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1

GRAF1 forms a complex with MICAL-L1 and EHD1 to cooperate in tubular recycling endosome vesiculation  

PubMed Central

The biogenesis of tubular recycling endosomes (TREs) and their subsequent vesiculation after cargo-sorting has occurred, is essential for receptor and lipid recycling to the plasma membrane. Although recent studies have implicated the C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain (EHD) protein, EHD1, as a key regulator of TRE vesiculation, additional proteins involved in this process have been largely uncharacterized. In the present study, we identify the GTPase Regulator Associated with Focal adhesion kinase-1 (GRAF1) protein in a complex with EHD1 and the TRE hub protein, Molecules Interacting with CasL-Like1 (MICAL-L1). Over-expression of GRAF1 caused vesiculation of MICAL-L1-containing TRE, whereas GRAF1-depletion led to impaired TRE vesiculation and delayed receptor recycling. Moreover, co-addition of purified EHD1 and GRAF1 in a semi-permeabilized cell vesiculation assay produced synergistic TRE vesiculation. Overall, based on our data, we suggest that in addition to its roles in clathrin-independent endocytosis, GRAF1 synergizes with EHD1 to support TRE vesiculation. PMID:25364729

Cai, Bishuang; Xie, Shuwei; Caplan, Steve; Naslavsky, Naava

2014-01-01

2

Novel Functions for the Endocytic Regulatory Proteins MICAL-L1 and EHD1 in Mitosis.  

PubMed

During interphase, recycling endosomes mediate the transport of internalized cargo back to the plasma membrane. However, in mitotic cells, recycling endosomes are essential for the completion of cytokinesis, the last phase of mitosis that promotes the physical separation the two daughter cells. Despite recent advances, our understanding of the molecular determinants that regulate recycling endosome dynamics during cytokinesis remains incomplete. We have previously demonstrated that Molecule Interacting with CasL Like-1 (MICAL-L1) and C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain protein 1 (EHD1) coordinately regulate receptor transport from tubular recycling endosomes during interphase. However, their potential roles in controlling cytokinesis had not been addressed. In this study, we show that MICAL-L1 and EHD1 regulate mitosis. Depletion of either protein resulted in increased numbers of bi-nucleated cells. We provide evidence that bi-nucleation in MICAL-L1- and EHD1-depleted cells is a consequence of impaired recycling endosome transport during late cytokinesis. However, depletion of MICAL-L1, but not EHD1, resulted in aberrant chromosome alignment and lagging chromosomes, suggesting an EHD1-independent function for MICAL-L1 earlier in mitosis. Moreover, we provide evidence that MICAL-L1 and EHD1 differentially influence microtubule dynamics during early and late mitosis. Collectively, our new data suggest several unanticipated roles for MICAL-L1 and EHD1 during the cell cycle. PMID:25287187

Reinecke, James B; Katafiasz, Dawn; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

2015-01-01

3

Endosomal recycling regulation during cytokinesis  

PubMed Central

Successful cytokinesis is critical for cell proliferation and development. In animal cells, cytokinesis relies on temporally and spatially regulated membrane addition to the cleavage site. An important source for the new membrane is recycling endosomes. Yet how these endocytic vesicles are transported and regulated remains unclear. Several potential factors have been recently identified that regulate the trafficking of recycling endosomes during cytokinesis. Dynein and dynactin are required for the retrograde transport of recycling endosomes, while Kinesin-1 is responsible for endosome delivery to the furrow and midbody. Other regulators of recycling endosome trafficking have been identified, including RACK1, JIP3/4 and ECT2, which target recycling endosomes during the cell cycle. Here, we provide insights into the mechanisms controlling endosomal trafficking during cytokinesis. PMID:19907714

Ai, Erkang

2009-01-01

4

Arl13b regulates endocytic recycling traffic  

PubMed Central

Intracellular recycling pathways play critical roles in internalizing membrane and fluid phase cargo and in balancing the inflow and outflow of membrane and cell surface molecules. To identify proteins involved in the regulation of endocytic recycling, we used an shRNA trafficking library and screened for changes in the surface expression of CD1a antigen-presenting molecules that follow an endocytic recycling route. We found that silencing of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf)-like small GTPase Arl13b led to a decrease in CD1a surface expression, diminished CD1a function, and delayed CD1a recycling, suggesting that Arl13b is involved in the regulation of endocytic recycling traffic. Arl13b appears to be required for the major route of endocytic trafficking, causing clustering of early endosomes and leading to the accumulation of endocytic cargo. Moreover, Arl13b colocalized with markers of the endocytic recycling pathway followed by CD1a, namely Arf6 and Rab22a. We also detected an interaction between Arl13b and the actin cytoskeleton. Arl13b was previously implicated in cilia formation and function. Our present results indicate a previously unidentified role for Arl13b in endocytic recycling traffic and suggest a link between Arl13b function and the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:23223633

Barral, Duarte C.; Garg, Salil; Casalou, Cristina; Watts, Gerald F. M.; Sandoval, José L.; Ramalho, José S.; Hsu, Victor W.; Brenner, Michael B.

2012-01-01

5

REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-01-29

6

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be learning all about recycling and asking questions as you learn more about recycling. Afterward, you will be making recycling bins that we will use in our classroom. Click on each of the different links and research about recycling. Find out what recycling is, what can be recycled, and why we should recycle. As you find information, add it to the "describing wheel" that is given to you by Ms. Pollak. Answer the main question: What is recycling? Come ...

sgp0002

2010-03-27

7

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What objects can be recycled? 1. Click on link. Watch video. Recycle Guy Video 2. Click on link. Watch video. Talking Trash Video 3. Click on link. Watch video. Recycling At School Video 4. Click on link. Play game. Star Fall Recycling Game 5. Click on link. Play game. National Geographic Recycling Game 6. Click on link. Ask Ms. Owens how to do it. Things We Recycle Chart 7. Please see Miss Owens for instructions on the following ...

2011-04-07

8

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s learn how to reduce, reuse and recycle waste! BUILDING YOUR KNOWLEDGE ABOUT RECYCLING 1. Learn the abc\\'s of recycling found here A is for Air. Be sure to click on each letter of the alphabet and read what it stands for. 2. Read the Adventures of the Garbage Gremlin in this Comic Book. 3. Steel is used to build cars, household appliances and cans. Read ...

Miss Sykes

2005-10-20

9

40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01...regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260...41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities....

2013-07-01

10

40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01...regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260...41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities....

2011-07-01

11

40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01...regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260...41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities....

2012-07-01

12

40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01...regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260...41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities....

2014-07-01

13

40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01...regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260...41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities....

2010-07-01

14

Cytoskeletal scaffolds regulate riboflavin endocytosis and recycling in placental trophoblasts.  

PubMed

Microfilaments and microtubules (MT) play a vital role in cellular endocytic processes. The present study evaluates the role of these cytoskeletal elements in the apical internalization and postendocytic fate of riboflavin (RF) in placental trophoblasts (BeWo cells). Biochemical modification of the actin and microtubule network by (1) okadaic acid (OA), which disrupts MT-based vesicular trafficking; (2) cytochalasin D and latrunculin B, which promote actin depolymerization; and (3) 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), which inhibits myosin-actin interaction, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using actin- and tubulin-specific antibodies. Furthermore, involvement of the molecular motors dynein and kinesin was assessed in the presence of (1) sodium orthovanadate, which inhibits dynein-ATPase activity and (2) adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate tetralithium salt hydrate, a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog, which results in defective kinesin-driven processes. RF internalization consequent to cytoskeletal alterations was compared with that of a clathrin-dependent endocytic marker ([125I]-transferrin [TF]), a caveolae-mediated endocytic substrate ([3H]-folic acid [FA]), and a fluid-phase endocytic marker ([125I]-horse radish peroxidase [HRP]). Apical recycling and bidirectional transport of RF and TF was measured following cytoskeletal alterations. Results indicate that uptake of RF, TF, FA and HRP are markedly reduced (approximately 30-65%) in the presence OA and BDM, suggesting differential sensitivities to modification of kinesin-driven microtubules. However, actin depolymerization negatively affected HRP endocytosis alone, while RF, FA and TF internalization remained unchanged. Disturbances in protein phosphorylation cascades also influenced apical recycling while net ligand transport across monolayers remained unaffected. In conclusion, apical RF trafficking in placental cells is tightly regulated by microtubules and supported by accessory actin involvement. PMID:16563724

D'Souza, Vanessa M; Bareford, Lisa M; Ray, Abhijit; Swaan, Peter W

2006-12-01

15

Paradoxes of cleaning up the environment: Regulation and recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major objectives of public policy in the past two decades has been cleaning up the environment. Considerable resources have been expended in reclamation of the environment from past errors as well as reducing effluent flows that can cause harm in the future. Recycling can play a major role in protecting the environment as well as saving energy.

A. M. Wolsky; M. T. Katzman; E. J. Daniels

1987-01-01

16

Goliath family E3 ligases regulate the recycling endosome pathway via VAMP3 ubiquitylation  

PubMed Central

Diverse cellular processes depend on endocytosis, intracellular vesicle trafficking, sorting and exocytosis, processes regulated post-transcriptionally by modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. In addition to sorting to the lysosome, cargo is recycled to the plasma membrane via recycling endosomes. Here, we describe a role of the goliath gene family of protease-associated (PA) domain E3 ligases in regulating recycling endosome trafficking. The two Drosophila members of this family—Goliath and GodzillaCG10277—are located on endosomes, and both ectopic expression and loss-of-function lead to the accumulation of Rab5-positive giant endosomes. Furthermore, the human homologue RNF167 exhibits similar behaviour. We show that the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein VAMP3 is a target of these ubiquitin ligases, and that recycling endosome trafficking is abrogated in response to their activity. Furthermore, mutation of the Godzilla ubiquitylation target lysines on VAMP3 abrogates the formation of enlarged endosomes induced by either Godzilla or RNF167. Thus, Goliath ubiquitin ligases play a novel role in regulating recycling endosome trafficking via ubiquitylation of the VAMP3 SNARE protein. PMID:23353890

Yamazaki, Yasuo; Schönherr, Christina; Varshney, Gaurav K; Dogru, Murat; Hallberg, Bengt; Palmer, Ruth H

2013-01-01

17

ARH directs megalin to the endocytic recycling compartment to regulate its proteolysis and gene expression  

PubMed Central

Receptors internalized by endocytosis can return to the plasma membrane (PM) directly from early endosomes (EE; fast recycling) or they can traffic from EE to the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) and recycle from there (slow recycling). How receptors are sorted for trafficking along these two pathways remains unclear. Here we show that autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) is required for trafficking of megalin, a member of the LDL receptor family, from EE to the ERC by coupling it to dynein; in the absence of ARH, megalin returns directly to the PM from EE via the connecdenn2/Rab35 fast recycling pathway. Binding of ARH to the endocytic adaptor AP-2 prevents fast recycling of megalin. ARH-mediated trafficking of megalin to the ERC is necessary for ?-secretase mediated cleavage of megalin and release of a tail fragment that mediates transcriptional repression. These results identify a novel mechanism for sorting receptors for trafficking to the ERC and link ERC trafficking to regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) and expression of megalin. PMID:23836931

Shah, Mehul; Baterina, Oscar Y.; Taupin, Vanessa

2013-01-01

18

Rho1 regulates adherens junction remodeling by promoting recycling endosome formation through activation of myosin II  

PubMed Central

Once adherens junctions (AJs) are formed between polarized epithelial cells they must be maintained because AJs are constantly remodeled in dynamic epithelia. AJ maintenance involves endocytosis and subsequent recycling of E-cadherin to a precise location along the basolateral membrane. In the Drosophila pupal eye epithelium, Rho1 GTPase regulates AJ remodeling through Drosophila E-cadherin (DE-cadherin) endocytosis by limiting Cdc42/Par6/aPKC complex activity. We demonstrate that Rho1 also influences AJ remodeling by regulating the formation of DE-cadherin–containing, Rab11-positive recycling endosomes in Drosophila postmitotic pupal eye epithelia. This effect of Rho1 is mediated through Rok-dependent, but not MLCK-dependent, stimulation of myosin II activity yet independent of its effects upon actin remodeling. Both Rho1 and pMLC localize on endosomal vesicles, suggesting that Rho1 might regulate the formation of recycling endosomes through localized myosin II activation. This work identifies spatially distinct functions for Rho1 in the regulation of DE-cadherin–containing vesicular trafficking during AJ remodeling in live epithelia. PMID:25079692

Yashiro, Hanako; Loza, Andrew J.; Skeath, James B.; Longmore, Gregory D.

2014-01-01

19

The plasma membrane sialidase NEU3 regulates the malignancy of renal carcinoma cells by controlling ?1 integrin internalization and recycling.  

PubMed

The human plasma membrane sialidase NEU3 is a key enzyme in the catabolism of membrane gangliosides, is crucial in the regulation of cell surface processes, and has been demonstrated to be significantly up-regulated in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). In this report, we show that NEU3 regulates ?1 integrin trafficking in RCC cells by controlling ?1 integrin recycling to the plasma membrane and controlling activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. NEU3 silencing in RCC cells increased the membrane ganglioside content, in particular the GD1a content, and changed the expression of key regulators of the integrin recycling pathway. In addition, NEU3 silencing up-regulated the Ras-related protein RAB25, which directs internalized integrins to lysosomes, and down-regulated the chloride intracellular channel protein 3 (CLIC3), which induces the recycling of internalized integrins to the plasma membrane. In this manner, NEU3 silencing enhanced the caveolar endocytosis of ?1 integrin, blocked its recycling and reduced its levels at the plasma membrane, and, consequently, inhibited EGFR and FAK/AKT. These events had the following effects on the behavior of RCC cells: they (a) decreased drug resistance mediated by the block of autophagy and the induction of apoptosis; (b) decreased metastatic potential mediated by down-regulation of the metalloproteinases MMP1 and MMP7; and (c) decreased adhesion to collagen and fibronectin. Therefore, our data identify NEU3 as a key regulator of the ?1 integrin-recycling pathway and FAK/AKT signaling and demonstrate its crucial role in RCC malignancy. PMID:23139422

Tringali, Cristina; Lupo, Barbara; Silvestri, Ilaria; Papini, Nadia; Anastasia, Luigi; Tettamanti, Guido; Venerando, Bruno

2012-12-14

20

The Palmitoyl Acyltransferase DHHC2 Regulates Recycling Endosome Exocytosis and Synaptic Potentiation through Palmitoylation of AKAP79/150.  

