Science.gov

Sample records for recurring spatiotemporal activity

  1. Internally Recurring Hippocampal Sequences as a Population Template of Spatiotemporal Information

    PubMed Central

    Villette, Vincent; Malvache, Arnaud; Tressard, Thomas; Dupuy, Nathalie; Cossart, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Summary The hippocampus is essential for spatiotemporal cognition. Sequences of neuronal activation provide a substrate for this fundamental function. At the behavioral timescale, these sequences have been shown to occur either in the presence of successive external landmarks or through internal mechanisms within an episodic memory task. In both cases, activity is externally constrained by the organization of the task and by the size of the environment explored. Therefore, it remains unknown whether hippocampal activity can self-organize into a default mode in the absence of any external memory demand or spatiotemporal boundary. Here we show that, in the presence of self-motion cues, a population code integrating distance naturally emerges in the hippocampus in the form of recurring sequences. These internal dynamics clamp spontaneous travel since run distance distributes into integer multiples of the span of these sequences. These sequences may thus guide navigation when external landmarks are reduced. PMID:26494280

  2. Effects of Recurring Droughts on Extracellular Enzyme Activity in Mountain Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchslueger, L.; Bahn, M.; Kienzl, S.; Hofhansl, F.; Schnecker, J.; Richter, A.

    2015-12-01

    Water availability is a key factor for biogeochemical processes and determines microbial activity and functioning, and thereby organic matter decomposition in soils by affecting the osmotic potential, soil pore connectivity, substrate diffusion and nutrient availability. Low water availability during drought periods therefore directly affects microbial activity. Recurring drought periods likely induce shifts in microbial structure that might be reflected in altered responses of microbial turnover of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. To study this we measured a set of potential extracellular enzyme activity rates (cellobiohydrolase CBH; leucine-amino-peptidase LAP; phosphatase PHOS; phenoloxidase POX), in grassland soils that were exposed to extreme experimental droughts during the growing seasons of up to five subsequent years. During the first drought period after eight weeks of rain exclusion all measured potential enzyme activities were significantly decreased. In parallel, soil extractable organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations increased and microbial community structure, determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, changed. In soils that were exposed to two and three drought periods only PHOS decreased. After four years of drought again CBH, PHOS and POX decreased, while LAP was unaffected; after five years of drought PHOS and POX decreased and CBH and LAP remained stable. Thus, our results suggest that recurring extreme drought events can cause different responses of extracellular enzyme activities and that the responses change over time. We will discuss whether and to what degree these changes were related to shifts in microbial community composition. However, independent of whether a solitary or a recurrent drought was imposed, in cases when enzyme activity rates were altered during drought, they quickly recovered after rewetting. Overall, our data suggest that microbial functioning in mountain grassland is sensitive to drought, but highly

  3. Spatiotemporal Data Mining, Analysis, and Visualization of Human Activity Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the research challenge of developing efficient new methods for discovering useful patterns and knowledge in large volumes of electronically collected spatiotemporal activity data. I propose to analyze three types of such spatiotemporal activity data in a methodological framework that integrates spatial analysis, data…

  4. Visual Experience Modulates Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Circuit Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lang; Fontanini, Alfredo; Maffei, Arianna

    2011-01-01

    Persistent reduction in sensory drive in early development results in multiple plastic changes of different cortical synapses. How these experience-dependent modifications affect the spatio-temporal dynamics of signal propagation in neocortical circuits is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that brief visual deprivation significantly affects the propagation of electrical signals in the primary visual cortex. The spatio-temporal spread of circuit activation upon direct stimulation of its input layer (Layer 4) is reduced, as is the activation of L2/3 – the main recipient of the output from L4. Our data suggest that the decrease in spatio-temporal activation of L2/3 depends on reduced L4 output, and is not intrinsically generated within L2/3. The data shown here suggest that changes in the synaptic components of the visual cortical circuit result not only in alteration of local integration of excitatory and inhibitory inputs, but also in a significant decrease in overall circuit activation. Furthermore, our data indicate a differential effect of visual deprivation on L4 and L2/3, suggesting that while feedforward activation of L2/3 is reduced, its activation by long range, within layer inputs is unaltered. Thus, brief visual deprivation induces experience-dependent circuit re-organization by modulating not only circuit excitability, but also the spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation within and between layers. PMID:21743804

  5. Tensor analysis methods for activity characterization in spatiotemporal data

    SciTech Connect

    Haass, Michael Joseph; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Ochoa, Edward M.

    2014-03-01

    Tensor (multiway array) factorization and decomposition offers unique advantages for activity characterization in spatio-temporal datasets because these methods are compatible with sparse matrices and maintain multiway structure that is otherwise lost in collapsing for regular matrix factorization. This report describes our research as part of the PANTHER LDRD Grand Challenge to develop a foundational basis of mathematical techniques and visualizations that enable unsophisticated users (e.g. users who are not steeped in the mathematical details of matrix algebra and mulitway computations) to discover hidden patterns in large spatiotemporal data sets.

  6. a Spatio-Temporal Framework for Modeling Active Layer Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touyz, J.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Nelson, F. E.; Apanasovich, T. V.

    2015-07-01

    The Arctic is experiencing an unprecedented rate of environmental and climate change. The active layer (the uppermost layer of soil between the atmosphere and permafrost that freezes in winter and thaws in summer) is sensitive to both climatic and environmental changes, and plays an important role in the functioning, planning, and economic activities of Arctic human and natural ecosystems. This study develops a methodology for modeling and estimating spatial-temporal variations in active layer thickness (ALT) using data from several sites of the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring network, and demonstrates its use in spatial-temporal interpolation. The simplest model's stochastic component exhibits no spatial or spatio-temporal dependency and is referred to as the naïve model, against which we evaluate the performance of the other models, which assume that the stochastic component exhibits either spatial or spatio-temporal dependency. The methods used to fit the models are then discussed, along with point forecasting. We compare the predicted fit of the various models at key study sites located in the North Slope of Alaska and demonstrate the advantages of space-time models through a series of error statistics such as mean squared error, mean absolute and percent deviance from observed data. We find the difference in performance between the spatio-temporal and remaining models is significant for all three error statistics. The best stochastic spatio-temporal model increases predictive accuracy, compared to the naïve model, of 33.3%, 36.2% and 32.5% on average across the three error metrics at the key sites for a one-year hold out period.

  7. Spatiotemporal psychopathology I: No rest for the brain's resting state activity in depression? Spatiotemporal psychopathology of depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Despite intense neurobiological investigation in psychiatric disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), the basic disturbance that underlies the psychopathological symptoms of MDD remains, nevertheless, unclear. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the various sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's intrinsic activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity. While various abnormalities have been observed during this activity, their meaning and significance for depression, along with its various psychopathological symptoms, are yet to be defined. Based on findings in healthy brain resting state activity and its particular spatial and temporal structure - defined in a functional and physiological sense rather than anatomical and structural - I claim that the various depressive symptoms are spatiotemporal disturbances of the resting state activity and its spatiotemporal structure. This is supported by recent findings that link ruminations and increased self-focus in depression to abnormal spatial organization of resting state activity. Analogously, affective and cognitive symptoms like anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and thought disorder can be traced to an increased focus on the past, increased past-focus as basic temporal disturbance o the resting state. Based on these findings, I conclude that the various depressive symptoms must be conceived as spatiotemporal disturbances of the brain's resting state's activity and its spatiotemporal structure. Importantly, this entails a new form of psychopathology, "Spatiotemporal Psychopathology" that directly links the brain and psyche, therefore having major diagnostic and therapeutic implications for clinical practice. PMID:26048657

  8. Assessing global vegetation activity using spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Vera L.; van Eck, Christel M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Regnier, Pierre A. G.

    2016-04-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of modelling vegetation activity using a hierarchical Bayesian spatio-temporal model. This approach allows modelling changes in vegetation and climate simultaneous in space and time. Changes of vegetation activity such as phenology are modelled as a dynamic process depending on climate variability in both space and time. Additionally, differences in observed vegetation status can be contributed to other abiotic ecosystem properties, e.g. soil and terrain properties. Although these properties do not change in time, they do change in space and may provide valuable information in addition to the climate dynamics. The spatio-temporal Bayesian models were calibrated at a regional scale because the local trends in space and time can be better captured by the model. The regional subsets were defined according to the SREX segmentation, as defined by the IPCC. Each region is considered being relatively homogeneous in terms of large-scale climate and biomes, still capturing small-scale (grid-cell level) variability. Modelling within these regions is hence expected to be less uncertain due to the absence of these large-scale patterns, compared to a global approach. This overall modelling approach allows the comparison of model behavior for the different regions and may provide insights on the main dynamic processes driving the interaction between vegetation and climate within different regions. The data employed in this study encompasses the global datasets for soil properties (SoilGrids), terrain properties (Global Relief Model based on SRTM DEM and ETOPO), monthly time series of satellite-derived vegetation indices (GIMMS NDVI3g) and climate variables (Princeton Meteorological Forcing Dataset). The findings proved the potential of a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling approach for assessing vegetation dynamics, at a regional scale. The observed interrelationships of the employed data and the different spatial and temporal trends support

  9. A spatio-temporal filter approach to synchronous brain activities.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, T; Ohashi, A

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical mechanism for neuronal synchronization in oscillatory brain activities on the basis of the layer structures with recurrent inhibition. To begin with, a linear theory reveals that the recurrent inhibition tends to cause a synchronous uniform oscillation if the loop delay increases, and that an oscillating neuron recruits neighboring neurons by delivering synchronous inputs through the recurrent inhibition loop if the frequency is that of the selfexcitatory oscillation. Then, a quasilinearized dual wave model (DWM), employing the two-sinusoids plus bias input describing functions (TSBDF), shows the competitive relationship between the synchronous oscillation and a spatial wave that is introduced to represent normal brain activity patterns. Results of computer simulations conform well to the predictions of the DWM. Thus, synchronous brain activities are suggested to be the result of the spatio-temporal filter characteristics of the brain layer structures, modified by the neural nonlinearity. PMID:7353063

  10. Active sensing via movement shapes spatiotemporal patterns of sensory feedback.

    PubMed

    Stamper, Sarah A; Roth, Eatai; Cowan, Noah J; Fortune, Eric S

    2012-05-01

    Previous work has shown that animals alter their locomotor behavior to increase sensing volumes. However, an animal's own movement also determines the spatial and temporal dynamics of sensory feedback. Because each sensory modality has unique spatiotemporal properties, movement has differential and potentially independent effects on each sensory system. Here we show that weakly electric fish dramatically adjust their locomotor behavior in relation to changes of modality-specific information in a task in which increasing sensory volume is irrelevant. We varied sensory information during a refuge-tracking task by changing illumination (vision) and conductivity (electroreception). The gain between refuge movement stimuli and fish tracking responses was functionally identical across all sensory conditions. However, there was a significant increase in the tracking error in the dark (no visual cues). This was a result of spontaneous whole-body oscillations (0.1 to 1 Hz) produced by the fish. These movements were costly: in the dark, fish swam over three times further when tracking and produced more net positive mechanical work. The magnitudes of these oscillations increased as electrosensory salience was degraded via increases in conductivity. In addition, tail bending (1.5 to 2.35 Hz), which has been reported to enhance electrosensory perception, occurred only during trials in the dark. These data show that both categories of movements - whole-body oscillations and tail bends - actively shape the spatiotemporal dynamics of electrosensory feedback. PMID:22496294

  11. Spatio-temporal activity of lightnings over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.; Chronis, T. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events are always associated with convective weather conditions driving to intense lightning activity: Cloud to Ground (CG), Ground to Cloud (GC) and Cloud to Cloud (CC). Thus, the study of lightnings, which typically occur during thunderstorms, gives evidence of the spatio-temporal variability of intense precipitation. Lightning is a natural phenomenon in the atmosphere, being a major cause of storm related with deaths and main trigger of forest fires during dry season. Lightning affects the many electrochemical systems of the body causing nerve damage, memory loss, personality change, and emotional problems. Besides, among the various nitrogen oxides sources, the contribution from lightning likely represents the largest uncertainty. An operational lightning detection network (LDN) has been established since 2007 by HNMS, consisting of eight time-of-arrival sensors (TOA), spatially distributed across Greek territory. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of recorded lightnings (CG, GC and CC) are analyzed over Greece, during the period from January 14, 2008 to December 31, 2009, for the first time. The data for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence of lightning were acquired from Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). In addition to the analysis of spatio-temporal activity over Greece, the HNMS-LDN characteristics are also presented. The results of the performed analysis reveal the specific geographical sub-regions associated with lightnings incidence. Lightning activity occurs mainly during the autumn season, followed by summer and spring. Higher frequencies of flashes appear over Ionian and Aegean Sea than over land during winter period against continental mountainous regions during summer period.

  12. Prediction of Spatiotemporal Patterns of Neural Activity from Pairwise Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marre, O.; El Boustani, S.; Frégnac, Y.; Destexhe, A.

    2009-04-01

    We designed a model-based analysis to predict the occurrence of population patterns in distributed spiking activity. Using a maximum entropy principle with a Markovian assumption, we obtain a model that accounts for both spatial and temporal pairwise correlations among neurons. This model is tested on data generated with a Glauber spin-glass system and is shown to correctly predict the occurrence probabilities of spatiotemporal patterns significantly better than Ising models only based on spatial correlations. This increase of predictability was also observed on experimental data recorded in parietal cortex during slow-wave sleep. This approach can also be used to generate surrogates that reproduce the spatial and temporal correlations of a given data set.

  13. Prediction of Spatiotemporal Patterns of Neural Activity from Pairwise Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Marre, O.; El Boustani, S.; Fregnac, Y.; Destexhe, A.

    2009-04-03

    We designed a model-based analysis to predict the occurrence of population patterns in distributed spiking activity. Using a maximum entropy principle with a Markovian assumption, we obtain a model that accounts for both spatial and temporal pairwise correlations among neurons. This model is tested on data generated with a Glauber spin-glass system and is shown to correctly predict the occurrence probabilities of spatiotemporal patterns significantly better than Ising models only based on spatial correlations. This increase of predictability was also observed on experimental data recorded in parietal cortex during slow-wave sleep. This approach can also be used to generate surrogates that reproduce the spatial and temporal correlations of a given data set.

  14. Spatiotemporal tuning of brain activity and force performance

    PubMed Central

    Coombes, Stephen A.; Corcos, Daniel M.; Vaillancourt, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial and temporal features of visual stimuli are either processed independently or are conflated in specific cells of visual cortex. Although spatial and temporal features of visual stimuli influence motor performance, it remains unclear how spatiotemporal information is processed beyond visual cortex in brain regions that control movement. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how brain activity and force control are influenced by visual gain at a high visual feedback frequency of 6.4 Hz and a low visual feedback frequency of 0.4 Hz. At 6.4 Hz, increasing visual gain led to improved force performance and increased activity in classic areas of the visuomotor system – V5, IPL, SPL, PMv, SMA-proper, and M1. At 0.4 Hz, increasing gain also lead to improved force performance. In addition to activation in M1/PMd and IPL in the visuomotor system, increasing visual gain at 0.4 Hz also corresponded with activity in the striatal-frontal circuit including DLPFC, ACC, and widespread activity in putamen, caudate, and SMA-proper. This study demonstrates that the frequency of visual feedback drives where in the brain visual gain mediated reductions in force error are regulated. PMID:20937396

  15. Spatiotemporal dynamics of large-scale brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, Jeremy

    Understanding the dynamics of large-scale brain activity is a tough challenge. One reason for this is the presence of an incredible amount of complexity arising from having roughly 100 billion neurons connected via 100 trillion synapses. Because of the extremely high number of degrees of freedom in the nervous system, the question of how the brain manages to properly function and remain stable, yet also be adaptable, must be posed. Neuroscientists have identified many ways the nervous system makes this possible, of which synaptic plasticity is possibly the most notable one. On the other hand, it is vital to understand how the nervous system also loses stability, resulting in neuropathological diseases such as epilepsy, a disease which affects 1% of the population. In the following work, we seek to answer some of these questions from two different perspectives. The first uses mean-field theory applied to neuronal populations, where the variables of interest are the percentages of active excitatory and inhibitory neurons in a network, to consider how the nervous system responds to external stimuli, self-organizes and generates epileptiform activity. The second method uses statistical field theory, in the framework of single neurons on a lattice, to study the concept of criticality, an idea borrowed from physics which posits that in some regime the brain operates in a collectively stable or marginally stable manner. This will be examined in two different neuronal networks with self-organized criticality serving as the overarching theme for the union of both perspectives. One of the biggest problems in neuroscience is the question of to what extent certain details are significant to the functioning of the brain. These details give rise to various spatiotemporal properties that at the smallest of scales explain the interaction of single neurons and synapses and at the largest of scales describe, for example, behaviors and sensations. In what follows, we will shed some

  16. Activity induces traveling waves, vortices and spatiotemporal chaos in a model actomyosin layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Jülicher, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Inspired by the actomyosin cortex in biological cells, we investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a model describing a contractile active polar fluid sandwiched between two external media. The external media impose frictional forces at the interface with the active fluid. The fluid is driven by a spatially-homogeneous activity measuring the strength of the active stress that is generated by processes consuming a chemical fuel. We observe that as the activity is increased over two orders of magnitude the active polar fluid first shows spontaneous flow transition followed by transition to oscillatory dynamics with traveling waves and traveling vortices in the flow field. In the flow-tumbling regime, the active polar fluid also shows transition to spatiotemporal chaos at sufficiently large activities. These results demonstrate that level of activity alone can be used to tune the operating point of actomyosin layers with qualitatively different spatiotemporal dynamics.

  17. Activity induces traveling waves, vortices and spatiotemporal chaos in a model actomyosin layer

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Jülicher, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the actomyosin cortex in biological cells, we investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of a model describing a contractile active polar fluid sandwiched between two external media. The external media impose frictional forces at the interface with the active fluid. The fluid is driven by a spatially-homogeneous activity measuring the strength of the active stress that is generated by processes consuming a chemical fuel. We observe that as the activity is increased over two orders of magnitude the active polar fluid first shows spontaneous flow transition followed by transition to oscillatory dynamics with traveling waves and traveling vortices in the flow field. In the flow-tumbling regime, the active polar fluid also shows transition to spatiotemporal chaos at sufficiently large activities. These results demonstrate that level of activity alone can be used to tune the operating point of actomyosin layers with qualitatively different spatiotemporal dynamics. PMID:26877263

  18. Estimating repetitive spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state brain activity data.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yusuke; Hiroe, Nobuo; Yamashita, Okito; Sato, Masa-Aki

    2016-06-01

    Repetitive spatiotemporal patterns in spontaneous brain activities have been widely examined in non-human studies. These studies have reported that such patterns reflect past experiences embedded in neural circuits. In human magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies, however, spatiotemporal patterns in resting-state brain activities have not been extensively examined. This is because estimating spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state MEG/EEG data is difficult due to their unknown onsets. Here, we propose a method to estimate repetitive spatiotemporal patterns from resting-state brain activity data, including MEG/EEG. Without the information of onsets, the proposed method can estimate several spatiotemporal patterns, even if they are overlapping. We verified the performance of the method by detailed simulation tests. Furthermore, we examined whether the proposed method could estimate the visual evoked magnetic fields (VEFs) without using stimulus onset information. The proposed method successfully detected the stimulus onsets and estimated the VEFs, implying the applicability of this method to real MEG data. The proposed method was applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and MEG data. The results revealed informative spatiotemporal patterns representing consecutive brain activities that dynamically change with time. Using this method, it is possible to reveal discrete events spontaneously occurring in our brains, such as memory retrieval. PMID:26979127

  19. Controlling Spatiotemporal Chaos in Active Dissipative-Dispersive Nonlinear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Susana; Pradas, Marc; Kalliadasis, Serafim; Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Pavliotis, Grigorios

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel generic methodology for the stabilization and control of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems exhibiting low-dimensional spatiotemporal chaos. The methodology is exemplified with the generalized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, the simplest possible prototype that retains that fundamental elements of any nonlinear process involving wave evolution. The equation is applicable on a wide variety of systems including falling liquid films and plasma waves with dispersion due to finite banana width. We show that applying the appropriate choice of time-dependent feedback controls via blowing and suction, we are able to stabilize and/or control all stable or unstable solutions, including steady solutions, travelling waves and spatiotemporal chaos, but also use the controls obtained to stabilize the solutions to more general long wave models. We acknowledge financial support from Imperial College through a Roth PhD studentship, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council of the UK through Grants No. EP/H034587, EP/J009636, EP/K041134, EP/L020564 and EP/L024926 and European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031.

  20. Role of synaptic inhibition in spatiotemporal patterning of cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Laurens; Lodder, Johannes C; van Ooyen, Arjen; Brussaard, Arjen B

    2005-01-01

    Developmental upregulation of the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit causes a faster decay of GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the visual cortex around the time of eye opening. In alpha1 deficient mice, a juvenile type of GABAA receptors is retained during maturation. As a result the decay time of the IPSCs is longer in alpha1-/- mice than in WT mice during the whole life span of the mice. Hence they form a valuable mouse model for studies on cellular aspects of neuronal network functioning. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging methods, we monitored the spatiotemporal excitation patterning in visual cortex slices upon local stimulation of the network. We found that in the alpha1-/- mice, the ability of the network to fire synchronously at gamma-frequencies (20-50 Hz) is diminished. This finding indicates that early onset of GABA synapse maturation is required for the normal neuronal network function in the maturating visual cortex. PMID:15581707

  1. Raster image cross-correlation analysis for spatiotemporal visualization of intracellular degradation activities against exogenous DNAs.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Akira; Yamamoto, Johtaro; Jin, Takashi; Kinjo, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Reducing intracellular DNA degradation is critical to enhance the efficiency of gene therapy. Exogenous DNA incorporation into cells is strictly blocked by the defense machinery of intracellular nuclease activity. Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) and raster image cross-correlation spectroscopy (cross-correlation RICS; ccRICS) are image-based correlation methods. These powerful tools allow the study of spatiotemporal molecular dynamics. Here we performed spatiotemporal ccRICS analyses of fluorescent DNA and directly monitored the process of exogenous DNA degradation in living cell cytoplasm. Such direct monitors of DNA degradation allow us to determine the fate of the exogenous DNA in living cells. On comparing the process in living cells, our study shows that cytoplasmic nuclease activity differs between cell lines; therefore, we propose that the difference of nuclease activity in cytoplasm dictates a different resistance to exogenous DNA incorporation. New insight on efficient gene delivery can be provided with our study. PMID:26400011

  2. Raster image cross-correlation analysis for spatiotemporal visualization of intracellular degradation activities against exogenous DNAs

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Akira; Yamamoto, Johtaro; Jin, Takashi; Kinjo, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Reducing intracellular DNA degradation is critical to enhance the efficiency of gene therapy. Exogenous DNA incorporation into cells is strictly blocked by the defense machinery of intracellular nuclease activity. Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) and raster image cross-correlation spectroscopy (cross-correlation RICS; ccRICS) are image-based correlation methods. These powerful tools allow the study of spatiotemporal molecular dynamics. Here we performed spatiotemporal ccRICS analyses of fluorescent DNA and directly monitored the process of exogenous DNA degradation in living cell cytoplasm. Such direct monitors of DNA degradation allow us to determine the fate of the exogenous DNA in living cells. On comparing the process in living cells, our study shows that cytoplasmic nuclease activity differs between cell lines; therefore, we propose that the difference of nuclease activity in cytoplasm dictates a different resistance to exogenous DNA incorporation. New insight on efficient gene delivery can be provided with our study. PMID:26400011

  3. Supervised learning for neural manifold using spatiotemporal brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Po-Chih; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Li-Fen

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Determining the means by which perceived stimuli are compactly represented in the human brain is a difficult task. This study aimed to develop techniques for the construction of the neural manifold as a representation of visual stimuli. Approach. We propose a supervised locally linear embedding method to construct the embedded manifold from brain activity, taking into account similarities between corresponding stimuli. In our experiments, photographic portraits were used as visual stimuli and brain activity was calculated from magnetoencephalographic data using a source localization method. Main results. The results of 10 × 10-fold cross-validation revealed a strong correlation between manifolds of brain activity and the orientation of faces in the presented images, suggesting that high-level information related to image content can be revealed in the brain responses represented in the manifold. Significance. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is applicable to investigation into the inherent patterns of brain activity.

  4. Optogenetically induced spatiotemporal gamma oscillations and neuronal spiking activity in primate motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Truccolo, Wilson; Wagner, Fabien B.; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos E.; Ozden, Ilker; Zimmermann, Jonas B.; May, Travis; Agha, Naubahar S.; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Transient gamma-band (40–80 Hz) spatiotemporal patterns are hypothesized to play important roles in cortical function. Here we report the direct observation of gamma oscillations as spatiotemporal waves induced by targeted optogenetic stimulation, recorded by intracortical multichannel extracellular techniques in macaque monkeys during their awake resting states. Microelectrode arrays integrating an optical fiber at their center were chronically implanted in primary motor (M1) and ventral premotor (PMv) cortices of two subjects. Targeted brain tissue was transduced with the red-shifted opsin C1V1(T/T). Constant (1-s square pulses) and ramp stimulation induced narrowband gamma oscillations during awake resting states. Recordings across 95 microelectrodes (4 × 4-mm array) enabled us to track the transient gamma spatiotemporal patterns manifested, e.g., as concentric expanding and spiral waves. Gamma oscillations were induced well beyond the light stimulation volume, via network interactions at distal electrode sites, depending on optical power. Despite stimulation-related modulation in spiking rates, neuronal spiking remained highly asynchronous during induced gamma oscillations. In one subject we examined stimulation effects during preparation and execution of a motor task and observed that movement execution largely attenuated optically induced gamma oscillations. Our findings demonstrate that, beyond previously reported induced gamma activity under periodic drive, a prolonged constant stimulus above a certain threshold may carry primate motor cortex network dynamics into gamma oscillations, likely via a Hopf bifurcation. More broadly, the experimental capability in combining microelectrode array recordings and optogenetic stimulation provides an important approach for probing spatiotemporal dynamics in primate cortical networks during various physiological and behavioral conditions. PMID:25761956

  5. Optogenetically induced spatiotemporal gamma oscillations and neuronal spiking activity in primate motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Truccolo, Wilson; Wagner, Fabien B; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos E; Ozden, Ilker; Zimmermann, Jonas B; May, Travis; Agha, Naubahar S; Wang, Jing; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2015-06-01

    Transient gamma-band (40-80 Hz) spatiotemporal patterns are hypothesized to play important roles in cortical function. Here we report the direct observation of gamma oscillations as spatiotemporal waves induced by targeted optogenetic stimulation, recorded by intracortical multichannel extracellular techniques in macaque monkeys during their awake resting states. Microelectrode arrays integrating an optical fiber at their center were chronically implanted in primary motor (M1) and ventral premotor (PMv) cortices of two subjects. Targeted brain tissue was transduced with the red-shifted opsin C1V1(T/T). Constant (1-s square pulses) and ramp stimulation induced narrowband gamma oscillations during awake resting states. Recordings across 95 microelectrodes (4 × 4-mm array) enabled us to track the transient gamma spatiotemporal patterns manifested, e.g., as concentric expanding and spiral waves. Gamma oscillations were induced well beyond the light stimulation volume, via network interactions at distal electrode sites, depending on optical power. Despite stimulation-related modulation in spiking rates, neuronal spiking remained highly asynchronous during induced gamma oscillations. In one subject we examined stimulation effects during preparation and execution of a motor task and observed that movement execution largely attenuated optically induced gamma oscillations. Our findings demonstrate that, beyond previously reported induced gamma activity under periodic drive, a prolonged constant stimulus above a certain threshold may carry primate motor cortex network dynamics into gamma oscillations, likely via a Hopf bifurcation. More broadly, the experimental capability in combining microelectrode array recordings and optogenetic stimulation provides an important approach for probing spatiotemporal dynamics in primate cortical networks during various physiological and behavioral conditions. PMID:25761956

  6. Multiview human activity recognition system based on spatiotemporal template for video surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Alok Kumar Singh; Srivastava, Rajeev

    2015-09-01

    An efficient view invariant framework for the recognition of human activities from an input video sequence is presented. The proposed framework is composed of three consecutive modules: (i) detect and locate people by background subtraction, (ii) view invariant spatiotemporal template creation for different activities, (iii) and finally, template matching is performed for view invariant activity recognition. The foreground objects present in a scene are extracted using change detection and background modeling. The view invariant templates are constructed using the motion history images and object shape information for different human activities in a video sequence. For matching the spatiotemporal templates for various activities, the moment invariants and Mahalanobis distance are used. The proposed approach is tested successfully on our own viewpoint dataset, KTH action recognition dataset, i3DPost multiview dataset, MSR viewpoint action dataset, VideoWeb multiview dataset, and WVU multiview human action recognition dataset. From the experimental results and analysis over the chosen datasets, it is observed that the proposed framework is robust, flexible, and efficient with respect to multiple views activity recognition, scale, and phase variations.

  7. Spatiotemporal analysis of RhoA/B/C activation in primary human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, Nathalie R.; van Helden, Suzanne F.; Anthony, Eloise C.; Yin, Taofei; Wu, Yi I.; Goedhart, Joachim; Gadella, Theodorus W. J.; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells line the vasculature and are important for the regulation of blood pressure, vascular permeability, clotting and transendothelial migration of leukocytes and tumor cells. A group of proteins that that control the endothelial barrier function are the RhoGTPases. This study focuses on three homologous (>88%) RhoGTPases: RhoA, RhoB, RhoC of which RhoB and RhoC have been poorly characterized. Using a RhoGTPase mRNA expression analysis we identified RhoC as the highest expressed in primary human endothelial cells. Based on an existing RhoA FRET sensor we developed new RhoB/C FRET sensors to characterize their spatiotemporal activation properties. We found all these RhoGTPase sensors to respond to physiologically relevant agonists (e.g. Thrombin), reaching transient, localized FRET ratio changes up to 200%. These RhoA/B/C FRET sensors show localized GEF and GAP activity and reveal spatial activation differences between RhoA/C and RhoB. Finally, we used these sensors to monitor GEF-specific differential activation of RhoA/B/C. In summary, this study adds high-contrast RhoB/C FRET sensors to the currently available FRET sensor toolkit and uncover new insights in endothelial and RhoGTPase cell biology. This allows us to study activation and signaling by these closely related RhoGTPases with high spatiotemporal resolution in primary human cells. PMID:27147504

  8. Spatiotemporal analysis of RhoA/B/C activation in primary human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Nathalie R; van Helden, Suzanne F; Anthony, Eloise C; Yin, Taofei; Wu, Yi I; Goedhart, Joachim; Gadella, Theodorus W J; Hordijk, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells line the vasculature and are important for the regulation of blood pressure, vascular permeability, clotting and transendothelial migration of leukocytes and tumor cells. A group of proteins that that control the endothelial barrier function are the RhoGTPases. This study focuses on three homologous (>88%) RhoGTPases: RhoA, RhoB, RhoC of which RhoB and RhoC have been poorly characterized. Using a RhoGTPase mRNA expression analysis we identified RhoC as the highest expressed in primary human endothelial cells. Based on an existing RhoA FRET sensor we developed new RhoB/C FRET sensors to characterize their spatiotemporal activation properties. We found all these RhoGTPase sensors to respond to physiologically relevant agonists (e.g. Thrombin), reaching transient, localized FRET ratio changes up to 200%. These RhoA/B/C FRET sensors show localized GEF and GAP activity and reveal spatial activation differences between RhoA/C and RhoB. Finally, we used these sensors to monitor GEF-specific differential activation of RhoA/B/C. In summary, this study adds high-contrast RhoB/C FRET sensors to the currently available FRET sensor toolkit and uncover new insights in endothelial and RhoGTPase cell biology. This allows us to study activation and signaling by these closely related RhoGTPases with high spatiotemporal resolution in primary human cells. PMID:27147504

  9. Spatiotemporal relations of primary sensorimotor and secondary motor activation patterns mapped by NIR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Bilal; Chand, Pankaj; Alexandrakis, George

    2011-01-01

    Functional near infrared (fNIR) imaging was used to identify spatiotemporal relations between spatially distinct cortical regions activated during various hand and arm motion protocols. Imaging was performed over a field of view (FOV, 12 x 8.4 cm) including the secondary motor, primary sensorimotor, and the posterior parietal cortices over a single brain hemisphere. This is a more extended FOV than typically used in current fNIR studies. Three subjects performed four motor tasks that induced activation over this extended FOV. The tasks included card flipping (pronation and supination) that, to our knowledge, has not been performed in previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or fNIR studies. An earlier rise and a longer duration of the hemodynamic activation response were found in tasks requiring increased physical or mental effort. Additionally, analysis of activation images by cluster component analysis (CCA) demonstrated that cortical regions can be grouped into clusters, which can be adjacent or distant from each other, that have similar temporal activation patterns depending on whether the performed motor task is guided by visual or tactile feedback. These analyses highlight the future potential of fNIR imaging to tackle clinically relevant questions regarding the spatiotemporal relations between different sensorimotor cortex regions, e.g. ones involved in the rehabilitation response to motor impairments. PMID:22162826

  10. Spatiotemporal Regulation of Hsp90–Ligand Complex Leads to Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Yasuaki; Yoneda, Akihiro; Takei, Norio; Sawada, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    Although heat shock proteins (HSPs) primarily play a pivotal role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis while reducing extracellular as well as intracellular stresses, their role in immunologically relevant scenarios, including activation of innate immunity as danger signals, antitumor immunity, and autoimmune diseases, is now gaining much attention. The most prominent feature of HSPs is that they function both in their own and as an HSP–ligand complex. We here show as a unique feature of extracellular HSPs that they target chaperoned molecules into a particular endosomal compartment of dendritic cells, thereby inducing innate and adaptive immune responses via spatiotemporal regulation. PMID:27252703

  11. Recurring slope lineae in equatorial regions of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, Alfred S.; Dundas, Colin M.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Ojha, Lujendra; Wray, James J.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Byrne, Shane; Murchie, Scott L.; Thomas, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The presence of liquid water is a requirement of habitability on a planet. Possible indicators of liquid surface water on Mars include intermittent flow-like features observed on sloping terrains. These recurring slope lineae are narrow, dark markings on steep slopes that appear and incrementally lengthen during warm seasons on low-albedo surfaces. The lineae fade in cooler seasons and recur over multiple Mars years. Recurring slope lineae were initially reported to appear and lengthen at mid-latitudes in the late southern spring and summer and are more common on equator-facing slopes where and when the peak surface temperatures are higher. Here we report extensive activity of recurring slope lineae in equatorial regions of Mars, particularly in the deep canyons of Valles Marineris, from analysis of data acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. We observe the lineae to be most active in seasons when the slopes often face the sun. Expected peak temperatures suggest that activity may not depend solely on temperature. Although the origin of the recurring slope lineae remains an open question, our observations are consistent with intermittent flow of briny water. Such an origin suggests surprisingly abundant liquid water in some near-surface equatorial regions of Mars.

  12. Endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma recurring as carcinosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Shaco-Levy, Ruthy; Piura, Benjamin

    2008-04-01

    Müllerian carcinosarcoma is currently regarded as a metaplastic (sarcomatous) carcinoma. Only five cases of pure ovarian adenocarcinoma recurring as carcinosarcoma have been documented in the literature. There are no documented cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma recurring as metaplastic carcinoma. We report of a case of endometrial adenocarcinoma, endometrioid type, recurring as metaplastic carcinoma showing sarcomatous differentiation. The tumor evolution in this case supports the prevailing opinion that Müllerian carcinosarcomas are derived from carcinomas and represent tumor progression. PMID:18412798

  13. Spatiotemporal activity patterns of rat cortical neurons predict responses in a conditioned task

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Alessandro E. P.; Tetko, Igor V.; Hyland, Brian; Najem, Abdellatif

    1999-01-01

    Precise and repeated spike-train timings within and across neurons define spatiotemporal patterns of activity. Although the existence of these patterns in the brain is well established in several species, there has been no direct evidence of their influence on behavioral output. To address this question, up to 15 neurons were recorded simultaneously in the auditory cortex of freely moving rats while animals waited for acoustic cues in a Go/NoGo task. A total of 235 significant patterns were detected during this interval from an analysis of 13 hr of recording involving over 1 million spikes. Of particular interest were 129 (55%) patterns that were significantly associated with the type of response the animal made later, independent of whether the response was that prompted by the cue because the response occurred later and the cue was chosen randomly. Of these behavior-predicting patterns, half (59/129) were associated with an enhanced tendency to go in response to the stimulus, and for 11 patterns of this subset, trials including the pattern were followed by significantly faster reaction time than those lacking the pattern. The remaining behavior-predicting patterns were associated with an enhanced NoGo tendency. Overall mean discharge rates did not vary across trials. Hence, these data demonstrate that particular spatiotemporal patterns predict future behavioral responses. Such presignal activity could form templates for extracting specific sensory information, motor programs prespecifying preference for a particular act, and/or some intermediate, associative brain process. PMID:9927701

  14. Active porous transition towards spatiotemporal control of molecular flow in a crystal membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasaki, Yuichi; Takamizawa, Satoshi

    2015-11-01

    Fluidic control is an essential technology widely found in processes such as flood control in land irrigation and cell metabolism in biological tissues. In any fluidic control system, valve function is the key mechanism used to actively regulate flow and miniaturization of fluidic regulation with precise workability will be particularly vital in the development of microfluidic control. The concept of crystal engineering is alternative to processing technology in microstructure construction, as the ultimate microfluidic devices must provide molecular level control. Consequently, microporous crystals can instantly be converted to microfluidic devices if introduced in an active transformability of porous structure and geometry. Here we show that the introduction of a stress-induced martensitic transition mechanism converts a microporous molecular crystal into an active fluidic device with spatiotemporal molecular flow controllability through mechanical reorientation of subnanometre channels.

  15. Active porous transition towards spatiotemporal control of molecular flow in a crystal membrane.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Yuichi; Takamizawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Fluidic control is an essential technology widely found in processes such as flood control in land irrigation and cell metabolism in biological tissues. In any fluidic control system, valve function is the key mechanism used to actively regulate flow and miniaturization of fluidic regulation with precise workability will be particularly vital in the development of microfluidic control. The concept of crystal engineering is alternative to processing technology in microstructure construction, as the ultimate microfluidic devices must provide molecular level control. Consequently, microporous crystals can instantly be converted to microfluidic devices if introduced in an active transformability of porous structure and geometry. Here we show that the introduction of a stress-induced martensitic transition mechanism converts a microporous molecular crystal into an active fluidic device with spatiotemporal molecular flow controllability through mechanical reorientation of subnanometre channels. PMID:26568441

  16. Spatiotemporal regulation of chemical reaction kinetics of cell surface molecules by active remodeling of cortical actin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Chaudhuri, Abhishek; Gowrishankar, Kripa; Mayor, Satyajit; Rao, Madan

    2010-03-01

    Cell surface proteins such as lipid tethered GPI-anchored proteins and Ras-proteins are distributed as monomers and nanoclusters on the surface of living cells. Recent work from our laboratory suggests that the spatial distribution and dynamics of formation and breakup of these nanoclusters is controlled by the active remodeling dynamics of the underlying cortical actin. To explain these observations, we propose a novel mechanism of nanoclustering, involving the transient binding to and advection along constitutively occuring ``asters'' of cortical actin. Here we study the consequences of such active actin based clustering, in the context of chemical reactions involving conformational changes of cell surface proteins. We find that active remodeling of cortical actin, can give rise to a dramatic increase in the reaction efficiency and output levels. In general, such actin driven clustering of membrane proteins could be a cellular mechanism to spatiotemporally regulate and amplify local chemical reaction rates, in the context of signalling and endocytosis.

  17. Active porous transition towards spatiotemporal control of molecular flow in a crystal membrane

    PubMed Central

    Takasaki, Yuichi; Takamizawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Fluidic control is an essential technology widely found in processes such as flood control in land irrigation and cell metabolism in biological tissues. In any fluidic control system, valve function is the key mechanism used to actively regulate flow and miniaturization of fluidic regulation with precise workability will be particularly vital in the development of microfluidic control. The concept of crystal engineering is alternative to processing technology in microstructure construction, as the ultimate microfluidic devices must provide molecular level control. Consequently, microporous crystals can instantly be converted to microfluidic devices if introduced in an active transformability of porous structure and geometry. Here we show that the introduction of a stress-induced martensitic transition mechanism converts a microporous molecular crystal into an active fluidic device with spatiotemporal molecular flow controllability through mechanical reorientation of subnanometre channels. PMID:26568441

  18. Reconstruction of Neural Activity from EEG Data Using Dynamic Spatiotemporal Constraints.

    PubMed

    Giraldo-Suarez, E; Martinez-Vargas, J D; Castellanos-Dominguez, G

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel iterative regularized algorithm (IRA) for neural activity reconstruction that explicitly includes spatiotemporal constraints, performing a trade-off between space and time resolutions. For improving the spatial accuracy provided by electroencephalography (EEG) signals, we explore a basis set that describes the smooth, localized areas of potentially active brain regions. In turn, we enhance the time resolution by adding the Markovian assumption for brain activity estimation at each time period. Moreover, to deal with applications that have either distributed or localized neural activity, the spatiotemporal constraints are expressed through [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] norms, respectively. For the purpose of validation, we estimate the neural reconstruction performance in time and space separately. Experimental testing is carried out on artificial data, simulating stationary and non-stationary EEG signals. Also, validation is accomplished on two real-world databases, one holding Evoked Potentials and another with EEG data of focal epilepsy. Moreover, responses of functional magnetic resonance imaging for the former EEG data have been measured in advance, allowing to contrast our findings. Obtained results show that the [Formula: see text]-based IRA produces a spatial resolution that is comparable to the one achieved by some widely used sparse-based estimators of brain activity. At the same time, the [Formula: see text]-based IRA outperforms other similar smooth solutions, providing a spatial resolution that is lower than the sparse [Formula: see text]-based solution. As a result, the proposed IRA is a promising method for improving the accuracy of brain activity reconstruction. PMID:27354190

  19. Recurring Slope Lineae in Valles Marineris, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Dundas, C. M.; Byrne, S.; Mattson, S.; Ojha, L.; Schaefer, E.; Wray, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are relatively low-albedo features up to a few m wide that extend down steep slopes from bedrock outcrops. Hundreds may form in rare locations, often associated with small channels. In the southern mid-latitudes, RSL appear and grow incrementally during the late southern spring through summer, and they favor equator-facing slopes--times and places with peak surface temperatures from ~250 to 300 K. RSL are recurring: they form and grow in the warm season, then fade and usually completely disappear in cold seasons. During the next warm season, similar but new features form and grow. For more, see McEwen et al., 2011, Science 333, 740. As of early 2012, 15 RSL sites had been confirmed between 52-32°S latitudes. Confirmation requires that we observe many new lineae forming at a site in more than one Mars year, distinguishing RSL from episodic dry mass wasting triggered by eolian, seismic, or impact activity. We have recently confirmed three sites in the equatorial region of Mars. Two of them are on the floor of Coprates Chasma and one is in central Valles Marineris, all near latitude 12S. They are on north-facing slopes and active in southern winter/northern summer (which may be the warmest season on these steep slopes, although in the southern hemisphere). The surface brightness temperatures from THEMIS remain in the range (>250 K) of the southern mid-latitude RSL sites when active, and the morphologies and geologic settings are also similar. We will continue monitoring these sites throughout the year, along with occasional monitoring of other candidate equatorial RSL sites. If RSL are due to flow of salty water, the equatorial sites may be of special interest for future exploration.

  20. Characterization of orderly spatiotemporal patterns of clock gene activation in mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Nicholas C.; Tong, Tina Y.; Foley, Duncan; LeSauter, Joseph; Welsh, David K.

    2012-01-01

    Because we can observe oscillation within individual cells and in the tissue as a whole, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) presents a unique system in the mammalian brain for the analysis of individual cells and the networks of which they are a part. While dispersed cells of the SCN sustain circadian oscillations in isolation, they are unstable oscillators that require network interactions for robust cycling. Using cluster analysis to assess bioluminescence in acute brain slices from PERIOD2∷Luciferase (PER2∷LUC) knockin mice, and immunochemistry of SCN from animals harvested at various circadian times, we assessed the spatiotemporal activation patterns of PER2 to explore the emergence of a coherent oscillation at the tissue level. The results indicate that circadian oscillation is characterized by a stable daily cycle of PER2 expression involving orderly serial activation of specific SCN subregions, followed by a silent interval, with substantial symmetry between the left and right side of the SCN. The biological significance of the clusters identified in living slices was confirmed by co-expression of LUC and PER2 in fixed, immunochemically stained brain sections, with the spatiotemporal pattern of LUC expression resembling that revealed in the cluster analysis of bioluminescent slices. We conclude that the precise timing of PER2 expression within individual neurons is dependent on their location within the nucleus, and that small groups of neurons within the SCN give rise to distinctive and identifiable subregions. We propose that serial activation of these subregions is the basis of robustness and resilience of the daily rhythm of the SCN. PMID:21488990

  1. Genome-scale analysis of in vivo spatiotemporal promoter activity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Denis; Bertin, Nicolas; Hidalgo, César A; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Tu, Domena; Lee, David; Rosenberg, Jennifer; Svrzikapa, Nenad; Blanc, Aurélie; Carnec, Alain; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Pulak, Rock; Shingles, Jane; Reece-Hoyes, John; Hunt-Newbury, Rebecca; Viveiros, Ryan; Mohler, William A; Tasan, Murat; Roth, Frederick P; Le Peuch, Christian; Hope, Ian A; Johnsen, Robert; Moerman, Donald G; Barabási, Albert-László; Baillie, David; Vidal, Marc

    2007-06-01

    Differential regulation of gene expression is essential for cell fate specification in metazoans. Characterizing the transcriptional activity of gene promoters, in time and in space, is therefore a critical step toward understanding complex biological systems. Here we present an in vivo spatiotemporal analysis for approximately 900 predicted C. elegans promoters (approximately 5% of the predicted protein-coding genes), each driving the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Using a flow-cytometer adapted for nematode profiling, we generated 'chronograms', two-dimensional representations of fluorescence intensity along the body axis and throughout development from early larvae to adults. Automated comparison and clustering of the obtained in vivo expression patterns show that genes coexpressed in space and time tend to belong to common functional categories. Moreover, integration of this data set with C. elegans protein-protein interactome data sets enables prediction of anatomical and temporal interaction territories between protein partners. PMID:17486083

  2. Distinct spatiotemporal activity in principal neurons of the mouse olfactory bulb in anesthetized and awake states

    PubMed Central

    Blauvelt, David G.; Sato, Tomokazu F.; Wienisch, Martin; Murthy, Venkatesh N.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of olfactory information and its early processing in mammals are modulated by brain states through sniffing behavior and neural feedback. We imaged the spatiotemporal pattern of odor-evoked activity in a population of output neurons (mitral/tufted cells, MTCs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) of head-restrained mice expressing a genetically-encoded calcium indicator. The temporal dynamics of MTC population activity were relatively simple in anesthetized animals, but were highly variable in awake animals. However, the apparently irregular activity in awake animals could be predicted well using sniff timing measured externally, or inferred through fluctuations in the global responses of MTC population even without explicit knowledge of sniff times. The overall spatial pattern of activity was conserved across states, but odor responses had a diffuse spatial component in anesthetized mice that was less prominent during wakefulness. Multi-photon microscopy indicated that MTC lateral dendrites were the likely source of spatially disperse responses in the anesthetized animal. Our data demonstrate that the temporal and spatial dynamics of MTCs can be significantly modulated by behavioral state, and that the ensemble activity of MTCs can provide information about sniff timing to downstream circuits to help decode odor responses. PMID:23543674

  3. Spatiotemporal trends of illegal activities from ranger-collected data in a Ugandan national park.

    PubMed

    Critchlow, R; Plumptre, A J; Driciru, M; Rwetsiba, A; Stokes, E J; Tumwesigye, C; Wanyama, F; Beale, C M

    2015-10-01

    Within protected areas, biodiversity loss is often a consequence of illegal resource use. Understanding the patterns and extent of illegal activities is therefore essential for effective law enforcement and prevention of biodiversity declines. We used extensive data, commonly collected by ranger patrols in many protected areas, and Bayesian hierarchical models to identify drivers, trends, and distribution of multiple illegal activities within the Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area (QECA), Uganda. Encroachment (e.g., by pastoralists with cattle) and poaching of noncommercial animals (e.g., snaring bushmeat) were the most prevalent illegal activities within the QECA. Illegal activities occurred in different areas of the QECA. Poaching of noncommercial animals was most widely distributed within the national park. Overall, ecological covariates, although significant, were not useful predictors for occurrence of illegal activities. Instead, the location of illegal activities in previous years was more important. There were significant increases in encroachment and noncommercial plant harvesting (nontimber products) during the study period (1999-2012). We also found significant spatiotemporal variation in the occurrence of all activities. Our results show the need to explicitly model ranger patrol effort to reduce biases from existing uncorrected or capture per unit effort analyses. Prioritization of ranger patrol strategies is needed to target illegal activities; these strategies are determined by protected area managers, and therefore changes at a site-level can be implemented quickly. These strategies should also be informed by the location of past occurrences of illegal activity: the most useful predictor of future events. However, because spatial and temporal changes in illegal activities occurred, regular patrols throughout the protected area, even in areas of low occurrence, are also required. PMID:25996571

  4. Spatio-temporal analysis of brain electrical activity in epilepsy based on cellular nonlinear networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollas, Frank; Tetzlaff, Ronald

    2009-05-01

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic disorder of the nervous system. Generally, epileptic seizures appear without foregoing sign or warning. The problem of detecting a possible pre-seizure state in epilepsy from EEG signals has been addressed by many authors over the past decades. Different approaches of time series analysis of brain electrical activity already are providing valuable insights into the underlying complex dynamics. But the main goal the identification of an impending epileptic seizure with a sufficient specificity and reliability, has not been achieved up to now. An algorithm for a reliable, automated prediction of epileptic seizures would enable the realization of implantable seizure warning devices, which could provide valuable information to the patient and time/event specific drug delivery or possibly a direct electrical nerve stimulation. Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) are promising candidates for future seizure warning devices. CNN are characterized by local couplings of comparatively simple dynamical systems. With this property these networks are well suited to be realized as highly parallel, analog computer chips. Today available CNN hardware realizations exhibit a processing speed in the range of TeraOps combined with low power consumption. In this contribution new algorithms based on the spatio-temporal dynamics of CNN are considered in order to analyze intracranial EEG signals and thus taking into account mutual dependencies between neighboring regions of the brain. In an identification procedure Reaction-Diffusion CNN (RD-CNN) are determined for short segments of brain electrical activity, by means of a supervised parameter optimization. RD-CNN are deduced from Reaction-Diffusion Systems, which usually are applied to investigate complex phenomena like nonlinear wave propagation or pattern formation. The Local Activity Theory provides a necessary condition for emergent behavior in RD-CNN. In comparison linear spatio-temporal

  5. The cerebellar Golgi cell and spatiotemporal organization of granular layer activity

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Egidio; Solinas, Sergio; Mapelli, Jonathan; Gandolfi, Daniela; Mapelli, Lisa; Prestori, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellar granular layer has been suggested to perform a complex spatiotemporal reconfiguration of incoming mossy fiber signals. Central to this role is the inhibitory action exerted by Golgi cells over granule cells: Golgi cells inhibit granule cells through both feedforward and feedback inhibitory loops and generate a broad lateral inhibition that extends beyond the afferent synaptic field. This characteristic connectivity has recently been investigated in great detail and been correlated with specific functional properties of these neurons. These include theta-frequency pacemaking, network entrainment into coherent oscillations and phase resetting. Important advances have also been made in terms of determining the membrane and synaptic properties of the neuron, and clarifying the mechanisms of activation by input bursts. Moreover, voltage sensitive dye imaging and multi-electrode array (MEA) recordings, combined with mathematical simulations based on realistic computational models, have improved our understanding of the impact of Golgi cell activity on granular layer circuit computations. These investigations have highlighted the critical role of Golgi cells in: generating dense clusters of granule cell activity organized in center-surround structures, implementing combinatorial operations on multiple mossy fiber inputs, regulating transmission gain, and cut-off frequency, controlling spike timing and burst transmission, and determining the sign, intensity and duration of long-term synaptic plasticity at the mossy fiber-granule cell relay. This review considers recent advances in the field, highlighting the functional implications of Golgi cells for granular layer network computation and indicating new challenges for cerebellar research. PMID:23730271

  6. Quorum activation at a distance: spatiotemporal patterns of gene regulation from diffusion of an autoinducer signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilanji, Gabriel; Langebrake, Jessica; Deleenheer, Patrick; Hagen, Stephen J.

    2012-02-01

    Bacteria in colonies coordinate gene regulation through the exchange of diffusible signal molecules known as autoinducers (AI). This ``quorum signaling'' often occurs in physically heterogeneous and spatially extended environments such as biofilms. Under these conditions the space and time scales for diffusion of the signal limit the range and timing of effective gene regulation. We expect that spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression will reflect physical environmental constraints as well as nonlinear transcriptional activation and feedback within the gene regulatory system. We have combined experiments and modeling to investigate how these spatiotemporal patterns develop. We embed engineered plasmid/GFP quorum sensor strains or wild type strains in a long narrow agar lane, and then introduce AI signal at one terminus of the lane. Diffusion of the AI initiates reporter expression along the length of the lane, extending to macroscopic distances of mm-cm. Resulting patterns are captured quantitatively by a mathematical model that incorporates logistic growth of the population, diffusion of AI, and nonlinear transcriptional activation. Our results show that a diffusing quorum signal can coordinate gene expression over distances of order 1cm on time scales of order 10 hrs.

  7. Clustering and Recurring Anomaly Identification: Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntosh, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS). The Recurring Anomaly Detection System is a tool to analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and maintenance records: (1) Text clustering algorithms group large quantities of reports and documents; Reduces human error and fatigue (2) Identifies interconnected reports; Automates the discovery of possible recurring anomalies; (3) Provides a visualization of the clusters and recurring anomalies We have illustrated our techniques on data from Shuttle and ISS discrepancy reports, as well as ASRS data. ReADS has been integrated with a secure online search

  8. Spatiotemporal alterations of cortical network activity by selective loss of NOS-expressing interneurons.

    PubMed

    Shlosberg, Dan; Buskila, Yossi; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Amitai, Yael

    2012-01-01

    Deciphering the role of GABAergic neurons in large neuronal networks such as the neocortex forms a particularly complex task as they comprise a highly diverse population. The neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is expressed in the neocortex by specific subsets of GABAergic neurons. These neurons can be identified in live brain slices by the nitric oxide (NO) fluorescent indicator diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2DA). However, this indicator was found to be highly toxic to the stained neurons. We used this feature to induce acute phototoxic damage to NO-producing neurons in cortical slices, and measured subsequent alterations in parameters of cellular and network activity. Neocortical slices were briefly incubated in DAF-2DA and then illuminated through the 4× objective. Histochemistry for NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), a marker for nNOS activity, revealed elimination of staining in the illuminated areas following treatment. Whole cell recordings from several neuronal types before, during, and after illumination confirmed the selective damage to non-fast-spiking (FS) interneurons. Treated slices displayed mild disinhibition. The reversal potential of compound synaptic events on pyramidal neurons became more positive, and their decay time constant was elongated, substantiating the removal of an inhibitory conductance. The horizontal decay of local field potentials (LFPs) was significantly reduced at distances of 300-400 μm from the stimulation, but not when inhibition was non-selectively weakened with the GABA(A) blocker picrotoxin. Finally, whereas the depression of LFPs along short trains of 40 Hz stimuli was linearly reduced with distance or initial amplitude in control slices, this ordered relationship was disrupted in DAF-treated slices. These results reveal that NO-producing interneurons in the neocortex convey lateral inhibition to neighboring columns, and shape the spatiotemporal dynamics of the network's activity. PMID:22347168

  9. High-definition spatiotemporal mapping of contractile activity in the isolated proximal colon of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Lentle, Roger G; Janssen, Patrick W M; Asvarujanon, Patchana; Chambers, Paul; Stafford, Kevin J; Hemar, Yacine

    2008-03-01

    Four types of contractile activity were identified and characterised in the isolated triple haustrated proximal colon of the rabbit using high-definition spatiotemporal mapping techniques. Mass peristalses were hexamethonium-sensitive deep circular contractions with associated taenial longitudinal contractile activity that occurred irregularly and propagated rapidly aborad, preceded by a zone of local lumen distension. They were sufficiently sustained for each event to occupy the length of the isolated colonic segment and the contraction persisted longer orally than aborally, the difference being more pronounced when lumen contents were viscous. Haustra were bounded by deep even-spaced ring contractions that progressed slowly aborad (haustral progression). Haustral formation and progression were hexamethonium-sensitive and coordinated across intertaenial domains. Ripples were hexamethonium-resistant phasic circular contractions that propagated predominantly orad at varying rates. In the presence of haustra, they were uncoordinated across intertaenial domains but were more coordinated when haustra were absent. Fast phasic contractions were relatively shallow hexamethonium-resistant contractions that propagated rapidly in a predominantly aborad direction. Fast phasic circular contractions were accompanied by taenial longitudinal muscle contractions which increased in amplitude prior to a mass peristaltic event and following the administration of hexamethonium. On the basis of the concurrence and interaction of these contractile activities, we hypothesise that dual pacemakers are present with fast phasic contractions being modulated by the interstitial cells of Cajal in the Auerbach's plexus (ICC-MY) while ripples are due to the submucosal ICC (ICC-SM). Further, that ICC-SM mediate the enteric motor neurons that generate haustral progression, while the intramuscular ICC (ICC-IM) mediate mass peristalsis. The orad movement of watery fluid was possibly due to ripples in

  10. Spatiotemporally synchronized cancer combination therapy using photo-activated nanoparticle drug delivery systems (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    This talk will introduce a new nanotechnology platform for cancer combination therapy that utilizes near infrared light activation not only for photodynamic damage but also as an extrinsic mechanism to initiate release of complimentary drugs to suppress dynamic bursts in molecular signaling networks that promote tumor cell survival and treatment escape. The goal is to achieve co-delivery with concomitant activity of photodynamic, molecular inhibitor and chemotherapeutic agents, selectively within the tumor. This approach overcomes challenges in achieving synergistic interactions using sequential drug delivery. Conventional drug delivery is compromised by the differential pharmacokinetics of individual agents and potentially antagonistic effects—such as vascular shutdown by one agent that limits delivery of the second. Here, photodynamic damage—which efficiently kills drug-resistant cells via damage of common proteins involved in drug-resistance (such as anti-apoptosis factors and drug-efflux transporters)—is synchronized spatially and temporally with the photo-initiated release of complimentary agents—to enable full interaction amongst the individual therapies. This spatiotemporal synchronization offers new prospects for exploiting time-sensitive synergistic interactions. Specific implementations of these concepts will be presented in preclinical models of cancer. Strategies to enable molecular-targeting of cancer cells via site-specific attachment of targeting moieties to the outer lipid shell of these nanovehicles will also be discussed. If successful in humans, this new paradigm for synchronized, tumor-focused combination therapy will ultimately supersede the present use of chronic drug injection by increasing efficacy per cycle whilst reducing systemic exposure to toxic drugs.

  11. Exploiting Recurring Structure in a Semantic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Keller, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing popularity of the Semantic Web, an increasing amount of information is becoming available in machine interpretable, semantically structured networks. Within these semantic networks are recurring structures that could be mined by existing or novel knowledge discovery methods. The mining of these semantic structures represents an interesting area that focuses on mining both for and from the Semantic Web, with surprising applicability to problems confronting the developers of Semantic Web applications. In this paper, we present representative examples of recurring structures and show how these structures could be used to increase the utility of a semantic repository deployed at NASA.

  12. Mapping the spatio-temporal structure of motor cortical LFP and spiking activities during reach-to-grasp movements

    PubMed Central

    Riehle, Alexa; Wirtssohn, Sarah; Grün, Sonja; Brochier, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Grasping an object involves shaping the hand and fingers in relation to the object’s physical properties. Following object contact, it also requires a fine adjustment of grasp forces for secure manipulation. Earlier studies suggest that the control of hand shaping and grasp force involve partially segregated motor cortical networks. However, it is still unclear how information originating from these networks is processed and integrated. We addressed this issue by analyzing massively parallel signals from population measures (local field potentials, LFPs) and single neuron spiking activities recorded simultaneously during a delayed reach-to-grasp task, by using a 100-electrode array chronically implanted in monkey motor cortex. Motor cortical LFPs exhibit a large multi-component movement-related potential (MRP) around movement onset. Here, we show that the peak amplitude of each MRP component and its latency with respect to movement onset vary along the cortical surface covered by the array. Using a comparative mapping approach, we suggest that the spatio-temporal structure of the MRP reflects the complex physical properties of the reach-to-grasp movement. In addition, we explored how the spatio-temporal structure of the MRP relates to two other measures of neuronal activity: the temporal profile of single neuron spiking activity at each electrode site and the somatosensory receptive field properties of single neuron activities. We observe that the spatial representations of LFP and spiking activities overlap extensively and relate to the spatial distribution of proximal and distal representations of the upper limb. Altogether, these data show that, in motor cortex, a precise spatio-temporal pattern of activation is involved for the control of reach-to-grasp movements and provide some new insight about the functional organization of motor cortex during reaching and object manipulation. PMID:23543888

  13. Effects of Spatio-Temporal Aliasing on Pilot Performance in Active Control Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaal, Peter; Sweet, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Spatio-temporal aliasing affects pilot performance and control behavior. For increasing refresh rates: 1) Significant change in control behavior: a) Increase in visual gain and neuromuscular frequency. b) Decrease in visual time delay. 2) Increase in tracking performance: a) Decrease in RMSe. b) Increase in crossover frequency.

