whether it progresses with time. Our objective was to determine whether muscle atrophy associated with MOM hip implants progresses with time. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 74 hips in 56 patients (32 of them women) using serial MRI. Median age was 59 (23–83) years. The median time post-implantation was 83 (35–142) months, and the median interval between scans was 11 months. Hip muscles were scored using the Pfirrmann system. The mean scores for muscle atrophy were compared between the first and second MRI scans. Blood cobalt and chromium concentrations were determined. Results The median blood cobalt was 6.84 (0.24–90) ppb and median chromium level was 4.42 (0.20–45) ppb. The median Oxford hip score was 34 (5–48). The change in the gluteus minimus mean atrophy score between first and second MRI was 0.12 (p = 0.002). Mean change in the gluteus medius posterior portion (unaffected by surgical approach) was 0.08 (p = 0.01) and mean change in the inferior portion was 0.10 (p = 0.05). Mean pseudotumor grade increased by 0.18 (p = 0.02). Interpretation Worsening muscle atrophy and worsening pseudotumor grade occur over a 1-year period in a substantial proportion of patients with MOM hip implants. Serial MRI helps to identify those patients who are at risk of developing worsening soft-tissue pathology. These patients should be considered for revision surgery before irreversible muscle destruction occurs. PMID:25588091

  12. Using your shoulder after replacement surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Joint replacement surgery - using your shoulder; Shoulder replacement surgery - after ... You have had shoulder replacement surgery to replace the bones of your shoulder joint with artificial parts. The parts include a stem made of ...

  13. Patient Safety: Guide to Safe Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gallery Do Your Homework Dangers of Plastic Surgery Tourism Patient and Consumer Information Patients of Courage Patient ... on Breast Implants The Dangers of Plastic Surgery Tourism Plastic Surgery Glossary Menu Cosmetic Reconstructive Articles & Videos ...

  14. [Thoracoscopic surgery of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Naruke, T

    1995-02-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery is a dream that was realized by the remarkable progress achieved in the video equipment system and the development of advanced surgical tools, in particular the endoscopic stapler. The main reasons for the rapid and wide introduction of thoracoscopic surgery are that patient injury is much less than with the traditional chest operation, there is no need for blood transfusion, the physical and mental loads on the patient are much less, and recovery from surgery is much faster. When performed by a skilled surgeon, it is a safe surgical operation, and this surgical technique may become applicable to about one-half of thoracic surgery. The application of robotics and the use of artificial satellites in the sector of thoracoscopic surgery may be possible in the future. PMID:7857090

  15. Ethical challenges in fetal surgery.

    PubMed

    Smajdor, Anna

    2011-02-01

    Fetal surgery has been practised for some decades now. However, it remains a highly complex area, both medically and ethically. This paper shows how the routine use of ultrasound has been a catalyst for fetal surgery, in creating new needs and new incentives for intervention. Some of the needs met by fetal surgery are those of parents and clinicians who experience stress while waiting for the birth of a fetus with known anomalies. The paper suggests that the role of technology and visualisation techniques in creating and meeting such new needs is ethically problematic. It then addresses the idea that fetal surgery should be restricted to interventions that are life-saving for the fetus, arguing that this restriction is unduly paternalistic. Fetal surgery poses challenges for an autonomy-based system of ethics. However, it is risky to circumvent these challenges by restricting the choices open to pregnant women, even when these choices appear excessively altruistic. PMID:21071567

  16. Muscle O2 extraction reserve during intense cycling is site-specific.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Matthew D; Amano, Tatsuro; Kondo, Narihiko; Kowalchuk, John M; Koga, Shunsaku

