Science.gov

Sample records for recycle bin tutvustab

  1. Bin recycling strategy for improving the histogram precision on GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas-Montes, Miguel; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Juan José; Vega-Rodríguez, Miguel A.

    2016-07-01

    Histogram is an easily comprehensible way to present data and analyses. In the current scientific context with access to large volumes of data, the processing time for building histogram has dramatically increased. For this reason, parallel construction is necessary to alleviate the impact of the processing time in the analysis activities. In this scenario, GPU computing is becoming widely used for reducing until affordable levels the processing time of histogram construction. Associated to the increment of the processing time, the implementations are stressed on the bin-count accuracy. Accuracy aspects due to the particularities of the implementations are not usually taken into consideration when building histogram with very large data sets. In this work, a bin recycling strategy to create an accuracy-aware implementation for building histogram on GPU is presented. In order to evaluate the approach, this strategy was applied to the computation of the three-point angular correlation function, which is a relevant function in Cosmology for the study of the Large Scale Structure of Universe. As a consequence of the study a high-accuracy implementation for histogram construction on GPU is proposed.

  2. Research and Development of a New Waste Collection Bin to Facilitate Education in Plastic Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Cheuk-fai; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheung, Tsz-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic recycling has been an alternative method for solid waste management apart from landfill and incineration. However, recycling quality is affected when all plastics are discarded into a single recycling bin that increases cross contaminations and operation cost to the recycling industry. Following the engineering design process, a new…

  3. Effects of Number and Location of Bins on Plastic Recycling at a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Ryan T.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Hodde, Henry B.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of plastic bottles that consumers placed in appropriate recycling receptacles rather than trash bins was examined across 3 buildings on a university campus. We extended previous research on interventions to increase recycling by controlling the number of recycling receptacles across conditions and by examining receptacle location…

  4. AMPH-1/Amphiphysin/Bin1 functions with RME-1/Ehd in endocytic recycling

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Saumya; Sharma, Mahak; Patel, Kruti; Caplan, Steve; Carr, Chavela M.; Grant, Barth D.

    2009-01-01

    RME-1/EHD1 family proteins are key residents of the recycling endosome required for endosome to plasma membrane transport in C. elegans and mammals. Recent studies suggest parallels of the RME-1/EHD proteins to the Dynamin GTPase superfamily of mechanochemical pinchases that promote membrane fission. Here we show that that endogenous C. elegans AMPH-1, the only C. elegans member of Amphiphysin/BIN1 family of BAR-domain proteins, colocalizes with RME-1 on recycling endosomes in vivo, that amph-1 deletion mutants are defective in recycling endosome morphology and function, and that binding of AMPH-1 NPF (D/E) sequences to the RME-1 EH-domain promotes the recycling of transmembrane cargo. We also show a requirement for human BIN1/Amphyphysin 2 in EHD1-regulated endocytic recycling. In vitro we find that the purified recombinant AMPH-1/RME-1 complexes produce short, coated, membrane tubules that are qualitatively distinct from those produced by either protein alone. Our results indicate that AMPH-1 and RME-1 cooperatively regulate endocytic recycling, likely through functions required for the production of cargo carriers exiting the recycling endosome for the cell surface. PMID:19915558

  5. Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinker, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

  6. Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Junya; Santorelli, Michael

    Recycling systems are classified into those employing typically three methods, and the progress of each method is described. In mechanical recycling, powders of phenolic materials are recovered via a mechanical process and reused as fillers or additives in virgin materials. The effects to flowability, curability, and mechanical properties of the materials are explained. In feedstock recycling, monomers, oligomers, or oils are recovered via chemical processes and reused as feedstock. Pyrolysis, solvolysis or hydrolysis, and supercritical or subcritical fluid technology will also be introduced. When using a subcritical fluid of phenol, the recycled material maintains excellent properties similar to the virgin material, and a demonstration plant has been constructed to carry out mass production development. In energy recovery, wastes of phenolic materials are used as an alternative solid fuel to coal because they are combustible and have good calorific value. Industrial wastes of these have been in practical use in a cement plant. Finally, it is suggested that the best recycling method should be selected according to the purpose or situation, because every recycling method has both strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, quantitative and objective evaluation methods in recycling are desirable and should be established.

  7. PhyBin: binning trees by topology.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ryan R; Newton, Irene L G

    2013-01-01

    A major goal of many evolutionary analyses is to determine the true evolutionary history of an organism. Molecular methods that rely on the phylogenetic signal generated by a few to a handful of loci can be used to approximate the evolution of the entire organism but fall short of providing a global, genome-wide, perspective on evolutionary processes. Indeed, individual genes in a genome may have different evolutionary histories. Therefore, it is informative to analyze the number and kind of phylogenetic topologies found within an orthologous set of genes across a genome. Here we present PhyBin: a flexible program for clustering gene trees based on topological structure. PhyBin can generate bins of topologies corresponding to exactly identical trees or can utilize Robinson-Fould's distance matrices to generate clusters of similar trees, using a user-defined threshold. Additionally, PhyBin allows the user to adjust for potential noise in the dataset (as may be produced when comparing very closely related organisms) by pre-processing trees to collapse very short branches or those nodes not meeting a defined bootstrap threshold. As a test case, we generated individual trees based on an orthologous gene set from 10 Wolbachia species across four different supergroups (A-D) and utilized PhyBin to categorize the complete set of topologies produced from this dataset. Using this approach, we were able to show that although a single topology generally dominated the analysis, confirming the separation of the supergroups, many genes supported alternative evolutionary histories. Because PhyBin's output provides the user with lists of gene trees in each topological cluster, it can be used to explore potential reasons for discrepancies between phylogenies including homoplasies, long-branch attraction, or horizontal gene transfer events. PMID:24167782

  8. Project Worm Bin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Daniel C.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a project centering around earthworm activity in a compost bin. Includes suggestions for exercises involving biological and conservation concepts, gardening skills, and dramatical presentations. (ML)

  9. PhyBin: binning trees by topology

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan R.

    2013-01-01

    A major goal of many evolutionary analyses is to determine the true evolutionary history of an organism. Molecular methods that rely on the phylogenetic signal generated by a few to a handful of loci can be used to approximate the evolution of the entire organism but fall short of providing a global, genome-wide, perspective on evolutionary processes. Indeed, individual genes in a genome may have different evolutionary histories. Therefore, it is informative to analyze the number and kind of phylogenetic topologies found within an orthologous set of genes across a genome. Here we present PhyBin: a flexible program for clustering gene trees based on topological structure. PhyBin can generate bins of topologies corresponding to exactly identical trees or can utilize Robinson-Fould’s distance matrices to generate clusters of similar trees, using a user-defined threshold. Additionally, PhyBin allows the user to adjust for potential noise in the dataset (as may be produced when comparing very closely related organisms) by pre-processing trees to collapse very short branches or those nodes not meeting a defined bootstrap threshold. As a test case, we generated individual trees based on an orthologous gene set from 10 Wolbachia species across four different supergroups (A–D) and utilized PhyBin to categorize the complete set of topologies produced from this dataset. Using this approach, we were able to show that although a single topology generally dominated the analysis, confirming the separation of the supergroups, many genes supported alternative evolutionary histories. Because PhyBin’s output provides the user with lists of gene trees in each topological cluster, it can be used to explore potential reasons for discrepancies between phylogenies including homoplasies, long-branch attraction, or horizontal gene transfer events. PMID:24167782

  10. Dry bin filler for apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  11. Frequency-bin entangled photons

    SciTech Connect

    Olislager, L.; Emplit, P.; Nguyen, A. T.; Massar, S.; Merolla, J.-M.; Huy, K. Phan

    2010-07-15

    A monochromatic laser pumping a parametric down-conversion crystal generates frequency-entangled photon pairs. We study this experimentally by addressing such frequency-entangled photons at telecommunication wavelengths (around 1550 nm) with fiber-optics components such as electro-optic phase modulators and narrow-band frequency filters. The theory underlying our approach uses the notion of frequency-bin entanglement. Our results show that the phase modulators address coherently up to eleven frequency bins, leading to an interference pattern which can violate by more than five standard deviations a Bell inequality adapted to our setup.

  12. Coagulation algorithms with size binning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statton, David M.; Gans, Jason; Williams, Eric

    1994-01-01

    The Smoluchowski equation describes the time evolution of an aerosol particle size distribution due to aggregation or coagulation. Any algorithm for computerized solution of this equation requires a scheme for describing the continuum of aerosol particle sizes as a discrete set. One standard form of the Smoluchowski equation accomplishes this by restricting the particle sizes to integer multiples of a basic unit particle size (the monomer size). This can be inefficient when particle concentrations over a large range of particle sizes must be calculated. Two algorithms employing a geometric size binning convention are examined: the first assumes that the aerosol particle concentration as a function of size can be considered constant within each size bin; the second approximates the concentration as a linear function of particle size within each size bin. The output of each algorithm is compared to an analytical solution in a special case of the Smoluchowski equation for which an exact solution is known . The range of parameters more appropriate for each algorithm is examined.

  13. Commitment Approach to Motivating Community Recycling: New Zealand Curbside Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Wendy J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    In a New Zealand community, 200 households made commitment to recycle and 201 did not; 198 were asked to pay for recycling bins, 203 were not. A control group received only recycling information. Verbal commitment significantly increased participation. Difficulties in administering the financial incentive made it impossible to determine effect on…

  14. Improved Taxation Rate for Bin Packing Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Walter; Qiu, Xian

    A cooperative bin packing game is a N-person game, where the player set N consists of k bins of capacity 1 each and n items of sizes a 1, ⋯ ,a n . The value of a coalition of players is defined to be the maximum total size of items in the coalition that can be packed into the bins of the coalition. We present an alternative proof for the non-emptiness of the 1/3-core for all bin packing games and show how to improve this bound ɛ= 1/3 (slightly). We conjecture that the true best possible value is ɛ= 1/7.

  15. Recycling, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Amy

    1992-01-01

    Suggestions for creating a successful office recycling system are enumerated from start up plans to waste reduction and paper recycling. Contact information for recycling equipment, potential buyers of recycled materials, recycled products for purchase, and ideas for promotion and education of staff are included. (MCO)

  16. View looking northwest toward HIghGrade Ore Bin and Concentrate Bin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking northwest toward HIgh-Grade Ore Bin and Concentrate Bin - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  17. Recycling endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Goldenring, James R

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal membrane recycling system represents a dynamic conduit for sorting and re-exporting internalized membrane constituents. The recycling system is composed of multiple tubulovesicular recycling pathways that likely confer distinct trafficking pathways for individual cargoes. In addition, elements of the recycling system are responsible for assembly and maintenance of apical membrane specializations including primary cilia and apical microvilli. The existence of multiple intersecting and diverging recycling tracks likely accounts for specificity in plasma membrane recycling trafficking. PMID:26022676

  18. Xerox's closed recycling loop still contains kinks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    Xerox Corp. has established a recycling loop for plastics screw-top toner bottles and dry-ink containers used in most of the company's high-volume copiers. However, a severe shortage of post-consumer recycled plastic has been short-circuiting Xerox's good intentions. Last year, the Stamford, Conn.-based company stopped manufacturing toner containers from virgin plastics and instead began using recycled raw materials, such as discarded milk and water jugs collected from municipal curbside recycling programs. The bottles are ground and remolded into such products as air filters for vacuum cleaners, plastic lumber, compost bins, landscape ties, benches and fence posts. However, what sounds like a win-win situation actually is costing too much money. Contrary to popular belief, post-consumer recycled plastic costs more than virgin plastic. Despite the added expense, Xerox will continue to use recycled plastics when possible.

  19. Hanford recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  20. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  1. Recycled roads

    SciTech Connect

    Tarricone, P.

    1993-04-01

    This article examines the efforts of various states in the USA to recycle waste materials in highway construction as fill and pavements. The topics of the article include recycling used tires whole, ground, and shredded, cost of recycling, wood fiber chips as fill material in embankments, and mining wastes used to construct embankments and as coarse aggregates in asphalt pavement.

  2. Fast Object Registration and Robotic Bin Picking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnke, Kay; Gottscheber, Achim

    Businesses have invested a lot of money into intelligent machine vision, industrial robotics and automation technology. The proposed solution of this paper deals with industrial applications of robotic bin picking. In this paper, a pose estimation approach is introduce to determine the coarse position and rotation of a known object using commonly available image processing tools applied to 3D laser range data. This position and orientation is refined by a combination of the well-known Iterative Closest Points Algorithm with the hierarchical object representation of Progressive Meshes to find objects in a industrial environment. This approach is integrated in an object localization system for industrial robotic bin picking.

  3. A Psychological Profile of Osama bin Laden.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding Osama bin Laden's personal history illuminates his motivation, inner conflicts, decisions and behaviors. His relationships with his mother, father, country and religion set the stage for his conflicted choices as an adolescent and then as an adult. Although only a cursory psychological profile is possible based on public domain information, the profile constructed here could be useful in setting future foreign policy. Perhaps the crucial mistake in U.S. foreign policy was abandoning bin Laden as an asset when Russian forces were expelled from Afghanistan in 1989: this act by the U.S. set the stage for the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001. PMID:26211330

  4. Evaluation Strategies for Bitmap Indices with Binning

    SciTech Connect

    Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng; Shoshani, Arie

    2004-06-03

    Bitmap indices are efficient data structures for querying read-only data with low attribute cardinalities. To improve the efficiency of the bitmap indices on attributes with high cardinalities, we present a new strategy to evaluate queries using bitmap indices. This work is motivated by a number of scientific data analysis applications where most attributes have cardinalities in the millions. On these attributes, binning is a common strategy to reduce the size of the bitmap index. In this article we analyze how binning affects the number of pages accessed during query processing, and propose an optimal way of using the bitmap indices to reduce the number of pages accessed. Compared with two basic strategies the new algorithm reduces the query response time by up to a factor of two. On a set of 5-dimensional queries on real application data, the bitmap indices are on average 10 times faster than the projection index.

  5. 19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND WITH DISCHARGE TO GRIZZLY AT BOTTOM OF VIEW. CONCRETE RETAINING WALL TO LEFT (SOUTH) AND BOTTOM (EAST EDGE OF EAST BIN). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  6. 3. EAGLE MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BIN FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAGLE MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BIN FROM NORTH, c. 1908-10. SHOWS EXPOSED CRUSHER HOUSE IN FRONT OF (SOUTH) CRUDE ORE BIN AND SNOW SHED ADDED OVER TRAM TRACKS. NOTE LACK OF EAST OR WEST CRUDE ORE BINS. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  7. 15. NORTH ELEVATION OF UPPER ORE BIN, CHUTE, AND JAW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NORTH ELEVATION OF UPPER ORE BIN, CHUTE, AND JAW CRUSHER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM END OF CONVEYOR PLATFORM. NOTICE THE THREE ORE BIN CONTROL DOORS, CORRESPONDING TO SEPARATE COMPARTMENTS OF THE BIN. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. 18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ORE BIN AND TRESTLE FROM TWO JOHNS TRAMLINE TO SOUTH, CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND. MACHINE SHOP IN BACKGROUND. THE TRAM TO PORTLAND PASSED TO NORTH OF MACHINE SHOP. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. 13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UPPER ORE BIN, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UPPER ORE BIN, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. THIS ORE BIN WAS ADDED IN THE LATE 1930'S. IT IS TRAPAZOIDAL IN SHAPE, WIDER AT THE REAR THAN THE FRONT, AND DIVIDED INTO THREE BINS, EACH WITH ITS OWN CONTROL DOOR (SEE CA-290-15). - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. Pack Factor Measurementss for Corn in Grain Storage Bins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain is commonly stored commercially in tall bins, which often are as deep as 35 m (114.8 ft) for tall and narrow concrete bins and about 32 m (105 ft) in diameter for large corrugated steel bins. Grain can support the great pressure without crushing, but it yields somewhat to compaction under its ...

  11. INTERIOR VIEW WITH STORAGE BINS FOR COLLECTING METAL SHAVINGS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH STORAGE BINS FOR COLLECTING METAL SHAVINGS FROM THE TAPPING MACHINES AS THEY CUT SCREW THREADS INTO PIPE FITTINGS. SHAVINGS TRAVEL ON CONVEYORS UNDER THE PLATFORM, ARE THEN ELEVATED TO SMALL LEVER-RELEASED BINS, WHICH HOLD SCRAP WHILE THE LARGER BINS ARE BEING EMPTIED. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Obtaining Well Calibrated Probabilities Using Bayesian Binning

    PubMed Central

    Naeini, Mahdi Pakdaman; Cooper, Gregory F.; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Learning probabilistic predictive models that are well calibrated is critical for many prediction and decision-making tasks in artificial intelligence. In this paper we present a new non-parametric calibration method called Bayesian Binning into Quantiles (BBQ) which addresses key limitations of existing calibration methods. The method post processes the output of a binary classification algorithm; thus, it can be readily combined with many existing classification algorithms. The method is computationally tractable, and empirically accurate, as evidenced by the set of experiments reported here on both real and simulated datasets. PMID:25927013

  13. Still the same after all these years: Santa Rosa`s curbside recycling model

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, K.

    1997-10-01

    When Santa Rosa, located north of San Francisco, first began its recycling program in 1977, it was no different from the other fledgling curbside recycling programs in the state. Back then, residents collected recyclables in their homes and put them out on the curb each week next to the garbage cans in whatever container they could find, whether it was a paper grocery bag or a cardboard box. The city`s pre-bin recycling program had a participation rate of about 25%. Then in 1978, with the firm`s help, Empire officials came up with the idea of providing recycling bins to residents. The program planners asked residents to source-separate their recyclables and then put the metals (including steel, tin, and aluminum); all three glass colors (brown, green, and clear); and newspaper in three individual bins. A few weeks after city officials distributed the bins to residents, the program showed a participation rate of 77%, indicating to Clark that the bins were necessary to significantly increase public awareness of the program.

  14. Textile recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonowski, E. ); Carlton, J.

    1995-01-01

    The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

  15. Tire Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  16. 8. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL AND UPPER ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL AND UPPER ORE BIN, LOOKING WEST FROM ACCESS ROAD. THE ROADWAY ON THIS LEVEL (CENTER) WAS USED FOR UNLOADING ORE BROUGHT ON BURROWS INTO THE ORE BIN AT THE TOP LEVEL OF THE MILL. THE ORE BIN IN THE UPPER LEFT WAS ADDED LATER WHEN ORE WAS BROUGHT TO THE MILL BY TRUCKS. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. 37. VIEW NORTH FROM EAST CRUDE ORE BIN TO CRUSHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. VIEW NORTH FROM EAST CRUDE ORE BIN TO CRUSHER ADDITION AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. VISIBLE ARE DINGS MAGNETIC PULLEY (CENTER), THE 100-TON STEEL CRUSHED UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN, AND UPPER PORTION OF THE STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR BUCKET ELEVATOR. THE UPPER TAILINGS POND LIES BEYOND THE MILL WITH THE UPPER TAILINGS DAM UNDER THE GRAVEL ROAD IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  18. Single pairs of time-bin-entangled photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteegh, Marijn A. M.; Reimer, Michael E.; van den Berg, Aafke A.; Juska, Gediminas; Dimastrodonato, Valeria; Gocalinska, Agnieszka; Pelucchi, Emanuele; Zwiller, Val

    2015-09-01

    Time-bin-entangled photons are ideal for long-distance quantum communication via optical fibers. Here we present a source where, even at high creation rates, each excitation pulse generates, at most, one time-bin-entangled pair. This is important for the accuracy and security of quantum communication. Our site-controlled quantum dot generates single polarization-entangled photon pairs, which are then converted, without loss of entanglement strength, into single time-bin-entangled photon pairs.