  14. The spatiotemporal organization of cerebellar network activity resolved by two-photon imaging of multiple single neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gandolfi, Daniela; Pozzi, Paolo; Tognolina, Marialuisa; Chirico, Giuseppe; Mapelli, Jonathan; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the spatiotemporal organization of neuronal activity in local microcircuits, techniques allowing the simultaneous recording from multiple single neurons are required. To this end, we implemented an advanced spatial-light modulator two-photon microscope (SLM-2PM). A critical issue for cerebellar theory is the organization of granular layer activity in the cerebellum, which has been predicted by single-cell recordings and computational models. With SLM-2PM, calcium signals could be recorded from different network elements in acute cerebellar slices including granule cells (GrCs), Purkinje cells (PCs) and molecular layer interneurons. By combining WCRs with SLM-2PM, the spike/calcium relationship in GrCs and PCs could be extrapolated toward the detection of single spikes. The SLM-2PM technique made it possible to monitor activity of over tens to hundreds neurons simultaneously. GrC activity depended on the number of spikes in the input mossy fiber bursts. PC and molecular layer interneuron activity paralleled that in the underlying GrC population revealing the spread of activity through the cerebellar cortical network. Moreover, circuit activity was increased by the GABA-A receptor blocker, gabazine, and reduced by the AMPA and NMDA receptor blockers, NBQX and APV. The SLM-2PM analysis of spatiotemporal patterns lent experimental support to the time-window and center-surround organizing principles of the granular layer. PMID:24782707

  15. Spatiotemporal differences of brain activation between internal and external strategies in mental rotation: A behavioral and ERD/ERS study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Xiaoli; Lyu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Hongzhou; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-06-01

    Subjects may voluntarily implement an internal or external strategy during mental rotation (MR) task. However, few studies have reported the spatiotemporal differences of brain activation between the two MR strategies. This study aims to compare the two strategies from the perspective of behavioral performance and spatiotemporal brain activations in each cognitive sub-stage using EEG measurements. Both the internal (IN) and external (EX) groups showed a significant 'angle effect' on reaction time (RT) and accuracy (ACC). However, a smaller increase of RT with rotation angle was observed in the EX group. Event-related (de)synchronization in the beta band revealed similar temporal patterns of brain activation in the two groups, but with a stronger activation in the MR sub-stage in the EX group. We speculate that MR of 3D abstract objects is easier when an external strategy is used, and would be promoted by an additional visual-spatial process involving the parietal-occipital areas. Our results suggested that the differences between the two strategies were mainly induced by main MR rather than other cognitive processes. PMID:27132083

  16. Monitoring the Spatiotemporal Activities of miRNAs in Small Animal Models Using Molecular Imaging Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Baril, Patrick; Ezzine, Safia; Pichon, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding mRNA targets via sequence complementary inducing translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. A current challenge in the field of miRNA biology is to understand the functionality of miRNAs under physiopathological conditions. Recent evidence indicates that miRNA expression is more complex than simple regulation at the transcriptional level. MiRNAs undergo complex post-transcriptional regulations such miRNA processing, editing, accumulation and re-cycling within P-bodies. They are dynamically regulated and have a well-orchestrated spatiotemporal localization pattern. Real-time and spatio-temporal analyses of miRNA expression are difficult to evaluate and often underestimated. Therefore, important information connecting miRNA expression and function can be lost. Conventional miRNA profiling methods such as Northern blot, real-time PCR, microarray, in situ hybridization and deep sequencing continue to contribute to our knowledge of miRNA biology. However, these methods can seldom shed light on the spatiotemporal organization and function of miRNAs in real-time. Non-invasive molecular imaging methods have the potential to address these issues and are thus attracting increasing attention. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of methods used to detect miRNAs and discusses their contribution in the emerging field of miRNA biology and therapy. PMID:25749473

  17. Matrix rigidity regulates spatiotemporal dynamics of Cdc42 activity and vacuole formation kinetics of endothelial colony forming cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Joon; Wan, Qiaoqiao; Cho, Eunhye; Han, Bumsoo; Yoder, Mervin C.; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L.; Na, Sungsoo

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) may serve as a cell therapy for improving blood vessel formation in subjects with vascular injury, largely due to their robust vasculogenic potential. The Rho family GTPase Cdc42 is known to play a primary role in this vasculogenesis process, but little is known about how extracellular matrix (ECM) rigidity affects Cdc42 activity during the process. In this study, we addressed two questions: Does matrix rigidity affect Cdc42 activity in ECFC undergoing early vacuole formation? How is the spatiotemporal activation of Cdc42 related to ECFC vacuole formation? A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based Cdc42 biosensor was used to examine the effects of the rigidity of three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrices on spatiotemporal activity of Cdc42 in ECFCs. Collagen matrix stiffness was modulated by varying the collagen concentration and therefore fibril density. The results showed that soft (150 Pa) matrices induced an increased level of Cdc42 activity compared to stiff (1 kPa) matrices. Time-course imaging and colocalization analysis of Cdc42 activity and vacuole formation revealed that Cdc42 activity was colocalized to the periphery of cytoplasmic vacuoles. Moreover, soft matrices generated faster and larger vacuoles than stiff matrices. The matrix-driven vacuole formation was enhanced by a constitutively active Cdc42 mutant, but significantly inhibited by a dominant-negative Cdc42 mutant. Collectively, the results suggest that matrix rigidity is a strong regulator of Cdc42 activity and vacuole formation kinetics, and that enhanced activity of Cdc42 is an important step in early vacuole formation in ECFCs. PMID:24393843

  18. 76 FR 69613 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...The Coast Guard is removing, adding, and consolidating special local regulations and establishing permanent safety zones in the Coast Guard Captain of the Port (COTP) New York Zone for annual recurring swim events, fireworks displays, and marine events (annual recurring events). When these special local regulations or safety zones are activated and subject to enforcement, this will restrict......

  19. Atypical Functional Brain Activation During a Multiple Object Tracking Task in Girls With Turner Syndrome: Neurocorrelates of Reduced Spatiotemporal Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Beaton, Elliott A.; Stoddard, Joel; Lai, Song; Lackey, John; Shi, Jianrong; Ross, Judith L.; Simon, Tony J.

    2010-01-01

    Turner syndrome is associated with spatial and numerical cognitive impairments. We hypothesized that these nonverbal cognitive impairments result from limits in spatial and temporal processing, particularly as it affects attention. To examine spatiotemporal attention in girls with Turner syndrome versus typically developing controls, we used a multiple object tracking task during functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging. Participants actively tracked a target among six distracters or passively viewed the animations. Neural activation in girls with Turner syndrome during object tracking overlapped with but was dissimilar to the canonical frontoparietal network evident in typically developing controls and included greater limbic activity. Task performance and atypical functional activation indicate anomalous development of cortical and subcortical temporal and spatial processing circuits in girls with Turner syndrome. PMID:20441384

  20. Spectral evidence for hydrated salts in recurring slope lineae on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Lujendra; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Murchie, Scott L.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Wray, James J.; Hanley, Jennifer; Massé, Marion; Chojnacki, Matt

    2015-11-01

    Determining whether liquid water exists on the Martian surface is central to understanding the hydrologic cycle and potential for extant life on Mars. Recurring slope lineae, narrow streaks of low reflectance compared to the surrounding terrain, appear and grow incrementally in the downslope direction during warm seasons when temperatures reach about 250-300 K, a pattern consistent with the transient flow of a volatile species. Brine flows (or seeps) have been proposed to explain the formation of recurring slope lineae, yet no direct evidence for either liquid water or hydrated salts has been found. Here we analyse spectral data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars instrument onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter from four different locations where recurring slope lineae are present. We find evidence for hydrated salts at all four locations in the seasons when recurring slope lineae are most extensive, which suggests that the source of hydration is recurring slope lineae activity. The hydrated salts most consistent with the spectral absorption features we detect are magnesium perchlorate, magnesium chlorate and sodium perchlorate. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that recurring slope lineae form as a result of contemporary water activity on Mars.

  1. Spatiotemporal dynamics of suspended sediment within an actively urbanizing peri-urban catchment in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Rory; Ferreira, Carla; Ferreira, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Suspended sediment levels tend to be enhanced in urban catchments, but vary considerably with (amongst many other factors) the degree of active urban development or redevelopment within the catchment and 'urbanization style'. Relatively little, however, is known about the relationship between suspended solids and urbanization style in peri-urban Mediterranean environments. This paper focuses on spatiotemporal suspended sediment dynamics within a typical Portuguese peri-urban catchment, Ribeira dos Covoes, that is undergoing rapid urbanization. The catchment currently has a 40% urban cover, with 17% impervious surfaces, dispersed between woodland (56%) and agricultural areas (4%). The study uses suspended sediment concentration measurements made at the catchment outlet (ESAC) and in three upstream tributaries: (i) Espírito Santo, with a largest urban area (49%); (ii) Porto Bordalo, 39% urbanized; and (iii) Quinta, 22% urbanized, most of which (18%) being an enterprise park under construction. Water sampling was carried out manually during 10 storm hydrographs between October 2011 and March 2013. Suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) were derived by laboratory analysis of the filtered samples using the gravimetric method. In addition total dissolved solids concentrations (TDS) were estimated using conductivity readings. Greatest SSCs were recorded in the Quinta sub-catchment and at the catchment outlet at ESAC (113-4320 mg L-1 and 200-1656 mg L-1, respectively) than in the Espírito Santo and Porto Bordalo sub-catchments (183-852 mg L-1 and 47-598 mg L-1 respectively, despite their greater impervious cover. The greatest SSCs for Quinta result from it containing the construction site, but it showed lower TDS (56-4010 mg L-1), perhaps due to the coarse sandy nature of the construction site. Higher TDS concentrations, however, were displayed in Porto Bordalo (27-5400 mg L-1), possibly due to the loamy soil. Espírito Santo, comprising sandy-loam soils, displayed 27

  2. 48 CFR 1632.170 - Recurring premium payments to carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Recurring premium payments... FINANCING General 1632.170 Recurring premium payments to carriers. (a)(1) Recurring payments to carriers of community-rated plans. OPM will pay to carriers of community-rated plans the premium payments received...

  3. An unusual pattern of recurring seismic quiescence at Kalapana, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieterich, J.H.; Okubo, P.G.

    1996-01-01

    An unusual pattern of recurring seismic quiescence is observed in the Kalapana, Hawaii region of Kilauea Volcano. Statistically significant intervals of quiescence preceded the Kalapana earthquakes of 1975 (M7.2) and 1989 (M6.1) and a third quiescence is presently underway. The sensitivity of the volcano flank to continuing magmatic activity in the nearby east rift zone complicates interpretation of these observations. The current quiescence episode may be caused by magmatic processes in the east rift zone or by changes within the flank of Kilauea. The latter possibility, if correct, may represent a precursor to another earthquake.

  4. Improving spatio-temporal resolution of infrared images to detect thermal activity of defect at the surface of inorganic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corvec, Guillaume; Robin, Eric; Le Cam, Jean-Benoît; Sangleboeuf, Jean-Christophe; Lucas, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a noise suppression methodology to improve the spatio-temporal resolution of infrared images. The methodology is divided in two steps. The first one consists in removing the noise from the temporal signal at each pixel. Three basic temporal filters are considered for this purpose: average filter, cost function minimization (FIT) and short time Fast Fourier Transform approach (STFFT). But while this step effectively reduces the temporal signal noise at each pixel, the infrared images may still appear noisy. This is due to a random distribution of a residual offset value of pixels signal. Hence in the second step, the residual offset is identified by considering thermal images for which no mechanical loading is applied. In this case, the temperature variation field is homogeneous and the value of temperature variation at each pixel is theoretically equal to zero. The method is first tested on synthetic images built from infrared computer-generated images combined with experimental noise. The results demonstrate that this approach permits to keep the spatial resolution of infrared images equal to 1 pixel. The methodology is then applied to characterize thermal activity of a defect at the surface of inorganic glass submitted to cyclic mechanical loading. The three basic temporal filters are quantitatively compared and contrasted. Results obtained demonstrate that, contrarily to a basic spatio-temporal approach, the denoising method proposed is suitable to characterize low thermal activity combined to strong spatial gradients induced by cyclic heterogeneous deformations.

  5. Lymphomas that recur after MYC suppression continue to exhibit oncogene addiction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Peter S.; van Riggelen, Jan; Gentles, Andrew J.; Bachireddy, Pavan; Rakhra, Kavya; Adam, Stacey J.; Plevritis, Sylvia K.; Felsher, Dean W.

    2011-01-01

    The suppression of oncogenic levels of MYC is sufficient to induce sustained tumor regression associated with proliferative arrest, differentiation, cellular senescence, and/or apoptosis, a phenomenon known as oncogene addiction. However, after prolonged inactivation of MYC in a conditional transgenic mouse model of Eμ-tTA/tetO-MYC T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, some of the tumors recur, recapitulating what is frequently observed in human tumors in response to targeted therapies. Here we report that these recurring lymphomas express either transgenic or endogenous Myc, albeit in many cases at levels below those in the original tumor, suggesting that tumors continue to be addicted to MYC. Many of the recurring lymphomas (76%) harbored mutations in the tetracycline transactivator, resulting in expression of the MYC transgene even in the presence of doxycycline. Some of the remaining recurring tumors expressed high levels of endogenous Myc, which was associated with a genomic rearrangement of the endogenous Myc locus or activation of Notch1. By gene expression profiling, we confirmed that the primary and recurring tumors have highly similar transcriptomes. Importantly, shRNA-mediated suppression of the high levels of MYC in recurring tumors elicited both suppression of proliferation and increased apoptosis, confirming that these tumors remain oncogene addicted. These results suggest that tumors induced by MYC remain addicted to overexpression of this oncogene. PMID:21969595

  6. Fine spatiotemporal activity in contracting myometrium revealed by motion-corrected calcium imaging

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Fiona C; Shmygol, Anatoly; Richardson, Magnus J E

    2014-01-01

    Successful childbirth depends on the occurrence of precisely coordinated uterine contractions during labour. Calcium indicator fluorescence imaging is one of the main techniques for investigating the mechanisms governing this physiological process and its pathologies. The effective spatiotemporal resolution of calcium signals is, however, limited by the motion of contracting tissue: structures of interest in the order of microns can move over a hundred times their width during a contraction. The simultaneous changes in local intensity and tissue configuration make motion tracking a non-trivial problem in image analysis and confound many of the standard techniques. This paper presents a method that tracks local motion throughout the tissue and allows for the almost complete removal of motion artefacts. This provides a stabilized calcium signal down to a pixel resolution, which, for the data examined, is in the order of a few microns. As a byproduct of image stabilization, a complete kinematic description of the contraction–relaxation cycle is also obtained. This contains novel information about the mechanical response of the tissue, such as the identification of a characteristic length scale, in the order of 40–50 μm, below which tissue motion is homogeneous. Applied to our data, we illustrate that the method allows for analyses of calcium dynamics in contracting myometrium in unprecedented spatiotemporal detail. Additionally, we use the kinematics of tissue motion to compare calcium signals at the subcellular level and local contractile motion. The computer code used is provided in a freely modifiable form and has potential applicability to in vivo calcium imaging of neural tissue, as well as other smooth muscle tissue. PMID:25085893

  7. On the Characterization of the Spatio-Temporal Profiles of Brain Activity Associated with Face Naming and the Tip-of-the-Tongue State: A Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindin, Monica; Diaz, Fernando; Capilla, Almudena; Ortiz, Tomas; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The tip-of-the-tongue state (TOT) in face naming is a transient state of difficulty in access to a person's name along with the conviction that the name is known. The aim of the present study was to characterize the spatio-temporal course of brain activation in the successful naming and TOT states, by means of magnetoencephalography, during a…

  8. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Micro Economic Activities in Rome Reveals Patterns of Mixed-Use Urban Evolution.

    PubMed

    Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Strano, Emanuele; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Understanding urban growth is one with understanding how society evolves to satisfy the needs of its individuals in sharing a common space and adapting to the territory. We propose here a quantitative analysis of the historical development of a large urban area by investigating the spatial distribution and the age of commercial activities in the whole city of Rome. We find that the age of activities of various categories presents a very interesting double exponential trend, with a transition possibly related to the long-term economical effects determined by the oil crisis of the Seventies. The diversification of commercial categories, studied through various measures of entropy, shows, among other interesting features, a saturating behaviour with the density of activities. Moreover, different couples of commercial categories exhibit over the years a tendency to attract in space. Our results demonstrate that the spatio-temporal distribution of commercial activities can provide important insights on the urbanisation processes at work, revealing specific and non trivial socio-economical dynamics, as the presence of crisis periods and expansion trends, and contributing to the characterisation of the maturity of urban areas. PMID:26982028

  9. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Micro Economic Activities in Rome Reveals Patterns of Mixed-Use Urban Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Fiasconaro, Alessandro; Strano, Emanuele; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Understanding urban growth is one with understanding how society evolves to satisfy the needs of its individuals in sharing a common space and adapting to the territory. We propose here a quantitative analysis of the historical development of a large urban area by investigating the spatial distribution and the age of commercial activities in the whole city of Rome. We find that the age of activities of various categories presents a very interesting double exponential trend, with a transition possibly related to the long-term economical effects determined by the oil crisis of the Seventies. The diversification of commercial categories, studied through various measures of entropy, shows, among other interesting features, a saturating behaviour with the density of activities. Moreover, different couples of commercial categories exhibit over the years a tendency to attract in space. Our results demonstrate that the spatio-temporal distribution of commercial activities can provide important insights on the urbanisation processes at work, revealing specific and non trivial socio-economical dynamics, as the presence of crisis periods and expansion trends, and contributing to the characterisation of the maturity of urban areas. PMID:26982028

  10. Distinct Spatiotemporal Activation Patterns of the Perirhinal-Entorhinal Network in Response to Cortical and Amygdala Input

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Janske G. P.; Wadman, Wytse J.; Cappaert, Natalie L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The perirhinal (PER) and entorhinal cortex (EC) receive input from the agranular insular cortex (AiP) and the subcortical lateral amygdala (LA) and the main output area is the hippocampus. Information transfer through the PER/EC network however, is not always guaranteed. It is hypothesized that this network actively regulates the (sub)cortical activity transfer to the hippocampal network and that the inhibitory system is involved in this function. This study determined the recruitment by the AiP and LA afferents in PER/EC network with the use of voltage sensitive dye (VSD) imaging in horizontal mouse brain slices. Electrical stimulation (500 μA) of the AiP induced activity that gradually propagated predominantly in the rostro-caudal direction: from the PER to the lateral EC (LEC). In the presence of 1 μM of the competitive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor antagonist bicuculline, AiP stimulation recruited the medial EC (MEC) as well. In contrast, LA stimulation (500 μA) only induced activity in the deep layers of the PER. In the presence of bicuculline, the initial population activity in the PER propagated further towards the superficial layers and the EC after a delay. The latency of evoked responses decreased with increasing stimulus intensities (50–500 μA) for both the AiP and LA stimuli. The stimulation threshold for evoking responses in the PER/EC network was higher for the LA than for the AiP. This study showed that the extent of the PER/EC network activation depends on release of inhibition. When GABAA dependent inhibition is reduced, both the AiP and the LA activate spatially overlapping regions, although in a distinct spatiotemporal fashion. It is therefore hypothesized that the inhibitory network regulates excitatory activity from both cortical and subcortical areas that has to be transmitted through the PER/EC network. PMID:27378860

  11. NeuroCa: integrated framework for systematic analysis of spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns from large-scale optical recording data

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min Jee; Nam, Yoonkey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Optical recording facilitates monitoring the activity of a large neural network at the cellular scale, but the analysis and interpretation of the collected data remain challenging. Here, we present a MATLAB-based toolbox, named NeuroCa, for the automated processing and quantitative analysis of large-scale calcium imaging data. Our tool includes several computational algorithms to extract the calcium spike trains of individual neurons from the calcium imaging data in an automatic fashion. Two algorithms were developed to decompose the imaging data into the activity of individual cells and subsequently detect calcium spikes from each neuronal signal. Applying our method to dense networks in dissociated cultures, we were able to obtain the calcium spike trains of ∼1000 neurons in a few minutes. Further analyses using these data permitted the quantification of neuronal responses to chemical stimuli as well as functional mapping of spatiotemporal patterns in neuronal firing within the spontaneous, synchronous activity of a large network. These results demonstrate that our method not only automates time-consuming, labor-intensive tasks in the analysis of neural data obtained using optical recording techniques but also provides a systematic way to visualize and quantify the collective dynamics of a network in terms of its cellular elements. PMID:26229973

  12. Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiayi; Laiwalla, Farah; Kim, Jennifer A; Urabe, Hayato; Van Wagenen, Rick; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Connors, Barry W; Zhang, Feng; Deisseroth, Karl; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2010-01-01

    Neural stimulation with high spatial and temporal precision is desirable both for studying the real-time dynamics of neural networks and for prospective clinical treatment of neurological diseases. Optical stimulation of genetically targeted neurons expressing the light sensitive channel protein Channelrhodopsin (ChR2) has recently been reported as a means for millisecond temporal control of neuronal spiking activities with cell-type selectivity. This offers the prospect of enabling local delivery of optical stimulation and the simultaneous monitoring of the neural activity by electrophysiological means, both in the vicinity of and distant to the stimulation site. We report here a novel dual-modality hybrid device, which consists of a tapered coaxial optical waveguide (‘optrode’) integrated into a 100 element intra-cortical multi-electrode recording array. We first demonstrate the dual optical delivery and electrical recording capability of the single optrode in in vitro preparations of mouse retina, photo-stimulating the native retinal photoreceptors while recording light-responsive activities from ganglion cells. The dual-modality array device was then used in ChR2 transfected mouse brain slices. Specifically, epileptiform events were reliably optically triggered by the optrode and their spatiotemporal patterns were simultaneously recorded by the multi-electrode array. PMID:19721185

  13. Simultaneous spatiotemporal mapping of in situ pH and bacterial activity within an intact 3D microcolony structure.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Sun, Victor; Aviles-Reyes, Alejandro; Kajfasz, Jessica K; Lemos, Jose A; Koo, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are comprised of bacterial-clusters (microcolonies) enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Streptococcus mutans can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS)-matrix and assemble microcolonies with acidic microenvironments that can cause tooth-decay despite the surrounding neutral-pH found in oral cavity. How the matrix influences the pH and bacterial activity locally remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously analyzed in situ pH and gene expression within intact biofilms and measured the impact of damage to the surrounding EPS-matrix. The spatiotemporal changes of these properties were characterized at a single-microcolony level following incubation in neutral-pH buffer. The middle and bottom-regions as well as inner-section within the microcolony 3D structure were resistant to neutralization (vs. upper and peripheral-region), forming an acidic core. Concomitantly, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter to monitor expression of the pH-responsive atpB (PatpB::gfp) by S. mutans within microcolonies. The atpB expression was induced in the acidic core, but sharply decreased at peripheral/upper microcolony regions, congruent with local pH microenvironment. Enzymatic digestion of the surrounding matrix resulted in nearly complete neutralization of microcolony interior and down-regulation of atpB. Altogether, our data reveal that biofilm matrix facilitates formation of an acidic core within microcolonies which in turn activates S. mutans acid-stress response, mediating both the local environment and bacterial activity in situ. PMID:27604325

  14. Simultaneous spatiotemporal mapping of in situ pH and bacterial activity within an intact 3D microcolony structure

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Geelsu; Liu, Yuan; Kim, Dongyeop; Sun, Victor; Aviles-Reyes, Alejandro; Kajfasz, Jessica K.; Lemos, Jose A.; Koo, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are comprised of bacterial-clusters (microcolonies) enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Streptococcus mutans can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS)-matrix and assemble microcolonies with acidic microenvironments that can cause tooth-decay despite the surrounding neutral-pH found in oral cavity. How the matrix influences the pH and bacterial activity locally remains unclear. Here, we simultaneously analyzed in situ pH and gene expression within intact biofilms and measured the impact of damage to the surrounding EPS-matrix. The spatiotemporal changes of these properties were characterized at a single-microcolony level following incubation in neutral-pH buffer. The middle and bottom-regions as well as inner-section within the microcolony 3D structure were resistant to neutralization (vs. upper and peripheral-region), forming an acidic core. Concomitantly, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter to monitor expression of the pH-responsive atpB (PatpB::gfp) by S. mutans within microcolonies. The atpB expression was induced in the acidic core, but sharply decreased at peripheral/upper microcolony regions, congruent with local pH microenvironment. Enzymatic digestion of the surrounding matrix resulted in nearly complete neutralization of microcolony interior and down-regulation of atpB. Altogether, our data reveal that biofilm matrix facilitates formation of an acidic core within microcolonies which in turn activates S. mutans acid-stress response, mediating both the local environment and bacterial activity in situ. PMID:27604325

  15. Integrated device for optical stimulation and spatiotemporal electrical recording of neural activity in light-sensitized brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiayi; Laiwalla, Farah; Kim, Jennifer A.; Urabe, Hayato; Van Wagenen, Rick; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Connors, Barry W.; Zhang, Feng; Deisseroth, Karl; Nurmikko, Arto V.

    2009-10-01

    Neural stimulation with high spatial and temporal precision is desirable both for studying the real-time dynamics of neural networks and for prospective clinical treatment of neurological diseases. Optical stimulation of genetically targeted neurons expressing the light sensitive channel protein Channelrhodopsin (ChR2) has recently been reported as a means for millisecond temporal control of neuronal spiking activities with cell-type selectivity. This offers the prospect of enabling local delivery of optical stimulation and the simultaneous monitoring of the neural activity by electrophysiological means, both in the vicinity of and distant to the stimulation site. We report here a novel dual-modality hybrid device, which consists of a tapered coaxial optical waveguide ('optrode') integrated into a 100 element intra-cortical multi-electrode recording array. We first demonstrate the dual optical delivery and electrical recording capability of the single optrode in in vitro preparations of mouse retina, photo-stimulating the native retinal photoreceptors while recording light-responsive activities from ganglion cells. The dual-modality array device was then used in ChR2 transfected mouse brain slices. Specifically, epileptiform events were reliably optically triggered by the optrode and their spatiotemporal patterns were simultaneously recorded by the multi-electrode array.

  16. Unique spatiotemporal activation pattern of Cdc42 by Gef1 and Scd1 promotes different events during cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bin; Hercyk, Brian S; Mattson, Nicholas; Mohammadi, Ahmad; Rich, Julie; DeBruyne, Erica; Clark, Mikayla M; Das, Maitreyi

    2016-04-15

    The Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 regulates cell polarity and localizes to the cell division site. Cdc42 is activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). We report that Cdc42 promotes cytokinesis via a unique spatiotemporal activation pattern due to the distinct action of its GEFs, Gef1 and Scd1, in fission yeast. Before cytokinetic ring constriction, Cdc42 activation, is Gef1 dependent, and after ring constriction, it is Scd1 dependent. Gef1 localizes to the actomyosin ring immediately after ring assembly and promotes timely onset of ring constriction. Gef1 is required for proper actin organization during cytokinesis, distribution of type V myosin Myo52 to the division site, and timely recruitment of septum protein Bgs1. In contrast, Scd1 localizes to the broader region of ingressing membrane during cytokinetic furrowing. Scd1 promotes normal septum formation, andscd1Δcells display aberrant septa with reduced Bgs1 localization. Thus we define unique roles of the GEFs Gef1 and Scd1 in the regulation of distinct events during cytokinesis. Gef1 localizes first to the cytokinetic ring and promotes timely constriction, whereas Scd1 localizes later to the ingressing membrane and promotes septum formation. Our findings are consistent with reports that complexity in GTPase signaling patterns enables exquisite precision over the control of cellular processes. PMID:26941334

  17. Unique spatiotemporal activation pattern of Cdc42 by Gef1 and Scd1 promotes different events during cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Bin; Hercyk, Brian S.; Mattson, Nicholas; Mohammadi, Ahmad; Rich, Julie; DeBruyne, Erica; Clark, Mikayla M.; Das, Maitreyi

    2016-01-01

    The Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 regulates cell polarity and localizes to the cell division site. Cdc42 is activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). We report that Cdc42 promotes cytokinesis via a unique spatiotemporal activation pattern due to the distinct action of its GEFs, Gef1 and Scd1, in fission yeast. Before cytokinetic ring constriction, Cdc42 activation, is Gef1 dependent, and after ring constriction, it is Scd1 dependent. Gef1 localizes to the actomyosin ring immediately after ring assembly and promotes timely onset of ring constriction. Gef1 is required for proper actin organization during cytokinesis, distribution of type V myosin Myo52 to the division site, and timely recruitment of septum protein Bgs1. In contrast, Scd1 localizes to the broader region of ingressing membrane during cytokinetic furrowing. Scd1 promotes normal septum formation, and scd1Δ cells display aberrant septa with reduced Bgs1 localization. Thus we define unique roles of the GEFs Gef1 and Scd1 in the regulation of distinct events during cytokinesis. Gef1 localizes first to the cytokinetic ring and promotes timely constriction, whereas Scd1 localizes later to the ingressing membrane and promotes septum formation. Our findings are consistent with reports that complexity in GTPase signaling patterns enables exquisite precision over the control of cellular processes. PMID:26941334

  18. Recurring priapism may be a symptom of voiding dysfunction - case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Lisieux Eyer de; Teixeira, Leonardo; Bertelli, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Recurring priapism is rare in pre-pubertal children and may be attributed to multiple causes. We propose that voiding dysfunction (VD) may also justify this symptom and detail a clinical case of recurring stuttering priapism associated to overactive bladder that completely resolved after usage of anticholinergics and urotherapy. Sacral parasympathetic activity is responsible for detrusor contraction and for spontaneous erections and a relationship between erections and bladder status has been proved in healthy subjects (morning erections) and models of medullar trauma. High bladder pressures and/or volumes, voiding incoordination and posterior urethritis can potentially trigger reflex erections. PMID:27256196

  19. Recurring priapism may be a symptom of voiding dysfunction – case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Lisieux Eyer; Teixeira, Leonardo; Bertelli, André

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recurring priapism is rare in pre-pubertal children and may be attributed to multiple causes. We propose that voiding dysfunction (VD) may also justify this symptom and detail a clinical case of recurring stuttering priapism associated to overactive bladder that completely resolved after usage of anticholinergics and urotherapy. Sacral parasympathetic activity is responsible for detrusor contraction and for spontaneous erections and a relationship between erections and bladder status has been proved in healthy subjects (morning erections) and models of medullar trauma. High bladder pressures and/or volumes, voiding incoordination and posterior urethritis can potentially trigger reflex erections. PMID:27256196

  20. 5 CFR 890.505 - Recurring premium payments to carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 890.505 Recurring premium payments to carriers. The procedures for payment of premiums, contingency reserve, and interest distribution to FEHB Program carriers shall be those contained in 48 CFR subpart... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recurring premium payments to...

  1. 48 CFR 2132.170 - Recurring premium payments to Contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recurring premium payments... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 2132.170 Recurring premium payments to Contractors. (a) OPM will make... specified in the contract. The annual premium to the Contractor, based on this estimate, will be credited...

  2. 48 CFR 2132.170 - Recurring premium payments to Contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Recurring premium payments... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 2132.170 Recurring premium payments to Contractors. (a) OPM will make... specified in the contract. The annual premium to the Contractor, based on this estimate, will be credited...

  3. 48 CFR 1632.170 - Recurring premium payments to carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... period. (3) Any subsidization penalty levied against a community rated plan as outlined in 48 CFR 1615... described in 5 CFR 890.503(c)(6). (b)(1) Recurring payments to carriers of experience-rated plans. OPM will... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recurring premium...

  4. 5 CFR 890.505 - Recurring premium payments to carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 890.505 Recurring premium payments to carriers. The procedures for payment of premiums, contingency reserve, and interest distribution to FEHB Program carriers shall be those contained in 48 CFR subpart... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recurring premium payments to...

  5. 48 CFR 1632.170 - Recurring premium payments to carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... period. (3) Any subsidization penalty levied against a community rated plan as outlined in 48 CFR 1615... described in 5 CFR 890.503(c)(6). (b)(1) Recurring payments to carriers of experience-rated plans. OPM will... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recurring premium...

  6. 48 CFR 2132.170 - Recurring premium payments to Contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recurring premium payments... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 2132.170 Recurring premium payments to Contractors. (a) OPM will make... specified in the contract. The annual premium to the Contractor, based on this estimate, will be credited...

  7. 48 CFR 2132.170 - Recurring premium payments to Contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recurring premium payments... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 2132.170 Recurring premium payments to Contractors. (a) OPM will make... specified in the contract. The annual premium to the Contractor, based on this estimate, will be credited...

  8. 5 CFR 890.505 - Recurring premium payments to carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 890.505 Recurring premium payments to carriers. The procedures for payment of premiums, contingency reserve, and interest distribution to FEHB Program carriers shall be those contained in 48 CFR subpart... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recurring premium payments to...

  9. 48 CFR 1632.170 - Recurring premium payments to carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... period. (3) Any subsidization penalty levied against a community rated plan as outlined in 48 CFR 1615... described in 5 CFR 890.503(c)(6). (b)(1) Recurring payments to carriers of experience-rated plans. OPM will... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recurring premium...

  10. 48 CFR 1632.170 - Recurring premium payments to carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... period. (3) Any subsidization penalty levied against a community rated plan as outlined in 48 CFR 1615... described in 5 CFR 890.503(c)(6). (b)(1) Recurring payments to carriers of experience-rated plans. OPM will... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recurring premium...

  11. 5 CFR 890.505 - Recurring premium payments to carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 890.505 Recurring premium payments to carriers. The procedures for payment of premiums, contingency reserve, and interest distribution to FEHB Program carriers shall be those contained in 48 CFR subpart... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recurring premium payments to...

  12. 5 CFR 890.505 - Recurring premium payments to carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 890.505 Recurring premium payments to carriers. The procedures for payment of premiums, contingency reserve, and interest distribution to FEHB Program carriers shall be those contained in 48 CFR subpart... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recurring premium payments to...

  13. 26 CFR 1.461-5 - Recurring item exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recurring item exception. 1.461-5 Section 1.461-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.461-5 Recurring item exception. (a) In general. Except as...

  14. Long-Term Spatiotemporal Reconfiguration of Neuronal Activity Revealed by Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging in the Cerebellar Granular Layer.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Daniela; Mapelli, Jonathan; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal organization of long-term synaptic plasticity in neuronal networks demands techniques capable of monitoring changes in synaptic responsiveness over extended multineuronal structures. Among these techniques, voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSD imaging) is of particular interest due to its good spatial resolution. However, improvements of the technique are needed in order to overcome limits imposed by its low signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we show that VSD imaging can detect long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in acute cerebellar slices. Combined VSD imaging and patch-clamp recordings revealed that the most excited regions were predominantly associated with granule cells (GrCs) generating EPSP-spike complexes, while poorly responding regions were associated with GrCs generating EPSPs only. The correspondence with cellular changes occurring during LTP and LTD was highlighted by a vector representation obtained by combining amplitude with time-to-peak of VSD signals. This showed that LTP occurred in the most excited regions lying in the core of activated areas and increased the number of EPSP-spike complexes, while LTD occurred in the less excited regions lying in the surround. VSD imaging appears to be an efficient tool for investigating how synaptic plasticity contributes to the reorganization of multineuronal activity in neuronal circuits. PMID:26294979

  15. CIR-XL recurring for several years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dósa, Melinda; Erdös, Géza

    2016-04-01

    The heliospheric magnetic flux is determined from the radial component of the magnetic field vector measured onboard interplanetary space probes. Earlier Ulysses research has shown remarkable independence of the flux from heliographic latitude. Here we are investigating whether any longitudinal variation exist in the 50 year long OMNI magnetic data set. When determining the heliographic longitude of the plasma source, correction was applied for the solar wind travel time. Significant recurrent enhancements of the magnetic flux was observed during the declining phase of the solar cycles. These flux enhancements are associated with co-rotating interaction regions (CIR) lasting several years. The recurrence period is slightly faster than the Carrington Rotation rate. The same, long lasting recurring features can be observed when plotting the deviation angle of the solar wind velocity vector from the radial direction. However, the deviation angle is small - in order of a few degrees - and cannot account for the observed flux increases. An increase of the magnetic field is clearly caused by the plasma compression associated to CIRs. Comparing interplanetary data with synoptic maps of the coronal magnetic field (PFSS modell) and coronal temperature data of ACE, we came to the possible explanation that these long-term structures are caused by fast speed solar wind originating from coronal holes. This results supports the idea that magnetic field lines from coronal holes spread out and reach to low latitudes as well. The recurrent longitudinal variation of the magnetic flux during the declining phase of the solar cycle has impact on the modulation of cosmic rays as well as on the frequency and intensity of space weather events.

  16. Multilevel Methodology for Simulation of Spatio-Temporal Systems with Heterogeneous Activity; Application to Spread of Valley Fever Fungus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jammalamadaka, Rajanikanth

    2009-01-01

    This report consists of a dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Graduate College, The University of Arizona, 2008. Spatio-temporal systems with heterogeneity in their structure and behavior have two major problems associated with them. The first one is that such complex real world systems extend over very large spatial and temporal domains and consume so many computational resources to simulate that they are infeasible to study with current computational platforms. The second one is that the data available for understanding such systems is limited because they are spread over space and time making it hard to obtain micro and macro measurements. This also makes it difficult to get the data for validation of their constituent processes while simultaneously considering their global behavior. For example, the valley fever fungus considered in this dissertation is spread over a large spatial grid in the arid Southwest and typically needs to be simulated over several decades of time to obtain useful information. It is also hard to get the temperature and moisture data (which are two critical factors on which the survival of the valley fever fungus depends) at every grid point of the spatial domain over the region of study. In order to address the first problem, we develop a method based on the discrete event system specification which exploits the heterogeneity in the activity of the spatio-temporal system and which has been shown to be effective in solving relatively simple partial differential equation systems. The benefit of addressing the first problem is that it now makes it feasible to address the second problem. We address the second problem by making use of a multilevel methodology based on modeling and simulation and systems theory. This methodology helps us in the construction of models with different resolutions (base and

  17. A FRET biosensor reveals spatiotemporal activation and functions of aurora kinase A in living cells.

    PubMed

    Bertolin, Giulia; Sizaire, Florian; Herbomel, Gaëtan; Reboutier, David; Prigent, Claude; Tramier, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of AURKA is a major hallmark of epithelial cancers. It encodes the multifunctional serine/threonine kinase aurora A, which is activated at metaphase and is required for cell cycle progression; assessing its activation in living cells is mandatory for next-generation drug design. We describe here a Förster's resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor detecting the conformational changes of aurora kinase A induced by its autophosphorylation on Thr288. The biosensor functionally replaces the endogenous kinase in cells and allows the activation of the kinase to be followed throughout the cell cycle. Inhibiting the catalytic activity of the kinase prevents the conformational changes of the biosensor. Using this approach, we discover that aurora kinase A activates during G1 to regulate the stability of microtubules in cooperation with TPX2 and CEP192. These results demonstrate that the aurora kinase A biosensor is a powerful tool to identify new regulatory pathways controlling aurora kinase A activation. PMID:27624869

  18. Spatiotemporal chaos from bursting dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Berenstein, Igal; De Decker, Yannick

    2015-08-14

    In this paper, we study the emergence of spatiotemporal chaos from mixed-mode oscillations, by using an extended Oregonator model. We show that bursting dynamics consisting of fast/slow mixed mode oscillations along a single attractor can lead to spatiotemporal chaotic dynamics, although the spatially homogeneous solution is itself non-chaotic. This behavior is observed far from the Hopf bifurcation and takes the form of a spatiotemporal intermittency where the system locally alternates between the fast and the slow phases of the mixed mode oscillations. We expect this form of spatiotemporal chaos to be generic for models in which one or several slow variables are coupled to activator-inhibitor type of oscillators.

  19. Effects of a Multicomponent Exercise Program on Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters, Risk of Falling and Physical Activity in Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Perrochon, Anaïck; Tchalla, Achille E.; Bonis, Joelle; Perucaud, Florian; Mandigout, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise programs are presumed to rehabilitate gait disorders and to reduce the risk of falling in dementia patients. This study aimed to analyze the specific effects of multicomponent exercise on gait disorders and to determine the association between gait impairments and the risk of falling in dementia patients before and after intervention. Methods We conducted an 8-week multicomponent exercise program in 16 dementia patients (age 86.7 ± 5.4 years). All participants were assessed several times for gait analysis (Locométrix®), Tinetti score and physical activity (Body Media SenseWear® Pro armband). Results After 8 weeks of the exercise program, the mean gait speed was 0.12 m/s faster than before the intervention (0.55 ± 0.17 vs. 0.67 ± 0.14 m/s). The multicomponent exercise program improved gait performance and Tinetti score (p < 0.05). Gait performance (gait speed, stride length) was correlated with the Tinetti score (p < 0.05). Conclusion Analysis of spatiotemporal gait parameters using an accelerometer method provided a quick and easy tool to estimate the benefits of an exercise program and the risk of falling. PMID:26557134

  20. Spatio-temporal analysis of lightning activity over Greece - Preliminary results derived from the recent state precision lightning network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.; Chronis, T. G.

    2014-07-01

    Lightning is a natural phenomenon in the atmosphere, being a major cause of storm related deaths, main trigger of forest fires and affects many electrochemical systems of the body. Significant scientific interest has come up in the last decades, as numerous lightning detection networks have been established in operational basis, providing lightning data to assess and mitigate lightning impact to the local society by spatio-temporal analysis. In this study, a preliminary analysis of spatial and temporal variabilities of recorded lightnings over Greece during the period from January 2008 to December 2009 is presented. The data for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence (TOA) of lightning were acquired from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). An operational precision lightning network (PLN) has been established since 2007 by HNMS, consisting of eight time-of-arrival (TOA) sensors, spatially distributed across Greek territory. The spatial variability of lightnings revealed their incidence within specific geographical sub-regions while the temporal variability concerns the seasonal and monthly distributions. All the analyses were carried out with respect to cloud to cloud (CC), cloud to ground (CG) and ground to cloud (GC) lightnings, within the examined time period. During the autumn season, lightning activity was the highest, followed by summer and spring. Higher frequencies of stokes appear over Ionian Sea and Aegean Sea than over land during winter period against continental mountainous regions during summer period.

  1. Tax-interacting protein 1 coordinates the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPases and regulates the infiltrative growth of human glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hailun; Han, Miaojun; Whetsell, William; Wang, Jialiang; Rich, Jeremy; Hallahan, Dennis; Han, Zhaozhong

    2014-01-01

    PDZ domains represent one group of the major structural units that mediate protein interactions in intercellular contact, signal transduction and assembly of biological machineries. TIP-1 protein is composed of a single PDZ domain that distinguishes TIP-1 from other PDZ domain proteins that more often contain multiple protein domains and function as scaffolds for protein complex assembly. However, the biological functions of TIP-1, especially in cell transformation and tumor progression, are still controversial as observed in a variety of cell types. In this study, we have identified ARHGEF7, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rho GTPases, as one novel TIP-1 interacting protein in human glioblastoma cells. We found that the presence of TIP-1 protein is essential to the intracellular redistribution of ARHGEF7 and rhotekin, one Rho effector, and the spatiotemporally coordinated activation of Rho GTPases (RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac1) in migrating glioblastoma cells. TIP-1 knockdown resulted in both aberrant localization of ARHGEF7 and rhotekin, as well as abnormal activation of Rho GTPases that was accompanied with impaired motility of glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, TIP-1 knockdown suppressed tumor cell dispersal in orthotopic glioblastoma murine models. We also observed high levels of TIP-1 expression in human glioblastoma specimens, and the elevated TIP-1 levels are associated with advanced staging and poor prognosis in glioma patients. Although more studies are needed to further dissect the mechanism(s) by which TIP-1 modulates the intracellular redistribution and activation of Rho GTPases, this study suggests that TIP-1 holds potential as both a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target of malignant gliomas. PMID:23563176

  2. Spatiotemporal trends of terrestrial vegetation activity along the urban development intensity gradient in China's 32 major cities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhang, Liangxia

    2014-08-01

    Terrestrial vegetation plays many pivotal roles in urban systems. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation are poorly understood. Here we examined the spatiotemporal trends of the vegetation activity measured by MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) along Urban Development Intensity (UDI) gradient in 32 major Chinese cities from 2000 to 2012. We also proposed to use a new set of concepts (i.e., actual, theoretical, and positive urbanization effects) to better understand and quantify the impacts of urbanization on vegetation activities. Results showed that the EVI decreased significantly along a rising UDI for 28 of 32 cities (p<0.05) in linear, convex or concave form, signifying the urbanization impacts on vegetation varied across cities and UDI zones within a city. Further, the actual urbanization effects were much weaker than the theoretical estimates because of the offsetting positive effects generated by multiple urban environmental and anthropogenic factors. Examining the relative changes of EVI in various UDI zones against that in the rural area (ΔEVI), which effectively removed the effects of climate variability, demonstrated that ΔEVI decreased markedly from 2000 to 2012 for about three-quarters of the cities in the exurban (0.05activities. PMID:24829041

  3. Recent Observations of Recurring Slope Lineae on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Ojha, L.; Dundas, C. M.; Mattson, S.; Masse, M.

    2011-12-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are relatively low-albedo features that extend down steep slopes from bedrock outcrops, often associated with small channels, and hundreds of them may form in rare locations (McEwen et al., 2011, Science 333, issue 6062). RSL appear and lengthen incrementally in the late southern spring/summer from 52°S to 32°S latitudes, favoring equator-facing slopes--times and places with peak surface temperatures from ~250-300 K. Liquid brines near the surface might explain this activity, but the mechanism and source of water are not understood. MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) provides the primary dataset for observing these meter-scale features. RSL are recurring-forming and growing in the warm season (late spring to early fall) then fading, sometimes completely vanishing in cold seasons. Intensive monitoring during the current southern summer is continuing to reveal new details, best seen in a set of animated GIFs at http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/sim. These recent observations show that individual flows fade at different rates, and may fade even in the summer while others are growing. Fading of individual flows (but not adjacent flows) may occur in only 2 weeks. There are significant interannual variations in the abundances, lengths, and exact locations of the RSL. In contrast, candidate RSL sites in equatorial regions (18°S to 19°N) have not shown continued activity, and are probably not the same type of activity or are much less active. Laboratory experiments by Conway et al. (Icarus 211, 443) provide new insights into how surface water flows behave at Martian atmospheric pressures and typical temperatures. The pure water boils, rapidly evaporating and simultaneously freezing in the shallow subsurface. Although salty water is not so volatile, this may help to explain why no water bands are seen in CRISM observations-water is actually exposed at the surface for very short periods of time over small areas, and rapidly

  4. Spatio-temporal activation of caspase-8 in myeloid cells upon ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Rodhe, Johanna; Burguillos, Miguel A; de Pablos, Rocio M; Kavanagh, Edel; Persson, Annette; Englund, Elisabet; Deierborg, Tomas; Venero, Jose L; Joseph, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke (caused by thrombosis, embolism or vasoconstriction) lead to the recruitment and activation of immune cells including resident microglia and infiltrating peripheral macrophages, which contribute to an inflammatory response involved in regulation of the neuronal damage. We showed earlier that upon pro-inflammatory stimuli, the orderly activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 regulates microglia activation through a protein kinase C-δ dependent pathway. Here, we present in vivo evidence for the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 in microglia/macrophages in post-mortem tissue from human ischemic stroke subjects. Indeed, CD68-positive microglia/macrophages in the ischemic peri-infarct area exhibited significant expression of the cleaved and active form of caspase-8 and caspase-3. The temporal and spatial activation of caspase-8 was further investigated in a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model of ischemic stroke. Increasing levels of active caspase-8 was found in Iba1-positive cells over time in the peri-infarct area, at 6, 24 and 48 h after artery occlusion. Analysis of post-mortem brain tissue from human subject who suffered two stroke events, referred as recent and old stroke, revealed that expression of cleaved caspase-8 and -3 in CD68-positive cells could only be found in the recent stroke area. Analysis of cleaved caspase-8 and -3 expressions in a panel of human stroke cases arranged upon days-after stroke and age-matched controls suggested that the expression of these caspases correlated with the time of onset of stroke. Collectively, these data illustrate the temporal and spatial activation of caspase-8 and -3 in microglia/macrophages occurring upon ischemic stroke and suggest that the expression of these caspases could be used in neuropathological diagnostic work. PMID:27566702

  5. Spatio-Temporal Imaging of Promoter Activity in Intact Plant Tissues.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Tou Cheu; Sanchez, Frédéric; Briat, Jean-François; Gaymard, Frédéric; Dubos, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Localization and quantification of expression levels of genes help to determine their function. Localization of gene expression is often achieved through the study of their promoter activity. Three main reporter genes β-glucuronidase (GUS), green fluorescent protein (GFP), and luciferase (LUC) have been intensively used to characterize promoter activities, each having its own specificities and advantages. Among them, the LUC reporter gene is best suitable for the analysis of the promoter activity of genes in intact living plants. Here, we describe a LUC-based method that allows to precisely localize and quantify promoter activity at the whole plant level, and to study the mechanisms that are involved in long-distance regulation of gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Imaging LUC signals with a low-light CCD camera allows monitoring promoter activity in time and space in the transgenic plant harboring the promoter fused with the LUC gene. In addition, it allows quantifying change of promoter activities in plant during several hours. PMID:27557763

  6. Spatio-temporally precise activation of engineered receptor tyrosine kinases by light

    PubMed Central

    Grusch, Michael; Schelch, Karin; Riedler, Robert; Reichhart, Eva; Differ, Christopher; Berger, Walter; Inglés-Prieto, Álvaro; Janovjak, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a large family of cell surface receptors that sense growth factors and hormones and regulate a variety of cell behaviours in health and disease. Contactless activation of RTKs with spatial and temporal precision is currently not feasible. Here, we generated RTKs that are insensitive to endogenous ligands but can be selectively activated by low-intensity blue light. We screened light-oxygen-voltage (LOV)-sensing domains for their ability to activate RTKs by light-activated dimerization. Incorporation of LOV domains found in aureochrome photoreceptors of stramenopiles resulted in robust activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and rearranged during transfection (RET). In human cancer and endothelial cells, light induced cellular signalling with spatial and temporal precision. Furthermore, light faithfully mimicked complex mitogenic and morphogenic cell behaviour induced by growth factors. RTKs under optical control (Opto-RTKs) provide a powerful optogenetic approach to actuate cellular signals and manipulate cell behaviour. PMID:24986882

  7. A novel pathway spatiotemporally activates Rac1 and redox signaling in response to fluid shear stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunhao; Collins, Caitlin; Kiosses, William B.; Murray, Ann M.; Joshi, Monika; Shepherd, Tyson R.; Fuentes, Ernesto J.

    2013-01-01

    Hemodynamic forces regulate embryonic organ development, hematopoiesis, vascular remodeling, and atherogenesis. The mechanosensory stimulus of blood flow initiates a complex network of intracellular pathways, including activation of Rac1 GTPase, establishment of endothelial cell (EC) polarity, and redox signaling. The activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase can be modulated by the GTP/GDP state of Rac1; however, the molecular mechanisms of Rac1 activation by flow are poorly understood. Here, we identify a novel polarity complex that directs localized Rac1 activation required for downstream reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Vav2 is required for Rac1 GTP loading, whereas, surprisingly, Tiam1 functions as an adaptor in a VE-cadherin–p67phox–Par3 polarity complex that directs localized activation of Rac1. Furthermore, loss of Tiam1 led to the disruption of redox signaling both in vitro and in vivo. Our results describe a novel molecular cascade that regulates redox signaling by the coordinated regulation of Rac1 and by linking components of the polarity complex to the NADPH oxidase. PMID:23733346

  8. Spatiotemporal dissociation of brain activity underlying subjective awareness, objective performance and confidence.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Hill, Zachary; He, Biyu J

    2014-03-19

    Despite intense recent research, the neural correlates of conscious visual perception remain elusive. The most established paradigm for studying brain mechanisms underlying conscious perception is to keep the physical sensory inputs constant and identify brain activities that correlate with the changing content of conscious awareness. However, such a contrast based on conscious content alone would not only reveal brain activities directly contributing to conscious perception, but also include brain activities that precede or follow it. To address this issue, we devised a paradigm whereby we collected, trial-by-trial, measures of objective performance, subjective awareness, and the confidence level of subjective awareness. Using magnetoencephalography recordings in healthy human volunteers, we dissociated brain activities underlying these different cognitive phenomena. Our results provide strong evidence that widely distributed slow cortical potentials (SCPs) correlate with subjective awareness, even after the effects of objective performance and confidence were both removed. The SCP correlate of conscious perception manifests strongly in its waveform, phase, and power. In contrast, objective performance and confidence were both contributed by relatively transient brain activity. These results shed new light on the brain mechanisms of conscious, unconscious, and metacognitive processing. PMID:24647958

  9. Spatiotemporal analysis of soil moisture in using active and passive remotely sensed data and ground observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Fang, B.; Lakshmi, V.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture plays a vital role in ecosystem, biological processes, climate, weather and agriculture. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) improves data by combining the advantages and avoiding the limitation of passive microwave remote sensing (low resolution), and active microwave (challenge of soil moisture retrieval). This study will advance the knowledge of the application of soil moisture by using the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) data as well as data collected at Walnut Gulch Arizona in August 2015 during SMAPVEX15. Specifically, we will analyze the 5m radar data from Unmanned Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) to study spatial variability within the PALS radiometer pixel. SMAPVEX12/15 and SMAP data will also be analyzed to evaluate disaggregation algorithms. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and regulations for protecting land resources and improving environmental conditions. Keywords: soil moisture, Remote Sensing (RS), spatial statistic

  10. Locus Ceruleus Norepinephrine Release: A Central Regulator of CNS Spatio-Temporal Activation?

    PubMed Central

    Atzori, Marco; Cuevas-Olguin, Roberto; Esquivel-Rendon, Eric; Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto C.; Saderi, Nadia; Miranda-Morales, Marcela; Treviño, Mario; Pineda, Juan C.; Salgado, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) is synthesized in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) of the brainstem, from where it is released by axonal varicosities throughout the brain via volume transmission. A wealth of data from clinics and from animal models indicates that this catecholamine coordinates the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) and of the whole organism by modulating cell function in a vast number of brain areas in a coordinated manner. The ubiquity of NE receptors, the daunting number of cerebral areas regulated by the catecholamine, as well as the variety of cellular effects and of their timescales have contributed so far to defeat the attempts to integrate central adrenergic function into a unitary and coherent framework. Since three main families of NE receptors are represented—in order of decreasing affinity for the catecholamine—by: α2 adrenoceptors (α2Rs, high affinity), α1 adrenoceptors (α1Rs, intermediate affinity), and β adrenoceptors (βRs, low affinity), on a pharmacological basis, and on the ground of recent studies on cellular and systemic central noradrenergic effects, we propose that an increase in LC tonic activity promotes the emergence of four global states covering the whole spectrum of brain activation: (1) sleep: virtual absence of NE, (2) quiet wake: activation of α2Rs, (3) active wake/physiological stress: activation of α2- and α1-Rs, (4) distress: activation of α2-, α1-, and β-Rs. We postulate that excess intensity and/or duration of states (3) and (4) may lead to maladaptive plasticity, causing—in turn—a variety of neuropsychiatric illnesses including depression, schizophrenic psychoses, anxiety disorders, and attention deficit. The interplay between tonic and phasic LC activity identified in the LC in relationship with behavioral response is of critical importance in defining the short- and long-term biological mechanisms associated with the basic states postulated for the CNS. While the model has the potential to explain a

  11. Locus Ceruleus Norepinephrine Release: A Central Regulator of CNS Spatio-Temporal Activation?

    PubMed

    Atzori, Marco; Cuevas-Olguin, Roberto; Esquivel-Rendon, Eric; Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto C; Saderi, Nadia; Miranda-Morales, Marcela; Treviño, Mario; Pineda, Juan C; Salgado, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) is synthesized in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) of the brainstem, from where it is released by axonal varicosities throughout the brain via volume transmission. A wealth of data from clinics and from animal models indicates that this catecholamine coordinates the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) and of the whole organism by modulating cell function in a vast number of brain areas in a coordinated manner. The ubiquity of NE receptors, the daunting number of cerebral areas regulated by the catecholamine, as well as the variety of cellular effects and of their timescales have contributed so far to defeat the attempts to integrate central adrenergic function into a unitary and coherent framework. Since three main families of NE receptors are represented-in order of decreasing affinity for the catecholamine-by: α2 adrenoceptors (α2Rs, high affinity), α1 adrenoceptors (α1Rs, intermediate affinity), and β adrenoceptors (βRs, low affinity), on a pharmacological basis, and on the ground of recent studies on cellular and systemic central noradrenergic effects, we propose that an increase in LC tonic activity promotes the emergence of four global states covering the whole spectrum of brain activation: (1) sleep: virtual absence of NE, (2) quiet wake: activation of α2Rs, (3) active wake/physiological stress: activation of α2- and α1-Rs, (4) distress: activation of α2-, α1-, and β-Rs. We postulate that excess intensity and/or duration of states (3) and (4) may lead to maladaptive plasticity, causing-in turn-a variety of neuropsychiatric illnesses including depression, schizophrenic psychoses, anxiety disorders, and attention deficit. The interplay between tonic and phasic LC activity identified in the LC in relationship with behavioral response is of critical importance in defining the short- and long-term biological mechanisms associated with the basic states postulated for the CNS. While the model has the potential to explain a large

  12. Spatiotemporal stability of neonatal rat cardiomyocyte monolayers spontaneous activity is dependent on the culture substrate.

    PubMed

    Boudreau-Béland, Jonathan; Duverger, James Elber; Petitjean, Estelle; Maguy, Ange; Ledoux, Jonathan; Comtois, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In native conditions, cardiac cells must continuously comply with diverse stimuli necessitating a perpetual adaptation. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is commonly used in cell culture to study cellular response to changes in the mechanical environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of using PDMS substrates on the properties of spontaneous activity of cardiomyocyte monolayer cultures. We compared PDMS to the gold standard normally used in culture: a glass substrate. Although mean frequency of spontaneous activity remained unaltered, incidence of reentrant activity was significantly higher in samples cultured on glass compared to PDMS substrates. Higher spatial and temporal instability of the spontaneous rate activation was found when cardiomyocytes were cultured on PDMS, and correlated with decreased connexin-43 and increased CaV3.1 and HCN2 mRNA levels. Compared to cultures on glass, cultures on PDMS were associated with the strongest response to isoproterenol and acetylcholine. These results reveal the importance of carefully selecting the culture substrate for studies involving mechanical stimulation, especially for tissue engineering or pharmacological high-throughput screening of cardiac tissue analog. PMID:26035822

  13. Spatiotemporal Stability of Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocyte Monolayers Spontaneous Activity Is Dependent on the Culture Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau-Béland, Jonathan; Duverger, James Elber; Petitjean, Estelle; Maguy, Ange; Ledoux, Jonathan; Comtois, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In native conditions, cardiac cells must continuously comply with diverse stimuli necessitating a perpetual adaptation. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is commonly used in cell culture to study cellular response to changes in the mechanical environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of using PDMS substrates on the properties of spontaneous activity of cardiomyocyte monolayer cultures. We compared PDMS to the gold standard normally used in culture: a glass substrate. Although mean frequency of spontaneous activity remained unaltered, incidence of reentrant activity was significantly higher in samples cultured on glass compared to PDMS substrates. Higher spatial and temporal instability of the spontaneous rate activation was found when cardiomyocytes were cultured on PDMS, and correlated with decreased connexin-43 and increased CaV3.1 and HCN2 mRNA levels. Compared to cultures on glass, cultures on PDMS were associated with the strongest response to isoproterenol and acetylcholine. These results reveal the importance of carefully selecting the culture substrate for studies involving mechanical stimulation, especially for tissue engineering or pharmacological high-throughput screening of cardiac tissue analog. PMID:26035822

  14. Bioresorbable silicon electronics for transient spatiotemporal mapping of electrical activity from the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ki Jun; Kuzum, Duygu; Hwang, Suk-Won; Kim, Bong Hoon; Juul, Halvor; Kim, Nam Heon; Won, Sang Min; Chiang, Ken; Trumpis, Michael; Richardson, Andrew G; Cheng, Huanyu; Fang, Hui; Thompson, Marissa; Bink, Hank; Talos, Delia; Seo, Kyung Jin; Lee, Hee Nam; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Jung Yup; Huang, Younggang; Jensen, Frances E; Dichter, Marc A; Lucas, Timothy H; Viventi, Jonathan; Litt, Brian; Rogers, John A

    2016-07-01

    Bioresorbable silicon electronics technology offers unprecedented opportunities to deploy advanced implantable monitoring systems that eliminate risks, cost and discomfort associated with surgical extraction. Applications include postoperative monitoring and transient physiologic recording after percutaneous or minimally invasive placement of vascular, cardiac, orthopaedic, neural or other devices. We present an embodiment of these materials in both passive and actively addressed arrays of bioresorbable silicon electrodes with multiplexing capabilities, which record in vivo electrophysiological signals from the cortical surface and the subgaleal space. The devices detect normal physiologic and epileptiform activity, both in acute and chronic recordings. Comparative studies show sensor performance comparable to standard clinical systems and reduced tissue reactivity relative to conventional clinical electrocorticography (ECoG) electrodes. This technology offers general applicability in neural interfaces, with additional potential utility in treatment of disorders where transient monitoring and modulation of physiologic function, implant integrity and tissue recovery or regeneration are required. PMID:27088236

  15. Spatiotemporal activity patterns detected from single cell measurements from behaving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Alessandro E. P.; Tetko, Igor V.

    1999-03-01

    Precise temporal patterning of activity within and between neurons has been predicted on theoretical grounds, and found in the spike trains of neurons recorded from anesthetized and conscious animals, in association with sensor stimuli and particular phases of task performance. However, the functional significance of such patterning in the generation of behavior has not been confirmed. We recorded from multiple single neurons in regions of rat auditory cortex during the waiting period of a Go/NoGo task. During this time the animal waited for an auditory signal with high cognitive load. Of note is the fact that neural activity during the period analyzed was essentially stationary, with no event related variability in firing. Detected patterns therefore provide a measure of brain state that could not be addressed by standard methods relying on analysis of changes in mean discharge rate. The possibility is discussed that some patterns might reflect a preset bias to a particular response, formed in the waiting period. Others patterns might reflect a state of prior preparation of appropriate neural assemblies for analyzing a signal that is expected but of unknown behavioral valence.

  16. Cloud-to-ground lightning activity over Greece: Spatio-temporal analysis and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Nastos, P. T.; Kapsomenakis, J.

    2016-03-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning activity recorded by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) Precision Lightning Network (PLN) is analysed over the wider area of Greece. In addition, the spatial and temporal relationships between TRMM 3B42 (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) datasets and lightning are presented. The analyses concern the period from January 14, 2008 to December 31, 2012. The Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, University of Athens, has established a detailed dataset of lightning impacts over Greece from 1895 to 2013, based on digitized archive editions of newspapers. The mean seasonal variability of CG lightning activity revealed autumn as the most dominant season with 303 LD, while the mean monthly variability of CG indicated October as the most lightning active month and May as the month with a mean of 27 LD. The mean annual spatial distribution of CG lightning per km2, depicted the maximum frequency over Pindus mountain range (> 7 CG/km2). During the autumn season, the northern Ionian Sea experienced a mean frequency of more than 5 CG/km2, compared to the southern Ionian Sea and NW Peloponnesus, where values of more than 7 CG/km2 are depicted. During the summer season, the maximum frequency appeared along Pindus mountain range, around Attica, Thessaly and central Macedonia highlands. The spatial distribution of seasonal correlations between the number of CG flashes/day and gridded (TRMM 3B42) daily rainfall totals for the period 2008-2012 over Greece, indicated that correlations were mainly positive all over the under study area, within all seasons, and especially during summer and autumn. Regarding the lightning impacts in Greece, based on the 1895-2013 study period, more than 343 fatalities and at least 224 injured people have been recorded. The spatial analysis of lightning impacts, showed that the majority of events has been recorded over Greek mainland and only few scattered events have been reported over

  17. Spatiotemporal activity of the mshA gene system in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 biofilms.

    PubMed

    Saville, Renée M; Dieckmann, Nele; Spormann, Alfred M

    2010-07-01

    Type IV pili and a putative EPS biosynthetic gene cluster (mxdABCD) have been implicated previously in biofilm formation in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Here, we report that the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA) pilus mediates a reversible, d-mannose-sensitive association of cells to the substratum surface or to other cells that is critical within the first 5 microm of the biofilm from the substratum. The presence of the MSHA pilus alone is insufficient to confer biofilm-forming capacity; its activity, as mediated by the putative pilus retraction motor protein, PilT, is also required. Deletion of pilD, encoding the type IV pili prepilin peptidase, revealed that additional PilD substrate(s) may be involved in biofilm formation beyond the major structural pilin of the MSHA pilus. We also present data showing that the MSHA pilus and mxd genes encode for a complementary set of molecular machineries that constitute the dominant mechanisms enabling biofilm formation in this microorganism under hydrodynamic conditions. PMID:20487019

  18. Atypical Functional Brain Activation during a Multiple Object Tracking Task in Girls with Turner Syndrome: Neurocorrelates of Reduced Spatiotemporal Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, Elliott A.; Stoddard, Joel; Lai, Song; Lackey, John; Shi, Jianrong; Ross, Judith L.; Simon, Tony J.