    2014-11-15

    The present study compared peak muscle deoxygenation ([HHb]peak) responses at three quadriceps sites during occlusion (OCC), ramp incremental (RI), severe- (SVR) and moderate-intensity (MOD) exercise. Seven healthy men (25 ± 4 yr) each completed a stationary cycling RI (20 W/min) test to determine [HHb]peak [at distal and proximal vastus lateralis (VLD and VLP) and rectus femoris (RF)], peak V?O2 (V?O(2peak)), gas exchange threshold (GET), and peak work rate (WR(peak)). Subjects also completed MOD (WR = 80% GET) and SVR exercise (WR corresponding to 120% V?O(2peak)) with absolute [HHb] (quantified by multichannel, time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy) and pulmonary VO2 (V?O(2p)) monitored continuously. Additionally, [HHb] and total hemoglobin ([Hb]tot) were monitored at rest and during subsequent OCC (250 mmHg). Site-specific adipose tissue thickness was assessed (B-mode ultrasound), and its relationship with resting [Hb]tot was used to correct absolute [HHb]. For VLD and RF, [HHb]peak was higher (P < 0.05) during OCC (VLD = 111 ± 38, RF = 114 ± 26 ?M) than RI (VLD 64 ± 14, RF = 85 ± 20) and SVR (VLD = 63 ± 13, RF = 81 ± 18). [HHb]peak was similar (P > 0.05) across these conditions at the VLP (OCC = 67 ± 17, RI = 69 ± 17, SVR = 63 ± 17 ?M). [HHb] peaked and then decreased prior to exercise cessation during SVR at all three muscle sites. [HHb]peak during MOD was consistently lower than other conditions at all sites. A "[HHb] reserve" exists during intense cycling at the VLD and RF, likely implying either sufficient blood flow to meet oxidative demands or insufficient diffusion time for complete equilibration. In VLP this [HHb] reserve was absent, suggesting that a critical PO2 may be challenged during intense cycling. PMID:25257877

  17. Muscle activation pattern and onset times during a semi-orthostatic, unilateral closed-kinetic hip extension exercise in adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Darryl J; Harnett, Michael C

    2015-07-01

    The hip extensors are an important muscle group for sporting and functional movements, but assessing this muscle group for musculoskeletal dysfunction and strength testing has been performed in adult males and females as a prone, open-chain exercise, which provides little posture specificity for locomotive activities. Given the importance of closed-kinetic chain exercises for strength and rehabilitation requirements, there is an obvious need to assess hip extension but little is known about executing a closed-kinetic chain hip extension exercise for adolescents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain hip extensor muscle activation pattern and force production using a semi-orthostatic position while performing a unilateral closed-kinetic hip extension exercise. Fourteen young healthy adolescent male participants performed three maximal repetitions of closed-kinetic chain left and right hip extension on a glute machine. Electromyography (EMG) from left and right rectus femoris (RF), gluteus maximus (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) was recorded and RF, GM, and BF EMG mean amplitude, EMG area and onset times were analysed. There was no significant difference in EMG mean amplitude and EMG area between RF, GM, and BF but the right hip showed a significantly higher EMG (p?muscle firing order. The closed-kinetic chain hip extension could be advantageous when assessing neuromuscular function and training muscle strength because the semi-orthostatic position of hip extension exercise provides a posture similar to functional activities. PMID:25613523

  18. Unusual morphology of the superior belly of omohyoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Thangarajan, Rajesh; Shetty, Prakashchandra; Sirasanagnadla, Srinivasa Rao; D'souza, Melanie Rose

    2014-12-01

    Though anomalies of the superior belly of the omohyoid have been described in medical literature, absence of superior belly of omohyoid is rarely reported. Herein, we report a rare case of unilateral absence of muscular part of superior belly of omohyoid. During laboratory dissections for medical undergraduate students, unusual morphology of the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle has been observed in formalin embalmed male cadaver of South Indian origin. The muscular part of the superior belly of the omohyoid was completely absent. The inferior belly originated normally from the upper border of scapula, and continued with a fibrous tendon which ran vertically lateral to sternohyoid muscle and finally attached to the lower border of the body of hyoid bone. The fibrous tendon was about 1 mm thick and received a nerve supply form the superior root of the ansa cervicalis. As omohyoid mucle is used to achieve the reconstruction of the laryngeal muscles and bowed vocal folds, the knowledge of the possible anomalies of the omohyoid muscle is important during neck surgeries. PMID:25548726