  19. 16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to the trestle bins, the coke was screened and the coke 'fines' or breeze, were transported by conveyor to the coke fines bins where it was collected and leaded into dump trucks. The coke fines were then sold for fuel to a sinter plant in Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. 6. Northeast elevation of single bin. Delaware, Lackawanna & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Northeast elevation of single bin. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  1. 4. TROJAN MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. TROJAN MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM NORTH, c. 1912. SHOWS TIMBER FRAMING UNDER CONSTRUCTION FOR EAST AND WEST CRUDE ORE BINS AT PREVIOUS LOCATION OF CRUSHER HOUSE, AND SNOW SHED PRESENT OVER SOUTH CRUDE ORE BIN WITH PHASE CHANGE IN SNOW SHED CONSTRUCTION INDICATED AT EAST END OF EAST CRUDE ORE BIN. THIS PHOTOGRAPH IS THE FIRST IMAGE OF THE MACHINE SHOP, UPPER LEFT CORNER. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. Bursting money bins, the ice and water structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2015-05-01

    In the classic comics by Carl Barks, "The Big Bin on Killmotor Hill" [1], Uncle Scrooge, trying to defend his money bin from the Beagle Boys, follows a suggestion by Donald Duck, and fills the bin with water. Unfortunately, that night is going be the coldest one in the history of Ducksburg. The water freezes, bursting the "ten-foot walls'' of the money bin, and finally the gigantic cube of ice and dollars slips down the hill up to the Beagle Boys lot.

  3. Implementation of Bin Packing Model for Reed Switch Production Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Rainier Romero

    2010-06-17

    This paper presents a form to resolve a real problem of efficient material election in reed switch manufacturing. The carrying out of the consumer demands depends on the stochastic results of the classification process where each lot of switches is distributed into bins according to an electric measure value. Various glass types are employed for the switch manufacturing. The effect caused by the glass type variation on the switch classification results was investigated. Based on real data statistic analysis, the problem is reduced to the lot number minimizing taking into consideration the glass type, and interpreted as a bin packing problem generalization. On difference to the classic bin packing problem, in the considered case, an item represents a set of pieces; a container is divided into a number of bins (sub-containers); the bin capacity is variable; there are the assignment restrictions between bins and sets of pieces; the items are allowed to be fragmented into bins and containers. The problem has a high complexity. A heuristic offline algorithm is proposed to find the quantity, types and packing sequence of containers, the item fragments associated with containers and bins. The bin capacities do not affect the algorithm.

  4. High-throughput epitope binning of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies: why you need to bin the fridge.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Benjamin D; Miles, Adam R; Abdiche, Yasmina N

    2014-08-01

    Analytical tools are evolving to meet the need for the higher-throughput characterization of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. An antibody's epitope is arguably its most important property because it underpins its functional activity but, because epitope selection is innate, it remains an empirical process. Here, we focus on the emergence of label-free biosensors with throughput capabilities orders of magnitude higher than the previous state-of-the-art, which can facilitate large assays such as epitope binning so that they can be incorporated alongside functional activity screens, enabling the rapid identification of leads that exhibit unique and functional epitopes. In addition to streamlining the drug development process by saving time and cost, the information from epitope binning assays could provide the basis for intellectual property protection. PMID:24880105

  5. Analysis and evaluation of a fruit bin for apples.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Ashraful; Yadama, Vikram; Cofer, William F; Englund, Karl R

    2014-12-01

    A fruit bin is an essential part of apple harvesting, storage, and transport. The lateral pressure distribution on the bin walls by apples in the bin are not well understood, thus making it harder to predict the behavior of the vertical walls of the bin. In this study, a bin was loaded with apples and deflections of the base and a vertical wall were experimentally measured and then modeled using finite element methods to understand typical static load distribution. One of the factors determining the accuracy of an analytical model is accurate representation of load distribution on the structure. A mathematical model was used to validate the lateral pressure distribution applied by the apples on the vertical walls and the bottom plate of the bin. The effect of unit weight of an apple and the angle of repose of apples on load distribution in the bin has been analyzed. Angle of repose is found to be a significant parameter for the lateral pressure distribution on the bin walls. A nonlinear lateral pressure distribution was observed along the depth from top to bottom of the bin. The resulting finite element model allows for comparison of deformation behavior of fruit bins constructed with a variety of materials, such as plywood, wood plastic composites, or a thermoplastic polymer. Although this study dealt with bins for apples, the sensitivity analyses for a range of unit weights and angles of repose for apples makes the analysis results versatile for use with other kinds of fruits and vegetables that fall within the reported range of unit weight and angle of repose. PMID:25477638

  6. Precipitation Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1996-01-01

    The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

  7. 64. NORTH WALL OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. THE PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. NORTH WALL OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. THE PRIMARY MILL FEEDS AT BOTTOM. MILL SOLUTION TANKS WERE TO THE LEFT (EAST) AND BARREN SOLUTION TANK TO THE RIGHT (WEST) OR THE CRUSHED ORE BIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  8. DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, CONVEYOR PLATFORM TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, CONVEYOR PLATFORM TRAM TRESTLE, AND LOADING PLATFORM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE HOLE IN THE ORE BIN FLOOR CAN BE SEEN, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATION AT LOWER LEFT CORNER. SEE CA-291-13 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. 25. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS, ORE BIN, AND STAIRWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS, ORE BIN, AND STAIRWAY TO TOP FLOOR OF MILL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM SECOND FLOOR OF MILL. PORTION OF ORE BIN ON RIGHT, STAIRS ON LEFT. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. 14. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UPPER ORE BIN AND LOADING DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UPPER ORE BIN AND LOADING DECK, LOOKING WEST. DETAIL OF SUPPORTING TIMBERS. THE LOCATION OF THIS ORE BIN IN RELATION TO THE MILL CAN BE SEEN IN MANY OF THE MILL OVERVIEWS. (CA-290-4 THROUGH CA-290-8). - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  11. 14. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view, grain tanks (bins). Barrel view of tunnel for load-out belt conveyor system located below tanks. Square, numbered spouts gravity-feed grain from overhead bins onto belt. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  12. 90. Photographic copy of plan of bins, section of boot, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. Photographic copy of plan of bins, section of boot, and photograph of construction originally published in Plans of Grain Elevators (Chicago; Grain Dealers Journal, 1918), p.53. PLAN OF BINS; SECTION OF BOOT; VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION LOOKING NORTHWEST - Northwestern Consolidated Elevator "A", 119 Fifth Avenue South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  13. MaxBin: an automated binning method to recover individual genomes from metagenomes using an expectation-maximization algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recovering individual genomes from metagenomic datasets allows access to uncultivated microbial populations that may have important roles in natural and engineered ecosystems. Understanding the roles of these uncultivated populations has broad application in ecology, evolution, biotechnology and medicine. Accurate binning of assembled metagenomic sequences is an essential step in recovering the genomes and understanding microbial functions. Results We have developed a binning algorithm, MaxBin, which automates the binning of assembled metagenomic scaffolds using an expectation-maximization algorithm after the assembly of metagenomic sequencing reads. Binning of simulated metagenomic datasets demonstrated that MaxBin had high levels of accuracy in binning microbial genomes. MaxBin was used to recover genomes from metagenomic data obtained through the Human Microbiome Project, which demonstrated its ability to recover genomes from real metagenomic datasets with variable sequencing coverages. Application of MaxBin to metagenomes obtained from microbial consortia adapted to grow on cellulose allowed genomic analysis of new, uncultivated, cellulolytic bacterial populations, including an abundant myxobacterial population distantly related to Sorangium cellulosum that possessed a much smaller genome (5 MB versus 13 to 14 MB) but has a more extensive set of genes for biomass deconstruction. For the cellulolytic consortia, the MaxBin results were compared to binning using emergent self-organizing maps (ESOMs) and differential coverage binning, demonstrating that it performed comparably to these methods but had distinct advantages in automation, resolution of related genomes and sensitivity. Conclusions The automatic binning software that we developed successfully classifies assembled sequences in metagenomic datasets into recovered individual genomes. The isolation of dozens of species in cellulolytic microbial consortia, including a novel species of

  14. Using binning to maintain confidentiality of medical data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhen; Hewett, Michael; Altman, Russ B

    2002-01-01

    Biomedical informatics in general and pharmacogenomics in particular require a research platform that simultaneously enables discovery while protecting research subjects' privacy and information confidentiality. The development of inexpensive DNA sequencing and analysis technologies promises unprecedented database access to very specific information about individuals. To allow analysis of this data without compromising the research subjects' privacy, we must develop methods for removing identifying information from medical and genomic data. In this paper, we build upon the idea that binned database records are more difficult to trace back to individuals. We represent symbolic and numeric data hierarchically, and bin them by generalizing the records. We measure the information loss due to binning using an information theoretic measure called mutual information. The results show that we can bin the data to different levels of precision and use the bin size to control the tradeoff between privacy and data resolution. PMID:12463865

  15. Coherent Ultrafast Measurement of Time-Bin Encoded Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, John M.; Agnew, Megan; Lavoie, Jonathan; Resch, Kevin J.

    2013-10-01

    Time-bin encoding is a robust form of optical quantum information, especially for transmission in optical fibers. To readout the information, the separation of the time bins must be larger than the detector time resolution, typically on the order of nanoseconds for photon counters. In the present work, we demonstrate a technique using a nonlinear interaction between chirped entangled time-bin photons and shaped laser pulses to perform projective measurements on arbitrary time-bin states with picosecond-scale separations. We demonstrate a tomographically complete set of time-bin qubit projective measurements and show the fidelity of operations is sufficiently high to violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-Bell inequality by more than 6 standard deviations.

  16. Coherent ultrafast measurement of time-bin encoded photons.

    PubMed

    Donohue, John M; Agnew, Megan; Lavoie, Jonathan; Resch, Kevin J

    2013-10-11

    Time-bin encoding is a robust form of optical quantum information, especially for transmission in optical fibers. To readout the information, the separation of the time bins must be larger than the detector time resolution, typically on the order of nanoseconds for photon counters. In the present work, we demonstrate a technique using a nonlinear interaction between chirped entangled time-bin photons and shaped laser pulses to perform projective measurements on arbitrary time-bin states with picosecond-scale separations. We demonstrate a tomographically complete set of time-bin qubit projective measurements and show the fidelity of operations is sufficiently high to violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt-Bell inequality by more than 6 standard deviations. PMID:24160599

  17. Binned progressive quantization for compressive sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangjun; Wu, Xiaolin; Shi, Guangming

    2012-06-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) has been recently and enthusiastically promoted as a joint sampling and compression approach. The advantages of CS over conventional signal compression techniques are architectural: the CS encoder is made signal independent and computationally inexpensive by shifting the bulk of system complexity to the decoder. While these properties of CS allow signal acquisition and communication in some severely resource-deprived conditions that render conventional sampling and coding impossible, they are accompanied by rather disappointing rate-distortion performance. In this paper, we propose a novel coding technique that rectifies, to a certain extent, the problem of poor compression performance of CS and, at the same time, maintains the simplicity and universality of the current CS encoder design. The main innovation is a scheme of progressive fixed-rate scalar quantization with binning that enables the CS decoder to exploit hidden correlations between CS measurements, which was overlooked in the existing literature. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the new CS coding technique. Encouragingly, on some test images, the new CS technique matches or even slightly outperforms JPEG. PMID:22374362

  18. gbtools: Interactive Visualization of Metagenome Bins in R.

    PubMed

    Seah, Brandon K B; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald R

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in DNA sequencing technology have increased the amount and quality of sequences that can be obtained from metagenomic samples, making it practical to extract individual microbial genomes from metagenomic assemblies ("binning"). However, while many tools and methods exist for unsupervised binning with various statistical algorithms, there are few options for visualizing the results, even though visualization is vital to exploratory data analysis. We have developed gbtools, a software package that allows users to visualize metagenomic assemblies by plotting coverage (sequencing depth) and GC values of contigs, and also to annotate the plots with taxonomic information. Different sets of annotations, including taxonomic assignments from conserved marker genes or SSU rRNA genes, can be imported simultaneously; users can choose which annotations to plot. Bins can be manually defined from plots, or be imported from third-party binning tools and overlaid onto plots, such that results from different methods can be compared side-by-side. gbtools reports summary statistics of bins including marker gene completeness, and allows the user to add or subtract bins with each other. We illustrate some of the functions available in gbtools with two examples: the metagenome of Olavius algarvensis, a marine oligochaete worm that has up to five bacterial symbionts, and the metagenome of a synthetic mock community comprising 64 bacterial and archaeal strains. We show how instances of poor automated binning, sequencer GC% bias, and variation between samples can be quickly diagnosed by visualization, and demonstrate how the results from different binning tools can be combined and refined to yield manually curated bins with higher completeness. gbtools is open-source and written in R. The software package, documentation, and example data are available freely online at https://github.com/kbseah/genome-bin-tools. PMID:26732662

  19. A novel biclustering algorithm of binary microarray data: BiBinCons and BiBinAlter.

    PubMed

    Saber, Haifa Ben; Elloumi, Mourad

    2015-01-01

    The biclustering of microarray data has been the subject of a large research. No one of the existing biclustering algorithms is perfect. The construction of biologically significant groups of biclusters for large microarray data is still a problem that requires a continuous work. Biological validation of biclusters of microarray data is one of the most important open issues. So far, there are no general guidelines in the literature on how to validate biologically extracted biclusters. In this paper, we develop two biclustering algorithms of binary microarray data, adopting the Iterative Row and Column Clustering Combination (IRCCC) approach, called BiBinCons and BiBinAlter. However, the BiBinAlter algorithm is an improvement of BiBinCons. On the other hand, BiBinAlter differs from BiBinCons by the use of the EvalStab and IndHomog evaluation functions in addition to the CroBin one (Bioinformatics 20:1993-2003, 2004). BiBinAlter can extracts biclusters of good quality with better p-values. PMID:26628919

  20. EHBP1L1 coordinates Rab8 and Bin1 to regulate apical-directed transport in polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, Atsuhiro; Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Togawa, Hiroko; Kunii, Masataka; Iwano, Tomohiko; Izumi, Ayaka; Noguchi, Yuria; Watanabe, Ayako; Goto, Ayako; Sato, Toshiro; Harada, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    The highly conserved Rab guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rab8 plays a role in exocytosis toward the polarized plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells. In murine Rab8-deficient small intestine cells, apical proteins are missorted into lysosomes. In this study, we identified a novel Rab8-interacting protein complex containing an EH domain-binding protein 1-like 1 (EHBP1L1), Bin1/amphiphysin II, and dynamin. Biochemical analyses showed that EHBP1L1 directly bound to GTP-loaded Rab8 and Bin1. The spatial dependency of these complexes at the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) was demonstrated through overexpression and knockdown experiments. EHBP1L1- or Bin1-depleted or dynamin-inhibited small intestine organoids significantly accumulated apical membrane proteins but not basolateral membrane proteins in lysosomes. Furthermore, in EHBP1L1-deficient mice, small intestine cells displayed truncated and sparse microvilli, suggesting that EHBP1L1 maintains the apical plasma membrane by regulating apical transport. In summary, our data demonstrate that EHBP1L1 links Rab8 and the Bin1-dynamin complex, which generates membrane curvature and excises the vesicle at the ERC for apical transport. PMID:26833786

  1. EHBP1L1 coordinates Rab8 and Bin1 to regulate apical-directed transport in polarized epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakajo, Atsuhiro; Togawa, Hiroko; Kunii, Masataka; Iwano, Tomohiko; Izumi, Ayaka; Noguchi, Yuria; Watanabe, Ayako; Goto, Ayako; Sato, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    The highly conserved Rab guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rab8 plays a role in exocytosis toward the polarized plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells. In murine Rab8-deficient small intestine cells, apical proteins are missorted into lysosomes. In this study, we identified a novel Rab8-interacting protein complex containing an EH domain–binding protein 1–like 1 (EHBP1L1), Bin1/amphiphysin II, and dynamin. Biochemical analyses showed that EHBP1L1 directly bound to GTP-loaded Rab8 and Bin1. The spatial dependency of these complexes at the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) was demonstrated through overexpression and knockdown experiments. EHBP1L1- or Bin1-depleted or dynamin-inhibited small intestine organoids significantly accumulated apical membrane proteins but not basolateral membrane proteins in lysosomes. Furthermore, in EHBP1L1-deficient mice, small intestine cells displayed truncated and sparse microvilli, suggesting that EHBP1L1 maintains the apical plasma membrane by regulating apical transport. In summary, our data demonstrate that EHBP1L1 links Rab8 and the Bin1–dynamin complex, which generates membrane curvature and excises the vesicle at the ERC for apical transport. PMID:26833786

  2. Recycling Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

    This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting Project," (7) Used Motor Oil Recycling," (8) "Unwrapping…

  3. gbtools: Interactive Visualization of Metagenome Bins in R

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Brandon K. B.; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald R.

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in DNA sequencing technology have increased the amount and quality of sequences that can be obtained from metagenomic samples, making it practical to extract individual microbial genomes from metagenomic assemblies (“binning”). However, while many tools and methods exist for unsupervised binning with various statistical algorithms, there are few options for visualizing the results, even though visualization is vital to exploratory data analysis. We have developed gbtools, a software package that allows users to visualize metagenomic assemblies by plotting coverage (sequencing depth) and GC values of contigs, and also to annotate the plots with taxonomic information. Different sets of annotations, including taxonomic assignments from conserved marker genes or SSU rRNA genes, can be imported simultaneously; users can choose which annotations to plot. Bins can be manually defined from plots, or be imported from third-party binning tools and overlaid onto plots, such that results from different methods can be compared side-by-side. gbtools reports summary statistics of bins including marker gene completeness, and allows the user to add or subtract bins with each other. We illustrate some of the functions available in gbtools with two examples: the metagenome of Olavius algarvensis, a marine oligochaete worm that has up to five bacterial symbionts, and the metagenome of a synthetic mock community comprising 64 bacterial and archaeal strains. We show how instances of poor automated binning, sequencer GC% bias, and variation between samples can be quickly diagnosed by visualization, and demonstrate how the results from different binning tools can be combined and refined to yield manually curated bins with higher completeness. gbtools is open-source and written in R. The software package, documentation, and example data are available freely online at https://github.com/kbseah/genome-bin-tools. PMID:26732662

  4. 53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ACCESS STAIR TO FEED LEVEL; DUST COLLECTOR ON LEFT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER FOUNDATION, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATIONS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. ORE FROM THE MINES WAS DUMPED FROM THE TRAM BUCKETS INTO THE PRIMARY ORE BIN UNDER THE TRAM TERMINAL. A SLIDING CONTROL DOOR INTRODUCED THE INTO THE JAW CRUSHER (FOUNDATIONS,CENTER). THE CRUSHED ORE WAS THEN CONVEYED INTO THE SECONDARY ORE BIN AT CENTER LEFT. A HOLE IN THE FLOOR OF THE ORE BIN PASSED ORE ONTO ANOTHER CONVEYOR THAT BROUGHT IT OUT TO THE BALL MILL(FOUNDATIONS,CENTER BOTTOM). THIS SYSTEM IS MOST LIKELY NOT THE ORIGINAL SET UP, PROBABLY INSTALLED IN THE MINE'S LAST OCCUPATION IN THE EARLY 1940s. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. 5. Perspective view of single bin, looking north. Delaware, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Perspective view of single bin, looking north. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  7. 3. Northeast wall of Scrap Bins with freight car. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northeast wall of Scrap Bins with freight car. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Scrap Platform, 350 feet South of South Washington Avenue & River Street, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  8. 42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. MACHINE SHOP Machine shop area with small parts bins on the right and pipe storage racks on the left. Remains of the power drive system are suspended from the ceiling. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  9. Soft-collinear factorization and zero-bin subtractions

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu Juiyu; Fuhrer, Andreas; Kelley, Randall; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Hoang, Andre H.