    2010-01-01

    Turner syndrome is associated with spatial and numerical cognitive impairments. We hypothesized that these nonverbal cognitive impairments result from limits in spatial and temporal processing, particularly as it affects attention. To examine spatiotemporal attention in girls with Turner syndrome versus typically developing controls, we used a…

  19. Spatiotemporal manipulation of retinoic acid activity in zebrafish hindbrain development via photo-isomerization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Feng, Zhiping; Sinha, Deepak; Ducos, Bertrand; Ebenstein, Yuval; Tadmor, Arbel D; Gauron, Carole; Le Saux, Thomas; Lin, Shuo; Weiss, Shimon; Vriz, Sophie; Jullien, Ludovic; Bensimon, David

    2012-09-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (RA) is a key player in many developmental pathways. Most methods used to study its effects in development involve continuous all-trans RA activation by incubation in a solution of all-trans RA or by implanting all-trans RA-soaked beads at desired locations in the embryo. Here we show that the UV-driven photo-isomerization of 13-cis RA to the trans-isomer (and vice versa) can be used to non-invasively and quantitatively control the concentration of all-trans RA in a developing embryo in time and space. This facilitates the global or local perturbation of developmental pathways with a pulse of all-trans RA of known concentration or its inactivation by UV illumination. In zebrafish embryos in which endogenous synthesis of all-trans RA is impaired, incubation for as little as 5 minutes in 1 nM all-trans RA (a pulse) or 5 nM 13-cis RA followed by 1-minute UV illumination is sufficient to rescue the development of the hindbrain if performed no later than bud stage. However, if subsequent to this all-trans RA pulse the embryo is illuminated (no later than bud stage) for 1 minute with UV light (to isomerize, i.e. deactivate, all-trans RA), the rescue of hindbrain development is impaired. This suggests that all-trans RA is sequestered in embryos that have been transiently exposed to it. Using 13-cis RA isomerization with UV light, we further show that local illumination at bud stage of the head region (but not the tail) is sufficient to rescue hindbrain formation in embryos whose all-trans RA synthetic pathway has been impaired. PMID:22874920

  20. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma recurring over three decades.

    PubMed

    Styron, S L; Burke, T W; Linville, W K

    1989-11-01

    Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is an uncommon uterine malignancy with a variety of histologic characteristics and clinical courses. We describe a patient who recently underwent her third resection of a locally recurring low-grade ESS 29 years after original diagnosis. Tissue from her recurrent tumor contained high levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors and had a diploid DNA content. In addition to multiple resections, she has previously been treated with vincristine chemotherapy and is now receiving megestrol acetate therapy. Mitotic activity is the most important prognostic feature distinguishing high- and low-grade ESS. The mainstay of therapy for both high- and low-grade tumors is surgical excision. A beneficial adjuvant role for cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy is yet to be clearly established for low-grade ESS; however, recent reports suggest that progestational agents may produce significant responses in recurrent or persistent disease patients whose tumors produce steroid hormone receptors. Indolent tumors may require years of close observation and multiple treatment approaches to maintain a patient in a functional capacity. PMID:2807024

  1. Recurring Slope Lineae and Future Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Alfred; Byrne, Shane; Chevrier, Vincent; Chojnacki, Matt; Dundas, Colin; Masse, Marion; Mattson, Sarah; Ojha, Lujendra; Pommerol, Antoine; Toigo, Anthony; Wray, James

    2014-05-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) on Mars may be evidence for the seasonal flow or seepage of water on relatively warm slopes. RSL are narrow (<5 m), relatively dark markings on steep (25°-40°) slopes that appear and incrementally grow during warm seasons over low-albedo surfaces, fade when inactive, and recur over multiple Mars years [McEwen et al., 2011, Science]. RSL often follow small gullies, but no topographic changes have been detected via 30 cm/pixel images from HiRISE on MRO. The fans on which RSL terminate have distinctive color and spectral properties in MRO/CRISM, but lack distinctive water absorption bands [Ojha et al., 2013, GRL]. The first group of confirmed RSL appear and lengthen in the late southern spring through summer from 48° - 32°S latitude, favoring equator-facing slopes—times and places with peak surface temperatures ranging from >250 K to >300 K. Over the past Martian year we have monitored active RSL in equatorial (0°-15°S) regions of Mars, especially in the deep canyons of Valles Marineris [McEwen et al., 2014, Nature Geoscience]. These equatorial RSL are especially active on north-facing slopes in northern summer and spring and on south-facing slopes in southern spring and summer, following the most normal solar incidence angles on these steep slopes. More recently we have confirmed RSL near 35°N in the low-albedo and low-altitude Acidalia Planitia. All RSL locations have warm peak daily temperatures (typically >273 K at the surface) in the seasons when RSL are active, and occur on steep, rocky, low-albedo slopes. However, most times and places with these properties lack apparent RSL, so there are additional, unseen requirements. We do not know what time of day RSL are actively flowing. Seasonal variation in the atmospheric column abundance of water vapor does not match the RSL activity. Seasonal melting of shallow ice best explains the RSL observations, but the origin and replenishment of such ice is not understood, especially in

  2. Exploiting flow to control the in vitro spatiotemporal distribution of microbubble-seeded acoustic cavitation activity in ultrasound therapy.

    PubMed

    Pouliopoulos, Antonios N; Bonaccorsi, Simone; Choi, James J

    2014-11-21

    Focused ultrasound and microbubbles have been extensively used to generate therapeutic bioeffects. Despite encouraging in vivo results, there remains poor control of the magnitude and spatial distribution of these bioeffects due to the limited ability of conventional pulse shapes and sequences to control cavitation dynamics. Thus current techniques are restricted by an efficacy-safety trade-off. The primary aim of the present study was to incorporate the presence of flow in the design of new short pulse sequences, which can more uniformly distribute the cavitation activity. Microbubbles flowing (fluid velocity: 10 mm s(-1)) through a 300 μm tube were sonicated with a focused 0.5 MHz transducer while acoustic emissions were captured with an inserted focused 7.5 MHz passive cavitation detector. The two foci were co-axially aligned and their focal points were overlapped. Whereas conventional sequences are composed of a long burst (>10,000 cycles) emitted at a low burst repetition frequency (<10 Hz), we decomposed this burst into short pulses by adding intervals to facilitate inter-pulse microbubble movement. To evaluate how this sequence influenced cavitation distribution, we emitted short pulses (peak-rarefactional pressure (PRP): 40-366 kPa, pulse length (PL): 5-25 cycles) at high pulse repetition frequencies (PRF: 0.625-10 kHz) for a burst length of 100 ms. Increased cavitation persistence, implied by the duration of the microbubble acoustic emissions, was a measure of improved distribution due to the presence of flow. Sonication at lower acoustic pressures, longer pulse intervals and lower PLs improved the spatial distribution of cavitation. Furthermore, spectral analysis of the microbubble emissions revealed that the improvement at low pressures is due to persisting stable cavitation. In conclusion, new short-pulse sequences were shown to improve spatiotemporal control of acoustic cavitation dynamics during physiologically relevant flow. This

  3. Visualizing and Quantitating the Spatiotemporal Regulation of Ras/ERK Signaling by Dual-Specificity Mitogen-Activated Protein Phosphatases (MKPs).

    PubMed

    Caunt, Christopher J; Kidger, Andrew M; Keyse, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal regulation of the Ras/ERK pathway is critical in determining the physiological and pathophysiological outcome of signaling. Dual-specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatases (DUSPs or MKPs) are key regulators of pathway activity and may also localize ERK to distinct subcellular locations. Here we present methods largely based on the use of high content microscopy to both visualize and quantitate the subcellular distribution of activated (p-ERK) and total ERK in populations of mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from mice lacking DUSP5, a nuclear ERK-specific MKP. Such methods in combination with rescue experiments using adenoviral vectors encoding wild-type and mutant forms of DUSP5 have allowed us to visualize specific defects in ERK regulation in these cells thus confirming the role of this phosphatase as both a nuclear regulator of ERK activity and localization. PMID:27514808

  4. Auditing Management Practices in Schools: Recurring Communication Problems and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwijze-Koning, Karen H.; de Jong, Menno D. T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past ten years, most Dutch high schools have been confronted with mergers, curriculum reforms, and managerial changes. As a result, the pressure on the schools' communication systems has increased and several problems have emerged. This paper aims to examine recurring clusters of communication problems in high schools.…

  5. Integrating the ChE Curriculum via a Recurring Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubilius, Matthew B.; Tu, Raymond S.; Anderson, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    A recurring framework has been integrated throughout the curriculum via a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) platform. This laboratory is introduced during the material and energy balance course, and subsequent courses can use these results when explaining more advanced concepts. Further, this laboratory gives students practical experience…

  6. Spatio-temporal activity patterns of odor-induced synchronized potentials revealed by voltage-sensitive dye imaging and intracellular recording in the antennal lobe of the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Ai, Hiroyuki; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    In animals, odor qualities are represented as both spatial activity patterns of glomeruli and temporal patterns of synchronized oscillatory signals in the primary olfactory centers. By optical imaging of a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) and intracellular recording from secondary olfactory interneurons, we examined possible neural correlates of the spatial and temporal odor representations in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), of the cockroach Periplaneta americana. Voltage-sensitive dye imaging revealed that all used odorants induced odor-specific temporal patterns of depolarizing potentials in specific combinations of anterior glomeruli of the AL. The depolarizing potentials evoked by different odorants were temporally synchronized across glomeruli and were termed "synchronized potentials." These observations suggest that odor qualities are represented by spatio-temporal activity patterns of the synchronized potentials across glomeruli. We also performed intracellular recordings and stainings from secondary olfactory interneurons, namely projection neurons and local interneurons. We analyzed the temporal structures of enanthic acid-induced action potentials of secondary olfactory interneurons using simultaneous paired intracellular recording from two given neurons. Our results indicated that the multiple local interneurons synchronously fired in response to the olfactory stimulus. In addition, all stained enanthic acid-responsive projection neurons exhibited dendritic arborizations within the glomeruli where the synchronized potentials were evoked. Since multiple local interneurons are known to synapse to a projection neuron in each glomerulus in the cockroach AL, converging inputs from local interneurons to the projection neurons appear to contribute the odorant specific spatio-temporal activity patterns of the synchronized potentials. PMID:22848191

  7. Spatiotemporal Wave Patterns: Information Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhail Rabinovich; Lev Tsimring

    2006-01-20

    Pattern formation has traditionally been studied in non-equilibrium physics from the viewpoint of describing the basic structures and their interactions. While this is still an important area of research, the emphasis in the last few years has shifted towards analysis of specific properties of patterns in various complex media. For example, diverse and unexpected phenomena occur in neuro-like media that are characterized by highly non-trivial local dynamics. We carried out an active research program on analysis of spatio-temporal patterns in various physical systems (convection, oscillating fluid layer, soap film), as well as in neuro-like media, with an emphasis on informational aspects of the dynamics. Nonlinear nonequilibrium media and their discrete analogs have a unique ability to represent, memorize, and process the information contained in spatio-temporal patterns. Recent neurophysiological experiments demonstrated a certain universality of spatio-temporal representation of information by neural ensembles. Information processing is also revealed in the spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular patterns in nonequilibrium media. It is extremely important for many applications to study the informational aspects of these dynamics, including the origins and mechanisms of information generation, propagation and storage. Some of our results are: the discovery of self-organization of periodically oscillatory patterns in chaotic heterogeneous media; the analysis of the propagation of the information along a chaotic media as function of the entropy of the signal; the analysis of wave propagation in discrete non-equilibrium media with autocatalytic properties, which simulates the calcium dynamics in cellular membranes. Based on biological experiments we suggest the mechanism by which the spatial sensory information is transferred into the spatio-temporal code in the neural media. We also found a new mechanism of self-pinning in cellular structures and the related phenomenon

  8. 25 CFR 20.310 - What recurring income must be prorated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Determining Need and Income § 20.310 What recurring income must be prorated? The social services worker will prorate the following recurring income:...

  9. Sun vs Moon: Competing Mechanisms for Recurring Aurorae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Gary

    2011-11-01

    At New England latitudes, sightings of northern lights do not occur at random. Among the nonrandom patterns are two of similar period caused by solar rotation and lunar revolution. From the 1880's to the 1950's controversy persisted regarding the mechanism by which aurorae recur at intervals that are multiples of about one month. Observations from northern Vermont are used to explore the influences of Sun and Moon on sightings of ``low'' latitude aurora with an eye to answering this question: with geomagnetic disturbance under strong solar control, and with aurorae associated with geomagnetic disturbance, why is the Sun's influence on auroral recurrence so weak?

  10. Recurring errors among recent history of psychology textbooks.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roger K

    2007-01-01

    Five recurring errors in history of psychology textbooks are discussed. One involves an identical misquotation. The remaining examples involve factual and interpretational errors that more than one and usually several textbook authors made. In at least 2 cases some facts were fabricated, namely, so-called facts associated with Pavlov's mugging and Descartes's reasons for choosing the pineal gland as the locus for mind-body interaction. A fourth example involves Broca's so-called discovery of the speech center, and the fifth example involves misinterpretations of Lloyd Morgan's intentions regarding his famous canon. When an error involves misinterpretation and thus misrepresentation, I will show why the misinterpretation is untenable. PMID:17892089

  11. Discovering Recurring Anomalies in Text Reports Regarding Complex Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zane-Ulman, Brett; Srivastava, Ashok N.

    2005-01-01

    Many existing complex space systems have a significant amount of historical maintenance and problem data bases that are stored in unstructured text forms. For some platforms, these reports may be encoded as scanned images rather than even searchable text. The problem that we address in this paper is the discovery of recurring anomalies and relationships between different problem reports that may indicate larger systemic problems. We will illustrate our techniques on data from discrepancy reports regarding software anomalies in the Space Shuttle. These free text reports are written by a number of different penp!e, thus the emphasis and wording varies considerably.

  12. An empirical Bayes approach to analyzing recurring animal surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recurring estimates of the size of animal populations are often required by biologists or wildlife managers. Because of cost or other constraints, estimates frequently lack the accuracy desired but cannot readily be improved by additional sampling. This report proposes a statistical method employing empirical Bayes (EB) estimators as alternatives to those customarily used to estimate population size, and evaluates them by a subsampling experiment on waterfowl surveys. EB estimates, especially a simple limited-translation version, were more accurate and provided shorter confidence intervals with greater coverage probabilities than customary estimates.

  13. Recurring patterns in stationary intervals of abdominal uterine electromyograms during gestation.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Luigi Yuri; Di Maria, Costanzo; Tong, Wing-Chiu; Taggart, Michael J; Robson, Stephen C; Langley, Philip

    2014-08-01

    Abdominal uterine electromyograms (uEMG) studies have focused on uterine contractions to describe the evolution of uterine activity and preterm birth (PTB) prediction. Stationary, non-contracting uEMG has not been studied. The aim of the study was to investigate the recurring patterns in stationary uEMG, their relationship with gestation age and PTB, and PTB predictivity. A public database of 300 (38 PTB) three-channel (S1-S3) uEMG recordings of 30 min, collected between 22 and 35 weeks' gestation, was used. Motion and labour contraction-free intervals in uEMG were identified as 5-min weak-sense stationarity intervals in 268 (34 PTB) recordings. Sample entropy (SampEn), percentage recurrence (PR), percentage determinism (PD), entropy (ER), and maximum length (L MAX) of recurrence were calculated and analysed according to the time to delivery and PTB. Random time series were generated by random shuffle (RS) of actual data. Recurrence was present in actual data (p<0.001) but not RS. In S3, PR (p<0.005), PD (p<0.01), ER (p<0.005), and L MAX (p<0.05) were higher, and SampEn lower (p<0.005) in PTB. Recurrence indices increased (all p<0.001) and SampEn decreased (p<0.01) with decreasing time to delivery, suggesting increasingly regular and recurring patterns with gestation progression. All indices predicted PTB with AUC≥0.62 (p<0.05). Recurring patterns in stationary non-contracting uEMG were associated with time to delivery but were relatively poor predictors of PTB. PMID:25008004

  14. On the characterization of the spatio-temporal profiles of brain activity associated with face naming and the tip-of-the-tongue state: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study.

    PubMed

    Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando; Capilla, Almudena; Ortiz, Tomás; Maestú, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    The tip-of-the-tongue state (TOT) in face naming is a transient state of difficulty in access to a person's name along with the conviction that the name is known. The aim of the present study was to characterize the spatio-temporal course of brain activation in the successful naming and TOT states, by means of magnetoencephalography, during a face-naming task. Following famous face presentations, subjects indicated whether they knew the name, did not know the name, or experienced a TOT state. Next they produced the name aloud, if they could, although they did not indicate whether they retrieved any other information about the person. The TOT state was characterized by lower activation than for successful retrieval, in the 310-520 ms poststimulus interval, localized to left temporal and frontal areas, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus, which may underlie the genesis of TOT. Greater activation was also found in the 740-820 ms interval, localized to bilateral occipital, left temporal, and right frontal and parietal areas, corresponding with the unfruitful search for the name after the TOT state was produced. These results showed the differential brain dynamics underlying searching for the name of a known individual according to whether the search was successful or subjectively rated as just short of success. PMID:20206189

  15. Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma of Ethmoid Sinus Recurring as an Orbital Mass

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Bahram; Ameli, Kambiz

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a primitive, malignant, round cell neoplasm derived from mesenchymal tissue that exhibits partial skeletal muscle differentiation. We describe a rare case of alveolar RMS of ethmoid sinus, recurring as an orbital mass. A 23-year-old man with the chief complaint of anosmia and mild proptosis was diagnosed with RMS of the left ethmoid sinus and orbit following an endoscopic biopsy of the mass. He was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. At 12 months after diagnosis, while still on maintenance chemotherapy, he presented to our eye hospital with a large medial canthal mass and lateral globe displacement. Orbital computed tomography revealed an extraconal mass in the medial orbit of the left eye, extending posteriorly and compressing the medial rectus muscle. Notably, the ethmoid sinus was clear. Incisional biopsy was performed and the recurrence of alveolar RMS was confirmed. Alveolar RMS of the ethmoid sinus may recur as an orbital mass, even if the sinus where it originated is clear at the time of recurrence. PMID:27190854

  16. Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma of Ethmoid Sinus Recurring as an Orbital Mass.

    PubMed

    Eshraghi, Bahram; Ameli, Kambiz; Anvari, Pasha

    2016-04-01

    Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a primitive, malignant, round cell neoplasm derived from mesenchymal tissue that exhibits partial skeletal muscle differentiation. We describe a rare case of alveolar RMS of ethmoid sinus, recurring as an orbital mass. A 23-year-old man with the chief complaint of anosmia and mild proptosis was diagnosed with RMS of the left ethmoid sinus and orbit following an endoscopic biopsy of the mass. He was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. At 12 months after diagnosis, while still on maintenance chemotherapy, he presented to our eye hospital with a large medial canthal mass and lateral globe displacement. Orbital computed tomography revealed an extraconal mass in the medial orbit of the left eye, extending posteriorly and compressing the medial rectus muscle. Notably, the ethmoid sinus was clear. Incisional biopsy was performed and the recurrence of alveolar RMS was confirmed. Alveolar RMS of the ethmoid sinus may recur as an orbital mass, even if the sinus where it originated is clear at the time of recurrence. PMID:27190854

  17. Code System to Detect Recurring Loss of Special Nuclear Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    PICARD, R. R.

    2001-08-23

    Version 00 NRCPAGE is used in safeguards applications to detect a recurring loss of special nuclear material by frequent evaluation (sequential analysis) of accountability data. Standard sequential testing procedures are traditionally based on sequences of independent and normally distributed measurements. This same approach can be applied to materials balance (MB) data. Here, the term materials balance has a meaning similar to inventory difference and represents a materials loss indicator localized in time and space. However, distinct Mbs cannot be reasonably treated as statistically independent and may not always be reasonably treated as normally distributed. Furthermore, the covariance structure associated with a given MB sequence is not known and must be estimated. Nonindependence is treated by converting the MB sequence to the innovation sequence, sometimes called the ITMUF sequence or the sequence of MUF residuals, which are statistically independent and amenable to sequential test procedures. A one-sided page's test, effective for a wide range of recurring loss scenarios, is applied to the standardized innovation sequence. The program can be easily modified to suit particular needs; the models for the assumption of multivariate normality for MBs when computing the innovation sequence or the test procedure can be changed as can the input/output format, dimensioning, local error checking, and simulation work. Input files can be sequentially constructed using local text editors to update existing files. Output files can be read by graphics, report writer, or other stand-alone utility routines.

  18. Code System to Detect Recurring Loss of Special Nuclear Materials.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-08-23

    Version 00 NRCPAGE is used in safeguards applications to detect a recurring loss of special nuclear material by frequent evaluation (sequential analysis) of accountability data. Standard sequential testing procedures are traditionally based on sequences of independent and normally distributed measurements. This same approach can be applied to materials balance (MB) data. Here, the term materials balance has a meaning similar to inventory difference and represents a materials loss indicator localized in time and space. However,more » distinct Mbs cannot be reasonably treated as statistically independent and may not always be reasonably treated as normally distributed. Furthermore, the covariance structure associated with a given MB sequence is not known and must be estimated. Nonindependence is treated by converting the MB sequence to the innovation sequence, sometimes called the ITMUF sequence or the sequence of MUF residuals, which are statistically independent and amenable to sequential test procedures. A one-sided page's test, effective for a wide range of recurring loss scenarios, is applied to the standardized innovation sequence. The program can be easily modified to suit particular needs; the models for the assumption of multivariate normality for MBs when computing the innovation sequence or the test procedure can be changed as can the input/output format, dimensioning, local error checking, and simulation work. Input files can be sequentially constructed using local text editors to update existing files. Output files can be read by graphics, report writer, or other stand-alone utility routines.« less

  19. Spatio-temporal analysis reveals active control of both task-relevant and task-irrelevant variables

    PubMed Central

    Rácz, Kornelius; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    redundancy. Instead of a dichotomy of presence vs. absence of control, we should speak of a continuum of weaker to stronger—and potentially different—control strategies in specific spatiotemporal domains, indicated here by the magnitude of deviation from the 0.5 scaling exponent. Moreover, these results are counter examples to the UCM hypothesis and the Minimal Intervention principle, and the similar nature of control actions across time scales in both task-relevant and task-irrelevant spaces points to a level of modularity not previously recognized. PMID:24312045

  20. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-PEST and β8 Integrin Regulate Spatiotemporal Patterns of RhoGDI1 Activation in Migrating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Shin; Cheerathodi, Mujeeburahiman; Chaki, Sankar P.; Reyes, Steve B.; Zheng, Yanhua; Lu, Zhimin; Paidassi, Helena; DerMardirossian, Celine; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Rivera, Gonzalo M.

    2015-01-01

    Directional cell motility is essential for normal development and physiology, although how motile cells spatiotemporally activate signaling events remains largely unknown. Here, we have characterized an adhesion and signaling unit comprised of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST and the extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion receptor β8 integrin that plays essential roles in directional cell motility. β8 integrin and PTP-PEST form protein complexes at the leading edge of migrating cells and balance patterns of Rac1 and Cdc42 signaling by controlling the subcellular localization and phosphorylation status of Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 1 (RhoGDI1). Translocation of Src-phosphorylated RhoGDI1 to the cell's leading edge promotes local activation of Rac1 and Cdc42, whereas dephosphorylation of RhoGDI1 by integrin-bound PTP-PEST promotes RhoGDI1 release from the membrane and sequestration of inactive Rac1/Cdc42 in the cytoplasm. Collectively, these data reveal a finely tuned regulatory mechanism for controlling signaling events at the leading edge of directionally migrating cells. PMID:25666508

  1. Spatio-temporal co-ordination of RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during prototypical edge protrusion and retraction dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Katrin; Reimann, Andreas; Fritz, Rafael D.; Ryu, Hyunryul; Jeon, Noo Li; Pertz, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The three canonical Rho GTPases RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 co-ordinate cytoskeletal dynamics. Recent studies indicate that all three Rho GTPases are activated at the leading edge of motile fibroblasts, where their activity fluctuates at subminute time and micrometer length scales. Here, we use a microfluidic chip to acutely manipulate fibroblast edge dynamics by applying pulses of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (which lowers contractility). This induces acute and robust membrane protrusion and retraction events, that exhibit stereotyped cytoskeletal dynamics, allowing us to fairly compare specific morphodynamic states across experiments. Using a novel Cdc42, as well as previously described, second generation RhoA and Rac1 biosensors, we observe distinct spatio-temporal signaling programs that involve all three Rho GTPases, during protrusion/retraction edge dynamics. Our results suggest that Rac1, Cdc42 and RhoA regulate different cytoskeletal and adhesion processes to fine tune the highly plastic edge protrusion/retraction dynamics that power cell motility. PMID:26912264

  2. Spatiotemporal hemodynamic response functions derived from physiology.

    PubMed

    Aquino, K M; Robinson, P A; Drysdale, P M

    2014-04-21

    Probing neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) relies upon understanding the hemodynamic response to changes in neural activity. Although existing studies have extensively characterized the temporal hemodynamic response, less is understood about the spatial and spatiotemporal hemodynamic responses. This study systematically characterizes the spatiotemporal response by deriving the hemodynamic response due to a short localized neural drive, i.e., the spatiotemporal hemodynamic response function (stHRF) from a physiological model of hemodynamics based on a poroelastic model of cortical tissue. In this study, the model's boundary conditions are clarified and a resulting nonlinear hemodynamic wave equation is derived. From this wave equation, damped linear hemodynamic waves are predicted from the stHRF. The main features of these waves depend on two physiological parameters: wave propagation speed, which depends on mean cortical stiffness, and damping which depends on effective viscosity. Some of these predictions were applied and validated in a companion study (Aquino et al., 2012). The advantages of having such a theory for the stHRF include improving the interpretation of spatiotemporal dynamics in fMRI data; improving estimates of neural activity with fMRI spatiotemporal deconvolution; and enabling wave interactions between hemodynamic waves to be predicted and exploited to improve the signal to noise ratio of fMRI. PMID:24398024

  3. Fibrin Networks Support Recurring Mechanical Loads by Adapting their Structure across Multiple Scales.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Vos, Bart E; Biebricher, Andreas; Wuite, Gijs J L; Peterman, Erwin J G; Koenderink, Gijsje H

    2016-09-01

    Tissues and cells sustain recurring mechanical loads that span a wide range of loading amplitudes and timescales as a consequence of exposure to blood flow, muscle activity, and external impact. Both tissues and cells derive their mechanical strength from fibrous protein scaffolds, which typically have a complex hierarchical structure. In this study, we focus on a prototypical hierarchical biomaterial, fibrin, which is one of the most resilient naturally occurring biopolymers and forms the structural scaffold of blood clots. We show how fibrous networks composed of fibrin utilize irreversible changes in their hierarchical structure at different scales to maintain reversible stress stiffening up to large strains. To trace the origin of this paradoxical resilience, we systematically tuned the microstructural parameters of fibrin and used a combination of optical tweezers and fluorescence microscopy to measure the interactions of single fibrin fibers for the first time, to our knowledge. We demonstrate that fibrin networks adapt to moderate strains by remodeling at the network scale through the spontaneous formation of new bonds between fibers, whereas they adapt to high strains by plastic remodeling of the fibers themselves. This multiscale adaptation mechanism endows fibrin gels with the remarkable ability to sustain recurring loads due to shear flows and wound stretching. Our findings therefore reveal a microscopic mechanism by which tissues and cells can balance elastic nonlinearity and plasticity, and thus can provide microstructural insights into cell-driven remodeling of tissues. PMID:27602730

  4. Serous Ovarian Carcinoma Recurring as Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Demir; Senem, Demiroz Ahu; Ovgu, Aydin; Hakan, Erenel; Sennur, Ilvan; Zerrin, Calay; Fuat, Demirkiran

    2015-01-01

    Only five cases of recurrence of malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (carcinosarcoma) from the ovarian carcinoma have been published in the literature to our knowledge. A 64-year-old woman first underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy because of pelvic mass. Histological diagnosis was serous papillary carcinoma of the left ovary. After six courses of chemotherapy, CA125 level returned to normal range. However, she had persistent multiple mediastinal and para-aortic lymphadenopathies in spite of additional six courses of chemotherapy. Then she underwent the second operation about 2 years after primary surgery. Multiple excisional biopsies were taken from subcutaneous tissue, over the bowels and the left external iliac artery. The histopathological diagnosis which was confirmed by immunohistochemical study was malignant mixed Mullerian tumor for all metastatic foci. A rare case of ovarian serous papillary carcinoma recurring as malignant mixed Mullerian tumor is reported. PMID:26713165

  5. Uncontrolled asthma and recurring pulmonary opacities: just asthma?

    PubMed Central

    Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Madsen, Poul Henning; Laursen, Christian B

    2014-01-01

    In asthma, when comorbidities and common causes of poor control have been considered and treated, the clinician may speculate, ‘Is it all asthma?’. In patients with uncontrolled atopic asthma with recurring episodes of symptoms mimicking pneumonia, the suspicion of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) should remain high. ABPA is caused by a complex immunological hypersensitivity reaction to colonisation with Aspergillus fumigatus in the bronchial tree, and is characterised by the presence of atopic asthma, blood eosinophilia, migrating pulmonary opacities and potential bronchiectasis. This case report describes a delay in diagnosing ABPA which was imitating pneumonia. The clinician should pay increased attention to ABPA and test for this in patients with uncontrolled asthma with an ongoing requirement for oral corticosteroids and/or antibiotics and with pulmonary opacities on chest imaging. PMID:24862414

  6. Building resilience to face recurring environmental crisis in African Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Emily; Cornforth, Rosalind J.; Lamb, Peter J.; Tarhule, Aondover; Lélé, M. Issa; Brouder, Alan

    2013-07-01

    The present food shortages in the Horn of Africa and the West African Sahel are affecting 31 million people. Such continuing and future crises require that people in the region adapt to an increasing and potentially irreversible global sustainability challenge. Given this situation and that short-term weather and seasonal climate forecasting have limited skill for West Africa, the Rainwatch project illustrates the value of near real-time monitoring and improved communication for the unfavourable 2011 West African monsoon, the resulting severe drought-induced humanitarian impacts continuing into 2012, and their exacerbation by flooding in 2012. Rainwatch is now coupled with a boundary organization (Africa Climate Exchange, AfClix) with the aim of integrating the expertise and actions of relevant institutions, agencies and stakeholders to broker ground-based dialogue to promote resilience in the face of recurring crisis.

  7. Recurring patterns in bacterioplankton dynamics during coastal spring algae blooms.

    PubMed

    Teeling, Hanno; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Bennke, Christin M; Krüger, Karen; Chafee, Meghan; Kappelmann, Lennart; Reintjes, Greta; Waldmann, Jost; Quast, Christian; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Lucas, Judith; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wiltshire, Karen H; Amann, Rudolf I

    2016-01-01

    A process of global importance in carbon cycling is the remineralization of algae biomass by heterotrophic bacteria, most notably during massive marine algae blooms. Such blooms can trigger secondary blooms of planktonic bacteria that consist of swift successions of distinct bacterial clades, most prominently members of the Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria and the alphaproteobacterial Roseobacter clade. We investigated such successions during spring phytoplankton blooms in the southern North Sea (German Bight) for four consecutive years. Dense sampling and high-resolution taxonomic analyses allowed the detection of recurring patterns down to the genus level. Metagenome analyses also revealed recurrent patterns at the functional level, in particular with respect to algal polysaccharide degradation genes. We, therefore, hypothesize that even though there is substantial inter-annual variation between spring phytoplankton blooms, the accompanying succession of bacterial clades is largely governed by deterministic principles such as substrate-induced forcing. PMID:27054497

  8. Recurring patterns in bacterioplankton dynamics during coastal spring algae blooms

    PubMed Central

    Teeling, Hanno; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Bennke, Christin M; Krüger, Karen; Chafee, Meghan; Kappelmann, Lennart; Reintjes, Greta; Waldmann, Jost; Quast, Christian; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Lucas, Judith; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wiltshire, Karen H; Amann, Rudolf I

    2016-01-01

    A process of global importance in carbon cycling is the remineralization of algae biomass by heterotrophic bacteria, most notably during massive marine algae blooms. Such blooms can trigger secondary blooms of planktonic bacteria that consist of swift successions of distinct bacterial clades, most prominently members of the Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria and the alphaproteobacterial Roseobacter clade. We investigated such successions during spring phytoplankton blooms in the southern North Sea (German Bight) for four consecutive years. Dense sampling and high-resolution taxonomic analyses allowed the detection of recurring patterns down to the genus level. Metagenome analyses also revealed recurrent patterns at the functional level, in particular with respect to algal polysaccharide degradation genes. We, therefore, hypothesize that even though there is substantial inter-annual variation between spring phytoplankton blooms, the accompanying succession of bacterial clades is largely governed by deterministic principles such as substrate-induced forcing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11888.001 PMID:27054497

  9. Spatio-temporal filtering properties of a dendritic cable with active spines: a modeling study in the spike-diffuse-spike framework.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Yulia; Lord, Gabriel J; Coombes, Stephen

    2006-12-01

    The spike-diffuse-spike (SDS) model describes a passive dendritic tree with active dendritic spines. Spine-head dynamics is modeled with a simple integrate-and-fire process, whilst communication between spines is mediated by the cable equation. In this paper we develop a computational framework that allows the study of multiple spiking events in a network of such spines embedded on a simple one-dimensional cable. In the first instance this system is shown to support saltatory waves with the same qualitative features as those observed in a model with Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics in the spine-head. Moreover, there is excellent agreement with the analytically calculated speed for a solitary saltatory pulse. Upon driving the system with time-varying external input we find that the distribution of spines can play a crucial role in determining spatio-temporal filtering properties. In particular, the SDS model in response to periodic pulse train shows a positive correlation between spine density and low-pass temporal filtering that is consistent with the experimental results of Rose and Fortune [1999, 'Mechanisms for generating temporal filters in the electrosensory system,' The Journal of Experimental Biology 202: 1281-1289]. Further, we demonstrate the robustness of observed wave properties to natural sources of noise that arise both in the cable and the spine-head, and highlight the possibility of purely noise induced waves and coherent oscillations. PMID:16896521

  10. Dengue virus type 1 clade replacement in recurring homotypic outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recurring dengue outbreaks occur in cyclical pattern in most endemic countries. The recurrences of dengue virus (DENV) infection predispose the population to increased risk of contracting the severe forms of dengue. Understanding the DENV evolutionary mechanism underlying the recurring dengue outbreaks has important implications for epidemic prediction and disease control. Results We used a set of viral envelope (E) gene to reconstruct the phylogeny of DENV-1 isolated between the periods of 1987–2011 in Malaysia. Phylogenetic analysis of DENV-1 E gene revealed that genotype I virus clade replacements were associated with the cyclical pattern of major DENV-1 outbreaks in Malaysia. A total of 9 non-conservative amino acid substitutions in the DENV-1 E gene consensus were identified; 4 in domain I, 3 in domain II and 2 in domain III. Selection pressure analyses did not reveal any positively selected codon site within the full length E gene sequences (1485 nt, 495 codons). A total of 183 (mean dN/dS = 0.0413) negatively selected sites were found within the Malaysian isolates; neither positive nor negative selection was noted for the remaining 312 codons. All the viruses were cross-neutralized by the respective patient sera suggesting no strong support for immunological advantage of any of the amino acid substitutions. Conclusion DENV-1 clade replacement is associated with recurrences of major DENV-1 outbreaks in Malaysia. Our findings are consistent with those of other studies that the DENV-1 clade replacement is a stochastic event independent of positive selection. PMID:24073945

  11. Recurring discharge patterns in multiple spike trains. II. Application in forebrain areas related to cardiac and respiratory control during different sleep-waking states.

    PubMed

    Frostig, R D; Frysinger, R C; Harper, R M

    1990-01-01

    Simultaneously recorded spike trains were obtained using microwire bundles from unrestrained, drug-free cats during different sleep-waking states in forebrain areas associated with cardiac and respiratory activity. Cardiac and respiratory activity was simultaneously recorded with the spike trains. We applied the recurring discharge patterns detection procedure described in a companion paper (Frostig et al. 1990) to the spike and cardiorespiratory trains. The pattern detection procedure was applied to detect only precise (in time and structure) recurring patterns. Recurring discharge patterns were detected in all simultaneously recorded groups. Recurring discharge patterns were composed of up to ten spikes per pattern and involved up to four simultaneously recorded spike trains. Fourty-two percent of the recurring patterns contained cardiac and/or respiratory events in addition to neuronal spikes. When patterns were compared over different sleep-waking states it was found the the same units produced different patterns in different states, that patterns were significantly more compact in time during quiet sleep, and that changes in the discharge rates accompanying changes in sleep-waking states were not correlated with changes in pattern rate. PMID:2357473

  12. Spatio-temporal course of macrophage-like cell accumulation after experimental embolic stroke depending on treatment with tissue plasminogen activator and its combination with hyperbaric oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, D.; Heindl, M.; Kacza, J.; Laignel, F.; Küppers-Tiedt, L.; Schneider, D.; Grosche, J.; Boltze, J.; Löhr, M.; Hobohm, C.; Härtig, W.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation following ischaemic stroke attracts high priority in current research, particularly using human-like models and long-term observation periods considering translational aspects. The present study aimed on the spatio-temporal course of macrophage-like cell accumulation after experimental thromboembolic stroke and addressed microglial and astroglial reactions in the ischaemic border zone. Further, effects of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as currently best treatment for stroke and the potentially neuroprotective co-administration of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) were investigated. Rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion and were assigned to control, tPA or tPA+HBO. Twenty-four hours, 7, 14 and 28 days were determined as observation time points. The accumulation of macrophage-like cells was semiquantitatively assessed by CD68 staining in the ischaemic area and ischaemic border zone, and linked to the clinical course. CD11b, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Neuronal Nuclei (NeuN) were applied to reveal delayed glial and neuronal alterations. In all groups, the accumulation of macrophage-like cells increased distinctly from 24 hours to 7 days post ischaemia. tPA+HBO tended to decrease macrophage-like cell accumulation at day 14 and 28. Overall, a trend towards an association of increased accumulation and pronounced reduction of the neurological deficit was found. Concerning delayed inflammatory reactions, an activation of microglia and astrocytes with co-occurring neuronal loss was observed on day 28. Thereby, astrogliosis was found circularly in contrast to microglial activation directly in the ischaemic area. This study supports previous data on long-lasting inflammatory processes following experimental stroke, and additionally provides region-specific details on glial reactions. The tendency towards a decreasing macrophage-like cell accumulation after tPA+HBO needs to be discussed

  13. Spatiotemporally Distinct Interactions with Dendritic Cell Subsets Facilitates CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Activation to Localized Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Hor, Jyh Liang; Whitney, Paul G; Zaid, Ali; Brooks, Andrew G; Heath, William R; Mueller, Scott N

    2015-09-15

    The dynamics of when and where CD4(+) T cells provide help for CD8(+) T cell priming and which dendritic cells (DCs) activate CD4(+) T cells in vivo after localized infection are poorly understood. By using a cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection model combined with intravital 2-photon imaging of the draining lymph node (LN) to concurrently visualize pathogen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, we found that early priming of CD4(+) T cells involved clustering with migratory skin DCs. CD8(+) T cells did not interact with migratory DCs and their activation was delayed, requiring later clustering interactions with LN-resident XCR1(+) DCs. CD4(+) T cells interacted with these late CD8(+) T cell clusters on resident XCR1(+) DCs. Together, these data reveal asynchronous T cell activation by distinct DC subsets and highlight the key role of XCR1(+) DCs as the central platform for cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation and the delivery of CD4(+) T cell help. PMID:26297566

  14. [Spatio-Temporal Bioelectrical Brain Activity Organization during Reading Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Collocations by Students with Different Foreign Language Proficiency].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, L V; Cherkasova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Texts or words/pseudowords are often used as stimuli for human verbal activity research. Our study pays attention to decoding processes of grammatical constructions consisted of two-three words--collocations. Russian and English collocation sets without any narrative were presented to Russian-speaking students with different English language skill. Stimulus material had two types of collocations: paradigmatic and syntagmatic. 30 students (average age--20.4 ± 0.22) took part in the study, they were divided into two equal groups depending on their English language skill (linguists/nonlinguists). During reading brain bioelectrical activity of cortex has been registered from 12 electrodes in alfa-, beta-, theta-bands. Coherent function reflecting cooperation of different cortical areas during reading collocations has been analyzed. Increase of interhemispheric and diagonal connections while reading collocations in different languages in the group of students with low knowledge of foreign language testifies of importance of functional cooperation between the hemispheres. It has been found out that brain bioelectrical activity of students with good foreign language knowledge during reading of all collocation types in Russian and English is characterized by economization of nervous substrate resources compared to nonlinguists. Selective activation of certain cortical areas has also been observed (depending on the grammatical construction type) in nonlinguists group that is probably related to special decoding system which processes presented stimuli. Reading Russian paradigmatic constructions by nonlinguists entailed increase between left cortical areas, reading of English syntagmatic collocations--between right ones. PMID:26859985

  15. Unsupervised spatio-temporal detection of brain functional activation based on hidden Markov multiple event sequence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisan, Sylvain; Thoraval, Laurent; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Heitz, Fabrice; Foucher, Jack

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a novel, completely unsupervised fMRI brain mapping approach that addresses the three problems of hemodynamic response function (HRF) shape variability, neural event timing, and fMRI response linearity. To make it robust, the method takes into account spatial and temporal information directly into the core of the activation detection process. In practice, activation detection is formulated in terms of temporal alignment between the sequence of hemodynamic response onsets (HROs) detected in the fMRI signal at υ and in the spatial neighbourhood of υ, and the sequence of "off-on" transitions observed in the input blocked stimulation paradigm (when considering epoch-related fMRI data), or the sequence of stimuli of the event-based paradigm (when considering event-related fMRI data). This multiple event sequence alignment problem, which comes under multisensor data fusion, is solved within the probabilistic framework of hidden Markov multiple event sequence models (HMMESMs), a special class of hidden Markov models. Results obtained on real and synthetic data compete with those obtained with the popular statistical parametric mapping (SPM) approach, but without necessitating any prior definition of the expected activation patterns, the HMMESM mapping approach being completely unsupervised.

  16. Bioluminescent imaging of Ca2+ activity reveals spatiotemporal dynamics in glial networks of dark-adapted mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Agulhon, Cendra; Platel, Jean-Claude; Kolomiets, Bogdan; Forster, Valérie; Picaud, Serge; Brocard, Jacques; Faure, Philippe; Brulet, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Glial Ca2+ excitability plays a key role in reciprocal neuron–glia communication. In the retina, neuron–glia signalling is expected to be maximal in the dark, but the glial Ca2+ signal characteristics under such conditions have not been evaluated. To address this question, we used bioluminescence imaging to monitor spontaneous Ca2+ changes under dark conditions selectively in Müller cells, the principal retinal glial cells. By combining this imaging approach with network analysis, we demonstrate that activity in Müller cells is organized in networks of coactive cells, involving 2–16 cells located distantly and/or in clusters. We also report that spontaneous activity of small networks (2–6 Müller cells) repeat over time, sometimes in the same sequential order, revealing specific temporal dynamics. In addition, we show that networks of coactive glial cells are inhibited by TTX, indicating that ganglion and/or amacrine neuronal cells probably regulate Müller cell network properties. These results represent the first demonstration that spontaneous activity in adult Müller cells is patterned into correlated networks that display repeated sequences of coactivations over time. Furthermore, our bioluminescence technique provides a novel tool to study the dynamic characteristics of glial Ca2+ events in the retina under dark conditions, which should greatly facilitate future investigations of retinal dark-adaptive processes. PMID:17627996

  17. Spatio-temporal imaging of EGF-induced activation of protein kinase A by FRET in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin Jun; Chen, Xiao-Chuan; Xing, Da

    2004-07-01

    Intracellular molecular interaction is important for the study of cell physiology, yet current relevant methods require fixation or microinjection and lack temporal or spatial resolution. We introduced a new method -- fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to detect molecular interaction in living cells. On the basis of FRET principle, A-kinase activity reporter (AKAR) protein was designed to consist of the fusions of cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), a phosphoamino acid binding domain, a consensus substrate for protein kinase-A (PKA), and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). In this study, the designed pAKAR plasmid was used to transfect a human lung cancer cell line (ASTC-a-1). When the AKAR-transfected cells were treated by forskolin (Fsk), we were able to observe the efficient transfer of energy from excited CFP to YFP within the AKAR molecule by fluorescence microcopy, whereas no FRET was detected in the transfected cells without the treatment of Fsk. When the cells were treated by Epidermal growth factor (EGF), the change of FRET was observed at different subcellular locations, reflecting PKA activation inside the cells upon EGF stimulation. The successful design of a fluorescence reporter of PKA activation and its application demonstrated the superiority of this technology in the research of intracellular protein-protein interaction.

  18. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type Three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: Think Globally, Act Locally

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Valois, F.-X.; Pontier, Stéphanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA), which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM) engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27014638

  19. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type Three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: Think Globally, Act Locally.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Valois, F-X; Pontier, Stéphanie M

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA), which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM) engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27014638

  20. Frequency-dependent spatiotemporal profiles of visual responses recorded with subdural ECoG electrodes in awake monkeys: Differences between high- and low-frequency activity.

    PubMed

    Takaura, Kana; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Fujii, Naotaka

    2016-01-01

    Electrocorticography (ECoG) constitutes a powerful and promising neural recording modality in humans and animals. ECoG signals are often decomposed into several frequency bands, among which the so-called high-gamma band (80-250Hz) has been proposed to reflect local cortical functions near the cortical surface below the ECoG electrodes. It is typically assumed that the lower the frequency bands, the lower the spatial resolution of the signals; thus, there is not much to gain by analyzing the event-related changes of the ECoG signals in the lower-frequency bands. However, differences across frequency bands have not been systematically investigated. To address this issue, we recorded ECoG activity from two awake monkeys performing a retinotopic mapping task. We characterized the spatiotemporal profiles of the visual responses in the time-frequency domain. We defined the preferred spatial position, receptive field (RF), and response latencies of band-limited power (BLP) (i.e., alpha [3.9-11.7Hz], beta [15.6-23.4Hz], low [30-80Hz] and high [80-250Hz] gamma) for each electrode and compared them across bands and time-domain visual evoked potentials (VEPs). At the population level, we found that the spatial preferences were comparable across bands and VEPs. The high-gamma power showed a smaller RF than the other bands and VEPs. The response latencies for the alpha band were always longer than the latencies for the other bands and fastest in VEPs. Comparing the response profiles in both space and time for each cortical region (V1, V4+, and TEO/TE) revealed regional idiosyncrasies. Although the latencies of visual responses in the beta, low-, and high-gamma bands were almost identical in V1 and V4+, beta and low-gamma BLP occurred about 17ms earlier than high-gamma power in TEO/TE. Furthermore, TEO/TE exhibited a unique pattern in the spatial response profile: the alpha and high-gamma responses tended to prefer the foveal regions, whereas the beta and low-gamma responses

  1. Spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton photosynthetic activity in a macrotidal ecosystem (the Strait of Dover, eastern English Channel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houliez, Emilie; Lizon, Fabrice; Artigas, Luis Felipe; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Schmitt, François G.

    2013-09-01

    Photosynthetic parameters, phytoplankton assemblages and physicochemical parameters were analysed in the Strait of Dover along an inshore-offshore transect between September 2008 and December 2009. The samples were collected weekly at 9 stations only at the surface or at both surface and depth. The photosynthetic activity was obtained by measuring Rapid Light Curves (RLC) using Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Temporal variability of the maximal light utilization efficiency (α), maximum electron transport rate (ETRm) and light saturation coefficient (Ek) were greater than spatial variability (in horizontal and vertical dimensions) whereas temporal variability of the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) was of the same order of magnitude as its spatial variability within the water column (in the vertical dimension). ETRm and α were positively correlated and the slope of the relation varied significantly between the different depths and seasons. The highest values of ETRm and α were obtained in summer (June) and late autumn - early winter (September-October & December) and the lowest in spring (March-April). The spatial variability of these parameters was greater vertically than horizontally. Differences between depths were particularly pronounced at the station nearest to the coast where photosynthetic response seems to be controlled by the light history of the cells. Seasonal variability in photosynthetic activity was mostly related to phytoplankton assemblages, light and temperature whereas the light history of the cells within the water column could be the most important factor in depth variability.

  2. Potential of two submontane broadleaved species (Acer opalus, Quercus pubescens) to reveal spatiotemporal patterns of rockfall activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favillier, Adrien; Lopez-Saez, Jérôme; Corona, Christophe; Trappmann, Daniel; Toe, David; Stoffel, Markus; Rovéra, Georges; Berger, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Long-term records of rockfalls have proven to be scarce and typically incomplete, especially in increasingly urbanized areas where inventories are largely absent and the risk associated with rockfall events rises proportionally with urbanization. On forested slopes, tree-ring analyses may help to fill this gap, as they have been demonstrated to provide annually-resolved data on past rockfall activity over long periods. Yet, the reconstruction of rockfall chronologies has been hampered in the past by the paucity of studies that include broadleaved tree species, which are, in fact, quite common in various rockfall-prone environments. In this study, we test the sensitivity of two common, yet unstudied, broadleaved species - Quercus pubescens Willd. (Qp) and Acer opalus Mill. (Ao) - to record rockfall impacts. The approach is based on a systematic mapping of trees and the counting of visible scars on the stem surface of both species. Data are presented from a site in the Vercors massif (French Alps) where rocks are frequently detached from Valanginian limestone and marl cliffs. We compare recurrence interval maps obtained from both species and from two different sets of tree structures (i.e., single trees vs. coppice stands) based on Cohen's k coefficient and the mean absolute error. A total of 1230 scars were observed on the stem surface of 847 A. opalus and Q. pubescens trees. Both methods yield comparable results on the spatial distribution of relative rockfall activity with similar downslope decreasing recurrence intervals. Yet recurrence intervals vary significantly according to tree species and tree structure. The recurrence interval observed on the stem surface of Q. pubescens exceeds that of A. opalus by > 20 years in the lower part of the studied plot. Similarly, the recurrence interval map derived from A. opalus coppice stands, dominant at the stand scale, does not exhibit a clear spatial pattern. Differences between species may be explained by the bark

  3. Recurring flares from supermassive black hole binaries: implications for tidal disruption candidates and OJ 287

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takamitsu L.

    2013-09-01

    I discuss the possibility that accreting supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries with sub-parsec separations produce periodically recurring luminous outbursts that interrupt periods of relative quiescence. This hypothesis is motivated by two characteristics found generically in simulations of binaries embedded in prograde accretion discs: (i) the formation of a central, low-density cavity around the binary and (ii) the leakage of gas into this cavity, occurring once per orbit via discrete streams on nearly radial trajectories. The first feature would reduce the emergent optical/UV flux of the system relative to active galactic nuclei powered by a single SMBH, while the second can trigger quasi-periodic fluctuations in luminosity. I argue that the quasi-periodic accretion signature may be much more dramatic than previously thought, because the infalling gas streams can strongly shock-heat via self-collision and tidal compression, thereby enhancing viscous accretion. Any optically thick gas that is circularized about either SMBH can accrete before the next pair of streams is deposited, fuelling transient, luminous flares that recur every orbit. Due to the diminished flux in between accretion episodes, such cavity-accretion flares could plausibly be mistaken for the tidal disruptions of stars in quiescent nuclei. The flares could be distinguished from tidal disruption events if their quasi-periodic recurrence is observed, or if they are produced by very massive (≳109 M⊙) SMBHs that cannot disrupt solar-type stars. They may be discovered serendipitously in surveys such as LSST or eROSITA. I present a heuristic toy model as a proof of concept for the production of cavity-accretion flares, and generate mock light curves and spectra. I also apply the model to the active galaxy OJ 287, whose production of quasi-periodic pairs of optical flares has long fuelled speculation that it hosts an SMBH binary.

  4. Kindergarten Predictors of Recurring Externalizing and Internalizing Psychopathology in the Third and Fifth Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which a range of risk factors (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, low socioeconomic status) predicted kindergarten children's likelihood of later displaying recurring psychopathology. It used multilevel logistic regression to analyze teacher ratings of frequent and recurring externalizing and internalizing problem…

  5. Recurring patterns in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Green, Sean R; Mercado, Eduardo; Pack, Adam A; Herman, Louis M

    2011-02-01

    Humpback whales, unlike most mammalian species, learn new songs as adults. Populations of singers progressively and collectively change the sounds and patterns within their songs throughout their lives and across generations. In this study, humpback whale songs recorded in Hawaii from 1985 to 1995 were analyzed using self-organizing maps (SOMs) to classify the sounds within songs, and to identify sound patterns that were present across multiple years. These analyses supported the hypothesis that recurring, persistent patterns exist within whale songs, and that these patterns are defined at least in part by acoustic relationships between adjacent sounds within songs. Sound classification based on acoustic differences between adjacent sounds yielded patterns within songs that were more consistent from year to year than classifications based on the properties of single sounds. Maintenance of fixed ratios of acoustic modulation across sounds, despite large variations in individual sounds, suggests intrinsic constraints on how sounds change within songs. Such acoustically invariant cues may enable whales to recognize and assess variations in songs despite propagation-related distortion of individual sounds and yearly changes in songs. PMID:21215306

  6. Collective synchronization of self/non-self discrimination in T cell activation, across multiple spatio-temporal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altan-Bonnet, Gregoire

    The immune system is a collection of cells whose function is to eradicate pathogenic infections and malignant tumors while protecting healthy tissues. Recent work has delineated key molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with the ability to discriminate self from non-self agents. For example, structural studies have quantified the biophysical characteristics of antigenic molecules (those prone to trigger lymphocyte activation and a subsequent immune response). However, such molecular mechanisms were found to be highly unreliable at the individual cellular level. We will present recent efforts to build experimentally validated computational models of the immune responses at the collective cell level. Such models have become critical to delineate how higher-level integration through nonlinear amplification in signal transduction, dynamic feedback in lymphocyte differentiation and cell-to-cell communication allows the immune system to enforce reliable self/non-self discrimination at the organism level. In particular, we will present recent results demonstrating how T cells tune their antigen discrimination according to cytokine cues, and how competition for cytokine within polyclonal populations of cells shape the repertoire of responding clones. Additionally, we will present recent theoretical and experimental results demonstrating how competition between diffusion and consumption of cytokines determine the range of cell-cell communications within lymphoid organs. Finally, we will discuss how biochemically explicit models, combined with quantitative experimental validation, unravel the relevance of new feedbacks for immune regulations across multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  7. HiRISE observations of Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) during southern summer on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Lujendra; McEwen, Alfred; Dundas, Colin; Byrne, Shane; Mattson, Sarah; Wray, James; Masse, Marion; Schaefer, Ethan

    2014-03-01

    Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) are active features on Mars that might require flowing water. Most examples observed through 2011 formed on steep, equator-facing slopes in the southern mid-latitudes. They form and grow during warm seasons and fade and often completely disappear during colder seasons, but recur over multiple Mars years. They are recognizable by their incremental growth, relatively low albedo and downhill orientation. We examined all images acquired by HiRISE during Ls 250-10° (slightly longer than southern summer, Ls 270-360°) of Mars years 30-31 (03/2011-10/2011), and supplemented our results with data from previous studies to better understand the geologic context and characteristics of RSL. We also confirmed candidate and likely sites from previous studies and discovered new RSL sites. We report 13 confirmed RSL sites, including the 7 in McEwen et al. (McEwen et al. [2011]. Science 333(6043), 740-743]. The observed seasonality, latitudinal and slope orientation preferences, and THEMIS brightness temperatures indicate that RSL require warm temperatures to form. We conclude that RSL are a unique phenomenon on Mars, clearly distinct from other slope processes that occur at high latitudes associated with seasonal CO2 frost, and episodic mass wasting on equatorial slopes. However, only 41% (82 out of 200) of the sites that present apparently suitable conditions for RSL formation (steep, equator-facing rocky slopes with bedrock exposure) in the southern mid-latitudes (28-60°S) contain any candidate RSL, with confirmed RSL present only in 7% (13 sites) of those locations. Significant variability in abundance, size and exact location of RSL is also observed at most sites, indicating additional controls such as availability of water or salts that might be playing a crucial role.

  8. HiRISE observations of Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) during southern summer on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ojha, Lujendra; McEwen, Alfred; Dundas, Colin; Byrne, Shane; Mattson, Sarah; Wray, James; Masse, Marion; Schaefer, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) are active features on Mars that might require flowing water. Most examples observed through 2011 formed on steep, equator-facing slopes in the southern mid-latitudes. They form and grow during warm seasons and fade and often completely disappear during colder seasons, but recur over multiple Mars years. They are recognizable by their incremental growth, relatively low albedo and downhill orientation. We examined all images acquired by HiRISE during Ls 250–10° (slightly longer than southern summer, Ls 270–360°) of Mars years 30–31 (03/2011–10/2011), and supplemented our results with data from previous studies to better understand the geologic context and characteristics of RSL. We also confirmed candidate and likely sites from previous studies and discovered new RSL sites. We report 13 confirmed RSL sites, including the 7 in McEwen et al. (McEwen et al. [2011]. Science 333(6043), 740–743]. The observed seasonality, latitudinal and slope orientation preferences, and THEMIS bright- ness temperatures indicate that RSL require warm temperatures to form. We conclude that RSL are a unique phenomenon on Mars, clearly distinct from other slope processes that occur at high latitudes associated with seasonal CO2 frost, and episodic mass wasting on equatorial slopes. However, only 41% (82 out of 200) of the sites that present apparently suitable conditions for RSL formation (steep, equator-facing rocky slopes with bedrock exposure) in the southern mid-latitudes (28–60°S) contain any candidate RSL, with confirmed RSL present only in 7% (13 sites) of those locations. Significant variability in abundance, size and exact location of RSL is also observed at most sites, indicating additional controls such as availability of water or salts that might be playing a crucial role.

  9. Optical textures: characterizing spatiotemporal chaos.

    PubMed

    Clerc, Marcel G; González-Cortés, Gregorio; Odent, Vincent; Wilson, Mario

    2016-07-11

    Macroscopic systems subjected to injection and dissipation of energy can exhibit complex spatiotemporal behaviors as result of dissipative self-organization. Here, we report a one- and two-dimensional pattern forming setup, which exhibits a transition from stationary patterns to spatiotemporal chaotic textures, based on a nematic liquid crystal layer with spatially modulated input beam and optical feedback. Using an adequate projection of spatiotemporal diagrams, we determine the largest Lyapunov exponent. Jointly, this exponent and Fourier transform allow us to distinguish between spatiotemporal chaos and amplitude turbulence concepts, which are usually merged. PMID:27410822

  10. The impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Ioannis, Tegoulias; Ioannis, Pytharoulis; Stergios, Kartsios; Dimitrios, Bampzelis; Theodore, Karacostas

    2015-04-01

    The region of Thessaly is the second largest plain in Greece and has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The intensive and extensive cultivation of irrigated crops, in combination with the population increase and the alteration of precipitation patterns due to climate change, often leading the region to experience severe drought conditions, especially during the warm period of the year. The aim of the DAPHNE project is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification.In the framework of the project DAPHNE, the numerical weather prediction model WRF-ARW 3.5.1 is used to provide operational forecasts and hindcasts for the region of Thessaly. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas, on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in the region of interest. To this end, six cases under the six most frequent synoptic conditions, which are associated with convective activity in the region of interest, are utilized, considering six different soil moisture initialization scenarios. In the first scenario (Control Run), the model is initialized with the surface soil moisture of the ECMWF analysis data, that usually does not take into account the modification of soil moisture due to agricultural activity in the area of interest. In the other five scenarios (Experiment 1,2,3,4,5) the soil moisture in the upper soil layers of the study area are modified from -50% to 50% of field capacity (-50%FC, -25%FC, FC, 25%FC, 50%FC),for the irrigated cropland.Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and

  11. Recurring Themes in AVERA Presidential Addresses: The First 30 Years. The 1997 AVERA President's Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmann, Donna H.

    1998-01-01

    Recurring themes in vocational education research include (1) its relevance to a wider world; (2) organization of research and dissemination of findings; and (3) vision for the future of vocational education research. (SK)

  12. Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) and Future Exploration of Mars and Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Alfred S.

    2014-11-01

    Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow (<5 m), dark markings on steep (25°-40°) slopes that incrementally grow during warm seasons over low-albedo surfaces, fade when inactive, and recur over multiple Mars years. RSL often follow small gullies, but no topographic changes (with one exception) have been detected via 30 cm/pixel images from MRO/HiRISE. Mid-latitude RSL appear and lengthen in the late spring through summer favoring equator-facing slopes. RSL also occur in equatorial regions of Mars, especially in the deep canyons of Valles Marineris; some of these lineae are over 1 km long, again usually following pristine gullies. The fans on which many RSL terminate have distinctive color and spectral properties, but lack water absorption bands in MRO/CRISM. RSL are active at places with peak surface temperatures >250 K, but we do not know what time of day they are active. Laboratory experiments show that water or brines darken basaltic soils but produce weak water absorption bands after partial dehydration during the low-humidity middle afternoon conditions when MRO observes. The primary question is whether RSL are really due to water at or near the surface. All observations can be explained in this way, and no entirely dry model has been offered, but there is no direct detection of water. If they are due to water, where does the water come from and how is it replenished each year? Multiple hypotheses exist. RSL may be evidence for seepage of water today, and may mark the most promising sites to search for extraterrestrial life. There are 2 key unknowns: (1) Does the water originate from the subsurface where microbes would be protected from radiation, or does it have an atmospheric origin and is only skin deep? (2) Is the water too salty for life as we know it? RSL occur on steep, rocky slopes on which landing is dangerous, but several concepts for surface exploration of RSL were presented in http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/marsconcepts2012/. Landing in RSL

  13. Statistical learning of recurring sound patterns encodes auditory objects in songbird forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Vicario, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory neurophysiology has demonstrated how basic acoustic features are mapped in the brain, but it is still not clear how multiple sound components are integrated over time and recognized as an object. We investigated the role of statistical learning in encoding the sequential features of complex sounds by recording neuronal responses bilaterally in the auditory forebrain of awake songbirds that were passively exposed to long sound streams. These streams contained sequential regularities, and were similar to streams used in human infants to demonstrate statistical learning for speech sounds. For stimulus patterns with contiguous transitions and with nonadjacent elements, single and multiunit responses reflected neuronal discrimination of the familiar patterns from novel patterns. In addition, discrimination of nonadjacent patterns was stronger in the right hemisphere than in the left, and may reflect an effect of top-down modulation that is lateralized. Responses to recurring patterns showed stimulus-specific adaptation, a sparsening of neural activity that may contribute to encoding invariants in the sound stream and that appears to increase coding efficiency for the familiar stimuli across the population of neurons recorded. As auditory information about the world must be received serially over time, recognition of complex auditory objects may depend on this type of mnemonic process to create and differentiate representations of recently heard sounds. PMID:25246563

  14. Statistical learning of recurring sound patterns encodes auditory objects in songbird forebrain.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Vicario, David S

    2014-10-01

    Auditory neurophysiology has demonstrated how basic acoustic features are mapped in the brain, but it is still not clear how multiple sound components are integrated over time and recognized as an object. We investigated the role of statistical learning in encoding the sequential features of complex sounds by recording neuronal responses bilaterally in the auditory forebrain of awake songbirds that were passively exposed to long sound streams. These streams contained sequential regularities, and were similar to streams used in human infants to demonstrate statistical learning for speech sounds. For stimulus patterns with contiguous transitions and with nonadjacent elements, single and multiunit responses reflected neuronal discrimination of the familiar patterns from novel patterns. In addition, discrimination of nonadjacent patterns was stronger in the right hemisphere than in the left, and may reflect an effect of top-down modulation that is lateralized. Responses to recurring patterns showed stimulus-specific adaptation, a sparsening of neural activity that may contribute to encoding invariants in the sound stream and that appears to increase coding efficiency for the familiar stimuli across the population of neurons recorded. As auditory information about the world must be received serially over time, recognition of complex auditory objects may depend on this type of mnemonic process to create and differentiate representations of recently heard sounds. PMID:25246563

  15. To respond or not to respond, the recurring question in plant mechanosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie; Martin, Ludovic; Lenne, Catherine; Decourteix, Mélanie

    2014-01-01

    In nature, terrestrial plants experience many kinds of external mechanical stimulation and respond by triggering a network of signaling events to acclimate their growth and development. Some environmental cues, especially wind, recur on time scales varying from seconds to days. Plants thus have to adapt their sensitivity to such stimulations to avoid constitutive activation of stress responses. The study of plant mechanosensing has been attracting more interest in the last two decades, but plant responses to repetitive mechanical stimulation have yet to be described in detail. In this mini review, alongside classic experiments we survey recent descriptions of the kinetics of plant responses to recurrent stimulation. The ability of plants to modulate their responses to recurrent stimulation at the molecular, cellular, or organ scale is also relevant to other abiotic stimuli. It is possible that plants reduce their responsiveness to environmental signals as a function of their recurrence, recovering full sensitivity several days later. Finally, putative mechanisms underlying mechanosensing regulation are discussed. PMID:25177327

  16. Characterization of the Geologic Setting of Recurring Slope Lineae: Constraints on Their Formation Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, J.; Ojha, L.; Reith, R. C.; Yin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) are seasonal, low albedo features that originate at the base of bedrock outcrops and extend down steep, equator-facing, mid-latitude and equatorial rocky slopes of Mars. They exhibit progressive growth in the downslope direction during warm seasons, diverting around topographic obstacles, and fade during cold seasons. Slopes containing RSL appear to be sites of geologically very recent activity, including 'fresh' impact craters and active mass wasting, and are also associated with numerous small channels and bright fans. Based on their seasonal growth and strong dependency on latitude and slope aspect, RSL formation has been attributed to the seepage and downslope transport of a salt-bearing (briny), water-based liquid (potentially melted) through porous regolith near the surface. The seepage of this liquid wets and thus darkens the RSL surface, and evaporates once seasonal flow ceases. However, the source of this water, and an active recharge mechanism to maintain this source over even short geological timescales, are not currently understood. Subsurface groundwater is one possible source for the amount of liquid required to fill pore spaces between particles and create a hydraulic gradient to initiate and maintain water flow to the surface. Preexisting structural inhomogeneities, including faults, fractures, and joints, may act as conduits for subsurface fluid migration, supporting groundwater exploitation of routes of increased permeability. To investigate this fault-controlled brine flow hypothesis, morphological mapping of RSL slope surfaces is performed. Preliminary analysis of these geologic settings suggests a spatial correlation between RSL sites and fault related morphology, including linear features and offsets, transtensional features, sub parallel zones, and multiple styles of brittle deformation. This detailed, systematic study characterizing the geologic context of all confirmed RSL sites as well as of observed locations

  17. Spatiotemporal Floral Scent Variation of Penstemon digitalis.

    PubMed

    Burdon, Rosalie C F; Raguso, Robert A; Kessler, André; Parachnowitsch, Amy L

    2015-07-01

    Variability in floral volatile emissions can occur temporally through floral development, during diel cycles, as well as spatially within a flower. These spatiotemporal patterns are hypothesized to provide additional information to floral visitors, but they are rarely measured, and their attendant hypotheses are even more rarely tested. In Penstemon digitalis, a plant whose floral scent has been shown to be under strong phenotypic selection for seed fitness, we investigated spatiotemporal variation in floral scent by using dynamic headspace collection, respectively solid-phase microextraction, and analyzed the volatile samples by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total volatile emission was greatest during flowering and peak pollinator activity hours, suggesting its importance in mediating ecological interactions. We also detected tissue and reward-specific compounds, consistent with the hypothesis that complexity in floral scent composition reflects several ecological functions. In particular, we found tissue-specific scents for the stigma, stamens, and staminode (a modified sterile stamen common to all Penstemons). Our findings emphasize the dynamic nature of floral scents and highlight a need for greater understanding of ecological and physiological mechanisms driving spatiotemporal patterns in scent production. PMID:26133675

  18. Summary of Tiger Team Assessment and Technical Safety Appraisal recurring concerns in the Maintenance Area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Tiger Team Assessments and Technical Safety Appraisals (TSA) were reviewed and evaluated for concerns in the Maintenance Area (MA). Two hundred and thirty one (231) maintenance concerns were identified by the Tiger Team Assessments and TSA reports. These recurring concerns appear below. A summary of the Noteworthy Practices that were identified and a compilation of the maintenance concerns for each performance objective that were not considered as recurring are also included. Where the Tiger Team Assessment and TSA identified the operating contractor or facility by name, the concern has been modified to remove the name while retaining the intent of the comment.