  19. Unusual morphology of the superior belly of omohyoid muscle

    PubMed Central

    Thangarajan, Rajesh; Shetty, Prakashchandra; D'souza, Melanie Rose

    2014-01-01

    Though anomalies of the superior belly of the omohyoid have been described in medical literature, absence of superior belly of omohyoid is rarely reported. Herein, we report a rare case of unilateral absence of muscular part of superior belly of omohyoid. During laboratory dissections for medical undergraduate students, unusual morphology of the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle has been observed in formalin embalmed male cadaver of South Indian origin. The muscular part of the superior belly of the omohyoid was completely absent. The inferior belly originated normally from the upper border of scapula, and continued with a fibrous tendon which ran vertically lateral to sternohyoid muscle and finally attached to the lower border of the body of hyoid bone. The fibrous tendon was about 1 mm thick and received a nerve supply form the superior root of the ansa cervicalis. As omohyoid mucle is used to achieve the reconstruction of the laryngeal muscles and bowed vocal folds, the knowledge of the possible anomalies of the omohyoid muscle is important during neck surgeries. PMID:25548726

  20. Virtual Open Heart Surgery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How does open heart surgery work? Without taking the time to get a formal medical degree, it can be quite hard to find out first-hand. Fortunately, this site from the Australian Broadcasting Company (ABC) takes you inside a virtual operating room to try your hand at performing this procedure. Visitors can look over the interactive Menu to first learn about the anatomy of this region of the body. It's a good place to start and users can proceed to look through the ten (simplified) steps to performing such a complicated operation. Along the way, visitors are given the opportunity to learn about the science behind each step and it's all quite fascinating. It's a great resource for budding scientists, medical professionals, and those who are generally curious about the human body.

  1. [Surgery for chylothorax].

    PubMed

    Riquet, M; Badia, A

    2004-04-01

    Chyle is lymph fluid of intestinal origin containing fat digestion products. Chylothorax is produced by leaks from the thoracic duct or from one of its collaterals subsequent to valve incompetence. These leaks may be due to trauma (post-surgical chylothorax, the most frequent) or to spontaneous rupture of a lymph vessel distended by chyle reflux, the thoracic duct itself being pathological. When the thoracic duct is interrupted (obstruction, agenesis), chylothorax may occur from leakage due to reflux within substitution collateral pathways diverting the flow of chyle into the venoux confluents of the neck. Medical treatment is always attempted first: evacuation of chylothorax by drainage and fat-free diet or parenteral nutrition. Recently, treatment with octreotide has been found to be beneficial. Surgery consists in thoracic duct ligation or suture of leaking collaterals. In difficult cases, when the chyle leakage cannot be identified, pleurodesis is the only option. PMID:15133447

  2. Cosmetic breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Field, D A; Miller, S

    1992-02-01

    Appropriate follow-up care, including early postoperative serial mammography, is essential for women receiving cosmetic breast surgery. Common procedures include augmentation or reduction mammoplasty and breast reconstruction following mastectomy for cancer. Postoperative complications include infection, poor wound healing and pain. Hypertrophic scar formation, which may disrupt the normal breast contour, may be reduced by gentle and frequent massage of the scar. Avoiding sun exposure and using sun screens may prevent hyperpigmentation of the scar. Reduction mammoplasty is associated with sensory loss, which is occasionally permanent. Special complications associated with augmentation mammoplasty include diffusion of silicone through the implant and unfavorable breast appearance secondary to capsular contracture. Capsular contracture may be prevented by regular implant exercises. Preoperative and early postoperative serial mammograms are essential to differentiate surgical from malignant changes. PMID:1739055

  3. Excimer laser refractive surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Manche, E E; Carr, J D; Haw, W W; Hersh, P S

    1998-01-01

    Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy and excimer laser in situ keratomileusis are relatively new treatment modalities that can be used to correct refractive errors of the eye. They are most commonly used to correct myopia (nearsightedness) but can also be used to correct hyperopia (farsightedness) and astigmatism. The excimer laser alters the refractive state of the eye by removing tissue from the anterior cornea through a process known as photoablative decomposition. This process uses ultraviolet energy from the excimer laser to disrupt chemical bonds in the cornea without causing any thermal damage to surrounding tissue. The modified anterior corneal surface enables light to be focused on the retina, thereby reducing or eliminating the dependence on glasses and contact lenses. We discuss in detail all aspects of excimer laser refractive surgery--techniques, indications and contraindications, clinical outcomes, and complications. PMID:9682628