    2009-03-01

    We study the Sudakov form factor for a spontaneously broken gauge theory using a (new) {delta}-regulator. To be well defined, the effective theory requires zero-bin subtractions for the collinear sectors. The zero-bin subtractions depend on the gauge boson mass M and are not scaleless. They have both finite and 1/{epsilon} contributions and are needed to give the correct anomalous dimension and low-scale matching contributions. We also demonstrate the necessity of zero-bin subtractions for soft-collinear factorization. We find that after zero-bin subtractions the form factor is the sum of the collinear contributions minus a soft mass-mode contribution, in agreement with a previous result of Idilbi and Mehen in QCD. This appears to conflict with the method-of-regions approach, where one gets the sum of contributions from different regions.

  10. 26. FIRST LEVEL, VIEW OF TRANSFER CHUTES FROM BIN NUMBERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. FIRST LEVEL, VIEW OF TRANSFER CHUTES FROM BIN NUMBERS 28 AND 32 LEADING TO OUT LEG; LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Northwestern Consolidated Elevator "A", 119 Fifth Avenue South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  11. 7. Level 7 conveyor area. Stub shoring under bin to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Level 7 conveyor area. Stub shoring under bin to apron feeder. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  12. 44. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING OF THE MINE ORE BIN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING OF THE MINE ORE BIN AND LOADING TERMINAL, CROSS SECTION AND SIDE ELEVATION - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  13. 43. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING OF THE MINE ORE BIN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING OF THE MINE ORE BIN AND LOADING TERMINAL, CROSS SECTION AND SIDE ELEVATION - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  14. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  15. OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF THE MILL WITH SUGAR BIN LEFT OF CENTER, CLEANING PLANT TO RIGHT, SEED TREATMENT PLANT TO LEFT. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  16. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR, ABANDONED SUGAR BIN IN CENTER. IN BACKGROUND, THE ELEVATOR AND STAIRS GOING UP. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  17. SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  18. NORTH WALL OF ELECTRIC SHOP, SUGAR BIN IS RIGHTOFCENTER, OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH WALL OF ELECTRIC SHOP, SUGAR BIN IS RIGHT-OF-CENTER, OFFICE AND LABORATORY AT FAR RIGHT. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  19. Design Concept for Garbage Bin with Situation Awareness Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supattatham, Montri; Papasratorn, Borworn

    Many measures to prevent wide-spread of communicable diseases depends on embedded IT into objects found in public places. This makes it possible to have objects with awareness on surrounding environment, or having situation awareness. This paper presents design concept to add situation awareness features to automatic garbage bin. There are three design levels for including situation awareness features with garbage bin. From awareness goals, required features are identified. Perception, comprehension, and projection are then aligned with the required features, in order to have desired awareness. Automatic garbage bin is implemented using design specification from the proposed design concept. Result from convenience sampling survey reveals that users are satisfied with the implemented garbage bin.

  20. Vicarious revenge and the death of Osama bin Laden.

    PubMed

    Gollwitzer, Mario; Skitka, Linda J; Wisneski, Daniel; Sjöström, Arne; Liberman, Peter; Nazir, Syed Javed; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-05-01

    Three hypotheses were derived from research on vicarious revenge and tested in the context of the assassination of Osama bin Laden in 2011. In line with the notion that revenge aims at delivering a message (the "message hypothesis"), Study 1 shows that Americans' vengeful desires in the aftermath of 9/11 predicted a sense of justice achieved after bin Laden's death, and that this effect was mediated by perceptions that his assassination sent a message to the perpetrators to not "mess" with the United States. In line with the "blood lust hypothesis," his assassination also sparked a desire to take further revenge and to continue the "war on terror." Finally, in line with the "intent hypothesis," Study 2 shows that Americans (but not Pakistanis or Germans) considered the fact that bin Laden was killed intentionally more satisfactory than the possibility of bin Laden being killed accidentally (e.g., in an airplane crash). PMID:24553257

  1. Binning for IC Quality: Experimental Studies on the SEMATECH Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Adit D.; Lakin, David R., II; Sinha, Gaurav; Nigh, Phil

    1998-01-01

    The earlier smaller bipolar study did not provide a high enough bin 0 population to directly observe test escapes and thereby estimate defect levels for the best bin. Results presented here indicate that the best bin can be reasonably expected to show a 2 - 5 factor improvement in defect levels over the average for the lot for moderate to high yields (the overall yield for these experiments was approximately 65%). The experiments also confirm the dependence of the best bin quality on test transparency. The defect level improvement is poorer for the case Of IDDQ escapes where the tests applied had a much higher escape rate. Overall experimental results are consistent with analytical projections for typical values of the clustering parameter in [9]. The final version of this paper will include extensive analysis to validate the analytical models based on this data.

  2. 5. Detail of bin wall, showing the thinner exterior wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail of bin wall, showing the thinner exterior wall next to the inner wall with its alternating courses of channel tile and hollow tile. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  3. VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH ANODIZING TANK AND LIQUID BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH ANODIZING TANK AND LIQUID BIN STORAGE TANK IN FOREGROUND, FACING NORTH. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Receiving & Storage Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 2. INTERIOR, WEST VIEW OF SUPPLY BINS. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR, WEST VIEW OF SUPPLY BINS. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mill Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  5. 3. INTERIOR, NORTH VIEW OF SUPPLY BINS AND CABINETS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR, NORTH VIEW OF SUPPLY BINS AND CABINETS. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Mill Warehouse, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  6. Phase and amplitude binning for 4D-CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Abdelnour, A F; Nehmeh, S A; Pan, T; Humm, J L; Vernon, P; Schöder, H; Rosenzweig, K E; Mageras, G S; Yorke, E; Larson, S M; Erdi, Y E

    2007-06-21

    We compare the consistency and accuracy of two image binning approaches used in 4D-CT imaging. One approach, phase binning (PB), assigns each breathing cycle 2pi rad, within which the images are grouped. In amplitude binning (AB), the images are assigned bins according to the breathing signal's full amplitude. To quantitate both approaches we used a NEMA NU2-2001 IEC phantom oscillating in the axial direction and at random frequencies and amplitudes, approximately simulating a patient's breathing. 4D-CT images were obtained using a four-slice GE Lightspeed CT scanner operating in cine mode. We define consistency error as a measure of ability to correctly bin over repeated cycles in the same field of view. Average consistency error mue+/-sigmae in PB ranged from 18%+/-20% to 30%+/-35%, while in AB the error ranged from 11%+/-14% to 20%+/-24%. In PB nearly all bins contained sphere slices. AB was more accurate, revealing empty bins where no sphere slices existed. As a proof of principle, we present examples of two non-small cell lung carcinoma patients' 4D-CT lung images binned by both approaches. While AB can lead to gaps in the coronal images, depending on the patient's breathing pattern, PB exhibits no gaps but suffers visible artifacts due to misbinning, yielding images that cover a relatively large amplitude range. AB was more consistent, though often resulted in gaps when no data existed due to patients' breathing pattern. We conclude AB is more accurate than PB. This has important consequences to treatment planning and diagnosis. PMID:17664557

  7. Simulating storm electrification with bin and bulk microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansell, E. R.

    2013-12-01

    Simulated storm electrification can be highly dependent on the parameterizations of microphysical processes, particularly those involving ice particles. Commonly-used bulk microphysics assume a functional form of the particle size distribution and predict one or more moments of the distribution, such as total mass, number concentration, and reflectivity. Bin schemes, on the other hand, allow the particle spectrum to evolve by predicting the number of particles in discrete size ranges (bins). Bin schemes are often promoted as benchmark solutions, but have much greater computational expense and can have other disadvantages. Only a few studies have compared results for bin and bulk schemes within the same model framework, which controls for differences in model numerics and other physics. Here, the bin microphysics scheme of Takahashi has been incorporated into the COMMAS model for comparison with the 2-3-moment bulk scheme. The resulting electrification, charge structure and lightning are compared, as well. Charge separation and transfer have been newly added to the bin scheme, along with some updates to the physics, such as improved ice melting. Thus the same laboratory-based charging schemes from previous work can be used with both microphysics packages. The bulk and bin schemes generally have similar microphysical features in the simulations. Differences can result in part from differences the parameterizations of partical interactions (and particle types) as much as from the simple difference in size distributions. For example both the bin and bulk schemes are sensitive to the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei, as shown in recent work from the bulk scheme. Results will be presented for idealized 2-dimensional cases and for fully 3D simulations of a small multicell thunderstorms.

  8. Impact of San Diego`s mandatory recycling ordinance on meeting the California 50% recycling goal

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, R.V.; Worrell, W.A.

    1998-12-31

    When AB 939, The Integrated Waste Management Act of 1989, was chaptered into law, the Statewide recycling rate was 12%. The year 1990 was set as the base year. 1995 was a set as a target for the first 25% of the resources to be diverted. The year 2000 is the date for the 50% target. Today the Statewide average is around 30%. In San Diego, one reason landfill tonnage`s are down is that most of the cities have attained 40% diversions and beyond. The County Recycling Plan, initiated by then Supervisor Susan Golding in 1988, called for a 30% diversion of resources from County Landfills. One aspect of this plan was to use landfill fees to pay for trucks and bins. The County granted these to the cities and their contractors to begin the first residential and commercial recyclable materials` collections. The County put a ban on the burial of designated recyclables at County Landfills into effect in 1992. Wasted resources disposed at County Landfills dropped from 2.4 million tons in 1990 to 1.3 million tons in 1993, more than 45%. This program was recognized in 1990, by the California Department of Conservation, Division of Recycling as the best in the State, and by the National Recycling Coalition in 1993 as the best in the nation. The public sees recycling as a resource management issue. In some cities, the public has voted to pay for the opportunity to recycle discarded resources. The increased availability of these recovered materials has created thousands of new jobs and businesses. This is a hundred times more jobs than the number of jobs supported by the landfilling of these resources. These businesses have been started to provide the collection, processing, transportation, and remanufacturing of products related to the recovered metal, glass, fiber, plastic and organics. Most people who recycle think they can diminish the impact on the planet by putting back some of what they have used.

  9. The retrospective binning method improves the consistency of phase binning in respiratory-gated PET/CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didierlaurent, D.; Ribes, S.; Batatia, H.; Jaudet, C.; Dierickx, L. O.; Zerdoud, S.; Brillouet, S.; Caselles, O.; Courbon, F.

    2012-12-01

    This study assesses the accuracy of prospective phase-gated PET/CT data binning and presents a retrospective data binning method that improves image quality and consistency. Respiratory signals from 17 patients who underwent 4D PET/CT were analysed to evaluate the reproducibility of temporal triggers used for the standard phase-based gating method. Breathing signals were reprocessed to implement retrospective PET data binning. The mean and standard deviation of time lags between automatic triggers provided by the Real-time Position Management (RPM, Varian) gating device and inhalation peaks derived from respiratory curves were computed for each patient. The total number of respiratory cycles available for 4D PET/CT according to the binning mode (prospective versus retrospective) was compared. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), biological tumour volume (BTV) and tumour trajectory measures were determined from the PET/CT images of five patients. Compared to retrospective binning (RB), prospective gating approach led to (i) a significant loss in breathing cycles (15%) and (ii) the inconsistency of data binning due to temporal dispersion of triggers (average 396 ms). Consequently, tumour characterization could be impacted. In retrospective mode, SUVmax was up to 27% higher, where no significant difference appeared in BTV. In addition, prospective mode gave an inconsistent spatial location of the tumour throughout the bins. Improved consistency with breathing patterns and greater motion amplitude of the tumour centroid were observed with retrospective mode. The detection of the tumour motion and trajectory was improved also for small temporal dispersion of triggers. This study shows that the binning mode could have a significant impact on 4D PET images. The consistency of triggers with breathing signals should be checked before clinical use of gated PET/CT images, and our RB method improves 4D PET/CT image quantification.

  10. The volatile compound BinBase mass spectral database

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Volatile compounds comprise diverse chemical groups with wide-ranging sources and functions. These compounds originate from major pathways of secondary metabolism in many organisms and play essential roles in chemical ecology in both plant and animal kingdoms. In past decades, sampling methods and instrumentation for the analysis of complex volatile mixtures have improved; however, design and implementation of database tools to process and store the complex datasets have lagged behind. Description The volatile compound BinBase (vocBinBase) is an automated peak annotation and database system developed for the analysis of GC-TOF-MS data derived from complex volatile mixtures. The vocBinBase DB is an extension of the previously reported metabolite BinBase software developed to track and identify derivatized metabolites. The BinBase algorithm uses deconvoluted spectra and peak metadata (retention index, unique ion, spectral similarity, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and peak purity) from the Leco ChromaTOF software, and annotates peaks using a multi-tiered filtering system with stringent thresholds. The vocBinBase algorithm assigns the identity of compounds existing in the database. Volatile compound assignments are supported by the Adams mass spectral-retention index library, which contains over 2,000 plant-derived volatile compounds. Novel molecules that are not found within vocBinBase are automatically added using strict mass spectral and experimental criteria. Users obtain fully annotated data sheets with quantitative information for all volatile compounds for studies that may consist of thousands of chromatograms. The vocBinBase database may also be queried across different studies, comprising currently 1,537 unique mass spectra generated from 1.7 million deconvoluted mass spectra of 3,435 samples (18 species). Mass spectra with retention indices and volatile profiles are available as free download under the CC-BY agreement (http

  11. Recycled pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Bryan Anthony

    2005-11-01

    In a survey of ~4,150 square degrees, we discovered 26 previously unknown pulsars, including 7 "recycled" millisecond or binary pulsars. The most significant discovery of this survey is PSR J1909-3744, a 2.95 ms pulsar in an extremely circular 1.5 d orbit with a low-mass white dwarf companion. Though this system is a fairly typical low-mass binary pulsar (LMBP) system, it has several exceptional qualities: an extremely narrow pulse profile and stable rotation have enabled the most precise long-term timing ever reported, and a nearly edge-on orbit gives rise to a strong Shapiro delay which has allowed the most precise measurement of the mass of a millisecond pulsar: m p = (1.438 +/- 0.024) [Special characters omitted.] . Our accurate parallax distance measurement, d p = ([Special characters omitted.] ) kpc, combined with the mass of the optically-detected companion, m c = (0.2038 +/- 0.022) [Special characters omitted.] , will provide an important calibration for white dwarf models relevant to other LMBP companions. We have detected optical counterparts for two intermediate mass binary pulsar (IMBP) systems; taken together with optical detections and non-detections of several similar systems, our results indicate that the characteristic age t = c P /2 P consistently overestimates the time since the end of mass accretion in these recycled systems. We have measured orbital decay in the double neutron star system PSR B2127+11C in the globular cluster M15. This has allowed an improved measurement of the mass of the pulsar, m p = (1.3584 +/- 0.0097) [Special characters omitted.] , and companion, m c = (1.3544 +/- 0.0097) [Special characters omitted.] , as well as a test of general relativity at the 3% level. We find that the proper motions of this pulsar as well as PSR B2127+11A and PSR B2127+11B are consistent with each other and with one published measurement of the cluster proper motion. We have discovered three binary millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster M62

  12. SNR improvement for hyperspectral application using frame and pixel binning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Sami Ur; Kumar, Ankush; Banerjee, Arup

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging spectrometer systems are increasingly being used in the field of remote sensing for variety of civilian and military applications. The ability of such instruments in discriminating finer spectral features along with improved spatial and radiometric performance have made such instruments a powerful tool in the field of remote sensing. Design and development of spaceborne hyper spectral imaging spectrometers poses lot of technological challenges in terms of optics, dispersion element, detectors, electronics and mechanical systems. The main factors that define the type of detectors are the spectral region, SNR, dynamic range, pixel size, number of pixels, frame rate, operating temperature etc. Detectors with higher quantum efficiency and higher well depth are the preferred choice for such applications. CCD based Si detectors serves the requirement of high well depth for VNIR band spectrometers but suffers from smear. Smear can be controlled by using CMOS detectors. Si CMOS detectors with large format arrays are available. These detectors generally have smaller pitch and low well depth. Binning technique can be used with available CMOS detectors to meet the large swath, higher resolution and high SNR requirements. Availability of larger dwell time of satellite can be used to bin multiple frames to increase the signal collection even with lesser well depth detectors and ultimately increase the SNR. Lab measurements reveal that SNR improvement by frame binning is more in comparison to pixel binning. Effect of pixel binning as compared to the frame binning will be discussed and degradation of SNR as compared to theoretical value for pixel binning will be analyzed.

  13. Solar Radiation Pressure Binning for the Geosynchronous Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hejduk, M. D.; Ghrist, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    Orbital maintenance parameters for individual satellites or groups of satellites have traditionally been set by examining orbital parameters alone, such as through apogee and perigee height binning; this approach ignored the other factors that governed an individual satellite's susceptibility to non-conservative forces. In the atmospheric drag regime, this problem has been addressed by the introduction of the "energy dissipation rate," a quantity that represents the amount of energy being removed from the orbit; such an approach is able to consider both atmospheric density and satellite frontal area characteristics and thus serve as a mechanism for binning satellites of similar behavior. The geo-synchronous orbit (of broader definition than the geostationary orbit -- here taken to be from 1300 to 1800 minutes in orbital period) is not affected by drag; rather, its principal non-conservative force is that of solar radiation pressure -- the momentum imparted to the satellite by solar radiometric energy. While this perturbation is solved for as part of the orbit determination update, no binning or division scheme, analogous to the drag regime, has been developed for the geo-synchronous orbit. The present analysis has begun such an effort by examining the behavior of geosynchronous rocket bodies and non-stabilized payloads as a function of solar radiation pressure susceptibility. A preliminary examination of binning techniques used in the drag regime gives initial guidance regarding the criteria for useful bin divisions. Applying these criteria to the object type, solar radiation pressure, and resultant state vector accuracy for the analyzed dataset, a single division of "large" satellites into two bins for the purposes of setting related sensor tasking and orbit determination (OD) controls is suggested. When an accompanying analysis of high area-to-mass objects is complete, a full set of binning recommendations for the geosynchronous orbit will be available.