  19. Geologic context of recurring slope lineae in Melas and Coprates Chasmata, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; McEwen, Alfred; Dundas, Colin; Ojha, Lujendra; Urso, Anna; Sutton, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    One of the major Mars discoveries of recent years is the existence of recurring slope lineae (RSL), which suggests that liquid water occurs on or near the surface of Mars today. These dark and narrow features emerge from steep, rocky exposures and incrementally grow, fade, and reform on a seasonal basis and are detected in images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera. RSL are known to occur at scattered midlatitude and equatorial sites with little spatial connection to one another. One major exception is the steep, low-albedo slopes of Melas and Coprates Chasmata, in Valles Marineris where RSL are detected among diverse geologic surfaces (e.g., bedrock and talus) and landforms (e.g., inselbergs and landslides). New images show topographic changes including sediment deposition on active RSL slopes. Midwall locations in Coprates and Melas appear to have more areally extensively abundant RSL and related fans as compared with other RSL sites found on Mars. Water budget estimates for regional RSL are on the order of 105 to 106 m3 of fluid, for depths of 10 to 100 mm, and suggest that a significant amount of near-surface water might be present. Many RSL are concentrated near local topographic highs, such as ridge crests or peaks, which is challenging to explain via groundwater or ice without a recharge mechanism. Collectively, results provide additional support for the notion that significant amounts of near-surface water can be found on Mars today and suggest that a widespread mechanism, possibly related to the atmosphere, is recharging RSL sources.

  20. Spectral Study of Water Tracks as an Analog for Recurring Slope Lineae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojha, L.; Wilhelm, M. B.; Wray, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid water is a key requirement for life on Earth, and serves as an important constraint on present day habitability on Mars. Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) are a unique phenomenon on Mars that may be formed by brine seeps. Their morphological, seasonal and temporal characteristics support this hypothesis; however, spectral evidence has been lacking. Ojha et al., 2013 recently analyzed CRISM images from all confirmed RSL in the southern mid-latitudes and equatorial regions and found no spectro-scopic evidence for water. Instead, enhanced abun-dances or distinct grain sizes of both ferric and ferrous minerals are observed at most sites. The strength of these spectral signatures changes as a function of sea-son, possibly indicating removal of a fine-grained sur-face component during RSL flow, precipitation of fer-ric oxides, and/or wetting of the substrate. Water tracks (WT) have been suggested as a terrestrial analog for RSL by Levy et al., 2011. WT are defined as dark surface features that extend downslope in a linear or branching fashion, usually oriented along the steepest local gradient, in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. They can be 1-3 m in width and can have lengths up to 2 km. They share many morphological and seasonal characteristics with RSL including active growth during summer seasons and fading during winter. Snowmelt, ground ice melt and deliquescence by hygroscopic salts have been suggested as possible formation mechanisms for water tracks. No spectral work to date has been reported for water tracks.

  1. Geologic context of recurring slope lineae in Melas and Coprates Chasmata, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chojnacki, Matthew; McEwen, Alfred; Dundas, Colin M.; Ojha, Lujendra; Urso, Anna; Sutton, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    One of the major Mars discoveries of recent years is the existence of recurring slope lineae (RSL), which suggests that liquid water occurs on or near the surface of Mars today. These dark and narrow features emerge from steep, rocky exposures and incrementally grow, fade, and reform on a seasonal basis and are detected in images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera. RSL are known to occur at scattered midlatitude and equatorial sites with little spatial connection to one another. One major exception is the steep, low-albedo slopes of Melas and Coprates Chasmata, in Valles Marineris where RSL are detected among diverse geologic surfaces (e.g., bedrock and talus) and landforms (e.g., inselbergs and landslides). New images show topographic changes including sediment deposition on active RSL slopes. Midwall locations in Coprates and Melas appear to have more areally extensively abundant RSL and related fans as compared with other RSL sites found on Mars. Water budget estimates for regional RSL are on the order of 105 to 106 m3 of fluid, for depths of 10 to 100mm, and suggest that a significant amount of near-surface watermight be present. Many RSL are concentrated near local topographic highs, such as ridge crests or peaks, which is challenging to explain via groundwater or ice without a recharge mechanism. Collectively, results provide additional support for the notion that significant amounts of near-surface water can be found on Mars today and suggest that a widespread mechanism, possibly related to the atmosphere, is recharging RSL sources.

  2. 78 FR 13576 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Marine Events and Fireworks Displays Within...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... amended in the March 23, 2012, issue of the Federal Register (77 FR 16932). The Coast Guard revised the... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA00, AA08 Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Marine Events and Fireworks Displays Within the Fifth Coast Guard District...

  3. 76 FR 69634 - Safety Zone; Temporary Change for Recurring Fireworks Display Within the Fifth Coast Guard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Temporary Change for Recurring Fireworks Display Within the Fifth Coast Guard District, Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is temporarily changing the enforcement period and...

  4. 78 FR 67026 - Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the special local regulations pertaining to the Key West...

  5. 78 FR 34886 - Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the regulation pertaining to the Beaufort Water Festival from 1 p.m. through...

  6. 77 FR 2629 - Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... locations within the geographic boundary of the Fifth Coast Guard District. This rule revises 33 CFR...

  7. 78 FR 35756 - Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulations. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Fourth of July Fireworks Display regulations on certain...

  8. 78 FR 32219 - Safety Zone, Temporary Change for Recurring Fifth Coast Guard District Fireworks Displays, Middle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Temporary Change for Recurring Fifth Coast Guard District Fireworks Displays, Middle River; Baltimore County, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is proposing a temporary change to...

  9. 78 FR 38829 - Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the special local regulation for the St. John 4th of July Carnival...

  10. 76 FR 63239 - Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to revise the list of special local regulations established...

  11. Memory Dysfunction in Caudate Infarction Caused by Heubner's Recurring Artery Occlusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuta, Hideko; Motomura, Naoyasu

    2006-01-01

    We report five cases with caudate infarction due to Heubner's recurring artery occlusion, in which we conducted detailed memory examinations in terms of explicit memory and implicit memory. We performed the auditory verbal learning test as explicit memory tasks, and motor and cognitive procedural memory tasks, developed by Komori, as implicit…

  12. 76 FR 17530 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ...; Recurring Events in Northern New England'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 1568). We received no comments or... to the NPRM published in the Federal Register (76 FR 1568) on Tuesday, January 11, 2011. Accordingly... 52'35'' N 069 31'29'' W. 43 52'09'' N 069 31'56'' W. 8.6 Multiple Sclerosis Regatta.... Event...

  13. Recurring Bibliography--Education in the Allied Health Professions. Volume 11, April 1978 through March 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Medicine (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    Index Medicus articles listed between April 1978 and March 1979 that focus on education in the health professions are cited in this eleventh annual recurring bibliography. The articles are indexed under subject and author headings. They cover such topics as health occupations, dietetics, continuing education, health manpower, hospital…

  14. Can a self-administered questionnaire identify workers with chronic or recurring low back pain?

    PubMed Central

    TAKEKAWA, Karina Satiko; GONÇALVES, Josiane Sotrate; MORIGUCHI, Cristiane Shinohara; COURY, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; SATO, Tatiana de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    To verify if the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) and physical examination of the lumbar spine can identify workers with chronic or recurring low back pain, using health history for reference. Fifty office workers of both sexes, aged between 19 and 55 yr, were evaluated using a standardized physical examination and the NMQ, VAS and RDQ. Discriminant analysis was performed to determine the discriminant properties of these instruments. A higher success rate (94%) was observed in the model including only the NMQ and in the model including the NMQ and the physical examination. The lowest success rate (82%) was observed in the model including the NMQ, RDQ and VAS. The NMQ was able to detect subjects with chronic or recurring low back pain with 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The NMQ appears to be the best instrument for identifying subjects with chronic or recurring low back pain. Thus, this self-reported questionnaire is suitable for screening workers for chronic or recurring low back pain in occupational settings. PMID:25810448

  15. 77 FR 30929 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to temporarily change the enforcement period of one special local regulation for a recurring marine event in the Fifth Coast Guard District, specifically the ``Wilmington YMCA Triathlon'', locally known as the ``Beach 2 Battleship'', conducted on the waters of Wrightsville Channel near Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. This Special Local Regulation is necessary to......

  16. 77 FR 43511 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ...The Coast Guard is temporarily changing the enforcement period of one special local regulation for a recurring marine event in the Fifth Coast Guard District, specifically the ``Wilmington YMCA Triathlon'', locally known as the ``Beach 2 Battleship'', conducted on the waters of Wrightsville Channel near Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. This Special Local Regulation is necessary to provide......

  17. The Character of Curriculum Studies: Bildung, Currere, and the Recurring Question of the Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinar, William F.

    2011-01-01

    This volume assembles essays addressing the recurring question of the "subject," understood both as human person and school subject, thereby elaborating the subjective and disciplinary character of curriculum studies. After examining scholarship on the "subject," Pinar critiques its absence in the new sociology of curriculum, its historically…

  18. Beyond Munchausen by Proxy: A Proposed Conceptualization for Cases of Recurring, Unsubstantiated Sexual Abuse Allegations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Mary W.

    2009-01-01

    In the emerging literature, cases involving recurring, unsubstantiated allegations of child sexual abuse have generally been categorized as Munchausen by proxy. Recent scholars have recommended restricting the label to the original conceptualization, involving purposeful deception motivated by psychological needs for medical attention. This leaves…

  19. 76 FR 57645 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... North Carolina, telephone (252) 247-4525 Joseph.M.Edge@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District, Wrightsville...

  20. 76 FR 55561 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Coast Guard District, Wrightsville Channel; Wrightsville Beach, NC in the Federal Register (76 FR 44877... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District, Wrightsville...

  1. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  2. 75 FR 33502 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...The Coast Guard temporarily changes the enforcement period of special local regulations for a recurring marine event in the Fifth Coast Guard District. These regulations apply to only one recurring marine event that establishes two spectator vessel anchorage areas and restricts vessel traffic. Special local regulations are necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during......

  3. 75 FR 748 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ...; Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District in the Federal Register (74 FR 30220). We received... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule....

  4. 33 CFR 100.130 - Special Local Regulations; Recurring Annual Marine Events in Sector Boston Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.130 Special Local Regulations; Recurring Annual Marine Events in... in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15. (a) The Coast Guard may patrol each event area under the direction...; Recurring Annual Marine Events in Sector Boston Captain of the Port Zone. 100.130 Section 100.130...

  5. 33 CFR 100.130 - Special Local Regulations; Recurring Annual Marine Events in Sector Boston Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.130 Special Local Regulations; Recurring Annual Marine Events in... in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15. (a) The Coast Guard may patrol each event area under the direction...; Recurring Annual Marine Events in Sector Boston Captain of the Port Zone. 100.130 Section 100.130...

  6. 33 CFR 100.130 - Special Local Regulations; Recurring Annual Marine Events in Sector Boston Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.130 Special Local Regulations; Recurring Annual Marine Events in... in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15. (a) The Coast Guard may patrol each event area under the direction...; Recurring Annual Marine Events in Sector Boston Captain of the Port Zone. 100.130 Section 100.130...

  7. Insect immunity: oral exposure to a bacterial pathogen elicits free radical response and protects from a recurring infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous exposure to a pathogen can help organisms cope with recurring infection. This is widely recognised in vertebrates, but increasing occasions are also being reported in invertebrates where this phenomenon is referred to as immune priming. However, the mechanisms that allow acquired pathogen resistance in insects remain largely unknown. Results We studied the priming of bacterial resistance in the larvae of the tiger moth, Parasemia plantaginis using two gram-negative bacteria, a pathogenic Serratia marcescens and a non-pathogenic control, Escherichia coli. A sublethal oral dose of S. marcescens provided the larvae with effective protection against an otherwise lethal septic infection with the same pathogen five days later. At the same time, we assessed three anti-bacterial defence mechanisms from the larvae that had been primarily exposed to the bacteria via contaminated host plant. Results showed that S. marcescens had induced a higher amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the larval haemolymph, possibly protecting the host from the recurring infection. Conclusions Our study supports the growing evidence of immune priming in insects. It shows that activation of the protective mechanism requires a specific induction, rather than a sheer exposure to any gram-negative bacteria. The findings indicate that systemic pathogen recognition happens via the gut, and suggest that persistent loitering of immune elicitors or anti-microbial molecules are a possible mechanism for the observed prophylaxis. The self-harming effects of ROS molecules are well known, which indicates a potential cost of increased resistance. Together these findings could have important implications on the ecological and epidemiological processes affecting insect and pathogen populations. PMID:24602309

  8. Mesoscale Modeling of Water Vapor and Dust in Valles Marineris: Atmospheric Influences on Recurring Slope Lineae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, C. W. S.; Rafkin, S. C.; McEwen, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Extensive recurring slope lineae (RSL) activity has been detected in Valles Marineris on Mars and coincides with regions where water ice fogs appear [1]. The origin of the water driving RSL flow is not well understood, but observational evidence suggests atmospheric processes play a crucial role [2]. Provided the atmospheric vapor concentration is high enough, water ice fogs can form overnight if the surface temperature cools below the condensation temperature. Correlations between dust storms and flow rates suggest that atmospheric dust opacity, and its influence on air temperature, also has a significant effect on RSL activity. We investigate planetary boundary layer processes that govern the hydrological cycle and dust cycle on Mars using a mesoscale atmospheric model to simulate the distribution of water and dust with respect to regional atmospheric circulations. Our simulations in Valles Marineris show a curious temperature structure, where the inside of the canyon appears warmer relative to the plateaus immediately outside. For a well-mixed atmosphere, this temperature structure indicates that when the atmosphere inside the canyon is saturated and fog is present within Valles Marineris, fog and low-lying clouds should also be present on the cooler surrounding plateaus as well. However, images taken with the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) show instances where water ice fog appeared exclusively inside the canyon. These results have important implications for the origin and concentration of water vapor in Valles Marineris, with possible connections to RSL. The potential temperatures from our simulations show a high level of stability inside the canyon produced dynamically by sinking air. However, afternoon updrafts along the canyon walls indicate that over time, water vapor within the chasm would escape along the sides of the canyon. Again, this suggests a local source or mechanism to concentrate water vapor is needed to explain the fog

  9. Spatiotemporal control of opioid signaling and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Siuda, Edward R.; Copits, Bryan A.; Schmidt, Martin J.; Baird, Madison A.; Al-Hasani, Ream; Planer, William J.; Funderburk, Samuel C.; McCall, Jordan G.; Gereau, Robert W.; Bruchas, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Optogenetics is now a widely accepted tool for spatiotemporal manipulation of neuronal activity. However, a majority of optogenetic approaches use binary on/off control schemes. Here we extend the optogenetic toolset by developing a neuromodulatory approach using a rationale-based design to generate a Gi-coupled, optically-sensitive, mu-opioid-like receptor, we term opto-MOR. We demonstrate that opto-MOR engages canonical mu-opioid signaling through inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, activation of MAPK and G protein-gated inward rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels, and internalizes with similar kinetics as the mu-opioid receptor. To assess in vivo utility we expressed a Cre-dependent viral opto-MOR in RMTg/VTA GABAergic neurons, which led to a real-time place preference. In contrast, expression of opto-MOR in GABAergic neurons of the ventral pallidum hedonic cold spot, led to real-time place aversion. This tool has generalizable application for spatiotemporal control of opioid signaling and, furthermore, can be used broadly for mimicking endogenous neuronal inhibition pathways. PMID:25937173

  10. Recurring exon deletions in the haptoglobin (HP) gene associate with lower blood cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Boettger, Linda M.; Salem, Rany M.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Peloso, Gina; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hirschhorn, Joel; McCarroll, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Two exons of the human haptoglobin (HP) gene exhibit copy number variation that affects HP multimerization and underlies one of the first protein polymorphisms identified in humans. The evolutionary origins and medical significance of this polymorphism have been uncertain. Here we show that this variation has likely arisen from the recurring reversion of an ancient hominin-specific duplication of these exons. Though this polymorphism has been largely invisible to genome-wide genetic studies to date, we describe a way to analyze it by imputation from SNP haplotypes and find among 22,288 individuals that these HP exonic deletions associate with reduced LDL and total cholesterol levels. We show that these deletions, and a SNP that affects HP expression, are the likely drivers of the strong but complex association of cholesterol levels to SNPs near HP. Recurring exonic deletions in the haptoglobin gene likely enhance human health by lowering cholesterol levels in the blood. PMID:26901066

  11. Beyond Munchausen by proxy: a proposed conceptualization for cases of recurring, unsubstantiated sexual abuse allegations.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Mary W

    2009-01-01

    In the emerging literature, cases involving recurring, unsubstantiated allegations of child sexual abuse have generally been categorized as Munchausen by proxy. Recent scholars have recommended restricting the label to the original conceptualization, involving purposeful deception motivated by psychological needs for medical attention. This leaves many cases unclassified that do not fit the Munchausen by proxy criteria, involve significant risks to the child, and ultimately fall outside of existing structures for Child Protective Services/legal intervention. This paper presents a reconceptualization of such cases, proposing to label them "recurring sexual abuse allegation" cases. Defining the set of cases more clearly can aid child protection workers in their management and encourage research on prevalence, consequences to children, treatment strategies, and needed legal reforms. PMID:19306207

  12. Recurring exon deletions in the HP (haptoglobin) gene contribute to lower blood cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Boettger, Linda M; Salem, Rany M; Handsaker, Robert E; Peloso, Gina M; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hirschhorn, Joel N; McCarroll, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    One of the first protein polymorphisms identified in humans involves the abundant blood protein haptoglobin. Two exons of the HP gene (encoding haptoglobin) exhibit copy number variation that affects HP protein structure and multimerization. The evolutionary origins and medical relevance of this polymorphism have been uncertain. Here we show that this variation has likely arisen from many recurring deletions, more specifically, reversions of an ancient hominin-specific duplication of these exons. Although this polymorphism has been largely invisible to genome-wide genetic studies thus far, we describe a way to analyze it by imputation from SNP haplotypes and find among 22,288 individuals that these HP exonic deletions associate with reduced LDL and total cholesterol levels. We further show that these deletions, and a SNP that affects HP expression, appear to drive the strong association of cholesterol levels with SNPs near HP. Recurring exonic deletions in HP likely enhance human health by lowering cholesterol levels in the blood. PMID:26901066

  13. Bit error rate tester using fast parallel generation of linear recurring sequences

    DOEpatents

    Pierson, Lyndon G.; Witzke, Edward L.; Maestas, Joseph H.

    2003-05-06

    A fast method for generating linear recurring sequences by parallel linear recurring sequence generators (LRSGs) with a feedback circuit optimized to balance minimum propagation delay against maximal sequence period. Parallel generation of linear recurring sequences requires decimating the sequence (creating small contiguous sections of the sequence in each LRSG). A companion matrix form is selected depending on whether the LFSR is right-shifting or left-shifting. The companion matrix is completed by selecting a primitive irreducible polynomial with 1's most closely grouped in a corner of the companion matrix. A decimation matrix is created by raising the companion matrix to the (n*k).sup.th power, where k is the number of parallel LRSGs and n is the number of bits to be generated at a time by each LRSG. Companion matrices with 1's closely grouped in a corner will yield sparse decimation matrices. A feedback circuit comprised of XOR logic gates implements the decimation matrix in hardware. Sparse decimation matrices can be implemented with minimum number of XOR gates, and therefore a minimum propagation delay through the feedback circuit. The LRSG of the invention is particularly well suited to use as a bit error rate tester on high speed communication lines because it permits the receiver to synchronize to the transmitted pattern within 2n bits.

  14. A spatiotemporal dynamic distributed solution to the MEG inverse problem.

    PubMed

    Lamus, Camilo; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Temereanca, Simona; Brown, Emery N; Purdon, Patrick L

    2012-11-01

    MEG/EEG are non-invasive imaging techniques that record brain activity with high temporal resolution. However, estimation of brain source currents from surface recordings requires solving an ill-conditioned inverse problem. Converging lines of evidence in neuroscience, from neuronal network models to resting-state imaging and neurophysiology, suggest that cortical activation is a distributed spatiotemporal dynamic process, supported by both local and long-distance neuroanatomic connections. Because spatiotemporal dynamics of this kind are central to brain physiology, inverse solutions could be improved by incorporating models of these dynamics. In this article, we present a model for cortical activity based on nearest-neighbor autoregression that incorporates local spatiotemporal interactions between distributed sources in a manner consistent with neurophysiology and neuroanatomy. We develop a dynamic maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization (dMAP-EM) source localization algorithm for estimation of cortical sources and model parameters based on the Kalman Filter, the Fixed Interval Smoother, and the EM algorithms. We apply the dMAP-EM algorithm to simulated experiments as well as to human experimental data. Furthermore, we derive expressions to relate our dynamic estimation formulas to those of standard static models, and show how dynamic methods optimally assimilate past and future data. Our results establish the feasibility of spatiotemporal dynamic estimation in large-scale distributed source spaces with several thousand source locations and hundreds of sensors, with resulting inverse solutions that provide substantial performance improvements over static methods. PMID:22155043

  15. Spatio-temporal evaluation matrices for geospatial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triglav, Joc; Petrovič, Dušan; Stopar, Bojan

    2011-02-01

    The global geospatial community is investing substantial effort in providing tools for geospatial data-quality information analysis and systematizing the criteria for geospatial data quality. The importance of these activities is increasing, especially in the last decade, which has witnessed an enormous expansion of geospatial data use in general and especially among mass users. Although geospatial data producers are striving to define and present data-quality standards to users and users increasingly need to assess the fitness for use of the data, the success of these activities is still far from what is expected or required. As a consequence, neglect or misunderstanding of data quality among users results in misuse or risks. This paper presents an aid in spatio-temporal quality evaluation through the use of spatio-temporal evaluation matrices (STEM) and the index of spatio-temporal anticipations (INSTANT) matrices. With the help of these two simple tools, geospatial data producers can systematically categorize and visualize the granularity of their spatio-temporal data, and users can present their requirements in the same way using business intelligence principles and a Web 2.0 approach. The basic principles and some examples are presented in the paper, and potential further applied research activities are briefly described.

  16. A spatiotemporal dynamic distributed solution to the MEG inverse problem

    PubMed Central

    Lamus, Camilo; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Temereanca, Simona; Brown, Emery N.; Purdon, Patrick L.

    2012-01-01

    MEG/EEG are non-invasive imaging techniques that record brain activity with high temporal resolution. However, estimation of brain source currents from surface recordings requires solving an ill-conditioned inverse problem. Converging lines of evidence in neuroscience, from neuronal network models to resting-state imaging and neurophysiology, suggest that cortical activation is a distributed spatiotemporal dynamic process, supported by both local and long-distance neuroanatomic connections. Because spatiotemporal dynamics of this kind are central to brain physiology, inverse solutions could be improved by incorporating models of these dynamics. In this article, we present a model for cortical activity based on nearest-neighbor autoregression that incorporates local spatiotemporal interactions between distributed sources in a manner consistent with neurophysiology and neuroanatomy. We develop a dynamic Maximum a Posteriori Expectation-Maximization (dMAP-EM) source localization algorithm for estimation of cortical sources and model parameters based on the Kalman Filter, the Fixed Interval Smoother, and the EM algorithms. We apply the dMAP-EM algorithm to simulated experiments as well as to human experimental data. Furthermore, we derive expressions to relate our dynamic estimation formulas to those of standard static models, and show how dynamic methods optimally assimilate past and future data. Our results establish the feasibility of spatiotemporal dynamic estimation in large-scale distributed source spaces with several thousand source locations and hundreds of sensors, with resulting inverse solutions that provide substantial performance improvements over static methods. PMID:22155043

  17. Spatiotemporal dynamics of HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strain, Matthew Carl

    Mathematical models of the dynamics of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have contributed to tremendous advances over the past 20 years. This thesis extends this previous work by exploring the importance of spatial heterogeneity in HIV infection both in vitro and in vivo in patients treated with highly-active antiretroviral therapy. Viral infections propagate locally in space, yet HIV infection has been widely regarded as equilibrated over the entire body of an infected patient. This dissertation constructs and explores a cellular automata model of viral spread at the cellular level. Coupling the automata to a blood compartment represented by a differential equation leads to a whole-body model of HIV infection that explicitly includes spatial effects at both the cellular and tissue levels. These models are tested by comparison with experimental data. A central prediction of the spatial model is that, due to competition between Brownian motion and viral lability, HIV infectivity increases with target cell density. This production is verified in a series of in vitro experiments in cell culture. The predicted independence of inhibitory concentrations of antiretoviral agents is verified for nevirapine, but azidothymidine inhibits HIV replication less efficiently in more dense cultures. These in vitro results suggest that systems allowing cell concentrations closer to tissue densities would better reflect virus replication kinetics, although standard measures of relative drug susceptibility may accurately reflect in vivo conditions. The coupled spatial model of in vivo dynamics is compared with novel mathematical analysis of experiments in HIV-infected patients. These analyses indicate that HIV DNA provides a useful marker of the size of long-lived cellular reservoirs of HIV. Levels of HIV DNA in peripheral blood are predictive of the average rate of residual virus production after years of treatment, regardless of whether patients initiate therapy

  18. Nonlinear Synchronization Analysis of Spatiotemporal Heart Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonotto, Jennifer D.; Furman, Michael D.; Spano, Mark L.; Ditto, William L.; Liu, Gang; Kavanagh, Katherine M.

    2003-08-01

    A high-speed video camera and voltage-sensitive dyes were used to acquire high resolution (80×80 pixels) and high-speed (500 μs/frame) optical signals of ventricular fibrillation in a Langendorff-perfused porcine heart. The resulting spatiotemporal dynamics were recorded before and after the application of a defibrillation shock in order to study the mechanism of defibrillation failure. We calculate nonlinear synchronization index measures to qualify the evolution of different types of activity on the heart surface (focal, reentry). We observe changes with time in the spatial distribution of the first Fourier mode, showing that two main types of activity compete on the heart surface during a failed defibrillation.

  19. Spatiotemporal Interpolation for Environmental Modelling.

    PubMed

    Susanto, Ferry; de Souza, Paulo; He, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A variation of the reduction-based approach to spatiotemporal interpolation (STI), in which time is treated independently from the spatial dimensions, is proposed in this paper. We reviewed and compared three widely-used spatial interpolation techniques: ordinary kriging, inverse distance weighting and the triangular irregular network. We also proposed a new distribution-based distance weighting (DDW) spatial interpolation method. In this study, we utilised one year of Tasmania's South Esk Hydrology model developed by CSIRO. Root mean squared error statistical methods were performed for performance evaluations. Our results show that the proposed reduction approach is superior to the extension approach to STI. However, the proposed DDW provides little benefit compared to the conventional inverse distance weighting (IDW) method. We suggest that the improved IDW technique, with the reduction approach used for the temporal dimension, is the optimal combination for large-scale spatiotemporal interpolation within environmental modelling applications. PMID:27509497

  20. Spatiotemporal imaging of complexity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stephen E.; Mandell, Arnold J.; Coppola, Richard

    2013-01-01

    What are the functional neuroimaging measurements required for more fully characterizing the events and locations of neocortical activity? A prime assumption has been that modulation of cortical activity will inevitably be reflected in changes in energy utilization (for the most part) changes of glucose and oxygen consumption. Are such a measures complete and sufficient? More direct measures of cortical electrophysiological activity show event or task-related modulation of amplitude or band-limited oscillatory power. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), these measures have been shown to correlate well with energy utilization sensitive BOLD fMRI. In this paper, we explore the existence of state changes in electrophysiological cortical activity that can occur independently of changes in averaged amplitude, source power or indices of metabolic rates. In addition, we demonstrate that such state changes can be described by applying a new measure of complexity, rank vector entropy (RVE), to source waveform estimates from beamformer-processed MEG. RVE is a non-parametric symbolic dynamic informational entropy measure that accommodates the wide dynamic range of measured brain signals while resolving its temporal variations. By representing the measurements by their rank values, RVE overcomes the problem of defining embedding space partitions without resorting to signal compression. This renders RVE-independent of absolute signal amplitude. In addition, this approach is robust, being relatively free of tunable parameters. We present examples of task-free and task-dependent MEG demonstrating that RVE provides new information by uncovering hidden dynamical structure in the apparent turbulent (or chaotic) dynamics of spontaneous cortical activity. PMID:23355820

  1. Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity of early vision.

    PubMed

    Van Hateren, J H

    1993-01-01

    Based on the spatial and temporal statistics of natural images, a theory is developed that specifies spatiotemporal filters that maximize the flow of information through noisy channels of limited dynamic range. Sensitivities resulting from these spatiotemporal filters are very similar to the human spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity, including the dependence on ambient light intensity. The theory predicts several psychophysical laws: Ferry-Porter's law, the de Vries-Rose law, Weber's law, Bloch's law, Ricco's law, and Piper's law. PMID:8447098

  2. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the Treatment of Locally Recurred Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kankaanranta, Leena; Seppaelae, Tiina; Koivunoro, Hanna; Saarilahti, Kauko; Atula, Timo; Collan, Juhani; Salli, Eero; Kortesniemi, Mika; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Maekitie, Antti; Seppaenen, Marko; Minn, Heikki; Kotiluoto, Petri; Auterinen, Iiro; Savolainen, Sauli; Kouri, Mauri; Joensuu, Heikki

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: Head and neck carcinomas that recur locally after conventional irradiation pose a difficult therapeutic problem. We evaluated safety and efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of such cancers. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with inoperable, recurred, locally advanced (rT3, rT4, or rN2) head and neck cancer were treated with BNCT in a prospective, single-center Phase I-II study. Prior treatments consisted of surgery and conventionally fractionated photon irradiation to a cumulative dose of 56-74 Gy administered with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Tumor responses were assessed using the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) criteria and adverse effects using the National Cancer Institute common toxicity grading v3.0. Intravenously administered boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F, 400 mg/kg) was used as the boron carrier. Each patient was scheduled to be treated twice with BNCT. Results: Ten patients received BNCT twice; 2 were treated once. Ten (83%) patients responded to BNCT, and 2 (17%) had tumor growth stabilization for 5.5 and 7.6 months. The median duration of response was 12.1 months; six responses were ongoing at the time of analysis or death (range, 4.9-19.2 months). Four (33%) patients were alive without recurrence with a median follow-up of 14.0 months (range, 12.8-19.2 months). The most common acute adverse effects were mucositis, fatigue, and local pain; 2 patients had a severe (Grade 3) late adverse effect (xerostomia, 1; dysphagia, 1). Conclusions: Boron neutron capture therapy is effective and safe in the treatment of inoperable, locally advanced head and neck carcinomas that recur at previously irradiated sites.

  3. Extralobar Pulmonary Sequestration Presenting with Recurring Massive Pleural Effusion in a Young Woman: A Challenging Case.

    PubMed

    Davoli, Fabio; Turello, Davide; Valente, Guido; Rena, Ottavio; Roncon, Alberto; Baietto, Guido; Casadio, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of extralobar pulmonary sequestration (ELS) in a young woman, presenting with right recurring massive pleural effusion. The patient initially underwent a diagnostic Video Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) for a suspected diffuse malignancy. After the aspiration of the pleural effusion we observed a highly vascularised cystic mass, with its origin from the right lower lobe. As we tried to retract the right lower lobe, the mass broke with massive bleeding requiring emergency right lateral thoracotomy. The mass was succesfully excised, resembling an extra-lobar pulmonary sequestration. The patient was discharged on post-operative day 5. PMID:26546093

  4. Diagnostic importance of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin analysis in recurring enteritis among elderly, chronic care psychiatric patients.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S G; Yip-Chuck, D A; Clark, J B; Brodsky, M H

    1986-01-01

    A series of Clostridium perfringens-related gastrointestinal outbreaks occurred over a period of several months among elderly, chronic care patients in a psychiatric hospital. Several serotypes of C. perfringens and many nontypeable isolates were found. The distribution of certain serotypes and the incidence of detection of enterotoxin in fecal extracts were related to wards on which patients were resident (six wards were involved). Several patients were reported to have chronic or recurring fecal incontinence or diarrhea or both. With a background of elevated spore counts of several serotypes and chronic diarrhea, only detection of enterotoxin could provide definitive evidence of C. perfringens etiology in gastoenteritis cases. PMID:2871043

  5. Master stability analysis in transient spatiotemporal chaos.

    PubMed

    Wackerbauer, Renate

    2007-11-01

    The asymptotic stability of spatiotemporal chaos is difficult to determine, since transient spatiotemporal chaos may be extremely long lived. A master stability analysis reveals that the asymptotic state of transient spatiotemporal chaos in the Gray-Scott system and in the Bär-Eiswirth system is characterized by negative transverse Lyapunov exponents on the attractor of the invariant synchronization manifold. The average lifetime of transient spatiotemporal chaos depends on the number of transverse directions that are unstable along a typical excitation cycle. PMID:18233739

  6. Noise tolerant spatiotemporal chaos computing

    SciTech Connect

    Kia, Behnam; Kia, Sarvenaz; Ditto, William L.; Lindner, John F.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2014-12-01

    We introduce and design a noise tolerant chaos computing system based on a coupled map lattice (CML) and the noise reduction capabilities inherent in coupled dynamical systems. The resulting spatiotemporal chaos computing system is more robust to noise than a single map chaos computing system. In this CML based approach to computing, under the coupled dynamics, the local noise from different nodes of the lattice diffuses across the lattice, and it attenuates each other's effects, resulting in a system with less noise content and a more robust chaos computing architecture.

  7. Spatiotemporal Thinking in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Tikoff, B.

    2011-12-01

    Reasoning about spatial relations is a critical skill for geoscientists. Within the geosciences different disciplines may reason about different sorts of relationships. These relationships may span vastly different spatial and temporal scales (from the spatial alignment in atoms in crystals to the changes in the shape of plates). As part of work in a research center on spatial thinking in STEM education, we have been working to classify the spatial skills required in geology, develop tests for each spatial skill, and develop the cognitive science tools to promote the critical spatial reasoning skills. Research in psychology, neurology and linguistics supports a broad classification of spatial skills along two dimensions: one versus many objects (which roughly translates to object- focused and navigation focused skills) and static versus dynamic spatial relations. The talk will focus on the interaction of space and time in spatial cognition in the geosciences. We are working to develop measures of skill in visualizing spatiotemporal changes. A new test developed to measure visualization of brittle deformations will be presented. This is a skill that has not been clearly recognized in the cognitive science research domain and thus illustrates the value of interdisciplinary work that combines geosciences with cognitive sciences. Teaching spatiotemporal concepts can be challenging. Recent theoretical work suggests analogical reasoning can be a powerful tool to aid student learning to reason about temporal relations using spatial skills. Recent work in our lab has found that progressive alignment of spatial and temporal scales promotes accurate reasoning about temporal relations at geological time scales.

  8. The Voxel-Wise Functional Connectome Can Be Efficiently Derived from Co-activations in a Sparse Spatio-Temporal Point-Process.

    PubMed

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Siniatchkin, Michael; Laufs, Helmut; Chialvo, Dante R

    2016-01-01

    consist of all-or-none temporally localized events, analogous to the avalanches of neural activity observed in recordings of local field potentials (LFP), an observation of potentially high neurobiological relevance. PMID:27601975

  9. The Voxel-Wise Functional Connectome Can Be Efficiently Derived from Co-activations in a Sparse Spatio-Temporal Point-Process

    PubMed Central

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Siniatchkin, Michael; Laufs, Helmut; Chialvo, Dante R.

    2016-01-01

    consist of all-or-none temporally localized events, analogous to the avalanches of neural activity observed in recordings of local field potentials (LFP), an observation of potentially high neurobiological relevance. PMID:27601975

  10. [A Case of Recurred Gastric Cancer of the Anastomosis Completely Responding to Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and S-1 Triplet Therapy].

    PubMed

    Tsuruda, Yusuke; Ishigami, Sumiya; Uenosono, Yoshikazu; Yanagita, Shigehiro; Matsushita, Daisuke; Arigami, Takaaki; Uchikado, Yasuto; Kita, Yoshiaki; Baba, Kenji; Mori, Shinichiro; Okumura, Hiroshi; Maemura, Kousei; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2016-04-01

    A 51-year-old man who had undergone distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer was admitted in Kagoshima University Hospital under the diagnosis of anastomotic recurrence of gastric cancer. From abdominal CT results, the recurred tumor was suspected to invade into the pancreas with regional node metastases. Because of the intense radicality of surgical intervention, we planned 3 courses of docetaxel, cisplatin, and S-1 triplet therapy(DCS therapy). After the chemotherapy, the recurred tumor and lymph node metastases shrunk drastically. Segmental gastrectomy with lymph node dissection was performed with curative intent. Final pathology revealed complete regression of both the recurred tumor and lymph node metastases. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful without tumor relapse. DCS therapy seems to be suitable to obtain drastic tumor regression before surgical intervention as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer. PMID:27220792

  11. Anomaly Analysis: NASA's Engineering and Safety Center Checks Recurring Shuttle Glitches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), set up in the wake of the Columbia accident to backstop engineers in the space shuttle program, is reviewing hundreds of recurring anomalies that the program had determined don't affect flight safety to see if in fact they might. The NESC is expanding its support to other programs across the agency, as well. The effort, which will later extend to the International Space Station (ISS), is a principal part of the attempt to overcome the normalization of deviance--a situation in which organizations proceeded as if nothing was wrong in the face of evidence that something was wrong--cited by sociologist Diane Vaughn as contributing to both space shuttle disasters.

  12. Overview of historical recurring low-amplitude floods in Lower Provence, Southeastern France (1700-1950)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maughan, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    In the Mediterranean world, water plays a prominent role as a « prime mover » in the development of urban and rural spaces. But, the specificities of the typical climate require a management of a natural resource that varies permanently between scarcity and abundance. Since Antiquity, the chronic lack of freshwater could be limited thanks to large hydraulic infrastructures while the flood risk management has always been a recurring problem for rural and urban communities. Because of brief, intense and irregularly distributed rain, amplified by a mountainous topography, stream floods often are heavy and flash with catastrophic consequences. However, often only past extremefloods were studied because both their consequences and available archival materials they have left while many recurring low-amplitude floodshave resulted in severe damagesto hydraulic and road infrastructures, in loss of agricultural soils and inconflicts between citizens and administration. Indeed, these ones were a central problem for rural and urban settlements and for the managementof water bodies.It seems interesting to present adetailed overview of historical recurring low-amplitude floods and consider how local societies have chosen to manage these questions and how these small hydrological events have contributed to shape existing current hydrological and geomorphologicalstructure of hydrosystems. In this context, the Lower Provence area (especially the Bouches-du-Rhône district, southeastern France), subject to recurring floods for centuries, appears to be a perfect place to explore and understand these questions. The decision to start the study at the dawn of the Eighteenth Century is especially interesting because it's a turning point for economic, scientific and engineering development in many European countries during whichdisasters and environmental health risks, including flooding, begin to become a real social and technical problem for authorities and citizens. Moreover, from

  13. Has ICT come of age? Recurring debates on the role of ICT in education, 1982 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellington, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has now been used in science and technology education, and in other areas of the curriculum, for over 20 years. ICT has been introduced into school education through a series of heavily funded government initiatives since the launch of microcomputers into schools in 1981. This spate of initiatives has involved a mixture of hardware, software and teacher-training, though not always in a coordinated fashion. A number of issues raised by the advent of ICT have specific relevance to those involved in science and technology education at all levels, but equally, the issues and debates highlighted in this paper are of a generic nature and are applicable to ICT use across the curriculum. I argue that the debates raised by ICT use fall into three categories: the vocational, the pedagogical and the societal. These debates are likely to be perennial and recurring, whatever the advancement made in the technology itself.

  14. Discretization of Gene Expression Data Unmasks Molecular Subgroups Recurring in Different Human Cancer Types

    PubMed Central

    Soeldner, Robert; Egorov, Mark; Guenther, Rolf; Dehler, Silvia; Morys-Wortmann, Corinna; Moch, Holger; Henco, Karsten; Schraml, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the individually different molecular alterations in tumors, the malignancy associated biological traits are strikingly similar. Results of a previous study using renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as a model pointed towards cancer-related features, which could be visualized as three groups by microarray based gene expression analysis. In this study, we used a mathematic model to verify the presence of these groups in RCC as well as in other cancer types. We developed an algorithm for gene-expression deviation profiling for analyzing gene expression data of a total of 8397 patients with 13 different cancer types and normal tissues. We revealed three common Cancer Transcriptomic Profiles (CTPs) which recurred in all investigated tumors. Additionally, CTPs remained robust regardless of the functions or numbers of genes analyzed. CTPs may represent common genetic fingerprints, which potentially reflect the closely related biological traits of human cancers. PMID:27537329

  15. Discretization of Gene Expression Data Unmasks Molecular Subgroups Recurring in Different Human Cancer Types.

    PubMed

    Beleut, Manfred; Soeldner, Robert; Egorov, Mark; Guenther, Rolf; Dehler, Silvia; Morys-Wortmann, Corinna; Moch, Holger; Henco, Karsten; Schraml, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the individually different molecular alterations in tumors, the malignancy associated biological traits are strikingly similar. Results of a previous study using renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as a model pointed towards cancer-related features, which could be visualized as three groups by microarray based gene expression analysis. In this study, we used a mathematic model to verify the presence of these groups in RCC as well as in other cancer types. We developed an algorithm for gene-expression deviation profiling for analyzing gene expression data of a total of 8397 patients with 13 different cancer types and normal tissues. We revealed three common Cancer Transcriptomic Profiles (CTPs) which recurred in all investigated tumors. Additionally, CTPs remained robust regardless of the functions or numbers of genes analyzed. CTPs may represent common genetic fingerprints, which potentially reflect the closely related biological traits of human cancers. PMID:27537329

  16. Laboratory Simulations and Spectral Analyses of Recurring Slope Streaks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, B.; Irvin, B.; Hibbitts, C.; Mushkin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Low albedo streaks on Martian slopes have been cited as possible evidence for present-day intermittent and repeated surface flow of water, or brine (Mushkin et al., 2010). Also termed as Recurring Slope Lineae (1), such streaks can grow, fade, and recur repeatedly on the same slopes. Although distinguishable by being darker than surrounding terrain slope streaks have no diagnostic spectral absorption features (2). A leading hypothesis is formation by multiple wetting and drying events. Laboratory investigations have previously explored this possibility (e.g 3). When wetted with brines, soils darken, but as the sample dries, it brightens again. Wetting also results in absorption bands near 1.5 and 2 microns, which are not detected in spectra of slope streaks. Additionally, dried brines of most salts such as MgSO4, or other sulfates and many chlorides are brighter than Martian soils. However, iron chlorides are a salt that have lower albedo than most other salts and may present a mechanism for darkening slope streaks without inducing a spectral absorption feature. To explore this hypothesis, we have begun to conduct experiments investigating the spectra of iron chloride chloride solutions wetting palagonite and subsequently drying under Martian atmospheric conditions. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that FeIII chloride dried onto palagonite has no absorption features in the NIR and SWIR and remains dark and red. However, these chlorides will oxidize under terrestrial conditions forming Fe2O3 as they dry. We have constructed an environmental chamber that mimics Martian oxygen fugacity though a combination of vacuum and N2 purging, allowing for sample wetting and drying while concurrently taking spectra from 0.4 to 2.4 microns. Results from this experimental setup under Martian atmospheric conditions will be presented. References: (1) McEwen et al., (2011) Science, 333, 740-743, (2) Mushkin et al., (2010) Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L22201, doi: 10.1029/2010GL044535

  17. Recurring episodes of spreading depression are spontaneously elicited by an intracerebral hemorrhage in the swine.

    PubMed

    Mun-Bryce, S; Wilkerson, A C; Papuashvili, N; Okada, Y C

    2001-01-12

    Intracranial bleeding damages the surrounding tissue in a complex fashion that involves contamination by blood-borne products and loss of ionic homeostasis. We used electrophysiological techniques to examine the functional changes in the developing intracerebral bleed and in surrounding regions using an in vivo swine model. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was induced by collagenase injection into the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). Somatic evoked potential (SEP) elicited by electrical stimulation of the contralateral snout as well as changes in DC-coupled potential were monitored in the SI from the time of collagenase injection in order to measure the effects of ICH. The SEP decreased in amplitude within minutes of the intracerebral injection. Its short-latency component was abolished within the first hour after collagenase injection without any sign of recovery for the duration of the experiment. As the SEP started decreasing in amplitude, we observed spontaneous, recurring episodes of cortical spreading depression (SD) as early as 20 min post-injection. The timing of SDs in SI is consistent with our interpretation that SDs were initially generated at multiple sites adjacent to the lesion core and propagated into the surrounding area. With time, SD became less frequent near the injection site, shifting to more distant electrodes in the surrounding area. Our results indicate that ICH leads to the reduction in SEP amplitude and induces spontaneous episodes of SD. Loss of ionic homeostasis is most likely the physiological basis for the SEP change and for the induction of SD. Recurring SD spontaneously generated in experimental ICH needs further study in humans with ICH. PMID:11150481

  18. Recurring dominant-negative mutations in the AVP-NPII gene cause neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus

    SciTech Connect

    Repaske, D.R.; Phillips, J.A.; Krishnamani, M.R.S.

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (ADNDI) is a familial form of arginine vasopressin (or antidiuretic hormone) deficiency that is usually manifest in early childhood with polyuria, polydipsia and an antidiuretic response to exogenous vasopressin or its analogs. The phenotype is postulated to arise from gliosis and depletion of the magnocellular neurons that produce vasopressin in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. ADNDI is caused by heterozygosity for a variety of mutations in the AVP-NPII gene which encodes vasopressin, its carrier protein (NPII) and a glycoprotein (copeptin) of unknown function. These mutations include: (1) Ala 19{r_arrow}Thr (G279A) in AVP`s signal peptide, (2) Gly 17{r_arrow}Val (G1740T), (3) Pro 24{r_arrow}Leu (C1761T), (4) Gly 57{r_arrow}Ser (G1859A) and (5) del Glu 47({delta}AGG 1824-26), all of which occur in NPII. In characterizing the AVP-NPII mutations in five non-related ADNDI kindreds, we have detected two kindreds having mutation 1 (G279A), two having mutation 3 (C1761T) and one having mutation 4 (G1859A) without any other allelic changes being detected. Two of these recurring mutations (G279A and G1859A) are transitions that occur at CpG dinucleotides while the third (C1761T) does not. Interestingly, families with the same mutations differed in their ethnicity or in their affected AVP-NPII allele`s associated haplotype of closely linked DNA polymorphisms. Our data indicated that at least three of five known AVP-NPII mutations causing ADNDI tend to recur but the mechanisms by which these dominant-negative mutations cause variable or progressive expression of the ADNDI phenotype remain unclear.

  19. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Spinal Metastases Recurring in Close Proximity to Previously Irradiated Spinal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Clara Y.H.; Adler, John R.; Gibbs, Iris C.; Chang, Steven D.; Jackson, Paul S.; Minn, A. Yuriko; Lieberson, Robert E.; Soltys, Scott G.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: As the spinal cord tolerance often precludes reirradiation with conventional techniques, local recurrence within a previously irradiated field presents a treatment challenge. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 51 lesions in 42 patients treated from 2002 to 2008 whose spinal metastases recurred in a previous radiation field (median previous spinal cord dose of 40 Gy) and were subsequently treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Results: SRS was delivered to a median marginal dose of 20 Gy (range, 10-30 Gy) in 1-5 fractions (median, 2), targeting a median tumor volume of 10.3 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.2-128.6 cm{sup 3}). Converting the SRS regimens with the linear quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 3), the median spinal cord maximum single-session equivalent dose (SSED) was 12.1 Gy{sub 3} (range, 4.7-19.3 Gy{sub 3}). With a median follow-up of 7 months (range, 2-47 months), the Kaplan-Meier local control and overall survival rates at 6/12 months were 87%/73% and 81%/68%, respectively. A time to retreatment of {<=}12 months and the combination of time to retreatment of {<=}12 months with an SSED of <15 Gy{sub 10} were significant predictors of local failure on univariate and multivariate analyses. In patients with a retreatment interval of <12 months, 6/12 month local control rates were 88%/58%, with a SSED of >15 Gy{sub 10}, compared to 45%/0% with <15 Gy{sub 10}, respectively. One patient (2%) experienced Grade 4 neurotoxicity. Conclusion: SRS is safe and effective in the treatment of spinal metastases recurring in previously irradiated fields. Tumor recurrence within 12 months may correlate with biologic aggressiveness and require higher SRS doses (SSED >15 Gy{sub 10}). Further research is needed to define the partial volume retreatment tolerance of the spinal cord and the optimal target dose.

  20. Spatiotemporal control of nanooptical excitations

    PubMed Central

    Aeschlimann, Martin; Bauer, Michael; Bayer, Daniela; Brixner, Tobias; Cunovic, Stefan; Dimler, Frank; Fischer, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Walter; Rohmer, Martin; Schneider, Christian; Steeb, Felix; Strüber, Christian; Voronine, Dmitri V.

    2010-01-01

    The most general investigation and exploitation of light-induced processes require simultaneous control over spatial and temporal properties of the electromagnetic field on a femtosecond time and nanometer length scale. Based on the combination of polarization pulse shaping and time-resolved two-photon photoemission electron microscopy, we demonstrate such control over nanoscale spatial and ultrafast temporal degrees of freedom of an electromagnetic excitation in the vicinity of a nanostructure. The time-resolved cross-correlation measurement of the local photoemission yield reveals the switching of the nanolocalized optical near-field distribution with a lateral resolution well below the diffraction limit and a temporal resolution on the femtosecond time scale. In addition, successful adaptive spatiotemporal control demonstrates the flexibility of the method. This flexible simultaneous control of temporal and spatial properties of nanophotonic excitations opens new possibilities to tailor and optimize the light–matter interaction in spectroscopic methods as well as in nanophotonic applications. PMID:20212153

  1. Nonlinear Spatio-Temporal Dynamics and Chaos in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöll, Eckehard

    2005-08-01

    Nonlinear transport phenomena are an increasingly important aspect of modern semiconductor research. This volume deals with complex nonlinear dynamics, pattern formation, and chaotic behavior in such systems. It bridges the gap between two well-established fields: the theory of dynamic systems and nonlinear charge transport in semiconductors. This unified approach helps reveal important electronic transport instabilities. The initial chapters lay a general framework for the theoretical description of nonlinear self-organized spatio-temporal patterns, such as current filaments, field domains, fronts, and analysis of their stability. Later chapters consider important model systems in detail: impact ionization induced impurity breakdown, Hall instabilities, superlattices, and low-dimensional structures. State-of-the-art results include chaos control, spatio-temporal chaos, multistability, pattern selection, activator-inhibitor kinetics, and global coupling, linking fundamental issues to electronic device applications. This book will be of great value to semiconductor physicists and nonlinear scientists alike.

  2. Nonlinear Spatio-Temporal Dynamics and Chaos in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöll, Eckehard

    2001-02-01

    Nonlinear transport phenomena are an increasingly important aspect of modern semiconductor research. This volume deals with complex nonlinear dynamics, pattern formation, and chaotic behavior in such systems. It bridges the gap between two well-established fields: the theory of dynamic systems and nonlinear charge transport in semiconductors. This unified approach helps reveal important electronic transport instabilities. The initial chapters lay a general framework for the theoretical description of nonlinear self-organized spatio-temporal patterns, such as current filaments, field domains, fronts, and analysis of their stability. Later chapters consider important model systems in detail: impact ionization induced impurity breakdown, Hall instabilities, superlattices, and low-dimensional structures. State-of-the-art results include chaos control, spatio-temporal chaos, multistability, pattern selection, activator-inhibitor kinetics, and global coupling, linking fundamental issues to electronic device applications. This book will be of great value to semiconductor physicists and nonlinear scientists alike.

  3. Spatio-temporal representativeness of aerosol remote sensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutgens, Nick; Gryspeerdt, Edward; Tsyro, Svetlana; Goto, Daisuke; Watson-Parris, Duncan; Weigum, Natalie; Schulz, Michael; Stier, Philip

    2016-04-01

    One characteristic of remote sensing observations is the strong intermittency with which they observe the same scene. Due to unfavourable conditions (due to e.g. low visible light, cloudiness or high surface albedo), sampling constraints (due to e.g. polar orbits) or instrument malfunction or maintenance, gaps in the observing record of hours to months exist. At the same time, satellite L3 products often are spatial aggregates over considerable distances (e.g. 1 by 1 degree). We study the impact of spatio-temporal sampling of observations on their representativeness: i.e. how well can satellite products represent the large scale (~ 100 by 100 km) aerosol field over periods of days, months, or years. This study was conducted by using diverse global and regional aerosol models as a truth and sub-sample them according to actual observations. In this way, we have been able to study the representativeness of different observing systems like MODIS, CALIOP and AERONET. Monthly and yearly averages allow serious sampling errors, that may still be present in multi-year climatologies due to recurring observing patterns. Even daily averages are affected as diurnal cycles can often not be observed. We discuss the implications these representativeness errors have for e.g. model evaluation or the construction of climatologies. We also assess similar representativeness issues in ground site in-situ observations from e.g. EMEP or IMPROVE and show that satellite datasets have distinct advantages due to their better spatial coverage provided temporal sampling is dealt with properly (i.e. through collocation of datasets). Finally, we briefly introduce a software tool (the Community Intercomparison Suite or CIS) that is designed to improve representativeness of datasets in intercomparion studies through aggregation and collocation of data.

  4. The dynamics of spatio-temporal Rho GTPase signaling: formation of signaling patterns

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Rafael Dominik; Pertz, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Rho GTPases are crucial signaling molecules that regulate a plethora of biological functions. Traditional biochemical, cell biological, and genetic approaches have founded the basis of Rho GTPase biology. The development of biosensors then allowed measuring Rho GTPase activity with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. This revealed that Rho GTPase activity fluctuates on time and length scales of tens of seconds and micrometers, respectively. In this review, we describe Rho GTPase activity patterns observed in different cell systems. We then discuss the growing body of evidence that upstream regulators such as guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins shape these patterns by precisely controlling the spatio-temporal flux of Rho GTPase activity. Finally, we comment on additional mechanisms that might feed into the regulation of these signaling patterns and on novel technologies required to dissect this spatio-temporal complexity. PMID:27158467

  5. STPMiner: A Highperformance Spatiotemporal Pattern Mining Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    The volume of spatiotemporal data being generated from scientific simulations and observations from sensors is growing at an astronomical rate. This data explosion is going to pose three challenges to the existing data mining infrastructure: algorithmic, computational, and I/O. Over the years we have implemented several spatiotemporal data mining algorithms including: outliers/anomalies, colocation patterns, change patterns, clustering, classification, and prediction algorithms. In this paper we briefly discuss the core spatiotemporal pattern mining algorithms along with some of the computational and I/O challenges associated with the big data.

  6. Modulation of V1 Spike Response by Temporal Interval of Spatiotemporal Stimulus Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taekjun; Kim, HyungGoo R.; Kim, Kayeon; Lee, Choongkil

    2012-01-01

    The spike activity of single neurons of the primary visual cortex (V1) becomes more selective and reliable in response to wide-field natural scenes compared to smaller stimuli confined to the classical receptive field (RF). However, it is largely unknown what aspects of natural scenes increase the selectivity of V1 neurons. One hypothesis is that modulation by surround interaction is highly sensitive to small changes in spatiotemporal aspects of RF surround. Such a fine-tuned modulation would enable single neurons to hold information about spatiotemporal sequences of oriented stimuli, which extends the role of V1 neurons as a simple spatiotemporal filter confined to the RF. In the current study, we examined the hypothesis in the V1 of awake behaving monkeys, by testing whether the spike response of single V1 neurons is modulated by temporal interval of spatiotemporal stimulus sequence encompassing inside and outside the RF. We used two identical Gabor stimuli that were sequentially presented with a variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA): the preceding one (S1) outside the RF and the following one (S2) in the RF. This stimulus configuration enabled us to examine the spatiotemporal selectivity of response modulation from a focal surround region. Although S1 alone did not evoke spike responses, visual response to S2 was modulated for SOA in the range of tens of milliseconds. These results suggest that V1 neurons participate in processing spatiotemporal sequences of oriented stimuli extending outside the RF. PMID:23091631

  7. 78 FR 22777 - Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District; St. Croix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District; St. Croix, U.S.V.I. AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the special local regulation for the Ironman St. Croix...

  8. 75 FR 20294 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to temporarily change the...

  9. 77 FR 14959 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is...

  10. 75 FR 29886 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will temporarily change the enforcement period...

  11. 76 FR 30827 - Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event in the Fifth Coast Guard District; Elizabeth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event in the Fifth Coast Guard District; Elizabeth River, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will temporarily change the enforcement period of...

  12. 75 FR 17103 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event in the Fifth Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to temporarily change...

  13. 77 FR 30188 - Safety Zones; Annually Recurring Marine Events in Coast Guard Southeastern New England Captain of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA08; AA00 Safety Zones; Annually Recurring Marine Events in Coast Guard Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is amending special local regulations and establishing...

  14. 76 FR 1564 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event in the Fifth Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to temporarily change...

  15. 75 FR 17099 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event in Fifth Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to temporarily change the...

  16. 75 FR 64670 - Safety Zones; Temporary Change of Date for Recurring Fireworks Display Within the Fifth Coast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Temporary Change of Date for Recurring Fireworks Display Within the Fifth Coast Guard District, Wrightsville Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is temporarily changing the enforcement period...

  17. 77 FR 5463 - Safety Zones; Annually Recurring Marine Events in Coast Guard Southeastern New England Captain of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA08; AA00 Safety Zones; Annually Recurring Marine Events in Coast Guard Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to amend special local regulations...

  18. 76 FR 13884 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Fifth Coast Guard District'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 7). We received no comments on the proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event in the Fifth Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard,...

  19. 77 FR 51951 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... regulations for one recurring marine event in the Fifth Coast Guard District. This event is the...

  20. Are Some Disabilities More Equal than Others? Conceptualising Fluctuating or Recurring Impairments within Contemporary Legislation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Vic

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of fluctuating or recurring impairments has grown both in the public consciousness as well as in frequency of note within policy documentation and legislation. However, contention still surrounds the perceived legitimacy of such impairments, including chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, epilepsy and…

  1. 33 CFR 165.173 - Safety Zones for annually recurring marine events held in Coast Guard Southeastern New England...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zones for annually recurring marine events held in Coast Guard Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone. 165.173 Section 165.173 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED...

  2. 76 FR 36438 - Special Local Regulations; Safety and Security Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may...; Safety and Security Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast... as well as establish a permanent security zone in the Coast Guard Sector Long Island Sound Captain...

  3. 77 FR 25070 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...The Coast Guard is temporarily changing the enforcement period for a special local regulation for one recurring marine event in the Fifth Coast Guard District, specifically, the ``Ocean City Maryland Offshore Grand Prix,'' hydroplane races on the North Atlantic Ocean near Ocean City, Maryland. The event consists of approximately 50 V- hull and twin-hull inboard hydroplanes racing in heats......

  4. 77 FR 15647 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to temporarily change the enforcement period of special local regulations for one recurring marine event in the Fifth Coast Guard District, specifically, the ``Ocean City Maryland Offshore Grand Prix,'' hydroplane races on the North Atlantic Ocean near Ocean City, Maryland. The event consists of approximately 50 V- hull and twin-hull inboard hydroplanes racing in heats......

  5. 76 FR 37293 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to temporarily change the enforcement period of special local regulations for one recurring marine event in the Fifth Coast Guard District, specifically, the ``Clarksville Hydroplane Challenge,'' hydroplane races on the waters of the John H. Kerr Reservoir. Because this event will consist of approximately 80 hydroplane powerboats conducting high-speed competitive races......

  6. 75 FR 24799 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ...@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR doc 2010-8861 appearing on page 20294 in the issue of... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District; Correction...

  7. 76 FR 55558 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ..., Clarksville VA. in the Federal Register (76 FR 123). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Events; Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District, John H. Kerr...

  8. 76 FR 69622 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Boston Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...The Coast Guard is amending special local regulations (SLR) and establishing permanent safety zones in the Coast Guard Sector Boston Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone for annually recurring marine events. The revised SLRs and safety zones are implemented to reduce administrative overhead, expedite public notification of events, and to ensure the protection of the maritime public and event......