  4. Endoscopic pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Cappabianca, Paolo; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; de Divitiis, Oreste; Solari, Domenico; Esposito, Felice; Colao, Annamaria

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary surgery is a continuous evolving speciality of the neurosurgeons' armamentarium, which requires precise anatomical knowledge, technical skills and integrated appreciation of the pituitary pathophysiology. What we consider "pure" endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery is a procedure performed through the nose and the sphenoid bone, with the endoscope alone throughout the whole approach to visualize the surgical target area and without the use of any transsphenoidal retractor. It offers some advantages due to the endoscope itself: a superior close-up view of the relevant anatomy and an enlarged working angle are provided with an increased panoramic vision inside the surgical area. Concerning results in terms of mass removal, relief of clinical symptoms, cure of the underlying disease and complication rate, they are, at least, similar to those reported in the major microsurgical series, but patient compliance is by far better. Furthermore transsphenoidal endoscopy brings advantages to the patient (less nasal traumatism, no nasal packing, less post-op pain and usually quick recovery), to the surgeon (wider and closer view of the surgical target area, increase of the scientific activity as from the peer-reviewed literature on the topic in the last 10 years, smoothing of interdisciplinary cooperation), to the institution (shorter post-op hospital stay, increase of the case load). Besides, further progress and technological advance are expected from the close cooperation between different technologies and industries. Continuing works in such field of "minimalism" will offer further possibilities to provide the surgeon with even more effectiveness and safety, and, on the other hand, the patient with improvement of results. PMID:18286374

  5. Ambulatory surgery centers and outpatient urologic surgery among Medicare beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Suskind, Anne M.; Dunn, Rodney L.; Zhang, Yun; Hollingsworth, John M.; Hollenbeck, Brent K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of an ambulatory surgery center (ASC) opening in a healthcare market on utilization and quality of outpatient urologic surgery. Methods Retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries undergoing outpatient urologic surgery from 2001 to 2010. Markets were classified into three groups based on ASC status (i.e., those with ASCs, those without ASCs, and those where ASCs were introduced). Multiple propensity score methods adjusted for differences between markets and general linear mixed models determined the effect of ASC opening on utilization and quality, defined by mortality and hospital admission within 30 days of the index procedure. Results During the study period, 195 ASCs opened in markets previously without one. Rates of hospital based urologic surgery in markets where ASCs were introduced declined from 221 to 214 procedures per 10,000 beneficiaries in the 4 years after baseline. In contrast, rates in the other two market types increased over the same period (p < 0.001). Rates of outpatient urologic surgery overall (i.e., in the hospital and ASC) demonstrated similar growth across market types during same period (p = 0.56). The introduction of an ASC into a market was not associated with increases in hospital admission or mortality (p’s > 0.5). Conclusions The introduction of an ASC into a healthcare market lowered rates of outpatient urologic surgery performed in the more expensive hospital setting. This redistribution was not associated with declines in quality or with greater growth in overall outpatient surgery use. PMID:24976220

  6. Single incision laparoscopic surgery in general surgery: a review

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, N; Nicholson, J

    2011-01-01

    Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a rapidly developing field that may represent the future of laparoscopic surgery. The major advantage of SILS over standard laparoscopic surgery is in cosmesis, with surgery becoming essentially scarless if the incision is hidden within the umbilicus. Only one incision is required so the risk of potential complications like port site hernias, haematomas and wound infection is reduced. The trade-off for this is a technically more challenging procedure with different underlying principles to that of traditional laparoscopic surgery. A wide variety of new equipment has been developed to support SILS and the range of procedures that are amenable to the technique is increasing. To date most of the published data relating to SILS are in the form of case series, with the first large randomised controlled trials due to be completed by the end of 2012. The existing evidence suggests that SILS is similar to standard laparoscopic surgery in terms of complication rates, completion rates and post-operative pain scores. However, the duration of SILS is longer than equivalent laparoscopic procedures. This article discusses SILS with regard to its applications in general surgery and reviews the evidence currently available. PMID:21929912