  14. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  15. BioBin: a bioinformatics tool for automating the binning of rare variants using publicly available biological knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the recent decreasing cost of genome sequence data, there has been increasing interest in rare variants and methods to detect their association to disease. We developed BioBin, a flexible collapsing method inspired by biological knowledge that can be used to automate the binning of low frequency variants for association testing. We also built the Library of Knowledge Integration (LOKI), a repository of data assembled from public databases, which contains resources such as: dbSNP and gene Entrez database information from the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI), pathway information from Gene Ontology (GO), Protein families database (Pfam), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Reactome, NetPath - signal transduction pathways, Open Regulatory Annotation Database (ORegAnno), Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGrid), Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base (PharmGKB), Molecular INTeraction database (MINT), and evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) from UCSC Genome Browser. The novelty of BioBin is access to comprehensive knowledge-guided multi-level binning. For example, bin boundaries can be formed using genomic locations from: functional regions, evolutionary conserved regions, genes, and/or pathways. Methods We tested BioBin using simulated data and 1000 Genomes Project low coverage data to test our method with simulated causative variants and a pairwise comparison of rare variant (MAF < 0.03) burden differences between Yoruba individuals (YRI) and individuals of European descent (CEU). Lastly, we analyzed the NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project Kabuki dataset, a congenital disorder affecting multiple organs and often intellectual disability, contrasted with Complete Genomics data as controls. Results The results from our simulation studies indicate type I error rate is controlled, however, power falls quickly for small sample sizes using variants with modest effect sizes. Using BioBin, we were able to find simulated

  16. Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

  17. Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Boyd W.

    2000-01-01

    Explains that motor oils can be reused and recycled. Educates students about environmental hazards and oil management and includes classroom activities. Addresses the National Science Education Standards. (YDS)

  18. Evaluation of binning strategies for tissue classification in computed tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handrick, Stefanie; Naimipour, Bahare; Raicu, Daniela; Furst, Jacob

    2006-03-01

    Binning strategies have been used in much research work for image compression, feature extraction, classification, segmentation and other tasks, but rarely is there any rigorous investigation into which binning strategy is the best. Binning becomes a "hidden parameter" of the research method. This work rigorously investigates the results of three different binning strategies, linear binning, clipped binning, and nonlinear binning, for co-occurrence texture-based classification of the backbone, liver, heart, renal, and splenic parenchyma in high-resolution DICOM Computed Tomography (CT) images of the human chest and abdomen. Linear binning divides the gray-level range of [0..4095] into k1 equally sized bins, while clipped binning allocates one large bin for low intensity gray-levels [0..855] (air), one for higher intensities [1368..4095] (bone), and k2 equally sized bins for the soft tissues between [856..1368]. Nonlinear binning divides the gray-level range of [0..4095] into k3 bins of different sizes. These bins are further used to calculate the co-occurrence statistical model and its ten Haralick descriptors for texture quantification of gray-level images. The results of the texture quantification using each one of the three strategies and for different values of k1, k2 and k3 are evaluated with respect to their discrimination power using a decision tree classification algorithm and four classification performance metrics (sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy). Our preliminary results obtained on 1368 segmented DICOM images show that the optimal number of gray-levels is equal to 128 for linear binning, 512 for clipped binning, , and 256 for non-linear binning. Furthermore, when comparing the results of the three approaches, the nonlinear binning approach shows significant improvement for heart and spleen.

  19. 52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  20. 167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  1. 47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR FEED IS AT CENTER, WITH DRIVE GEAR. THE 16 INCH FINES FEED IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IS SLIGHTLY RIGHT OF CENTER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. 7 CFR 58.226 - Portable and stationary bulk bins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Portable and stationary bulk bins. 58.226 Section 58.226 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  3. 60. View from stock bin trestle looking northeast at Babcock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. View from stock bin trestle looking northeast at Babcock & Wilcox type boilers (manufactured by Casey-Hedges Co., Chattanooga, TN) where washed furnace gas is burned with natural gas and coal to generate heat for steam. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. DETAIL VIEW OF ORE BINS AND JAW CRUSHER, LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF ORE BINS AND JAW CRUSHER, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM NEARBY THE ENGINE. THE CONCRETE MACHINE PAD TO THE RIGHT OF THE CRUSHER PROBABLY HELD THE ENGINE THAT DROVE THE CRUSHER. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. 7 CFR 58.226 - Portable and stationary bulk bins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Portable and stationary bulk bins. 58.226 Section 58.226 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING...

  6. DETAIL VIEW OF ORE BINS AND JAW CRUSHER WITH SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF ORE BINS AND JAW CRUSHER WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM NEARBY THE ENGINE. SEE CA-292-9 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. DETAIL VIEW OF ORE BINS AND JAW CRUSHER WITH SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF ORE BINS AND JAW CRUSHER WITH SIX FOOT SCALE, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM NEARBY THE ENGINE. SEE CA-292-18 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... classification report to the State must include a summary of source water monitoring data and the calculation... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bin classification for filtered...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment...

  9. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... classification report to the State must include a summary of source water monitoring data and the calculation... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bin classification for filtered...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment...

  10. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... classification report to the State must include a summary of source water monitoring data and the calculation... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bin classification for filtered...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment...

  11. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for... completion of the initial round of source water monitoring required under § 141.701(a), filtered systems must... total of at least 48 samples, the bin concentration is equal to the arithmetic mean of all...

  12. 40 CFR 141.710 - Bin classification for filtered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for... completion of the initial round of source water monitoring required under § 141.701(a), filtered systems must... total of at least 48 samples, the bin concentration is equal to the arithmetic mean of all...

  13. BRONZE FOUNDRY SCRAP STORED IN THE BINS TO THE RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRONZE FOUNDRY SCRAP STORED IN THE BINS TO THE RIGHT ARE LOADED INTO THE BOTTOM DROPPING CHARGE BUCKET IN THE BACKGROUND BEFORE BEING CHARGED INTO ONE OF THE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACES. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, TRAM TRESTLE AND WATER TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. HIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, NEARBY THE BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. EAST ELEVATION OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, PRIMARY ORE BIN, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, PRIMARY ORE BIN, AND TRAM TRESTLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. WINCHING ENGINE AND ITS FOUNDATION IS AT TOP CENTER. SEE CA-291-28 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. GENERAL VIEW OF CENTRAL COMPLEX SHOWING STICK BINS FOR RAW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF CENTRAL COMPLEX SHOWING STICK BINS FOR RAW MATERIALS IN FOREGROUND, FOUR LARGE BOILER UNITS, AND STOVES AND THE #2 BLAST FURNACE WITH SKIP HOIST IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE EAST. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. Bin sterilization to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine efficacious temperatures of hot water baths to prevent adult emergence, found baths at 80°C for > ...

  18. Recycling overview in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This article discusses the recycling programs currently in use in Sweden. Recycling of newspapers, batteries, plastics are all mentioned in this report by the Swedish Association of Public Cleansing and Solid Waste Management.

  19. Recycling Research. Tracking Trash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLago, Louise Furia

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students research the effectiveness of recycling is presented. Students compare the types and amount of litter both before and after recycling is implemented. Directions for the activity and a sample data sheet are included. (KR)

  20. Linkage-Disequilibrium-Based Binning Affects the Interpretation of GWASs

    PubMed Central

    Christoforou, Andrea; Dondrup, Michael; Mattingsdal, Morten; Mattheisen, Manuel; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Nöthen, Markus M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Cichon, Sven; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A.; Jonassen, Inge; Steen, Vidar M.; Puntervoll, Pål; Le Hellard, Stéphanie

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are critically dependent on detailed knowledge of the pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the human genome. GWASs generate lists of variants, usually SNPs, ranked according to the significance of their association to a trait. Downstream analyses generally focus on the gene or genes that are physically closest to these SNPs and ignore their LD profile with other SNPs. We have developed a flexible R package (LDsnpR) that efficiently assigns SNPs to genes on the basis of both their physical position and their pairwise LD with other SNPs. We used the positional-binning and LD-based-binning approaches to investigate whether including these “LD-based” SNPs would affect the interpretation of three published GWASs on bipolar affective disorder (BP) and of the imputed versions of two of these GWASs. We show how including LD can be important for interpreting and comparing GWASs. In the published, unimputed GWASs, LD-based binning effectively “recovered” 6.1%–8.3% of Ensembl-defined genes. It altered the ranks of the genes and resulted in nonnegligible differences between the lists of the top 2,000 genes emerging from the two binning approaches. It also improved the overall gene-based concordance between independent BP studies. In the imputed datasets, although the increases in coverage (>0.4%) and rank changes were more modest, even greater concordance between the studies was observed, attesting to the potential of LD-based binning on imputed data as well. Thus, ignoring LD can result in the misinterpretation of the GWAS findings and have an impact on subsequent genetic and functional studies. PMID:22444669

  1. Recycling and the automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    This article examines the current status of automobile recycling and contains a summary of a survey which points out the major drivers and their impacts on automotive recycling. The topics of the article include computerized dismantling, polyurethane, sheet molding compound, polyester, thermoplastic polyester, recycling salvaged parts, vinyl and automotive shredder residue.

  2. The Sustainability of Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juniper, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Describes the need for closing the business cycle in the recycling process. Discusses whether the government should mandate or the free market create uses for recycled products. Presents challenges associated with marketing recycled materials including what has been and what needs to be done to stimulate markets, encourage business, and balance…

  3. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  4. System for recycling char in iron oxide reducing kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.C.; Keran, V.P.

    1983-03-08

    A method and means for improving the efficiency of the process for directly reducing ore containing iron oxide in a rotary kiln using a solid carbonaceous reducing agent, such as coal, introduced from the ore feed and discharge ends of the kiln, as both fuel and reductant, is disclosed wherein the charred coal or char found in the discharge product is recycled into the process at the discharge end of the kiln rather than the feed end as in the prior art. In particular, the recovered char, both coarse and finer particles, are transported to a recycle bin from which they are returned at a preselected rate to the kiln process by being injected along with the coal blown into the discharge end of the kiln. Alternatively, the recycle char alone may be fed without any coal at the discharge end of the kiln.

  5. Identification of a novel effector domain of BIN1 for cancer suppression.

    PubMed

    Lundgaard, Greta L; Daniels, Natae E; Pyndiah, Slovénie; Cassimere, Erica K; Ahmed, Kazi M; Rodrigue, Amélie; Kihara, Daisuke; Post, Carol B; Sakamuro, Daitoku

    2011-10-01

    Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) is a nucleocytoplasmic adaptor protein with tumor suppressor properties. The protein interacts with and inhibits the c-MYC transcription factor through the BIN1 MYC-binding domain (MBD). However, in vitro colony formation assays have clearly demonstrated that the MBD is not essential for BIN1-mediated growth arrest. We hypothesized that BIN1 contains a MYC-independent effector domain (MID) for cancer suppression. Because a functionally unique domain frequently contains a distinct structure, the human full-length BIN1 protein was subjected to limited trypsin digestion and the digested peptides were analyzed with Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry. We identified a trypsin-resistant peptide that corresponds to amino acids 146-268 of BIN1. It encompassed part of the BAR region, a putative effector region of BIN1. Computational analysis predicted that the peptide is very likely to exhibit coiled-coil motifs, implying a potential role for this region in sustaining the BIN1 structure and function. Like MBD-deleted BIN1, the trypsin-resistant peptide of BIN1 was predominantly present in the cytoplasm and was sufficient to inhibit cancer growth, regardless of dysregulated c-MYC activity. Our results suggest that the coiled-coil BIN1 BAR peptide encodes a novel BIN1 MID domain, through which BIN1 acts as a MYC-independent cancer suppressor. PMID:21678469

  6. TOP VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, PRIMARY ORE BIN, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP VIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, PRIMARY ORE BIN, AND ORE CHUTE,LOOKING SOUTHWEST. TRAM MACHINERY AND GEARS ARE AT LOWER CENTER. A SMALL ELECTRIC MOTOR AT THE REAR LEFT OF THE TERMINAL PROBABLY WAS ADDED AFTER THE ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION. THE MOVING CABLE OF THE TRAM WAS DRIVEN BY THESE GEARS AND THE LARGE WHEEL UNDERNEATH (SEE CA-291-31 FOR DETAIL). EMPTY TRAM BUCKETS CAME IN FROM THE LEFT, SWINGING AROUND TO THE CHUTES FROM THE ORE BIN TO BE LOADED FOR THE TRIP DOWN TO THE MILL (SEE CA-291-35 FOR DETAIL). THE BREAK OVER TOWER CAN BE SEEN IN THE DISTANCE AT TOP LEFT. THE SUPPORT TOWER BETWEEN THE UPPER TERMINAL AND THE BREAK OVER TOWER IS COLLAPSED. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. Independence of VNTR alleles defined as floating bins

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, B.S. )

    1992-11-01

    Data bases of VNTR fragments determined for Caucasians and blacks by Cellmark Diagnostics and Lifecodes Corporation are analyzed for independence of variants within and between loci. Floating bins are constructed around specific fragment lengths and are used to define discrete genotypes. Simple [chi][sup 2] test statistics for independence of bins within and between loci are described and applied to large sets of randomly generated four-locus profiles. The proportions of significant test statistics were about as expected under the hypothesis of independence, suggesting the absence of both Hardy-Weinberg and linkage disequilibrium. In any particular forensic application, however, these need to be performed on the fragments in question. 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Psychrometric Bin Analysis for Alternative Cooling Strategies in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; VanGeet, O.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Dean, J.; Kurnik, C.

    2011-01-01

    Data centers are significant energy users and require continuous cooling to maintain high levels of computing performance. The majority of data centers have direct-expansion cooling which typically accounts for approximately 50% of the energy usage of data centers. However, using typical meteorological year 3 (TMY3) weather data and a simple psychometric bin analysis, alternative cooling strategies using a combination of economizer, evaporative, and supplemental DX cooling have been shown to be applicable in all climate zones in the United States. Average data center cooling energy savings across the U.S. was approximately 80%. Analysis of cooling energy savings is presented for various ASHRAE climate zones. The psychometric bin analysis is conducted for the ASHRAE recommended and allowable operating environment zones, as well as, a modified allowable operating environment. Control strategies are discussed. Finally, examples of energy efficient data centers using alternative cooling strategies are presented.

  9. 34. VIEW FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN WEST TO THICKENER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN WEST TO THICKENER ADDITIONS. SHAFT OF PRIMARY THICKENER No. 1 AT CENTER, WITH PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 ABOVE AND TO THE LEFT. INTACT THICKENER SURGE TANK IS JUST ABOVE AND TO THE RIGHT (NORTH). ALL FRAMING ABOVE SECONDARY THICKENERS No. 2, No. 3, AND No. 7 HAS COLLAPSED. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. BIN1 regulates dynamic t-tubule membrane.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Hong, TingTing

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac transverse tubules (t-tubules) are specific membrane organelles critical in calcium signaling and excitation-contraction coupling required for beat-to-beat heart contraction. T-tubules are highly branched and form an interconnected network that penetrates the myocyte interior to form junctions with the sarcoplasmic reticulum. T-tubules are selectively enriched with specific ion channels and proteins crucial in calcium transient development necessary in excitation-contraction coupling, thus t-tubules are a key component of cardiac myocyte function. In this review, we focus primarily on two proteins concentrated within the t-tubular network, the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) and associated membrane anchor protein, bridging integrator 1 (BIN1). Here, we provide an overview of current knowledge in t-tubule morphology, composition, microdomains, as well as the dynamics of the t-tubule network. Secondly, we highlight multiple aspects of BIN1-dependent t-tubule function, which includes forward trafficking of LTCCs to t-tubules, LTCC clustering at t-tubule surface, microdomain organization and regulation at t-tubule membrane, and the formation of a slow diffusion barrier within t-tubules. Lastly, we describe progress in characterizing how acquired human heart failure can be attributed to abnormal BIN1 transcription and associated t-tubule remodeling. Understanding BIN1-regulated cardiac t-tubule biology in human heart failure management has the dual benefit of promoting progress in both biomarker development and therapeutic target identification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. PMID:26578114

  11. Performance Analysis of Selective Breeding Algorithm on One Dimensional Bin Packing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriramya, P.; Parvathavarthini, B.

    2012-12-01

    The bin packing optimization problem packs a set of objects into a set of bins so that the amount of wasted space is minimized. The bin packing problem has many important applications. The objective is to find a feasible assignment of all weights to bins that minimizes the total number of bins used. The bin packing problem models several practical problems in such diverse areas as industrial control, computer systems, machine scheduling, VLSI chip layout and etc. Selective breeding algorithm (SBA) is an iterative procedure which borrows the ideas of artificial selection and breeding process. By simulating artificial evolution in this way SBA algorithm can easily solve complex problems. One dimensional bin packing benchmark problems are taken for evaluating the performance of the SBA. The computational results of SBA algorithm show optimal solution for the tested benchmark problems. The proposed SBA algorithm is a good problem-solving technique for one dimensional bin packing problems.

  12. Independence of Vntr Alleles Defined as Fixed Bins

    PubMed Central

    Weir, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is presented of data collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation at six unlinked variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) loci for the United States population. Databases have been constructed of VNTR profiles of Caucasians, Blacks and Hispanics from Florida, Texas and California. There was very little evidence for correlations between lengths for pairs of VNTR fragments, within or between loci. When the fragment lengths were amalgamated into discrete bins, there was also little evidence for disequilibrium over all genotypes, within or between loci, for the Caucasian database, although some disequilibrium was found for the Black and Hispanic databases. No disequilibrium was found for the Caucasian or Black databases when tests were confined to heterozygous individuals. In cases of global disequilibrium, local tests can be applied to specific genotypes. The results suggest that, at the bin level, frequencies of VNTR profiles can generally be estimated as the products of the frequencies of the constituent elements. This overcomes the problem of estimating population frequencies when any particular profile does not exist in the database. There is some evidence for different frequencies, at the individual bin level, between geographic samples within each of the Caucasian, Black and Hispanic databases, and considerable evidence for differences between the three databases. These differences are less evident for the frequencies of four-locus profiles. PMID:1349872

  13. On The Equivalence of Soft and Zero-Bin Subtractions

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Mehen; Ahmad Idilbi

    2007-06-01

    Zero-bin subtractions are required to avoid double counting soft contributions in collinear loop integrals in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET). In traditional approaches to factorization, double counting is avoided by dividing jet functions by matrix elements of soft Wilson lines. In this paper, we compare the two approaches to double counting, studying the quark form factor and deep inelastic scattering (DIS) as x{sub B} to 1 as examples. We explain how the zero-bin subtractions in SCET are required to reproduce the well-established factorization theorem for DIS as x{sub B} to 1. We study one-loop virtual contributions to the quark form factor and real gluon emission diagrams in DIS. The two approaches to double counting are equivalent if dimensional regularization (DR) is used to regulate infrared (IR) divergences. We discuss in detail ambiguities in the calculation of one-loop scaleless integrals in DR in SCET and perturbative QCD. We also demonstrate a nontrivial check of the equivalence of the zero-bin subtraction and the soft Wilson line subtraction in the virtual two-loop Abelian contributions to the quark form factor.