PubMed

Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs) by kinases and phosphatases and interactions with scaffold proteins play essential roles in regulating channel biophysical properties and trafficking events that control synaptic strength during NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity, such as LTP and LTD. We previously demonstrated that palmitoylation of the AMPAR-linked scaffold protein A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) 79/150 is required for its targeting to recycling endosomes in dendrites, where it regulates exocytosis from these compartments that is required for LTP-stimulated enlargement of postsynaptic dendritic spines, delivery of AMPARs to the plasma membrane, and maintenance of synaptic potentiation. Here, we report that the recycling endosome-resident palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC2 interacts with and palmitoylates AKAP79/150 to regulate these plasticity signaling mechanisms. In particular, RNAi-mediated knockdown of DHHC2 expression in rat hippocampal neurons disrupted stimulation of exocytosis from recycling endosomes, enlargement of dendritic spines, AKAP recruitment to spines, and potentiation of AMPAR-mediated synaptic currents that occur during LTP. Importantly, expression of a palmitoylation-independent lipidated AKAP mutant in DHHC2-deficient neurons largely restored normal plasticity regulation. Thus, we conclude that DHHC2-AKAP79/150 signaling is an essential regulator of dendritic recycling endosome exocytosis that controls both structural and functional plasticity at excitatory synapses. PMID:25589740

Woolfrey, Kevin M; Sanderson, Jennifer L; Dell'Acqua, Mark L

2015-01-14

21

?-Synuclein Membrane Association Is Regulated by the Rab3a Recycling Machinery and Presynaptic Activity*?  

PubMed Central

?-Synuclein is an abundant presynaptic protein and a primary component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson disease. Although its pathogenic role remains unclear, in healthy nerve terminals ?-synuclein undergoes a cycle of membrane binding and dissociation. An ?-synuclein binding assay was used to screen for vesicle proteins involved in ?-synuclein membrane interactions and showed that antibodies directed to the Ras-related GTPase Rab3a and its chaperone RabGDI abrogated ?-synuclein membrane binding. Biochemical analyses, including density gradient sedimentation and co-immunoprecipitation, suggested that ?-synuclein interacts with membrane-associated GTP-bound Rab3a but not to cytosolic GDP-Rab3a. Accumulation of membrane-bound ?-synuclein was induced by the expression of a GTPase-deficient Rab3a mutant, by a dominant-negative GDP dissociation inhibitor mutant unable to recycle Rab3a off membranes, and by Hsp90 inhibitors, radicicol and geldanamycin, which are known to inhibit Rab3a dissociation from membranes. Thus, all treatments that inhibited Rab3a recycling also increased ?-synuclein sequestration on intracellular membranes. Our results suggest that membrane-bound GTP-Rab3a stabilizes ?-synuclein on synaptic vesicles and that the GDP dissociation inhibitor·Hsp90 complex that controls Rab3a membrane dissociation also regulates ?-synuclein dissociation during synaptic activity. PMID:23344955

Chen, Robert H. C.; Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Samuel, Filsy; Visanji, Naomi P.; Zhang, Gang; Marsilio, Diana; Langman, Tammy; Fraser, Paul E.; Tandon, Anurag

2013-01-01

22

Synapsin regulates vesicle organization and activity-dependent recycling at Drosophila motor boutons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synapsin is a phosphoprotein reversibly associated with synaptic vesicles. We investigated synapsin function in mediating synaptic activity during intense stimulation at Drosophila motor boutons. Electron microscopy analysis of synapsin(?) boutons demonstrated that synapsin maintains vesicle clustering over the periphery of the bouton. Cyclosporin A pretreatment disrupted peripheral vesicle clustering, presumably due to increasing synapsin phosphorylated state. Labeling recycling vesicles with

Y. Akbergenova; M. Bykhovskaia

2010-01-01

23

Regulation of synaptic vesicle recycling by calcineurin in different vesicle pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synaptic vesicles keep recycling by the processes of endocytosis and exocytosis to maintain the normal synaptic transmission. The synaptic vesicles are classified as the readily releasable pool (RRP) and the reserve pool (RP). In the endocytosis process, calcineurin (CaN), a Ca2+\\/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, has been shown to play important roles. However, it is unclear about its roles in different

Susumu Kumashiro; Yun-Fei Lu; Kazuhito Tomizawa; Masayuki Matsushita; Fan-Yan Wei; Hideki Matsui

2005-01-01

24

Rab11-FIP2 Interaction with MYO5B Regulates Movement of Rab11a-Containing Recycling Vesicles  

PubMed Central

A tripartite association of Rab11a with both Rab11-FIP2 and MYO5B regulates recycling endosome trafficking. We sought to define the intermolecular interactions required between Rab11-FIP2 with MYO5B. Using a random mutagenesis strategy, we identified point mutations at S229P or G233E in Rab11-FIP2 that caused loss of interaction with MYO5B in yeast 2-hybrid assays as well as loss of interaction of Rab11-FIP2(129-356) with MYO5B tail when expressed in HeLa cells. Single mutations or the double S229P/G233E mutation failed to alter the association of full-length Rab11-FIP2 with MYO5B tail in HeLa cells. While EGFP-Rab11-FIP2 wild type co-localized with endogenous MYO5B staining in MDCK cells, EGFP-Rab11-FIP2(S229P/G233E) showed a significant decrease in localization with endogenous MYO5B. Analysis of Rab11a-containing vesicle movement in live HeLa cells demonstrated that when the MYO5B/Rab11-FIP2 association is perturbed by mutation or by Rab11-FIP2 knockdown, vesicle movement is increased in both speed and track length, consistent with an impairment of MYO5B tethering at the cytoskeleton. These results support a critical role for the interaction of MYO5B with Rab11-FIP2 in stabilizing the functional complex with Rab11a, which regulates dynamic movements of membrane recycling vesicles. PMID:24372966

Schafer, Jenny C.; Baetz, Nicholas W.; Lapierre, Lynne A.; McRae, Rebecca E.; Roland, Joseph T.; Goldenring, James R.

2014-01-01

25

Precipitation Recycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

1996-01-01

26

40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01...certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case...40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a...

2013-07-01

27

40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01...certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case...40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a...

2014-07-01

28

40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01...certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case...40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a...

2010-07-01

29

40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01...certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case...40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a...

2012-07-01

30

40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01...certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case...40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a...

2011-07-01

31

Rab15 Effector Protein: A Novel Protein for Receptor Recycling from the Endocytic Recycling Compartment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorting endosomes and the endocytic recycling compartment are critical intracellular stores for the rapid recycling of internalized membrane receptors to the cell surface in multiple cell types. However, the molecular mechanisms distin- guishing fast receptor recycling from sorting endosomes and slow receptor recycling from the endocytic recycling compartment remain poorly understood. We previously reported that Rab15 differentially regulates transferrin receptor

David J. Strick; Lisa A. Elferink

2005-01-01

32

Fast retrieval and autonomous regulation of single spontaneously recycling synaptic vesicles  

PubMed Central

Presynaptic terminals release neurotransmitters spontaneously in a manner that can be regulated by Ca2+. However, the mechanisms underlying this regulation are poorly understood because the inherent stochasticity and low probability of spontaneous fusion events has curtailed their visualization at individual release sites. Here, using pH-sensitive optical probes targeted to synaptic vesicles, we visualized single spontaneous fusion events and found that they are retrieved extremely rapidly with faster re-acidification kinetics than their action potential-evoked counterparts. These fusion events were coupled to postsynaptic NMDA receptor-driven Ca2+ signals, and at elevated Ca2+ concentrations there was an increase in the number of vesicles that would undergo fusion. Furthermore, spontaneous vesicle fusion propensity in a synapse was Ca2+-dependent but regulated autonomously: independent of evoked fusion probability at the same synapse. Taken together, these results expand classical quantal analysis to incorporate endocytic and exocytic phases of single fusion events and uncover autonomous regulation of spontaneous fusion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03658.001 PMID:25415052

Leitz, Jeremy; Kavalali, Ege T

2014-01-01

33

Differential targeting of the dopamine transporter to recycling or degradative pathways during amphetamine- or PKC-regulated endocytosis in dopamine neurons  

PubMed Central

The dopamine transporter (DAT) clears the extracellular dopamine released during neurotransmission and is a major target for both therapeutic and addictive psychostimulant amphetamines. Amphetamine exposure or activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by the phorbol ester PMA has been shown to down-regulate cell surface DAT. However, in dopamine neurons, the trafficking itinerary and fate of internalized DAT has not been elucidated. By monitoring surface-labeled DAT in transfected dopamine neurons from embryonic rat mesencephalic cultures, we find distinct sorting and fates of internalized DAT after amphetamine or PMA treatment. Although both drugs promote DAT internalization above constitutive endocytosis in dopamine neurons, PMA induces ubiquitination of DAT and leads to accumulation of DAT on LAMP1-positive endosomes. In contrast, after amphetamine exposure DAT is sorted to recycling endosomes positive for Rab11 and the transferrin receptor. Furthermore, quantitative assessment of DAT recycling using an antibody-feeding assay reveals that significantly less DAT returns to the surface of dopamine neurons after internalization by PMA, compared with vehicle or amphetamine treatment. These results demonstrate that, in neurons, the DAT is sorted differentially to recycling and degradative pathways after psychostimulant exposure or PKC activation, which may allow for either the transient or sustained inhibition of DAT during dopamine neurotransmission.—Hong, W. C., Amara, S. G. Differential targeting of the dopamine transporter to recycling or degradative pathways during amphetamine- or PKC-regulated endocytosis in dopamine neurons. PMID:23612789

Hong, Weimin C.; Amara, Susan G.

2013-01-01

34

NDRG1 functions in LDL receptor trafficking by regulating endosomal recycling and degradation.  

PubMed

N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) mutations cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4D (CMT4D). However, the cellular function of NDRG1 and how it causes CMT4D are poorly understood. We report that NDRG1 silencing in epithelial cells results in decreased uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) due to reduced LDL receptor (LDLR) abundance at the plasma membrane. This is accompanied by the accumulation of LDLR in enlarged EEA1-positive endosomes that contain numerous intraluminal vesicles and sequester ceramide. Concomitantly, LDLR ubiquitylation is increased but its degradation is reduced and ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) proteins are downregulated. Co-depletion of IDOL (inducible degrader of the LDLR), which ubiquitylates the LDLR and promotes its degradation, rescues plasma membrane LDLR levels and LDL uptake. In murine oligodendrocytes, Ndrg1 silencing not only results in reduced LDL uptake but also in downregulation of the oligodendrocyte differentiation factor Olig2. Both phenotypes are rescued by co-silencing of Idol, suggesting that ligand uptake through LDLR family members controls oligodendrocyte differentiation. These findings identify NDRG1 as a novel regulator of multivesicular body formation and endosomal LDLR trafficking. The deficiency of functional NDRG1 in CMT4D might impair lipid processing and differentiation of myelinating cells. PMID:23813961

Pietiäinen, Vilja; Vassilev, Boris; Blom, Tomas; Wang, Wei; Nelson, Jessica; Bittman, Robert; Bäck, Nils; Zelcer, Noam; Ikonen, Elina

2013-09-01

35

The Regulated Expression, Intracellular Trafficking, and Membrane Recycling of the P2Y-like Receptor GPR17 in Oli-neu Oligodendroglial Cells*  

PubMed Central

GPR17 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is activated by two classes of molecules: uracil-nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes. GPR17 is required for initiating the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursors but has to be down-regulated to allow cells to undergo terminal maturation. Although a great deal has been learned about GPR17 expression and signaling, no information is currently available about the trafficking of native receptors after the exposure of differentiating oligodendrocytes to endogenous agonists. Here, we demonstrate that neuron-conditioned medium induces the transcriptionally mediated, time-regulated expression of GPR17 in Oli-neu, an oligodendrocyte precursor cell line, making these cells suitable for studying the endocytic traffic of the native receptor. Agonist-induced internalization, intracellular trafficking, and membrane recycling of GPR17 were analyzed by biochemical and immunofluorescence assays using an ad hoc-developed antibody against the extracellular N-terminal of GPR17. Both UDP-glucose and LTD4 increased GPR17 internalization, although with different efficiency. At early time points, internalized GPR17 co-localized with transferrin receptor, whereas at later times it partially co-localized with the lysosomal marker Lamp1, suggesting that a portion of GPR17 is targeted to lysosomes upon ligand binding. An analysis of receptor recycling and degradation demonstrated that a significant aliquot of GPR17 is recycled to the cell surface. Furthermore, internalized GPR17 displayed a co-localization with the marker of the “short loop” recycling endosomes, Rab4, while showing very minor co-localization with the “long loop” recycling marker, Rab11. Our results provide the first data on the agonist-induced trafficking of native GPR17 in oligodendroglial cells and may have implications for both physiological and pathological myelination. PMID:23288840

Fratangeli, Alessandra; Parmigiani, Elena; Fumagalli, Marta; Lecca, Davide; Benfante, Roberta; Passafaro, Maria; Buffo, Annalisa; Abbracchio, Maria P.; Rosa, Patrizia

2013-01-01

36

Hanford recycling  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall DOE recycling contract at the Hanford site and a central group to control the contract. 0 Using a BOA or MTS contract as a way to get proceeds from recycling back to site facilities to provide incentives for recycling. . Upgrading tracking mechanisms to track and recycle construction waste which is presently buried in onsite pits. . Establishing contract performance measures which hold each project accountable for specific waste reduction goals. * Recycling and reusing any material or equipment possible as buildings are dismantled.

Leonard, I.M.