  7. Penetration of netilmicin into heart valves, subcutaneous and muscular tissue of patients undergoing heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Just, H M; Eschenbruch, E; Schmuziger, M; Daschner, F D

    1983-05-01

    In 57 patients undergoing heart surgery concentrations of netilmicin in plasma, heart valves, muscle, and subcutaneous tissue were determined after a 5 min intravenous bolus injection of 1.5 mg/kg body weight. Within 8 h netilmicin serum concentration declined from 3 micrograms/ml to 1 microgram/ml. In heart valves the concentrations during heart surgery were high enough to inhibit most staphylococci, Klebisiella, Enterobacter and Escherichia coli strains. No different serum and tissue concentrations in patients with and without extracorporal circulation could be found. PMID:6851281

  8. OSAS Surgery and Postoperative Discomfort: Phase I Surgery versus Phase II Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Giulio; Pelo, Sandro; Foresta, Enrico; Boniello, Roberto; Romandini, Mario; Cervelli, Daniele; Azzuni, Camillo; Marianetti, Tito Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study aims to investigate the reasons that discourage the patients affected by OSAS to undergo orthognathic surgery and compares the postoperative discomfort of phase I (soft tissue surgery) and phase II (orthognathic surgery) procedures for treatment of OSAS. Material and Methods. A pool of 46 patients affected by OSAS was divided into two groups: “surgery patients” who accepted surgical treatments of their condition and “no surgery patients” who refused surgical procedures. The “surgery patients” group was further subdivided into two arms: patients who accepted phase I procedures (IP) and those who accepted phase II (IIP). To better understand the motivations behind the refusal of II phase procedures, we asked the patients belonging to both the IP group and “no surgery” group to indicate the main reason that influenced their decision to avoid II phase procedures. We also monitored and compared five parameters of postoperative discomfort: pain, painkiller assumption, length of hospitalization, foreign body sensation, and diet assumption following IP and IIP procedures. Results. The main reason to avoid IIP procedures was the concern of a more severe postoperative discomfort. Comparison of the postoperative discomfort following IP versus IIP procedures showed that the former scored worse in 4 out of 5 parameters analyzed. Conclusion. IIP procedures produce less postoperative discomfort. IIP procedures, namely, orthognathic surgery, should be the first choice intervention in patients affected by OSAS and dentoskeletal malformation. PMID:25695081

  9. Quantitative assessment of skeletal muscle activation using muscle functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, Ryuta; Kawakami, Yasuo; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine whether muscle functional MRI (mfMRI) can be used to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) images useful for evaluating muscle activity, and if so, to measure the distribution of muscle activity within a medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle. Seven men performed 5 sets of 10 repetitions of a calf-raise exercise with additional 15% of body-weight load. Magnetic resonance images were obtained before and immediately after the exercise. To threshold images, only those pixels showing transverse relaxation time (T2) greater than the mean+1 S.D. of the entire regions of interest (ROIs) in the preexercise image and T2 lower than the mean+1 S.D. of the entire ROIs in the postexercise image were identified. The survived pixels showing T2 are defined as active muscle. Those thresholded images were 3-D reconstructed, and this was used to determine area of active muscle along transverse, longitudinal and vertical axes. At the exercise level used in the present study, the percentage volume of activated muscle in the MG was 62.8+/-4.5%. There was a significant correlation between percentage volume of activated muscle and integrated electromyography (r=.78, P<.05). Percentage areas of activated muscle were significantly larger in the medial than in the lateral region, in the anterior than in the posterior region and in the distal than in the proximal region (P<.05). These results suggest that mfMRI can be used to evaluate the muscle activity and to determine intramuscular variations of activity within skeletal muscle. PMID:16735187