  9. Spatiotemporal cGMP Dynamics in Living Mouse Rods

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Owen P.; Pugh, Edward N.; Burns, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Signaling of single photons in rod photoreceptors decreases the concentration of the second messenger, cyclic GMP (cGMP), causing closure of cGMP-sensitive channels located in the plasma membrane. Whether the spatiotemporal profiles of the fall in cGMP are narrow and deep, or broad and shallow, has important consequences for the amplification and the fidelity of signaling. The factors that determine the cGMP profiles include the diffusion coefficient for cGMP, the spontaneous rate of cGMP hydrolysis, and the rate of cGMP synthesis, which is powerfully regulated by calcium feedback mechanisms. Here, using suction electrodes to record light-dependent changes in cGMP-activated current in living mouse rods lacking calcium feedback, we have determined the rate constant of spontaneous cGMP hydrolysis and the longitudinal cGMP diffusion coefficient. These measurements result in a fully constrained spatiotemporal model of phototransduction, which we used to determine the effect of feedback to cGMP synthesis in spatially constricting the fall of cGMP during the single-photon response of normal rods. We find that the spatiotemporal cGMP profiles during the single-photon response are optimized for maximal amplification and preservation of signal linearity, effectively operating within an axial signaling domain of ∼2 μm. PMID:22768933

  10. Spatiotemporal distributions of tsunami sources and discovered periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, B. W.; Sasorova, E. V.

    2014-09-01

    Both spatial and spatiotemporal distributions of the sources of tsunamigenic earthquakes of tectonic origin over the last 112 years have been analyzed. This analysis has been made using tsunami databases published by the Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics (Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (United States), as well as earthquake catalogs published by the National Earthquake Information Center (United States). It has been found that the pronounced activation of seismic processes and an increase in the total energy of tsunamigenic earthquakes were observed at the beginning of both the 20th (1905-1920) and 21st (2004-2011) centuries. Studying the spatiotemporal periodicity of such events on the basis of an analysis of the two-dimensional distributions of the sources of tectonic tsunamis has made it possible to determine localized latitudinal zones with a total lack of such events (90°-75° N, 45°-90° S, and 35°-25° N) and regions with a periodic occurrence of tsunamis mainly within the middle (65°-35° N and 25°-40° S) and subequatorial (15° N-20° S) latitudes of the Northern and Southern hemispheres. The objective of this work is to analyze the spatiotemporal distributions of sources of tsunamigenic earthquakes and the effect of the periodic occurrence of such events on the basis of data taken from global tsunami catalogs.

  11. Spatiotemporal characteristics of pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prediction of timing for the onset and peak of an influenza pandemic is of vital importance for preventive measures. In order to identify common spatiotemporal patterns and climate influences for pandemics in Sweden we have studied the propagation in space and time of A(H1N1)pdm09 (10,000 laboratory verified cases), the Asian Influenza 1957–1958 (275,000 cases of influenza-like illness (ILI), reported by local physicians) and the Russian Influenza 1889–1890 (32,600 ILI cases reported by physicians shortly after the end of the outbreak). Methods All cases were geocoded and analysed in space and time. Animated video sequences, showing weekly incidence per municipality and its geographically weighted mean (GWM), were created to depict and compare the spread of the pandemics. Daily data from 1957–1958 on temperature and precipitation from 39 weather stations were collected and analysed with the case data to examine possible climatological effects on the influenza dissemination. Results The epidemic period lasted 11 weeks for the Russian Influenza, 10 weeks for the Asian Influenza and 9 weeks for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The Russian Influenza arrived in Sweden during the winter and was immediately disseminated, while both the Asian Influenza and the A(H1N1)pdm09 arrived during the spring. They were seeded over the country during the summer, but did not peak until October-November. The weekly GWM of the incidence moved along a line from southwest to northeast for the Russian and Asian Influenza but northeast to southwest for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The local epidemic periods of the Asian Influenza were preceded by falling temperature in all but one of the locations analysed. Conclusions The power of spatiotemporal analysis and modeling for pandemic spread was clearly demonstrated. The epidemic period lasted approximately 10 weeks for all pandemics. None of the pandemics had its epidemic period before late autumn. The epidemic period of the Asian Influenza was

  12. Enabling the Discovery of Recurring Anomalies in Aerospace System Problem Reports using High-Dimensional Clustering Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok, N.; Akella, Ram; Diev, Vesselin; Kumaresan, Sakthi Preethi; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Pontikakis, Emmanuel D.; Xu, Zuobing; Zhang, Yi

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a significant research and development effort conducted at NASA Ames Research Center to develop new text mining techniques to discover anomalies in free-text reports regarding system health and safety of two aerospace systems. We discuss two problems of significant importance in the aviation industry. The first problem is that of automatic anomaly discovery about an aerospace system through the analysis of tens of thousands of free-text problem reports that are written about the system. The second problem that we address is that of automatic discovery of recurring anomalies, i.e., anomalies that may be described m different ways by different authors, at varying times and under varying conditions, but that are truly about the same part of the system. The intent of recurring anomaly identification is to determine project or system weakness or high-risk issues. The discovery of recurring anomalies is a key goal in building safe, reliable, and cost-effective aerospace systems. We address the anomaly discovery problem on thousands of free-text reports using two strategies: (1) as an unsupervised learning problem where an algorithm takes free-text reports as input and automatically groups them into different bins, where each bin corresponds to a different unknown anomaly category; and (2) as a supervised learning problem where the algorithm classifies the free-text reports into one of a number of known anomaly categories. We then discuss the application of these methods to the problem of discovering recurring anomalies. In fact the special nature of recurring anomalies (very small cluster sizes) requires incorporating new methods and measures to enhance the original approach for anomaly detection. ?& pant 0-

  13. Spatiotemporal dynamics of phosphorylation in lipid second messenger signaling.

    PubMed

    Antal, Corina E; Newton, Alexandra C

    2013-12-01

    The plasma membrane serves as a dynamic interface that relays information received at the cell surface into the cell. Lipid second messengers coordinate signaling on this platform by recruiting and activating kinases and phosphatases. Specifically, diacylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate activate protein kinase C and Akt, respectively, which then phosphorylate target proteins to transduce downstream signaling. This review addresses how the spatiotemporal dynamics of protein kinase C and Akt signaling can be monitored using genetically encoded reporters and provides information on how the coordination of signaling at protein scaffolds or membrane microdomains affords fidelity and specificity in phosphorylation events. PMID:23788531

  14. Hemodynamic changes in the infant cortex during the processing of featural and spatiotemporal information.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Teresa; Bortfeld, Heather; Woods, Rebecca; Wruck, Eric; Armstrong, Jennifer; Boas, David

    2009-02-01

    Over the last 20 years neuroscientists have learned a great deal about the ventral and dorsal object processing pathways in the adult brain, yet little is known about the functional development of these pathways. The present research assessed the extent to which different patterns of neural activation, as measured by changes in blood volume and oxygenation, are observed in infant visual and temporal cortex in response to events that involve processing of featural differences or spatiotemporal discontinuities. Infants aged 6.5 months were tested. Increased neural activation was observed in visual cortex in response to a featural-difference and a spatiotemporal-discontinuity event. In addition, increased neural activation was observed in temporal cortex in response to the featural-difference but not the spatiotemporal-discontinuity event. The outcome of this experiment reveals early functional specialization of temporal cortex and lays the foundation for future investigation of the maturation of object processing pathways in humans. PMID:19071143

  15. Monitoring of a recurring glacial lake outburst flood in north-western Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neckel, Niklas; Kropacek, Jan; Schröter, Benjamin; Tyrna, Bernd; Buchroithner, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Since 2004 an almost annual recurring glacial lake outburst flood threatens Halji Village, located in Limi valley in one of the most remote regions of north-western Nepal. So far a considerable extent of rare fields and several houses have been destroyed. A cultural heritage site, the Halji Monastery which is the oldest Buddhist monastery in western Nepal is located only 30 m from the flood path. A supra-glacial lake at an altitude of 5300 m a.s.l. located approximately 6 km away from the village was identified as the source of the flood from recent satellite imagery. In November/December 2013 we carried out a field survey in this region in order to understand the drainage paths of the lake, to measure the volume of the glacial lake and to set up an Automatic Weather Station (AWS). To assess both the filling and draining of the glacial lake a terrestrial time-lapse camera was installed taking six photographs every day. These show the glacial lake and parts of the feeding water channels. The images combined with the AWS data will help us to understand the dependency of magnitude and timing of the outburst event to the temperature, snow conditions and glacier movements. The collected data will also help us to learn more about the flooding event and serve as the input for a two dimensional hydrodynamic model which simulates the flood extent under different flooding scenarios.

  16. Demyelinating Guillain-Barré syndrome recurs more frequently than axonal subtypes.

    PubMed

    Notturno, Francesca; Kokubun, Norito; Sekiguki, Yukari; Nagashima, Takahide; De Lauretis, Angelo; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Uncini, Antonino

    2016-06-15

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is considered a monophasic disorder yet recurrences occur in up to 6% of patients. We retrospectively studied an Italian-Japanese population of 236 GBS and 73 Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) patients and searched for factors which may be associated with recurrence. A recurrent patient was defined as having at least two episodes that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for GBS and MFS with an identifiable recovery after each episode and a minimum of 2months between episodes. Preceding Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) infection and antiganglioside antibodies were also assessed. Seven (3%) recurrent GBS and one (1.4%) recurrent MFS patients were identified. In the individual patient the clinical features during episodes were usually similar varying in severity whereas the preceding infection differed. None of the patients had GBS in one episode and MFS in the recurrence or vice versa. Recurrent GBS patients, compared with monophasic GBS, did not have preceding diarrhea at the first episode and considering the electrophysiological subtypes, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies recurred more frequently than axonal GBS (6.5% vs 0.9%, p=0.04). In conclusion in a GBS population with a balanced number of demyelinating and axonal subtypes less frequent diarrhea and demyelination at electrophysiology were associated with recurrence. PMID:27206890

  17. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Bruce E.; Palanisamy, Giri; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris; Green, James

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily) harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  18. Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Palanisamy, Giri; Green, James; Wilson, Bruce; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily)harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.

  19. Spatiotemporal dynamics of actomyosin networks.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saman; Molloy, Justin E; Khan, Shahid M

    2013-09-17

    Rhodamine-phalloidin-labeled actin filaments were visualized gliding over a skeletal heavy meromyosin (HMM)-coated surface. Experiments at low filament densities showed that when two filaments collided, their paths were affected in a manner that depended on collision angle. Some collisions resulted in complete alignment of the filament paths; in others, the filaments crossed over one another. Filament crossover or alignment was equally probable at ∼40° contact angle. Filaments often underwent significant bending during collision and analysis of filament shape indicated an energy requirement of ∼13 kBT. Experiments were performed over a wide range of HMM surface density and actin filament bulk concentration. Actin filament gliding speed and path persistence plateaued above a critical HMM surface density, and at high (micromolar) actin filament concentrations, filament motion became dramatically aligned in a common direction. Spatiotemporal features of alignment behavior were determined by correlation analysis, supported by simulations. The thermal drift of individual filament tracks was suppressed as the population became more oriented. Spatial correlation analysis revealed that long-range alignment was due to incremental recruitment rather than fusion of locally ordered seed domains. The global alignment of filament movement, described by an "order parameter," peaked at optimal actin concentrations and myosin surface densities, in contrast to previous predictions of a critical phase transition. Either hydrodynamic coupling or exchange of filaments between the surface bound and adjacent bulk phase layers might degrade order at high actin filament concentration, and high HMM surface densities might decrease alignment probability during collisions. Our results are compatible with generation of long-range order from mechanical interaction between individual actin filaments. Furthermore, we show that randomly oriented myosin motors align relatively short

  20. Ocean time-series reveals recurring seasonal patterns of virioplankton dynamics in the northwestern Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Rachel J; Breitbart, Mya; Lomas, Michael W; Carlson, Craig A

    2012-02-01

    There are an estimated 10(30) virioplankton in the world oceans, the majority of which are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Marine phages encompass enormous genetic diversity, affect biogeochemical cycling of elements, and partially control aspects of prokaryotic production and diversity. Despite their importance, there is a paucity of data describing virioplankton distributions over time and depth in oceanic systems. A decade of high-resolution time-series data collected from the upper 300 m in the northwestern Sargasso Sea revealed recurring temporal and vertical patterns of virioplankton abundance in unprecedented detail. An annual virioplankton maximum developed between 60 and 100 m during periods of summer stratification and eroded during winter convective mixing. The timing and vertical positioning of this seasonal pattern was related to variability in water column stability and the dynamics of specific picophytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterioplankton lineages. Between 60 and 100 m, virioplankton abundance was negatively correlated to the dominant heterotrophic bacterioplankton lineage SAR11, as well as the less abundant picophytoplankton, Synechococcus. In contrast, virioplankton abundance was positively correlated to the dominant picophytoplankton lineage Prochlorococcus, and the less abundant alpha-proteobacteria, Rhodobacteraceae. Seasonally, virioplankton abundances were highly synchronous with Prochlorococcus distributions and the virioplankton to Prochlorococcus ratio remained remarkably constant during periods of water column stratification. The data suggest that a significant fraction of viruses in the mid-euphotic zone of the subtropical gyres may be cyanophages and patterns in their abundance are largely determined by Prochlorococcus dynamics in response to water column stability. This high-resolution, decadal survey of virioplankton abundance provides insight into the possible controls of virioplankton dynamics in the open ocean. PMID

  1. Asteroid 2015 DB216: a recurring co-orbital companion to Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2015-10-01

    Minor bodies trapped in 1:1 co-orbital resonances with a host planet could be relevant to explain the origin of captured satellites. Among the giant planets, Uranus has one of the smallest known populations of co-orbitals, three objects, and all of them are short-lived. Asteroid 2015 DB216 has an orbital period that matches well that of Uranus, and here we investigate its dynamical state. Direct N-body calculations are used to assess the current status of this object, reconstruct its immediate dynamical past, and explore its future orbital evolution. A covariance matrix-based Monte Carlo scheme is presented and applied to study its short-term stability. We find that 2015 DB216 is trapped in a temporary co-orbital resonance with Uranus, the fourth known minor body to do so. A detailed analysis of its dynamical evolution shows that it is an unstable but recurring co-orbital companion to Uranus. It currently follows an asymmetric horseshoe trajectory that will last for at least 10 kyr, but it may remain inside Uranus' co-orbital zone for millions of years. As in the case of other transient Uranian co-orbitals, complex multibody ephemeral mean motion resonances trigger the switching between the various resonant co-orbital states. The new Uranian co-orbital exhibits a secular behaviour markedly different from that of the other known Uranian co-orbitals because of its higher inclination, nearly 38°. Given its rather unusual discovery circumstances, the presence of 2015 DB216 hints at the existence of a relatively large population of objects moving in similar orbits.

  2. The Voronoi spatio-temporal data structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioc, Darka

    2002-04-01

    Current GIS models cannot integrate the temporal dimension of spatial data easily. Indeed, current GISs do not support incremental (local) addition and deletion of spatial objects, and they can not support the temporal evolution of spatial data. Spatio-temporal facilities would be very useful in many GIS applications: harvesting and forest planning, cadastre, urban and regional planning, and emergency planning. The spatio-temporal model that can overcome these problems is based on a topological model---the Voronoi data structure. Voronoi diagrams are irregular tessellations of space, that adapt to spatial objects and therefore they are a synthesis of raster and vector spatial data models. The main advantage of the Voronoi data structure is its local and sequential map updates, which allows us to automatically record each event and performed map updates within the system. These map updates are executed through map construction commands that are composed of atomic actions (geometric algorithms for addition, deletion, and motion of spatial objects) on the dynamic Voronoi data structure. The formalization of map commands led to the development of a spatial language comprising a set of atomic operations or constructs on spatial primitives (points and lines), powerful enough to define the complex operations. This resulted in a new formal model for spatio-temporal change representation, where each update is uniquely characterized by the numbers of newly created and inactivated Voronoi regions. This is used for the extension of the model towards the hierarchical Voronoi data structure. In this model, spatio-temporal changes induced by map updates are preserved in a hierarchical data structure that combines events and corresponding changes in topology. This hierarchical Voronoi data structure has an implicit time ordering of events visible through changes in topology, and it is equivalent to an event structure that can support temporal data without precise temporal

  3. Cortical Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Underlying Phonological Target Detection in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Edward F.; Edwards, Erik; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Fogelson, Noa; Dalal, Sarang S.; Canolty, Ryan T.; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Barbaro, Nicholas M.; Knight, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Selective processing of task-relevant stimuli is critical for goal-directed behavior. We used electrocorticography to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical activation during a simple phonological target detection task, in which subjects press a button when a prespecified target syllable sound is heard. Simultaneous surface potential…

  4. Bandwidth and Noise in Spatiotemporally Modulated Mueller Matrix Polarimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Israel Jacob

    Polarimetric systems design has seen recent utilization of linear systems theory for system descriptions. Although noise optimal systems have been shown, bandwidth performance has not been addressed in depth generally and is particularly lacking for Mueller matrix (active) polarimetric systems. Bandwidth must be considered in a systematic way for remote sensing polarimetric systems design. The systematic approach facilitates both understanding of fundamental constraints and design of higher bandwidth polarimetric systems. Fundamental bandwidth constraints result in production of polarimetric "artifacts" due to channel crosstalk upon Mueller matrix reconstruction. This dissertation analyzes bandwidth trade-offs in spatio-temporal channeled Mueller matrix polarimetric systems. Bandwidth is directly related to the geometric positioning of channels in the Fourier (channel) space, however channel positioning for polarimetric systems is constrained both physically and by design parameters like domain separability. We present the physical channel constraints and the constraints imposed when the carriers are separable between space and time. Polarimetric systems are also constrained by noise performance, and there is a trade-off between noise performance and bandwidth. I develop cost functions which account for the trade-off between noise and bandwidth for spatio-temporal polarimetric systems. The cost functions allow a systems designer to jointly optimize systems with good bandwidth and noise performance. Optimization is implemented for a candidate spatio-temporal system design, and high temporal bandwidth systems resulting from the optimization are presented. Systematic errors which impact the bandwidth performance and mitigation strategies for these systematic errors are also presented. Finally, a portable imaging Mueller matrix system is built and analyzed based on the theoretical bandwidth analysis and system bandwidth optimization. Temporal bandwidth performance is

  5. Working with Spatio-Temporal Data Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, A.

    2012-07-01

    Several aspects of spatiotemporal databases have been explored in past decades, ranging from basic data structure to query processing and indexing. But today, operational temporal GIS does not exist. The key impediments have been the complexity of integrating space and time and the lack of standards. OpenGIS standards for simple feature access (spatial type) do exist, but unlike the spatial type, standards for spatiotemporal data type do not exist. This paper explores a new approach to modeling space and time to provide the basis for implementing a temporal GIS. This approach is based on the concept of data types in databases. A data type provides constructors, accessors, and operators. Most commercial and open source databases provide data types to deal with the spatial component of a GIS, called spatial type. Oracle Spatial, DB2 Spatial Extender and Informix Spatial DataBlade, ST_Geometry for PostgreSQL and Oracle from Esri, PostGIS for PostgreSQL, etc., are some examples. This new spatiotemporal data type is called spatiotemporal type (STT). This STT is implemented in PostgreSQL, an open source relational database management system. The STT is an extension of Esri's ST_Geometry type for PostgreSQL, in which each spatial object has a life span. Constructors, accessors, and relational functions are provided to create STT and support spatial, spatiotemporal, and temporal queries. Some functions are extended based on OpenGIS standards for the spatial type. Examples are provided to demonstrate the application of these functions. The paper concludes with limitations and challenges of implementing STT.

  6. Spatiotemporal drought forecasting using nonlinear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Loukas, Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    Spatiotemporal data mining is the extraction of unknown and implicit knowledge, structures, spatiotemporal relationships, or patterns not explicitly stored in spatiotemporal databases. As one of data mining techniques, forecasting is widely used to predict the unknown future based upon the patterns hidden in the current and past data. In order to achieve spatiotemporal forecasting, some mature analysis tools, e.g., time series and spatial statistics are extended to the spatial dimension and the temporal dimension, respectively. Drought forecasting plays an important role in the planning and management of natural resources and water resource systems in a river basin. Early and timelines forecasting of a drought event can help to take proactive measures and set out drought mitigation strategies to alleviate the impacts of drought. Despite the widespread application of nonlinear mathematical models, comparative studies on spatiotemporal drought forecasting using different models are still a huge task for modellers. This study uses a promising approach, the Gamma Test (GT), to select the input variables and the training data length, so that the trial and error workload could be greatly reduced. The GT enables to quickly evaluate and estimate the best mean squared error that can be achieved by a smooth model on any unseen data for a given selection of inputs, prior to model construction. The GT is applied to forecast droughts using monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) timeseries at multiple timescales in several precipitation stations at Pinios river basin in Thessaly region, Greece. Several nonlinear models have been developed efficiently, with the aid of the GT, for 1-month up to 12-month ahead forecasting. Several temporal and spatial statistical indices were considered for the performance evaluation of the models. The predicted results show reasonably good agreement with the actual data for short lead times, whereas the forecasting accuracy decreases with

  7. Spatiotemporal Processing in Crossmodal Interactions for Perception of the External World: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Souta; Teramoto, Wataru; Sugita, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Research regarding crossmodal interactions has garnered much interest in the last few decades. A variety of studies have demonstrated that multisensory information (vision, audition, tactile sensation, and so on) can perceptually interact with each other in the spatial and temporal domains. Findings regarding crossmodal interactions in the spatiotemporal domain (i.e., motion processing) have also been reported, with updates in the last few years. In this review, we summarize past and recent findings on spatiotemporal processing in crossmodal interactions regarding perception of the external world. A traditional view regarding crossmodal interactions holds that vision is superior to audition in spatial processing, but audition is dominant over vision in temporal processing. Similarly, vision is considered to have dominant effects over the other sensory modalities (i.e., visual capture) in spatiotemporal processing. However, recent findings demonstrate that sound could have a driving effect on visual motion perception. Moreover, studies regarding perceptual associative learning reported that, after association is established between a sound sequence without spatial information and visual motion information, the sound sequence could trigger visual motion perception. Other sensory information, such as motor action or smell, has also exhibited similar driving effects on visual motion perception. Additionally, recent brain imaging studies demonstrate that similar activation patterns could be observed in several brain areas, including the motion processing areas, between spatiotemporal information from different sensory modalities. Based on these findings, we suggest that multimodal information could mutually interact in spatiotemporal processing in the percept of the external world and that common perceptual and neural underlying mechanisms would exist for spatiotemporal processing. PMID:26733827

  8. A novel population of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells activated in a rat model of stroke: an analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution in response to ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Varun; Ling, Tina W; Rewell, Sarah S; Hare, David L; Howells, David W; Kourakis, Angela; Wookey, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    In a rat model of stroke, the spatio-temporal distribution of α-smooth muscle actin-positive, (αSMA+) cells was investigated in the infarcted hemisphere (ipsilateral) and compared with the contralateral hemisphere. At day 3 postischemia, αSMA+ cells were concentrated in two main loci within the ipsilateral hemisphere (Area A) in the medial corpus callosum and (Area B) midway through the striatum adjacent to the lateral ventricle. By day 7 and further by day 14, fewer αSMA+ cells remained in Areas A and B but a steady increase in the peri-infarct was observed. αSMA+ cells also expressed glial acidic fibrillary protein [GFAP: αSMA+/GFAP+ (29%); αSMA+/GFAP- (71%) phenotypes] and feline leukemia virus C receptor 2 (FLVCR2), but not ED1(microglia) and established markers of pericytes normally located in vascular wall. αSMA+ cells were also located close to the subventricular zones (SVZ) adjacent to Areas A and B. In conclusion, αSMA+ cells have been identified in a spatial and temporal sequence from the SVZ, at intermediate loci and in the vicinity of the peri-infarct. It is hypothesized that novel populations of αSMA+ precursors of pericytes are born on the SVZ, migrate into the peri-infarct region and are incorporated into new vessels of the peri-infarct regions. PMID:22805872

  9. A novel population of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells activated in a rat model of stroke: an analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution in response to ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Varun; Ling, Tina W; Rewell, Sarah S; Hare, David L; Howells, David W; Kourakis, Angela; Wookey, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    In a rat model of stroke, the spatio-temporal distribution of α-smooth muscle actin-positive, (αSMA+) cells was investigated in the infarcted hemisphere (ipsilateral) and compared with the contralateral hemisphere. At day 3 postischemia, αSMA+ cells were concentrated in two main loci within the ipsilateral hemisphere (Area A) in the medial corpus callosum and (Area B) midway through the striatum adjacent to the lateral ventricle. By day 7 and further by day 14, fewer αSMA+ cells remained in Areas A and B but a steady increase in the peri-infarct was observed. αSMA+ cells also expressed glial acidic fibrillary protein [GFAP: αSMA+/GFAP+ (29%); αSMA+/GFAP− (71%) phenotypes] and feline leukemia virus C receptor 2 (FLVCR2), but not ED1(microglia) and established markers of pericytes normally located in vascular wall. αSMA+ cells were also located close to the subventricular zones (SVZ) adjacent to Areas A and B. In conclusion, αSMA+ cells have been identified in a spatial and temporal sequence from the SVZ, at intermediate loci and in the vicinity of the peri-infarct. It is hypothesized that novel populations of αSMA+ precursors of pericytes are born on the SVZ, migrate into the peri-infarct region and are incorporated into new vessels of the peri-infarct regions. PMID:22805872

  10. Recognition by variance: learning rules for spatiotemporal patterns.

    PubMed

    Barak, Omri; Tsodyks, Misha

    2006-10-01

    Recognizing specific spatiotemporal patterns of activity, which take place at timescales much larger than the synaptic transmission and membrane time constants, is a demand from the nervous system exemplified, for instance, by auditory processing. We consider the total synaptic input that a single readout neuron receives on presentation of spatiotemporal spiking input patterns. Relying on the monotonic relation between the mean and the variance of a neuron's input current and its spiking output, we derive learning rules that increase the variance of the input current evoked by learned patterns relative to that obtained from random background patterns. We demonstrate that the model can successfully recognize a large number of patterns and exhibits a slow deterioration in performance with increasing number of learned patterns. In addition, robustness to time warping of the input patterns is revealed to be an emergent property of the model. Using a leaky integrate-and-fire realization of the readout neuron, we demonstrate that the above results also apply when considering spiking output. PMID:16907629

  11. Mining spatiotemporal patterns of urban dwellers from taxi trajectory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Feng; Ji, Minhe; Liu, Ting

    2016-06-01

    With the widespread adoption of locationaware technology, obtaining long-sequence, massive and high-accuracy spatiotemporal trajectory data of individuals has become increasingly popular in various geographic studies. Trajectory data of taxis, one of the most widely used inner-city travel modes, contain rich information about both road network traffic and travel behavior of passengers. Such data can be used to study the microscopic activity patterns of individuals as well as the macro system of urban spatial structures. This paper focuses on trajectories obtained from GPS-enabled taxis and their applications for mining urban commuting patterns. A novel approach is proposed to discover spatiotemporal patterns of household travel from the taxi trajectory dataset with a large number of point locations. The approach involves three critical steps: spatial clustering of taxi origin-destination (OD) based on urban traffic grids to discover potentially meaningful places, identifying threshold values from statistics of the OD clusters to extract urban jobs-housing structures, and visualization of analytic results to understand the spatial distribution and temporal trends of the revealed urban structures and implied household commuting behavior. A case study with a taxi trajectory dataset in Shanghai, China is presented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed method.

  12. Spatio-temporal statistical models with applications to atmospheric processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wikle, C.K.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral dissertation is presented as three self-contained papers. An introductory chapter considers traditional spatio-temporal statistical methods used in the atmospheric sciences from a statistical perspective. Although this section is primarily a review, many of the statistical issues considered have not been considered in the context of these methods and several open questions are posed. The first paper attempts to determine a means of characterizing the semiannual oscillation (SAO) spatial variation in the northern hemisphere extratropical height field. It was discovered that the midlatitude SAO in 500hPa geopotential height could be explained almost entirely as a result of spatial and temporal asymmetries in the annual variation of stationary eddies. It was concluded that the mechanism for the SAO in the northern hemisphere is a result of land-sea contrasts. The second paper examines the seasonal variability of mixed Rossby-gravity waves (MRGW) in lower stratospheric over the equatorial Pacific. Advanced cyclostationary time series techniques were used for analysis. It was found that there are significant twice-yearly peaks in MRGW activity. Analyses also suggested a convergence of horizontal momentum flux associated with these waves. In the third paper, a new spatio-temporal statistical model is proposed that attempts to consider the influence of both temporal and spatial variability. This method is mainly concerned with prediction in space and time, and provides a spatially descriptive and temporally dynamic model.

  13. Multiple dipole modeling of spatio-temporal MEG (magnetoencephalogram) data

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.C. . Systems Engineering and Development Div. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA . Signal and Image Processing Inst.); Lewis, P.S. ); Leahy, R. . Signal and Image Processing Inst.); Singh, M. (University of Southern Californi

    1990-01-01

    An array of SQUID biomagentometers may be used to measure the spatio-temporal neuromagnetic field produced by the brain in response to a given sensory stimulus. A popular model for the neural activity that produces these fields is a set of current dipoles. We present here a common linear algebraic framework for three common spatio-temporal dipole models: moving and rotating dipoles, rotating dipoles with fixed location, and dipoles with fixed orientation and location. Our intent here is not to argue the merits of one model over another, but rather show how each model may be solved efficiently, and within the same framework as the others. In all cases, we assume that the location, orientation, and magnitude of the dipoles are unknown. We present the parameter estimation problem for these three models in a common framework, and show how, in each case, the problem may be decomposed into the estimation of the dipole locations using nonlinear minimization followed by linear estimation of the associated moment time series. Numerically efficient means of calculating the cost function are presented, and problems of model order selection and missing moments are also investigated. The methods described are demonstrated in a simulated application to a three dipole problem. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Mining Spatiotemporal Patterns of the Elder's Daily Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. R.; Chen, C. F.; Liu, M. E.; Tsai, S. J.; Son, N. T.; Kinh, L. V.

    2016-06-01

    With rapid developments in wearable device technology, a vast amount of spatiotemporal data, such as people's movement and physical activities, are generated. Information derived from the data reveals important knowledge that can contribute a long-term care and psychological assessment of the elders' living condition especially in long-term care institutions. This study aims to develop a method to investigate the spatial-temporal movement patterns of the elders with their outdoor trajectory information. To achieve the goal, GPS based location data of the elderly subjects from long-term care institutions are collected and analysed with geographic information system (GIS). A GIS statistical model is developed to mine the elderly subjects' spatiotemporal patterns with the location data and represent their daily movement pattern at particular time. The proposed method first finds the meaningful trajectory and extracts the frequent patterns from the time-stamp location data. Then, a density-based clustering method is used to identify the major moving range and the gather/stay hotspot in both spatial and temporal dimensions. The preliminary results indicate that the major moving area of the elderly people encompasses their dorm and has a short moving distance who often stay in the same site. Subjects' outdoor appearance are corresponded to their life routine. The results can be useful for understanding elders' social network construction, risky area identification and medical care monitoring.

  15. Cell Population Tracking and Lineage Construction with Spatiotemporal Context 1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Chen, Mei; Kanade, Takeo; Miller, Eric D.; Weiss, Lee E.; Campbell, Phil G.

    2008-01-01

    Automated visual-tracking of cell populations in vitro using phase contrast time-lapse microscopy enables quantitative, systematic and high-throughput measurements of cell behaviors. These measurements include the spatiotemporal quantification of cell migration, mitosis, apoptosis, and the construction of cell lineages. The combination of low signal-to-noise ratio of phase contrast microscopy images, high and varying densities of the cell cultures, topological complexities of cell shapes, and wide range of cell behaviors pose many challenges to existing tracking techniques. This paper presents a fully-automated multi-target tracking system that can efficiently cope with these challenges while simultaneously tracking and analyzing thousands of cells observed using time-lapse phase contrast microscopy. The system combines bottom-up and top-down image analysis by integrating multiple collaborative modules, which exploit a fast geometric active contour tracker in conjunction with adaptive interacting multiple models (IMM) motion filtering and spatiotemporal trajectory optimization. The system, which was tested using a variety of cell populations, achieved tracking accuracy in the range of 86.9%–92.5%. PMID:18656418

  16. Spatiotemporal Psychopathology II: How does a psychopathology of the brain's resting state look like? Spatiotemporal approach and the history of psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Psychopathology as the investigation and classification of experience, behavior and symptoms in psychiatric patients is an old discipline that ranges back to the end of the 19th century. Since then different approaches to psychopathology have been suggested. Recent investigations showing abnormalities in the brain on different levels raise the question how the gap between brain and psyche, between neural abnormalities and alteration in experience and behavior can be bridged. Historical approaches like descriptive (Jaspers) and structural (Minkoswki) psychopathology as well as the more current phenomenological psychopathology (Paarnas, Fuchs, Sass, Stanghellini) remain on the side of the psyche giving detailed description of the phenomenal level of experience while leaving open the link to the brain. In contrast, the recently introduced Research Domain Classification (RDoC) aims at explicitly linking brain and psyche by starting from so-called 'neuro-behavioral constructs'. How does Spatiotemporal Psychopathology, as demonstrated in the first paper on depression, stand in relation to these approaches? In a nutshell, Spatiotemporal Psychopathology aims to bridge the gap between brain and psyche. Specifically, as demonstrated in depression in the first paper, the focus is on the spatiotemporal features of the brain's intrinsic activity and how they are transformed into corresponding spatiotemporal features in experience on the phenomenal level and behavioral changes, which can well account for the symptoms in these patients. This second paper focuses on some of the theoretical background assumptions in Spatiotemporal Psychopathology by directly comparing it to descriptive, structural, and phenomenological psychopathology as well as to RDoC. PMID:26071797

  17. Microscale spatiotemporal dynamics during neocortical propagation of human focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Fabien B; Eskandar, Emad N; Cosgrove, G Rees; Madsen, Joseph R; Blum, Andrew S; Potter, N Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R; Cash, Sydney S; Truccolo, Wilson

    2015-11-15

    Some of the most clinically consequential aspects of focal epilepsy, e.g. loss of consciousness, arise from the generalization or propagation of seizures through local and large-scale neocortical networks. Yet, the dynamics of such neocortical propagation remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the microdynamics of focal seizure propagation in neocortical patches (4×4 mm) recorded via high-density microelectrode arrays (MEAs) implanted in people with pharmacologically resistant epilepsy. Our main findings are threefold: (1) a newly developed stage segmentation method, applied to local field potentials (LFPs) and multiunit activity (MUA), revealed a succession of discrete seizure stages, each lasting several seconds. These different stages showed characteristic evolutions in overall activity and spatial patterns, which were relatively consistent across seizures within each of the 5 patients studied. Interestingly, segmented seizure stages based on LFPs or MUA showed a dissociation of their spatiotemporal dynamics, likely reflecting different contributions of non-local synaptic inputs and local network activity. (2) As previously reported, some of the seizures showed a peak in MUA that happened several seconds after local seizure onset and slowly propagated across the MEA. However, other seizures had a more complex structure characterized by, for example, several MUA peaks, more consistent with the succession of discrete stages than the slow propagation of a simple wavefront of increased MUA. In both cases, nevertheless, seizures characterized by spike-wave discharges (SWDs, ~2-3 Hz) eventually evolved into patterns of phase-locked MUA and LFPs. (3) Individual SWDs or gamma oscillation cycles (25-60 Hz), characteristic of two different types of recorded seizures, tended to propagate with varying degrees of directionality, directions of propagation and speeds, depending on the identified seizure stage. However, no clear relationship was observed between the MUA

  18. Spatiotemporal dynamics of continuum neural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    We survey recent analytical approaches to studying the spatiotemporal dynamics of continuum neural fields. Neural fields model the large-scale dynamics of spatially structured biological neural networks in terms of nonlinear integrodifferential equations whose associated integral kernels represent the spatial distribution of neuronal synaptic connections. They provide an important example of spatially extended excitable systems with nonlocal interactions and exhibit a wide range of spatially coherent dynamics including traveling waves oscillations and Turing-like patterns.

  19. Spatiotemporal Patterns and Predictability of Cyberattacks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Xu, Shouhuai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    A relatively unexplored issue in cybersecurity science and engineering is whether there exist intrinsic patterns of cyberattacks. Conventional wisdom favors absence of such patterns due to the overwhelming complexity of the modern cyberspace. Surprisingly, through a detailed analysis of an extensive data set that records the time-dependent frequencies of attacks over a relatively wide range of consecutive IP addresses, we successfully uncover intrinsic spatiotemporal patterns underlying cyberattacks, where the term “spatio” refers to the IP address space. In particular, we focus on analyzing macroscopic properties of the attack traffic flows and identify two main patterns with distinct spatiotemporal characteristics: deterministic and stochastic. Strikingly, there are very few sets of major attackers committing almost all the attacks, since their attack “fingerprints” and target selection scheme can be unequivocally identified according to the very limited number of unique spatiotemporal characteristics, each of which only exists on a consecutive IP region and differs significantly from the others. We utilize a number of quantitative measures, including the flux-fluctuation law, the Markov state transition probability matrix, and predictability measures, to characterize the attack patterns in a comprehensive manner. A general finding is that the attack patterns possess high degrees of predictability, potentially paving the way to anticipating and, consequently, mitigating or even preventing large-scale cyberattacks using macroscopic approaches. PMID:25992837

  20. Spatiotemporal patterns and predictability of cyberattacks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Xu, Shouhuai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    A relatively unexplored issue in cybersecurity science and engineering is whether there exist intrinsic patterns of cyberattacks. Conventional wisdom favors absence of such patterns due to the overwhelming complexity of the modern cyberspace. Surprisingly, through a detailed analysis of an extensive data set that records the time-dependent frequencies of attacks over a relatively wide range of consecutive IP addresses, we successfully uncover intrinsic spatiotemporal patterns underlying cyberattacks, where the term "spatio" refers to the IP address space. In particular, we focus on analyzing macroscopic properties of the attack traffic flows and identify two main patterns with distinct spatiotemporal characteristics: deterministic and stochastic. Strikingly, there are very few sets of major attackers committing almost all the attacks, since their attack "fingerprints" and target selection scheme can be unequivocally identified according to the very limited number of unique spatiotemporal characteristics, each of which only exists on a consecutive IP region and differs significantly from the others. We utilize a number of quantitative measures, including the flux-fluctuation law, the Markov state transition probability matrix, and predictability measures, to characterize the attack patterns in a comprehensive manner. A general finding is that the attack patterns possess high degrees of predictability, potentially paving the way to anticipating and, consequently, mitigating or even preventing large-scale cyberattacks using macroscopic approaches. PMID:25992837

  1. Spatiotemporal coupling in dispersive nonlinear planar waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Andrew T.; Agrawal, Govind P.

    1995-12-01

    The multidimensional nonlinear Schrodinger equation governs the spatial and temporal evolution of an optical field inside a nonlinear dispersive medium. Although spatial (diffractive) and temporal (dispersive) effects can be studied independently in a linear medium, they become mutually coupled in a nonlinear medium. We present the results of numerical simulations showing this spatiotemporal coupling for ultrashort pulses propagating in dispersive Kerr media. We investigate how spatiotemporal coupling affects the behavior of the optical field in each of the four regimes defined by the type of group-velocity dispersion (normal or anomalous) and the type of nonlinearity (focusing or defocusing). We show that dispersion, through spatiotemporal coupling, can either enhance or suppress self-focusing and self-defocusing. Similarly, we demonstrate that diffraction can either enhance or suppress pulse compression or broadening. We also discuss how these effects can be controlled with optical phase modulation, such as that provided by a lens (spatial phase modulation) or frequency chirping (temporal phase modulation). Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

  2. Mining spatiotemporal co-occurrence patterns in solar datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, B.; Kempton, D.; Akkineni, V.; Angryk, R.; Pillai, K. G.

    2015-11-01

    We address the problem of mining spatiotemporal co-occurrence patterns (STCOPs) in solar datasets with extended polygon-based geometric representations. Specifically designed spatiotemporal indexing techniques are used in the mining of STCOPs. These include versions of two well-known spatiotemporal trajectory indexing techniques: the scalable and efficient trajectory index and Chebyshev polynomial indexing. We present a framework, STCOP-MINER, implementing a filter-and-refine STCOP mining algorithm, with the indexing techniques mentioned for efficiently performing data analysis.

  3. Size-dependent diffusion promotes the emergence of spatiotemporal patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lai; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Banerjee, Malay

    2014-07-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns, indicating the spatiotemporal variability of individual abundance, are a pronounced scenario in ecological interactions. Most of the existing models for spatiotemporal patterns treat species as homogeneous groups of individuals with average characteristics by ignoring intraspecific physiological variations at the individual level. Here we explore the impacts of size variation within species resulting from individual ontogeny, on the emergence of spatiotemporal patterns in a fully size-structured population model. We found that size dependency of animal's diffusivity greatly promotes the formation of spatiotemporal patterns, by creating regular spatiotemporal patterns out of temporal chaos. We also found that size-dependent diffusion can substitute large-amplitude base harmonics with spatiotemporal patterns with lower amplitude oscillations but with enriched harmonics. Finally, we found that the single-generation cycle is more likely to drive spatiotemporal patterns compared to predator-prey cycles, meaning that the mechanism of Hopf bifurcation might be more common than hitherto appreciated since the former cycle is more widespread than the latter in case of interacting populations. Due to the ubiquity of individual ontogeny in natural ecosystems we conclude that diffusion variability within populations is a significant driving force for the emergence of spatiotemporal patterns. Our results offer a perspective on self-organized phenomena, and pave a way to understand such phenomena in systems organized as complex ecological networks.

  4. Spatiotemporal Evolution of the Primary Glioblastoma Genome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkuk; Lee, In-Hee; Cho, Hee Jin; Park, Chul-Kee; Jung, Yang-Soon; Kim, Yanghee; Nam, So Hee; Kim, Byung Sup; Johnson, Mark D; Kong, Doo-Sik; Seol, Ho Jun; Lee, Jung-Il; Joo, Kyeung Min; Yoon, Yeup; Park, Woong-Yang; Lee, Jeongwu; Park, Peter J; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2015-09-14

    Tumor recurrence following treatment is the major cause of mortality for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. Thus, insights on the evolutionary process at recurrence are critical for improved patient care. Here, we describe our genomic analyses of the initial and recurrent tumor specimens from each of 38 GBM patients. A substantial divergence in the landscape of driver alterations was associated with distant appearance of a recurrent tumor from the initial tumor, suggesting that the genomic profile of the initial tumor can mislead targeted therapies for the distally recurred tumor. In addition, in contrast to IDH1-mutated gliomas, IDH1-wild-type primary GBMs rarely developed hypermutation following temozolomide (TMZ) treatment, indicating low risk for TMZ-induced hypermutation for these tumors under the standard regimen. PMID:26373279

  5. A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach for Learning Sparse Spatio-Temporal Decomposition of Multichannel EEG

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Chen, Zhe; Gao, Shangkai; Brown, Emery N.

    2011-01-01

    Multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) offers a non-invasive tool to explore spatio-temporal dynamics of brain activity. With EEG recordings consisting of multiple trials, traditional signal processing approaches that ignore inter-trial variability in the data may fail to accurately estimate the underlying spatio-temporal brain patterns. Moreover, precise characterization of such inter-trial variability per se can be of high scientific value in establishing the relationship between brain activity and behavior. In this paper, a statistical modeling framework is introduced for learning spatiotemporal decomposition of multiple-trial EEG data recorded under two contrasting experimental conditions. By modeling the variance of source signals as random variables varying across trials, the proposed two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model is able to capture inter-trial amplitude variability in the data in a sparse way where a parsimonious representation of the data can be obtained. A variational Bayesian (VB) algorithm is developed for statistical inference of the hierarchical model. The efficacy of the proposed modeling framework is validated with the analysis of both synthetic and real EEG data. In the simulation study we show that even at low signal-to-noise ratios our approach is able to recover with high precision the underlying spatiotemporal patterns and the evolution of source amplitude across trials; on two brain-computer interface (BCI) data sets we show that our VB algorithm can extract physiologically meaningful spatio-temporal patterns and make more accurate predictions than other two widely used algorithms: the common spatial patterns (CSP) algorithm and the Infomax algorithm for independent component analysis (ICA). The results demonstrate that our statistical modeling framework can serve as a powerful tool for extracting brain patterns, characterizing trial-to-trial brain dynamics, and decoding brain states by exploiting useful structures in the data. PMID

  6. Wide field fluorescent imaging of extracellular spatiotemporal potassium dynamics in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bazzigaluppi, Paolo; Dufour, Suzie; Carlen, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    Potassium homeostasis is fundamental for the physiological functioning of the brain. Increased [K(+)] in the extracellular fluid has a major impact on neuronal physiology and can lead to ictal events. Compromised regulation of extracellular [K(+)] is involved in generation of seizures in animal models and potentially also in humans. For this reason, the investigation of K(+) spatio-temporal dynamics is of fundamental importance for neuroscientists in the field of epilepsy and other related pathologies. To date, the majority of studies investigating changes in extracellular K(+) have been conducted using a micropipette filled with a K(+) sensitive solution. However, this approach presents a major limitation: the area of the measurement is circumscribed to the tip of the pipette and it is not possible to know the spatiotemporal distribution or origin of the focally measured K(+) signal. Here we propose a novel approach, based on wide field fluorescence, to measure extracellular K(+) dynamics in neural tissue. Recording the local field potential from the somatosensory cortex of the mouse, we compared responses obtained from a K(+)-sensitive microelectrode to the spatiotemporal increases in fluorescence of the fluorophore, Asante Potassium Green-2, in physiological conditions and during 4-AP induced ictal activity. We conclude that wide field imaging is a valuable and versatile tool to measure K(+) dynamics over a large area of the cerebral cortex and is capable of capturing fast dynamics such as during ictal events. Moreover, the present technique is potentially adaptable to address questions regarding spatiotemporal dynamics of other ionic species. PMID:25312775

  7. On Configuration Trajectory Formation in Spatiotemporal Profile for Reproducing Human Hand Reaching Movement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbin; Xiong, Caihua; Yue, Shigang

    2016-03-01

    Most functional reaching activities in daily living generally require a hand to reach the functional position in appropriate orientation with invariant spatiotemporal profile. Effectively reproducing such spatiotemporal feature of hand configuration trajectory in real time is essential to understand the human motor control and plan human-like motion on anthropomorphic robotic arm. However, there are no novel computational models in literature toward reproducing hand configuration-to-configuration movement in spatiotemporal profile. In response to the problem, this paper presents a computational framework for hand configuration trajectory formation based on hierarchical principle of human motor control. The composite potential field is constructed on special Euclidean Group to induce time-varying configuration toward target. The dynamic behavior of hand is described by a second-order kinematic model to produce the external representation of high-level motor control. The multivariate regression relation between intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates of arm, is statistically analyzed for determining the arm orientation in real time, which produces the external representation of low-level motor control. The proposed method is demonstrated in an anthropomorphic arm by performing several highly curved self-reaching movements. The generated configuration trajectories are compared with actual human movement in spatiotemporal profile to validate the proposed method. PMID:25850100

  8. Temporally diverse firing patterns in olfactory receptor neurons underlie spatiotemporal neural codes for odors

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Baranidharan; Joseph, Joby; Tang, Jeff; Stopfer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Odorants are represented as spatiotemporal patterns of spikes in neurons of the antennal lobe (AL, insects) and olfactory bulb (OB, vertebrates). These response patterns have been thought to arise primarily from interactions within the AL/OB, an idea supported, in part, by the assumption that olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) respond to odorants with simple firing patterns. However, activating the AL directly with simple pulses of current evoked responses in AL neurons that were much less diverse, complex, and enduring than responses elicited by odorants. Similarly, models of the AL driven by simplistic inputs generated relatively simple output. How then are dynamic neural codes for odors generated? Consistent with recent results from several other species, our recordings from locust ORNs showed a great diversity of temporal structure. Further, we found that, viewed as a population, many response features of ORNs were remarkably similar to those observed within the AL. Using a set of computational models constrained by our electrophysiological recordings, we found that the temporal heterogeneity of responses of ORNs critically underlies the generation of spatiotemporal odor codes in the AL. A test then performed in vivo confirmed that, given temporally homogeneous input, the AL cannot create diverse spatiotemporal patterns on its own; however, given temporally heterogeneous input, the AL generated realistic firing patterns. Finally, given the temporally structured input provided by ORNs, we clarified several separate, additional contributions of the AL to olfactory information processing. Thus, our results demonstrate the origin and subsequent reformatting of spatiotemporal neural codes for odors. PMID:20147528

  9. Enzyme-Responsive Delivery of Multiple Proteins with Spatiotemporal Control

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Suwei; Nih, Lina; Carmichael, S. Thomas; Lu, Yunfeng; Segura, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The growth of tissues and organs is regulated by orchestrated signals from biomolecules such as enzymes and growth factors. The ability to deliver signal molecules in response to particular biological events (e.g., enzyme expression and activation) holds great promise towards tissue healing and regeneration. The current delivery vehicles mainly rely on hydrolysable scaffolds and thin films of protein-containing polymers, which cannot be programmed to respond to biological signals. We report herein an injectable delivery platform based on enantiomeric protein nanocapsules, which can deliver multiple proteins with spatiotemporal control in response to the tissue proteases secreted during wound healing. Exemplified by stroke and diabetic wound healing in mice, sequential delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) greatly enhances tissue revascularization and vessel maturation, providing effective delivery vehicles for tissue engineering and reparative medicine. PMID:25962336

  10. Anchoring of FRET Sensors—A Requirement for Spatiotemporal Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Elena V.; Figueroa, Ricardo A.; Gatsinzi, Tom; Hallberg, Einar; Iverfeldt, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    FRET biosensors have become a routine tool for investigating mechanisms and components of cell signaling. Strategies for improving them for particular applications are continuously sought. One important aspect to consider when designing FRET probes is the dynamic distribution and propagation of signals within living cells. We have addressed this issue by directly comparing an anchored (taFS) to a non-anchored (naFS) cleavable FRET sensor. We chose a microtubule-associated protein tau as an anchor, as microtubules are abundant throughout the cytosol of cells. We show that tau-anchored FRET sensors are concentrated at the cytoskeleton and enriched in the neurite-like processes of cells, providing high intensity of the total signal. In addition, anchoring limits the diffusion of the sensor, enabling spatiotemporally resolved monitoring of subcellular variations in enzyme activity. Thus, anchoring is an important aspect to consider when designing FRET sensors for deeper understanding of cell signaling. PMID:27196902

  11. Anchoring of FRET Sensors-A Requirement for Spatiotemporal Resolution.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena V; Figueroa, Ricardo A; Gatsinzi, Tom; Hallberg, Einar; Iverfeldt, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    FRET biosensors have become a routine tool for investigating mechanisms and components of cell signaling. Strategies for improving them for particular applications are continuously sought. One important aspect to consider when designing FRET probes is the dynamic distribution and propagation of signals within living cells. We have addressed this issue by directly comparing an anchored (taFS) to a non-anchored (naFS) cleavable FRET sensor. We chose a microtubule-associated protein tau as an anchor, as microtubules are abundant throughout the cytosol of cells. We show that tau-anchored FRET sensors are concentrated at the cytoskeleton and enriched in the neurite-like processes of cells, providing high intensity of the total signal. In addition, anchoring limits the diffusion of the sensor, enabling spatiotemporally resolved monitoring of subcellular variations in enzyme activity. Thus, anchoring is an important aspect to consider when designing FRET sensors for deeper understanding of cell signaling. PMID:27196902

  12. Spatiotemporal regulation of Src and its substrates at invadosomes

    PubMed Central

    Boateng, Lindsy R.; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, substantial progress has been made in understanding how Src family kinases regulate the formation and function of invadosomes. Invadosomes are organized actin-rich structures that contain an F-actin core surrounded by an adhesive ring and mediate invasive migration. Src kinases orchestrate, either directly or indirectly, each phase of the invadosome life cycle including invadosome assembly, maturation and matrix degradation and disassembly. Complex arrays of Src effector proteins are involved at different stages of invadosome maturation and their spatiotemporal activity must be tightly regulated to achieve effective invasive migration. In this review, we highlight some recent progress and the challenges of understanding how Src is regulated temporally and spatially to orchestrate the dynamics of invadosomes and mediate cell invasion. PMID:22823952

  13. Demographic variability, vaccination, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of rotavirus epidemics.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Virginia E; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Steiner, Claudia; Panozzo, Catherine A; Alonso, Wladimir J; Miller, Mark A; Glass, Roger I; Glasser, John W; Parashar, Umesh D; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2009-07-17

    Historically, annual rotavirus activity in the United States has started in the southwest in late fall and ended in the northeast 3 months later; this trend has diminished in recent years. Traveling waves of infection or local environmental drivers cannot account for these patterns. A transmission model calibrated against epidemiological data shows that spatiotemporal variation in birth rate can explain the timing of rotavirus epidemics. The recent large-scale introduction of rotavirus vaccination provides a natural experiment to further test the impact of susceptible recruitment on disease dynamics. The model predicts a pattern of reduced and lagged epidemics postvaccination, closely matching the observed dynamics. Armed with this validated model, we explore the relative importance of direct and indirect protection, a key issue in determining the worldwide benefits of vaccination. PMID:19608910

  14. Spatiotemporal Features of Retinal Waves Instruct the Wiring of the Visual Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, David A.; Feller, Marla B.

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated spontaneous activity is present in different sensory systems during early stages of development. This activity is thought to play a critical role in the development of sensory representations before the maturation of sensory experience. In the visual system, the mechanisms by which spatiotemporal properties of retinal spontaneous activity, called retinal waves, drive developmental events has been well studied. Recent advancements in pharmacological, genetic, and optogenetic manipulations have provided further understanding of the contribution of specific spatiotemporal properties of retinal waves to eye-specific segregation and retinotopic refinement of retinofugal projections. Here we review some of the recent progress in understanding the role of retinal waves in the early stages of visual system development, prior to the maturation of vision. PMID:27507937

  15. High-Fidelity Reproduction of Spatiotemporal Visual Signals for Retinal Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Lauren H.; Hottowy, Pawel; Weiner, Geoffrey A.; Dabrowski, Władys1aw; Litke, Alan M.; Chichilnisky, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Natural vision relies on spatiotemporal patterns of electrical activity in the retina. We investigated the feasibility of veridically reproducing such patterns with epiretinal prostheses. Multielectrode recordings and visual and electrical stimulation were performed on populations of identified ganglion cells in isolated peripheral primate retina. Electrical stimulation patterns were designed to reproduce recorded waves of activity elicited by a moving visual stimulus. Electrical responses in populations of ON parasol cells exhibited high spatial and temporal precision, matching or exceeding the precision of visual responses measured in the same cells. Computational readout of electrical and visual responses produced similar estimates of stimulus speed, confirming the fidelity of electrical stimulation for biologically relevant visual signals. These results suggest the possibility of producing rich spatiotemporal patterns of retinal activity with a prosthesis and that temporal multiplexing may aid in reproducing the neural code of the retina. PMID:24910077

  16. Spatiotemporal Coding of Individual Chemicals by the Gustatory System

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Sam; Campillo Rodriguez, Chelsey; Sun, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Four of the five major sensory systems (vision, olfaction, somatosensation, and audition) are thought to use different but partially overlapping sets of neurons to form unique representations of vast numbers of stimuli. The only exception is gustation, which is thought to represent only small numbers of basic taste categories. However, using new methods for delivering tastant chemicals and making electrophysiological recordings from the tractable gustatory system of the moth Manduca sexta, we found chemical-specific information is as follows: (1) initially encoded in the population of gustatory receptor neurons as broadly distributed spatiotemporal patterns of activity; (2) dramatically integrated and temporally transformed as it propagates to monosynaptically connected second-order neurons; and (3) observed in tastant-specific behavior. Our results are consistent with an emerging view of the gustatory system: rather than constructing basic taste categories, it uses a spatiotemporal population code to generate unique neural representations of individual tastant chemicals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our results provide a new view of taste processing. Using a new, relatively simple model system and a new set of techniques to deliver taste stimuli and to examine gustatory receptor neurons and their immediate followers, we found no evidence for labeled line connectivity, or basic taste categories such as sweet, salty, bitter, and sour. Rather, individual tastant chemicals are represented as patterns of spiking activity distributed across populations of receptor neurons. These representations are transformed substantially as multiple types of receptor neurons converge upon follower neurons, leading to a combinatorial coding format that uniquely, rapidly, and efficiently represents individual taste chemicals. Finally, we found that the information content of these neurons can drive tastant-specific behavior. PMID:26338341

  17. Actomyosin contractility spatiotemporally regulates actin network dynamics in migrating cells.

    PubMed

    Okeyo, Kennedy Omondi; Adachi, Taiji; Sunaga, Junko; Hojo, Masaki

    2009-11-13

    Coupling interactions among mechanical and biochemical factors are important for the realization of various cellular processes that determine cell migration. Although F-actin network dynamics has been the focus of many studies, it is not yet clear how mechanical forces generated by actomyosin contractility spatiotemporally regulate this fundamental aspect of cell migration. In this study, using a combination of fluorescent speckle microscopy and particle imaging velocimetry techniques, we perturbed the actomyosin system and examined quantitatively the consequence of actomyosin contractility on F-actin network flow and deformation in the lamellipodia of actively migrating fish keratocytes. F-actin flow fields were characterized by retrograde flow at the front and anterograde flow at the back of the lamellipodia, and the two flows merged to form a convergence zone of reduced flow intensity. Interestingly, activating or inhibiting actomyosin contractility altered network flow intensity and convergence, suggesting that network dynamics is directly regulated by actomyosin contractility. Moreover, quantitative analysis of F-actin network deformation revealed that the deformation was significantly negative and predominant in the direction of cell migration. Furthermore, perturbation experiments revealed that the deformation was a function of actomyosin contractility. Based on these results, we suggest that the actin cytoskeletal structure is a mechanically self-regulating system, and we propose an elaborate pathway for the spatiotemporal self-regulation of the actin cytoskeletal structure during cell migration. In the proposed pathway, mechanical forces generated by actomyosin interactions are considered central to the realization of the various mechanochemical processes that determine cell motility. PMID:19665125

  18. Spatial and Spatiotemporal Data Mining: Recent Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhar, Shashi; Vatsavai, Raju; Celik, Mete

    2008-01-01

    Explosive growth in geospatial data and the emergence of new spatial technologies emphasize the need for automated discovery of spatial knowledge. Spatial data mining is the process of discovering interesting and previously unknown, but potentially useful patterns from large spatial databases. The complexity of spatial data and intrinsic spatial relationships limits the usefulness of conventional data mining techniques for extracting spatial patterns. In this chapter we explore the emerging field of spatial data mining, focusing on four major topics: prediction and classification, outlier detection, co-location mining, and clustering. Spatiotemporal data mining is also briefly discussed.

  19. Asymmetric spatiotemporal evolution of prebiotic homochirality.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2007-06-01

    The role of asymmetry on the evolution of prebiotic homochirality is investigated in the context of autocatalytic polymerization reaction networks. A model featuring enantiometric cross-inhibition and chiral bias is used to study the diffusion equations controlling the spatiotemporal development of left and right-handed domains. Bounds on the chiral bias are obtained based on present-day constraints on the emergence of life on early Earth. The viability of biasing mechanisms such as weak neutral currents and circularly polarized UV light is discussed. The results can be applied to any hypothetical planetary platform. PMID:17131085

  20. Deconstructing spatiotemporal chaos using local symbolic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pethel, Shawn D; Corron, Ned J; Bollt, Erik

    2007-11-23

    We find that the global symbolic dynamics of a diffusively coupled map lattice is well approximated by a very small local model for weak to moderate coupling strengths. A local symbolic model is a truncation of the full symbolic model to one that considers only a single element and a few neighbors. Using interval analysis, we give rigorous results for a range of coupling strengths and different local model widths. Examples are presented of extracting a local symbolic model from data and of controlling spatiotemporal chaos. PMID:18233220

  1. Spatiotemporal evolution of bacterial biofilm colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilking, James; Koehler, Stephan; Sinha, Naveen; Seminara, Agnese; Brenner, Michael; Weitz, David

    2014-03-01

    Many bacteria on earth live in surface-attached communities known as biofilms. Gene expression in a biofilm is typically varied, resulting in a variety of phenotypes within a single film. These phenotypes play a critical role in biofilm physiology and development. We use time-resolved, wide-field fluorescence microscopy to image triple-labeled fluorescent Bacillus Subtilis colonies grown on agar to determine in a non-invasive fashion the evolving phenotypes. We infer their transition rates from the resulting spatiotemporal maps of gene expression. Moreover, we correlate these transition rates with local measurements of nutrient concentration to determine the influence of extracellular signals on gene expression.

  2. Subwavelength ultrasonic circulator based on spatiotemporal modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Romain; Sounas, Dimitrios L.; Alù, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Enabling efficient nonreciprocal acoustic devices is challenging, yet very desirable for a variety of applications, including acoustic imaging, underwater communications, energy concentration and harvesting, signal processing, and noise control. We discuss the theory and design of a fully linear compact acoustic circulator based on spatiotemporal modulation of the effective acoustic index, providing a compact and practical way to realize large sound circulation at any desired frequency. Our proposal enables tunable isolation levels of over 40 dB, with insertion losses as low as 0.3 dB, in a noise-free, integrable, frequency scalable device whose total size does not exceed λ /6 .

  3. Modeling spatio-temporal field evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borštnik Bračič, A.; Grabec, I.; Govekar, E.

    2009-06-01

    Prediction of spatio-temporal field evolution is based on the extraction of a physical law from joint experimental data. This extraction is usually described by a set of differential equations. If the only source of information is a field record, a method of field generators based on nonparametric modeling by conditional average can successfully replace differential equations. In this article we apply the method of field generators to a two-dimensional chaotic field record that describes the asynchronous motion of high-amplitude striations. We show how to choose the model structure in order to optimize the quality of the prediction process.

  4. Microbial communities acclimate to recurring changes in soil redox potential status

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Silver, Whendee; Thompson, Andrew; Firestone, Mary K.

    2010-12-03

    Rapidly fluctuating environmental conditions can significantly stress organisms, particularly when fluctuations cross thresholds of normal physiological tolerance. Redox potential fluctuations are common in humid tropical soils, and microbial community acclimation or avoidance strategies for survival will in turn shape microbial community diversity and biogeochemistry. To assess the extent to which indigenous bacterial and archaeal communities are adapted to changing in redox potential, soils were incubated under static anoxic, static oxic or fluctuating redox potential conditions, and the standing (DNA-based) and active (RNA-based) communities and biogeochemistry were determined. Fluctuating redox potential conditions permitted simultaneous CO{sub 2} respiration, methanogenesis, N{sub 2}O production and iron reduction. Exposure to static anaerobic conditions significantly changed community composition, while 4-day redox potential fluctuations did not. Using RNA: DNA ratios as a measure of activity, 285 taxa were more active under fluctuating than static conditions, compared with three taxa that were more active under static compared with fluctuating conditions. These data suggest an indigenous microbialcommunity adapted to fluctuating redox potential.

  5. Asynchronous Visualization of Spatiotemporal Information for Multiple Moving Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huadong

    2013-01-01

    In the modern information age, the quantity and complexity of spatiotemporal data is increasing both rapidly and continuously. Sensor systems with multiple feeds that gather multidimensional spatiotemporal data will result in information clusters and overload, as well as a high cognitive load for users of these systems. To meet future…

  6. Spatiotemporal neuromodulation therapies engaging muscle synergies improve motor control after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Gandar, Jerome; Musienko, Pavel; Capogrosso, Marco; Baud, Laetitia; Le Goff, Camille G; Barraud, Quentin; Pavlova, Natalia; Dominici, Nadia; Minev, Ivan R; Asboth, Leonie; Hirsch, Arthur; Duis, Simone; Kreider, Julie; Mortera, Andrea; Haverbeck, Oliver; Kraus, Silvio; Schmitz, Felix; DiGiovanna, Jack; van den Brand, Rubia; Bloch, Jocelyne; Detemple, Peter; Lacour, Stéphanie P; Bézard, Erwan; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-02-01

    Electrical neuromodulation of lumbar segments improves motor control after spinal cord injury in animal models and humans. However, the physiological principles underlying the effect of this intervention remain poorly understood, which has limited the therapeutic approach to continuous stimulation applied to restricted spinal cord locations. Here we developed stimulation protocols that reproduce the natural dynamics of motoneuron activation during locomotion. For this, we computed the spatiotemporal activation pattern of muscle synergies during locomotion in healthy rats. Computer simulations identified optimal electrode locations to target each synergy through the recruitment of proprioceptive feedback circuits. This framework steered the design of spatially selective spinal implants and real-time control software that modulate extensor and flexor synergies with precise temporal resolution. Spatiotemporal neuromodulation therapies improved gait quality, weight-bearing capacity, endurance and skilled locomotion in several rodent models of spinal cord injury. These new concepts are directly translatable to strategies to improve motor control in humans. PMID:26779815

  7. Transient spatiotemporal chaos in the Morris-Lecar neuronal ring network

    SciTech Connect

    Keplinger, Keegan Wackerbauer, Renate

    2014-03-15

    Transient behavior is thought to play an integral role in brain functionality. Numerical simulations of the firing activity of diffusively coupled, excitable Morris-Lecar neurons reveal transient spatiotemporal chaos in the parameter regime below the saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation point. The neighborhood of the chaotic saddle is reached through perturbations of the rest state, in which few initially active neurons at an effective spatial distance can initiate spatiotemporal chaos. The system escapes from the neighborhood of the chaotic saddle to either the rest state or to a state of pulse propagation. The lifetime of the chaotic transients is manipulated in a statistical sense through a singular application of a synchronous perturbation to a group of neurons.