1996-09-01

37

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycle City contains an interactive city map that demonstrates how residents of every section of the city, formerly Dumptown, have recycled, reduced, and reused waste to turn their town around. There is a Dumptown Game with a Control Center to monitor displays while Dumptown changes as waste reduction programs are put in place. Students can create their own Recycle City scavenger hunt or go to the Activities area and see other ways to put Recycle City to use to help protect the environment.

1997-01-01

38

Recycled roads  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the efforts of various states in the USA to recycle waste materials in highway construction as fill and pavements. The topics of the article include recycling used tires whole, ground, and shredded, cost of recycling, wood fiber chips as fill material in embankments, and mining wastes used to construct embankments and as coarse aggregates in asphalt pavement.

Tarricone, P.

1993-04-01

39

RECYCLING TODAY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have probably heard of recycling but what is it really and why is it so improtant to do? Please answer the questions below as well as visiting the different websites to explore what recycling really is. Form groups of 4 and explore the following websites as well as answer the questions which follow. The first website is of Recycle City where you will be exploring the City and how they recycle. Recyle City Why Recycling is Important Now please answer the following questions on paper. 1. What are the 3 R's? Explain in further ...

Miss Smith

2010-12-03

40

Bacterial cell-wall recycling  

PubMed Central

Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many—and quite possibly all—bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. While cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall–targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC ?-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both ?-lactamase and ?-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of ?-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC ?-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall recycling inhibitors. PMID:23163477

Johnson, Jarrod W.; Fisher, Jed F.; Mobashery, Shahriar

2012-01-01

41

Bacterial cell-wall recycling.  

PubMed

Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many--and quite possibly all--bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. Although cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall-targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC ?-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both ?-lactamase and ?-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of ?-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC ?-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall-recycling inhibitors. PMID:23163477

Johnson, Jarrod W; Fisher, Jed F; Mobashery, Shahriar

2013-01-01

42

Ligand-induced Internalization and Recycling of the Human Neuropeptide Y2 Receptor Is Regulated by Its Carboxyl-terminal Tail*  

PubMed Central

Agonist-induced internalization of G protein-coupled receptors plays an important role in signal regulation. The underlying mechanisms of the internalization of the human neuropeptide Y2 receptor (hY2R), as well as its desensitization, endocytosis, and resensitization are mainly unknown. In the present study we have investigated the role of carboxyl-terminal (C-terminal) Ser/Thr residues and acidic amino acids in regulating receptor internalization, arrestin interaction, and recycling by fluorescence microscopy, cell surface enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer in several cell lines. Strikingly, C-terminal truncation mutants revealed two different internalization motifs. Whereas a distal motif 373DSXTEXT379 was found to be the primary regulatory internalization sequence acting in concert with arrestin-3, the proximal motif 347DXXXSEXSXT356 promoted ligand-induced internalization in an arrestin-3-independent manner. Moreover, we identified a regulatory sequence located between these internalization motifs (357FKAKKNLEVRKN368), which serves as an inhibitory element. We found that hY2R recycling is also governed by structural determinants within the proximal internalization motif. In conclusion, these results indicate that the hY2R C terminus is involved in multiple molecular events that regulate internalization, interaction with arrestin-3, and receptor resensitization. Our findings provide novel insights into complex mechanisms of controlled internalization of hY2R, which is likely applicable to other GPCRs. PMID:20959467

Walther, Cornelia; Nagel, Stefanie; Gimenez, Luis E.; Mörl, Karin; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.

2010-01-01

43

40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01...false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous...released to the environment and are not recovered...product of the recycling process does...

2014-07-01

44

40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01...false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous...released to the environment and are not recovered...product of the recycling process does...

2012-07-01

45

40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01...false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous...released to the environment and are not recovered...product of the recycling process does...

2013-07-01

46

40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01...false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous...released to the environment and are not recovered...product of the recycling process does...

2011-07-01

47

40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01...false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous...released to the environment and are not recovered...product of the recycling process does...

2010-07-01

48

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

49

Ideas: Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents classroom ideas focusing on connections among mathematics, concern for the environment, and conservation of natural resources, including decomposition, water conservation, packaging materials, use of manufactured cans, and recycling. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

Chessin, Debby A.; And Others

1994-01-01

50

Tire Recycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

1997-01-01

51

Recycling polyurethanes  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the PolyUrethane Recycle and Recovery Council`s continuing evaluation of the technical and commercial viability of polyurethane recovery and recycling technologies. In North America, 240,000 tonnes of post-industrial and 16,000 tonnes of post-consumer polyurethane foam was recycled into carpet rebound underlay and other applications in 1993. Demand was so great in North America that 60,000 t of primarily post-industrial scarp was imported from Europe and the Far East. Polyurethane from the seats of the 9 million vehicles scrapped each year could yield 82,000 t of flexible post-consumer foam scrap: instrument and door panels could yield another 10,000 t of semi-flexible scrap.

NONE

1995-08-01

52

The DFNA2 locus for hearing impairment: two genes regulating K+ ion recycling in the inner ear.  

PubMed

DFNA2 is a locus for autosomal dominant non-syndromal hearing impairment (ADNSHI) located on chromosome 1p34 and six linked families have been identified. An audiometric study of these families showed that despite small differences in the phenotype all families suffer from progressive hearing impairment starting in the high frequencies. A detailed genetic analysis revealed that this deafness locus contains more than one gene responsible for hearing impairment. Thus far, two genes on chromosome 1p34 have been implicated in ADNSHI. The first, connexin 31 (GJB3), is a member of the connexin gene family. Connexins form gap junctions. These are connections between neighbouring cells that allow transport of small molecules. GJB3 mutations were found in two small Chinese families with ADNSHI. The second is KCNQ4, a voltage-gated K+ channel. Mutations in KCNQ4 were first found in a small French family, later in five of the six linked DFNA2 families. No GJB3 or KCNQ4 mutations were detected in patients of an extended Indonesian DFNA2 family. Two pathways have been proposed for the recycling of K+ from the hair cells back to the endolymph. These pathways involve the use of gap junctions, K+ pumps and K+ channels. The expression of GJB3 and KCNQ4 in the inner ear and their functions suggest that both DFNA2 genes may play a role in K+ homeostasis. PMID:10890142

Van Hauwe, P; Coucke, P; Van Camp, G

1999-10-01

53

Extreme Recycling  

E-print Network

oil becomes fertilizer; food scraps get composted. Right now, Kamikatsu has an amazing 80% recycling rate. Impressive, yes but not good enough for the die-hard Kamikatsuites. Their goal: a Zero G environment. Zero G for Zero Garbage. #hacker #japan...

Hacker, Randi

2009-01-14

54

Recycling BIOPOL–Composting and Material Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling of biodegradable thermoplastics such as ZENECA's BIOPOL range of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly-3-hydroxyvalerate copolymers needs to be considered in terms of both material recycling and organic recycling by composting. BIOPOL can be recycled as regrind. The addition of BIOPOL to a model waste stream demonstrates that at the anticipated addition levels, BIOPOL should not have a deleterious effect on

M. K. Cox

1995-01-01

55

Computer Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given current rates of computer consumerism and technological advances, one might expect to find a lot of computers out there in the world. What happens to these old computers? This Topic in Depth explores this issue, reviews some options for recycling computers, and provides tips for anyone considering purchasing a refurbished computer. The first article from BBC News (1) reports on research which suggests that "the number of personal computers worldwide is expected to double by 2010 to 1.3 billion machines." The second article from Oasis, a project of the Irish eGovernment initiative, (2) reviews some of the issues surrounding waste from electrical and electronic equipment. This next article from PC World (3) gives some ideas for how to dispose of an old notebook computer. One option, of course, is to donate your notebook, which is discussed in this article from Tech Soup (4). Another resource for information on computer recycling and reuse is this website from CompuMentor (5). Given the current market for computers, many are considering refurbished computers. This article from Vnunet (6 ) explains what a refurbished computer is while the next website provides some tips for buying a refurbished computer (7 ). Finally, this article from About.com reports on the recently introduced National Computer Recycling Act (8).

56

Green Science: Revisiting Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling

Palliser, Janna

2011-01-01

57

Improving biomass resource recycling capacity of Rubrivivax gelatinosus cultivated in wastewater through regulating the generation and use of energy.  

PubMed

This paper investigated Mg2+ enhancement of biomass production through regulating the generation and use of energy in Rubrivivax gelatinosus wastewater treatment. Results showed that proper Mg2+ dosage range was 1.5-15 mg/L. With optimal Mg2+ dosage (10 mg/L), biomass production (5010 mg/L) was improved by 60%. Both protein and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals reached above 90%. Biomass yield improved by 38%. Hydraulic retention time was shortened by 25%. Mechanism analysis indicated that as activator, Mg2+ promoted specifically isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and Ca2+ / Mg2+ -ATPase activities in energy metabolism, and then improved the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the use of ATP. This enhanced the secretion and activity of protease, protein and COD removals, and then led to more biomass production. With 10 mg/L Mg2+, IDH and Ca2+ / Mg2+ -ATPase activities, ATP production, protease activity were improved by 43.8%, 40.6%, 39.4% and 46.5%, respectively. PMID:25145217

Wu, Pan; Wang, Yan-ling; Zhang, Guang-ming; Liu, Xian-shu; Du, Cong; Tong, Qing-yue; Li, Ning

2014-01-01

58

Emulsified industrial oils recycling  

SciTech Connect

The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

Gabris, T.

1982-04-01

59

Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that motor oils can be reused and recycled. Educates students about environmental hazards and oil management and includes classroom activities. Addresses the National Science Education Standards. (YDS)

White, Boyd W.

2000-01-01

60

Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

Clearing, 2003

2003-01-01

61

Recycle of waste paper  

SciTech Connect

One of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant's long range goals is to reduce the amount of waste from the plant. The large amount of waste paper generated by the plant is currently buried in the state permitted landfill. Methods of recycling cardboard and paper which comply with all security requirements, health, safety, and environmental regulations of the Y-12 Plant are sought to conserve the landfill. A process to compact paper into a form which may be used as fuel and fed into the existing steam plant has been developed. A water-resistant briquette has been made from waste paper, a binder, and coal. Laboratory and pilot scale briquetting and pulverizing tests have been completed. These briquettes have physical properties similar to those of coal. 12 tabs.

Hackett, G.D.; Harris, G.E.

1988-01-01

62

Recycling Rules: Understanding Recycling and a MRF  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners simulate the separation techniques that materials recovery facilities (MRFs) use and then design their own series of recycling techniques. Learners identify four ways recyclable materials can be separated and sorted at a MRF: conveyor belts, blowers, flotation, and magnetism.

2013-01-17

63

Federal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper  

E-print Network

in human resource and community assistance programs to improve living conditions in rural areas · ResearchFederal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper The Forest Service, U.S. Department for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA's TARGET Center

Standiford, Richard B.

64

Federal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper  

E-print Network

and community assistance programs to imporve living conditions in rural areas; and Research on all aspectsFederal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper The Forest Service, U.S. Department.) should contact USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint

Standiford, Richard B.

65

Recycling overview in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the recycling programs currently in use in Sweden. Recycling of newspapers, batteries, plastics are all mentioned in this report by the Swedish Association of Public Cleansing and Solid Waste Management.

Not Available

1989-07-01

66

Reading, 'Riting, 'Rithmetic & Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the growing environmental education movement and what constitutes good education about recycling and the environment. Lists characteristics of environmental education resources and examines criticism of environmental education and recycling education. Cites 19 references. (LZ)

Hill, Jim, Ed.

1995-01-01

67

Epidermal H2O2 Accumulation Alters Tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH4) Recycling in Vitiligo: Identification of a General Mechanism in Regulation of All 6BH4Dependent Processes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown in vivo that patients with the depigmentation disorder vitiligo accumulate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accompanied by low catalase levels and high concentrations of 6- and 7-biopterin in their epidermis. Earlier it was demonstrated that epidermal 4a-OH-tetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase, an important enzyme in the recycling process of 6(R)-L-erythro 5,6,7,8 tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH4), has extremely low activities in these patients concomitant

Karin U. Schallreuter; Jeremy Moore; John M. Wood; Wayne D. Beazley; Eva M. J. Peters; Lee K. Marles; Stefanie C. Behrens-Williams; Reinhard Dummer; Nenad Blau; Beat Thöny

2001-01-01

68

?v?3-integrin-mediated adhesion is regulated through an AAK1L- and EHD3-dependent rapid-recycling pathway  

PubMed Central

Summary Protein transport through the endosome is critical for maintaining proper integrin cell surface integrin distribution to support cell adhesion, motility and viability. Here we employ a live-cell imaging approach to evaluate the relationship between integrin function and transport through the early endosome. We discovered that two early endosome factors, AAK1L and EHD3, are critical for ?v?3-integrin-mediated cell adhesion in HeLa cells. siRNA-mediated depletion of either factor delays short-loop ?3 integrin recycling from the early endosome back to the cell surface. Total internal reflection fluorescence-based colocalization analysis reveals that ?3 integrin transits AAK1L- and EHD3-positive endosomes near the cell surface, a subcellular location consistent with a rapid-recycling role for both factors. Moreover, structure–function analysis reveals that AAK1L kinase activity, as well as its C-terminal domain, is essential for cell adhesion maintenance. Taken together, these data reveal an important role for AAK1L and EHD3 in maintaining cell viability and adhesion by promoting ?v?3 integrin rapid recycling from the early endosome. PMID:23781025

Waxmonsky, Nicole C.; Conner, Sean D.

2013-01-01

69

Rethink, Rework, Recycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

1991-01-01

70

Recycling and the automobile  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the current status of automobile recycling and contains a summary of a survey which points out the major drivers and their impacts on automotive recycling. The topics of the article include computerized dismantling, polyurethane, sheet molding compound, polyester, thermoplastic polyester, recycling salvaged parts, vinyl and automotive shredder residue.

Holt, D.J.