  10. Mechanical properties of respiratory muscles.

    PubMed

    Sieck, Gary C; Ferreira, Leonardo F; Reid, Michael B; Mantilla, Carlos B

    2013-10-01

    Striated respiratory muscles are necessary for lung ventilation and to maintain the patency of the upper airway. The basic structural and functional properties of respiratory muscles are similar to those of other striated muscles (both skeletal and cardiac). The sarcomere is the fundamental organizational unit of striated muscles and sarcomeric proteins underlie the passive and active mechanical properties of muscle fibers. In this respect, the functional categorization of different fiber types provides a conceptual framework to understand the physiological properties of respiratory muscles. Within the sarcomere, the interaction between the thick and thin filaments at the level of cross-bridges provides the elementary unit of force generation and contraction. Key to an understanding of the unique functional differences across muscle fiber types are differences in cross-bridge recruitment and cycling that relate to the expression of different myosin heavy chain isoforms in the thick filament. The active mechanical properties of muscle fibers are characterized by the relationship between myoplasmic Ca2+ and cross-bridge recruitment, force generation and sarcomere length (also cross-bridge recruitment), external load and shortening velocity (cross-bridge cycling rate), and cross-bridge cycling rate and ATP consumption. Passive mechanical properties are also important reflecting viscoelastic elements within sarcomeres as well as the extracellular matrix. Conditions that affect respiratory muscle performance may have a range of underlying pathophysiological causes, but their manifestations will depend on their impact on these basic elemental structures. PMID:24265238

  11. Postural control in children with strabismus: effect of eye surgery.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Agathe; Quoc, Emmanuel Bui; Vacher, Sylvette Wiener; Ribot, Jérôme; Lebas, Nicolas; Milleret, Chantal; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2011-08-26

    The purpose of this study was to examine the postural control in children with strabismus before and after eye surgery. Control of posture is a complex multi-sensorial process relying on visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. Reduced influence of one of such systems leads to postural adaptation due to a compensation of one of the other systems [3]. Nine children with strabismus (4-8 years old) participated in the study. Ophthalmologic, orthoptic, vestibular and postural tests were done before and twice (2 and 8 weeks) after eye surgery. Postural stability was measured by a platform (TechnoConcept): two components of the optic flux were used for stimulation (contraction and expansion) and two conditions were tested eyes open and eyes closed. The surface area of the center of pressure (CoP), the variance of speed of the CoP and the frequency spectrum of the platform oscillations by fast Fourier transformation were analysed. Before surgery, similar to typically developing children, postural stability was better in the eyes open condition. The frequency analysis revealed that for the low frequency band more energy was spent in the antero-posterior direction compared to the medio-lateral one while the opposite occurred for the middle and the high frequency bands. After surgery, the eye deviation was reduced in all children and their postural stability also improved. However, the energy of the high frequency band in the medio-lateral direction increased significantly. These findings suggest that eye surgery influences somatosensory properties of extra-ocular muscles leading to improvement of postural control and that binocular visual perception could influence the whole body. PMID:21767607

  12. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not prevent the postoperative protein catabolic response in muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Essén, P; Thorell, A; McNurlan, M A; Anderson, S; Ljungqvist, O; Wernerman, J; Garlick, P J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors determined the effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. In addition to a decrease in muscle protein synthesis, after open cholecystectomy, the authors previously demonstrated a decrease in insulin sensitivity. This study on patients undergoing laparoscopic and open surgery, therefore, included simultaneous measurements of protein synthesis and insulin sensitivity. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Laparoscopy has become a routine technique for several operations because of postoperative benefits that allow rapid recovery. However, its effect on postoperative protein catabolism has not been characterized. Conventional laparotomy induces a drop in muscle protein synthesis, whereas degradation is unaffected. METHODS: Patients were randomized to laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy, and the rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle was determined 24 hours postoperatively by the flooding technique using L-(2H5)phenylalanine, during a hyperinsulinemic normoglycemic clamp to assess insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: The protein synthesis rate decreased by 28% (1.77 +/- 0.11%/day vs. 1.26 +/- 0.08%/day, p < 0.01) in the laparoscopic group and by 20% (1.97 +/- 0.15%/day vs. 1.57 +/- 0.15%/day, p < 0.01) in the open cholecystectomy group. In contrast, the fall in insulin sensitivity after surgery was lower with laparoscopic (22 +/- 2%) compared with open surgery (49 +/- 5%). CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy did not avoid a substantial decline in muscle protein synthesis, despite improved insulin sensitivity. The change in the two parameters occurred independently, indicating different mechanisms controlling insulin sensitivity and muscle protein synthesis. PMID:7618966