  8. Spatiotemporal structure of visual receptive fields in macaque superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Churan, Jan; Guitton, Daniel; Pack, Christopher C

    2012-11-01

    Saccades are useful for directing the high-acuity fovea to visual targets that are of behavioral relevance. The selection of visual targets for eye movements involves the superior colliculus (SC), where many neurons respond to visual stimuli. Many of these neurons are also activated before and during saccades of specific directions and amplitudes. Although the role of the SC in controlling eye movements has been thoroughly examined, far less is known about the nature of the visual responses in this area. We have, therefore, recorded from neurons in the intermediate layers of the macaque SC, while using a sparse-noise mapping procedure to obtain a detailed characterization of the spatiotemporal structure of visual receptive fields. We find that SC responses to flashed visual stimuli start roughly 50 ms after the onset of the stimulus and last for on average ~70 ms. About 50% of these neurons are strongly suppressed by visual stimuli flashed at certain locations flanking the excitatory center, and the spatiotemporal pattern of suppression exerts a predictable influence on the timing of saccades. This suppression may, therefore, contribute to the filtering of distractor stimuli during target selection. We also find that saccades affect the processing of visual stimuli by SC neurons in a manner that is quite similar to the saccadic suppression and postsaccadic enhancement that has been observed in the cortex and in perception. However, in contrast to what has been observed in the cortex, decreased visual sensitivity was generally associated with increased firing rates, while increased sensitivity was associated with decreased firing rates. Overall, these results suggest that the processing of visual stimuli by SC receptive fields can influence oculomotor behavior and that oculomotor signals originating in the SC can shape perisaccadic visual perception. PMID:22933722

  9. Spatio-temporal clustering of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Vega Orozco, C.; Kanevski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have shown that wildfires in Portugal presenthigh temporal as well as high spatial variability (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). The identification and characterization of spatio-temporal clusters contributes to a comprehensivecharacterization of the fire regime and to improve the efficiency of fire prevention and combat activities. The main goalsin this studyare: (i) to detect the spatio-temporal clusters of burned area; and, (ii) to characterize these clusters along with the role of human and environmental factors. The data were supplied by the National Forest Authority(AFN, 2011) and comprises: (a)the Portuguese Rural Fire Database, PRFD, (Pereira et al., 2011) for the 1980-2007period; and, (b) the national mapping burned areas between 1990 and 2009. In this work, in order to complement the more common cluster analysis algorithms, an alternative approach based onscan statistics and on the permutation modelwas used. This statistical methodallows the detection of local excess events and to test if such an excess can reasonably have occurred by chance.Results obtained for different simulations performed for different spatial and temporal windows are presented, compared and interpreted.The influence of several fire factors such as (climate, vegetation type, etc.) is also assessed. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005:"Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal".Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 AFN, 2011: AutoridadeFlorestalNacional (National Forest Authority). Available at http://www.afn.min-agricultura.pt/portal.

  10. Spatiotemporal-atlas-based dynamic speech imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Maojing; Woo, Jonghye; Liang, Zhi-Pei; Sutton, Bradley P.

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (DS-MRI) has been recognized as a promising method for visualizing articulatory motion of speech in scientific research and clinical applications. However, characterization of the gestural and acoustical properties of the vocal tract remains a challenging task for DS-MRI because it requires: 1) reconstructing high-quality spatiotemporal images by incorporating stronger prior knowledge; and 2) quantitatively interpreting the reconstructed images that contain great motion variability. This work presents a novel imaging method that simultaneously meets both requirements by integrating a spatiotemporal atlas into a Partial Separability (PS) model-based imaging framework. Through the use of an atlas-driven sparsity constraint, this method is capable of capturing high-quality articulatory dynamics at an imaging speed of 102 frames per second and a spatial resolution of 2.2 × 2.2 mm2. Moreover, the proposed method enables quantitative characterization of variability of speech motion, compared to the generic motion pattern across all subjects, through the spatial residual components.

  11. The spatiotemporal dynamics of scene gist recognition.

    PubMed

    Larson, Adam M; Freeman, Tyler E; Ringer, Ryan V; Loschky, Lester C

    2014-04-01

    Viewers can rapidly extract a holistic semantic representation of a real-world scene within a single eye fixation, an ability called recognizing the gist of a scene, and operationally defined here as recognizing an image's basic-level scene category. However, it is unknown how scene gist recognition unfolds over both time and space-within a fixation and across the visual field. Thus, in 3 experiments, the current study investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of basic-level scene categorization from central vision to peripheral vision over the time course of the critical first fixation on a novel scene. The method used a window/scotoma paradigm in which images were briefly presented and processing times were varied using visual masking. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that during the first 100 ms of processing, there was an advantage for processing the scene category from central vision, with the relative contributions of peripheral vision increasing thereafter. Experiment 3 tested whether this pattern could be explained by spatiotemporal changes in selective attention. The results showed that manipulating the probability of information being presented centrally or peripherally selectively maintained or eliminated the early central vision advantage. Across the 3 experiments, the results are consistent with a zoom-out hypothesis, in which, during the first fixation on a scene, gist extraction extends from central vision to peripheral vision as covert attention expands outward. PMID:24245502

  12. Time-delay autosynchronization of the spatiotemporal dynamics in resonant tunneling diodes.

    PubMed

    Unkelbach, J; Amann, A; Just, W; Schöll, E

    2003-08-01

    The double barrier resonant tunneling diode exhibits complex spatiotemporal patterns including low-dimensional chaos when operated in an active external circuit. We demonstrate how autosynchronization by time-delayed feedback control can be used to select and stabilize specific current density patterns in a noninvasive way. We compare the efficiency of different control schemes involving feedback in either local spatial or global degrees of freedom. The numerically obtained Floquet exponents are explained by analytical results from linear stability analysis. PMID:14525081

  13. A variational Bayes spatiotemporal model for electromagnetic brain mapping.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, F S; Babul, A; Moiseev, A; Virji-Babul, N; Beg, M F

    2014-03-01

    In this article, we present a new variational Bayes approach for solving the neuroelectromagnetic inverse problem arising in studies involving electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). This high-dimensional spatiotemporal estimation problem involves the recovery of time-varying neural activity at a large number of locations within the brain, from electromagnetic signals recorded at a relatively small number of external locations on or near the scalp. Framing this problem within the context of spatial variable selection for an underdetermined functional linear model, we propose a spatial mixture formulation where the profile of electrical activity within the brain is represented through location-specific spike-and-slab priors based on a spatial logistic specification. The prior specification accommodates spatial clustering in brain activation, while also allowing for the inclusion of auxiliary information derived from alternative imaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We develop a variational Bayes approach for computing estimates of neural source activity, and incorporate a nonparametric bootstrap for interval estimation. The proposed methodology is compared with several alternative approaches through simulation studies, and is applied to the analysis of a multimodal neuroimaging study examining the neural response to face perception using EEG, MEG, and fMRI. PMID:24354514

  14. Data acceptance for automated leukocyte tracking through segmentation of spatiotemporal images.

    PubMed

    Ray, Nilanjan; Acton, Scott T

    2005-10-01

    A crucial task in inflammation research and inflammatory drug validation is leukocyte velocity data collection from microscopic video imagery. Since manual methods are bias-prone and extremely time consuming, automated tracking methods are required to compute cell velocities. However, an automated tracking method is of little practical use unless it is accompanied by a mechanism to validate the tracker output. In this paper, we propose a validation technique that accepts or rejects the output of automated tracking methods. The proposed method first generates a spatiotemporal image from the cell locations given by a tracking method; then, it segments the spatiotemporal image to detect the presence or absence of a leukocyte. For segmenting the spatiotemporal images, we employ an edge-direction sensitive nonlinear filter followed by an active contour based technique. The proposed nonlinear filter, the maximum absolute average directional derivative (MAADD), first computes the magnitude of the mean directional derivative over an oriented line segment and then chooses the maximum of all such values within a range of orientations of the line segment. The proposed active contour segmentation is obtained via growing contours controlled by a two-dimensional force field, which is constructed by imposing a Dirichlet boundary condition on the gradient vector flow (GVF) field equations. The performance of the proposed validation method is reported here for the outputs of three different tracking techniques: the method was successful in 97% of the trials using manual tracking, in 94% using correlation tracking and in 93% using active contour tracking. PMID:16235656

  15. Spatio-temporal changes of photosynthesis in carnivorous plants in response to prey capture, retention and digestion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Carnivorous plants have evolved modified leaves into the traps that assist in nutrient uptake from captured prey. It is known that the traps of carnivorous plants usually have lower photosynthetic rates than assimilation leaves as a result of adaptation to carnivory. However, a few recent studies have indicated that photosynthesis and respiration undergo spatio-temporal changes during prey capture and retention, especially in the genera with active trapping mechanisms. This study describes the spatio-temporal changes of effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in photosystem II (ΦPSII) in response to ant-derived formic acid during its capture and digestion. PMID:20523127

  16. A 1000-year sediment record of recurring hypoxia off the Mississippi River: The potential role of terrestrially-derived organic matter inputs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, P.W.; Campbell, P.L.; Osterman, L.E.; Poore, R.Z.

    2008-01-01

    A suite of inorganic and organic geochemical tracers and a low-oxygen tolerant benthic faunal index ('PEB') were measured in a 14C-dated 2+??m long gravity core collected on the Louisiana shelf adjacent to the Mississippi River delta to study potential millennium-scale low-oxygen events. Periodic down-core excursions in the PEB index throughout the core suggest recurring, natural bottom water low-oxygen events that extend back ??? 1000??14C years. Select trace element and biomarker distributions in these same sediments were examined as potential tracers of past hypoxic events and to help distinguish between marine versus terrestrial processes involved in organic carbon production. In discrete sediment horizons where the PEB index was elevated, redox-sensitive vanadium concentrations were consistently depleted, excursions in sedimentary ??13C suggest periodic, preferential terrestrial inputs, and the concentrations of two sterol biomarkers (sitosterol and ??-stigmasterol) also showed concurrent enrichments. If the PEB index successfully records ??? 1000??14C year-scale low-oxygen events, then the distribution of these geochemical tracers can be interpreted to corroborate the view that naturally occurring low-oxygen bottom water conditions have existed on the inner Louisiana continental shelf, not only in recent times, but also over at least the last 1000??14C years. These data support the general hypothesis that historic, low-oxygen bottom water conditions on the Louisiana shelf are likely tied to periods of increased fluvial discharge and associated wetland export in the absence of modern river levees. Enhanced river discharge and associated material export would both stimulate enhanced in situ organic carbon production and foster water column stratification. Such periodic elevated river flows during the last millennium can be linked to climate fluctuations and tropical storm activity. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 33 CFR 165.118 - Safety Zones; recurring annual events held in Coast Guard Sector Boston Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zones; recurring annual events held in Coast Guard Sector Boston Captain of the Port Zone. 165.118 Section 165.118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  18. A Flexible Spatio-Temporal Model for Air Pollution with Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Covariates

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Johan; Szpiro, Adam A; Sampson, Paul D; Oron, Assaf P; Richards, Mark; Larson, Tim V; Sheppard, Lianne

    2013-01-01

    The development of models that provide accurate spatio-temporal predictions of ambient air pollution at small spatial scales is of great importance for the assessment of potential health effects of air pollution. Here we present a spatio-temporal framework that predicts ambient air pollution by combining data from several different monitoring networks and deterministic air pollution model(s) with geographic information system (GIS) covariates. The model presented in this paper has been implemented in an R package, SpatioTemporal, available on CRAN. The model is used by the EPA funded Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) to produce estimates of ambient air pollution; MESA Air uses the estimates to investigate the relationship between chronic exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular disease. In this paper we use the model to predict long-term average concentrations of NOx in the Los Angeles area during a ten year period. Predictions are based on measurements from the EPA Air Quality System, MESA Air specific monitoring, and output from a source dispersion model for traffic related air pollution (Caline3QHCR). Accuracy in predicting long-term average concentrations is evaluated using an elaborate cross-validation setup that accounts for a sparse spatio-temporal sampling pattern in the data, and adjusts for temporal effects. The predictive ability of the model is good with cross-validated R2 of approximately 0.7 at subject sites. Replacing four geographic covariate indicators of traffic density with the Caline3QHCR dispersion model output resulted in very similar prediction accuracy from a more parsimonious and more interpretable model. Adding traffic-related geographic covariates to the model that included Caline3QHCR did not further improve the prediction accuracy. PMID:25264424

  19. A Flexible Spatio-Temporal Model for Air Pollution with Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Covariates.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Johan; Szpiro, Adam A; Sampson, Paul D; Oron, Assaf P; Richards, Mark; Larson, Tim V; Sheppard, Lianne

    2014-09-01

    The development of models that provide accurate spatio-temporal predictions of ambient air pollution at small spatial scales is of great importance for the assessment of potential health effects of air pollution. Here we present a spatio-temporal framework that predicts ambient air pollution by combining data from several different monitoring networks and deterministic air pollution model(s) with geographic information system (GIS) covariates. The model presented in this paper has been implemented in an R package, SpatioTemporal, available on CRAN. The model is used by the EPA funded Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) to produce estimates of ambient air pollution; MESA Air uses the estimates to investigate the relationship between chronic exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular disease. In this paper we use the model to predict long-term average concentrations of NOx in the Los Angeles area during a ten year period. Predictions are based on measurements from the EPA Air Quality System, MESA Air specific monitoring, and output from a source dispersion model for traffic related air pollution (Caline3QHCR). Accuracy in predicting long-term average concentrations is evaluated using an elaborate cross-validation setup that accounts for a sparse spatio-temporal sampling pattern in the data, and adjusts for temporal effects. The predictive ability of the model is good with cross-validated R (2) of approximately 0.7 at subject sites. Replacing four geographic covariate indicators of traffic density with the Caline3QHCR dispersion model output resulted in very similar prediction accuracy from a more parsimonious and more interpretable model. Adding traffic-related geographic covariates to the model that included Caline3QHCR did not further improve the prediction accuracy. PMID:25264424

  20. Design strategies of monitoring systems for viaducts: an analysis of recurring problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeot, Renzo; Zambusi, P.

    1994-05-01

    The Italian experience in the field of `stand alone' monitoring systems for viaducts shows that the design of said systems, as well as that of the single components utilized, must satisfy complex and often unusual operating conditions and, at times, yield to compromises of various types. This is necessitated by the fact that the electronic devices used are expensive and the characteristics of high resistance to the elements and long term reliability they must satisfy. Therefore, it is often preferable to limit the system performance envelope in the interest of ease of maintenance characteristics, intrinsic safety, simplicity of installation, resistance to the most aggressive atmospheric agents, imperviousness to outside disturbances, etc. One of the most onerous aspects the design engineers must take into account comprises the interaction, between those work site activities specifically connected with the installation of the monitoring system and those that merely relate to the construction of the structure. The difference in tradition in terms of the scope of monitoring strategies between the designer of measuring and telecontrol systems and the design engineers of the structure in question must not be forgotten.

  1. A persistently recurring peri-urethral soft tissue lesion of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Leunen, M; Goossens, A; Bourgain, C; De Sutter, P; Michielsen, D; Amy, J J

    2005-01-01

    Various mesenchymal lesions, some of which have only recently been characterized, may affect the vulva. Because of their apparently shared origin from vulvovaginal mesenchyme, these lesions can resemble one another superficially and can be challenging diagnostically. Clinically, benign lesions and tumor-like conditions may mimic a malignant process because of hypercellularity, mitotic activity, and rapid growth. We report on a 84-year-old diabetic and hypertensive woman who had previously undergone skinning vulvectomy for lichen planus and an embolectomy of the left femoral artery. The patient presented with a rapidly growing vulvar mass. The biopsy showed spindle cell proliferation in a loose myxoid stroma with granulation tissue and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Based on histology and immunohistochemistry, the initial diagnosis was that of a benign lesion. In view of the persistent recurrence of the lesion and the absence of metastatic spread, we conclude that the lesion has a low-grade malignant potential and suggest the diagnosis of florid cellular reactive pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation. PMID:15807313

  2. Bayesian modeling and analysis for gradients in spatiotemporal processes.

    PubMed

    Quick, Harrison; Banerjee, Sudipto; Carlin, Bradley P

    2015-09-01

    Stochastic process models are widely employed for analyzing spatiotemporal datasets in various scientific disciplines including, but not limited to, environmental monitoring, ecological systems, forestry, hydrology, meteorology, and public health. After inferring on a spatiotemporal process for a given dataset, inferential interest may turn to estimating rates of change, or gradients, over space and time. This manuscript develops fully model-based inference on spatiotemporal gradients under continuous space, continuous time settings. Our contribution is to offer, within a flexible spatiotemporal process model setting, a framework to estimate arbitrary directional gradients over space at any given timepoint, temporal derivatives at any given spatial location and, finally, mixed spatiotemporal gradients that reflect rapid change in spatial gradients over time and vice-versa. We achieve such inference without compromising on rich and flexible spatiotemporal process models and use nonseparable covariance structures. We illustrate our methodology using a simulated data example and subsequently apply it to a dataset of daily PM2.5 concentrations in California, where the spatiotemporal gradient process reveals the effects of California's unique topography on pollution and detects the aftermath of a devastating series of wildfires. PMID:25898989

  3. Characterizing configurations of fire ignition points through spatiotemporal point processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas, C.; Costafreda-Aumedes, S.; Vega-Garcia, C.

    2014-04-01

    Human-caused forest fires are usually regarded as unpredictable but often exhibit trends towards clustering in certain locations and periods. Characterizing such configurations is crucial for understanding spatiotemporal fire dynamics and implementing preventive actions. Our objectives were to analyse the spatiotemporal point configuration and to test for spatiotemporal interaction. We characterized the spatiotemporal structure of 984 fire ignition points in a study area of Galicia, Spain, during 2007-2011 by the K-Ripley's function. Our results suggest the presence of spatiotemporal structures for time lags of less than two years and ignition point distances in the range 0-12 km. Ignition centre points at time lags of less than 100 days are aggregated for any inter-event distance. This cluster structure loses strength as the time lag increases, and at time lags of more than 365 days this cluster structure is not significant for any lag distance. Our results also suggest spatiotemporal interdependencies at time lags of less than 100 days and inter-event distances of less than 10 km. At time lags of up to 365 days spatiotemporal components are independent for any point distance. These results suggest that risk conditions occur locally and are short-lived in this study area.

  4. Research on spatio-temporal ontology based on description logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongqi; Ding, Zhimin; Zhao, Zhui; Ouyang, Fucheng

    2008-10-01

    DL, short for Description Logic, is aimed at getting a balance between describing ability and reasoning complexity. Users can adopt DL to write clear and formalized concept description for domain model, which makes ontology description possess well-defined syntax and semantics and helps to resolve the problem of spatio-temporal reasoning based on ontology. This paper studies on basic theory of DL and relationship between DL and OWL at first. By analyzing spatio-temporal concepts and relationship of spatio-temporal GIS, the purpose of this paper is adopting ontology language based on DL to express spatio-temporal ontology, and employing suitable ontology-building tool to build spatio-temporal ontology. With regard to existing spatio-temporal ontology based on first-order predicate logic, we need to transform it into spatio-temporal ontology based on DL so as to make the best of existing research fruits. This paper also makes a research on translating relationships between DL and first-order predicate logic.

  5. Bayesian Modeling and Analysis for Gradients in Spatiotemporal Processes

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Harrison; Banerjee, Sudipto; Carlin, Bradley P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stochastic process models are widely employed for analyzing spatiotemporal datasets in various scientific disciplines including, but not limited to, environmental monitoring, ecological systems, forestry, hydrology, meteorology and public health. After inferring on a spatiotemporal process for a given dataset, inferential interest may turn to estimating rates of change, or gradients, over space and time. This manuscript develops fully model-based inference on spatiotemporal gradients under continuous space, continuous time settings. Our contribution is to offer, within a exible spatiotemporal process model setting, a framework to estimate arbitrary directional gradients over space at any given timepoint, temporal derivatives at any given spatial location and, finally, mixed spatiotemporal gradients that reflect rapid change in spatial gradients over time and vice-versa. We achieve such inference without compromising on rich and exible spatiotemporal process models and use nonseparable covariance structures. We illustrate our methodology using a simulated data example and subsequently apply it to a dataset of daily PM2.5 concentrations in California, where the spatiotemporal gradient process reveals the effects of California’s unique topography on pollution and detects the aftermath of a devastating series of wildfires. PMID:25898989

  6. Neural Sequence Generation Using Spatiotemporal Patterns of Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Jonathan; Kopell, Nancy; Gardner, Timothy; Markowitz, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    Stereotyped sequences of neural activity are thought to underlie reproducible behaviors and cognitive processes ranging from memory recall to arm movement. One of the most prominent theoretical models of neural sequence generation is the synfire chain, in which pulses of synchronized spiking activity propagate robustly along a chain of cells connected by highly redundant feedforward excitation. But recent experimental observations in the avian song production pathway during song generation have shown excitatory activity interacting strongly with the firing patterns of inhibitory neurons, suggesting a process of sequence generation more complex than feedforward excitation. Here we propose a model of sequence generation inspired by these observations in which a pulse travels along a spatially recurrent excitatory chain, passing repeatedly through zones of local feedback inhibition. In this model, synchrony and robust timing are maintained not through redundant excitatory connections, but rather through the interaction between the pulse and the spatiotemporal pattern of inhibition that it creates as it circulates the network. These results suggest that spatially and temporally structured inhibition may play a key role in sequence generation. PMID:26536029

  7. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Cortical Representations during and after Stimulus Presentation.

    PubMed

    van de Nieuwenhuijzen, Marieke E; van den Borne, Eva W P; Jensen, Ole; van Gerven, Marcel A J

    2016-01-01

    Visual perception is a spatiotemporally complex process. In this study, we investigated cortical dynamics during and after stimulus presentation. We observed that visual category information related to the difference between faces and objects became apparent in the occipital lobe after 63 ms. Within the next 110 ms, activation spread out to include the temporal lobe before returning to residing mainly in the occipital lobe again. After stimulus offset, a peak in information was observed, comparable to the peak after stimulus onset. Moreover, similar processes, albeit not identical, seemed to underlie both peaks. Information about the categorical identity of the stimulus remained present until 677 ms after stimulus offset, during which period the stimulus had to be retained in working memory. Activation patterns initially resembled those observed during stimulus presentation. After about 200 ms, however, this representation changed and class-specific activity became more equally distributed over the four lobes. These results show that, although there are common processes underlying stimulus representation both during and after stimulus presentation, these representations change depending on the specific stage of perception and maintenance. PMID:27242453

  8. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Cortical Representations during and after Stimulus Presentation

    PubMed Central

    van de Nieuwenhuijzen, Marieke E.; van den Borne, Eva W. P.; Jensen, Ole; van Gerven, Marcel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Visual perception is a spatiotemporally complex process. In this study, we investigated cortical dynamics during and after stimulus presentation. We observed that visual category information related to the difference between faces and objects became apparent in the occipital lobe after 63 ms. Within the next 110 ms, activation spread out to include the temporal lobe before returning to residing mainly in the occipital lobe again. After stimulus offset, a peak in information was observed, comparable to the peak after stimulus onset. Moreover, similar processes, albeit not identical, seemed to underlie both peaks. Information about the categorical identity of the stimulus remained present until 677 ms after stimulus offset, during which period the stimulus had to be retained in working memory. Activation patterns initially resembled those observed during stimulus presentation. After about 200 ms, however, this representation changed and class-specific activity became more equally distributed over the four lobes. These results show that, although there are common processes underlying stimulus representation both during and after stimulus presentation, these representations change depending on the specific stage of perception and maintenance. PMID:27242453

  9. Neural Sequence Generation Using Spatiotemporal Patterns of Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jonathan; Kopell, Nancy; Gardner, Timothy; Markowitz, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Stereotyped sequences of neural activity are thought to underlie reproducible behaviors and cognitive processes ranging from memory recall to arm movement. One of the most prominent theoretical models of neural sequence generation is the synfire chain, in which pulses of synchronized spiking activity propagate robustly along a chain of cells connected by highly redundant feedforward excitation. But recent experimental observations in the avian song production pathway during song generation have shown excitatory activity interacting strongly with the firing patterns of inhibitory neurons, suggesting a process of sequence generation more complex than feedforward excitation. Here we propose a model of sequence generation inspired by these observations in which a pulse travels along a spatially recurrent excitatory chain, passing repeatedly through zones of local feedback inhibition. In this model, synchrony and robust timing are maintained not through redundant excitatory connections, but rather through the interaction between the pulse and the spatiotemporal pattern of inhibition that it creates as it circulates the network. These results suggest that spatially and temporally structured inhibition may play a key role in sequence generation. PMID:26536029

  10. Spatiotemporal dynamics of counterpropagating Airy beams

    PubMed Central

    Wiersma, Noémi; Marsal, Nicolas; Sciamanna, Marc; Wolfersberger, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    We analyse theoretically the spatiotemporal dynamics of two incoherent counterpropagating Airy beams interacting in a photorefractive crystal under focusing conditions. For a large enough nonlinearity strength the interaction between the two Airy beams leads to light-induced waveguiding. The stability of the waveguide is determined by the crystal length, the nonlinearity strength and the beam’s intensities and is improved when comparing to the situation using Gaussian beams. We further identify the threshold above which the waveguide is no longer static but evolves dynamically either time-periodically or even chaotically. Above the stability threshold, each Airy-soliton moves erratically between privileged output positions that correspond to the spatial positions of the lobes of the counterpropagating Airy beam. These results suggest new ways of creating dynamically varying waveguides, optical logic gates and chaos-based computing. PMID:26315530

  11. Associative memory with spatiotemporal chaos control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushibe, Masanori; Liu, Yun; Ohtsubo, Junji

    1996-05-01

    Control of spatiotemporal chaos in a neural network with discrete time and continuous state variables is investigated. The chaos control is performed with the knowledge of only a part of the target information in the memory patterns. The success rate for the pattern associations and the dependence of the search time on the sampling number in the proposed chaos neural network are studied. By the introduction of the reinforcement factor in the learning process, the recognition rate of the network can be much enhanced. Random and regular samplings of the pattern for the control are tested and the successful results of the associations are demonstrated. The chaotic behavior and recalling ability of the system are evaluated based on the analysis of the Lyapunov spectrum of the network.

  12. Secure communication based on spatiotemporal chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hai-Peng; Bai, Chao

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to secure communication based on spatiotemporal chaos. At the transmitter end, the state variables of the coupled map lattice system are divided into two groups: one is used as the key to encrypt the plaintext in the N-shift encryption function, and the other is used to mix with the output of the N-shift function to further confuse the information to transmit. At the receiver end, the receiver lattices are driven by the received signal to synchronize with the transmitter lattices and an inverse procedure of the encoding is conducted to decode the information. Numerical simulation and experiment based on the TI TMS320C6713 Digital Signal Processor (DSP) show the feasibility and the validity of the proposed scheme. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61172070) and the Funds from the Science and Technology Innovation Team of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013CKT-04).

  13. Spatiotemporal dynamics of counterpropagating Airy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, Noémi; Marsal, Nicolas; Sciamanna, Marc; Wolfersberger, Delphine

    2015-08-01

    We analyse theoretically the spatiotemporal dynamics of two incoherent counterpropagating Airy beams interacting in a photorefractive crystal under focusing conditions. For a large enough nonlinearity strength the interaction between the two Airy beams leads to light-induced waveguiding. The stability of the waveguide is determined by the crystal length, the nonlinearity strength and the beam’s intensities and is improved when comparing to the situation using Gaussian beams. We further identify the threshold above which the waveguide is no longer static but evolves dynamically either time-periodically or even chaotically. Above the stability threshold, each Airy-soliton moves erratically between privileged output positions that correspond to the spatial positions of the lobes of the counterpropagating Airy beam. These results suggest new ways of creating dynamically varying waveguides, optical logic gates and chaos-based computing.

  14. Concerning immune synapses: a spatiotemporal timeline

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Carrion, Alvaro; Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The term “immune synapse” was originally coined to highlight the similarities between the synaptic contacts between neurons in the central nervous system and the cognate, antigen-dependent interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Here, instead of offering a comprehensive molecular catalogue of molecules involved in the establishment, stabilization, function, and resolution of the immune synapse, we follow a spatiotemporal timeline that begins at the initiation of exploratory contacts between the T cell and the antigen-presenting cell and ends with the termination of the contact. We focus on specific aspects that distinguish synapses established by cytotoxic and T helper cells as well as unresolved issues and controversies regarding the formation of this intercellular structure. PMID:27092248

  15. Dynamics of Turing Patterns under Spatiotemporal Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüdiger, S.; Míguez, D. G.; Muñuzuri, A. P.; Sagués, F.; Casademunt, J.

    2003-03-01

    We study, both theoretically and experimentally, the dynamical response of Turing patterns to a spatiotemporal forcing in the form of a traveling-wave modulation of a control parameter. We show that from strictly spatial resonance, it is possible to induce new, generic dynamical behaviors, including temporally modulated traveling waves and localized traveling solitonlike solutions. The latter make contact with the soliton solutions of Coullet [

    Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 56, 724 (1986)
    ] and generalize them. The stability diagram for the different propagating modes in the Lengyel-Epstein model is determined numerically. Direct observations of the predicted solutions in experiments carried out with light modulations in the photosensitive chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction are also reported.

  16. Cortical spatiotemporal dimensionality reduction for visual grouping.

    PubMed

    Cocci, Giacomo; Barbieri, Davide; Citti, Giovanna; Sarti, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    The visual systems of many mammals, including humans, are able to integrate the geometric information of visual stimuli and perform cognitive tasks at the first stages of the cortical processing. This is thought to be the result of a combination of mechanisms, which include feature extraction at the single cell level and geometric processing by means of cell connectivity. We present a geometric model of such connectivities in the space of detected features associated with spatiotemporal visual stimuli and show how they can be used to obtain low-level object segmentation. The main idea is to define a spectral clustering procedure with anisotropic affinities over data sets consisting of embeddings of the visual stimuli into higher-dimensional spaces. Neural plausibility of the proposed arguments will be discussed. PMID:25826020

  17. Concerning immune synapses: a spatiotemporal timeline.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Carrion, Alvaro; Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The term "immune synapse" was originally coined to highlight the similarities between the synaptic contacts between neurons in the central nervous system and the cognate, antigen-dependent interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Here, instead of offering a comprehensive molecular catalogue of molecules involved in the establishment, stabilization, function, and resolution of the immune synapse, we follow a spatiotemporal timeline that begins at the initiation of exploratory contacts between the T cell and the antigen-presenting cell and ends with the termination of the contact. We focus on specific aspects that distinguish synapses established by cytotoxic and T helper cells as well as unresolved issues and controversies regarding the formation of this intercellular structure. PMID:27092248

  18. Balm mint extract (Lo-701) for topical treatment of recurring herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Koytchev, R; Alken, R G; Dundarov, S

    1999-10-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was carried out with the aim of proving efficacy of standardized balm mint cream [active ingredient: 1% Lo-701--dried extract from Melissa officinalis L. leaves (70:1)] for the therapy of herpes simplex labialis. Sixty six patients with a history of recurrent herpes labialis (at least four episodes per year) in one center were treated topically; 34 of them with verum and 32 with placebo. The cream had to be smeared on the affected area four times daily over five days. A combined symptom score of the values for complaints, size of affected area and blisters at day 2 of therapy was formed as the primary target parameter. There was a significant difference in the values of the primary target parameter between both treatment groups: verum 4.03 +/- 0.33 (3.0); placebo 4.94 +/- 0.40 (5.0); values given are mean +/- SEM (median) of the symptoms score on day 2 of therapy. The tested formulation is effective for the treatment of herpes simplex labialis. The significant difference in the combined symptom score on the second day of treatment is of particular importance having in mind that the complaints in patients suffering from herpes labialis are usually most intensive at that time. In addition to the shortening of the healing period, the prevention of a spreading of the infection and the rapid effect on typical symptoms of herpes like itching, tingling, burning, stabbing, swelling, tautness and erythema, the balm mint cream has a further advantage. The different mechanism of action of the balm mint extract rules out the development of resistance of the herpes virus. Some indication exists that the intervals between the periods with herpes might be prolonged with balm mint cream treatment. PMID:10589440

  19. Spatiotemporal analysis of snow trends in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Roland; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    This study presents the spatiotemporal analysis of Austrian snow observations. A set of consistent and reliable long-term time series of snow depth on a daily scale from selected meteorological sites across Austria is used. The time series were collected by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the Hydrographical Central Bureau of Austria (HZB). The data cover a time period from the late nineteenth century until today. In the first part of the study spatiotemporal characteristics of seasonal snow depth observations were investigated by the method of principal component analysis (PCA). Furthermore, the spatial patterns of variability have been used for a regionalisation, identifying regions with similar conditions during the base period 1961 to 2010. The results show a clear separation of four major regions including various sub-regions. However, the regionalisation was limited due to sparse data coverage. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistical test had been used to assess the significance of trends in snow indices, e.g. snow depth, maximum snow depth, snow cover duration, at monthly and seasonal time scales. In order to remove the influence of the lag-1 serial correlation from the snow data, the trend-free pre-whitening approach was applied. In the monthly and seasonal time series during the period 1961-2010, negative trends in snow indices were significant at the 95% confidence level primarily at stations in the Western and Southern part of Austria. In addition, the correlation between snow observations and gridded HISTALP winter temperature and precipitation fields was investigated. The analysis has shown an increased temperature and decreased precipitation during the 1990s, yielding a pronounced reduction in snow depth and duration. As a matter of fact, the results indicate major shifts of the snow depth and snow cover duration around the 1970s and especially the 1990s, which are predominantly responsible for trends.

  20. Spatiotemporal complexity of the aortic sinus vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Brandon; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2014-07-01

    The aortic sinus vortex is a classical flow structure of significant importance to aortic valve dynamics and the initiation and progression of calcific aortic valve disease. We characterize the spatiotemporal characteristics of aortic sinus vortex dynamics in relation to the viscosity of blood analog solution as well as heart rate. High-resolution time-resolved (2 kHz) particle image velocimetry was conducted to capture 2D particle streak videos and 2D instantaneous velocity and streamlines along the sinus midplane using a physiological but rigid aorta model fitted with a porcine bioprosthetic heart valve. Blood analog fluids used include a water-glycerin mixture and saline to elucidate the sensitivity of vortex dynamics to viscosity. Experiments were conducted to record 10 heart beats for each combination of blood analog and heart rate condition. Results show that the topological characteristics of the velocity field vary in timescales as revealed using time bin-averaged vectors and corresponding instantaneous streamlines. There exist small timescale vortices and a large timescale main vortex. A key flow structure observed is the counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus adjacent to the base (lower half) of the leaflet. The spatiotemporal complexity of vortex dynamics is shown to be profoundly influenced by strong leaflet flutter during systole with a peak frequency of 200 Hz and peak amplitude of 4 mm observed in the saline case. While fluid viscosity influences the length and timescales as well as the introduction of leaflet flutter, heart rate influences the formation of counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus. Higher heart rates are shown to reduce the strength of the counter vortex that can greatly influence the directionality and strength of shear stresses along the base of the leaflet. This study demonstrates the impact of heart rate and blood analog viscosity on aortic sinus hemodynamics.

  1. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T. L.

    2016-01-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  2. Spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding.

    PubMed

    Chung, Susana T L

    2016-04-01

    Crowding between adjacent letters has been investigated primarily as a spatial effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of letter crowding. Specifically, we examined the systematic changes in the degradation effects in letter identification performance when adjacent letters were presented with a temporal asynchrony, as a function of letter separation and between the fovea and the periphery. We measured proportion-correct performance for identifying the middle target letter in strings of three lowercase letters at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field, for a range of center-to-center letter separations and a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the target and flanking letters (positive SOAs: target preceded flankers). As expected, the accuracy for identifying the target letters reduces with decreases in letter separation. This crowding effect shows a strong dependency on SOAs, such that crowding is maximal between 0 and ∼100 ms (depending on conditions) and diminishes for larger SOAs (positive or negative). Maximal crowding does not require the target and flanking letters to physically coexist for the entire presentation duration. Most importantly, crowding can be minimized even for closely spaced letters if there is a large temporal asynchrony between the target and flankers. The reliance of letter identification performance on SOAs and how it changes with letter separations imply that the crowding effect can be traded between space and time. Our findings are consistent with the notion that crowding should be considered as a spatio-temporal, and not simply a spatial, effect. PMID:27088895

  3. A physiologically-based spatiotemporal model of fMRI hemodynamic responses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Jackie; Drysdale, Peter; Robinson, Peter

    2006-03-01

    A 3D cerebrovascular model is developed to describe the spatiotemporal Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) response. Modelling spatial effects is particularly important as technology improves, shrinking image voxels and thereby increasing voxel interdependence. Specifically, poroelastic theory, originally developed in geophysics, is used to model the brain tissue and vasculature as a porous continuum. The model yields equations describing conservation of mass, momentum, and deoxyhemoglobin, plus the effect of neuronal activity on blood flow. The equations reproduce existing, non-spatial, hemodynamic models in the relevant limit. Imposition of continuity of flow between adjacent points enables potential investigation of spatial phenomena such as `blood steal' which has been proposed to account for negative BOLD signals abutting sites of positive BOLD responses. This model will enable future study of spatiotemporal relationships between stimuli and experimental fMRI BOLD responses.

  4. Computer vision profiling of neurite outgrowth dynamics reveals spatiotemporal modularity of Rho GTPase signaling.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Ludovico; Lefort, Riwal; Smith, Kevin; Benmansour, Fethallah; Gonzalez, German; Barillari, Caterina; Rinn, Bernd; Fleuret, Francois; Fua, Pascal; Pertz, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) control the cytoskeletal dynamics that power neurite outgrowth. This process consists of dynamic neurite initiation, elongation, retraction, and branching cycles that are likely to be regulated by specific spatiotemporal signaling networks, which cannot be resolved with static, steady-state assays. We present NeuriteTracker, a computer-vision approach to automatically segment and track neuronal morphodynamics in time-lapse datasets. Feature extraction then quantifies dynamic neurite outgrowth phenotypes. We identify a set of stereotypic neurite outgrowth morphodynamic behaviors in a cultured neuronal cell system. Systematic RNA interference perturbation of a Rho GTPase interactome consisting of 219 proteins reveals a limited set of morphodynamic phenotypes. As proof of concept, we show that loss of function of two distinct RhoA-specific GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) leads to opposite neurite outgrowth phenotypes. Imaging of RhoA activation dynamics indicates that both GAPs regulate different spatiotemporal Rho GTPase pools, with distinct functions. Our results provide a starting point to dissect spatiotemporal Rho GTPase signaling networks that regulate neurite outgrowth. PMID:26728857

  5. Spatiotemporal dynamics of neuronal population response in the primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Douglas; Rangan, Aaditya V; McLaughlin, David W; Cai, David

    2013-06-01

    One of the fundamental questions in system neuroscience is how the brain encodes external stimuli in the early sensory cortex. It has been found in experiments that even some simple sensory stimuli can activate large populations of neurons. It is believed that information can be encoded in the spatiotemporal profile of these collective neuronal responses. Here, we use a large-scale computational model of the primary visual cortex (V1) to study the population responses in V1 as observed in experiments in which monkeys performed visual detection tasks. We show that our model can capture very well spatiotemporal activities measured by voltage-sensitive-dye-based optical imaging in V1 of the awake state. In our model, the properties of horizontal long-range connections with NMDA conductance play an important role in the correlated population responses and have strong implications for spatiotemporal coding of neuronal populations. Our computational modeling approach allows us to reveal intrinsic cortical dynamics, separating them from those statistical effects arising from averaging procedures in experiment. For example, in experiments, it was shown that there was a spatially antagonistic center-surround structure in optimal weights in signal detection theory, which was believed to underlie the efficiency of population coding. However, our study shows that this feature is an artifact of data processing. PMID:23696666

  6. Computer vision profiling of neurite outgrowth dynamics reveals spatiotemporal modularity of Rho GTPase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Ludovico; Lefort, Riwal; Smith, Kevin; Benmansour, Fethallah; Gonzalez, German; Barillari, Caterina; Rinn, Bernd; Fleuret, Francois; Fua, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) control the cytoskeletal dynamics that power neurite outgrowth. This process consists of dynamic neurite initiation, elongation, retraction, and branching cycles that are likely to be regulated by specific spatiotemporal signaling networks, which cannot be resolved with static, steady-state assays. We present NeuriteTracker, a computer-vision approach to automatically segment and track neuronal morphodynamics in time-lapse datasets. Feature extraction then quantifies dynamic neurite outgrowth phenotypes. We identify a set of stereotypic neurite outgrowth morphodynamic behaviors in a cultured neuronal cell system. Systematic RNA interference perturbation of a Rho GTPase interactome consisting of 219 proteins reveals a limited set of morphodynamic phenotypes. As proof of concept, we show that loss of function of two distinct RhoA-specific GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) leads to opposite neurite outgrowth phenotypes. Imaging of RhoA activation dynamics indicates that both GAPs regulate different spatiotemporal Rho GTPase pools, with distinct functions. Our results provide a starting point to dissect spatiotemporal Rho GTPase signaling networks that regulate neurite outgrowth. PMID:26728857

  7. Paving the way for new research strategies in mental disorders. First part: the recurring crisis of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    López-Ibor, Juan J; López-Ibor, María-Inés

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatry is going through a deep crisis, both as a scientific discipline as a medical speciality. In the present paper we consider in length what we consider to be the three aspects that could explain the situation: the recurring disappointment in classification; the persistence of dualistic perspectives in research; and third, the continuing of a localizacionism inadequate to explain normal and pathological behaviour. Psychiatry lacks a definition of mental disorder that covers all situations, there are difficulties in drawing a precise distinction between normality and psychopathology, and the majority of these “diagnostic” categories are not validated by biological criteria. Furthermore, there is still a debate on the nature of the symptoms of mental disorders, a confusion classification and diagnosis and a preoccupation with the growing inflation of diagnostic categories. Dualism is at the core of psychopathology, simply because Cartesian dualism led to the development of modern science, but the price paid includes the split-up of mental and physical phenomena and illnesses and of psychiatry and the rest of medicine. Localizationism, that is, the approach to brain function considering that particular pychological functions are carried out by particular brain areas or centers, helps to understand many clinical and psychological phenomena, but have largely fild in explaining the nature of most mental disorders. In a second part of this article we provide some strategies that could help to go beyond the present impasse. PMID:23440534

  8. RWD domain: a recurring module in kinetochore architecture shown by a Ctf19-Mcm21 complex structure

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitzberger, Florian; Harrison, Stephen C

    2012-04-30

    The proteins Ctf19, Okp1, Mcm21 and Ame1 are the components of COMA, a subassembly of budding-yeast kinetochores. We have determined the crystal structure of a conserved COMA subcomplex - the Ctf19 - Mcm21 heterodimer - from Kluyveromyces lactis. Both proteins contain 'double-RWD' domains, which together form a Y-shaped framework with flexible N-terminal extensions. The kinetochore proteins Csm1, Spc24 and Spc25 have related single RWD domains, and Ctf19 and Mcm21 associate with pseudo-twofold symmetry analogous to that in the Csm1 homodimer and the Spc24-Spc25 heterodimer. The double-RWD domain core of the Ctf19-Mcm21 heterodimer is sufficient for association with Okp1-Ame1; the less conserved N-terminal regions may interact with components of a more extensive 'CTF19 complex'. Our structure shows the RWD domain to be a recurring module of kinetochore architecture that may be present in other kinetochore substructures. Like many eukaryotic molecular machines, kinetochores may have evolved from simpler assemblies by multiplication of a few ancestral modules.

  9. Controlling spatiotemporal chaos in one- and two-dimensional coupled logistic map lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Astakhov, V.V.; Anishchenko, V.S.; Strelkova, G.I.; Shabunin, A.V.

    1996-06-01

    A method of control of spatiotemporal chaos in lattices of coupled maps is proposed in this work. Forms of spatiotemporal perturbations of a system parameter are analytically determined for one- and two-dimensional logistic map lattices with different kinds of coupling to stabilize chosen spatiotemporal states previously unstable. The results are illustrated by numerical simulation. Controlled transition from the regime of spatiotemporal chaos to the previously chosen regular spatiotemporal patterns is demonstrated. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Spatio-Temporal Clustering of Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, I.; Pilz, J.

    2009-04-01

    Pakistan has much diversity in seasonal variation of different locations. Some areas are in desserts and remain very hot and waterless, for example coastal areas are situated along the Arabian Sea and have very warm season and a little rainfall. Some areas are covered with mountains, have very low temperature and heavy rainfall; for instance Karakoram ranges. The most important variables that have an impact on the climate are temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed and elevation. Furthermore, it is hard to find homogeneous regions in Pakistan with respect to climate variation. Identification of homogeneous regions in Pakistan can be useful in many aspects. It can be helpful for prediction of the climate in the sub-regions and for optimizing the number of monitoring sites. In the earlier literature no one tried to identify homogeneous regions of Pakistan with respect to climate variation. There are only a few papers about spatio-temporal clustering of monitoring network. Steinhaus (1956) presented the well-known K-means clustering method. It can identify a predefined number of clusters by iteratively assigning centriods to clusters based. Castro et al. (1997) developed a genetic heuristic algorithm to solve medoids based clustering. Their method is based on genetic recombination upon random assorting recombination. The suggested method is appropriate for clustering the attributes which have genetic characteristics. Sap and Awan (2005) presented a robust weighted kernel K-means algorithm incorporating spatial constraints for clustering climate data. The proposed algorithm can effectively handle noise, outliers and auto-correlation in the spatial data, for effective and efficient data analysis by exploring patterns and structures in the data. Soltani and Modarres (2006) used hierarchical and divisive cluster analysis to categorize patterns of rainfall in Iran. They only considered rainfall at twenty-eight monitoring sites and concluded that eight clusters

  11. Transient Spatiotemporal Chaos in a Synaptically Coupled Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafranceschina, Jacopo; Wackerbauer, Renate

    2014-03-01

    Spatiotemporal chaos is transient in a diffusively coupled Morris-Lecar neural network. This study shows that the addition of synaptic coupling in the ring network reduces the average lifetime of spatiotemporal chaos for small to intermediate coupling strength and almost all numbers of synapses. For large coupling strength, close to the threshold of excitation, the average lifetime increases beyond the value for only diffusive coupling, and the collapse to the rest state dominates over the collapse to a traveling pulse state. The regime of spatiotemporal chaos is characterized by a slightly increasing Lyaponov exponent and degree of phase coherence as the number of synaptic links increases. The presence of transient spatiotemporal chaos in a network of coupled neurons and the associated chaotic saddle provides a possibility for switching between metastable states observed in information processing and brain function. This research is supported by the University of Alaska Fairbanks.

  12. Spatiotemporal Directional Number Transitional Graph for Dynamic Texture Recognition.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Adín Ramírez; Chae, Oksam

    2015-10-01

    Spatiotemporal image descriptors are gaining attention in the image research community for better representation of dynamic textures. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic-micro-texture descriptor, i.e., spatiotemporal directional number transitional graph (DNG), which describes both the spatial structure and motion of each local neighborhood by capturing the direction of natural flow in the temporal domain. We use the structure of the local neighborhood, given by its principal directions, and compute the transition of such directions between frames. Moreover, we present the statistics of the direction transitions in a transitional graph, which acts as a signature for a given spatiotemporal region in the dynamic texture. Furthermore, we create a sequence descriptor by dividing the spatiotemporal volume into several regions, computing a transitional graph for each of them, and represent the sequence as a set of graphs. Our results validate the robustness of the proposed descriptor in different scenarios for expression recognition and dynamic texture analysis. PMID:26340258

  13. A LANGUAGE FOR MODULAR SPATIO-TEMPORAL SIMULATION (R824766)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creating an effective environment for collaborative spatio-temporal model development will require computational systems that provide support for the user in three key areas: (1) Support for modular, hierarchical model construction and archiving/linking of simulation modules; (2)...

  14. Spatio-temporal microseismicity clustering in the Cretan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Dirk; Meier, Thomas; Rische, Martina; Bohnhoff, Marco; Harjes, Hans-Peter

    2006-09-01

    Spatio-temporal clustering of microseismicity in the central forearc of the Hellenic Subduction Zone in the area of Crete is investigated. Data for this study were gathered by temporary short period networks which were installed on the islands of Crete and Gavdos between 1996 and 2004. The similarity of waveforms is quantified systematically to identify clusters of microseismicity. Waveform similarities are calculated using an adaptive time window containing both the P- and S-wave onsets. The cluster detection is performed by applying a single linkage approach. Clusters are found in the interplate seismicity as well as in the intraplate seismicity of the continental crust in the region of the transtensional Ptolemy structure. The majority of the clusters are off the southern coast of Crete, in a region of elevated intraplate microseismic activity within the Aegean plate. Clusters in the Gavdos region are located at depths compatible with the plate interface while cluster activity in the region of the Ptolemy trench is distributed along a nearly vertical structure throughout the crust extending down to the plate interface. Most clusters show swarm-like behaviour with seismic activity confined to only a few hours or days, without a dominant earthquake and with a power law distribution of the interevent times. For the largest cluster, precise relocations of the events using travel time differences of P- and S-waves derived from waveform cross correlations reveal migration of the hypocenters. This cluster is located in the region of the Ptolemy trench and migration occurs along the strike of the trench at ˜ 500 m/day. Relocated hypocenters as well as subtle differences in the waveforms suggest an offset between the hypocenters and thus the activation of distinct patches on the rupture surface. The observed microseismicity patterns may be related to fluids being transported along the plate interface and escaping towards the surface in zones of crustal weakness (Ptolemy

  15. Spatiotemporal stochastic resonance and its consequences in neural model systems.

    PubMed

    Balazsi, Gabor; Kish, Laszlo B.; Moss, Frank E.

    2001-09-01

    The realization of spatiotemporal stochastic resonance is studied in a two-dimensional FitzHugh-Nagumo system, and in a one-dimensional system of integrate-and-fire neurons. We show that spatiotemporal stochastic resonance occurs in these neural model systems, independent of the method of modeling. Moreover, the ways of realization are analogous in the two model systems. The biological implications and open questions are discussed. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779493

  16. Propagation of partially coherent pulsed beams in the spatiotemporal domain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-gang; Lin, Qiang; Chen, Hong; Zhu, Shi-yao

    2003-05-01

    A generalized model to describe the spatiotemporal partially coherent pulsed beams is presented. The corresponding propagation formula is derived by using the partially coherent light theory. Based on this formula, we obtain a nonstationary generalized ABCD law (which illustrates the transformation of optical beams or pulses passing through media) to describe the spatiotemporal behavior of partially coherent Gaussian pulsed beams. The physical meaning of such generalized pulsed beams is discussed. An example to illustrate the application of this law is given. PMID:12786302

  17. Faster P300 Classifier Training Using Spatiotemporal Beamforming.

    PubMed

    Wittevrongel, Benjamin; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2016-05-01

    The linearly-constrained minimum-variance (LCMV) beamformer is traditionally used as a spatial filter for source localization, but here we consider its spatiotemporal extension for P300 classification. We compare two variants and show that the spatiotemporal LCMV beamformer is at par with state-of-the-art P300 classifiers, but several orders of magnitude faster in training the classifier. PMID:26971787

  18. Coupled map model for spatio-temporal processing in the olfactory bulb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, L.; Idiart, M.; Quillfeldt, J. A.

    2007-02-01

    Odor processing in the animal olfactory system is still an open problem in modern neuroscience. It is a common understanding that the spatial code provided by the activity distribution of the olfactory receptor cells (ORC) due the presence of an odorant is transformed into a spatio-temporal code in the mitral cell (MC) layer in the case of mammals, or the projection neurons (PN) in the case of insects, that is decoded later along the neural path. The putative role of the spatio-temporal coding is to disambiguate the stimulus putting it in a more robust representation that allows odor separation, categorization, and recognition. Oscillations due to lateral inhibition among MC's (or PN's) may play an important part in the code as well as neural adaptation. To shed some light on their possible role in the olfaction processing, we study the properties of a simple network model. Upon the presentation of a random distributed input it respond with a rich spatio-temporal structure where two distinct phases are observed. We discuss their properties and implications in information processing.

  19. Impaired Spatio-Temporal Predictive Motor Timing Associated with Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6.

    PubMed

    Broersen, Robin; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Abdelgabar, Abdel R; Owens, Cullen B; Picard, Samuel; Willems, Jessica; Boele, Henk-Jan; Gazzola, Valeria; Van der Werf, Ysbrand D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2016-01-01

    Many daily life activities demand precise integration of spatial and temporal information of sensory inputs followed by appropriate motor actions. This type of integration is carried out in part by the cerebellum, which has been postulated to play a central role in learning and timing of movements. Cerebellar damage due to atrophy or lesions may compromise forward-model processing, in which both spatial and temporal cues are used to achieve prediction for future motor states. In the present study we sought to further investigate the cerebellar contribution to predictive and reactive motor timing, as well as to learning of sequential order and temporal intervals in these tasks. We tested patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) and healthy controls for two related motor tasks; one requiring spatio-temporal prediction of dynamic visual stimuli and another one requiring reactive timing only. We found that healthy controls established spatio-temporal prediction in their responses with high temporal precision, which was absent in the cerebellar patients. SCA6 patients showed lower predictive motor timing, coinciding with a reduced number of correct responses during the 'anticipatory' period on the task. Moreover, on the task utilizing reactive motor timing functions, control participants showed both sequence order and temporal interval learning, whereas patients only showed sequence order learning. These results suggest that SCA6 affects predictive motor timing and temporal interval learning. Our results support and highlight cerebellar contribution to timing and argue for cerebellar engagement during spatio-temporal prediction of upcoming events. PMID:27571363

  20. USE OF SPATIOTEMPORAL GAIT PARAMETERS TO DETERMINE RETURN TO SPORTS AFTER ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    LEPORACE, GUSTAVO; METSAVAHT, LEONARDO; ZEITOUNE, GABRIEL; MARINHO, THIAGO; OLIVEIRA, TAINÁ; PEREIRA, GLAUBER RIBEIRO; OLIVEIRA, LISZT PALMEIRA DE; BATISTA, LUIZ ALBERTO

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To compare gait spatiotemporal parameters of healthy and ACL reconstructed subjects in order to classify the status of gait normality. Methods : Fourteen healthy subjects and eight patients submitted to ACL reconstruction walked along a walkway while the lower limbs movement was captured by an infrared camera system. The frames where the initial contact and toe-off took place were determined and the following dependent variables, which were compared between groups through the Mann-Whitney test (a=0.05) were calculated: percentage of time in initial double stance, percentage of time in single stance, percentage of time in terminal double stance, stride length and gait velocity. Initially, all variables were compared between groups using a Mann-Whitney test. A logistic regression was applied, including all dependent variables, to create a model that could differentiate healthy and ACL reconstructed subjects. Results : ACL reconstructed group showed no differences in any spatiotemporal parameter of gait (p > 0.05) in relation to the control group, although the angular kinematic differences of the knee remained altered, as evidenced in a study with a similar sample. Conclusion : The regression classified all subjects as healthy, including the ACL reconstructed group, suggesting the spatiotemporal variables should not be used as the sole criterion of return to sports activities at the same level as prior to injury. Level of Evidence III, Case Control Study. PMID:26981039

  1. Characteristics, processes, and causes of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Jilong; Wang, Lin; Lin, Zhongda

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in the study of the characteristics, processes, and causes of spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) system are reviewed in this paper. The understanding of the EAM system has improved in many aspects: the basic characteristics of horizontal and vertical structures, the annual cycle of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) system, the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the EASM system and the EAWM system, and especially the multiple modes of the EAM system and their spatio-temporal variabilities. Some new results have also been achieved in understanding the atmosphere-ocean interaction and atmosphere-land interaction processes that affect the variability of the EAM system. Based on recent studies, the EAM system can be seen as more than a circulation system, it can be viewed as an atmosphere-ocean-land coupled system, namely, the EAM climate system. In addition, further progress has been made in diagnosing the internal physical mechanisms of EAM climate system variability, especially regarding the characteristics and properties of the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) teleconnection over East Asia and the North Pacific, the "Silk Road" teleconnection along the westerly jet stream in the upper troposphere over the Asian continent, and the dynamical effects of quasi-stationary planetary wave activity on EAM system variability. At the end of the paper, some scientific problems regarding understanding the EAM system variability are proposed for further study.

  2. Impaired Spatio-Temporal Predictive Motor Timing Associated with Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6

    PubMed Central

    Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Abdelgabar, Abdel R.; Owens, Cullen B.; Picard, Samuel; Willems, Jessica; Boele, Henk-Jan; Gazzola, Valeria; Van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    Many daily life activities demand precise integration of spatial and temporal information of sensory inputs followed by appropriate motor actions. This type of integration is carried out in part by the cerebellum, which has been postulated to play a central role in learning and timing of movements. Cerebellar damage due to atrophy or lesions may compromise forward-model processing, in which both spatial and temporal cues are used to achieve prediction for future motor states. In the present study we sought to further investigate the cerebellar contribution to predictive and reactive motor timing, as well as to learning of sequential order and temporal intervals in these tasks. We tested patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) and healthy controls for two related motor tasks; one requiring spatio-temporal prediction of dynamic visual stimuli and another one requiring reactive timing only. We found that healthy controls established spatio-temporal prediction in their responses with high temporal precision, which was absent in the cerebellar patients. SCA6 patients showed lower predictive motor timing, coinciding with a reduced number of correct responses during the ‘anticipatory’ period on the task. Moreover, on the task utilizing reactive motor timing functions, control participants showed both sequence order and temporal interval learning, whereas patients only showed sequence order learning. These results suggest that SCA6 affects predictive motor timing and temporal interval learning. Our results support and highlight cerebellar contribution to timing and argue for cerebellar engagement during spatio-temporal prediction of upcoming events. PMID:27571363

  3. Parallel indexing technique for spatio-temporal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhenwen; Kraak, Menno-Jan; Huisman, Otto; Ma, Xiaogang; Xiao, Jing

    2013-04-01

    The requirements for efficient access and management of massive multi-dimensional spatio-temporal data in geographical information system and its applications are well recognized and researched. The most popular spatio-temporal access method is the R-Tree and its variants. However, it is difficult to use them for parallel access to multi-dimensional spatio-temporal data because R-Trees, and variants thereof, are in hierarchical structures which have severe overlapping problems in high dimensional space. We extended a two-dimensional interval space representation of intervals to a multi-dimensional parallel space, and present a set of formulae to transform spatio-temporal queries into parallel interval set operations. This transformation reduces problems of multi-dimensional object relationships to simpler two-dimensional spatial intersection problems. Experimental results show that the new parallel approach presented in this paper has superior range query performance than R*-trees for handling multi-dimensional spatio-temporal data and multi-dimensional interval data. When the number of CPU cores is larger than that of the space dimensions, the insertion performance of this new approach is also superior to R*-trees. The proposed approach provides a potential parallel indexing solution for fast data retrieval of massive four-dimensional or higher dimensional spatio-temporal data.

  4. Spatiotemporal characteristics of flood protection level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoue, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding is the most frequent natural hazard and its global impacts will be rising associated with climate change and socioeconomic growth. So, the understanding of the physical and spatial-temporal patterns of risk drivers (exposure, damage, and flood protection level) are required to conduct effective adaptation and reduce the negative impacts of flooding. Although the understanding of exposure and damage has greatly improved using a combination of numerical model simulation and spatiotemporal distributions of population and asset, that of flood protection level is still lacking in particular spatial patterns. Previous research clarifies its temporal variation and relationship with per-capita income, however they do not consider its spatial variation. Flood protection level was associated with geographical characteristics (e.g., soil type and tectonic zone etc). This study tried to estimate spatiotemporal of flood protection level at country level and discuss about relationship between its spatial patterns and geographical characteristics. Mortality rate (percentage of fatalities in modeled exposed population) and loss rate (percentage of losses in modeled exposed GDP) to fluvial river flooding across the world suggested by Jongmann et al. (2015) were estimated from modeled flood exposure and damage statistics taken from the International Emergency Disasters Database. The result indicated that mortality rate reduced across the world from 1990 to 2005. The degree of its reduction decreased with increasing per-capita income level. On the other hand, loss rate at high income and middle low income levels reduced, while that at middle high income and low income levels drastically increased between 1995 and 2000 due to growth economic and occurrence of serious fluvial river flooding. Spatial distribution of mortality and loss rates were high in East Asia, the western part of South America, and the eastern part of Europe. These regions seem to be corresponded to the

  5. Neurogenomic signatures of spatiotemporal memories in time-trained forager honey bees.

    PubMed

    Naeger, Nicholas L; Van Nest, Byron N; Johnson, Jennifer N; Boyd, Sam D; Southey, Bruce R; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Moore, Darrell; Robinson, Gene E

    2011-03-15

    Honey bees can form distinct spatiotemporal memories that allow them to return repeatedly to different food sources at different times of day. Although it is becoming increasingly clear that different behavioral states are associated with different profiles of brain gene expression, it is not known whether this relationship extends to states that are as dynamic and specific as those associated with foraging-related spatiotemporal memories. We tested this hypothesis by training different groups of foragers from the same colony to collect sucrose solution from one of two artificial feeders; each feeder was in a different location and had sucrose available at a different time, either in the morning or afternoon. Bees from both training groups were collected at both the morning and afternoon training times to result in one set of bees that was undergoing stereotypical food anticipatory behavior and another that was inactive for each time of day. Between the two groups with the different spatiotemporal memories, microarray analysis revealed that 1329 genes were differentially expressed in the brains of honey bees. Many of these genes also varied with time of day, time of training or state of food anticipation. Some of these genes are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes, including metabolism and behavior. These results indicate that distinct spatiotemporal foraging memories in honey bees are associated with distinct neurogenomic signatures, and the decomposition of these signatures into sets of genes that are also influenced by time or activity state hints at the modular composition of this complex neurogenomic phenotype. PMID:21346126

  6. Recurring features of mid-Miocene transitional geomagnetic field behavior: Observations from NE Nevada and SE Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogue, S. W.; Glen, J. M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Paleomagnetic results from a 150m thick stack of 15.2 my old lava flows in the Sheep Creek Range (north central Nevada; 40.7N, 243.2E) show that distinctive aspects of the reversing geomagnetic field can recur after 1.5 million years. The Sheep Creek lavas preserve a partial record of what is likely the C5Br-C5Bn geomagnetic reversal. That event occurred 1.5 million years and five polarity switches after reversal (C5Cr-C5Cn) recorded in great detail at Steens Mountain in SE Oregon. During both transitions, the VGP made repeat visits to low latitude positions in South America and near Africa although in different order. This behavior implies a control that varies over a timescale much longer that associated with flow in the outer core (~60 yrs), presumably lateral variations in lower mantle temperature or topography on the core-mantle boundary. Furthermore, the field in both reversals moved from clearly transitional to normal-polarity-like (i.e., down and north) directions before "rebounding" to intermediate directions. It has been suggested recently (Valet et al., Nature 2012) that this kind of behavior (i.e., directional change in the form of precursor- main polarity switch-rebound) may be a systematic aspect of transitional field behavior, a suggestion reinforced by these new observations. The distinctive, two component magnetization of a particular lava flow in the Sheep Creek section has been interpreted by Bogue and Glen (GRL, 2010) as evidence of directional change (~1 deg/week) orders of magnitude faster than normal secular variation. If the field was strong at the end of the directional change, then a large change in the local geomagnetic field vector is implied by the directional data for any initial field strength. Preliminary paleointensity experiments aimed at resolving this aspect of the record are in progress.