1993-10-01

71

Much Ado about Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a solid waste recycling workshop for students and teachers sponsored by the Southwest Connecticut Regional Operating Committee (SWEROC), a consortium of 19 towns and cities organized to help implement a regional recycling program. The SWEROC workshop utilized games and team activities to teach students about recycling and the…

Elliot, Ian

1993-01-01

72

Scrap tire recycling in Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the problems associated with scrap tires. For example, surface storing of scrap tires poses a fire hazard and the rainwater trapped in the tire casings is an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes. Use as a fuel for energy production is unattractive as long as oil retails at its present low price. Past reclamation processes have not met expectations. Legislation alone is not the answer, because scrap tires cannot be regulated out of existence. However, the Minnesota state legislature has come up with an approach that seems to be successful. It has passed the Waste Tire Act, which not only formulates regulations but also provides funding for research and development. Thus, it has established a tire disposal fund for financing construction costs of tire recycling facilities. One of the outcomes was the construction of the St. Louis county Waste Tire Recycling Facility. Through a leasing arrangement with Minneapolis-based Rubber Elastomerics, Inc. (RRE), construction costs financed by the tire disposal fund eventually will be repaid by RRE to the fund. The arrangement is described in detail. By a process also described, RRE produces a product that can be used in thermoset and in thermoplastic compounds. The user can incorporate between 50 percent and 85 percent of the recycled product into a rubber or plastic compound without significantly affecting the physical properties of the compound.

Not Available

1989-10-01

73

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

2008-08-31

74

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

2008-08-31

75

Impact of hybrid and electric vehicles on automobile recycling infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling infrastructure for end-of-use vehicles in the United States is driven by profitability due to the absence of regulations. Typically, the recycling consists of removing reusable components for resale and shredding and separating remaining material for material recovery. Profitability depends on the quantity and type of components and material recovered. Because the material composition of hybrid and electric vehicles

Deogratias Kibira; Sanjay Jain

2011-01-01

76

Recycling Service Learning Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recycling project begins with students learning about waste and resources. They complete background assignments about the energy and materials required to manufacture paper, aluminum, etc. They study landfills and the issues related to space, pollution, etc. They look at what is different if these things are recycled. The students work in groups of two or three and adopt and academic building on campus. They educate the staff and faculty about recycling - what can be recycled and where. They arrange to pick-up paper from each office. My hope is that the college faculty, staff and students will eventually recycle paper at common bins and that our project will progress to adding other recyclables to our project.

Renee Faatz

77

Benchmarking survey for recycling.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

2005-06-01

78

How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos\\/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos,

Jantzen

2000-01-01

79

Recycling into Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit weaves art and science together to help students appreciate the importance of recycling. In this engaging activity, students collected items worthy of recycling from home, and with the help of the art teacher, used a loom to cr

Debra Fioranelli

2000-10-01

80

Visiting a Recycling Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this ZOOM video segment, cast member Francesco follows the paper trail to find out what happens to his recyclables. He visits a material recovery center and learns how paper is recycled and the number of trees that are saved as a result.

2005-10-21

81

Making Recycled Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video and accompanying text describe the three-pronged resource conservation strategy known as "reduce, reuse, and recycle". The video segment, adapted from the television program 'ZOOM', features cast members demonstrating how something that might otherwise be discarded, such as newspaper, can be recycled to create a functional or even beneficial new product. Questions for discussion are also provided.

2005-01-01

82

Recycling and Composting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the value of renewable resources. Using multimedia intractives, video, and classroom activities, they learn to identify examples of renewable resources and how humans use them, understand what recycling and conservation are, learn about composting, and identify food waste and household items that can be recycled or composted.

2005-01-01

83

Recycling at Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a Michigan summer camp's efforts to reduce solid waste disposal by recycling cardboard, tin, glass, aluminum, and plastic milk containers. Points out variables affecting the success of such efforts. Discusses Michigan state funding for the development of recycling programs. (SV)

Cummins, William M.

1988-01-01

84

Advances in plastic recycling. Volume 1: Recycling of polyurethanes  

SciTech Connect

``Recycling of Polyurethanes'', the first volume in the Advances in Plastics Recycling series, is focused on the physical and chemical recycling of polyurethanes, with attention given to energy conversion. A compilation of the present ongoing studies on recycling of urethane and, in general, isocyanate-based polymers, the focus is on thermosetting urethane polymers. Contents include: Recycling of Polyurethane Plastics in the European Automotive Industry; Present State of Polyurethane Recycling in Europe; Processing Overview of Bonded Polyurethane Foam; Mechanical Recycling of Polyurethane Scrap; Ecostream{trademark}--A Technology Beyond Recycling; Recycling of Flexible polyurethane Foam; General purpose Adhesives Prepared from Chemically Recycled Waste Rigid Polyurethane Foams; and Utilization of Isocyanate Binders in Recycling of Scrap Automotive Headliners.

Frisch, K.C.; Klempner, D.; Prentice, G.

1999-07-01

85

Operational experience and performance characteristics of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery energy-storage system for providing the customer with critical load protection and energy-management benefits at a lead-recycling plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Power Control Division of GNB Technologies, commissioned on May 13, 1996 a new facility which houses a 5-MW battery energy-storage system (BESS) at GNB's Lead Recycling Centre in Vernon, CA. When the plant loses utility power (which typically happens two or three times a year), the BESS will provide up to 5 MW of power at 4160 VAC in support of all the plant loads. Since the critical loads are not isolated, it is necessary to carry the entire plant load (maximum of 5 MVA) for a short period immediately following an incident until non-critical loads have been automatically shed. Plant loading typically peaks at 3.5 MVA with critical loads of about 2.1 MVA. The BESS also provides the manufacturing plant with customer-side-of-the-meter energy management options to reduce its energy demand during peak periods of the day. The BESS has provided a reduction in monthly electric bills through daily peak-shaving. By design, the battery can provide up to 2.5 MWh of energy and still retain 2.5 MWh of capacity in reserve to handle the possibility of a power outage in protecting the critical loads for up to 1 h. By storing energy from the utility during off-peak hours of the night in the batteries when the cost is low (US4.5¢ per kWh), GNB can then discharge this energy during high demand periods of the day (US14.50 per kW). For example, by reducing its peak demand by 300 kW, the lead-recycling centre can save over US4000 per month in its electric bills. The BESS at Vernon represents a first large-scale use of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in such a demanding application. This paper presents a summary of the operational experience and performance characteristics of the BESS over the past 2 years.

Hunt, G. W.

86

Asphalt recycle plant and method  

SciTech Connect

An asphalt recycling system and process are incorporated into an existing batch type asphalt plant. The existing asphalt plant has an aggregate dryer and air discharge ducts connected to a filtering system. A recycling dryer has input ducts connected to the existing aggregate dryer discharge ducts and output ducts connected from the recycling dryer back to the existing ducts to the filtering system. A recycle feeder bin for feeding reclaimed asphalt pavement to the recycle dryer is connected to the recycle dryer. A recycle booster burner is operatively connected to the recycle dryer through the input duct to the dryer for providing additional heat to the recycle dryer so that the waste heat from the existing aggregate dryer and the booster burner provide a predetermined heat to the recycle dryer for heating the asphalt material. A recycling storage bin or silo is connected to receive the heated recycled asphalt from the recycle dryer. A hammermill or other means may be provided for breaking up the old asphaltic materials, such as old paving materials prior to entry of the material into the recycle dryer. Dampers are provided for directing heated gases from the existing batch type asphalt plant to the recycling system, as needed, and temperature controls are utilized to control the recycled booster burner to provide the right combination of existing waste and added heat for the recycled dryer. The stored recycled asphalt materials may be fed to an existing plant batching tower for batching and loading into vehicles.

Brashears, D. F.; Butler, T. G.; Elliott, E. J.

1984-10-16

87

The ALS8 protein VAPB interacts with the ER–Golgi recycling protein YIF1A and regulates membrane delivery into dendrites  

PubMed Central

The vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) associated protein B (VAPB) is an integral membrane protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The P56S mutation in VAPB has been linked to motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 8 (ALS8) and forms ER-like inclusions in various model systems. However, the role of wild-type and mutant VAPB in neurons is poorly understood. Here, we identified Yip1-interacting factor homologue A (YIF1A) as a new VAPB binding partner and important component in the early secretory pathway. YIF1A interacts with VAPB via its transmembrane regions, recycles between the ER and Golgi and is mainly localized to the ER–Golgi intermediate compartments (ERGICs) in rat hippocampal neurons. VAPB strongly affects the distribution of YIF1A and is required for intracellular membrane trafficking into dendrites and normal dendritic morphology. When VAPB-P56S is present, YIF1A is recruited to the VAPB-P56S clusters and loses its ERGIC localization. These data suggest that both VAPB and YIF1A are important for ER-to-Golgi transport and that missorting of YIF1A may contribute to VAPB-associated motor neuron disease. PMID:23736259

Kuijpers, Marijn; Yu, Ka Lou; Teuling, Eva; Akhmanova, Anna; Jaarsma, Dick; Hoogenraad, Casper C

2013-01-01

88

The ocean is critical to the Earth's global systems, regulating weather and climate, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the re-cycling  

E-print Network

Abstract The ocean is critical to the Earth's global systems, regulating weather and climate, Germany. His research is concerned with ocean and climate variability and change with particular emphasis resources. Through evaporation to cloud formation to rain, the ocean rejuvenates the Earth's drinking water

Johannesson, Henrik

89

Arf GAP ASAP1 interacts with Rab11 effector FIP3 and regulates pericentrosomal localization of transferrin receptor-positive recycling endosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ADP-ribosylationfactors (Arfs)and Arf GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are key regulators of membrane trafficking and the actin cytoskeleton. The Arf GAP ASAP1 contains an N-terminal BAR domain, which can induce membrane tubulation. Here, we report that the BAR domain,of ASAP1 can also function as a protein binding site. Two- hybrid screening identified FIP3, which is a putative Arf6- and Rab11-effector, as

Hiroki Inoue; Vi Luan Ha; Rytis Prekeris; Paul A. Randazzo

90

The N-Myc Down Regulated Gene1 (NDRG1) Is a Rab4a Effector Involved in Vesicular Recycling of E-Cadherin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell to cell adhesion is mediated by adhesion molecules present on the cell surface. Downregulation of molecules that form the adhesion complex is a characteristic of metastatic cancer cells. Downregulation of the N-myc down regulated gene1 (NDRG1) increases prostate and breast metastasis. The exact function of NDRG1 is not known. Here by using live cell confocal microscopy and in vitro

Sushant K. Kachhap; Dennis Faith; David Z. Qian; Shabana Shabbeer; Nathan L. Galloway; Roberto Pili; Samuel R. Denmeade; Angelo M. Demarzo; Michael A. Carducci; Carl-Philipp Heisenberg

2007-01-01

91

CHERRY: CHECKPOINTED EARLY RESOURCE RECYCLING  

E-print Network

1 2 3 CHERRY: CHECKPOINTED EARLY RESOURCE RECYCLING Jos´e F. Mart´inez1 , Jose Renau2 Michael C. Huang3 , Milos Prvulovic2 , and Josep Torrellas2 #12;Cherry: Checkpointed Early Resource Recycling: Decouple recycling from retirement #12;Cherry: Checkpointed Early Resource Recycling in Out

Torrellas, Josep

92

The Totem Pole Recycled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity that integrates science, environmental education, art, and social studies. Students identify and research an endangered species and construct a totem pole depicting the species using a recyclable material. (MDH)

Sewall, Susan Breyer

1991-01-01

93

Recyclability Index for Automobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rating system was developed to quantify the environmental impacts of light-duty motor vehicles at the end of their life-cycle based on recyclability, toxic material content and ultimate disposal. Each year, 10-11 million vehicles are retired from service in the United States. The vehicle material not recycled is called automotive shredder residue (ASR). About 4.5 to 5 million tons of

Alexander Tsuji; Yarrow Nelson; Andrew Kean; Samuel A. Vigil

2006-01-01

94

Evidence for a recycling role for Rab7 in regulating a late step in endocytosis and in retention of lysosomal enzymes in Dictyostelium discoideum.  

PubMed Central

The mammalian small molecular weight GTPase Rab7 (Ypt7 in yeast) has been implicated in regulating membrane traffic at postinternalization steps along the endosomal pathway. A cDNA encoding a protein 85% identical at the amino acid level to mammalian Rab7 has been cloned from Dictyostelium discoideum. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that Rab7 was enriched in lysosomes, postlysosomes, and maturing phagosomes. Cell lines were generated that overexposed Rab7 wild-type (WT), Rab7 Q67L (constitutively active form), and Rab7 T22N (dominant negative form) proteins. The Rab7 T22N cell line internalized fluid phase markers and latex beads (phagocytosis) at one-third the rate of control cells, whereas Rab7 WT and Rab7 Q67L cell lines were normal in uptake rates but exocytosed fluid phase faster than control cells. In contrast, fluid phase markers resided in acidic compartments for longer periods of time and were more slowly exocytosed from Rab7 T22N cells as compared with control cells. Light microscopy indicated that Rab7-expressing cell lines contained morphologically altered endosomal compartments. Compared with control cells, Rab7 WT- and Rab7 Q67L-expressing cells contained a reduced number of vesicles, the size of postlysosomes (> 2.5 microns) and an increased number of smaller vesicles, many of which were nonacidic; in control cells, > 90% of the smaller vesicles were acidic. In contrast, Rab7 T22N cells contained an increased proportion of large acidic vesicles relative to nonacidic vesicles. Radiolabel pulse-chase experiments indicated that all of the cell lines processed and targeted lysosomal alpha-mannosidase normally, indicating the lack of a significant role for Rab7 in the targeting pathway; however, retention of mature lysosomal hydrolases was affected in Rab7 WT and Rab7 T22N cell lines. Contrary to the results observed for the fluid phase efflux experiments, Rab7 T22N cells oversecreted alpha-mannosidase, whereas Rab7 WT cells retained this hydrolase as compared with control cells. These data support a model that Rab7 may regulate retrograde transport of lysosomal enzymes and the V-type H(+)-ATPase from postlysosomes to lysosomes coupled with the efficient release of fluid phase from cells. Images PMID:9243512

Buczynski, G; Bush, J; Zhang, L; Rodriguez-Paris, J; Cardelli, J

1997-01-01

95

Consumer-mediated recycling and cascading trophic interactions.  