  13. Measuring Our Muscles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Student teams build model hand dynamometers used to measure grip strengths of people recovering from sports injuries. They use their models to measure how much force their classmates muscles are capable of producing, and analyze the data to determine factors that influence a person's grip strength. They use this information to produce a recommendation of a hand dynamometer design for a medical office specializing in physical therapy. They also consider the many other ways grip strength data is used by engineers to design everyday products.

  14. Scalable synthetic muscle actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbio, Stephen M.; Pennington, Michael A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Zara, Jason M.; Leamy, Harry J.; Hudak, John A.; Pagan, Jennifer; Elliot, Paul C.

    2000-06-01

    We will discuss our work to build, characterize, and scale- up a metallized plastic muscle-like actuator called a Spiral Wound Transducer (SWT). Prototype SWTs have been built using microelectronics fabrication methods. The prototypes have demonstrated large amplitude motion and analog response. The prototypes, though small, have demonstrated forces equivalent to 12 grams for compressions of more than 15 percent at 30 Hz. The size of the SWTs is essentially unrestricted. Our work with commercially available metallized Mylar films to produce much larger, more powerful, and lower cost SWT devices will also be discussed.

  15. Muscle precursor cells for the restoration of irreversibly damaged sphincter function.

    PubMed

    Eberli, Daniel; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Soker, Shay; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Multiple modalities, including injectable bulking agents and surgery, have been used to treat stress urinary incontinence. However, none of these methods is able to fully restore normal striated sphincter muscle function. In this study, we explored the possibility of achieving functional recovery of the urinary sphincter muscle using autologous muscle precursor cells (MPCs) as an injectable, cell-based therapy. A canine model of striated urinary sphincter insufficiency was created by microsurgically removing part of the sphincter muscle in 24 dogs. Autologous MPCs were obtained, expanded in culture, and injected into the damaged sphincter muscles of 12 animals. The animals were followed for up to 6 months after injection, and urodynamic studies, functional organ bath studies, ultrastructural and histological examinations were performed. Animals receiving MPC injections demonstrated sphincter pressures of approximately 80% of normal values, while the pressures in the control animals without cells dropped and remained at 20% of normal values. Histological analysis indicated that the implanted cells survived and formed tissue, including new innervated muscle fibers, within the injected region of the sphincter. These results indicate that autologous muscle precursor cells may be able to restore otherwise irreversibly damaged urinary sphincter function clinically. PMID:22236637

  16. High resolution muscle measurements provide insights into equinus contractures in patients with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Margie A; Ward, Samuel R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Muscle contractures that occur after upper motor neuron lesion are often surgically released or lengthened. However, surgical manipulation of muscle length changes a muscle's sarcomere length (Ls ), which can affect force production. To predict effects of surgery, both macro- (fascicle length (Lf )) and micro- (Ls ) level structural measurements are needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify both Ls and Lf in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) as well as typically developing (TD) children. Soleus ultrasound images were obtained from children with CP and TD children. Lf was determined and, with the joint in the same position, CP biopsies were obtained and formalin fixed, and Ls was measured by laser diffraction. Since soleus Ls values were not measurable in TD children, TD Ls values were obtained using three independent methods. While average Lf did not differ between groups (CP=3.6±1.2?cm, TD=3.5±0.9?cm; p>0.6), Ls was dramatically longer in children with CP (4.07±0.45?µm vs. TD=2.17±0.24?µm; p<0.0001). While Lf values were similar between children with CP and TD children, this was due to highly stretched sarcomeres within the soleus muscle. Surgical manipulation of muscle-tendon unit length will thus alter muscle sarcomere length and change force generating capacity of the muscle. PMID:25242618

  17. Irreversible muscle damage in bodybuilding due to long-term intramuscular oil injection.

    PubMed

    Banke, I J; Prodinger, P M; Waldt, S; Weirich, G; Holzapfel, B M; Gradinger, R; Rechl, H