  14. Integrated technologies for solid waste bin monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Arebey, Maher; Hannan, M A; Basri, Hassan; Begum, R A; Abdullah, Huda

    2011-06-01

    The integration of communication technologies such as radio frequency identification (RFID), global positioning system (GPS), general packet radio system (GPRS), and geographic information system (GIS) with a camera are constructed for solid waste monitoring system. The aim is to improve the way of responding to customer's inquiry and emergency cases and estimate the solid waste amount without any involvement of the truck driver. The proposed system consists of RFID tag mounted on the bin, RFID reader as in truck, GPRS/GSM as web server, and GIS as map server, database server, and control server. The tracking devices mounted in the trucks collect location information in real time via the GPS. This information is transferred continuously through GPRS to a central database. The users are able to view the current location of each truck in the collection stage via a web-based application and thereby manage the fleet. The trucks positions and trash bin information are displayed on a digital map, which is made available by a map server. Thus, the solid waste of the bin and the truck are being monitored using the developed system. PMID:20703798

  15. Toward zero waste: Composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events

    SciTech Connect

    Hottle, Troy A.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Brown, Nicholas R.; Landis, Amy E.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Venues have billions of customers per year contributing to waste generation. • Waste audits of four university baseball games were conducted to assess venue waste. • Seven scenarios including composting were modeled using EPA’s WARM. • Findings demonstrate tradeoffs between emissions, energy, and landfill avoidance. • Sustainability of handling depends on efficacy of collection and treatment impacts. - Abstract: This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO{sub 2} eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO{sub 2} eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night

  16. Toward zero waste: composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events.

    PubMed

    Hottle, Troy A; Bilec, Melissa M; Brown, Nicholas R; Landis, Amy E

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO2 equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO2 eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO2 eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night (with the staffed bins) and 23% contamination rates at the third game. PMID:25666546

  17. Marshall Space Flight Center solid waste characterization and recycling improvement study: General office and laboratory waste, scrap metal, office and flight surplus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eley, Michael H.; Crews, Lavonne; Johnston, Ben; Lee, David; Colebaugh, James

    1995-04-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the solid waste stream for MSFC facilities in Huntsville, Alabama, and to evaluate their present recycling program. The purpose of the study was to determine if improvements could be made in terms of increasing quantities of the present commodities collected, adding more recyclables to the program, and streamlining or improving operational efficiency. In conducting the study, various elements were implemented. These included sampling and sorting representative samples of the waste stream; visually inspecting each refuse bin, recycle bin, and roll-off; interviewing employees and recycling coordinators of other companies; touring local material recycling facilities; contacting experts in the field; and performing a literature search.

  18. Marshall Space Flight Center solid waste characterization and recycling improvement study: General office and laboratory waste, scrap metal, office and flight surplus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eley, Michael H.; Crews, Lavonne; Johnston, Ben; Lee, David; Colebaugh, James

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the solid waste stream for MSFC facilities in Huntsville, Alabama, and to evaluate their present recycling program. The purpose of the study was to determine if improvements could be made in terms of increasing quantities of the present commodities collected, adding more recyclables to the program, and streamlining or improving operational efficiency. In conducting the study, various elements were implemented. These included sampling and sorting representative samples of the waste stream; visually inspecting each refuse bin, recycle bin, and roll-off; interviewing employees and recycling coordinators of other companies; touring local material recycling facilities; contacting experts in the field; and performing a literature search.

  19. 9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN No. 4: UPPER SCREWS MOVED SOAP CHIPS HORIZONTALLY FROM BIN TO BIN; LOWER LEFT-AND RIGHT-HAND SCREWS MOVED CHIPS TO CHUTE LEADING TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  20. 19 CFR 19.29 - Sealing of bins or other bonded space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sealing of bins or other bonded space. 19.29...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.29 Sealing of bins or other bonded space. The outlets to all bins...

  1. 19 CFR 19.29 - Sealing of bins or other bonded space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sealing of bins or other bonded space. 19.29...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.29 Sealing of bins or other bonded space. The outlets to all bins...

  2. 19 CFR 19.29 - Sealing of bins or other bonded space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sealing of bins or other bonded space. 19.29...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.29 Sealing of bins or other bonded space. The outlets to all bins...

  3. 19 CFR 19.29 - Sealing of bins or other bonded space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sealing of bins or other bonded space. 19.29...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Space Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.29 Sealing of bins or other bonded space. The outlets to all bins...

  4. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  5. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  6. A Novel Abundance-Based Algorithm for Binning Metagenomic Sequences Using l-Tuples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Wei; Ye, Yuzhen

    Metagenomics is the study of microbial communities sampled directly from their natural environment, without prior culturing. Among the computational tools recently developed for metagenomic sequence analysis, binning tools attempt to classify all (or most) of the sequences in a metagenomic dataset into different bins (i.e., species), based on various DNA composition patterns (e.g., the tetramer frequencies) of various genomes. Composition-based binning methods, however, cannot be used to classify very short fragments, because of the substantial variation of DNA composition patterns within a single genome. We developed a novel approach (AbundanceBin) for metagenomics binning by utilizing the different abundances of species living in the same environment. AbundanceBin is an application of the Lander-Waterman model to metagenomics, which is based on the l-tuple content of the reads. AbundanceBin achieved accurate, unsupervised, clustering of metagenomic sequences into different bins, such that the reads classified in a bin belong to species of identical or very similar abundances in the sample. In addition, AbundanceBin gave accurate estimations of species abundances, as well as their genome sizes - two important parameters for characterizing a microbial community. We also show that AbundanceBin performed well when the sequence lengths are very short (e.g. 75 bp) or have sequencing errors.

  7. The generation and cost of litter resulting from the curbside collection of recycling.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Travis P; Broaddus, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the generation of litter, defined as spillage and uncollected residue, from a curbside collection system for residential recycling. The primary recycling containers used in the study were 18-gal (68 L), open-top bins. The study, conducted over a seven-week period, was comprised of both an urban and suburban area. Six litter characterizations were conducted in which all new litter larger than 1 in.(2) was collected, segregated, counted, and weighed. We found that each week the open-top recycling bins contributed approximately 20,590 pieces of litter over 1 in. in size per every 1000 households, which resulted in the generation of 3.74 tons of litter per 1000 households per year. In addition to the bins having no top, the primary root causes of the litter were constantly overflowing recycling bins, the method of collection, and material scavenging. Based on an estimated cost of litter cleanup ranging from $0.17 to $0.79 per piece of litter, the direct economic costs from the collection of litter and loss in recycling revenues were estimated at US$3920 to US$19,250 per 1000 households per year. Other notable impacts from the litter, such as increased risk of flood damage from storm drain impairment and marine ecosystem damages exist, but were not monetized. The results strongly suggest that modification of the curbside collection system would decrease the amount and associated cost of litter by replacing existing curbside collection containers with larger volume containers with covers and by modifying the task-based incentive system to emphasize litter prevention rather than the current aim of completing the task most quickly. PMID:26882867

  8. Improving a Spectral Bin Microphysical Scheme Using TRMM Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaowen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Matsui, Toshihisa; Liu, Chuntao; Masunaga, Hirohiko

    2010-01-01

    Comparisons between cloud model simulations and observations are crucial in validating model performance and improving physical processes represented in the mod Tel.hese modeled physical processes are idealized representations and almost always have large rooms for improvements. In this study, we use data from two different sensors onboard TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) satellite to improve the microphysical scheme in the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. TRMM observed mature-stage squall lines during late spring, early summer in central US over a 9-year period are compiled and compared with a case simulation by GCE model. A unique aspect of the GCE model is that it has a state-of-the-art spectral bin microphysical scheme, which uses 33 different bins to represent particle size distribution of each of the seven hydrometeor species. A forward radiative transfer model calculates TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) reflectivity and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) 85 GHz brightness temperatures from simulated particle size distributions. Comparisons between model outputs and observations reveal that the model overestimates sizes of snow/aggregates in the stratiform region of the squall line. After adjusting temperature-dependent collection coefficients among ice-phase particles, PR comparisons become good while TMI comparisons worsen. Further investigations show that the partitioning between graupel (a high-density form of aggregate), and snow (a low-density form of aggregate) needs to be adjusted in order to have good comparisons in both PR reflectivity and TMI brightness temperature. This study shows that long-term satellite observations, especially those with multiple sensors, can be very useful in constraining model microphysics. It is also the first study in validating and improving a sophisticated spectral bin microphysical scheme according to long-term satellite observations.

  9. 36. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM UNDERNEATH THE ORE BINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM UNDERNEATH THE ORE BINS LOOKING AT THE BACK SIDE OF THE HENDY CHALLENGE CONTINUOUS ORE FEEDERS, #1 IS ON THE LEFT, #2 IS CENTER, AND #3 IS ON THE RIGHT. THESE ARE USED TO KEEP A CONTINUOUS FLOW OF ORE INTO THE STAMP MILLS. NOTE THE SPARE FEEDER DISKS ON THE FLOOR BOTTOM CENTER AND SPARE STAMP HEADS AND SHOES ON THE FLOOR BOTTOM LEFT OF THE IMAGE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  10. Slipping with the waste (a wheelie bin hand injury).

    PubMed

    Parkes, Rebekah; Weerasuriya, Thisara; Gibson, Suzy

    2015-01-01

    A right hand dominant man in his 60s was moving his wheelie bin when he tripped and landed still holding on to the handle. His hand was trapped between the handle and the ground. He sustained lacerations at the level of the proximal interphalangeal joints of all the fingers of his right hand. The index and middle fingers had damage to the proximal phalangeal articular cartilage and central slip. The central slip loss in the middle finger required reconstruction. The wounds healed without complication by 4 weeks, at which point the patient's fingers were mobilised; he regained almost full range of movement by 3 months. PMID:26126509

  11. Studies of Open Clusters using 50BiN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Licai; Xin, Yu; Zhang, Xiaobin; Wang, Kun; Luo, Changqing

    2015-08-01

    50BiN (50cm Binocular Network) is a sub-program of SONG, funded by Chinese participating universities. The Science goals is to do simulteneous two-color widep-field photometry of Galactic open clusters in time-domain, and to study the fundamental properties of the clusters and to search variable objects in a systematic manner. The proto-type node, located in West-China, is now in operation. The science plan of the program and some preliminary results will be presented.

  12. AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY WASTEWATER RECYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of recycling certain categories of water used in the manufacture of airplanes was demonstrated. Water in four categories was continuously recycled in 380-liter (100-gallon) treatment plants; chemical process rinse water, dye-penetrant crack-detection rinse water, ...

  13. Wee Recyclers Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Hands-on activities in this guide are designed to help preschool children (ages 3-5) understand that reducing, reusing, and recycling preserves natural resources and prolongs the life of landfills. Children sort, match and compare recyclable items and learn to separate some items by number and color. The 29 activities are divided into units that…

  14. Design for aluminum recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This article describes the increasing use of aluminum in automobiles and the need to recycle to benefit further growth of aluminum applications by assuring an economical, high-quality source of metal. The article emphasizes that coordination of material specifications among designers can raise aluminum scrap value and facilitate recycling. Applications of aluminum in automobile construction are discussed.

  15. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  16. The Fermilab recycler ring

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

  17. Carbon dioxide recycling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  18. Recycling at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, William M.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines a Michigan summer camp's efforts to reduce solid waste disposal by recycling cardboard, tin, glass, aluminum, and plastic milk containers. Points out variables affecting the success of such efforts. Discusses Michigan state funding for the development of recycling programs. (SV)

  19. Advances in plastic recycling. Volume 1: Recycling of polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, K.C.; Klempner, D.; Prentice, G.

    1999-07-01

    ``Recycling of Polyurethanes'', the first volume in the Advances in Plastics Recycling series, is focused on the physical and chemical recycling of polyurethanes, with attention given to energy conversion. A compilation of the present ongoing studies on recycling of urethane and, in general, isocyanate-based polymers, the focus is on thermosetting urethane polymers. Contents include: Recycling of Polyurethane Plastics in the European Automotive Industry; Present State of Polyurethane Recycling in Europe; Processing Overview of Bonded Polyurethane Foam; Mechanical Recycling of Polyurethane Scrap; Ecostream{trademark}--A Technology Beyond Recycling; Recycling of Flexible polyurethane Foam; General purpose Adhesives Prepared from Chemically Recycled Waste Rigid Polyurethane Foams; and Utilization of Isocyanate Binders in Recycling of Scrap Automotive Headliners.

  20. Test Plan: WIPP bin-scale CH TRU waste tests

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    This WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program described herein will provide relevant composition and kinetic rate data on gas generation and consumption resulting from TRU waste degradation, as impacted by synergistic interactions due to multiple degradation modes, waste form preparation, long-term repository environmental effects, engineered barrier materials, and, possibly, engineered modifications to be developed. Similar data on waste-brine leachate compositions and potentially hazardous volatile organic compounds released by the wastes will also be provided. The quantitative data output from these tests and associated technical expertise are required by the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) program studies, and for the scientific benefit of the overall WIPP project. This Test Plan describes the necessary scientific and technical aspects, justifications, and rational for successfully initiating and conducting the WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program. This Test Plan is the controlling scientific design definition and overall requirements document for this WIPP in situ test, as defined by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), scientific advisor to the US Department of Energy, WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO). 55 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. Constant-complexity stochastic simulation algorithm with optimal binning

    SciTech Connect

    Sanft, Kevin R.; Othmer, Hans G.

    2015-08-21

    At the molecular level, biochemical processes are governed by random interactions between reactant molecules, and the dynamics of such systems are inherently stochastic. When the copy numbers of reactants are large, a deterministic description is adequate, but when they are small, such systems are often modeled as continuous-time Markov jump processes that can be described by the chemical master equation. Gillespie’s Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) generates exact trajectories of these systems, but the amount of computational work required for each step of the original SSA is proportional to the number of reaction channels, leading to computational complexity that scales linearly with the problem size. The original SSA is therefore inefficient for large problems, which has prompted the development of several alternative formulations with improved scaling properties. We describe an exact SSA that uses a table data structure with event time binning to achieve constant computational complexity with respect to the number of reaction channels for weakly coupled reaction networks. We present a novel adaptive binning strategy and discuss optimal algorithm parameters. We compare the computational efficiency of the algorithm to existing methods and demonstrate excellent scaling for large problems. This method is well suited for generating exact trajectories of large weakly coupled models, including those that can be described by the reaction-diffusion master equation that arises from spatially discretized reaction-diffusion processes.

  2. Solvent recycle/recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  3. A dynamic optimization model for solid waste recycling.

    PubMed

    Anghinolfi, Davide; Paolucci, Massimo; Robba, Michela; Taramasso, Angela Celeste

    2013-02-01

    Recycling is an important part of waste management (that includes different kinds of issues: environmental, technological, economic, legislative, social, etc.). Differently from many works in literature, this paper is focused on recycling management and on the dynamic optimization of materials collection. The developed dynamic decision model is characterized by state variables, corresponding to the quantity of waste in each bin per each day, and control variables determining the quantity of material that is collected in the area each day and the routes for collecting vehicles. The objective function minimizes the sum of costs minus benefits. The developed decision model is integrated in a GIS-based Decision Support System (DSS). A case study related to the Cogoleto municipality is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed model. From optimal results, it has been found that the net benefits of the optimized collection are about 2.5 times greater than the estimated current policy. PMID:23158873

  4. Optimal binning of X-ray spectra and response matrix design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaastra, J. S.; Bleeker, J. A. M.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: A theoretical framework is developed to estimate the optimal binning of X-ray spectra. Methods: We derived expressions for the optimal bin size for model spectra as well as for observed data using different levels of sophistication. Results: It is shown that by taking into account both the number of photons in a given spectral model bin and their average energy over the bin size, the number of model energy bins and the size of the response matrix can be reduced by a factor of 10-100. The response matrix should then contain the response at the bin centre as well as its derivative with respect to the incoming photon energy. We provide practical guidelines for how to construct optimal energy grids as well as how to structure the response matrix. A few examples are presented to illustrate the present methods.

  5. The Totem Pole Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Susan Breyer

    1991-01-01

    Presents an activity that integrates science, environmental education, art, and social studies. Students identify and research an endangered species and construct a totem pole depicting the species using a recyclable material. (MDH)

  6. Recycle plastics into feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kastner, H.; Kaminsky, W.

    1995-05-01

    Thermal cracking of mixed-plastics wastes with a fluidized-bed reactor can be a viable and cost-effective means to meet mandatory recycling laws. Strict worldwide environmental statutes require the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) to develop and implement product applications and technologies that reuse post-consumer mixed-plastics waste. Recycling or reuse of plastics waste has a broad definition. Recycling entails more than mechanical regranulation and remelting of polymers for film and molding applications. A European consortium of academia and refiners have investigated if it is possible and profitable to thermally crack plastics into feedstocks for refining and petrochemical applications. Development and demonstration of pyrolysis methods show promising possibilities of converting landfill garbage into valuable feedstocks such as ethylene, propylene, BTX, etc. Fluidized-bed reactor technologies offer HPI operators a possible avenue to meet recycling laws, conserve raw materials and yield a profit. The paper describes thermal cracking for feedstocks and pyrolysis of polyolefins.

  7. A Practical Recycling Project . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Raymond H.; Mikuska, James M.

    1973-01-01

    Descirbes a school district's recycling program of aluminum lunch trays that are collected after their use. The trays are used as scrap metal in industrial education workshop and used for sand castings. (PS)

  8. Bin packing problem solution through a deterministic weighted finite automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala-Díaz, J. C.; Pérez-Ortega, J.; Martínez-Rebollar, A.; Almanza-Ortega, N. N.; Hidalgo-Reyes, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this article the solution of Bin Packing problem of one dimension through a weighted finite automaton is presented. Construction of the automaton and its application to solve three different instances, one synthetic data and two benchmarks are presented: N1C1W1_A.BPP belonging to data set Set_1; and BPP13.BPP belonging to hard28. The optimal solution of synthetic data is obtained. In the first benchmark the solution obtained is one more container than the ideal number of containers and in the second benchmark the solution is two more containers than the ideal solution (approximately 2.5%). The runtime in all three cases was less than one second.