PubMed

Cascading trophic interactions mediated by consumers are complex phenomena, which encompass many direct and indirect effects. Nonetheless, most experiments and theory on the topic focus uniquely on the indirect, positive effects of predators on producers via regulation of herbivores. Empirical research in aquatic ecosystems, however, demonstrate that the indirect, positive effects of consumer-mediated recycling on primary producer stocks may be larger than the effects of herbivore regulation, particularly when predators have access to alternative prey. We derive an ecosystem model with both recipient- and donor-controlled trophic relationships to test the conditions of four hypotheses generated from recent empirical work on the role of consumer-mediated recycling in cascading trophic interactions. Our model predicts that predator regulation of herbivores will have larger, positive effects on producers than consumer-mediated recycling in most cases but that consumer-mediated recycling does generally have a positive effect on producer stocks. We demonstrate that herbivore recycling will have larger effects on producer biomass than predator recycling when turnover rates and recycling efficiencies are high and predators prefer local prey. In addition, predictions suggest that consumer-mediated recycling has the largest effects on primary producers when predators prefer allochthonous prey and predator attack rates are high. Finally, our model predicts that consumer-mediated recycling effects may not be largest when external nutrient loading is low. Our model predictions highlight predator and prey feeding relationships, turnover rates, and external nutrient loading rates as key determinants of the strength of cascading trophic interactions. We show that existing hypotheses from specific empirical systems do not occur under all conditions, which further exacerbates the need to consider a broad suite of mechanisms when investigating trophic cascades. PMID:20715638

Leroux, Shawn J; Loreau, Michel

2010-07-01

96

Who owns the recyclables  

SciTech Connect

On March 31, the California Supreme Court decided the much awaited Rancho Mirage'' case (Waste Management of the Desert, Inc., and the City of Rancho Mirage v. Palm Springs Recycling Center, Inc.), and held that the California Integrated Waste Management Act of 1989 does not allow an exclusive franchise for the collection of recyclables not discarded by their owner.'' This ends a three-year slugfest between secondary materials processors in the state and municipalities and their franchised garbage haulers who also collect and process recyclables as part of their exclusive arrangement. Central to this nationally-watched litigation is a most fundamental question in waste management: at what point in time do articles in the solid waste stream become actual or potentially valuable secondary materials

Parker, B.

1994-05-01

97

Scrap tire recycling  

SciTech Connect

As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

1997-03-01

98

Recycled Aluminum Ornaments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan from ATEEC will explain the principles of recycling. The activity would be most appropriate for technology studies or high school science classes. In all, it would require 2-5 hours of class time to complete. The purpose of the lesson is to demonstrate how aluminum is recycled. This laboratory activity does require some special equipment including a heat source capable of melting aluminum and an outdoor work area. Extension activities are also provided. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

Wishart, Ray

2013-06-14

99

Direct measurement of recycle ratios in internal recycle laboratory reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method involving the internal positioning of probe capillaries to measure the recycle ratio in an internal recycle reactor equipped with a basket containing a powdered catalyst is reported. The variation of recycle ratio with carrier gas composition, pressure, temperature and catalyst mass is presented. Based on the calculated pressure drop and the principles governing flow resistance across the catalyst

Roald Brosius; Jack C. Q. Fletcher

2010-01-01

100

Recycling Decisions and Green Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the facts and perceptions regarding recycling, what can be done to make products more environmentally compatible, and how to think about recycling decisions in a more helpful way. (Contains 39 references.) (MDH)

Lave, Lester B.; And Others

1994-01-01

101

Recycled Insect Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

2007-01-01

102

Recycling for radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melvin Hoare, Steve Rawlings and the CUGA consortium look forward to the potential offered by recycling the ˜30 m class antennas at Goonhilly Earth Station in Cornwall, including a new deep-space tracking facility, research and training, and the possibility of enhancing the e-MERLIN array.

Hoare, Melvin

2012-02-01

103

RECYCLABILITY INDEX FOR AUTOMOBILES  

EPA Science Inventory

The project's purpose is to create a rating system for the ecological impacts of vehicles at the end of their life based on recyclability, toxic material content, and ultimate disposal. Each year, 10-11 million vehicles are retired from service in the United States. The vehi...

104

Microwave assisted Platinum recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purification of recycled platinum is a multi-step process of repeated dissolving of the scrap metal, precipitation of Platinum salts and thermal treatment of the salts to obtain a pure metal. As a new process, microwave heating is applied for dissolving platinum as well as for decomposition of the Pt-salts into sponge Platinum metal. The goal of microwave heating is reduction

M. A. Willert-Porada; T. Gerdes; A. Schmidt

2011-01-01

105

Designing for recycling  

SciTech Connect

The instrument panel (IP) with its variety of materials is one of the most difficult parts of the automobile to recycle. Selection of materials to minimize material count and maximize separability is critical to cost-effective IP recycling. Choices of assembly and disassembly techniques also should consider recycling. Current practices for recycling automobiles focus on the recovery of usable parts and metals with other materials becoming landfill. New design practices or significant developments in recovery technology must occur to reduce the volume of landfill materials. Design practices will be most effective if they allow cost-effective recovery of desired materials from the plastic components before shredding. Recovery technology continues to improve, but most parts are shredded with the car and land-filled as automotive shredder residue (ASR). Shredding followed by mechanical separation conceptually is the most cost-effective option, but the typical instrument panel contains six or more plastic materials. This makes separation difficult and expensive to get acceptable material yields and purity.

NONE

1997-08-01

106

MITI projects on recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

MITI has actively done R&D on industrial technology for waste and reclamation and so there are many research items from small scale to large scale. However, Ecofactory and researches on recycling of metallic materials are introduced here. Ecofactory was proposed by the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory and is now at the stage of the Leading Research, a new research scheme in

Yoshinori Nakazawa

1995-01-01

107

Recycling Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide was designed to help teachers and students understand the problems surrounding solid wastes. It includes an overview of solid waste and recycling, a glossary, suggested activities and a list of resource publications, audiovisual materials and organizations. There are 19 activity suggestions included in this guide designed for use…

Hallowell, Anne; And Others

108

Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boys and girls, grab your nose-plugs because today we are going to be digging through some garbage! We use a lot of garbage; the average American throws away nearly four pounds everyday. That\\'s a whopping 1,600 pounds a year! That means that every year, EACH one of you toss enough trash to equal the weight of all the students in our class...COMBINED! That\\'s a lot of garbage. Our world is big, but you might not have realized just how small it really is when it comes to holding all this trash. Would you want garbage in your backyard? Your playground? The park? There\\'s only so many places to store our waste. So, what do we do? We RECYCLE! What Does It Mean To Recycle? Recycling is taking things we use and would normally through into the trash can and putting them in a separate container. Instead of going to the dump, it goes to a recycling plant. Things like paper, newspaper, cardboard, plastic, glass, and aluminum are all products ...

Nicole

2008-11-19

109

Recycling and Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains how Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky used recycled cypress from pickle vats to build its visitor center and then “paid back” nature by creating a cypress-tupelo swamp at one end of a lake on the park grounds.

Ket

2011-01-11

110

Recycling refuse into energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some 50 percent of large cities and 10 percent of small ones reportedly are talking about recycling their municipal refuse. Several are building facilities or have recently begun operations. Short case histories are given of a few of the more notable ones, including Ames, Iowa (the organic fraction of whose refuse helps fuel the furnace at the municipal electric generating

Godfey; K. A. Jr

1976-01-01

111

Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

2005-01-01

112

Recycling of the #5 polymer.  

PubMed

Polypropylene (PP) is a widely used plastic with consumer applications ranging from food packaging to automotive parts, including car battery casings. To differentiate it from other recyclable plastics, it is designated as #5. Here, the factors contributing to PP recycling rates are briefly reviewed. Considerations include collection and separation efficiency, processing chemistry, and market dynamics for the products derived from recyclates. PMID:22879510

Xanthos, Marino

2012-08-10

113

Refrigerator recycling and CFCs  

SciTech Connect

Utility-sponsored refrigerator and freezer pick-up programs have removed almost 900,000 inefficient appliances from the North American electric grid to date. While the CFC-12 refrigerant from the discarded appliances is typically removed and recycled, in all but a few programs the CFC-11 in the foam insulation is not. About a quarter-billion pounds of CFC-11 are banked in refrigerator foam in the United States. Release of this ``bank`` of CFC, combined with that from foam insulation used in buildings, will be the largest source of future emissions if preventive measures are not taken. Methods exist to recover the CFC for reuse or to destroy it by incineration. The task of recycling or destroying the CFCs and other materials from millions of refrigerators is a daunting challenge, but one in which utilities can play a leadership role. E Source believes that utilities can profitably serve as the catalyst for public-private partnerships that deliver comprehensive refrigerator recycling. Rather than treating such efforts solely as a DSM resource acquisition, utilities could position these programs as a multifaceted service delivery that offers convenient appliance removal for homeowners, a solid waste minimization service for landfills, a source of recycled materials for industry, and a CFC recovery and/or disposal service in support of the HVAC industry and society`s atmospheric protection goals and laws. Financial mechanisms could be developed through these public-private enterprises to ensure that utilities are compensated for the extra cost of fully recycling refrigerators, including the foam CFC.

Shepard, M.; Hawthorne, W.; Wilson, A.

1994-12-31

114

Recycling`s regulatory burden: A case study -- the Modesto Tire Disposal Project  

SciTech Connect

The Modesto Tire Disposal Project is a 14 MW electric power generating facility in Westley, CA fueled on whole waste tires. A by-product of the incineration process is a zinc-rich fly ash which contains low concentrations of lead and cadmium. The project`s preferred disposition for the fly ash is recycling through reclamation of its valuable metals. Under California regulation, the fly ash is considered a hazardous waste, and its handling and transportation is severely restricted. Federal regulation doe snot impose such restrictions. The fly ash from the project was recycled for years. However, internal regulatory review and subsequent conference with regulators determined that the environmentally sound transportation practices that had been utilized were not regulatorily compliant. As a result of compliance initiatives, the valuable fly ash had to be disposed of in class 1 landfills for the past year. The return to a recycle option remains elusive. This presentation reviews some of the regulatory hurdles and the economic harm done to the project in order to maintain strict compliance with California hazardous waste regulations.

Tomeo, E. [UAE Energy Operations Corp., San Ramon, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

115

Ehd2, a Rice Ortholog of the Maize INDETERMINATE1 Gene, Promotes Flowering by Up-Regulating Ehd11[C][W  

PubMed Central

Recent research into the flowering of rice (Oryza sativa) has revealed both unique and conserved genetic pathways in the photoperiodic control of flowering compared with those in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We discovered an early heading date2 (ehd2) mutant that shows extremely late flowering under both short- and long-day conditions in line with a background deficient in Heading date1 (Hd1), a rice CONSTANS ortholog that belongs to the conserved pathway. This phenotype in the ehd2 mutants suggests that Ehd2 is pivotal for the floral transition in rice. Map-based cloning revealed that Ehd2 encodes a putative transcription factor with zinc finger motifs orthologous to the INDETERMINATE1 (ID1) gene, which promotes flowering in maize (Zea mays). Ehd2 mRNA in rice tissues accumulated most abundantly in developing leaves, but was present at very low levels around the shoot apex and in roots, patterns that are similar to those of ID1. To assign the position of Ehd2 within the flowering pathway of rice, we compared transcript levels of previously isolated flowering-time genes, such as Ehd1, a member of the unique pathway, Hd3a, and Rice FT-like1 (RFT1; rice florigens), between the wild-type plants and the ehd2 mutants. Severely reduced expression of these genes in ehd2 under both short- and long-day conditions suggests that Ehd2 acts as a flowering promoter mainly by up-regulating Ehd1 and by up-regulating the downstream Hd3a and RFT1 genes in the unique genetic network of photoperiodic flowering in rice. PMID:18790997

Matsubara, Kazuki; Yamanouchi, Utako; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Minobe, Yuzo; Izawa, Takeshi; Yano, Masahiro

2008-01-01

116

COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating out radioactive contamination, the copper cable was coated with a surrogate contaminant. The demonstration took place at the Bonneville County Technology Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

Chelsea Hubbard

2001-05-01

117

Composting to Recycle Biowaste  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a If agriculture is to be made sustainable, few activities like composting are very important. Composting not only allows organic\\u000a waste of agricultural origin to be recycled and returned to the soil, but also provides a solution for managing much of the\\u000a waste, which is currently a major problem. If urban organic waste is selectively collected and composted, it no longer

György Füleky; Szilveszter Benedek

118

Machine coolant recycling system  

SciTech Connect

Machining processes at the 272W Site Fabrication Services (SFS) produce a waste stream consisting of dirty machine coolant. During use the coolant becomes contaminated with metal chips from milling, and oil, dirt and solvents from the machining process. The mixture is designated as a Washington State dangerous waste with WP02 (persistence), D007 (chromium) and D008 (lead) waste codes. This process results in the generation of 13.5 m{sup 3} of hazardous waste per year with an annual cost for coolant replacement, waste management and waste disposal of approximately $137,000. To identify alternatives to this situation, ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH) North Environmental Services conducted a pollution prevention opportunity assessment (P20A) on the machining processes. A coolant recycler and sump sucker unit were selected as the most cost-effective waste reduction options. In December 1994, ICF KH received return on investment (ROI) funding from the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) to implement this option. The coolant recycling and the sump sucker units were purchased and installed in July 1995 at a total cost of $61,000. The sump sucker removes the dirty coolant from the fabrication machinery and filters it to remove shavings and sludge. The filtered coolant then is transferred to the coolant recycling system for further processing. The coolant recycling system reconditions the filtered coolant for use in the machining equipment, and mixes the concentrated coolant to the correct concentration. As a result of implementing this option, the annual generation of waste coolant was reduced by 12 m{sup 3}. The annual cost savings exceed $119,000 with an ROI of 186%. Additional benefits include reduced coolant usage; improved tool life, wheel life, finish, size control, corrosion protection, and operator working conditions; increase machine {open_quotes}up-time{close_quotes}; and reduced machine tool maintenance.