    2012-10-01

    Intramuscular oil injections generating slowly degrading oil-based depots represent a controversial subject in bodybuilding and fitness. However they seem to be commonly reported in a large number of non-medical reports, movies and application protocols for 'site-injections'. Surprisingly the impact of long-term (ab)use on the musculature as well as potential side-effects compromising health and sports ability are lacking in the medical literature. We present the case of a 40 year old male semi-professional bodybuilder with systemic infection and painful reddened swellings of the right upper arm forcing him to discontinue weightlifting. Over the last 8 years he daily self-injected sterilized sesame seed oil at numerous intramuscular locations for the purpose of massive muscle building. Whole body MRI showed more than 100 intramuscular rather than subcutaneous oil cysts and loss of normal muscle anatomy. 2-step septic surgery of the right upper arm revealed pus-filled cystic scar tissue with the near-complete absence of normal muscle. MRI 1 year later revealed the absence of relevant muscle regeneration. Persistent pain and inability to perform normal weight training were evident for at least 3 years post-surgery. This alarming finding indicating irreversible muscle mutilation may hopefully discourage people interested in bodybuilding and fitness from oil-injections. The impact of such chronic tissue stress on other diseases like malignancy remains to be determined. PMID:22592548

  18. Adult skeletal muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sambasivan, Ramkumar; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles in vertebrates have a phenomenal regenerative capacity. A muscle that has been crushed can regenerate fully both structurally and functionally within a month. Remarkably, efficient regeneration continues to occur following repeated injuries. Thousands of muscle precursor cells are needed to accomplish regeneration following acute injury. The differentiated muscle cells, the multinucleated contractile myofibers, are terminally withdrawn from mitosis. The source of the regenerative precursors is the skeletal muscle stem cells-the mononucleated cells closely associated with myofibers, which are known as satellite cells. Satellite cells are mitotically quiescent or slow-cycling, committed to myogenesis, but undifferentiated. Disruption of the niche after muscle damage results in their exit from quiescence and progression towards commitment. They eventually arrest proliferation, differentiate, and fuse to damaged myofibers or make de novo myofibers. Satellite cells are one of the well-studied adult tissue-specific stem cells and have served as an excellent model for investigating adult stem cells. They have also emerged as an important standard in the field of ageing and stem cells. Several recent reviews have highlighted the importance of these cells as a model to understand stem cell biology. This chapter begins with the discovery of satellite cells as skeletal muscle stem cells and their developmental origin. We discuss transcription factors and signalling cues governing stem cell function of satellite cells and heterogeneity in the satellite cell pool. Apart from satellite cells, a number of other stem cells have been shown to make muscle and are being considered as candidate stem cells for amelioration of muscle degenerative diseases. We discuss these "offbeat" muscle stem cells and their status as adult skeletal muscle stem cells vis-a-vis satellite cells. The ageing context is highlighted in the concluding section. PMID:25344672

  19. Metastasis to Sartorius Muscle from a Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiou, Antonios; Levis, Panagiotis K.; Ploumidis, Achilles; Alamanis, Christos; Felekouras, Evangelos; Constantinides, Constantinos A.

    2014-01-01

    Bladder cancer constitutes the ninth most common cancer worldwide and approximately only 30% of cases are muscle invasive at initial diagnosis. Regional lymph nodes, bones, lung, and liver are the most common metastases from bladder cancer and generally from genitourinary malignancies. Muscles constitute a rare site of metastases from distant primary lesions even though they represent 50% of total body mass and receive a large blood flow. Skeletal muscles from urothelial carcinoma are very rare and up to date only few cases have been reported in the literature. We present a rare case of 51-year-old patient with metastases to sartorius muscle 8 months after the radical cystectomy performed for a muscle invasive bladder cancer. PMID:25587283

  20. Trichinella spiralis in human muscle (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    This is the parasite Trichinella spiralis in human muscle tissue. The parasite is transmitted by eating undercooked ... produce large numbers of larvae that migrate into muscle tissue. The cysts may cause muscle pain and ...