  9. binGroup: A Package for Group Testing

    PubMed Central

    Bilder, Christopher R.; Zhang, Boan; Schaarschmidt, Frank; Tebbs, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    When the prevalence of a disease or of some other binary characteristic is small, group testing (also known as pooled testing) is frequently used to estimate the prevalence and/or to identify individuals as positive or negative. We have developed the binGroup package as the first package designed to address the estimation problem in group testing. We present functions to estimate an overall prevalence for a homogeneous population. Also, for this setting, we have functions to aid in the very important choice of the group size. When individuals come from a heterogeneous population, our group testing regression functions can be used to estimate an individual probability of disease positivity by using the group observations only. We illustrate our functions with data from a multiple vector transfer design experiment and a human infectious disease prevalence study. PMID:21833347

  10. Low-Light Image Enhancement Using Adaptive Digital Pixel Binning

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yoonjong; Im, Jaehyun; Paik, Joonki

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an image enhancement algorithm for low-light scenes in an environment with insufficient illumination. Simple amplification of intensity exhibits various undesired artifacts: noise amplification, intensity saturation, and loss of resolution. In order to enhance low-light images without undesired artifacts, a novel digital binning algorithm is proposed that considers brightness, context, noise level, and anti-saturation of a local region in the image. The proposed algorithm does not require any modification of the image sensor or additional frame-memory; it needs only two line-memories in the image signal processor (ISP). Since the proposed algorithm does not use an iterative computation, it can be easily embedded in an existing digital camera ISP pipeline containing a high-resolution image sensor. PMID:26121609

  11. Low-Light Image Enhancement Using Adaptive Digital Pixel Binning.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yoonjong; Im, Jaehyun; Paik, Joonki

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an image enhancement algorithm for low-light scenes in an environment with insufficient illumination. Simple amplification of intensity exhibits various undesired artifacts: noise amplification, intensity saturation, and loss of resolution. In order to enhance low-light images without undesired artifacts, a novel digital binning algorithm is proposed that considers brightness, context, noise level, and anti-saturation of a local region in the image. The proposed algorithm does not require any modification of the image sensor or additional frame-memory; it needs only two line-memories in the image signal processor (ISP). Since the proposed algorithm does not use an iterative computation, it can be easily embedded in an existing digital camera ISP pipeline containing a high-resolution image sensor. PMID:26121609

  12. BinAligner: a heuristic method to align biological networks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jialiang; Li, Jun; Grünewald, Stefan; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The advances in high throughput omics technologies have made it possible to characterize molecular interactions within and across various species. Alignments and comparison of molecular networks across species will help detect orthologs and conserved functional modules and provide insights on the evolutionary relationships of the compared species. However, such analyses are not trivial due to the complexity of network and high computational cost. Here we develop a mixture of global and local algorithm, BinAligner, for network alignments. Based on the hypotheses that the similarity between two vertices across networks would be context dependent and that the information from the edges and the structures of subnetworks can be more informative than vertices alone, two scoring schema, 1-neighborhood subnetwork and graphlet, were introduced to derive the scoring matrices between networks, besides the commonly used scoring scheme from vertices. Then the alignment problem is formulated as an assignment problem, which is solved by the combinatorial optimization algorithm, such as the Hungarian method. The proposed algorithm was applied and validated in aligning the protein-protein interaction network of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and that of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Interestingly, we identified several putative functional orthologous proteins with similar functions but very low sequence similarity between the two viruses. For example, KSHV open reading frame 56 (ORF56) and VZV ORF55 are helicase-primase subunits with sequence identity 14.6%, and KSHV ORF75 and VZV ORF44 are tegument proteins with sequence identity 15.3%. These functional pairs can not be identified if one restricts the alignment into orthologous protein pairs. In addition, BinAligner identified a conserved pathway between two viruses, which consists of 7 orthologous protein pairs and these proteins are connected by conserved links. This pathway might be crucial for virus packing and

  13. Recycling of nonmetallics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  14. MBMC: An Effective Markov Chain Approach for Binning Metagenomic Reads from Environmental Shotgun Sequencing Projects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Hu, Haiyan; Li, Xiaoman

    2016-08-01

    Metagenomics is a next-generation omics field currently impacting postgenomic life sciences and medicine. Binning metagenomic reads is essential for the understanding of microbial function, compositions, and interactions in given environments. Despite the existence of dozens of computational methods for metagenomic read binning, it is still very challenging to bin reads. This is especially true for reads from unknown species, from species with similar abundance, and/or from low-abundance species in environmental samples. In this study, we developed a novel taxonomy-dependent and alignment-free approach called MBMC (Metagenomic Binning by Markov Chains). Different from all existing methods, MBMC bins reads by measuring the similarity of reads to the trained Markov chains for different taxa instead of directly comparing reads with known genomic sequences. By testing on more than 24 simulated and experimental datasets with species of similar abundance, species of low abundance, and/or unknown species, we report here that MBMC reliably grouped reads from different species into separate bins. Compared with four existing approaches, we demonstrated that the performance of MBMC was comparable with existing approaches when binning reads from sequenced species, and superior to existing approaches when binning reads from unknown species. MBMC is a pivotal tool for binning metagenomic reads in the current era of Big Data and postgenomic integrative biology. The MBMC software can be freely downloaded at http://hulab.ucf.edu/research/projects/metagenomics/MBMC.html . PMID:27447888

  15. Potential fitting biases resulting from grouping data into variable width bins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towers, S.

    2014-07-01

    When reading peer-reviewed scientific literature describing any analysis of empirical data, it is natural and correct to proceed with the underlying assumption that experiments have made good faith efforts to ensure that their analyses yield unbiased results. However, particle physics experiments are expensive and time consuming to carry out, thus if an analysis has inherent bias (even if unintentional), much money and effort can be wasted trying to replicate or understand the results, particularly if the analysis is fundamental to our understanding of the universe. In this note we discuss the significant biases that can result from data binning schemes. As we will show, if data are binned such that they provide the best comparison to a particular (but incorrect) model, the resulting model parameter estimates when fitting to the binned data can be significantly biased, leading us to too often accept the model hypothesis when it is not in fact true. When using binned likelihood or least squares methods there is of course no a priori requirement that data bin sizes need to be constant, but we show that fitting to data grouped into variable width bins is particularly prone to produce biased results if the bin boundaries are chosen to optimize the comparison of the binned data to a wrong model. The degree of bias that can be achieved simply with variable binning can be surprisingly large. Fitting the data with an unbinned likelihood method, when possible to do so, is the best way for researchers to show that their analyses are not biased by binning effects. Failing that, equal bin widths should be employed as a cross-check of the fitting analysis whenever possible.

  16. KNOWLEDGE DRIVEN BINNING AND PHEWAS ANALYSIS IN MARSHFIELD PERSONALIZED MEDICINE RESEARCH PROJECT USING BIOBIN*

    PubMed Central

    BASILE, ANNA O; WALLACE, JOHN R; PEISSIG, PEGGY; MCCARTY, CATHERINE A; BRILLIANT, MURRAY

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology has presented an opportunity for rare variant discovery and association of these variants with disease. To address the challenges of rare variant analysis, multiple statistical methods have been developed for combining rare variants to increase statistical power for detecting associations. BioBin is an automated tool that expands on collapsing/binning methods by performing multi-level variant aggregation with a flexible, biologically informed binning strategy using an internal biorepository, the Library of Knowledge (LOKI). The databases within LOKI provide variant details, regional annotations and pathway interactions which can be used to generate bins of biologically-related variants, thereby increasing the power of any subsequent statistical test. In this study, we expand the framework of BioBin to incorporate statistical tests, including a dispersion-based test, SKAT, thereby providing the option of performing a unified collapsing and statistical rare variant analysis in one tool. Extensive simulation studies performed on gene-coding regions showed a Bin-KAT analysis to have greater power than BioBin-regression in all simulated conditions, including variants influencing the phenotype in the same direction, a scenario where burden tests often retain greater power. The use of Madsen-Browning variant weighting increased power in the burden analysis to that equitable with Bin-KAT; but overall Bin-KAT retained equivalent or higher power under all conditions. Bin-KAT was applied to a study of 82 pharmacogenes sequenced in the Marshfield Personalized Medicine Research Project (PMRP). We looked for association of these genes with 9 different phenotypes extracted from the electronic health record. This study demonstrates that Bin-KAT is a powerful tool for the identification of genes harboring low frequency variants for complex phenotypes. PMID:26776191

  17. KNOWLEDGE DRIVEN BINNING AND PHEWAS ANALYSIS IN MARSHFIELD PERSONALIZED MEDICINE RESEARCH PROJECT USING BIOBIN.

    PubMed

    Basile, Anna O; Wallace, John R; Peissig, Peggy; McCarty, Catherine A; Brilliant, Murray; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology has presented an opportunity for rare variant discovery and association of these variants with disease. To address the challenges of rare variant analysis, multiple statistical methods have been developed for combining rare variants to increase statistical power for detecting associations. BioBin is an automated tool that expands on collapsing/binning methods by performing multi-level variant aggregation with a flexible, biologically informed binning strategy using an internal biorepository, the Library of Knowledge (LOKI). The databases within LOKI provide variant details, regional annotations and pathway interactions which can be used to generate bins of biologically-related variants, thereby increasing the power of any subsequent statistical test. In this study, we expand the framework of BioBin to incorporate statistical tests, including a dispersion-based test, SKAT, thereby providing the option of performing a unified collapsing and statistical rare variant analysis in one tool. Extensive simulation studies performed on gene-coding regions showed a Bin-KAT analysis to have greater power than BioBin-regression in all simulated conditions, including variants influencing the phenotype in the same direction, a scenario where burden tests often retain greater power. The use of Madsen- Browning variant weighting increased power in the burden analysis to that equitable with Bin-KAT; but overall Bin-KAT retained equivalent or higher power under all conditions. Bin-KAT was applied to a study of 82 pharmacogenes sequenced in the Marshfield Personalized Medicine Research Project (PMRP). We looked for association of these genes with 9 different phenotypes extracted from the electronic health record. This study demonstrates that Bin-KAT is a powerful tool for the identification of genes harboring low frequency variants for complex phenotypes. PMID:26776191

  18. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  19. DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN. CONVEYOR PLATFORM,TRAM TRESTLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN. CONVEYOR PLATFORM,TRAM TRESTLE, AND LOADING PLATFORM. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE HOLE IN THE ORE BIN FLOOR CAN BE SEEN, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATION AT LOWER LEFT CORNER. SEE CA-291-47(CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. 19 CFR 19.29 - Sealing of bins or other bonded space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.29 Sealing of bins or other bonded space. The outlets to all bins or other space bonded for the storage of imported wheat shall be sealed by affixing locks or in bond seals... which will effectively prevent the removal of, or access to, the wheat in the bonded space except...

  1. Increasing Donations to Supermarket Food-Bank Bins Using Proximal Prompts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrimond, Samantha J.; Leland, Louis S., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    There has been little research into interventions to increase participation in donating items to food-bank bins. In New Zealand, there has been an increased demand from food banks (Stewart, 2002). This study demonstrated that point-of-sale prompts can be an effective method of increasing donations to a supermarket food-bank bin. (Contains 1…

  2. Temperospatial distribution of the psocids Liposcelis entomophila and L. decolor in steel bins containing wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the temperospatial distribution of psocids in steel bins containing 32.6 metric tonnes of wheat. Psocids were sampled using a grain trier, cardboard refuges on the surface of the grain and near the bin hatch, and automated sampling using the StorMax Insector™ system. The psocid speci...

  3. Causes of Students' Violence at Al-Hussein Bin Talal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrawwad, Theeb M.; Alrfooh, Atif Eid

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the causes of students' violence from the student's point of view, and also aimed at investigating the proper solutions to reduce the spread of violence at Al-Hussein Bin Talal University. The study sample consisted of (906) male and female students from Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, who have enrolled the summer…

  4. Who owns the recyclables

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.

    1994-05-01

    On March 31, the California Supreme Court decided the much awaited Rancho Mirage'' case (Waste Management of the Desert, Inc., and the City of Rancho Mirage v. Palm Springs Recycling Center, Inc.), and held that the California Integrated Waste Management Act of 1989 does not allow an exclusive franchise for the collection of recyclables not discarded by their owner.'' This ends a three-year slugfest between secondary materials processors in the state and municipalities and their franchised garbage haulers who also collect and process recyclables as part of their exclusive arrangement. Central to this nationally-watched litigation is a most fundamental question in waste management: at what point in time do articles in the solid waste stream become actual or potentially valuable secondary materials

  5. Scrap tire recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1997-03-01

    As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

  6. EVALUATION OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE DESTRUCTIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR VALIDITY OF ORIGINAL 3013 CONTAINER BINNING

    SciTech Connect

    Mcclard, J.; Kessinger, G.

    2010-02-01

    The surveillance program for 3013 containers is based, in part, on the separation of containers into various bins related to potential container failure mechanisms. The containers are assigned to bins based on moisture content and pre-storage estimates of content chemistry. While moisture content is measured during the packaging of each container, chemistry estimates are made by using a combination of process knowledge, packaging data and prompt gamma analyses to establish the moisture and chloride/fluoride content of the materials. Packages with high moisture and chloride/fluoride contents receive more detailed surveillances than packages with less chloride/fluoride and/or moisture. Moisture verification measurements and chemical analyses performed during the surveillance program provided an opportunity to validate the binning process. Validation results demonstrated that the binning effort was generally successful in placing the containers in the appropriate bin for surveillance and analysis.

  7. Distortion of power law blinking with binning and thresholding

    SciTech Connect

    Amecke, Nicole; Heber, André; Cichos, Frank

    2014-03-21

    Fluorescence intermittency is a random switching between emitting (on) and non-emitting (off) periods found for many single chromophores such as semiconductor quantum dots and organic molecules. The statistics of the duration of on- and off-periods are commonly determined by thresholding the emission time trace of a single chromophore and appear to be power law distributed. Here we test with the help of simulations if the experimentally determined power law distributions can actually reflect the underlying statistics. We find that with the experimentally limited time resolution real power law statistics with exponents α{sub on/off} ≳ 1.6, especially if α{sub on} ≠ α{sub off} would not be observed as such in the experimental data after binning and thresholding. Instead, a power law appearance could simply be obtained from the continuous distribution of intermediate intensity levels. This challenges much of the obtained data and the models describing the so-called power law blinking.

  8. Fontes binárias supermoles de raios X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, A. M.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Estuda-se as características físicas das fontes supermoles (de raios X (SSS), utilizando dados ópticos e em altas energias, no âmbito de um trabalho de IC. Trata-se de binárias que apresentam espectro X muito mole, baixas temperaturas e altas luminosidades bolométricas. Esse sistemas são compostos por uma anã branca realizando fusão em sua superfície, a partir de matéria perdida pela estrela companheira. Os resíduos de fusão se acumulam na superfície da anã branca, e essa pode ultrapassar o limite de Chadrasekhar, produzir um colapso gravitacional, sendo esse um dos cenários propostos para as explosões de SN Ia. Apresentamos nesta comunicação o estado da arte das características físicas das fontes SSS, situando-as no âmbito das VCs. Procuramos também situar esses objetos em relação às variáveis galácticas V Sge, na medida em que os dois grupos apresentam certas caracerísticas bastante semelhantes.A metodologia adotada é aquela pedagógico-cognitiva clássica de um trabalho de IC na área de ciências exatas.

  9. Granular segregation in quasi-2d rectangular bin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharat, Sandip H.; Khakhar, D. V.

    2013-06-01

    Experiments are carried out in quasi two-dimensional rectangular bin (two vertical glass plate separated by a gap of 10 mm) to study the effect of feed composition on segregation of granular mixtures during heap formation by intermittent feeding. The stainless steel (SS 316) balls of different sizes (1 and 2 mm) are used as model granular materials. The heap is formed by repeatedly pouring a fixed mass of the mixture. Each feeding results in the formation of a layer of the mixture on the surface of the heap. Results presented here are for binary mixtures with different size and equal density. Profiles of the number fraction of big particles along the flow direction averaged across the depth of the layer are plotted. In each layer formed by a pouring, segregation results in the small particles being deposited first. Thus, the small particles are concentrated in the upper part of the layer and the large particles in the lower part with a mixed region between the two. The extent of segregation is found to increase with decrease in concentration of big particles in the mixture.

  10. Looking at large data sets using binned data plots

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.B.

    1990-04-01

    This report addresses the monumental challenge of developing exploratory analysis methods for large data sets. The goals of the report are to increase awareness of large data sets problems and to contribute simple graphical methods that address some of the problems. The graphical methods focus on two- and three-dimensional data and common task such as finding outliers and tail structure, assessing central structure and comparing central structures. The methods handle large sample size problems through binning, incorporate information from statistical models and adapt image processing algorithms. Examples demonstrate the application of methods to a variety of publicly available large data sets. The most novel application addresses the too many plots to examine'' problem by using cognostics, computer guiding diagnostics, to prioritize plots. The particular application prioritizes views of computational fluid dynamics solution sets on the fly. That is, as each time step of a solution set is generated on a parallel processor the cognostics algorithms assess virtual plots based on the previous time step. Work in such areas is in its infancy and the examples suggest numerous challenges that remain. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  11. Bin-Hash Indexing: A Parallel Method for Fast Query Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, Edward W; Gosink, Luke J.; Wu, Kesheng; Bethel, Edward Wes; Owens, John D.; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2008-06-27

    This paper presents a new parallel indexing data structure for answering queries. The index, called Bin-Hash, offers extremely high levels of concurrency, and is therefore well-suited for the emerging commodity of parallel processors, such as multi-cores, cell processors, and general purpose graphics processing units (GPU). The Bin-Hash approach first bins the base data, and then partitions and separately stores the values in each bin as a perfect spatial hash table. To answer a query, we first determine whether or not a record satisfies the query conditions based on the bin boundaries. For the bins with records that can not be resolved, we examine the spatial hash tables. The procedures for examining the bin numbers and the spatial hash tables offer the maximum possible level of concurrency; all records are able to be evaluated by our procedure independently in parallel. Additionally, our Bin-Hash procedures access much smaller amounts of data than similar parallel methods, such as the projection index. This smaller data footprint is critical for certain parallel processors, like GPUs, where memory resources are limited. To demonstrate the effectiveness of Bin-Hash, we implement it on a GPU using the data-parallel programming language CUDA. The concurrency offered by the Bin-Hash index allows us to fully utilize the GPU's massive parallelism in our work; over 12,000 records can be simultaneously evaluated at any one time. We show that our new query processing method is an order of magnitude faster than current state-of-the-art CPU-based indexing technologies. Additionally, we compare our performance to existing GPU-based projection index strategies.

  12. Solid waste bin detection and classification using Dynamic Time Warping and MLP classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Hannan, M.A.; Basri, Hassan; Hussain, Aini; Arebey, Maher

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Solid waste bin level detection using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW). • Gabor wavelet filter is used to extract the solid waste image features. • Multi-Layer Perceptron classifier network is used for bin image classification. • The classification performance evaluated by ROC curve analysis. - Abstract: The increasing requirement for Solid Waste Management (SWM) has become a significant challenge for municipal authorities. A number of integrated systems and methods have introduced to overcome this challenge. Many researchers have aimed to develop an ideal SWM system, including approaches involving software-based routing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Radio-frequency Identification (RFID), or sensor intelligent bins. Image processing solutions for the Solid Waste (SW) collection have also been developed; however, during capturing the bin image, it is challenging to position the camera for getting a bin area centralized image. As yet, there is no ideal system which can correctly estimate the amount of SW. This paper briefly discusses an efficient image processing solution to overcome these problems. Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) was used for detecting and cropping the bin area and Gabor wavelet (GW) was introduced for feature extraction of the waste bin image. Image features were used to train the classifier. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier was used to classify the waste bin level and estimate the amount of waste inside the bin. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves was used to statistically evaluate classifier performance. The results of this developed system are comparable to previous image processing based system. The system demonstration using DTW with GW for feature extraction and an MLP classifier led to promising results with respect to the accuracy of waste level estimation (98.50%). The application can be used to optimize the routing of waste collection based on the estimated bin level.

  13. Recycling Decisions and Green Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explores the facts and perceptions regarding recycling, what can be done to make products more environmentally compatible, and how to think about recycling decisions in a more helpful way. (Contains 39 references.) (MDH)

  14. Recycled Insect Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  15. Helium-Recycling Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

  16. Recycling Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallowell, Anne; And Others

    This study guide was designed to help teachers and students understand the problems surrounding solid wastes. It includes an overview of solid waste and recycling, a glossary, suggested activities and a list of resource publications, audiovisual materials and organizations. There are 19 activity suggestions included in this guide designed for use…

  17. The Recycle Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Roger; And Others

    This guide provides lessons that enable students to learn how important it is for each of us to take care of the environment by minimizing the problems caused by too much trash. In the 10 lessons included here, students and their families learn how they can be part of the solution by practicing source reduction and by reusing, recycling, and…

  18. RECYCLABILITY INDEX FOR AUTOMOBILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project's purpose is to create a rating system for the ecological impacts of vehicles at the end of their life based on recyclability, toxic material content, and ultimate disposal. Each year, 10-11 million vehicles are retired from service in the United States. The vehi...