Grabner, T.A. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

1996-12-31

119

Zero Waste Program 2011 Recycling Benefits  

E-print Network

Rutgers Zero Waste Program 2011 Recycling Benefits Through WM's Recycling Program, our company saved energy and reduced Greenhouse Gases through recycling. Recycling uses less energy, preserves from recycled material than from virgin, raw material. RESOURCE SAVINGS 4203 Metric Tons (MTCO2E

Delgado, Mauricio

120

RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by  

E-print Network

storage batteries for automotive, marine, industrial, stationary, specialty, commercial and consumer uses A. Total Pounds of Lead Recycled from Batteries (continued) All starting, lighting and ignition (SLI

Laughlin, Robert B.

121

Waste recycling for energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

This book explains the philosophy and practice of resource and energy recovery; it provides pratical guidance for everyone involved in recycling and recovery procedures. Particular attention is directed towards mechanical sorting and to the classification of urban and industrial refuse; to refuse-derived fuels and their storage, handling, and incineration; and to the operational procedures which apply to recycling plants of all kinds. Carefully selected case histories describe important industrial recycling applications which function in Europe and in the USA; these highlight the benefits and the financial returns which can be achieved by thoughtful recycling.

Kut, D.; Hare, G.

1981-01-01

122

Recycled rubber roads  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

Not Available

1989-02-01

123

Recycler barrier RF buckets  

SciTech Connect

The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

2011-03-01

124

Expanded recycling at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Pollution Prevention Program Office has increased recycling activities, reuse, and options to reduce the solid waste streams through streamlining efforts that applied best management practices. The program has prioritized efforts based on volume and economic considerations and has greatly increased Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) recycle volumes. The Pollution Prevention Program established and chairs a Solid Waste Management Solutions Group to specifically address and solve problems in nonradioactive, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), state-regulated, and sanitary and industrial waste streams (henceforth referred to as sanitary waste in this paper). By identifying materials with recycling potential, identifying best management practices and pathways to return materials for reuse, and introducing the concept and practice of {open_quotes}asset management,{open_quotes} the Group will divert much of the current waste stream from disposal. This Group is developing procedures, agreements, and contracts to stage, collect, sort, segregate, transport and process materials, and is also garnering support for the program through the involvement of upper management, facility managers, and generators.

Betschart, J.F.; Malinauskas, L.; Burns, M.

1996-07-01

125

CFC recycling system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for recycling freon. It comprises attaching a freon removal valve to a freon supply located in an appliance such as an air conditioner, refrigerator, freezer or the like, positioning a substantially empty freon collecting vessel in gas flow relationship to the valve by providing the freon removal valve with a puncture needle extending upwardly and adapted to puncture a freon supply tubing in the appliance, below the puncture needle is positioned a spring means, and below the spring means is positioned a piercing means adapted to pierce a closure in the collecting vessel to thereby establish a gas passage means extending from the supply tube, through the needle, through the piercing means to the collecting vessel, collecting the freon thereby in the collecting vessel, providing a substantially gas-free sealing means on the collecting vessel to insure substantial total containment of the freon within the collecting vessel, and delivering the collecting vessel to a collection center for reuse and recycling of the freon.

Furmanek, D.J.

1991-06-25

126

RECYCLING: SUPPLY, ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

RECYCLING: SUPPLY, ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY Panel Discussion Roundtable Moderator: S, although higher market values for recyclable will certainly stimulate increased interest in collection in recycling and deinking technologies and process design among North American, European, and Pacific Rim

Abubakr, Said

127

Cross-cultural comparison of concrete recycling decision-making and implementation in construction industry  

SciTech Connect

Waste management is pressing very hard with alarming signals in construction industry. Concrete waste constituents major proportions of construction and demolition waste of 81% in Australia. To minimize concrete waste generated from construction activities, recycling concrete waste is one of the best methods to conserve the environment. This paper investigates concrete recycling implementation in construction. Japan is a leading country in recycling concrete waste, which has been implementing 98% recycling and using it for structural concrete applications. Hong Kong is developing concrete recycling programs for high-grade applications. Australia is making relatively slow progress in implementing concrete recycling in construction. Therefore, empirical studies in Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan were selected in this paper. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. Power spectrum was used for analysis. It was found that 'increasing overall business competitiveness and strategic business opportunities' was considered as the major benefit for concrete recycling from Hong Kong and Japanese respondents, while 'rising concrete recycling awareness such as selecting suitable resources, techniques and training and compliance with regulations' was considered as the major benefit from Australian respondents. However, 'lack of clients' support', 'increase in management cost' and 'increase in documentation workload, such as working documents, procedures and tools' were the major difficulties encountered from Australian, Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. To improve the existing implementation, 'inclusion of concrete recycling evaluation in tender appraisal' and 'defining clear legal evaluation of concrete recycling' were major recommendations for Australian and Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively.

Tam, Vivian W.Y., E-mail: vivianwytam@gmail.co [School of Engineering, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 1797 (Australia); Tam, Leona [College of Business and Public Administration, 2151 Constant Hall, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Le, Khoa N. [School of Engineering, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 1797 (Australia)

2010-02-15

128

Cross-cultural comparison of concrete recycling decision-making and implementation in construction industry.  

PubMed

Waste management is pressing very hard with alarming signals in construction industry. Concrete waste constituents major proportions of construction and demolition waste of 81% in Australia. To minimize concrete waste generated from construction activities, recycling concrete waste is one of the best methods to conserve the environment. This paper investigates concrete recycling implementation in construction. Japan is a leading country in recycling concrete waste, which has been implementing 98% recycling and using it for structural concrete applications. Hong Kong is developing concrete recycling programs for high-grade applications. Australia is making relatively slow progress in implementing concrete recycling in construction. Therefore, empirical studies in Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan were selected in this paper. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. Power spectrum was used for analysis. It was found that "increasing overall business competitiveness and strategic business opportunities" was considered as the major benefit for concrete recycling from Hong Kong and Japanese respondents, while "rising concrete recycling awareness such as selecting suitable resources, techniques and training and compliance with regulations" was considered as the major benefit from Australian respondents. However, "lack of clients' support", "increase in management cost" and "increase in documentation workload, such as working documents, procedures and tools" were the major difficulties encountered from Australian, Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. To improve the existing implementation, "inclusion of concrete recycling evaluation in tender appraisal" and "defining clear legal evaluation of concrete recycling" were major recommendations for Australian and Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. PMID:19854634

Tam, Vivian W Y; Tam, Leona; Le, Khoa N

2010-02-01

129

Review Article: Recycling of Polystyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of polystyrene can be done by mechanical, chemical, and thermal methods. High impact polystyrene is a promising material for mechanical recycling since its properties are not extremely affected even after multiple processing of upto nine cycles. Production of liquid products and gaseous products are highly dependent on the reaction condition. The catalysts used are highly selective for the production

T. Maharana; Y. S. Negi; B. Mohanty

2007-01-01

130

Framework for Building Design Recyclability  

E-print Network

.2 Sustainable Construction .................................................................................... 4 1.2.1 Interpreting Sustainable Construction.......................................................... 5 1.2.2 Reduce, Reuse, and Recycling... for sustainable construction. They were: 1. Reduce resource consumption 2. Reuse resources 3. Use recyclable resources 4. Protect nature 5. Eliminate toxics 6. Apply lifecycle costing 7. Focus on quality Construction industry has tremendous impact...

Zhang, Fan

2008-01-01

131

Information Sources on Rural Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides resources for rural recycling operations with the principle aim of assisting rural government officials, planners, residents, and educators to encourage recycling as an integral part of an individual's or community's solid waste management plan. Sources range from bibliographies, directories, and government documents to case studies. (49…

Notess, Greg; Kuske, Jodee

1992-01-01

132

Training Governments to Buy Recycled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a program developed by the Northeast Maryland Waste Disposal Authority to teach government buyers how to buy recycled materials. The program consists of a hands-on training seminar and a manual that offers step-by-step instructions for setting up a buy-recycled purchasing program. (LZ)

Keller, Richard

1995-01-01

133

The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

2013-01-01

134

Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)

Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

1973-01-01

135

Climate Kids: Recycling Program Educator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using her countywide program as an example, a recycling educator offers incentives for recycling by providing data on energy savings and explaining how her county in Michigan supports the program. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

136

Management and performance of Taiwan's waste recycling fund.  

PubMed

Taiwan's resource recycling program was formally established in 1989, starting with the mandatory recycling of polyethylene terephthalate bottles. The number of mandatory regulated materials was extended to 8 categories with 27 items by 2002. Because of false data reporting, financial scandal, lack of transparency of the system, and the demand from parliament, the recycling policy has gradually changed from entirely privatized to being nationalized. Currently, the structure is built on six main bodies: fund management committee, consumers, industries responsible, recyclers, fee reviewing committee, and auditing agents. The industries that are responsible submit a fee, which is set by the fee reviewing committee, to the waste recycling fund (WRF), which is operated by the fund management committee. The auditing agents routinely check the responsible industries by documentation review as well as on-site counting to ensure that the fee is correctly submitted. The WRF provides initiatives to collect and dispose of the end-of-life products. The fund is split into a trust fund and a nonbusiness fund to deal with the collection, disposal, and treatment of the listed materials. The latter deals with the supporting works and ensures that the system runs effectively. The ratio of trust fund to nonbusiness fund is 80-20%. It is no doubt that the current practice achieves some improvements. Household waste has been reduced by 22%. And, most importantly, the benefit-to-cost ratio was as high as 1.24. However, similar to other state-owned systems, the resource recycling program has been criticized for false reporting from the responsible industries, a rigid system, and complicated procedures. To build a sustainable enterprise, the recycling program should be privatized as the recycling market and operating procedures are well established and fully mature. PMID:15991666

Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Lin, Chun-Hsu; Chang, Tien-Chin

2005-05-01

137

Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it may be possible to divert the majority of plastic waste from landfills to recycling over the next decades. PMID:19528059

Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

2009-01-01

138

Incubating small recycling technology developers  

SciTech Connect

Most new Recycling Technologies are being commercialized by small, and sometimes very small companies. These organizations lack the facilities to undertake the work necessary to prove the effectiveness of their technology at the pilot to semi-commercial scale. ORTECH has used their extensive bench and pilot plant facilities, plus technical expertise to partner with a number of new recycling technology developers to help them successfully commercialize these technologies. The paper will describe technological developments undertaken by three such partnerships involving recycling of: CFCs, fiberglass and high value metals from waste streams.

Lakshmanan, V.I.; Laughlin, R.G.W. [ORTECH Corp., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1997-12-31

139

Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle  

DOEpatents

A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

Weimer, Robert F. (Allentown, PA); Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01

140

Specific recycling receptors are targeted to the immune synapse by the intraflagellar transport system.  

PubMed

T cell activation requires sustained signaling at the immune synapse, a specialized interface with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) that assembles following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement by major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound peptide. Central to sustained signaling is the continuous recruitment of TCRs to the immune synapse. These TCRs are partly mobilized from an endosomal pool by polarized recycling. We have identified IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that controls ciliogenesis, as a central regulator of TCR recycling to the immune synapse. Here, we have investigated the interplay of IFT20 with the Rab GTPase network that controls recycling. We found that IFT20 forms a complex with Rab5 and the TCR on early endosomes. IFT20 knockdown (IFT20KD) resulted in a block in the recycling pathway, leading to a build-up of recycling TCRs in Rab5(+) endosomes. Recycling of the transferrin receptor (TfR), but not of CXCR4, was disrupted by IFT20 deficiency. The IFT components IFT52 and IFT57 were found to act together with IFT20 to regulate TCR and TfR recycling. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms that control TCR recycling and immune synapse assembly, and underscore the trafficking-related function of the IFT system beyond ciliogenesis. PMID:24554435

Finetti, Francesca; Patrussi, Laura; Masi, Giulia; Onnis, Anna; Galgano, Donatella; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Pazour, Gregory J; Baldari, Cosima T

2014-05-01

141

Status of antiproton accumulation and cooling at Fermilab's Recycler  

SciTech Connect

The Recycler ring is an 8 GeV permanent magnet storage ring where antiprotons are accumulated and prepared for Fermilab's Tevatron Collider program. With the goal of maximizing the integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments, storing, cooling and extracting antiprotons with high efficiency has been pursued. Over the past two years, while the average accumulation rate doubled, the Recycler continued to operate at a constant level of performance thanks to changes made to the Recycler Electron Cooler (energy stability and regulation, electron beam optics), RF manipulations and operating procedures. In particular, we discuss the current accumulation cycle in which {approx} 400 x 10{sup 10} antiprotons are accumulated and extracted to the Tevatron every {approx}15 hours.

Prost, L.R.; Bhat, C.M.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Carlson, K.; Crisp, J.; Derwent, P.; Eddy, N.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Pruss, S.; /Fermilab

2009-08-01

142

The College Student's Guide to Recycling,  

E-print Network

The College Student's Guide to Recycling, Reduction, and Reuse UNIVERSITY AT ALBANY Phone Albany, NY 12222 Top 7 Recycling and Reuse TipsTop 7 Recycling and Reuse Tips University at Albany Office of Environmental Sustainability 1. Set up separate bins for recyclable materials such as plastics and papers. 2

Kidd, William S. F.

143

WasteTraining Booklet Waste & Recycling Impacts  

E-print Network

WasteTraining Booklet #12;Waste & Recycling Impacts Environment: The majority of our municipal jobs while recycling 10,000 tons of waste creates 36 jobs. Environment: Recycling conserves resources. It takes 95% less energy to make aluminum from recycled aluminum than from virgin materials, 60% less

Saldin, Dilano

144

You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

Torpey, Elka Maria

2011-01-01

145

TTUAB PLASTIC RECYCLING PROTOCOL Fall 2011 What Plastic Do We Recycle?  