  7. Recurring hypocalcemia of bovine parturient paresis is associated with failure to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

    PubMed

    Goff, J P; Reinhardt, T A; Horst, R L

    1989-07-01

    Parturient paresis (milk fever) is a hypocalcemic disorder caused by the onset of lactation in the dairy cow. In most cows a complete recovery follows a single iv calcium treatment to correct the acute hypocalcemia. However, about 20% of cows treated for parturient paresis experience recurring episodes of hypocalcemia (relapses) requiring further treatment. Analysis of plasma from 8 nonrelapsing parturient paretic and 11 relapsing parturient paretic cows revealed differences in plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D] concentrations before and during the development of hypocalcemia. In nonrelapsing cows, plasma 1,25-(OH)2D increased to 4- to 5-fold as plasma calcium concentrations declined during the first stage of parturient paresis. In relapsing cows, decreases in plasma calcium concentrations during the first stage of parturient paresis were accompanied by just a 2- to 2.5-fold increase in plasma 1,25-(OH)2D. Plasma 1,25-(OH)2D eventually increased 4- to 5-fold in the relapsing cows, but this response was delayed 24-48 h compared with the response in the nonrelapsing cows. Plasma PTH concentration profiles were similar in relapsing and nonrelapsing cows, suggesting that renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1 alpha-hydroxylase was temporarily refractory to stimulation by PTH in the relapsing cows. In both groups of cows recovery from parturient paresis began about 12-24 h after plasma 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations had increased 4- to 5-fold. These data imply that lack of production of 1,25-(OH)2D is an important factor in predisposing the cow to relapses of parturient paresis and is critical for recovery from the hypocalcemia associated with the onset of lactation. PMID:2737159

  8. Spatio-temporal correlations in Coulomb clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosal, Amit; Ash, Biswarup; Chakrabarti, Jaydeb

    Dynamical response of Coulomb-particles in nanoclusters are investigated at different temperatures characterizing their solid-like (Wigner molecule) and liquid-like behavior. The density correlations probe spatio-temporal relaxation, uncovering distinct behavior at multiple time scales in these systems. They show a stretched-Gaussian or stretched-exponential spatial decay at long times in circular and irregular traps. Interplay of confinement and long-range nature of interactions yields spatially correlated motion of the particles in string-like paths, leaving the system heterogeneous even at long times. While particles in a `solid' flow producing dynamic heterogeneities, their random motion in `liquid' defies central limit theorem. Distinguishing the two confinements, temperature dependent motional signatures serve as a criterion for the crossover between `solid' and `liquid'. The irregular Wigner molecule turns into a nearly homogeneous liquid over a much wider temperature window compared to the circular case. The temperature dependence of different relaxation time scales builds crucial insights. A phenomenological model, relating the unusual dynamics to the heterogeneous nature of the diffusivities in the system, captures much of the subtleties of our numerical simulations.

  9. Spatiotemporal pattern of bacterioplankton in Donghu Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang; Yan, Qingyun; Yu, Yuhe; Dai, Lili

    2014-05-01

    Bacterioplankton play key roles in the biogeochemical cycle and in organic contaminant degradation. The species richness and abundance of bacterial subgroups are generally distinct from each other, and this is attributed to their different functions in aquatic ecosystems. The spatiotemporal variations of eight phylogenetic subgroups (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria) derived from Donghu Lake were investigated using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, to explore their responses to environmental factors. Results indicate that Actinobacteria and beta-Proteobacteria were the two largest bacterial subgroups detected. These two groups and Bacteroidetes showed clear seasonal patterns in composition of the operational taxonomic unit. Results also suggest that the bacterioplankton subgroups in Donghu Lake were significantly correlated with different environmental factors. In brief, the total nitrogen was one of the major factors regulating all the bacterioplankton except for Actinobacteria. However, total phosphorus, another important eutrophication factor, contributed to the two largest bacterial groups (Actinobacteria and beta-Proteobacteria), as well as to the Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes. Therefore, the responses of bacterioplankton subgroups to environmental factors were different, and this should be attributed to the differences in the functions of different groups.

  10. Spatiotemporal SERT expression in cortical map development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoning; Petit, Emilie I; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Sze, Ji Ying

    2016-09-01

    The cerebral cortex is organized into morphologically distinct areas that provide biological frameworks underlying perception, cognition, and behavior. Profiling mouse and human cortical transcriptomes have revealed temporal-specific differential gene expression modules in distinct neocortical areas during cortical map establishment. However, the biological roles of spatiotemporal gene expression in cortical patterning and how cortical topographic gene expression is regulated are largely unknown. Here, we characterize temporal- and spatial-defined expression of serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) in glutamatergic neurons during sensory map development in mice. SERT is transiently expressed in glutamatergic thalamic neurons projecting to sensory cortices and in pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) during the period that lays down the basic functional neural circuits. We previously identified that knockout of SERT in the thalamic neurons blocks 5-HT uptake by their thalamocortical axons, resulting in excessive 5-HT signaling that impairs sensory map architecture. In contrast, here we show that selective SERT knockout in the PFC and HPC neurons does not perturb sensory map patterning. These data suggest that transient SERT expression in specific glutamatergic neurons provides area-specific instructions for cortical map patterning. Hence, genetic and pharmacological manipulations of this SERT function could illuminate the fundamental genetic programming of cortex-specific maps and biological roles of temporal-specific cortical topographic gene expression in normal development and mental disorders. PMID:27282696

  11. Spatiotemporal video deinterlacing using control grid interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, Ragav; Zwart, Christine M.; Frakes, David H.; Li, Baoxin

    2015-03-01

    With the advent of progressive format display and broadcast technologies, video deinterlacing has become an important video-processing technique. Numerous approaches exist in the literature to accomplish deinterlacing. While most earlier methods were simple linear filtering-based approaches, the emergence of faster computing technologies and even dedicated video-processing hardware in display units has allowed higher quality but also more computationally intense deinterlacing algorithms to become practical. Most modern approaches analyze motion and content in video to select different deinterlacing methods for various spatiotemporal regions. We introduce a family of deinterlacers that employs spectral residue to choose between and weight control grid interpolation based spatial and temporal deinterlacing methods. The proposed approaches perform better than the prior state-of-the-art based on peak signal-to-noise ratio, other visual quality metrics, and simple perception-based subjective evaluations conducted by human viewers. We further study the advantages of using soft and hard decision thresholds on the visual performance.

  12. Spatio-temporal registration of multiple trajectories.

    PubMed

    Padoy, Nicolas; Hager, Gregory D

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of medical datasets now contain both a spatial and a temporal dimension. Trajectories, from tools or body features, are thus becoming increasingly important for their analysis. In this paper, we are interested in recovering the spatial and temporal differences between trajectories coming from different datasets. In particular, we address the case of surgical gestures, where trajectories contain both spatial transformations and speed differences in the execution. We first define the spatio-temporal registration problem between multiple trajectories. We then propose an optimization method to jointly recover both the rigid spatial motions and the non-linear time warpings. The optimization generates also a generic trajectory template, in which spatial and temporal differences have been factored out. This approach can be potentially used to register and compare gestures side-by-side for training sessions, to build gesture trajectory models for automation by a robot, or to register the trajectories of natural or artificial markers which follow similar motions. We demonstrate its usefulness with synthetic and real experiments. In particular, we register and analyze complex surgical gestures performed by tele-manipulation using the da Vinci robot. PMID:22003611

  13. Automatic spatiotemporal matching of detected pleural thickenings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Keller, Simon Kai; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pleural thickenings can be found in asbestos exposed patient's lung. Non-invasive diagnosis including CT imaging can detect aggressive malignant pleural mesothelioma in its early stage. In order to create a quantitative documentation of automatic detected pleural thickenings over time, the differences in volume and thickness of the detected thickenings have to be calculated. Physicians usually estimate the change of each thickening via visual comparison which provides neither quantitative nor qualitative measures. In this work, automatic spatiotemporal matching techniques of the detected pleural thickenings at two points of time based on the semi-automatic registration have been developed, implemented, and tested so that the same thickening can be compared fully automatically. As result, the application of the mapping technique using the principal components analysis turns out to be advantageous than the feature-based mapping using centroid and mean Hounsfield Units of each thickening, since the resulting sensitivity was improved to 98.46% from 42.19%, while the accuracy of feature-based mapping is only slightly higher (84.38% to 76.19%).

  14. Understanding the spatiotemporal pattern of grazing cattle movement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kun; Jurdak, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of animal movement is significant for ecology and biology. Yet researchers have so far been unable to fully understand these drivers, largely due to low data resolution. In this study, we analyse a high-frequency movement dataset for a group of grazing cattle and investigate their spatiotemporal patterns using a simple two-state 'stop-and-move' mobility model. We find that the dispersal kernel in the moving state is best described by a mixture exponential distribution, indicating the hierarchical nature of the movement. On the other hand, the waiting time appears to be scale-invariant below a certain cut-off and is best described by a truncated power-law distribution, suggesting that the non-moving state is governed by time-varying dynamics. We explore possible explanations for the observed phenomena, covering factors that can play a role in the generation of mobility patterns, such as the context of grazing environment, the intrinsic decision-making mechanism or the energy status of different activities. In particular, we propose a new hypothesis that the underlying movement pattern can be attributed to the most probable observable energy status under the maximum entropy configuration. These results are not only valuable for modelling cattle movement but also provide new insights for understanding the underlying biological basis of grazing behaviour. PMID:27555220

  15. Spatiotemporal mapping of the motility of the isolated chicken caecum.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Patrick W M; Lentle, Roger G; Hulls, Corrin; Ravindran, Velmurugu; Amerah, Ahmed M

    2009-07-01

    We studied the caecal contractile activity of the chicken (Gallus gallus) using single caeca that had been cannulated at their proximal and distal ends, and in paired caeca, maintained in situ on excised segments of gut that were cannulated at the colonic and small intestinal ends. Longitudinal and circular contractile patterns were characterised using high-definition spatiotemporal mapping. Low amplitude longitudinal contraction waves of frequency 14.1 cycles/min occurred in the absence of major contractile events. These were termed fast phasic and appeared to be mediated by slow waves. The nature of major spontaneous contractions occurring in the single caecum varied with the level of caecal distension. Type A contractions occurred when the caecum was not distended, originated from variable sites and propagated in both directions. Type B or C contractile events occurred when the caecum was moderately or fully distended, originated from a predominantly distal site and propagated proximally. On diameter maps, each type B event comprised a succession of contractions which had similar propagation speeds, frequency and direction to fast phasic contractions. Type C events were comprised of a succession of higher amplitude contractions with no appreciable propagation. Perfusion of saline via the colon resulted in fluid entering both caeca and the onset of aborad contractions in their proximal canals. Saline was also seen to flow between caeca during contractile events however no saline was seen to enter the small intestine as has been postulated by other workers. PMID:19194713

  16. Understanding the spatiotemporal pattern of grazing cattle movement

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kun; Jurdak, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the drivers of animal movement is significant for ecology and biology. Yet researchers have so far been unable to fully understand these drivers, largely due to low data resolution. In this study, we analyse a high-frequency movement dataset for a group of grazing cattle and investigate their spatiotemporal patterns using a simple two-state ‘stop-and-move’ mobility model. We find that the dispersal kernel in the moving state is best described by a mixture exponential distribution, indicating the hierarchical nature of the movement. On the other hand, the waiting time appears to be scale-invariant below a certain cut-off and is best described by a truncated power-law distribution, suggesting that the non-moving state is governed by time-varying dynamics. We explore possible explanations for the observed phenomena, covering factors that can play a role in the generation of mobility patterns, such as the context of grazing environment, the intrinsic decision-making mechanism or the energy status of different activities. In particular, we propose a new hypothesis that the underlying movement pattern can be attributed to the most probable observable energy status under the maximum entropy configuration. These results are not only valuable for modelling cattle movement but also provide new insights for understanding the underlying biological basis of grazing behaviour. PMID:27555220

  17. Efficient Segmentation of Spatio-Temporal Data from Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fodor, I K; Kamath, C

    2003-01-15

    Detecting and tracking objects in spatio-temporal datasets is an active research area with applications in many domains. A common approach is to segment the 2D frames in order to separate the objects of interest from the background, then estimate the motion of the objects and track them over time. Most existing algorithms assume that the objects to be tracked are rigid. In many scientific simulations, however, the objects of interest evolve over time and thus pose additional challenges for the segmentation and tracking tasks. We investigate efficient segmentation methods in the context of scientific simulation data. Instead of segmenting each frame separately, we propose an incremental approach which incorporates the segmentation result from the previous time frame when segmenting the data at the current time frame. We start with the simple K-means method, then we study more complicated segmentation techniques based on Markov random fields. We compare the incremental methods to the corresponding sequential ones both in terms of the quality of the results, as well as computational complexity.

  18. Spatio-temporal change modeling with array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Meng; Pebesma, Edzer

    2015-04-01

    Spatio-temporal change modeling of our ecosystems is critical for environmental conservation. Open access to remote sensing satellite image archives provides new opportunities for change modeling, such as near real-time change monitoring with long term image time series. Newly developed time series analysis methods allow the detection of quantitative changes in trend and seasonality for each pixel of the image. A drawback of pure time series analysis is that spatial dependence is neglected. There are several spatio-temporal statistical approaches to incorporate spatial context. One method is to build hierarchical models with spatial effects for time series parameters. Other methods include representing regression parameters as spatially correlated random fields, or integrating spatial autoregressive models to time series analysis. Apart from spatio-temporal statistical modeling, the results can be further improved by qualification of detected change points with their spatio-temporal neighbors. Spatio-temporal modeling approaches are typically complex and large in scale, and call for new data management and analysis tools. Remote sensing satellite images, which are continuous and regular in space and time, can naturally be represented as three- or four-dimensional arrays for spatio-temporal data management and analysis. The developed spatio-temporal statistical algorithms can be flexibly applied within array partitions that span the relevant array-based dimensions. This study investigates the potential of array-based Data Data Management and Analytic Software (DMAS) for fast data access, data integration and large-scale complex spatio-temporal analysis. A study case is developed in near-real time deforestation monitoring in Amazonian rainforest with long-term 250 m, 8-day resolution MODIS image time series. A novel spatio-temporal change modeling process is being developed and implemented in DMAS to realize rapid and automated analysis of satellite image time series

  19. Solar Influence on Recurring Global, Decadal, Climate Cycles Recorded by Glacial Fluctuations, Ice Cores, Sea Surface Temperatures, and Historic Measurements Over the Past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easterbrook, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Global, cyclic, decadal, climate patterns can be traced over the past millennium in glacier fluctuations, oxygen isotope ratios in ice cores, sea surface temperatures, and historic observations. The recurring climate cycles clearly show that natural climatic warming and cooling have occurred many times, long before increases in anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 levels. The Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age are well known examples of such climate changes, but in addition, at least 23 periods of climatic warming and cooling have occurred in the past 500 years. Each period of warming or cooling lasted about 25-30 years (average 27 years). Two cycles of global warming and two of global cooling have occurred during the past century, and the global cooling that has occurred since 1998 is exactly in phase with the long term pattern. Global cooling occurred from 1880 to ~1915; global warming occurred from ~1915 to ~1945; global cooling occurred from ~1945-1977;, global warming occurred from 1977 to 1998; and global cooling has occurred since 1998. All of these global climate changes show exceptionally good correlation with solar variation since the Little Ice Age 400 years ago. The IPCC predicted global warming of 0.6° C (1° F) by 2011 and 1.2° C (2° F) by 2038, whereas Easterbrook (2001) predicted the beginning of global cooling by 2007 (± 3-5 yrs) and cooling of about 0.3-0.5° C until ~2035. The predicted cooling seems to have already begun. Recent measurements of global temperatures suggest a gradual cooling trend since 1998 and 2007-2008 was a year of sharp global cooling. The cooling trend will likely continue as the sun enters a cycle of lower irradiance and the Pacific Ocean changed from its warm mode to its cool mode. Comparisons of historic global climate warming and cooling, glacial fluctuations, changes in warm/cool mode of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and sun spot activity over the past century

  20. Spatiotemporal exploratory models for broad-scale survey data.

    PubMed

    Fink, Daniel; Hochachka, Wesley M; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Winkler, David W; Shaby, Ben; Munson, M Arthur; Hooker, Giles; Riedewald, Mirek; Sheldon, Daniel; Kelling, Steve

    2010-12-01

    The distributions of animal populations change and evolve through time. Migratory species exploit different habitats at different times of the year. Biotic and abiotic features that determine where a species lives vary due to natural and anthropogenic factors. This spatiotemporal variation needs to be accounted for in any modeling of species' distributions. In this paper we introduce a semiparametric model that provides a flexible framework for analyzing dynamic patterns of species occurrence and abundance from broad-scale survey data. The spatiotemporal exploratory model (STEM) adds essential spatiotemporal structure to existing techniques for developing species distribution models through a simple parametric structure without requiring a detailed understanding of the underlying dynamic processes. STEMs use a multi-scale strategy to differentiate between local and global-scale spatiotemporal structure. A user-specified species distribution model accounts for spatial and temporal patterning at the local level. These local patterns are then allowed to "scale up" via ensemble averaging to larger scales. This makes STEMs especially well suited for exploring distributional dynamics arising from a variety of processes. Using data from eBird, an online citizen science bird-monitoring project, we demonstrate that monthly changes in distribution of a migratory species, the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), can be more accurately described with a STEM than a conventional bagged decision tree model in which spatiotemporal structure has not been imposed. We also demonstrate that there is no loss of model predictive power when a STEM is used to describe a spatiotemporal distribution with very little spatiotemporal variation; the distribution of a nonmigratory species, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). PMID:21265447

  1. A hybrid spatiotemporal drought forecasting model for operational use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliades, L.; Loukas, A.

    2010-09-01

    Drought forecasting plays an important role in the planning and management of natural resources and water resource systems in a river basin. Early and timelines forecasting of a drought event can help to take proactive measures and set out drought mitigation strategies to alleviate the impacts of drought. Spatiotemporal data mining is the extraction of unknown and implicit knowledge, structures, spatiotemporal relationships, or patterns not explicitly stored in spatiotemporal databases. As one of data mining techniques, forecasting is widely used to predict the unknown future based upon the patterns hidden in the current and past data. This study develops a hybrid spatiotemporal scheme for integrated spatial and temporal forecasting. Temporal forecasting is achieved using feed-forward neural networks and the temporal forecasts are extended to the spatial dimension using a spatial recurrent neural network model. The methodology is demonstrated for an operational meteorological drought index the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) calculated at multiple timescales. 48 precipitation stations and 18 independent precipitation stations, located at Pinios river basin in Thessaly region, Greece, were used for the development and spatiotemporal validation of the hybrid spatiotemporal scheme. Several quantitative temporal and spatial statistical indices were considered for the performance evaluation of the models. Furthermore, qualitative statistical criteria based on contingency tables between observed and forecasted drought episodes were calculated. The results show that the lead time of forecasting for operational use depends on the SPI timescale. The hybrid spatiotemporal drought forecasting model could be operationally used for forecasting up to three months ahead for SPI short timescales (e.g. 3-6 months) up to six months ahead for large SPI timescales (e.g. 24 months). The above findings could be useful in developing a drought preparedness plan in the region.

  2. How to Link Brain and Experience? Spatiotemporal Psychopathology of the Lived Body.

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the present article is on sketching a psychopathology of the body in schizophrenia and linking it to brain activity. This is done providing converging data from psychopathological evidence (phenomenal), phenomenological contructs (trans-phenomenal) and neuroscientific measures (pre-phenomenal). The phenomenal level is the detailed documentation of the patients' subjective anomalous experiences. These phenomena are explicit contents in the patients' field of consciousness. The trans-phenomenal level targets the implicit yet operative matrix that underlies these anomalous subjective experiences. Abnormal phenomena are viewed as expressions of a modification of trans-phenomenal matrix, that is, in terms of an abnormal synthesis or integration through time of intero-, proprio- and extero-ceptive stimuli. Finally, we link the abnormalities of the trans-phenomenal matrix to pre-phenomenal alterations of the brain resting state and of its spatio-temporal organization, as documented by neurobiological methods providing spatial and temporal resolution of intrinsic brain activity (with many features of the resting state remaining yet unclear though). Based on phenomenological research, the body in schizophrenia is typically experienced in an itemized way as an object external to one's self and unrelated to events in the external world. Based on neurobiological data, we tentatively hypothesize that such anomalies of the lived body are related to decreased integration between intero-, extero- and proprioceptive experiences by the brain's spontaneous activity and its temporal structure. Taken all together, this suggests that we view abnormalities of bodily experience in terms of their underlying abnormal spatiotemporal features which, as we suppose, can be traced back to the spatiotemporal features of the brain's spontaneous activity. PMID:27199695

  3. How to Link Brain and Experience? Spatiotemporal Psychopathology of the Lived Body

    PubMed Central

    Northoff, Georg; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the present article is on sketching a psychopathology of the body in schizophrenia and linking it to brain activity. This is done providing converging data from psychopathological evidence (phenomenal), phenomenological contructs (trans-phenomenal) and neuroscientific measures (pre-phenomenal). The phenomenal level is the detailed documentation of the patients’ subjective anomalous experiences. These phenomena are explicit contents in the patients’ field of consciousness. The trans-phenomenal level targets the implicit yet operative matrix that underlies these anomalous subjective experiences. Abnormal phenomena are viewed as expressions of a modification of trans-phenomenal matrix, that is, in terms of an abnormal synthesis or integration through time of intero-, proprio- and extero-ceptive stimuli. Finally, we link the abnormalities of the trans-phenomenal matrix to pre-phenomenal alterations of the brain resting state and of its spatio-temporal organization, as documented by neurobiological methods providing spatial and temporal resolution of intrinsic brain activity (with many features of the resting state remaining yet unclear though). Based on phenomenological research, the body in schizophrenia is typically experienced in an itemized way as an object external to one’s self and unrelated to events in the external world. Based on neurobiological data, we tentatively hypothesize that such anomalies of the lived body are related to decreased integration between intero-, extero- and proprioceptive experiences by the brain’s spontaneous activity and its temporal structure. Taken all together, this suggests that we view abnormalities of bodily experience in terms of their underlying abnormal spatiotemporal features which, as we suppose, can be traced back to the spatiotemporal features of the brain’s spontaneous activity. PMID:27199695

  4. Neuronal Cell Fate Specification by the Convergence of Different Spatiotemporal Cues on a Common Terminal Selector Cascade.

    PubMed

    Gabilondo, Hugo; Stratmann, Johannes; Rubio-Ferrera, Irene; Millán-Crespo, Irene; Contero-García, Patricia; Bahrampour, Shahrzad; Thor, Stefan; Benito-Sipos, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    Specification of the myriad of unique neuronal subtypes found in the nervous system depends upon spatiotemporal cues and terminal selector gene cascades, often acting in sequential combinatorial codes to determine final cell fate. However, a specific neuronal cell subtype can often be generated in different parts of the nervous system and at different stages, indicating that different spatiotemporal cues can converge on the same terminal selectors to thereby generate a similar cell fate. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying such convergence are poorly understood. The Nplp1 neuropeptide neurons in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord can be subdivided into the thoracic-ventral Tv1 neurons and the dorsal-medial dAp neurons. The activation of Nplp1 in Tv1 and dAp neurons depends upon the same terminal selector cascade: col>ap/eya>dimm>Nplp1. However, Tv1 and dAp neurons are generated by different neural progenitors (neuroblasts) with different spatiotemporal appearance. Here, we find that the same terminal selector cascade is triggered by Kr/pdm>grn in dAp neurons, but by Antp/hth/exd/lbe/cas in Tv1 neurons. Hence, two different spatiotemporal combinations can funnel into a common downstream terminal selector cascade to determine a highly related cell fate. PMID:27148744

  5. Neuronal Cell Fate Specification by the Convergence of Different Spatiotemporal Cues on a Common Terminal Selector Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Ferrera, Irene; Millán-Crespo, Irene; Contero-García, Patricia; Bahrampour, Shahrzad

    2016-01-01

    Specification of the myriad of unique neuronal subtypes found in the nervous system depends upon spatiotemporal cues and terminal selector gene cascades, often acting in sequential combinatorial codes to determine final cell fate. However, a specific neuronal cell subtype can often be generated in different parts of the nervous system and at different stages, indicating that different spatiotemporal cues can converge on the same terminal selectors to thereby generate a similar cell fate. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying such convergence are poorly understood. The Nplp1 neuropeptide neurons in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord can be subdivided into the thoracic-ventral Tv1 neurons and the dorsal-medial dAp neurons. The activation of Nplp1 in Tv1 and dAp neurons depends upon the same terminal selector cascade: col>ap/eya>dimm>Nplp1. However, Tv1 and dAp neurons are generated by different neural progenitors (neuroblasts) with different spatiotemporal appearance. Here, we find that the same terminal selector cascade is triggered by Kr/pdm>grn in dAp neurons, but by Antp/hth/exd/lbe/cas in Tv1 neurons. Hence, two different spatiotemporal combinations can funnel into a common downstream terminal selector cascade to determine a highly related cell fate. PMID:27148744

  6. Fluorescence advantages with microscopic spatiotemporal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Debabrata; Roy, Debjit; De, Arijit K.

    2013-03-01

    We present a clever design concept of using femtosecond laser pulses in microscopy by selective excitation or de-excitation of one fluorophore over the other overlapping one. Using either a simple pair of femtosecond pulses with variable delay or using a train of laser pulses at 20-50 Giga-Hertz excitation, we show controlled fluorescence excitation or suppression of one of the fluorophores with respect to the other through wave-packet interference, an effect that prevails even after the fluorophore coherence timescale. Such an approach can be used both under the single-photon excitation as well as in the multi-photon excitation conditions resulting in effective higher spatial resolution. Such high spatial resolution advantage with broadband-pulsed excitation is of immense benefit to multi-photon microscopy and can also be an effective detection scheme for trapped nanoparticles with near-infrared light. Such sub-diffraction limit trapping of nanoparticles is challenging and a two-photon fluorescence diagnostics allows a direct observation of a single nanoparticle in a femtosecond high-repetition rate laser trap, which promises new directions to spectroscopy at the single molecule level in solution. The gigantic peak power of femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rate, even at low average powers, provide huge instantaneous gradient force that most effectively result in a stable optical trap for spatial control at sub-diffraction limit. Such studies have also enabled us to explore simultaneous control of internal and external degrees of freedom that require coupling of various control parameters to result in spatiotemporal control, which promises to be a versatile tool for the microscopic world.

  7. New observations of martian southern mid-latitude recurring slope lineae (RSL) imply formation by freshwater subsurface flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, David E.; Michaels, Timothy I.; Grimm, Robert E.; Harrison, Keith P.

    2014-05-01

    Southern mid-latitude (SML) recurring slope lineae (RSL) are narrow (0.5-5 m) dark albedo features that emanate from bedrock and incrementally lengthen down steep slopes that preferentially face the equator. We observe that SML RSL begin lengthening prior to southern summer at a solar longitude (Ls) of 245° ± 11° when Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES)-derived near-maximum surface temperatures are 296 ± 5 K and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) - and Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS)-derived mid-afternoon surface temperatures are >273 K. SML RSL continue to lengthen for 104 ± 38 sols with an average near-maximum surface temperature of 298 ± 5 K. The SML RSL then stop lengthening at Ls = 314° ± 12° when mid-afternoon surface temperatures drop below 273 K. They remain dark for another 116 ± 41 sols (until Ls = 16° ± 14°) as surface temperatures continue to fall. Although the RSL recharge mechanism remains unknown, our observation that the vast majority of RSL lengthen only when mid-afternoon surface temperatures are >273 K supports the hypothesis that they are formed by shallow subsurface liquid water flows without significant freezing-point depression. The number and length of RSL at multiple sites increased dramatically following the Mars Year 28 globe-encircling dust storm. We interpret this increase to be due to warmer subsurface temperatures created by a dust-laden greenhouse effect that may be unique to the southern mid-latitudes near Ls = 270°. Therefore SML RSL flow is quite sensitive to ground temperature and may only occur under favorable orbital parameters when mean insolation during the RSL lengthening season is above that of the current southern mid-latitude mean insolation value. This value is currently at a peak that has not been attained for the last ∼100 ka. Meanwhile, the RSL-poor northern mid-latitude mean insolation is near a minimum and has a value 27% lower than the

  8. Spatio-temporal networks: reachability, centrality and robustness

    PubMed Central

    Musolesi, Mirco

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in spatial and temporal networks have enabled researchers to more-accurately describe many real-world systems such as urban transport networks. In this paper, we study the response of real-world spatio-temporal networks to random error and systematic attack, taking a unified view of their spatial and temporal performance. We propose a model of spatio-temporal paths in time-varying spatially embedded networks which captures the property that, as in many real-world systems, interaction between nodes is non-instantaneous and governed by the space in which they are embedded. Through numerical experiments on three real-world urban transport systems, we study the effect of node failure on a network's topological, temporal and spatial structure. We also demonstrate the broader applicability of this framework to three other classes of network. To identify weaknesses specific to the behaviour of a spatio-temporal system, we introduce centrality measures that evaluate the importance of a node as a structural bridge and its role in supporting spatio-temporally efficient flows through the network. This exposes the complex nature of fragility in a spatio-temporal system, showing that there is a variety of failure modes when a network is subject to systematic attacks. PMID:27429776

  9. Spatio-temporal networks: reachability, centrality and robustness.

    PubMed

    Williams, Matthew J; Musolesi, Mirco

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in spatial and temporal networks have enabled researchers to more-accurately describe many real-world systems such as urban transport networks. In this paper, we study the response of real-world spatio-temporal networks to random error and systematic attack, taking a unified view of their spatial and temporal performance. We propose a model of spatio-temporal paths in time-varying spatially embedded networks which captures the property that, as in many real-world systems, interaction between nodes is non-instantaneous and governed by the space in which they are embedded. Through numerical experiments on three real-world urban transport systems, we study the effect of node failure on a network's topological, temporal and spatial structure. We also demonstrate the broader applicability of this framework to three other classes of network. To identify weaknesses specific to the behaviour of a spatio-temporal system, we introduce centrality measures that evaluate the importance of a node as a structural bridge and its role in supporting spatio-temporally efficient flows through the network. This exposes the complex nature of fragility in a spatio-temporal system, showing that there is a variety of failure modes when a network is subject to systematic attacks. PMID:27429776

  10. Basic Instinct Undressed: Early Spatiotemporal Processing for Primary Sexual Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Legrand, Lore B.; Del Zotto, Marzia; Tyrand, Rémi; Pegna, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the spatiotemporal dynamics associated with conscious and non-conscious processing of naked and dressed human bodies. To this effect, stimuli of naked men and women with visible primary sexual characteristics, as well as dressed bodies, were presented to 20 heterosexual male and female participants while acquiring high resolution EEG data. The stimuli were either consciously detectable (supraliminal presentations) or were rendered non-conscious through backward masking (subliminal presentations). The N1 event-related potential component was significantly enhanced in participants when they viewed naked compared to dressed bodies under supraliminal viewing conditions. More importantly, naked bodies of the opposite sex produced a significantly greater N1 component compared to dressed bodies during subliminal presentations, when participants were not aware of the stimulus presented. A source localization algorithm computed on the N1 showed that the response for naked bodies in the supraliminal viewing condition was stronger in body processing areas, primary visual areas and additional structures related to emotion processing. By contrast, in the subliminal viewing condition, only visual and body processing areas were found to be activated. These results suggest that naked bodies and primary sexual characteristics are processed early in time (i.e., <200 ms) and activate key brain structures even when they are not consciously detected. It appears that, similarly to what has been reported for emotional faces, sexual features benefit from automatic and rapid processing, most likely due to their high relevance for the individual and their importance for the species in terms of reproductive success. PMID:23894532

  11. Spatiotemporal profiles of visual processing with and without primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Poghosyan, Vahe; Liu, Lichan; Saridis, George A; Tamietto, Marco; Op de Beeck, Marc; De Tiège, Xavier; Weiskrantz, Lawrence; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2012-11-15

    The spatiotemporal profiles of visual processing are normally distributed in two temporal phases, each lasting about 100 ms. Within each phase, cortical processing begins in V1 and traverses the visual cortical hierarchy. However, the causal role of V1 in starting each of these two phases is unknown. Here we used magnetoencephalography to study the spatiotemporal profiles of visual processing and the causal contribution of V1 in three neurologically intact participants and in a rare patient (GY) with unilateral destruction of V1, in whom residual visual functions mediated by the extra-geniculostriate pathways have been reported. In healthy subjects, visual processing in the first 200 ms post-stimulus onset proceeded in the two usual phases. Normally perceived stimuli in the left hemifield of GY elicited a spatiotemporal profile in the intact right hemisphere that closely matched that of healthy subjects. However, stimuli presented in the cortically blind hemifield produced no detectable response during the first phase of processing, indicating that the responses in extrastriate visual areas during this phase are determined by the feedforward progression of activity initiated in V1. The first responses occurred during the second processing phase, in the ipsilesional high-level visual areas. The activity then spread forward toward higher-level areas and backward toward lower-level areas. However, in contrast to responses in the intact hemisphere, the back-propagated activity in the early visual cortex did not exhibit the classic retinotopic organization and did not have well-defined response peaks. PMID:22877580

  12. Emergence of spatiotemporal invariance in large neuronal ensembles in rat barrel cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Nathan S.; Chen-Bee, Cynthia H.; Frostig, Ron D.

    2015-01-01

    Invariant sensory coding is the robust coding of some sensory information (e.g., stimulus type) despite major changes in other sensory parameters (e.g., stimulus strength). The contribution of large populations of neurons (ensembles) to invariant sensory coding is not well understood, but could offer distinct advantages over invariance in single cell receptive fields. To test invariant sensory coding in neuronal ensembles evoked by single whisker stimulation as early as primary sensory cortex, we recorded detailed spatiotemporal movies of evoked ensemble activity through the depth of rat barrel cortex using microelectrode arrays. We found that an emergent property of whisker evoked ensemble activity, its spatiotemporal profile, was notably invariant across major changes in stimulus amplitude (up to >200-fold). Such ensemble-based invariance was found for single whisker stimulation as well as for the integrated profile of activity evoked by the more naturalistic stimulation of the entire whisker array. Further, the integrated profile of whisker array evoked ensemble activity and its invariance to stimulus amplitude shares striking similarities to “funneled” tactile perception in humans. We therefore suggest that ensemble-based invariance could provide a robust neurobiological substrate for invariant sensory coding and integration at an early stage of cortical sensory processing already in primary sensory cortex. PMID:26217194

  13. Optical Kerr Spatiotemporal Dark-Lump Dynamics of Hydrodynamic Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronio, Fabio; Wabnitz, Stefan; Kodama, Yuji

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable fundamental and applicative interest in obtaining nondiffractive and nondispersive spatiotemporal localized wave packets propagating in optical cubic nonlinear or Kerr media. Here, we analytically predict the existence of a novel family of spatiotemporal dark lump solitary wave solutions of the (2 +1 )D nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Dark lumps represent multidimensional holes of light on a continuous wave background. We analytically derive the dark lumps from the hydrodynamic exact soliton solutions of the (2 +1 )D shallow water Kadomtsev-Petviashvili model, inheriting their complex interaction properties. This finding opens a novel path for the excitation and control of optical spatiotemporal waveforms of hydrodynamic footprint and multidimensional optical extreme wave phenomena.

  14. Spatiotemporal localized modes in PT-symmetric optical media

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yue-Yue; Dai, Chao-Qing Wang, Xiao-Gang

    2014-09-15

    We firstly obtain spatiotemporal localized mode solutions of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation in PT-symmetric potentials, and then discuss the linear stability of LMs, which are also tested by means of direct simulations. Moreover, phase switches and transverse power-flow density associated with these localized modes have also been examined. At last, we investigate the dynamical behaviors of spatiotemporal LMs in three kinds of inhomogeneous media. - Highlights: • Spatiotemporal LMs of a (3+1)-dimensional NLSE in PT-symmetric potentials are obtained. • Phase switches and transverse power-flow density of LM are examined. • Dynamical behaviors of LMs in three kinds of inhomogeneous media are studied.

  15. Optical Kerr Spatiotemporal Dark-Lump Dynamics of Hydrodynamic Origin.

    PubMed

    Baronio, Fabio; Wabnitz, Stefan; Kodama, Yuji

    2016-04-29

    There is considerable fundamental and applicative interest in obtaining nondiffractive and nondispersive spatiotemporal localized wave packets propagating in optical cubic nonlinear or Kerr media. Here, we analytically predict the existence of a novel family of spatiotemporal dark lump solitary wave solutions of the (2+1)D nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Dark lumps represent multidimensional holes of light on a continuous wave background. We analytically derive the dark lumps from the hydrodynamic exact soliton solutions of the (2+1)D shallow water Kadomtsev-Petviashvili model, inheriting their complex interaction properties. This finding opens a novel path for the excitation and control of optical spatiotemporal waveforms of hydrodynamic footprint and multidimensional optical extreme wave phenomena. PMID:27176522

  16. Reaction diffusion equation with spatio-temporal delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhihong; Rong, Erhua

    2014-07-01

    We investigate reaction-diffusion equation with spatio-temporal delays, the global existence, uniqueness and asymptotic behavior of solutions for which in relation to constant steady-state solution, included in the region of attraction of a stable steady solution. It is shown that if the delay reaction function satisfies some conditions and the system possesses a pair of upper and lower solutions then there exists a unique global solution. In terms of the maximal and minimal constant solutions of the corresponding steady-state problem, we get the asymptotic stability of reaction-diffusion equation with spatio-temporal delay. Applying this theory to Lotka-Volterra model with spatio-temporal delay, we get the global solution asymptotically tend to the steady-state problem's steady-state solution.

  17. Spatiotemporal Stochastic Forcing In Ensemble Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, M. N.; Montero, P.; Pérez-Muñuzuri, V.

    In 1998, the ECMWF introduced in the operational Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) a new scheme to simulate random model errors due to parameterized phys- ical processes (Buizza et al., 1999). This scheme is based on the notion that this randomness is coherent between the different parameterization modules and has a certain coherence on the space and time scales represented by the model. Following this idea, we have perturbed with a spatiotemporal correlated noise of the Ornstein- Uhlenbeck type both, a diffusively coupled one-dimensional array of Lorenz chaotic cells (Lorenzo and Pérez-Muñuzuri, 1999, 2001), and a simplified atmospheric global circulation model, PUMA (Portable University Model of the Atmosphere) (Frisius et al., 1998). In both cases, forcing increases the spread of the ensemble for a certain value of the correlation time where the predictability also attains a critical value. On the other hand, for increasing correlation length ( fixed) the numerical results suggest a nonmonotonous behavior of the ensemble spread. The influence of noise amplitude, as well as the effect of a multiplicative or additive contribution of the noise is also shown. Finally, the impact of model resolution and ensemble size on the performance of the ensemble forecast has been analyzed numerically. newline [1] Buizza, R., Miller, M. and Palmer, T.N. (1999) Stochastic representation of model uncertainties in the ECMWF Ensemble Prediction System. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 125, 2887-2908. [2] Frisius, T., Lunkeit, F., Fraedrich, K. and James, I.N. (1998) Storm-track orga- nization and variability in a simplified atmospheric global circulation model. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 124, 1019-1043. [3] Lorenzo, M.N. and Pérez-Muñuzuri, V. (1999) Colored noise-induced chaotic ar- ray synchronization. Phys. Rev. E 60 2779-2787. [4] Lorenzo, M.N. and Pérez-Muñuzuri, V. (2001) Influence of low intensity noise on assemblies of diffusively coupled chaotic cells. Chaos 11, 371-376.

  18. Spatiotemporal modelling of viral infection dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchemin, Catherine

    Viral kinetics have been studied extensively in the past through the use of ordinary differential equations describing the time evolution of the diseased state in a spatially well-mixed medium. However, emerging spatial structures such as localized populations of dead cells might affect the spread of infection, similar to the manner in which a counter-fire can stop a forest fire from spreading. In the first phase of the project, a simple two-dimensional cellular automaton model of viral infections was developed. It was validated against clinical immunological data for uncomplicated influenza A infections and shown to be accurate enough to adequately model them. In the second phase of the project, the simple two-dimensional cellular automaton model was used to investigate the effects of relaxing the well-mixed assumption on viral infection dynamics. It was shown that grouping the initially infected cells into patches rather than distributing them uniformly on the grid reduced the infection rate as only cells on the perimeter of the patch have healthy neighbours to infect. Use of a local epithelial cell regeneration rule where dead cells are replaced by healthy cells when an immediate neighbour divides was found to result in more extensive damage of the epithelium and yielded a better fit to experimental influenza A infection data than a global regeneration rule based on division rate of healthy cell. Finally, the addition of immune cell at the site of infection was found to be a better strategy at low infection levels, while addition at random locations on the grid was the better strategy at high infection level. In the last project, the movement of T cells within lymph nodes in the absence of antigen, was investigated. Based on individual T cell track data captured by two-photon microscopy experiments in vivo, a simple model was proposed for the motion of T cells. This is the first step towards the implementation of a more realistic spatiotemporal model of HIV than

  19. Spatiotemporal observation of transport in fractured rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulenkampff, Johannes; Enzmann, Frieder; Gründig, Marion; Mittmann, Hellmuth; Wolf, Martin

    2010-05-01

    A number of injection experiments in different rocks types have been conducted with positron emission-process-tomography using a high-resolution "small-animal" PET-scanner (ClearPET by Raytest, Straubenhardt) for the monitoring of transport processes. The fluids are labelled with positron-emitting isotopes like e.g. 18F-, 124I- or dissolvable complexes like K3[58Co(CN)6], without affecting their physico-chemical properties. The annihilation radiation from individual decaying tracer atoms is detected with high sensitivity, and the tomographic reconstruction of the recorded events yields quantitative 3D-images of the tracer distribution. Sequential tomograms during and after tracer injection are used for the spatiotemporal observation of the fluid transport. Raw data is corrected with respect to background radiation (randoms) and Compton scattering, which turns out to be much more significant in rocks than in common biomedical applications. Although in principle these effects are exactly known, we developed and apply simplified and fast correction methods. Deficiencies of these correction algorithms generate some artefacts, that cause the lower limit of the tracer concentration in the order of 1 kBq/?l or about 107 atoms/?l, still outranging other methods (e.g. NMR or resistivity tomography) by many orders of magnitude. New 3D-visualizations of the process-tomograms in fractured rocks show strongly localized and complex flow paths and in parts unexpected deviations from the fracture structures as deduced from ?CT-images. Such results demonstrate the potential of large discrepancies between ?CT-derived parameters like pore volume and specific surface area and the hydraulic effective parameters as derived by means of the PET-process-tomography. We conclude that such discrepancies and the complexity of the transport process in natural heterogeneous porous media illustrates the limits of parameter determination methods from model simulations based on structural pore

  20. Brazilian Amazonia Deforestation Detection Using Spatio-Temporal Scan Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, C. A. O.; Santos, N. T.; Carneiro, A. P. S.; Balieiro, A. A. S.

    2012-07-01

    The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation's alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia), which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE). The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation's alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became actives again; and finally

  1. Time reversal and the spatio-temporal matched filter

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Poggio, A J; Kallman, J S; Meyer, A W; Candy, J V

    2004-03-08

    It is known that focusing of an acoustic field by a time-reversal mirror (TRM) is equivalent to a spatio-temporal matched filter under conditions where the Green's function of the field satisfies reciprocity and is time invariant, i.e. the Green's function is independent of the choice of time origin. In this letter, it is shown that both reciprocity and time invariance can be replaced by a more general constraint on the Green's function that allows a TRM to implement the spatio-temporal matched filter even when conditions are time varying.

  2. Spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas at X-ray wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Tibai, Z.; Hebling, J.; Mishra, S. K.

    2014-03-01

    Using a finite curvature beam, we investigate here the spatiotemporal focusing dynamics of a laser pulse in plasmas at X-ray wavelength. We trace the dependence of curvature parameter on the focusing of laser pulse and recognize that the self-focusing in plasma is more intense for the X-ray laser pulse with curved wavefront than with flat wavefront. The simulation results demonstrate that spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas can be controlled with the appropriate choice of beam-plasma parameters to explore the high intensity effects in X-ray regime.

  3. Spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas at X-ray wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A. Tibai, Z.; Hebling, J.; Mishra, S. K.

    2014-03-15

    Using a finite curvature beam, we investigate here the spatiotemporal focusing dynamics of a laser pulse in plasmas at X-ray wavelength. We trace the dependence of curvature parameter on the focusing of laser pulse and recognize that the self-focusing in plasma is more intense for the X-ray laser pulse with curved wavefront than with flat wavefront. The simulation results demonstrate that spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas can be controlled with the appropriate choice of beam-plasma parameters to explore the high intensity effects in X-ray regime.

  4. Male reproductive strategy explains spatiotemporal segregation in brown bears

    PubMed Central

    Steyaert, Sam MJG; Kindberg, Jonas; Swenson, Jon E; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    1. Spatiotemporal segregation is often explained by the risk for offspring predation or by differences in physiology, predation risk vulnerability or competitive abilities related to size dimorphism. 2. Most large carnivores are size dimorphic and offspring predation is often intraspecific and related to nonparental infanticide (NPI). NPI can be a foraging strategy, a strategy to reduce competition, or a male reproductive strategy. Spatiotemporal segregation is widespread among large carnivores, but its nature remains poorly understood. 3. We evaluated three hypotheses to explain spatiotemporal segregation in the brown bear, a size-dimorphic large carnivore in which NPI is common; the ‘NPI – foraging/competition hypothesis', i.e. NPI as a foraging strategy or a strategy to reduce competition, the ‘NPI – sexual selection hypothesis’, i.e. infanticide as a male reproductive strategy and the ‘body size hypothesis’, i.e. body-size-related differences in physiology, predation risk vulnerability or competitive ability causes spatiotemporal segregation. To test these hypotheses, we quantified spatiotemporal segregation among adult males, lone adult females and females with cubs-of-the-year, based on GPS-relocation data (2006–2010) and resource selection functions in a Scandinavian population. 4. We found that spatiotemporal segregation was strongest between females with cubs-of-the-year and adult males during the mating season. During the mating season, females with cubs-of-the-year selected their resources, in contrast to adult males, in less rugged landscapes in relative close proximity to certain human-related variables, and in more open habitat types. After the mating season, females with cubs-of-the-year markedly shifted their resource selection towards a pattern more similar to that of their conspecifics. No strong spatiotemporal segregation was apparent between females with cubs-of-the-year and conspecifics during the mating and the postmating

  5. Improving transverse resolution of confocal microscopy through spatiotemporal modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baokai; Zou, Limin; Zhang, Su; Tan, Jiubin

    2015-11-01

    A new method is proposed in this paper to improve transverse resolution of a confocal microscope. By setting up the model of a confocal microscope system through spatiotemporal modulation with moving gratings or acousto-optical modulation without defocus distance under coherent light illumination and deducing two-dimensional coherent image formula and transfer function, simulation tests are run with or without spatiotemporal modulation to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method. Simulation results indicate the proposed method can be used to improve the transverse resolution of a confocal microscope system.

  6. Routes to spatiotemporal chaos in Kerr optical frequency combs

    SciTech Connect

    Coillet, Aurélien; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2014-03-15

    We investigate the various routes to spatiotemporal chaos in Kerr optical frequency combs, obtained through pumping an ultra-high Q-factor whispering-gallery mode resonator with a continuous-wave laser. The Lugiato–Lefever model is used to build bifurcation diagrams with regards to the parameters that are externally controllable, namely, the frequency and the power of the pumping laser. We show that the spatiotemporal chaos emerging from Turing patterns and solitons display distinctive dynamical features. Experimental spectra of chaotic Kerr combs are also presented for both cases, in excellent agreement with theoretical spectra.

  7. Multiple dipole modeling and localization from spatio-temporal MEG data

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.C. ); Lewis, P.S. ); Leahy, R. )

    1992-06-01

    An array of biomagnetometers may be used to measure the spatio-temporal neuromagnetic field or magnetoencephalogram (MEG) produced by neural activity in the brain. A popular model for the neural activity produced in response to a given sensory stimulus is a set of current dipoles, where each dipole represents the primary current associated with the combined activation of a large number of neutrons located in a small volume of the brain. An important problem in the interpretation of MEG data from evoked response experiments is the localization of these neural current dipoles. The authors present here a linear algebraic framework for three common spatio-temporal dipole models: (i) unconstrained dipoles, (ii) dipoles with a fixed location, and (iii) dipoles with a fixed orientation and location. In all cases, they assume that the location, orientation, and magnitude of the dipoles are unknown. With a common model, they show how the parameter estimation problem may be decomposed into the estimation of the time invariant parameter using nonlinear least-squares minimization, followed by linear estimation of the associated time varying parameters. A subspace formulation is presented and used to derive a suboptimal least-squares subspace scanning method. The resulting algorithm is a special case of the well-known MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) method, in which the solution (multiple dipole locations) is found by scanning potential locations using a simple one dipole model.

  8. Spatio-temporal coupling of EEG signals in epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senger, Vanessa; Müller, Jens; Tetzlaff, Ronald

    2011-05-01

    Approximately 1% of the world's population suffer from epileptic seizures throughout their lives that mostly come without sign or warning. Thus, epilepsy is the most common chronical disorder of the neurological system. In the past decades, the problem of detecting a pre-seizure state in epilepsy using EEG signals has been addressed in many contributions by various authors over the past two decades. Up to now, the goal of identifying an impending epileptic seizure with sufficient specificity and reliability has not yet been achieved. Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) are characterized by local couplings of dynamical systems of comparably low complexity. Thus, they are well suited for an implementation as highly parallel analogue processors. Programmable sensor-processor realizations of CNN combine high computational power comparable to tera ops of digital processors with low power consumption. An algorithm allowing an automated and reliable detection of epileptic seizure precursors would be a"huge step" towards the vision of an implantable seizure warning device that could provide information to patients and for a time/event specific treatment directly in the brain. Recent contributions have shown that modeling of brain electrical activity by solutions of Reaction-Diffusion-CNN as well as the application of a CNN predictor taking into account values of neighboring electrodes may contribute to the realization of a seizure warning device. In this paper, a CNN based predictor corresponding to a spatio-temporal filter is applied to multi channel EEG data in order to identify mutual couplings for different channels which lead to a enhanced prediction quality. Long term EEG recordings of different patients are considered. Results calculated for these recordings with inter-ictal phases as well as phases with seizures will be discussed in detail.

  9. Ultrashort relativistic electron bunches and spatio-temporal radiation biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauduel, Y. A.; Faure, J.; Malka, V.

    2008-08-01

    The intensive developments of terawatt Ti:Sa lasers permit to extend laser-plasma interactions into the relativistic regime, providing very-short electron or proton bunches. Experimental researches developed at the interface of laser physics and radiation biology, using the combination of sub-picosecond electron beams in the energy range 2-15 MeV with femtosecond near-IR optical pulses might conjecture the real-time investigation of penetrating radiation effects. A perfect synchronization between the particle beam (pump) and optical beam at 820 nm (probe) allows subpicosecond time resolution. This emerging domain involves high-energy radiation femtochemistry (HERF) for which the early spatial energy deposition is decisive for the prediction of cellular and tissular radiation damages. With vacuum-focused intensities of 2.7 x 1019 W cm-2 and a high energy electron total charge of 2.5 nC, radiation events have been investigated in the temporal range 10-13 - 10-10s. The early radiation effects of secondary electron on biomolecular sensors may be investigated inside sub-micrometric ionisation, considering the radial direction of Gaussian electron bunches. It is shown that short range electron-biosensor interactions lower than 10 A take place in nascent track structures triggered by penetrating radiation bunches. The very high dose delivery 1013 Gy s-1 performed with laser plasma accelerator may challenge our understanding of nanodosimetry on the time scale of molecular target motions. High-quality ultrashort penetrating radiation beams open promising opportunities for the development of spatio-temporal radiation biology, a crucial domain of cancer therapy, and would favor novating applications in nanomedicine such as highly-selective shortrange pro-drug activation.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Hypoxia during Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Harald; Bleicher, Marcus; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tumour hypoxia plays a pivotal role in cancer therapy for most therapeutic approaches from radiotherapy to immunotherapy. The detailed and accurate knowledge of the oxygen distribution in a tumour is necessary in order to determine the right treatment strategy. Still, due to the limited spatial and temporal resolution of imaging methods as well as lacking fundamental understanding of internal oxygenation dynamics in tumours, the precise oxygen distribution map is rarely available for treatment planing. We employ an agent-based in silico tumour spheroid model in order to study the complex, localized and fast oxygen dynamics in tumour micro-regions which are induced by radiotherapy. A lattice-free, 3D, agent-based approach for cell representation is coupled with a high-resolution diffusion solver that includes a tissue density-dependent diffusion coefficient. This allows us to assess the space- and time-resolved reoxygenation response of a small subvolume of tumour tissue in response to radiotherapy. In response to irradiation the tumour nodule exhibits characteristic reoxygenation and re-depletion dynamics which we resolve with high spatio-temporal resolution. The reoxygenation follows specific timings, which should be respected in treatment in order to maximise the use of the oxygen enhancement effects. Oxygen dynamics within the tumour create windows of opportunity for the use of adjuvant chemotherapeutica and hypoxia-activated drugs. Overall, we show that by using modelling it is possible to follow the oxygenation dynamics beyond common resolution limits and predict beneficial strategies for therapy and in vitro verification. Models of cell cycle and oxygen dynamics in tumours should in the future be combined with imaging techniques, to allow for a systematic experimental study of possible improved schedules and to ultimately extend the reach of oxygenation monitoring available in clinical treatment. PMID:26273841

  11. Resonant spatiotemporal learning in large random recurrent networks.

    PubMed

    Daucé, Emmanuel; Quoy, Mathias; Doyon, Bernard

    2002-09-01

    Taking a global analogy with the structure of perceptual biological systems, we present a system composed of two layers of real-valued sigmoidal neurons. The primary layer receives stimulating spatiotemporal signals, and the secondary layer is a fully connected random recurrent network. This secondary layer spontaneously displays complex chaotic dynamics. All connections have a constant time delay. We use for our experiments a Hebbian (covariance) learning rule. This rule slowly modifies the weights under the influence of a periodic stimulus. The effect of learning is twofold: (i) it simplifies the secondary-layer dynamics, which eventually stabilizes to a periodic orbit; and (ii) it connects the secondary layer to the primary layer, and realizes a feedback from the secondary to the primary layer. This feedback signal is added to the incoming signal, and matches it (i.e., the secondary layer performs a one-step prediction of the forthcoming stimulus). After learning, a resonant behavior can be observed: the system resonates with familiar stimuli, which activates a feedback signal. In particular, this resonance allows the recognition and retrieval of partial signals, and dynamic maintenance of the memory of past stimuli. This resonance is highly sensitive to the temporal relationships and to the periodicity of the presented stimuli. When we present stimuli which do not match in time or space, the feedback remains silent. The number of different stimuli for which resonant behavior can be learned is analyzed. As with Hopfield networks, the capacity is proportional to the size of the second, recurrent layer. Moreover, the high capacity displayed allows the implementation of our model on real-time systems interacting with their environment. Such an implementation is reported in the case of a simple behavior-based recognition task on a mobile robot. Finally, we present some functional analogies with biological systems in terms of autonomy and dynamic binding, and present

  12. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Hypoxia during Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Harald; Bleicher, Marcus; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tumour hypoxia plays a pivotal role in cancer therapy for most therapeutic approaches from radiotherapy to immunotherapy. The detailed and accurate knowledge of the oxygen distribution in a tumour is necessary in order to determine the right treatment strategy. Still, due to the limited spatial and temporal resolution of imaging methods as well as lacking fundamental understanding of internal oxygenation dynamics in tumours, the precise oxygen distribution map is rarely available for treatment planing. We employ an agent-based in silico tumour spheroid model in order to study the complex, localized and fast oxygen dynamics in tumour micro-regions which are induced by radiotherapy. A lattice-free, 3D, agent-based approach for cell representation is coupled with a high-resolution diffusion solver that includes a tissue density-dependent diffusion coefficient. This allows us to assess the space- and time-resolved reoxygenation response of a small subvolume of tumour tissue in response to radiotherapy. In response to irradiation the tumour nodule exhibits characteristic reoxygenation and re-depletion dynamics which we resolve with high spatio-temporal resolution. The reoxygenation follows specific timings, which should be respected in treatment in order to maximise the use of the oxygen enhancement effects. Oxygen dynamics within the tumour create windows of opportunity for the use of adjuvant chemotherapeutica and hypoxia-activated drugs. Overall, we show that by using modelling it is possible to follow the oxygenation dynamics beyond common resolution limits and predict beneficial strategies for therapy and in vitro verification. Models of cell cycle and oxygen dynamics in tumours should in the future be combined with imaging techniques, to allow for a systematic experimental study of possible improved schedules and to ultimately extend the reach of oxygenation monitoring available in clinical treatment. PMID:26273841

  13. Myocardial blood flow measurement with a conventional dual-head SPECT/CT with spatiotemporal iterative reconstructions - a clinical feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Alhassen, Fares; Nguyen, Nhan; Bains, Sukhkarn; Gould, Robert G; Seo, Youngho; Bacharach, Stephen L; Song, Xiyun; Shao, Lingxiong; Gullberg, Grant T; Aparici, Carina Mari

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cameras typically rotate too slowly around a patient to capture changes in the blood pool activity distribution and provide accurate kinetic parameters. A spatiotemporal iterative reconstruction method to overcome these limitations was investigated. Dynamic rest/stress 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) SPECT/CT was performed along with reference standard rest/stress dynamic positron emission tomography (PET/CT) 13N-NH3 in five patients. The SPECT data were reconstructed using conventional and spatiotemporal iterative reconstruction methods. The spatiotemporal reconstruction yielded improved image quality, defined here as a statistically significant (p<0.01) 50% contrast enhancement. We did not observe a statistically significant difference between the correlations of the conventional and spatiotemporal SPECT myocardial uptake K 1 values with PET K 1 values (r=0.25, 0.88, respectively) (p<0.17). These results indicate the clinical feasibility of quantitative, dynamic SPECT/CT using 99mTc-MIBI and warrant further investigation. Spatiotemporal reconstruction clearly provides an advantage over a conventional reconstruction in computing K 1. PMID:24380045

  14. Spatio-temporal analysis of environmental radiation in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.Y.; Lee, B.C.; Shin, H.K.

    2007-07-01

    Geostatistical visualization of environmental radiation is a very powerful approach to explore and understand spatio-temporal variabilities of environmental radiation data. Spatial patterns of environmental radiation can be described quantitatively in terms of variogram and kriging, which are based on the idea that statistical variation of data are functions of distance. (authors)

  15. Spatiotemporal characterization of Sclerotinia crown rot epidemics in pyrethrum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia crown rot, caused by Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum is a disease of pyrethrum in Australia that may cause substantial decline in plant density. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the disease were quantified in 14 fields spread across three growing seasons. Fitting the binary ...

  16. Location, Location, Location: Development of Spatiotemporal Sequence Learning in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkham, Natasha Z.; Slemmer, Jonathan A.; Richardson, Daniel C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated infants' sensitivity to spatiotemporal structure. In Experiment 1, circles appeared in a statistically defined spatial pattern. At test 11-month-olds, but not 8-month-olds, looked longer at a novel spatial sequence. Experiment 2 presented different color/shape stimuli, but only the location sequence was violated during test;…

  17. Supporting user-defined granularities in a spatiotemporal conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khatri, V.; Ram, S.; Snodgrass, R.T.; O'Brien, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Granularities are integral to spatial and temporal data. A large number of applications require storage of facts along with their temporal and spatial context, which needs to be expressed in terms of appropriate granularities. For many real-world applications, a single granularity in the database is insufficient. In order to support any type of spatial or temporal reasoning, the semantics related to granularities needs to be embedded in the database. Specifying granularities related to facts is an important part of conceptual database design because under-specifying the granularity can restrict an application, affect the relative ordering of events and impact the topological relationships. Closely related to granularities is indeterminacy, i.e., an occurrence time or location associated with a fact that is not known exactly. In this paper, we present an ontology for spatial granularities that is a natural analog of temporal granularities. We propose an upward-compatible, annotation-based spatiotemporal conceptual model that can comprehensively capture the semantics related to spatial and temporal granularities, and indeterminacy without requiring new spatiotemporal constructs. We specify the formal semantics of this spatiotemporal conceptual model via translation to a conventional conceptual model. To underscore the practical focus of our approach, we describe an on-going case study. We apply our approach to a hydrogeologic application at the United States Geologic Survey and demonstrate that our proposed granularity-based spatiotemporal conceptual model is straightforward to use and is comprehensive.

  18. Contrast Adaptation Implies Two Spatiotemporal Channels but Three Adapting Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Keith; Bex, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    The contrast gain control model of adaptation predicts that the effects of contrast adaptation correlate with contrast sensitivity. This article reports that the effects of high contrast spatiotemporal adaptors are maximum when adapting around 19 Hz, which is a factor of two or more greater than the peak in contrast sensitivity. To explain the…

  19. Spatiotemporal information during unsupervised learning enhances viewpoint invariant object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Moqian; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing objects is difficult because it requires both linking views of an object that can be different and distinguishing objects with similar appearance. Interestingly, people can learn to recognize objects across views in an unsupervised way, without feedback, just from the natural viewing statistics. However, there is intense debate regarding what information during unsupervised learning is used to link among object views. Specifically, researchers argue whether temporal proximity, motion, or spatiotemporal continuity among object views during unsupervised learning is beneficial. Here, we untangled the role of each of these factors in unsupervised learning of novel three-dimensional (3-D) objects. We found that after unsupervised training with 24 object views spanning a 180° view space, participants showed significant improvement in their ability to recognize 3-D objects across rotation. Surprisingly, there was no advantage to unsupervised learning with spatiotemporal continuity or motion information than training with temporal proximity. However, we discovered that when participants were trained with just a third of the views spanning the same view space, unsupervised learning via spatiotemporal continuity yielded significantly better recognition performance on novel views than learning via temporal proximity. These results suggest that while it is possible to obtain view-invariant recognition just from observing many views of an object presented in temporal proximity, spatiotemporal information enhances performance by producing representations with broader view tuning than learning via temporal association. Our findings have important implications for theories of object recognition and for the development of computational algorithms that learn from examples. PMID:26024454

  20. Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X waves.

    PubMed

    Trull, J; Jedrkiewicz, O; Di Trapani, P; Matijosius, A; Varanavicius, A; Valiulis, G; Danielius, R; Kucinskas, E; Piskarskas, A; Trillo, S

    2004-02-01

    The spatiotemporal intensity profile of a 100-fs wave packet at the output of a X2 crystal, tuned for mismatched second-harmonic generation, is probed via sum-frequency generation with a compressed, 20-fs pulse, revealing the appearance of an X-type wave shape. PMID:14995580

  1. Robust visual tracking with dual spatio-temporal context trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shiyan; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Visual tracking is a challenging problem in computer vision. Recent years, significant numbers of trackers have been proposed. Among these trackers, tracking with dense spatio-temporal context has been proved to be an efficient and accurate method. Other than trackers with online trained classifier that struggle to meet the requirement of real-time tracking task, a tracker with spatio-temporal context can run at hundreds of frames per second with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Nevertheless, the performance of the tracker with Spatio-temporal context relies heavily on the learning rate of the context, which restricts the robustness of the tracker. In this paper, we proposed a tracking method with dual spatio-temporal context trackers that hold different learning rate during tracking. The tracker with high learning rate could track the target smoothly when the appearance of target changes, while the tracker with low learning rate could percepts the occlusion occurring and continues to track when the target starts to emerge again. To find the target among the candidates from these two trackers, we adopt Normalized Correlation Coefficient (NCC) to evaluate the confidence of each sample. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs robustly against several state-of-the-art tracking methods.