  19. Fuels from Recycling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, David A.

    1975-01-01

    Three systems, operating at sufficient scale, produce fuels that may be alternatives to oil and gas. These three recycling systems are: Black Clawson Fiberclaim, Franklin, Ohio; Union Carbide, South Charleston, West Virginia; and Union Electric, St. Louis, Missouri. These produce a wet fuel, a pyrolytic gas, and a dry fuel, respectively. (BT)

  20. Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

    2005-01-01

    This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

  1. Recycling of the #5 polymer.

    PubMed

    Xanthos, Marino

    2012-08-10

    Polypropylene (PP) is a widely used plastic with consumer applications ranging from food packaging to automotive parts, including car battery casings. To differentiate it from other recyclable plastics, it is designated as #5. Here, the factors contributing to PP recycling rates are briefly reviewed. Considerations include collection and separation efficiency, processing chemistry, and market dynamics for the products derived from recyclates. PMID:22879510

  2. Clinical evaluations of an amplitude-based binning algorithm for 4DCT reconstruction in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hua; Noel, Camille; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Low, Daniel; Bradley, Jeffrey; Robinson, Clifford; Mutic, Sasa; Parikh, Parag

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Phase-binning algorithms are commonly utilized in 4DCT image reconstruction for characterization of tumor or organ shape and respiration motion, but breathing irregularities occurring during 4DCT acquisition can cause considerable image distortions. Recently, amplitude-binning algorithms have been evaluated as a potential improvement to phase-binning algorithms for 4DCT image reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the first commercially available on-line retrospective amplitude-binning algorithm for comparison to the traditional phase-binning algorithm. Methods: Both phantom and clinical data were used for evaluation. A phantom of known geometry was mounted on a 4D motion platform programmed with seven respiratory waves (two computer generated and five patient trajectories) and scanned with a Philips Brilliance Big bore 16-slice CT simulator. 4DCT images were reconstructed using commercial amplitude- and phase-binning algorithms. Image quality of the amplitude- and phase-binned image sets was compared by evaluation of shape and volume distortions in reconstructed images. Clinical evaluations were performed on 64 4DCT patient image sets in a blinded review process. The amplitude- and phase-binned 4DCT maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were further evaluated for 28 stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) cases of total 64 cases. A preliminary investigation of the effects of respiratory amplitude and pattern irregularities on motion artifact severity was conducted. Results: The phantom experiments illustrated that, as expected, maximum inhalation occurred at the 0% amplitude and maximum exhalation occurred at the 50% amplitude of the amplitude-binned 4DCT image sets. The phantom shape distortions were more severe in the images reconstructed from the phase-binning algorithm. In the clinical study, compared to the phase-binning algorithm, the amplitude-binning algorithm yielded fewer or less severe motion

  3. Cardiac BIN1 folds T-tubule membrane, controlling ion flux and limiting arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Hong, TingTing; Yang, Huanghe; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Cho, Hee Cheol; Kalashnikova, Mariya; Sun, Baiming; Zhang, Hao; Bhargava, Anamika; Grabe, Michael; Olgin, Jeffrey; Gorelik, Julia; Marbán, Eduardo; Jan, Lily Y; Shaw, Robin M

    2014-06-01

    Cardiomyocyte T tubules are important for regulating ion flux. Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) is a T-tubule protein associated with calcium channel trafficking that is downregulated in failing hearts. Here we find that cardiac T tubules normally contain dense protective inner membrane folds that are formed by a cardiac isoform of BIN1. In mice with cardiac Bin1 deletion, T-tubule folding is decreased, which does not change overall cardiomyocyte morphology but leads to free diffusion of local extracellular calcium and potassium ions, prolonging action-potential duration and increasing susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. We also found that T-tubule inner folds are rescued by expression of the BIN1 isoform BIN1+13+17, which promotes N-WASP-dependent actin polymerization to stabilize the T-tubule membrane at cardiac Z discs. BIN1+13+17 recruits actin to fold the T-tubule membrane, creating a 'fuzzy space' that protectively restricts ion flux. When the amount of the BIN1+13+17 isoform is decreased, as occurs in acquired cardiomyopathy, T-tubule morphology is altered, and arrhythmia can result. PMID:24836577

  4. Cardiac Spliced BIN1 Folds T-tubule Membrane, Controlling Ion Flux and Limiting Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Hong, TingTing; Yang, Huanghe; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Cho, Hee Cheol; Kalashnikova, Mariya; Sun, Baiming; Zhang, Hao; Bhargava, Anamika; Grabe, Michael; Olgin, Jeffrey; Gorelik, Julia; Marbán, Eduardo; Jan, Lily Y.; Shaw, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte T-tubules are important for regulating ionic flux. Bridging Integrator 1 (BIN1) is a T-tubule protein associated with calcium channel trafficking that is down-regulated in failing hearts. Here we find that cardiac T-tubules normally contain dense protective inner membrane folds that are formed by a cardiac spliced isoform of BIN1. In mice with cardiac Bin1 deletion, T-tubule folding is decreased which does not change overall cardiomyocyte morphology, but frees diffusion of local extracellular calcium and potassium ions, prolonging action potential duration, and increasing susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. We also find that T-tubule inner folds are rescued only by the BIN1 isoform BIN1+13+17, which promotes N-WASP dependent actin polymerization to stabilize T-tubule membrane at cardiac Z-discs. In conclusion, BIN1+13+17 recruits actin to fold T-tubule membrane, creating a fuzzy space that protectively restricts ionic flux. When BIN1+13+17 is decreased, as occurs in acquired cardiomyopathy, T-tubule morphology is altered and arrhythmias can result. PMID:24836577

  5. The influence of CCD pixel binning option to its modulation transfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasibov, A.; Kholmatov, A.; Nasibov, H.; Hacizade, F.

    2010-05-01

    In recent years CCD manufacturers have been supplying their devices with multi-purpose abilities to manipulate the CCD's readout pattern, where one of these versatile options is a flexible pixel binning option. The pixel binning is a process of combining multiple pixel charges in horizontal, vertical or in both directions simultaneously, into a single charge. The binning process positively influences to the signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity and frame rate at the cost of decreasing spatial resolution, which, in its turn, negatively influences to the spatial frequency response of the imaging system (i.e. to the output image quality). The modulation transfer function (MTF) is an essential measure for characterizing the spatial-frequency response of the array imaging system. In this work we have performed a theoretical and experimental investigation of the MTF of CCD array in the context of the pixel binning option. We have derived a generalized equation of the geometrical MTF for the v x h binning mode, where v and h denote the numbers of binned pixels in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. The MTF measurements were performed using a method, based on the generation of laser speckle and utilizing the high resolution (1360×1024) monochrome CCD array. The MTF of normal mode, 2×1-horizontal, 1×2 - vertical, and 2x2 quadratic binning modes were measured by employing single-slit aperture method. CCD binning is widely used in spectroscopy, astronomy, in many image processing applications, such as autofocus, object tracking, etc. The results of this work can be useful for designing optical systems, involving CCD pixel binning option.

  6. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating

  7. 55. VIEW OF ROASTER ADDITION FROM NORTH. ELEVATOR/ORE BIN ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. VIEW OF ROASTER ADDITION FROM NORTH. ELEVATOR/ORE BIN ADDITION TO RIGHT (WEST) WITH BAKER COOLER IN FRONT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  8. Time-Bin Entanglement Distribution on a Wavelength-Division-Multiplexed Network

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, Warren P; Bennink, Ryan S; Evans, Philip G; Humble, Travis S; Pooser, Raphael C; Schaake, Jason; Williams, Brian P

    2011-01-01

    We describe a scheme for distributing time-bin entangled photons to multiple pairs of clients. With clients linked through the strong spectral correlations between the photons, a single down-conversion source can serve many clients simultaneously.

  9. MetaBAT: Metagenome Binning based on Abundance and Tetranucleotide frequence

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Dongwan; Froula, Jeff; Egan, Rob; Wang, Zhong

    2014-03-21

    Grouping large fragments assembled from shotgun metagenomic sequences to deconvolute complex microbial communities, or metagenome binning, enables the study of individual organisms and their interactions. Here we developed automated metagenome binning software, called MetaBAT, which integrates empirical probabilistic distances of genome abundance and tetranucleotide frequency. On synthetic datasets MetaBAT on average achieves 98percent precision and 90percent recall at the strain level with 281 near complete unique genomes. Applying MetaBAT to a human gut microbiome data set we recovered 176 genome bins with 92percent precision and 80percent recall. Further analyses suggest MetaBAT is able to recover genome fragments missed in reference genomes up to 19percent, while 53 genome bins are novel. In summary, we believe MetaBAT is a powerful tool to facilitate comprehensive understanding of complex microbial communities.

  10. A New Binning Method for Metagenomics by One-Dimensional Cellular Automata

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Chih

    2015-01-01

    More and more developed and inexpensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies allow us to extract vast sequence data from a sample containing multiple species. Characterizing the taxonomic diversity for the planet-size data plays an important role in the metagenomic studies, while a crucial step for doing the study is the binning process to group sequence reads from similar species or taxonomic classes. The metagenomic binning remains a challenge work because of not only the various read noises but also the tremendous data volume. In this work, we propose an unsupervised binning method for NGS reads based on the one-dimensional cellular automaton (1D-CA). Our binning method facilities to reduce the memory usage because 1D-CA costs only linear space. Experiments on synthetic dataset exhibit that our method is helpful to identify species of lower abundance compared to the proposed tool. PMID:26557648

  11. DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, CONVEYOR PLATFORM,TRAM TRESTLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, CONVEYOR PLATFORM,TRAM TRESTLE, LOADING PLATFORM, AND BOILER, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. 4. EMPIRE STATE MINE TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE/BIN, COLLAPSED BUILDING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EMPIRE STATE MINE TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE/BIN, COLLAPSED BUILDING FROM BELOW. CAMERA POINTED NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  13. Solid waste bin detection and classification using Dynamic Time Warping and MLP classifier.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shafiqul; Hannan, M A; Basri, Hassan; Hussain, Aini; Arebey, Maher

    2014-02-01

    The increasing requirement for Solid Waste Management (SWM) has become a significant challenge for municipal authorities. A number of integrated systems and methods have introduced to overcome this challenge. Many researchers have aimed to develop an ideal SWM system, including approaches involving software-based routing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Radio-frequency Identification (RFID), or sensor intelligent bins. Image processing solutions for the Solid Waste (SW) collection have also been developed; however, during capturing the bin image, it is challenging to position the camera for getting a bin area centralized image. As yet, there is no ideal system which can correctly estimate the amount of SW. This paper briefly discusses an efficient image processing solution to overcome these problems. Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) was used for detecting and cropping the bin area and Gabor wavelet (GW) was introduced for feature extraction of the waste bin image. Image features were used to train the classifier. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) classifier was used to classify the waste bin level and estimate the amount of waste inside the bin. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves was used to statistically evaluate classifier performance. The results of this developed system are comparable to previous image processing based system. The system demonstration using DTW with GW for feature extraction and an MLP classifier led to promising results with respect to the accuracy of waste level estimation (98.50%). The application can be used to optimize the routing of waste collection based on the estimated bin level. PMID:24238802

  14. Sensitivity of a Cloud-Resolving Model to the Bulk and Explicit Bin Microphysical Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Li, X.; Khain, A. P.; Simpson, J.

    2004-01-01

    A cloud-resolving model is used to study sensitivities of two different microphysical schemes, one is the bulk type, and the other is an explicit bin scheme, in simulating a mid-latitude squall line case. Simulations using different microphysical schemes are compared with each other and also with the observations. Both the bulk and bin models reproduce the general features during the developing and mature stage of the system. The leading convective zone, the trailing stratiform region, the horizontal wind flow patterns, pressure perturbation associated with the storm dynamics, and the cool pool in front of the system all agree well with the observations. Both the observations and the bulk scheme simulation serve as validations for the newly incorporated bin scheme. However, it is also shown that the bulk and bin simulations have distinct differences, most notably in the stratiform region. Weak convective cells exist in the stratiform region in the bulk simulation, but not in the bin simulation. These weak convective cells in the stratiform region are remnants of the previous stronger convections at the leading edge of the system. The bin simulation, on the other hand, has a horizontally homogeneous stratiform rain structure, which agrees better with the observations. Further analysis of the downdraft core strength, the potential temperature perturbation, and the evaporative cooling rate shows that the differences between the bulk and bin models are due mainly to the stronger low-level evaporative cooling simulated in the bulk model. Further quantitative analysis and sensitivity tests for this case using both the bulk and bin models will be presented in the talk.

  15. A practical statistical polychromatic image reconstruction for computed tomography using spectrum binning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng; Yang, Qiao; Maier, Andreas; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Polychromatic statistical reconstruction algorithms have very high computational demands due to the difficulty of the optimization problems and the large number of spectrum bins. We want to develop a more practical algorithm that has a simpler optimization problem, a faster numerical solver, and requires only a small amount of prior knowledge. In this paper, a modified optimization problem for polychromatic statistical reconstruction algorithms is proposed. The modified optimization problem utilizes the idea of determining scanned materials based on a first pass FBP reconstruction to fix the ratios between photoelectric and Compton scattering components of all image pixels. The reconstruction of a density image is easy to solve by a separable quadratic surrogate algorithm that is also applicable to the multi-material case. In addition, a spectrum binning method is introduced so that the full spectrum information is not required. The energy bins sizes and attenuations are optimized based on the true spectrum and object. With these approximations, the expected line integral values using only a few energy bins are very closed to the true polychromatic values. Thus both the problem size and computational demand caused by the large number of energy bins that are typically used to model a full spectrum are reduced. Simulation showed that three energy bins using the generalized spectrum binning method could provide an accurate approximation of the polychromatic X-ray signals. The average absolute error of the logarithmic detector signal is less than 0.003 for a 120 kVp spectrum. The proposed modified optimization problem and spectrum binning approach can effectively suppress beam hardening artifacts while providing low noise images.

  16. Afghanistan, the Taliban, and Osama bin Laden: The Background to September 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On May 1, 2011, a group of U.S. soldiers boarded helicopters at a base in Afghanistan, hoping to find a man named Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden, the leader of the al Qaeda terrorist network, was responsible for a number of terrorist attacks around the world, including those of September 11, 2001, that killed nearly 3,000 people in the United States.…

  17. Genetic Patterns in European Geometrid Moths Revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN) System

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Axel; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Huemer, Peter; Mutanen, Marko; Rougerie, Rodolphe; van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2013-01-01

    Background The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN) system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems), a method that supports automated, rapid species delineation and identification. Methodology/Principal Findings This study provides a DNA barcode library for 219 of the 249 European geometrid moth species (88%) in five selected subfamilies. The data set includes COI sequences for 2130 specimens. Most species (93%) were found to possess diagnostic barcode sequences at the European level while only three species pairs (3%) were genetically indistinguishable in areas of sympatry. As a consequence, 97% of the European species we examined were unequivocally discriminated by barcodes within their natural areas of distribution. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BINs and traditionally recognized species for 67% of these species. Another 17% of the species (15 pairs, three triads) shared BINs, while specimens from the remaining species (18%) were divided among two or more BINs. Five of these species are mixtures, both sharing and splitting BINs. For 82% of the species with two or more BINs, the genetic splits involved allopatric populations, many of which have previously been hypothesized to represent distinct species or subspecies. Conclusions/Significance This study confirms the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and illustrates the potential of the BIN system to characterize formal genetic units independently of an existing classification. This suggests the system can be used to efficiently assess the biodiversity of large, poorly known assemblages of organisms. For the moths examined in this study, cases of discordance between traditionally recognized species and BINs arose from several causes including overlooked species, synonymy, and cases where DNA barcodes revealed regional variation of

  18. Municipal solid waste recycling issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, L.B.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Conway-Schempf, N.M.; McMichael, F.C.

    1999-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling targets have been set nationally and in many states. Unfortunately, the definitions of recycling, rates of recycling, and the appropriate components of MSW vary. MSW recycling has been found to be costly for most municipalities compared to landfill disposal. MSW recycling policy should be determined by the cost to the community and to society more generally. In particular, recycling is a good policy only if environmental impacts and the resources used to collect, sort, and recycle a material are less than the environmental impacts and resources needed to provide equivalent virgin material plus the resources needed to dispose of the postconsumer material safely. From a review of the existing economic experience with recycling and an analysis of the environmental benefits (including estimation of external social costs), the authors find that, for most communities, curbside recycling is only justifiable for some postconsumer waste, such as aluminum and other metals. They argue that alternatives to curbside recycling collection should be explored, including product takeback for products with a toxic content (such as batteries) or product redesign to permit more effective product remanufacture.

  19. Understanding recycling behavior in Kentucky: Who recycles and why

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Fred W.; Hughes, Margaret V.

    2006-08-01

    Recycling behavior and the motivations behind recycling are being analyzed in a collaborative study between the Sloan Industry Center for a Sustainable Aluminum Industry, the Center for Aluminum Technology, Secat, and the Gatton College of Business and Economics at the University of Kentucky in Lexington. The goals of this study are to determine why people recycle and to find ways to motivate people to recycle more, using Fayette County, Kentucky, as a sample study. It is hoped that the information gathered through educational and motivational efforts in this county can be used on a larger scale in communities throughout the United States.

  20. Why recycle? A comparison of recycling motivations in four communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vining, Joanne; Linn, Nancy; Burdge, Rabel J.

    1992-11-01

    Four Illinois communities with different sociode-mographic compositions and at various stages of planning for solid waste management were surveyed to determine the influence of sociodemographic variables and planning stages on the factors that motivate recycling behavior. A factor analysis of importance ratings of reasons for recycling and for not recycling yielded five factors interpreted as altruism, personal inconvenience, social influences, economic incentives, and household storage. The four communities were shown to be significantly different in multivariate analyses of the five motivational factors. However, attempts to explain these community differences with regression analyses, which predicted the motivational factors with dummy codes for planning stages, a measure of self-reported recycling behavior, and sociodemographic measures were unsatisfactory. Contrary to expectation, the solid waste management planning stages of the cities (curbside pickup, recycling dropoff center, and planning in progress) contributed only very slightly to the prediction of motivational factors for recycling. Community differences were better explained by different underlying motivational structures among the four communities. Altruistic reasons for recycling (e.g., conserving resources) composed the only factor which was similar across the four communities. This factor was also perceived to be the most important reason for recycling by respondents from all four communities. The results of the study supported the notion that convenient, voluntary recycling programs that rely on environmental concern and conscience for motivation are useful approaches to reducing waste.