E-print Network

TTUAB PLASTIC RECYCLING PROTOCOL ­ Fall 2011 What Plastic Do We Recycle? TTUAB has taken on the responsibility of recycling #1 PET and #2 HDPE plastics by placing a yellow TTUAB Plastic Recycling bin on each recyclables encountered in our bins are ALSO our responsibility (e.g. tin cans, aluminum cans, glass). So

Rock, Chris

146

Welcome new and returning residents! Help us make USC greener by recycling! Your Room Recycling Bin  

E-print Network

Recycling will take only a few minutes but will have a profound impact on the environment. MIXED PAPER WhiteWelcome new and returning residents! Help us make USC greener by recycling! Your Room Recycling Bin Every room is provided with a recycling bin to make it easy for you to recycle while living

Almor, Amit

147

New approaches to recycling tires  

SciTech Connect

Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

Spencer, R.

1991-03-01

148

Make Your Own Recycled Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how paper is made. Working together, student teams make their own paper. This activity introduces students to recycling; what it is, its value and benefits, and how it affects their lives.

Center for Engineering Educational Outreach,

149

The College that Recycled Itself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Davidson College in North Carolina, a recycling program has turned attics into lecture halls, laboratories, and a museum; a banquet hall is now an art gallery; and the main classroom building was remodeled. (Author/MLF)

Lawrimore, Earl

1978-01-01

150

Corporate America urges consumers to buy recycled  

SciTech Connect

The National Recycling Coalition`s (NRC, Washington, DC) buy Recycled Business Alliance (BRBA), the US EPA`s WasteWi$e program, and the US Conference of Mayors` (Washington, DC) buy-recycled program are just a few of the national groups that have formed since 1990 to encourage the purchase of products made from recyclables. Indeed, corporate America and governments are buying recycled. More than $1 billion worth of recycled-content products have been bought by McDonald`s Corp. since 1990. The nearly 950 members of the BRBA reported spending $9.1 billion on recycled-content products in 1993. State governments reported in 1993 that they had spent more than $600 million on recycled products. Several states, cities, and counties have adopted buy-recycled executive orders. Now, many of these companies and government officials are urging consumers to use their own purchasing power to spur markets for recyclables.

Rabasca, L.

1995-04-01

151

Proliferation aspects of plutonium recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium recycling offers benefits in an energy perspective of sustainable development, and, moreover it contributes to non-proliferation. Prior to recycling, reactor-grade plutonium from light-water reactors does not lend itself easily to the assembly of explosive nuclear devices; thereafter, practically not at all. Control systems for material security and non-proliferation should identify and adopt several categories of plutonium covering various isotopic

Bruno Pellaud

2002-01-01

152

1. Recycle all bottles and cans 2. Recycle all personal electronics  

E-print Network

RECYCLING 1. Recycle all bottles and cans 2. Recycle all personal electronics 3. Bring your own PREVENTION 32. Dispose of all cigarette butts properly 33. Use cloth napkins as much as possible 34. Reuse

Howitt, Ivan

153

50 Simple Things Kids Can Do To Recycle. California Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides 50 recycling ideas for children and features Recycle Rex, the state of California's "spokesdinosaur" for recycling. An introduction contains recycling background information on waste disposal options and reducing, reusing, and recycling. Recycling suggestions are divided into nine sections: (1) "Learn What You Can Recycle"…

Javna, John

154

Deep Recycling of Carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While most of the subducted H2O is recycled at shallow and subarc depths, carbon is less readily mobilized and susceptive to complex redox processes involving CO2 in solids, fluids and melts, elemental carbon, Fe- and Si- carbides, and methane. Here I review the various ways of recycling carbon during subduction and present a spectrum of possible reaction products in the mantle. Metamorphic reactions liberate <20% of the subducted CO2 to the subarc region (Connolly 2005, EPSL). Larger amounts might be mobilized through (sediment) melting. Although the wet pelite solidus is only shifted by 30-50 oC (at 3 GPa) with carbonates, the latter remain stable with melts that are saturated in a H2O+CO2-fluid. Complete dissolution of carbonates requires temperatures above any predicted subduction geotherm. Carbonated sediments yield CO2-rich phonolites to 5 GPa but carbonatites at higher pressures. The silicate melts become increasingly potassic with pressure, while the alkali-rich carbonatites have their highest K/Na at 8 GPa, slightly decreasing to 13 GPa and become sodic with the disappearance of residual cpx at ~16 GPa. What may happen when carbonated pelite derived melts migrate into the mantle is illustrated in Central Italy: in this case, it can be experimentally demonstrated that hybridization of ultrapotassic phonolitic melts with ~2 wt% H2O and ~6 wt% CO2 in the mantle results in the primitive parents of the ultrapotassic kamafugite suites which have ~43 wt% SiO2. Hence, despite a crustal isotopic signature of C, O, and Sr in these rocks, the CO2 of the Italian magmatism does not stem from assimilation in the crust but from melts derived from subducted marine carbonates mixed with pelagic clays and then reacted in the mantle. The migration of CO2-bearing fluids and melts into the mantle may lead to a redox-shock. Where high liquid/mantle ratios prevail, carbonatites rest in their oxidized form and may only freeze in relatively cold lithospheric keels where they form metasomatic zones prone to generate kimberlites in the context of a much later remelting event. Where the redox-capacity of the oxidized crust-derived material is subequal to the reduced mantle, iron carbides are to be expected. The eutectic in the Fe-Ni-C system is at lower temperatures than the mantle adiabat, leading to the distinct possibility that such zones entrained in global mantle convection will contain ~1% of eutectic Fe-C-melt. When the amount of subduction derived CO2 is small compared to the redox capacity of a metal bearing reduced mantle, diamond will form, but diamond itself is not truly reducing at high pressures. The most extreme reducing case leads to moissanite (found together with diamond), which isotopic signature implies involvement of organically derived carbon. Moissanite (SiC) only forms at fO2 <6-8 log units below iron-wustite and coexists with mantle silicates that have an XMg of 0.995-0.998. Our calculations show that a fluid or melt with a bulk, which is slightly more reduced than the CO2-H2O-tieline in C-O-H, may evolve to ultra-reduced residual C-H-rich fluids through removal of CO2 (through carbonate precipitation) followed by removal of H2O (through hydrous silicate formation). As SiC may only be in grain scale equilibrium with the mantle and requires a protracted fluid-fractionation, we propose that SiC is generally a low temperature phase formed from originally already reducing fluids involving organic carbon and hence subduction.

Schmidt, M. W.

2012-12-01

155

The recycling and disposal of electrical and electronic waste in China-legislative and market responses  

SciTech Connect

The development of new legislation on collection, recycling and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) as well as the scaling-up and privatisation of the WEEE processing industry, are indications of major changes for WEEE management in China. However, China's attempts to regulate the industry and establish a financially viable, environmentally benign and safe WEEE management system are facing significant challenges. The existence of an extensive informal sector, combined with a lack of environmental awareness among WEEE collectors, recyclers and consumers, are contributing to China's difficulties in developing a financially and environmentally sound recycling and disposal system. This paper discusses the current status of WEEE recycling and disposal in China, and its impacts on the environment, human health, and the economy. It also examines the legislative and market responses to the WEEE issue, and how these will be affected by Chinese attitudes and practices towards WEEE recycling.

Hicks, C. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Sino-German Technical Cooperation Programme 'Environment Oriented Enterprise Consultancy Zhejiang' (EECZ), 306 Wen Yi Rd., Room 617, Hangzhou, 310012, Zhejiang (China)]. E-mail: charlotte@eecz.org; Dietmar, R. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Sino-German Technical Cooperation Programme 'Environment Oriented Enterprise Consultancy Zhejiang' (EECZ), 306 Wen Yi Rd., Room 617, Hangzhou, 310012, Zhejiang (China)]. E-mail: dietmar@eecz.org; Eugster, M. [ETechnology and Society Lab., Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland)]. E-mail: martin.eugster@empa.ch

2005-07-15

156

Identification of a Novel Recycling Sequence in the C-tail of FPR2/ALX Receptor  

PubMed Central

Formyl-peptide receptor type 2 (FPR2; also called ALX because it is the receptor for lipoxin A4) sustains a variety of biological responses relevant to the development and control of inflammation, yet the cellular regulation of this G-protein-coupled receptor remains unexplored. Here we report that, in response to peptide agonist activation, FPR2/ALX undergoes ?-arrestin-mediated endocytosis followed by rapid recycling to the plasma membrane. We identify a transplantable recycling sequence that is both necessary and sufficient for efficient receptor recycling. Furthermore, removal of this C-terminal recycling sequence alters the endocytic fate of FPR2/ALX and evokes pro-apoptotic effects in response to agonist activation. This study demonstrates the importance of endocytic recycling in the anti-apoptotic properties of FPR2/ALX and identifies the molecular determinant required for modulation of this process fundamental for the control of inflammation. PMID:25326384

Thompson, Dawn; McArthur, Simon; Hislop, James N.; Flower, Roderick J.; Perretti, Mauro

2014-01-01

157

PRESENT CONDITION OF FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LOOP BASED ON RECYCLING PROJECT CERTIFICATION OF THE FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LAW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose of this research is to clear present condition of food waste recycling loops based on recycling project certification of the Food Waste Recycling Law. Method of this research is questionnaire survey to companies constituting the loops. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. Proponents of the loop is most often the recycling companies. 2. Food waste recycling rate is 61% for the food retailing industry and 81% for the food service industry. These values are higher than the national average in 2006. The effect of the revision of recycling project certification is suggested.

Kita, Tomoko; Kanaya, Ken

158

Recycling of spent hydroprocessing catalysts: EURECAT technology  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of spent catalysts is a growing concern for all refiners. Environmental regulations are becoming stricter and stricter and state recommendations are to develop disposal routes which would emphasize recycling as much as possible, and processing the wastes as near as possible to the production center. In this context, EURECAT has developed a recycling process for the hydroprocessing catalysts used in oil refineries (NiMo, CoMo, NiW on alumina or mixed alumina silica). The process starts with a regeneration of the catalyst to eliminate hydrocarbons, carbon and sulfur. After a caustic roasting, the material is leached to obtain a solution containing mainly molybdenum (or tungsten) and vanadium and a solid containing essentially alumina, cobalt and/or nickel. Molybdenum and vanadium are separated by an ion exchange resin technique. The solid is processed in an arc furnace to separate the alumina. Nickel and cobalt are separated by conventional solvent extraction to obtain pure metal. Alumina is disposed of as an inert slag. The strength of the process lies in the combination of proven technologies applied by companies whose reliability in their respective field is well known. The aspects concerning spent catalyst handling, packaging and transport are also discussed. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Berrebi, G.; Dufresne, P.; Jacquier, Y. (European Reprocessing Catalysts, La Voulte Sur Rhone (France))

1993-05-01

159

DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests  

SciTech Connect

Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to aluminum oxide during the evaporation process. The following recommendations were made: Recycle from the DWTT should be metered in slowly to the ''typical'' recycle streams to avoid spikes in solids content to allow consistent processing and avoid process upsets. Additional studies should be conducted to determine acceptable volume ratios for the HEME dissolution and decontamination solutions in the evaporator feed. Dow Corning 2210 antifoam should be evaluated for use to control foaming. Additional tests are required to determine the concentration of antifoam required to prevent foaming during startup, the frequency of antifoam additions required to control foaming during steady state processing, and the ability of the antifoam to control foam over a range of potential feed compositions. This evaluation should also include evaluation of the degradation of the antifoam and impact on the silicon and TOC content of the condensate. The caustic HEME dissolution recycle stream should be neutralized to at least pH of 7 prior to blending with the acidic recycle streams. Dow Corning 2210 should be used during the evaporation testing using the radioactive recycle samples received from DWPF. Evaluation of additional antifoam candidates should be conducted as a backup for Dow Corning 2210. A camera and/or foam detection instrument should be included in the evaporator design to allow monitoring of the foaming behavior during operation. The potential for foam formation and high solids content should be considered during the design of the evaporator vessel.

Stone, M

2005-04-05

160

Recycling of polymers: a review.  

PubMed

Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential. PMID:24811748

Ignatyev, Igor A; Thielemans, Wim; Vander Beke, Bob

2014-06-01

161

Cathode ray tube manufacturing and recycling: analysis of industry survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling end-of-life electronics is an important and growing issue facing the electronics industry. Public awareness of the issue is rising, largely because it continues to draw significant media attention and is the subject of increased local, state, federal and international regulation. These developments pose new challenges for the electronics industry and require company, as well as industry-wide, responses. At the

A. Monchamp; H. Evans; J. Nardone; S. Wood; E. Proch; T. Wagner

2001-01-01

162

Recycling truck wash water  

SciTech Connect

The thousands of waste haulers operating in the US not only transport waste but also generate some of their own. Although cleaning schedules vary among these operations, which number about 9000, truck washing is an integral part of maintenance that may occur daily at many facilities. The presence of organic contaminants in the wash and rinse water, however, pose a threat to the ground and fresh water supplies. In recent years, regulators have begun to monitor closely the wastewater discharge from truck washing at waste hauling operations. Some waste haulers have found an easy, cost-effective way to comply with discharge permits is to treat and reuse the wash water.

Fink, R.G. [RGF Environmental Group, West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

1997-09-01

163

Recycler short kicker beam impedance  

SciTech Connect

Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

2009-07-01

164

Polymer recycling: opportunities and limitations.  

PubMed Central

The disposal of polymer solid waste by means other than landfilling is necessary. The various approaches-source reduction, incineration, degradation, composting, and recycling-all have their roles and must be employed in an integrated manner. Where appropriate, recycling has ecological advantages, but its application is dependent upon the feasibility of collection, sorting, and/or compatibilization of resulting mixtures to produce economically viable products. The practice should be encouraged by societal or legislative pressure which recognizes that the cost of disposal should be a factor in determining the cost of a product. PMID:11607263

Stein, R S

1992-01-01

165

A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

166

The Recycling Solution: How I Increased Recycling on Dilworth Road  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The grandson of Fred Keller, one of the founders of behavior analysis, Jacob was 10 years old when he conducted the project for his elementary school science fair. We recently contacted Jacob to learn more about his project. He told us the inspiration came from a class field trip to the county recycling center, which included seeing video footage…

Keller, J. Jacob

2010-01-01

167

Automobile Recycling Policy: Findings and Recommendations  

E-print Network

This report focuses on recycling. As an objective neutral party, MIT has compiled a knowledge base that examines the many complex issues relating to re-cycling. Although this report was prepared at the request of the ...