  2. Fast Spatio-Temporal Data Mining from Large Geophysical Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolorz, P.; Mesrobian, E.; Muntz, R.; Santos, J. R.; Shek, E.; Yi, J.; Mechoso, C.; Farrara, J.

    1995-01-01

    Use of the UCLA CONQUEST (CONtent-based Querying in Space and Time) is reviewed for performance of automatic cyclone extraction and detection of spatio-temporal blocking conditions on MPP. CONQUEST is a data analysis environment for knowledge and data mining to aid in high-resolution modeling of climate modeling.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Cross Polarized Wave Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Daniel; Squier, Jeff; Durfee, Charles

    2009-10-01

    We use time-domain Spatially and Spectrally Resolved Interferometry (SSRI) to investigate cross-polarized wave (XPW) generation in barium fluoride. We find that the XPW pulse is √3 smaller than the input in the spatiotemporal domain regardless of the input chirp. Additionally, we calculate a temporally dependent focal length resulting from the nonlinear interaction, and discuss its implications.

  4. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

  5. Spatiotemporal modeling of irregularly spaced Aerosol Optical Depth data

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Jacob J.; Kumar, Naresh; Smith, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Many advancements have been introduced to tackle spatial and temporal structures in data. When the spatial and/or temporal domains are relatively large, assumptions must be made to account for the sheer size of the data. The large data size, coupled with realities that come with observational data, make it difficult for all of these assumptions to be met. In particular, air quality data are very sparse across geographic space and time, due to a limited air pollution monitoring network. These “missing” values make it diffcult to incorporate most dimension reduction techniques developed for high-dimensional spatiotemporal data. This article examines aerosol optical depth (AOD), an indirect measure of radiative forcing, and air quality. The spatiotemporal distribution of AOD can be influenced by both natural (e.g., meteorological conditions) and anthropogenic factors (e.g., emission from industries and transport). After accounting for natural factors influencing AOD, we examine the spatiotemporal relationship in the remaining human influenced portion of AOD. The presented data cover a portion of India surrounding New Delhi from 2000 – 2006. The proposed method is demonstrated showing how it can handle the large spatiotemporal structure containing so much missing data for both meteorologic conditions and AOD over time and space. PMID:24470786

  6. Cubic map algebra functions for spatio-temporal analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mennis, J.; Viger, R.; Tomlin, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    We propose an extension of map algebra to three dimensions for spatio-temporal data handling. This approach yields a new class of map algebra functions that we call "cube functions." Whereas conventional map algebra functions operate on data layers representing two-dimensional space, cube functions operate on data cubes representing two-dimensional space over a third-dimensional period of time. We describe the prototype implementation of a spatio-temporal data structure and selected cube function versions of conventional local, focal, and zonal map algebra functions. The utility of cube functions is demonstrated through a case study analyzing the spatio-temporal variability of remotely sensed, southeastern U.S. vegetation character over various land covers and during different El Nin??o/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases. Like conventional map algebra, the application of cube functions may demand significant data preprocessing when integrating diverse data sets, and are subject to limitations related to data storage and algorithm performance. Solutions to these issues include extending data compression and computing strategies for calculations on very large data volumes to spatio-temporal data handling.

  7. Finding Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Large Sensor Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Michael Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Spatial or temporal data mining tasks are performed in the context of the relevant space, defined by a spatial neighborhood, and the relevant time period, defined by a specific time interval. Furthermore, when mining large spatio-temporal datasets, interesting patterns typically emerge where the dataset is most dynamic. This dissertation is…

  8. Kernel Averaged Predictors for Spatio-Temporal Regression Models.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Matthew J; Gelfand, Alan E

    2012-12-01

    In applications where covariates and responses are observed across space and time, a common goal is to quantify the effect of a change in the covariates on the response while adequately accounting for the spatio-temporal structure of the observations. The most common approach for building such a model is to confine the relationship between a covariate and response variable to a single spatio-temporal location. However, oftentimes the relationship between the response and predictors may extend across space and time. In other words, the response may be affected by levels of predictors in spatio-temporal proximity to the response location. Here, a flexible modeling framework is proposed to capture such spatial and temporal lagged effects between a predictor and a response. Specifically, kernel functions are used to weight a spatio-temporal covariate surface in a regression model for the response. The kernels are assumed to be parametric and non-stationary with the data informing the parameter values of the kernel. The methodology is illustrated on simulated data as well as a physical data set of ozone concentrations to be explained by temperature. PMID:24010051

  9. Mapping and spatiotemporal analysis tool for hydrological data: Spellmap

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lack of data management and analyses tools is one of the major limitations to effectively evaluate and use large datasets of high-resolution atmospheric, surface, and subsurface observations. High spatial and temporal resolution datasets better represent the spatiotemporal variability of hydrologica...

  10. Spatiotemporal Temperature Distribution and Cancer Cell Death in Response to Extracellular Hyperthermia Induced by Gold Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huang-Chiao; Rege, Kaushal; Heys, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles have shown promise in hyperthermic cancer therapy, both in vitro and in vivo. Previous reports have described hyperthermic ablation using targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles internalized by cancer cells, but most reports do not describe a theoretical analysis for determining optimal parameters. The focus of the current research was first to evaluate the spatiotemporal temperature distribution and cell death induced by extracellular hyperthermia in which gold nanorods (GNRs) were maintained in the dispersion outside human prostate cancer cells. The nanorod dispersion was irradiated with near infrared (NIR) laser and the spatiotemporal distribution of temperature was determined experimentally. This information was employed to develop and validate theoretical models of spatiotemporal temperature profiles for gold nanorod dispersions undergoing laser irradiation, and the impact of the resulting heat generation on the viability of human prostate cancer cells. A cell injury/death model was then coupled to the heat transfer model to predict spatial and temporal variations in cell death and injury. The model predictions agreed well with experimental measurements of both, temperature and cell death profiles. Finally, the model was extended to examine the impact of selective binding of gold nanorods to cancer cells compared to non-malignant cells, coupled with a small change in cell injury activation energy. The impact of these relatively minor changes results in a dramatic change in the overall cell death rate. Taken together, extracellular hyperthermia using gold nanorods is a promising strategy and tailoring the cellular binding efficacy of nanorods can result in varying therapeutic efficacies using this approach. PMID:20387828

  11. Field scale spatio-temporal soil moisture variability for trafficability and crop water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, Coleen; van der Ploeg, Martine; Ritsema, Coen

    2016-04-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of soil moisture have been studied mostly for inputs in land surface models for weather and climate predictions. Remote sensing techniques for estimation of soil moisture have been explored because of the good spatial coverage at different scales. Current available satellite data provide surface soil moisture as microwave systems only measure soil moisture content up to 5cm soil depth. The OWAS1S project will focus on estimation of soil moisture from freely available Sentinel-1 datasets for operational water management in agricultural areas. As part of the project, it is essential to develop spatio-temporal methods to estimate root zone soil moisture from surface soil moisture. This will be used for crop water availability and trafficability in selected agricultural fields in the Netherlands. A network of single capacitance sensors installed per field will provide continuous measurements of soil moisture in the study area. Ground penetrating radar will be used to measure soil moisture variability within a single field for different time periods. During wetter months, optimal conditions for traffic will be assessed using simultaneous soil strength and soil moisture measurements. Towards water deficit periods, focus is on the relation (or the lack thereof) between surface soil moisture and root zone soil moisture to determine the amount of water for crops. Spatio-temporal distribution will determine important physical controls for surface and root zone soil moisture and provide insights for root-zone soil moisture. Existing models for field scale soil-water balance and data assimilation methods (e.g. Kalman filter) will be combined to estimate root zone soil moisture. Furthermore, effects of root development on soil structure and soil hydraulic properties and subsequent effects on trafficability and crop water availability will be investigated. This research project has recently started, therefore we want to present methods and framework of

  12. Spatiotemporal Analyses of Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis via Intravital Imaging in Cranial Bone Defect Repair

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chunlan; Ness, Vincent P.; Yang, Xiaochuan; Chen, Hongli; Luo, Jiebo; Brown, Edward B; Zhang, Xinping

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis and angiogenesis are two integrated components in bone repair and regeneration. A deeper understanding of osteogenesis and angiogenesis has been hampered by technical difficulties of analyzing bone and neovasculature simultaneously in spatiotemporal scales and in three-dimensional formats. To overcome these barriers, a cranial defect window chamber model was established that enabled high-resolution, longitudinal, and real-time tracking of angiogenesis and bone defect healing via Multiphoton Laser Scanning Microscopy (MPLSM). By simultaneously probing new bone matrix via second harmonic generation (SHG), neovascular networks via intravenous perfusion of fluorophore, and osteoblast differentiation via 2.3kb collagen type I promoter driven GFP (Col2.3GFP), we examined the morphogenetic sequence of cranial bone defect healing and further established the spatiotemporal analyses of osteogenesis and angiogenesis coupling in repair and regeneration. We demonstrated that bone defect closure was initiated in the residual bone around the edge of the defect. The expansion and migration of osteoprogenitors into the bone defect occurred during the first 3 weeks of healing, coupled with vigorous microvessel angiogenesis at the leading edge of the defect. Subsequent bone repair was marked by matrix deposition and active vascular network remodeling within new bone. Implantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) isolated from Col2.3GFP mice further showed that donor-dependent bone formation occurred rapidly within the first 3 weeks of implantation, in concert with early angiogenesis. The subsequent bone wound closure was largely host-dependent, associated with localized modest induction of angiogenesis. The establishment of a live imaging platform via cranial window provides a unique tool to understand osteogenesis and angiogenesis in repair and regeneration, enabling further elucidation of the spatiotemporal regulatory mechanisms of osteoprogenitor cell interactions

  13. Spatiotemporal Analyses of Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis via Intravital Imaging in Cranial Bone Defect Repair.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunlan; Ness, Vincent P; Yang, Xiaochuan; Chen, Hongli; Luo, Jiebo; Brown, Edward B; Zhang, Xinping

    2015-07-01

    Osteogenesis and angiogenesis are two integrated components in bone repair and regeneration. A deeper understanding of osteogenesis and angiogenesis has been hampered by technical difficulties of analyzing bone and neovasculature simultaneously in spatiotemporal scales and in 3D formats. To overcome these barriers, a cranial defect window chamber model was established that enabled high-resolution, longitudinal, and real-time tracking of angiogenesis and bone defect healing via multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM). By simultaneously probing new bone matrix via second harmonic generation (SHG), neovascular networks via intravenous perfusion of fluorophore, and osteoblast differentiation via 2.3-kb collagen type I promoter-driven GFP (Col2.3GFP), we examined the morphogenetic sequence of cranial bone defect healing and further established the spatiotemporal analyses of osteogenesis and angiogenesis coupling in repair and regeneration. We showed that bone defect closure was initiated in the residual bone around the edge of the defect. The expansion and migration of osteoprogenitors into the bone defect occurred during the first 3 weeks of healing, coupled with vigorous microvessel angiogenesis at the leading edge of the defect. Subsequent bone repair was marked by matrix deposition and active vascular network remodeling within new bone. Implantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) isolated from Col2.3GFP mice further showed that donor-dependent bone formation occurred rapidly within the first 3 weeks of implantation, in concert with early angiogenesis. The subsequent bone wound closure was largely host-dependent, associated with localized modest induction of angiogenesis. The establishment of a live imaging platform via cranial window provides a unique tool to understand osteogenesis and angiogenesis in repair and regeneration, enabling further elucidation of the spatiotemporal regulatory mechanisms of osteoprogenitor cell interactions with host bone

  14. Beamformer-based spatiotemporal imaging of linearly-related source components using electromagnetic neural signals.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hui-Ling; Chen, Li-Fen; Chen, I-Tzu; Chen, Yong-Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Functional connectivity calculated using multiple channels of electromagnetic brain signals is often over- or underestimated due to volume conduction or field spread. Considering connectivity measures, coherence is suitable for the detection of rhythmic synchronization, whereas temporal correlation is appropriate for transient synchronization. This paper presents a beamformer-based imaging method, called spatiotemporal imaging of linearly-related source component (SILSC), which is capable of estimating connectivity at the cortical level by extracting the source component with the maximum temporal correlation between the activity of each targeted region and a reference signal. The spatiotemporal correlation dynamics can be obtained by applying SILSC at every brain region and with various time latencies. The results of six simulation studies demonstrated that SILSC is sensitive to detect the source activity correlated to the specified reference signal and is accurate and robust to noise in terms of source localization. In a facial expression imitation experiment, the correlation dynamics estimated by SILSC revealed the regions with mirror properties and the regions involved in motor control network when performing the imitation and execution tasks, respectively, with the left inferior frontal gyrus specified as the reference region. PMID:25804642

  15. Spatiotemporal choreography of chromosome and megaplasmids in the Sinorhizobium meliloti cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Frage, Benjamin; Döhlemann, Johannes; Robledo, Marta; Lucena, Daniella; Sobetzko, Patrick; Graumann, Peter L; Becker, Anke

    2016-06-01

    A considerable share of bacterial species maintains multipartite genomes. Precise coordination of genome replication and segregation with cell growth and division is vital for proliferation of these bacteria. The α-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti possesses a tripartite genome composed of one chromosome and the megaplasmids pSymA and pSymB. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal pattern of segregation of these S. meliloti replicons at single cell level. Duplication of chromosomal and megaplasmid origins of replication occurred spatially and temporally separated, and only once per cell cycle. Tracking of FROS (fluorescent repressor operator system)-labelled origins revealed a strict temporal order of segregation events commencing with the chromosome followed by pSymA and then by pSymB. The repA2B2C2 region derived from pSymA was sufficient to confer the spatiotemporal behaviour of this megaplasmid to a small plasmid. Altering activity of the ubiquitous prokaryotic replication initiator DnaA, either positively or negatively, resulted in an increase in replication initiation events or G1 arrest of the chromosome only. This suggests that interference with DnaA activity does not affect replication initiation control of the megaplasmids. PMID:26853523

  16. Spatiotemporal calcium signaling in a Drosophila melanogaster cell line stably expressing a Drosophila muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Cordova, D; Delpech, V Raymond; Sattelle, D B; Rauh, J J

    2003-11-01

    A muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), DM1, expressed in the nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, has been stably expressed in a Drosophila S2 cell line (S2-DM1) and used to investigate spatiotemporal calcium changes following agonist activation. Carbamylcholine (CCh) and oxotremorine are potent agonists, whereas application of the vertebrate M1 mAChR agonist, McN-A-343, results in a weak response. Activation of S2-DM1 receptors using CCh resulted in an increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) that was biphasic. Two distinct calcium sources were found to contribute to calcium signaling: (1) internal stores that are sensitive to both thapsigargin and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and (2) capacitative calcium entry. Spatiotemporal imaging of individual S2-DM1 cells showed that the CCh-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transient resulted from a homogeneous calcium increase throughout the cell, indicative of calcium release from internal stores. In contrast, ionomycin induced the formation of a "calcium ring" at the cell periphery, consistent with external calcium influx. PMID:12827518

  17. Investigations on postural stability and spatiotemporal parameters of human gait using developed wearable smart insole.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratan; Kumar, Neelesh

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of spatiotemporal parameters of human gait is important for designing new, intelligent and efficient prosthetic and orthotic devices. The paper presents a novel application of smart insole for measuring force generated at various pressure points during dynamic gait on a human foot. Besides recording and analysing the spatiotemporal parameters during stance phase, the developed sensor is also used for development of active orthotic devices. Data from the sensors is analysed in LabVIEW software for detection of plantar force and temporal gait parameters. The smart instrumentation allows processing, display and storage of gait parameters and gait events in real time. Variations of pressure pattern reported by gait experiments can also be used in identifying an accidental fall. This information will be used as a feedback signal for controlling the motion of an indigenously developed gait assistive device, i.e. an active orthotic device. Pressure at the heel and great toe points is higher than the metatarsal heads during dynamic walk. It is higher at the heel and metatarsals points than the toe point during standing position. PMID:25350821

  18. Improved discriminability of spatiotemporal neural patterns in rat motor cortical areas as directional choice learning progresses

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Hongwei; Yuan, Yuan; Si, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    Animals learn to choose a proper action among alternatives to improve their odds of success in food foraging and other activities critical for survival. Through trial-and-error, they learn correct associations between their choices and external stimuli. While a neural network that underlies such learning process has been identified at a high level, it is still unclear how individual neurons and a neural ensemble adapt as learning progresses. In this study, we monitored the activity of single units in the rat medial and lateral agranular (AGm and AGl, respectively) areas as rats learned to make a left or right side lever press in response to a left or right side light cue. We noticed that rat movement parameters during the performance of the directional choice task quickly became stereotyped during the first 2–3 days or sessions. But learning the directional choice problem took weeks to occur. Accompanying rats' behavioral performance adaptation, we observed neural modulation by directional choice in recorded single units. Our analysis shows that ensemble mean firing rates in the cue-on period did not change significantly as learning progressed, and the ensemble mean rate difference between left and right side choices did not show a clear trend of change either. However, the spatiotemporal firing patterns of the neural ensemble exhibited improved discriminability between the two directional choices through learning. These results suggest a spatiotemporal neural coding scheme in a motor cortical neural ensemble that may be responsible for and contributing to learning the directional choice task. PMID:25798093

  19. A High Performance Bayesian Computing Framework for Spatiotemporal Uncertainty Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, G.

    2015-12-01

    All types of spatiotemporal measurements are subject to uncertainty. With spatiotemporal data becomes increasingly involved in scientific research and decision making, it is important to appropriately model the impact of uncertainty. Quantitatively modeling spatiotemporal uncertainty, however, is a challenging problem considering the complex dependence and dataheterogeneities.State-space models provide a unifying and intuitive framework for dynamic systems modeling. In this paper, we aim to extend the conventional state-space models for uncertainty modeling in space-time contexts while accounting for spatiotemporal effects and data heterogeneities. Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) models, also known as conditional autoregressive models, are arguably the most commonly used methods for modeling of spatially dependent data. GMRF models basically assume that a geo-referenced variable primarily depends on its neighborhood (Markov property), and the spatial dependence structure is described via a precision matrix. Recent study has shown that GMRFs are efficient approximation to the commonly used Gaussian fields (e.g., Kriging), and compared with Gaussian fields, GMRFs enjoy a series of appealing features, such as fast computation and easily accounting for heterogeneities in spatial data (e.g, point and areal). This paper represents each spatial dataset as a GMRF and integrates them into a state-space form to statistically model the temporal dynamics. Different types of spatial measurements (e.g., categorical, count or continuous), can be accounted for by according link functions. A fast alternative to MCMC framework, so-called Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA), was adopted for model inference.Preliminary case studies will be conducted to showcase the advantages of the described framework. In the first case, we apply the proposed method for modeling the water table elevation of Ogallala aquifer over the past decades. In the second case, we analyze the

  20. Effects of spatiotemporal consistencies on visual learning dynamics and transfer.

    PubMed

    Harris, Hila; Sagi, Dov

    2015-04-01

    Spatiotemporal interactions affect visual performance under repeated stimulation conditions, showing both incremental (commonly related to learning) and decremental (possibly sensory adaptation) effects. Here we examined the role of spatiotemporal consistencies on learning dynamics and transfer. The backward-masked texture-discrimination paradigm was used, with stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) controlling the observers' performance level. Temporal consistencies were examined by modifying the order in which SOA was varied during a training session: gradually reduced SOA (high consistencies) versus randomized SOA (low consistencies). Spatial consistencies were reduced by interleaving standard target trials with oriented 'dummy' trials containing only the background texture (no target, oriented 45° relative to the target's orientation). Our results showed reduced improvement following training with gradual SOA, as compared with random SOA. However, this difference was eliminated by randomizing SOA only at the initial and final segments of training, revealing a contaminating effect of temporal consistencies on threshold estimation rather than on learning. Inserting the 'dummy' trials (reduced spatial consistencies) facilitated both the learning and the subsequent transfer of learning, but only when sufficient pre-training was provided. These results indicate that visual sensitivity depends on a balance between two opposing processes, perceptual learning and sensory adaptation, both of which depend on spatiotemporal consistencies. Reducing spatiotemporal consistencies during training reduces the short-term spatiotemporal interactions that interfere with threshold estimation, learning, and generalization of learning. We consider the results within a theoretical framework, assuming an adaptable low-level network and a readout mechanism, with orientation and location-specific low-level adaptation interfering with the readout learning. PMID:25737285

  1. Highly recurring sequence elements identified in eukaryotic DNAs by computer analysis are often homologous to regulatory sequences or protein binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, J W; Ward, D C

    1987-01-01

    We have used computer assisted dot matrix and oligonucleotide frequency analyses to identify highly recurring sequence elements of 7-11 base pairs in eukaryotic genes and viral DNAs. Such elements are found much more frequently than expected, often with an average spacing of a few hundred base pairs. Furthermore, the most abundant repetitive elements observed in the ovalbumin locus, the beta-globin gene cluster, the metallothionein gene and the viral genomes of SV40, polyoma, Herpes simplex-1 and Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus were sequences shown previously to be protein binding sites or sequences important for regulating gene expression. These sequences were present in both exons and introns as well as promoter regions. These observations suggest that such sequences are often highly overrepresented within the specific gene segments with which they are associated. Computer analysis of other genetic units, including viral genomes and oncogenes, has identified a number of highly recurring sequence elements that could serve similar regulatory or protein-binding functions. A model for the role of such reiterated sequence elements in DNA organization and function is presented. PMID:3822840

  2. The Critical Role of Golgi Cells in Regulating Spatio-Temporal Integration and Plasticity at the Cerebellum Input Stage

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, Egidio

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of the Golgi cell is bound to the foundation of the Neuron Doctrine. Recently, the excitable mechanisms of this inhibitory interneuron have been investigated with modern experimental and computational techniques raising renewed interest for the implications it might have for cerebellar circuit functions. Golgi cells are pacemakers with preferential response frequency and phase-reset in the theta-frequency band and can therefore impose specific temporal dynamics to granule cell responses. Moreover, through their connectivity, Golgi cells determine the spatio-temporal organization of cerebellar activity. Finally, Golgi cells, by controlling granule cell depolarization and NMDA channel unblock, regulate the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity at the mossy fiber – granule cell synapse. Thus, the Golgi cells can exert an extensive control on spatio-temporal signal organization and information storage in the granular layer playing a critical role for cerebellar computation. PMID:18982105

  3. Asymmetric spatiotemporal chaos induced by a polypoid mass in the excised larynx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, asymmetric spatiotemporal chaos induced by a polypoid mass simulating the laryngeal pathology of a vocal polyp is experimentally observed using high-speed imaging in an excised larynx. Spatiotemporal analysis reveals that the normal vocal folds show spatiotemporal correlation and symmetry. Normal vocal fold vibrations are dominated mainly by the first vibratory eigenmode. However, pathological vocal folds with a polypoid mass show broken symmetry and spatiotemporal irregularity. The spatial correlation is decreased. The pathological vocal folds spread vibratory energy across a large number of eigenmodes and induce asymmetric spatiotemporal chaos. High-order eigenmodes show complicated dynamics. Spatiotemporal analysis provides a valuable biomedical application for investigating the spatiotemporal chaotic dynamics of pathological vocal fold systems with a polypoid mass and may represent a valuable clinical tool for the detection of laryngeal mass lesion using high-speed imaging.

  4. Asymmetric spatiotemporal chaos induced by a polypoid mass in the excised larynx

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, asymmetric spatiotemporal chaos induced by a polypoid mass simulating the laryngeal pathology of a vocal polyp is experimentally observed using high-speed imaging in an excised larynx. Spatiotemporal analysis reveals that the normal vocal folds show spatiotemporal correlation and symmetry. Normal vocal fold vibrations are dominated mainly by the first vibratory eigenmode. However, pathological vocal folds with a polypoid mass show broken symmetry and spatiotemporal irregularity. The spatial correlation is decreased. The pathological vocal folds spread vibratory energy across a large number of eigenmodes and induce asymmetric spatiotemporal chaos. High-order eigenmodes show complicated dynamics. Spatiotemporal analysis provides a valuable biomedical application for investigating the spatiotemporal chaotic dynamics of pathological vocal fold systems with a polypoid mass and may represent a valuable clinical tool for the detection of laryngeal mass lesion using high-speed imaging. PMID:19123612

  5. Spatiotemporal dynamics of lipid signaling: protein kinase C as a paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos, Lisa L.; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The lipid second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) acutely controls the rate, amplitude, duration, and location of protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the cell. There are three classes of PKC isozymes and, of these, the conventional and novel isozymes are acutely controlled by DAG. The kinetics of DAG production at various intracellular membranes, the intrinsic affinity of specific isoforms for DAG-containing membranes, the coordinated use of additional membrane-binding modules, the intramolecular regulation of DAG sensitivity, and the competition from other DAG-responsive proteins together result in a unique, context-dependent activation signature for each isoform. This review focuses on the spatiotemporal dynamics of PKC activation and how it is controlled by lipid second messengers. PMID:18720411

  6. Monitoring and validating spatio-temporal dynamics of biogeochemical properties in Mersin Bay (Turkey) using Landsat ETM+.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Nusret; Evrendilek, Fatih

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to devise and validate simple models for estimating spatio-temporal dynamics of seven optically (in)active biogeochemical properties in Mersin Bay using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data and GIS. Spatio-temporal dynamics of Secchi depth (S (depth)), dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrite nitrogen (NO(2)-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO₃-N), silicate (SiO₄), 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5), and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) were estimated using best-fit multiple linear regression (MLR) models as a function of Landsat 7 ETM+ and ground data in 2007 and 2008, latitude, longitude, and day of year. Validation of the MLR models against Landsat and ground data in 2005 led to r values ranging from 0.39 for NO₂-N (P = 0.008) to 0.79 for S (depth) (P < 0.001). Parsimonious MLR models built in this study appear to be promising for monitoring and predicting spatio-temporal dynamics of optically (in)active water quality characteristics in Mersin Bay. PMID:21181257

  7. Learning-automaton-based online discovery and tracking of spatiotemporal event patterns.

    PubMed

    Yazidi, Anis; Granmo, Ole-Christoffer; Oommen, B John

    2013-06-01

    Discovering and tracking of spatiotemporal patterns in noisy sequences of events are difficult tasks that have become increasingly pertinent due to recent advances in ubiquitous computing, such as community-based social networking applications. The core activities for applications of this class include the sharing and notification of events, and the importance and usefulness of these functionalities increase as event sharing expands into larger areas of one's life. Ironically, instead of being helpful, an excessive number of event notifications can quickly render the functionality of event sharing to be obtrusive. Indeed, any notification of events that provides redundant information to the application/user can be seen to be an unnecessary distraction. In this paper, we introduce a new scheme for discovering and tracking noisy spatiotemporal event patterns, with the purpose of suppressing reoccurring patterns, while discerning novel events. Our scheme is based on maintaining a collection of hypotheses, each one conjecturing a specific spatiotemporal event pattern. A dedicated learning automaton (LA)--the spatiotemporal pattern LA (STPLA)--is associated with each hypothesis. By processing events as they unfold, we attempt to infer the correctness of each hypothesis through a real-time guided random walk. Consequently, the scheme that we present is computationally efficient, with a minimal memory footprint. Furthermore, it is ergodic, allowing adaptation. Empirical results involving extensive simulations demonstrate the superior convergence and adaptation speed of STPLA, as well as an ability to operate successfully with noise, including both the erroneous inclusion and omission of events. An empirical comparison study was performed and confirms the superiority of our scheme compared to a similar state-of-the-art approach. In particular, the robustness of the STPLA to inclusion as well as to omission noise constitutes a unique property compared to other related

  8. Local dynamics and spatiotemporal chaos. The Kuramoto- Sivashinsky equation: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenberg, Ralf Werner

    The nature of spatiotemporal chaos in extended continuous systems is not yet well-understood. In this thesis, a model partial differential equation, the Kuramoto- Sivashinsky (KS) equation ut+uxxxx+uxx+uux =0 on a large one-dimensional periodic domain, is studied analytically, numerically, and through modeling to obtain a more detailed understanding of the observed spatiotemporally complex dynamics. In particular, with the aid of a wavelet decomposition, the relevant dynamical interactions are shown to be localized in space and scale. Motivated by these results, and by the idea that the attractor on a large domain may be understood via attractors on smaller domains, a spatially localized low- dimensional model for a minimal chaotic box is proposed. A (de)stabilized extension of the KS equation has recently attracted increased interest; for this situation, dissipativity and analyticity areproven, and an explicit shock-like solution is constructed which sheds light on the difficulties in obtaining optimal bounds for the KS equation. For the usual KS equation, the spatiotemporally chaotic state is carefully characterized in real, Fourier and wavelet space. The wavelet decomposition provides good scale separation which isolates the three characteristic regions of the dynamics: large scales of slow Gaussian fluctuations, active scales containing localized interactions of coherent structures, and small scales. Space localization is shown through a comparison of various correlation lengths and a numerical experiment in which different modes are uncoupled to estimate a dynamic interaction length. A detailed picture of the contributions of different scales to the spatiotemporally complex dynamics is obtained via a Galerkin projection of the KS equation onto the wavelet basis, and an extensive series of numerical experiments in which different combinations of wavelet levels are eliminated or forced. These results, and a formalism to derive an effective equation for

  9. Thalamic WNT3 Secretion Spatiotemporally Regulates the Neocortical Ribosome Signature and mRNA Translation to Specify Neocortical Cell Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Kraushar, Matthew L.; Viljetic, Barbara; Wijeratne, H. R. Sagara; Thompson, Kevin; Jiao, Xinfu; Pike, Jack W.; Medvedeva, Vera; Groszer, Matthias; Kiledjian, Megerditch; Hart, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Neocortical development requires tightly controlled spatiotemporal gene expression. However, the mechanisms regulating ribosomal complexes and the timed specificity of neocortical mRNA translation are poorly understood. We show that active mRNA translation complexes (polysomes) contain ribosomal protein subsets that undergo dynamic spatiotemporal rearrangements during mouse neocortical development. Ribosomal protein specificity within polysome complexes is regulated by the arrival of in-growing thalamic axons, which secrete the morphogen Wingless-related MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site 3 (WNT3). Thalamic WNT3 release during midneurogenesis promotes a change in the levels of Ribosomal protein L7 in polysomes, thereby regulating neocortical translation machinery specificity. Furthermore, we present an RNA sequencing dataset analyzing mRNAs that dynamically associate with polysome complexes as neocortical development progresses, and thus may be regulated spatiotemporally at the level of translation. Thalamic WNT3 regulates neocortical translation of two such mRNAs, Foxp2 and Apc, to promote FOXP2 expression while inhibiting APC expression, thereby driving neocortical neuronal differentiation and suppressing oligodendrocyte maturation, respectively. This mechanism may enable targeted and rapid spatiotemporal control of ribosome composition and selective mRNA translation in complex developing systems like the neocortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neocortex is a highly complex circuit generating the most evolutionarily advanced complex cognitive and sensorimotor functions. An intricate progression of molecular and cellular steps during neocortical development determines its structure and function. Our goal is to study the steps regulating spatiotemporal specificity of mRNA translation that govern neocortical development. In this work, we show that the timed secretion of Wingless-related MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site 3 (WNT3) by

  10. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Bilingual Word Processing

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Matthew K.; Brown, Timothy T.; Travis, Katherine E.; Gharapetian, Lusineh; Hagler, Donald J.; Dale, Anders M.; Elman, Jeffrey L.; Halgren, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Studies with monolingual adults have identified successive stages occurring in different brain regions for processing single written words. We combined magnetoencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging to compare these stages between the first (L1) and second (L2) languages in bilingual adults. L1 words in a size judgment task evoked a typical left-lateralized sequence of activity first in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOT: previously associated with visual word-form encoding), and then ventral frontotemporal regions (associated with lexico-semantic processing). Compared to L1, words in L2 activated right VOT more strongly from ~135 ms; this activation was attenuated when words became highly familiar with repetition. At ~400ms, L2 responses were generally later than L1, more bilateral, and included the same lateral occipitotemporal areas as were activated by pictures. We propose that acquiring a language involves the recruitment of right hemisphere and posterior visual areas that are not necessary once fluency is achieved. PMID:20004256

  11. Spatiotemporal dynamics of early cortical gesture processing.

    PubMed

    Möhring, Nicole; Shen, Christina; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2014-10-01

    Gesture processing has been consistently shown to be associated with activation of the inferior parietal lobe (IPL); however, little is known about the integration of IPL activation into the temporal dynamics of early sensory areas. Using a temporally graded repetition suppression paradigm, we examined the activation and time course of brain areas involved in hand gesture processing. We recorded event-related potentials in response to stimulus pairs of static hand images forming gestures of the popular rock-paper-scissors game and estimated their neuronal generators. We identified two main components associated with adaptive patterns related to stimulus repetition. The N190 component elicited at temporo-parietal sites adapted to repetitions of the same gesture and was associated with right-hemispheric extrastriate body area activation. A later component at parieto-occipital sites demonstrated temporally graded adaptation effects for all gestures with a left-hemispheric dominance. Source localization revealed concurrent activations of the right extrastriate body area, fusiform gyri bilaterally, and the left IPL at about 250 ms. The adaptation pattern derived from the graded repetition suppression paradigm demonstrates the functional sensitivity of these sources to gesture processing. Given the literature on IPL contribution to imitation, action recognition, and action execution, IPL activation at about 250 ms may represent the access into specific cognitive routes for gesture processing and may thus be involved in integrating sensory information from cortical body areas into subsequent visuo-motor transformation processes. PMID:24875144

  12. Spatiotemporal Cadence of Macrophage Polarisation in a Model of Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Valter, Krisztina; Provis, Jan M.; Rutar, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Background The recruitment of macrophages accompanies almost every pathogenic state of the retina, and their excessive activation in the subretinal space is thought to contribute to the progression of diseases including age-related macular degeneration. Previously, we have shown that macrophages aggregate in the outer retina following damage elicited by photo-oxidative stress, and that inhibition of their recruitment reduces photoreceptor death. Here, we look for functional insight into macrophage activity in this model through the spatiotemporal interplay of macrophage polarisation over the course of degeneration. Methods Rats were exposed to 1000 lux light damage (LD) for 24hrs, with some left to recover for 3 and 7 days post-exposure. Expression and localisation of M1- and M2- macrophage markers was investigated in light-damaged retinas using qPCR, ELISA, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry. Results Expression of M1- (Ccl3, Il-6, Il-12, Il-1β, TNFα) and M2- (CD206, Arg1, Igf1, Lyve1, Clec7a) related markers followed discrete profiles following light damage; up-regulation of M1 genes peaked at the early phase of cell death, while M2 genes generally exhibited more prolonged increases during the chronic phase. Moreover, Il-1β and CD206 labelled accumulations of microglia/macrophages which differed in their morphological, temporal, and spatial characteristics following light damage. Conclusions The data illustrate a dynamic shift in macrophage polarisation following light damage through a broad swathe of M1 and M2 markers. Pro-inflammatory M1 activation appears to dominate the early phase of degeneration while M2 responses appear to more heavily mark the chronic post-exposure period. While M1/M2 polarisation represents two extremes amongst a spectrum of macrophage activity, knowledge of their predominance offers insight into functional consequences of macrophage activity over the course of damage, which may inform the spatiotemporal employment of

  13. Spatiotemporal earthquake clusters along the North Anatolian fault zone offshore Istanbul

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulut, Fatih; Ellsworth, William L.; Bohnhoff, Marco; Aktar, Mustafa; Dresen, Georg

    2011-01-01

    We investigate earthquakes with similar waveforms in order to characterize spatiotemporal microseismicity clusters within the North Anatolian fault zone (NAFZ) in northwest Turkey along the transition between the 1999 ??zmit rupture zone and the Marmara Sea seismic gap. Earthquakes within distinct activity clusters are relocated with cross-correlation derived relative travel times using the double difference method. The spatiotemporal distribution of micro earthquakes within individual clusters is resolved with relative location accuracy comparable to or better than the source size. High-precision relative hypocenters define the geometry of individual fault patches, permitting a better understanding of fault kinematics and their role in local-scale seismotectonics along the region of interest. Temporal seismic sequences observed in the eastern Sea of Marmara region suggest progressive failure of mostly nonoverlapping areas on adjacent fault patches and systematic migration of microearthquakes within clusters during the progressive failure of neighboring fault patches. The temporal distributions of magnitudes as well as the number of events follow swarmlike behavior rather than a mainshock/aftershock pattern.

  14. What is a moment? Transient synchrony as a collective mechanism for spatiotemporal integration.

    PubMed

    Hopfield, J J; Brody, C D

    2001-01-30

    A previous paper described a network of simple integrate-and-fire neurons that contained output neurons selective for specific spatiotemporal patterns of inputs; only experimental results were described. We now present the principles behind the operation of this network and discuss how these principles point to a general class of computational operations that can be carried out easily and naturally by networks of spiking neurons. Transient synchrony of the action potentials of a group of neurons is used to signal "recognition" of a space-time pattern across the inputs of those neurons. Appropriate synaptic coupling produces synchrony when the inputs to these neurons are nearly equal, leaving the neurons unsynchronized or only weakly synchronized for other input circumstances. When the input to this system comes from timed past events represented by decaying delay activity, the pattern of synaptic connections can be set such that synchronization occurs only for selected spatiotemporal patterns. We show how the recognition is invariant to uniform time warp and uniform intensity change of the input events. The fundamental recognition event is a transient collective synchronization, representing "many neurons now agree," an event that is then detected easily by a cell with a small time constant. If such synchronization is used in neurobiological computation, its hallmark will be a brief burst of gamma-band electroencephalogram noise when and where such a recognition event or decision occurs. PMID:11158631

  15. Spatio-temporal representativeness of euphotic depth in situ sampling in transitional coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhtala, Hanna; Tolvanen, Harri

    2016-06-01

    In dynamic coastal waters, the representativeness of spot sampling is limited to the measurement time and place due to local heterogeneity and irregular water property fluctuations. We assessed the representativeness of in situ sampling by analysing spot-sampled depth profiles of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in dynamic coastal archipelago waters in the south-western Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea. First, we assessed the role of spatio-temporality within the underwater light dynamics. As a part of this approach, an anomaly detection procedure was tested on a dataset including a large archipelago area and extensive temporal coverage throughout the ice-free season. The results suggest that euphotic depth variability should be treated as a spatio-temporal process rather than considering spatial and temporal dimensions separately. Second, we assessed the representativeness of spot sampling through statistical analysis of comparative data from spatially denser sampling on three test sites on two optically different occasions. The datasets revealed variability in different dimensions and scales. The suitability of a dataset to reveal wanted phenomena can usually be improved by careful planning and by clearly defining the data sampling objectives beforehand. Nonetheless, conducting a sufficient in situ sampling in dynamic coastal area is still challenging: detecting the general patterns at all the relevant dimensions is complicated by the randomness effect, which reduces the reliability of spot samples on a more detailed scale. Our results indicate that good representativeness of a euphotic depth sampling location is not a stable feature in a highly dynamic environment.

  16. Spatiotemporal reconfiguration of large-scale brain functional networks during propofol-induced loss of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Schröter, Manuel S; Spoormaker, Victor I; Schorer, Anna; Wohlschläger, Afra; Czisch, Michael; Kochs, Eberhard F; Zimmer, Claus; Hemmer, Bernhard; Schneider, Gerhard; Jordan, Denis; Ilg, Rüdiger

    2012-09-12

    Applying graph theoretical analysis of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated whole-brain functional connectivity of 11 healthy volunteers during wakefulness and propofol-induced loss of consciousness (PI-LOC). After extraction of regional fMRI time series from 110 cortical and subcortical regions, we applied a maximum overlap discrete wavelet transformation and investigated changes in the brain's intrinsic spatiotemporal organization. During PI-LOC, we observed a breakdown of subcortico-cortical and corticocortical connectivity. Decrease of connectivity was pronounced in thalamocortical connections, whereas no changes were found for connectivity within primary sensory cortices. Graph theoretical analyses revealed significant changes in the degree distribution and local organization metrics of brain functional networks during PI-LOC: compared with a random network, normalized clustering was significantly increased, as was small-worldness. Furthermore we observed a profound decline in long-range connections and a reduction in whole-brain spatiotemporal integration, supporting a topological reconfiguration during PI-LOC. Our findings shed light on the functional significance of intrinsic brain activity as measured by spontaneous BOLD signal fluctuations and help to understand propofol-induced loss of consciousness. PMID:22973006

  17. Seasonal and spatial heterogeneities in host and vector abundances impact the spatiotemporal spread of bluetongue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) can cause severe livestock losses and large direct and indirect costs for farmers. To propose targeted control strategies as alternative to massive vaccination, there is a need to better understand how BT virus spread in space and time according to local characteristics of host and vector populations. Our objective was to assess, using a modelling approach, how spatiotemporal heterogeneities in abundance and distribution of hosts and vectors impact the occurrence and amplitude of local and regional BT epidemics. We built a reaction–diffusion model accounting for the seasonality in vector abundance and the active dispersal of vectors. Because of the scale chosen, and movement restrictions imposed during epidemics, host movements and wind-induced passive vector movements were neglected. Four levels of complexity were addressed using a theoretical approach, from a homogeneous to a heterogeneous environment in abundance and distribution of hosts and vectors. These scenarios were illustrated using data on abundance and distribution of hosts and vectors in a real geographical area. We have shown that local epidemics can occur earlier and be larger in scale far from the primary case rather than close to it. Moreover, spatial heterogeneities in hosts and vectors delay the epidemic peak and decrease the infection prevalence. The results obtained on a real area confirmed those obtained on a theoretical domain. Although developed to represent BTV spatiotemporal spread, our model can be used to study other vector-borne diseases of animals with a local to regional spread by vector diffusion. PMID:23782421

  18. Statistical study of spatio-temporal distribution of precursor solar flares associated with major flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenge, N.; Ballai, I.; Baranyi, T.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the spatio-temporal distribution of precursor flares during the 24 h interval preceding M- and X-class major flares and the evolution of follower flares. Information on associated (precursor and follower) flares is provided by Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Flare list, while the major flares are observed by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) system satellites between 2002 and 2014. There are distinct evolutionary differences between the spatio-temporal distributions of associated flares in about one-day period depending on the type of the main flare. The spatial distribution was characterized by the normalized frequency distribution of the quantity δ (the distance between the major flare and its precursor flare normalized by the sunspot group diameter) in four 6 h time intervals before the major event. The precursors of X-class flares have a double-peaked spatial distribution for more than half a day prior to the major flare, but it changes to a lognormal-like distribution roughly 6 h prior to the event. The precursors of M-class flares show lognormal-like distribution in each 6 h subinterval. The most frequent sites of the precursors in the active region are within a distance of about 0.1 diameter of sunspot group from the site of the major flare in each case. Our investigation shows that the build-up of energy is more effective than the release of energy because of precursors.

  19. Statistical study of spatio-temporal distribution of precursor solar flares associated with major flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenge, N.; Ballai, I.; Baranyi, T.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the spatio-temporal distribution of precursor flares during the 24-hour interval preceding M- and X-class major flares and the evolution of follower flares. Information on associated (precursor and follower) flares is provided by Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Flare List, while the major flares are observed by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) system satellites between 2002 and 2014. There are distinct evolutionary differences between the spatio-temporal distributions of associated flares in about one day period depending on the type of the main flare. The spatial distribution was characterised by the normalised frequency distribution of the quantity δ (the distance between the major flare and its precursor flare normalised by the sunspot group diameter) in four 6-hour time intervals before the major event. The precursors of X-class flares have a double-peaked spatial distribution for more than half a day prior to the major flare, but it changes to a lognormal-like distribution roughly 6 hours prior to the event. The precursors of M-class flares show lognormal-like distribution in each 6-hour subinterval. The most frequent sites of the precursors in the active region are within a distance of about 0.1 diameter of sunspot group from the site of the major flare in each case. Our investigation shows that the build-up of energy is more effective than the release of energy because of precursors.

  20. Proactive Spatiotemporal Resource Allocation and Predictive Visual Analytics for Community Policing and Law Enforcement.

    PubMed

    Malik, Abish; Maciejewski, Ross; Towers, Sherry; McCullough, Sean; Ebert, David S

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present a visual analytics approach that provides decision makers with a proactive and predictive environment in order to assist them in making effective resource allocation and deployment decisions. The challenges involved with such predictive analytics processes include end-users' understanding, and the application of the underlying statistical algorithms at the right spatiotemporal granularity levels so that good prediction estimates can be established. In our approach, we provide analysts with a suite of natural scale templates and methods that enable them to focus and drill down to appropriate geospatial and temporal resolution levels. Our forecasting technique is based on the Seasonal Trend decomposition based on Loess (STL) method, which we apply in a spatiotemporal visual analytics context to provide analysts with predicted levels of future activity. We also present a novel kernel density estimation technique we have developed, in which the prediction process is influenced by the spatial correlation of recent incidents at nearby locations. We demonstrate our techniques by applying our methodology to Criminal, Traffic and Civil (CTC) incident datasets. PMID:26356900

  1. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Logiaco, Laureline; Quilodran, René; Procyk, Emmanuel; Arleo, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70–200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys’ behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators. PMID:26266537

  2. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    PubMed

    Logiaco, Laureline; Quilodran, René; Procyk, Emmanuel; Arleo, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70-200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys' behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators. PMID:26266537

  3. Correlated Spatio-Temporal Fluctuations in Chromatin Compaction States Characterize Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Shefali; Kumar, Abhishek; Rao, Madan; Menon, Gautam I.; Shivashankar, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells integrate signals from the microenvironment to generate lineage-specific gene expression programs upon differentiation. Undifferentiated cell nuclei are easily deformable, with an active transcriptome, whereas differentiated cells have stiffer nuclei and condensed chromatin. Chromatin organization in the stem cell state is known to be highly dynamic but quantitative characterizations of its plasticity are lacking. Using fluorescence imaging, we study the spatio-temporal dynamics of nuclear architecture and chromatin compaction in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and differentiated states. Individual ES cells exhibit a relatively narrow variation in chromatin compaction, whereas primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (PMEF) show broad distributions. However, spatial correlations in chromatin compaction exhibit an emergent length scale in PMEFs, although they are unstructured and longer ranged in ES cells. We provide evidence for correlated fluctuations with large amplitude and long intrinsic timescales, including an oscillatory component, in both chromatin compaction and nuclear area in ES cells. Such fluctuations are largely frozen in PMEF. The role of actin and Lamin A/C in modulating these fluctuations is described. A simple theoretical formulation reproduces the observed dynamics. Our results suggest that, in addition to nuclear plasticity, correlated spatio-temporal structural fluctuations of chromatin in undifferentiated cells characterize the stem cell state. PMID:23442906

  4. Spatiotemporal analysis of vehicle collisions involving wild boar and roe deer in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Morales, Beatriz; Díaz-Varela, Emilio Rafael; Marey-Pérez, Manuel Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Ungulate-vehicle collisions pose a serious traffic safety hazard in the North of Spain. The understanding of underlying temporal and spatial structure of these non-random events is imperative to develop appropriate mitigation measures. This study analyses the temporal, spatial and spatiotemporal patterns of car crashes involving wild boar and roe deer in the province of Lugo (NW Spain) in the period 2006-2010 using geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial statistics. The temporal analysis--conducted at three scales: daily, weekly and seasonal--revealed that accidents are related to specific animal's life cycles and to interactions with human activities. The localization of collision points with GIS discovered the sections of the autonomic road network where accidents with the two studied species concentrate. Besides, the spatial arrangement of significant hotspots was mapped through kernel density estimation over two time scales (daily and seasonal), distinguishing among 41 sets, sequentially arranged to facilitate clustering comparison and determination of spatiotemporal risky areas. This work is of valuable help for road managers to design the appropriate mitigation measures that will improve traffic safety and animal welfare. PMID:24056283

  5. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil salinization in irrigated Tadla Plain (Morocco) using satellite spectral indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Harti, Abderrazak; Lhissou, Rachid; Chokmani, Karem; Ouzemou, Jamal-eddine; Hassouna, Mohamed; Bachaoui, El Mostafa; El Ghmari, Abderrahmene

    2016-08-01

    Soil salinization is major environmental issue in irrigated agricultural production. Conventional methods for salinization monitoring are time and money consuming and limited by the high spatiotemporal variability of this phenomenon. This work aims to propose a spatiotemporal monitoring method of soil salinization in the Tadla plain in central Morocco using spectral indices derived from Thematic Mapper (TM) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Six Landsat TM/OLI satellite images acquired during 13 years period (2000-2013) coupled with in-situ electrical conductivity (EC) measurements were used to develop the proposed method. After radiometric and atmospheric correction of TM/OLI images, a new soil salinity index (OLI-SI) is proposed for soil EC estimation. Validation shows that this index allowed a satisfactory EC estimation in the Tadla irrigated perimeter with coefficient of determination R2 varying from 0.55 to 0.77 and a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) ranging between 1.02 dS/m and 2.35 dS/m. The times-series of salinity maps produced over the Tadla plain using the proposed method show that salinity is decreasing in intensity and progressively increasing in spatial extent, over the 2000-2013 period. This trend resulted in a decrease in agricultural activities in the southwestern part of the perimeter, located in the hydraulic downstream.

  6. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Argument Retrieval and Reordering: An fMRI and EEG Study on Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Lars; Obleser, Jonas; Kiebel, Stefan J.; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    In sentence processing, it is still unclear how the neural language network successfully establishes argument–verb dependencies in its spatiotemporal neuronal dynamics. Previous work has suggested that the establishment of subject–verb and object–verb dependencies requires argument retrieval from working memory, and that dependency establishment in object-first sentences additionally necessitates argument reordering. We examine the spatiotemporal neuronal dynamics of the brain regions that subserve these sub-processes by crossing an argument reordering factor (i.e., subject-first versus object-first sentences) with an argument retrieval factor (i.e., short versus long argument–verb dependencies) in German. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that reordering demands focally activate the left pars opercularis (Broca’s area), while storage and retrieval demands activated left temporo-parietal (TP) regions. In addition, when analyzing the time course of fMRI-informed equivalent current dipole sources in the EEG at the subcategorizing verb, we found that activity in the TP-region occurs relatively early (40–180 ms), followed by activity in Broca’s area (300–500 ms). These findings were matched by topographical correlation analyses of fMRI activations in EEG sensor space, showing that, in the scalp potential, TP-region activity surfaces as an early positivity and IFG activity as a later positivity in the scalp potential. These results provide fine-grained evidence for spatiotemporally separable sub-processes of argument retrieval and reordering in sentence processing. PMID:23248607

  7. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the Treatment of Locally Recurred Head-and-Neck Cancer: Final Analysis of a Phase I/II Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Kankaanranta, Leena; Seppaelae, Tiina; Koivunoro, Hanna; Saarilahti, Kauko; Atula, Timo; Collan, Juhani; Salli, Eero; Kortesniemi, Mika; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Vaelimaeki, Petteri; Maekitie, Antti; Seppaenen, Marko; Minn, Heikki; Revitzer, Hannu; Kouri, Mauri; Kotiluoto, Petri; Seren, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro; Savolainen, Sauli; Joensuu, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of inoperable head-and-neck cancers that recur locally after conventional photon radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: In this prospective, single-center Phase I/II study, 30 patients with inoperable, locally recurred head-and-neck cancer (29 carcinomas and 1 sarcoma) were treated with BNCT. Prior treatments consisted of surgery and conventionally fractionated photon irradiation to a cumulative dose of 50 to 98 Gy administered with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Tumor responses were assessed by use of the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) and adverse effects by use of the National Cancer Institute common terminology criteria version 3.0. Intravenously administered L-boronophenylalanine-fructose (400 mg/kg) was administered as the boron carrier. Each patient was scheduled to be treated twice with BNCT. Results: Twenty-six patients received BNCT twice; four were treated once. Of the 29 evaluable patients, 22 (76%) responded to BNCT, 6 (21%) had tumor growth stabilization for 5.1 and 20.3 months, and 1 (3%) progressed. The median progression-free survival time was 7.5 months (95% confidence interval, 5.4-9.6 months). Two-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 20% and 30%, respectively, and 27% of the patients survived for 2 years without locoregional recurrence. The most common acute Grade 3 adverse effects were mucositis (54% of patients), oral pain (54%), and fatigue (32%). Three patients were diagnosed with osteoradionecrosis (each Grade 3) and one patient with soft-tissue necrosis (Grade 4). Late Grade 3 xerostomia was present in 3 of the 15 evaluable patients (20%). Conclusions: Most patients who have inoperable, locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma that has recurred at a previously irradiated site respond to boronophenylalanine-mediated BNCT, but cancer recurrence after BNCT remains frequent. Toxicity was

  8. Large-scale spatiotemporal spike patterning consistent with wave propagation in motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazutaka; Kim, Sanggyun; Coleman, Todd P; Brown, Kevin A; Suminski, Aaron J; Best, Matthew D; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G

    2015-01-01

    Aggregate signals in cortex are known to be spatiotemporally organized as propagating waves across the cortical surface, but it remains unclear whether the same is true for spiking activity in individual neurons. Furthermore, the functional interactions between cortical neurons are well documented but their spatial arrangement on the cortical surface has been largely ignored. Here we use a functional network analysis to demonstrate that a subset of motor cortical neurons in non-human primates spatially coordinate their spiking activity in a manner that closely matches wave propagation measured in the beta oscillatory band of the local field potential. We also demonstrate that sequential spiking of pairs of neuron contains task-relevant information that peaks when the neurons are spatially oriented along the wave axis. We hypothesize that the spatial anisotropy of spike patterning may reflect the underlying organization of motor cortex and may be a general property shared by other cortical areas. PMID:25994554

  9. Low-Energy Defibrillation Failure Correction is Possible Through Nonlinear Analysis of Spatiotemporal Arrhythmia Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonotto, Jennifer; Furman, Michael; Beaver, Thomas; Spano, Mark; Kavanagh, Katherine; Iden, Jason; Hu, Gang; Ditto, William

    2004-03-01

    Explanted Porcine hearts were Langendorff-perfused, administered a voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye (Di-4-ANEPPS) and illuminated with a ND:Yag laser (532 nm); the change in fluorescence resulting from electrical activity on the heart surface was recorded with an 80 x 80 pixel CCD camera at 1000 frames per second. The heart was put into fibrillation with rapid ventricular pacing and shocks were administered close to the defibrillation threshold. Defibrillation failure data was analyzed using synchronization, space-time volume plots and recurrence quantification. Preliminary spatiotemporal synchronization results reveal a short window of time ( 1 second) after defibrillation failure in which the disordered electrical activity becomes ordered; this ordered period occurs 4-5 seconds after the defibrillation shock. Recurrence analysis of a single time series confirmed these results, thus opening the avenue for dynamic defibrillators that can detect an optimal window for cardioversion.

  10. Rationally designed fluorogenic protease reporter visualizes spatiotemporal dynamics of apoptosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Piggott, Beverly J.; Makhijani, Kalpana; Yu, Dan; Jan, Yuh Nung; Shu, Xiaokun

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based reporters have been widely used in imaging cell signaling; however, their in vivo application has been handicapped because of poor signal. Although fluorogenic reporters overcome this problem, no such reporter of proteases has been demonstrated for in vivo imaging. Now we have redesigned an infrared fluorescent protein so that its chromophore incorporation is regulated by protease activity. Upon protease activation, the infrared fluorogenic protease reporter becomes fluorescent with no requirement of exogenous cofactor. To demonstrate biological applications, we have designed an infrared fluorogenic executioner-caspase reporter, which reveals spatiotemporal coordination between cell apoptosis and embryonic morphogenesis, as well as dynamics of apoptosis during tumorigenesis in Drosophila. The designed scaffold may be used to engineer reporters of other proteases with specific cleavage sequence. PMID:25733847

  11. Large-scale spatiotemporal spike patterning consistent with wave propagation in motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazutaka; Kim, Sanggyun; Coleman, Todd P.; Brown, Kevin A.; Suminski, Aaron J.; Best, Matthew D.; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregate signals in cortex are known to be spatiotemporally organized as propagating waves across the cortical surface, but it remains unclear whether the same is true for spiking activity in individual neurons. Furthermore, the functional interactions between cortical neurons are well documented but their spatial arrangement on the cortical surface has been largely ignored. Here we use a functional network analysis to demonstrate that a subset of motor cortical neurons in non-human primates spatially coordinate their spiking activity in a manner that closely matches wave propagation measured in the beta oscillatory band of the local field potential. We also demonstrate that sequential spiking of pairs of neuron contains task-relevant information that peaks when the neurons are spatially oriented along the wave axis. We hypothesize that the spatial anisotropy of spike patterning may reflect the underlying organization of motor cortex and may be a general property shared by other cortical areas. PMID:25994554

  12. Reading out a spatiotemporal population code by imaging neighbouring parallel fibre axons in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wilms, Christian D.; Häusser, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The spatiotemporal pattern of synaptic inputs to the dendritic tree is crucial for synaptic integration and plasticity. However, it is not known if input patterns driven by sensory stimuli are structured or random. Here we investigate the spatial patterning of synaptic inputs by directly monitoring presynaptic activity in the intact mouse brain on the micron scale. Using in vivo calcium imaging of multiple neighbouring cerebellar parallel fibre axons, we find evidence for clustered patterns of axonal activity during sensory processing. The clustered parallel fibre input we observe is ideally suited for driving dendritic spikes, postsynaptic calcium signalling, and synaptic plasticity in downstream Purkinje cells, and is thus likely to be a major feature of cerebellar function during sensory processing. PMID:25751648

  13. Ordering spatiotemporal chaos in complex thermosensitive neuron networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yubing; Xu, Bo; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Chuanlu; Ren, Tingqi; Hou, Zhonghuai; Xin, Houwen

    2006-04-01

    We have studied the effect of random long-range connections in chaotic thermosensitive neuron networks with each neuron being capable of exhibiting diverse bursting behaviors, and found stochastic synchronization and optimal spatiotemporal patterns. For a given coupling strength, the chaotic burst-firings of the neurons become more and more synchronized as the number of random connections (or randomness) is increased and, rather, the most pronounced spatiotemporal pattern appears for an optimal randomness. As the coupling strength is increased, the optimal randomness shifts towards a smaller strength. This result shows that random long-range connections can tame the chaos in the neural networks and make the neurons more effectively reach synchronization. Since the model studied can be used to account for hypothalamic neurons of dogfish, catfish, etc., this result may reflect the significant role of random connections in transferring biological information.

  14. A semiparametric spatio-temporal model for solar irradiance data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Patrick, Joshua D.; Harvill, Jane L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we evaluate semiparametric spatio-temporal models for global horizontal irradiance at high spatial and temporal resolution. These models represent the spatial domain as a lattice and are capable of predicting irradiance at lattice points, given data measured at other lattice points. Using data from a 1.2 MW PV plant located in Lanai, Hawaii, we show that a semiparametric model can be more accurate than simple interpolation between sensor locations. We investigate spatio-temporal models with separable and nonseparable covariance structures and find no evidence to support assuming a separable covariance structure. These results indicate a promising approach for modeling irradiance atmore » high spatial resolution consistent with available ground-based measurements. Moreover, this kind of modeling may find application in design, valuation, and operation of fleets of utility-scale photovoltaic power systems.« less

  15. Transient spatiotemporal chaos in reaction-diffusion networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackerbauer, Renate

    2010-03-01

    Complex transient dynamics is reported in various extended systems, including transient turbulence in shear flows, transient spatiotemporal chaos in reaction- diffusion models, and non-chaotic irregular transient dynamics in neural networks. The asymptotic stability is difficult to determine since the transient lifetime typically increases exponentially with the system size. Our studies show that transient spatiotemporal chaos is extensive in various reaction- diffusion systems; the Lyapunov dimension increases linearly with the network size. A master stability analysis provides insight into the asymptotic stability in the Baer- Eiswirth and the Gray-Scott systems. The asymptotic state is characterized by negative transverse Lyapunov exponents on the attractor of the invariant synchronization manifold. The average lifetime depends on the number of transverse directions that are unstable along a typical excitation cycle.

  16. Precursor of transition to turbulence: spatiotemporal wave front.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, S; Sengupta, T K

    2014-04-01

    To understand transition to turbulence via 3D disturbance growth, we report here results obtained from the solution of Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) to reproduce experimental results obtained by minimizing background disturbances and imposing deterministic excitation inside the shear layer. A similar approach was adopted in Sengupta and Bhaumik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 154501 (2011)], where a route of transition from receptivity to fully developed turbulent stage was explained for 2D flow in terms of the spatio-temporal wave-front (STWF). The STWF was identified as the unit process of 2D turbulence creation for low amplitude wall excitation. Theoretical prediction of STWF for boundary layer was established earlier in Sengupta, Rao, and Venkatasubbaiah [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 224504 (2006)] from the Orr-Sommerfeld equation as due to spatiotemporal instability. Here, the same unit process of the STWF during transition is shown to be present for 3D disturbance field from the solution of governing NSE. PMID:24827343

  17. Spatiotemporal analysis of ERP data in emotional processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jin; Tian, Jie; Yang, Lei; Pan, Xiaohong; Liu, Jianggang

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of Event-related potential (ERP) in emotional processing by using fuzzy k-means clustering method to segment ERP data into microstates.108 pictures (categorized as positive, negative and neutral) were presented to 24 healthy, right-handed subjects while 128-channel EEG data were recorded. For each subject, 3 artifact-free ERPs were computed under each condition. A modified fuzzy k-mean clustering method based on shape similarity is applied to the grand mean ERPs and the statistical analysis is performed to define the significance of each segmentation map. In the results, positive and negative conditions showed different spatiotemporal patterns of ERP. The results were in accord with other emotional study by fMRI or PET.

  18. Dynamics of light propagation in spatiotemporal dielectric structures.

    PubMed

    Biancalana, Fabio; Amann, Andreas; Uskov, Alexander V; O'Reilly, Eoin P

    2007-04-01

    Propagation, transmission and reflection properties of linearly polarized plane waves and arbitrarily short electromagnetic pulses in one-dimensional dispersionless dielectric media possessing an arbitrary space-time dependence of the refractive index are studied by using a two-component, highly symmetric version of Maxwell's equations. The use of any slow varying amplitude approximation is avoided. Transfer matrices of sharp nonstationary interfaces are calculated explicitly, together with the amplitudes of all secondary waves produced in the scattering. Time-varying multilayer structures and spatiotemporal lenses in various configurations are investigated analytically and numerically in a unified approach. Several effects are reported, such as pulse compression, broadening and spectral manipulation of pulses by a spatiotemporal lens, and the closure of the forbidden frequency gaps with the subsequent opening of wave number band gaps in a generalized Bragg reflector. PMID:17501007

  19. Broadband spatiotemporal Gaussian Schell-model pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Rahul; Korhonen, Minna; Friberg, Ari T; Genty, Göery; Turunen, Jari

    2014-03-01

    A new class of partially coherent model sources is introduced on the basis of the second-order coherence theory of nonstationary optical fields. These model sources are spatially fully coherent at each frequency but can have broadband spectra and variable spectral coherence properties, which lead to reduced spatiotemporal coherence in the time domain. The source model is motivated by the spectral coherence properties of supercontinuum pulse trains generated in single-spatial-mode optical fibers. We demonstrate that such broadband light is highly (but not completely) spatially coherent, even though the spectral and temporal coherence properties may vary over a wide range. The model sources introduced here are convenient in assessing the spatiotemporal coherence of broadband pulses in optical systems. PMID:24690663

  20. Selective image encryption using a spatiotemporal chaotic system.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Tao; Wong, Kwok-wo; Liao, Xiaofeng

    2007-06-01

    A universal selective image encryption algorithm, in which the spatiotemporal chaotic system is utilized, is proposed to encrypt gray-level images. In order to resolve the tradeoff between security and performance, the effectiveness of selective encryption is discussed based on simulation results. The scheme is then extended to encrypt RGB color images. Security analyses for both scenarios show that the proposed schemes achieve high security and efficiency. PMID:17614669