  1. Sensitivity of a Cloud-Resolving Model to the Bulk and Explicit Bin Microphysical Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiao-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Khain, Alexander P.; Simpson, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    A cloud-resolving model is used to study sensitivities of two different microphysical schemes, one is the traditional bulk type, and the other is an explicit bin scheme, in simulating a mid-latitude squall line case (PRE-STORM, June 10-1 1,1985). Simulations using different microphysical schemes are compared with each other and also with the observations. Both the bulk and bin models reproduce the general features during the developing and mature stage of the system. Furthermore, the observations and the well-proven bulk scheme simulation serve as validations for the newly incorporated bin scheme. However, it is also shown that the bulk and bin simulations have distinct differences, most notably in the stratiform region of the squall line system. Weak convective cells exist in the stratiform region in the bulk simulation, but not in the bin simulation. These weak convective cells in the stratiform region simulated in the bulk scheme model are remnants of the stronger convections previously at the leading edge of the system, sustained by horizontal vorticity generated by its own cool pool near the surface. The bin simulation, on the other hand, has a horizontally homogeneous stratiform cloud structure, which agrees better with the observations. Examinations of the downdraft core strength, the potential temperature perturbation, and the evaporative cooling rate show that the differences between the bulk and bin models are due mainly to the stronger low-level evaporative cooling in the convective zone simulated in the bulk microphysical scheme, which is unrealistic because of the assumptions made in raindrop size distribution. Further sensitivity tests that reduce the evaporation rate in bulk scheme artificially produce more upright convective core and less weak cores in stratiform region. However, they produce weaker upper level outflow and consequently less stratiform rain area. The addition of a more realistic raindrop breakup scheme in the bin scheme results more

  2. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  3. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  4. PFC concentration and recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, G.M.; McManus, J.; Knolle, W.; Stoll, I.

    1994-12-31

    The semiconductor industry uses PFC gases such as CF{sub 4} and C{sub 2}F{sub 6} as etchant and cleaning gases during plasma processes. The gases do not fully react within the reactor chamber. The unused gases enter the atmosphere through the process effluent. These gases have long persistence in the atmosphere and absorb infrared radiation. The PFC gases are, therefore, potential global warming gases. A method is described that will recover and recycle PFC gases. The method that the authors have employed to trap and concentrate the PFC gases is based on a dual bed adsorber. The adsorption material is activated carbon.

  5. Recycled rubber roads

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

  6. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-06-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio ( w/ c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/ c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  7. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-05-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio (w/c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  8. Disrupted Membrane Structure and Intracellular Ca2+ Signaling in Adult Skeletal Muscle with Acute Knockdown of Bin1

    PubMed Central

    Tjondrokoesoemo, Andoria; Park, Ki Ho; Ferrante, Christopher; Komazaki, Shinji; Lesniak, Sebastian; Brotto, Marco; Ko, Jae-Kyun; Zhou, Jingsong; Weisleder, Noah; Ma, Jianjie

    2011-01-01

    Efficient intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) homeostasis in skeletal muscle requires intact triad junctional complexes comprised of t-tubule invaginations of plasma membrane and terminal cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Bin1 consists of a specialized BAR domain that is associated with t-tubule development in skeletal muscle and involved in tethering the dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR) to the t-tubule. Here, we show that Bin1 is important for Ca2+ homeostasis in adult skeletal muscle. Since systemic ablation of Bin1 in mice results in postnatal lethality, in vivo electroporation mediated transfection method was used to deliver RFP-tagged plasmid that produced short –hairpin (sh)RNA targeting Bin1 (shRNA-Bin1) to study the effect of Bin1 knockdown in adult mouse FDB skeletal muscle. Upon confirming the reduction of endogenous Bin1 expression, we showed that shRNA-Bin1 muscle displayed swollen t-tubule structures, indicating that Bin1 is required for the maintenance of intact membrane structure in adult skeletal muscle. Reduced Bin1 expression led to disruption of t-tubule structure that was linked with alterations to intracellular Ca2+ release. Voltage-induced Ca2+ released in isolated single muscle fibers of shRNA-Bin1 showed that both the mean amplitude of Ca2+ current and SR Ca2+ transient were reduced when compared to the shRNA-control, indicating compromised coupling between DHPR and ryanodine receptor 1. The mean frequency of osmotic stress induced Ca2+ sparks was reduced in shRNA-Bin1, indicating compromised DHPR activation. ShRNA-Bin1 fibers also displayed reduced Ca2+ sparks' amplitude that was attributed to decreased total Ca2+ stores in the shRNA-Bin1 fibers. Human mutation of Bin1 is associated with centronuclear myopathy and SH3 domain of Bin1 is important for sarcomeric protein organization in skeletal muscle. Our study showing the importance of Bin1 in the maintenance of intact t-tubule structure and ([Ca2+]i) homeostasis in adult skeletal muscle

  9. Efficient visibility-driven medical image visualisation via adaptive binned visibility histogram.

    PubMed

    Jung, Younhyun; Kim, Jinman; Kumar, Ashnil; Feng, David Dagan; Fulham, Michael

    2016-07-01

    'Visibility' is a fundamental optical property that represents the observable, by users, proportion of the voxels in a volume during interactive volume rendering. The manipulation of this 'visibility' improves the volume rendering processes; for instance by ensuring the visibility of regions of interest (ROIs) or by guiding the identification of an optimal rendering view-point. The construction of visibility histograms (VHs), which represent the distribution of all the visibility of all voxels in the rendered volume, enables users to explore the volume with real-time feedback about occlusion patterns among spatially related structures during volume rendering manipulations. Volume rendered medical images have been a primary beneficiary of VH given the need to ensure that specific ROIs are visible relative to the surrounding structures, e.g. the visualisation of tumours that may otherwise be occluded by neighbouring structures. VH construction and its subsequent manipulations, however, are computationally expensive due to the histogram binning of the visibilities. This limits the real-time application of VH to medical images that have large intensity ranges and volume dimensions and require a large number of histogram bins. In this study, we introduce an efficient adaptive binned visibility histogram (AB-VH) in which a smaller number of histogram bins are used to represent the visibility distribution of the full VH. We adaptively bin medical images by using a cluster analysis algorithm that groups the voxels according to their intensity similarities into a smaller subset of bins while preserving the distribution of the intensity range of the original images. We increase efficiency by exploiting the parallel computation and multiple render targets (MRT) extension of the modern graphical processing units (GPUs) and this enables efficient computation of the histogram. We show the application of our method to single-modality computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance

  10. Group 3 chromosome bin maps of wheat and their relationship to rice chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Munkvold, J D; Greene, R A; Bermudez-Kandianis, C E; La Rota, C M; Edwards, H; Sorrells, S F; Dake, T; Benscher, D; Kantety, R; Linkiewicz, A M; Dubcovsky, J; Akhunov, E D; Dvorák, J; Miftahudin; Gustafson, J P; Pathan, M S; Nguyen, H T; Matthews, D E; Chao, S; Lazo, G R; Hummel, D D; Anderson, O D; Anderson, J A; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J L; Peng, J H; Lapitan, N; Qi, L L; Echalier, B; Gill, B S; Hossain, K G; Kalavacharla, V; Kianian, S F; Sandhu, D; Erayman, M; Gill, K S; McGuire, P E; Qualset, C O; Sorrells, M E

    2004-10-01

    The focus of this study was to analyze the content, distribution, and comparative genome relationships of 996 chromosome bin-mapped expressed sequence tags (ESTs) accounting for 2266 restriction fragments (loci) on the homoeologous group 3 chromosomes of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Of these loci, 634, 884, and 748 were mapped on chromosomes 3A, 3B, and 3D, respectively. The individual chromosome bin maps revealed bins with a high density of mapped ESTs in the distal region and bins of low density in the proximal region of the chromosome arms, with the exception of 3DS and 3DL. These distributions were more localized on the higher-resolution group 3 consensus map with intermediate regions of high-mapped-EST density on both chromosome arms. Gene ontology (GO) classification of mapped ESTs was not significantly different for homoeologous group 3 chromosomes compared to the other groups. A combined analysis of the individual bin maps using 537 of the mapped ESTs revealed rearrangements between the group 3 chromosomes. Approximately 232 (44%) of the consensus mapped ESTs matched sequences on rice chromosome 1 and revealed large- and small-scale differences in gene order. Of the group 3 mapped EST unigenes approximately 21 and 32% matched the Arabidopsis coding regions and proteins, respectively, but no chromosome-level gene order conservation was detected. PMID:15514041

  11. Content-based image retrieval system for solid waste bin level detection and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hannan, M A; Arebey, M; Begum, R A; Basri, Hassan; Al Mamun, Md Abdulla

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a CBIR system to investigate the use of image retrieval with an extracted texture from the image of a bin to detect the bin level. Various similarity distances like Euclidean, Bhattacharyya, Chi-squared, Cosine, and EMD are used with the CBIR system for calculating and comparing the distance between a query image and the images in a database to obtain the highest performance. In this study, the performance metrics is based on two quantitative evaluation criteria. The first one is the average retrieval rate based on the precision-recall graph and the second is the use of F1 measure which is the weighted harmonic mean of precision and recall. In case of feature extraction, texture is used as an image feature for bin level detection system. Various experiments are conducted with different features extraction techniques like Gabor wavelet filter, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and gray level aura matrix (GLAM) to identify the level of the bin and its surrounding area. Intensive tests are conducted among 250 bin images to assess the accuracy of the proposed feature extraction techniques. The average retrieval rate is used to evaluate the performance of the retrieval system. The result shows that, the EMD distance achieved high accuracy and provides better performance than the other distances. PMID:26868844

  12. BinPacker: Packing-Based De Novo Transcriptome Assembly from RNA-seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Yu, Ting; Liu, Bingqiang; McMullen, Rick; Chen, Pengyin; Huang, Xiuzhen

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput RNA-seq technology has provided an unprecedented opportunity to reveal the very complex structures of transcriptomes. However, it is an important and highly challenging task to assemble vast amounts of short RNA-seq reads into transcriptomes with alternative splicing isoforms. In this study, we present a novel de novo assembler, BinPacker, by modeling the transcriptome assembly problem as tracking a set of trajectories of items with their sizes representing coverage of their corresponding isoforms by solving a series of bin-packing problems. This approach, which subtly integrates coverage information into the procedure, has two exclusive features: 1) only splicing junctions are involved in the assembling procedure; 2) massive pell-mell reads are assembled seemingly by moving a comb along junction edges on a splicing graph. Being tested on both real and simulated RNA-seq datasets, it outperforms almost all the existing de novo assemblers on all the tested datasets, and even outperforms those ab initio assemblers on the real dog dataset. In addition, it runs substantially faster and requires less memory space than most of the assemblers. BinPacker is published under GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE and the source is available from: http://sourceforge.net/projects/transcriptomeassembly/files/BinPacker_1.0.tar.gz/download. Quick installation version is available from: http://sourceforge.net/projects/transcriptomeassembly/files/BinPacker_binary.tar.gz/download. PMID:26894997

  13. On spectral evolution and temporal binning in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, J. Michael

    2014-12-01

    The understanding of the prompt γ-ray spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is of great importance to correctly interpret the physical mechanisms that produce the underlying event as well as the structure of the relativistic jet from which the emission emanates. Time-resolved analysis of these spectra is the main method of extracting information from the data. In this work, several techniques for temporal binning of GRB spectra are examined to understand the systematics associated with each with the goal of finding the best method(s) to bin light curves for analysis. The following binning methods are examined: constant cadence (CC), Bayesian blocks (BBs), signal-to-noise (S/N) and Knuth bins (KB). I find that both the KB and BB methods reconstruct the intrinsic spectral evolution accurately while the S/N method fails in most cases. The CC method is accurate when the cadence is not too coarse but does not necessarily bin the data based on the true source variability. Additionally, the integrated pulse properties are investigated and compared to the time-resolved properties. If intrinsic spectral evolution is present, then the integrated properties are not useful in identifying physical and cosmological properties of GRBs without knowing the physical emission mechanism and its evolution.

  14. BinPacker: Packing-Based De Novo Transcriptome Assembly from RNA-seq Data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juntao; Li, Guojun; Chang, Zheng; Yu, Ting; Liu, Bingqiang; McMullen, Rick; Chen, Pengyin; Huang, Xiuzhen

    2016-02-01

    High-throughput RNA-seq technology has provided an unprecedented opportunity to reveal the very complex structures of transcriptomes. However, it is an important and highly challenging task to assemble vast amounts of short RNA-seq reads into transcriptomes with alternative splicing isoforms. In this study, we present a novel de novo assembler, BinPacker, by modeling the transcriptome assembly problem as tracking a set of trajectories of items with their sizes representing coverage of their corresponding isoforms by solving a series of bin-packing problems. This approach, which subtly integrates coverage information into the procedure, has two exclusive features: 1) only splicing junctions are involved in the assembling procedure; 2) massive pell-mell reads are assembled seemingly by moving a comb along junction edges on a splicing graph. Being tested on both real and simulated RNA-seq datasets, it outperforms almost all the existing de novo assemblers on all the tested datasets, and even outperforms those ab initio assemblers on the real dog dataset. In addition, it runs substantially faster and requires less memory space than most of the assemblers. BinPacker is published under GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE and the source is available from: http://sourceforge.net/projects/transcriptomeassembly/files/BinPacker_1.0.tar.gz/download. Quick installation version is available from: http://sourceforge.net/projects/transcriptomeassembly/files/BinPacker_binary.tar.gz/download. PMID:26894997

  15. Information Sources on Rural Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg; Kuske, Jodee

    1992-01-01

    Provides resources for rural recycling operations with the principle aim of assisting rural government officials, planners, residents, and educators to encourage recycling as an integral part of an individual's or community's solid waste management plan. Sources range from bibliographies, directories, and government documents to case studies. (49…

  16. American Art of Conspicuous Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Aurelia

    1999-01-01

    Characterizes the use of recycling "junk" as a means for creating art by exploring various recycling traditions that are present in the United States. Demonstrates to students that "junk" can be fashioned into beautiful works of art. Offers four works of art and provides discussion questions and project ideas for each artwork. (CMK)

  17. Recycling Study Guide [Resource Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    This resource packet contains six documents developed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in order to help teachers infuse the environmental education topics of recycling and solid waste into social studies, art, English, health, mathematics, science, and environmental education classes. "Recycling Study Guide" contains 19 activities…

  18. TOMATO CLEANING AND WATER RECYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full-scale dump tank water recycle system was developed and demonstrated. A false bottom-ejector transport system removed soil from the water. Clarified water was either recycled back to the dump tank or discharged to the sewer. A vacuum belt was developed for dewatering the mu...

  19. Garbage project on recycling behavior

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.H.; Hughes, W.W.; Rathje, W.L.

    1982-02-01

    Results are presented of a study undertaken to determine the factors which are most effective in motivating different socio-economic groups to change their recycling behaviors and participate in recycling programs. Four types of data were collected and analyzed in Tucson: (1) purchase data from local recyclers, (2) traditional interview-survey data on recycling behavior, (3) long-term and short-term household refuse data, and (4) combined interview-garbage data. Findings reveal that disposal patterns for newspapers and aluminum cans are tuse data, and (4) combined interview-garbage data. Findings reveal that disposal patterns for newspapers and aluminum cans are the same across census tracts with significantly different socio-economic characteristics. Further, analysis of interview and garbage data matched by household reaffirm that what people say about recycling and how they dispose of recyclable materials are two different things. Thus, interview reports of newspaper recycling correlate with higher income informants, but their interview reports do not correlate with what is thrown into their garbage cans. Money is concluded to be the most powerful incentive toward recycling.

  20. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  1. Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

    1973-01-01

    Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)

  2. Training Governments to Buy Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Describes a program developed by the Northeast Maryland Waste Disposal Authority to teach government buyers how to buy recycled materials. The program consists of a hands-on training seminar and a manual that offers step-by-step instructions for setting up a buy-recycled purchasing program. (LZ)

  3. Is recycling worth the trouble

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, C.M.

    1995-03-01

    A panel of waste industry experts met recently at a Washington, DC, conference to discuss and debate the costs, benefits, and economics of recycling solid waste. The nearly unanimous conclusion from some of the speakers--that recycling, as it is implemented today, has costs that far outweigh its benefits--is evidence of a growing backlash among solid waste officials against a recycling movement they feel has been grossly over-inflated by environmental groups as a solution to a non-existent problem known as the garbage crisis. The public should not place such a strong emphasis on recycling as a cure-all for environmental problems, according to the panel of four waste management policy analysts at The State of Garbage'' session held in mid-January at the 1995 US/Canadian Federation Solid Waste Management Conference. Moreover, some panel members said, recycling should take place only if it makes economic sense.

  4. Demonstration of the Equivalence of Soft and Zero-Bin Subtractions

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad Idilbi; Thomas Mehen

    2007-11-01

    Calculations of collinear correlation functions in perturbative QCD and Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) require a prescription for subtracting soft or zero-bin contributions in order to avoid double counting the contributions from soft modes. At leading order in $\\lambda$, where $\\lambda$ is the SCET expansion parameter, the zero-bin subtractions have been argued to be equivalent to convolution with soft Wilson lines. We give a proof of the factorization of naive collinear Wilson lines that is crucial for the derivation of the equivalence. We then check the equivalence by computing the non-Abelian two-loop mixed collinear-soft contribution to the jet function in the quark form factor. These results provide strong support for the equivalence, which can be used to give a nonperturbative definition of the zero-bin subtraction at lowest order in $\\lambda$.

  5. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  6. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  7. Forecasting of global data-binning parameters for high-resolution empirical geomagnetic field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Stephens, G. K.

    2012-09-01

    A recently developed empirical model, TS07D (http://geomag_field.jhuapl.edu/model/), has provided for the first time a realistic description of the storm-scale geomagnetic field, free from a priori assumptions about the shape of the main magnetospheric current systems. The model uses information about the global state of the magnetosphere and its solar wind driving in the form of the Sym-H index averaged over substorm scales, its time derivative, and a similarly averaged solar wind electric field. The set of global parameters is used to bin a large number of points in a historical magnetic field database and to fit the model using only a part of the database composed of points taken at times when the global data-binning parameters were close to those at the time of interest. Transition from modeling to forecasting in such models requires a modification of their data binning procedure to use only the information about the state of the solar wind and the magnetosphere prior to the time of interest. This can be done using another (forecasting) set of binning parameters, which is optimized to provide the best prediction of the original (modeling) binning set. Several sets of such parameters are investigated. It is shown that the original (modeling) set contains spurious information, which appears because of the averaging of the solar wind electric field and Sym-H index over future moments in time. As a result, the problem of the optimization of the forecasting set becomes ill-posed, and the prediction efficiency of the original binning parameters, especially the averaged time derivative of the Sym-H index, is strongly limited. The predictions are shown to be substantially improved when the forecasting set includes an exponential decay function of the solar wind electric field proposed originally by Burton et al. (1975) with the e-folding time of the order of one hour.

  8. Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Marcikic, I.; Riedmatten, H. de; Scarani, V.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N.; Tittel, W.

    2002-12-01

    We create pairs of nondegenerate time-bin entangled photons at telecom wavelengths with ultrashort pump pulses. Entanglement is shown by performing Bell kind tests of the Franson type with visibilities of up to 91%. As time-bin entanglement can easily be protected from decoherence as encountered in optical fibers, this experiment opens the road for complex quantum communication protocols over long distances. We also investigate the creation of more than one photon pair in a laser pulse and present a simple tool to quantify the probability of such events to happen.

  9. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  10. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it