Field, Frank

168

Food Service Recycling: Whose Responsibility Is It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The food service department at a Pennsylvania school district recycles polystyrene "styrofoam" cups, plates, and food trays. In addition, the department recycles glass, aluminum, and paper. Offers advice on how to set up a school program. (MLF)

Settanni, Barbara

1990-01-01

169

Compositional evaluation of asphalt binder recycling agents  

E-print Network

Several experiments were performed to determine how recycling agent composition affects the high, intermediate, and low temperature properties as well as long term oxidative aging characteristics of recycled asphalt blends. Specifically, several...

Madrid, Richard Charles

1997-01-01

170

Three CCT domain-containing genes were identified to regulate heading date by candidate gene-based association mapping and transformation in rice.  

PubMed

CCT domain-containing genes generally control flowering in plants. Currently, only six of the 41 CCT family genes have been confirmed to control flowering in rice. To efficiently identify more heading date-related genes from the CCT family, we compared the positions of heading date QTLs and CCT genes and found that 25 CCT family genes were located in the QTL regions. Association mapping showed that a total of 19 CCT family genes were associated with the heading date. Five of the seven associated genes within QTL regions and two of four associated genes outside of the QTL regions were confirmed to regulate heading date by transformation. None of the seven non-associated genes outside of the QTL regions regulates heading date. Obviously, combination of candidate gene-based association mapping with linkage analysis could improve the identification of functional genes. Three novel CCT family genes, including one non-associated (OsCCT01) and two associated genes (OsCCT11 and OsCCT19) regulated the heading date. The overexpression of OsCCT01 delayed flowering through suppressing the expression of Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 under both long day and short day conditions. Potential functions in regulating heading date of some untested CCT family genes were discussed. PMID:25563494

Zhang, Li; Li, Qiuping; Dong, Haijiao; He, Qin; Liang, Liwen; Tan, Cong; Han, Zhongmin; Yao, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Zhao, Hu; Xie, Weibo; Xing, Yongzhong

2015-01-01

171

Three CCT domain-containing genes were identified to regulate heading date by candidate gene-based association mapping and transformation in rice  

PubMed Central

CCT domain-containing genes generally control flowering in plants. Currently, only six of the 41 CCT family genes have been confirmed to control flowering in rice. To efficiently identify more heading date-related genes from the CCT family, we compared the positions of heading date QTLs and CCT genes and found that 25 CCT family genes were located in the QTL regions. Association mapping showed that a total of 19 CCT family genes were associated with the heading date. Five of the seven associated genes within QTL regions and two of four associated genes outside of the QTL regions were confirmed to regulate heading date by transformation. None of the seven non-associated genes outside of the QTL regions regulates heading date. Obviously, combination of candidate gene-based association mapping with linkage analysis could improve the identification of functional genes. Three novel CCT family genes, including one non-associated (OsCCT01) and two associated genes (OsCCT11 and OsCCT19) regulated the heading date. The overexpression of OsCCT01 delayed flowering through suppressing the expression of Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 under both long day and short day conditions. Potential functions in regulating heading date of some untested CCT family genes were discussed. PMID:25563494

Zhang, Li; Li, Qiuping; Dong, Haijiao; He, Qin; Liang, Liwen; Tan, Cong; Han, Zhongmin; Yao, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Zhao, Hu; Xie, Weibo; Xing, Yongzhong

2015-01-01

172

Research Report Recycling gone bad: When the option to recycle increases  

E-print Network

for Consumer Psychology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Sustainability; RecyclingResearch Report Recycling gone bad: When the option to recycle increases resource consumption Jesse Abstract In this study, we propose that the ability to recycle may lead to increased resource usage

Loudon, Catherine

173

What Makes a Recycler?A Comparison of Recyclers and Nonrecyclers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge and motivational factors represent important but neglected topics in the study of recycling behavior. This article examines differences in knowledge, motives, and demographic characteristics of people who have the opportunity to recycle voluntarily. Information on these variables was obtained for 197 households in Illinois. The results indicated that recyclers in general were more aware of publicity about recycling and

Joanne Vining; Angela Ebreo

1990-01-01

174

Recyclization reactions leading to benzimidazoles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The published data on the recyclization reactions that afford benzimidazoles are generalized and systematized. Both classical and new methods of benzimidazole synthesis are considered. Attention is focused on the publications over the recent 10-15 years; of the earlier publications, only those unknown to the wide circle of chemists are analyzed.

Mamedov, Vakhid A.; Murtazina, Anna M.

2011-05-01

175

Issues in recycling galvanized scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The

P. J. Koros; D. A. Hellickson; F. J. Dudek

1995-01-01

176

Chemical recycling of scrap composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no well-developed technologies for recycling composite materials other than grinding to produce fillers. New approaches are needed to reclaim these valuable resources. Chemical or tertiary recycling, conversion of polymers into low molecular weight hydrocarbons for reuse as chemicals or fuels, is emerging as the most practical means for obtaining value from waste plastics and composites. Adherent Technologies is exploring a low-temperature catalytic process for recycling plastics and composites. Laboratory results show that all types of plastics, thermosets as well as thermoplastics, can be converted in high yields to valuable hydrocarbon products. This novel catalytic process runs at 200 C, conversion times are rapid, the process is closed and, thus, nonpolluting, and no highly toxic gas or liquid products have been observed so no negative environmental impact will result from its implementation. Tests on reclamation of composite materials show that epoxy, imide, and engineering thermoplastic matrices can be converted to low molecular weight hydrocarbons leaving behind the reinforcing fibers for reuse as composite reinforcements in secondary, lower-performance applications. Chemical recycling is also a means to dispose of sensitive or classified organic materials without incineration and provides a means to eliminate or reduce mixed hazardous wastes containing organic materials.

Allred, Ronald E.; Salas, Richard M.

1994-01-01

177

Recycled Water Poses Disinfectant Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the possible health hazards resulting from released nucleic acid of inactivated viruses, chlorinated nonliving organic molecules, and overestimated reliability of waste treatment standards. Suggests the recycle system use a dual disinfectant such as chlorine and ozone in water treatment. (CC)

Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

1973-01-01

178

NATURAL SURFACTANTS IN PAPER RECYCLING  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project is to introduce new types of surfactants based on renewable materials (sugar surfactants) for use in ink removal from recycled paper. By applying green chemistry approaches we not only will solve an important industry and environmental problem but...

179

WASTE MINIMISATION AND RECYCLING POLICY 1.Introduction  

E-print Network

WASTE MINIMISATION AND RECYCLING POLICY 1.Introduction University of Glasgow has stated its overall as it relates to waste minimisation and recycling. 2.Recycling Policy Statement The University of Glasgow will develop the existing Environmental Policy by minimising the production of waste through good purchasing

Mottram, Nigel

180

Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

2001-01-01

181

Really Recycled-SeaWorld Classroom Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will be able to recycle newspaper into their own conservation message. Students will also be given the opportunity to write about their experience with recycling or persuade the reader why it is important to recycle based on what they learned in the activity.

Sea World - Just for Teachers

2012-04-03

182

Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower the impacts on the external environment from recycling

Jens Brnbech Legarth; Leo Alting; Gian Luca Baldo

1995-01-01

183

RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED  

E-print Network

RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED Batteries, toner, ink cartridges & cell phones Aerosol cans Window glass The University of Miami strives to create a more sustainable campus environment and recycling is an important part of that effort. Below is a guide to on-campus recycling at RSMAS: Visit http

Miami, University of

184

The Environment Team to Waste & Recycling  

E-print Network

The Environment Team A-Z Guide to Waste & Recycling www.le.ac.uk/environment #12;Welcome ...to the University of Leicester's `A-Z Guide to Waste and Recycling'. Over the last 3 years, the Environment Team has with any changes to the recycling scheme, visit it at www.le.ac.uk/environment Many thanks, The Environment

St Andrews, University of

185

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FOR THE AUTOMOBILE RECYCLING INDUSTRY  

E-print Network

Pollution Abatement Office. Funds were also provided by BC Auto Recyclers, the BC Ministry of Environment of Practice for the Auto Recyclers. The reports have been subjected to Environment Canada and MOELP's peer-CAR). British Columbia Auto Recyclers and El-Rayes Environmental Corporation would like to thank Environment

186

78 FR 69531 - America Recycles Day, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...face new threats--to our environment, our health, and our climate...damage our health and harm our environment if not recycled properly. Recycling not only reduces pollution...schools, let us strive to make recycling a part of our daily...

2013-11-19

187

Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling  

ScienceCinema

Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

Ryan Ott

2013-06-05

188

Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

Ryan Ott

2012-09-05

189

The Hang-Ups on Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While all seem to agree that recycling will alleviate solid waste problems and energy and mineral shortages, recycling is, at present, bogged down by the thin market for recycled materials, the recessionary business picture, the vertical integration of many companies, unfavorable tax laws, and high rail freight rates. (BT)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

1975-01-01

190

Recycling at Mooov-In 2011  

E-print Network

Cardboard Recycling at Mooov-In 2011 For the second year in a row, Division of Housing and Food Service (DHFS) and Recycling & Sustainability teamed up to divert as much cardboard as possible from area landfills. In addition to the paper, cardboard, aluminum and plastic recycling available in all residence

Julien, Christine

191

Aircraft de-icer: Recycling can cut carbon emissions in half  

SciTech Connect

Flight-safety regulations in most countries require aircraft to be ice-free upon takeoff. In icy weather, this means that the aircraft usually must be de-iced (existing ice is removed) and sometimes anti-iced (to protect against ice-reformation). For both processes, aircraft typically are sprayed with an 'antifreeze' solution, consisting mainly of glycol diluted with water. This de/anti-icing creates an impact on the environment, of which environmental regulators have grown increasingly conscious. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for example, recently introduced stricter rules that require airports above minimum size to collect de-icing effluents and send them to wastewater treatment. De-icer collection and treatment is already done at most major airports, but a few have gone one step further: rather than putting the effluent to wastewater, they recycle it. This study examines the carbon savings that can be achieved by recycling de-icer. There are two key findings. One, recycling, as opposed to not recycling, cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40-50% - and even more, in regions where electricity-generation is cleaner. Two, recycling petrochemical-based de-icer generates a 15-30% lower footprint than using 'bio' de-icer without recycling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon footprint of aircraft de-icing can be measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling aircraft de-icer cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40-50%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling 'fossil' de-icer is lower carbon than not recycling 'bio' de-icer.

Johnson, Eric P., E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.uk

2012-01-15

192

Recycling and target binding capacity of human natural killer cells  

PubMed Central

By combining a newly established single-cell cytotoxicity assay in agarose (16) with estimations of the maximum natural killer (NK) potential (Vmax) by 51Cr release that percentage of target-binding cells (TBC), the fraction of active killers among TBC, the kinetics of single-cell cytotoxicity, and the recycling of effector cells was studied. Using nylon wool-passed peripheral lymphocytes, approximately 10% of the cells will bind to NK- susceptible target cell lines. Most of these have receptors for IgG. Some 50% will go on to kill T cell targets and some 20% to kill the standard target cell K-562. As the individual NK cell is shown to have the capacity to recycle, i.e., to kill more than one target cell in the 3-h test period, and as recycling seems to vary between individuals, there is no consistent correlation between the number of TBC and 51Cr-release values. It seems as if the single-cell cytotoxicity assay, as presently performed in agarose, is a valuable complement to Vmax determinations by 51Cr-release to study the different steps involved in the cytolytic process: recognition, enzyme activation, and effector cell recycling. The discrimination between these steps will probably be necessary to define mechanisms influencing NK cells in different disease states as well as in learning more about the normal function and regulation of the human NK system. PMID:7252409

1981-01-01

193

Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France.  

PubMed

The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m(3), 15.4 ?g/m(3), 14.0 ?g/m(3), 247.6 ?g/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1mg/m(3), 9.0 ?g/m(3), 9.0 ?g/m(3), 219.2 ?g/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees' skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures. PMID:24768515

Zimmermann, François; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

2014-07-01

194

Odin (ANKS1A) modulates EGF receptor recycling and stability.  

PubMed

The ANKS1A gene product, also known as Odin, was first identified as a tyrosine-phosphorylated component of the epidermal growth factor receptor network. Here we show that Odin functions as an effector of EGFR recycling. In EGF-stimulated HEK293 cells tyrosine phosphorylation of Odin was induced prior to EGFR internalization and independent of EGFR-to-ERK signaling. Over-expression of Odin increased EGF-induced EGFR trafficking to recycling endosomes and recycling back to the cell surface, and decreased trafficking to lysosomes and degradation. Conversely, Odin knockdown in both HEK293 and the non-small cell lung carcinoma line RVH6849, which expresses roughly 10-fold more EGF receptors than HEK293, caused decreased EGFR recycling and accelerated trafficking to the lysosome and degradation. By governing the endocytic fate of internalized receptors, Odin may provide a layer of regulation that enables cells to contend with receptor cell densities and ligand concentration gradients that are physiologically and pathologically highly variable. PMID:23825523

Tong, Jiefei; Sydorskyy, Yaroslav; St-Germain, Jonathan R; Taylor, Paul; Tsao, Ming S; Moran, Michael F

2013-01-01

195

Odin (ANKS1A) Modulates EGF Receptor Recycling and Stability  

PubMed Central

The ANKS1A gene product, also known as Odin, was first identified as a tyrosine-phosphorylated component of the epidermal growth factor receptor network. Here we show that Odin functions as an effector of EGFR recycling. In EGF-stimulated HEK293 cells tyrosine phosphorylation of Odin was induced prior to EGFR internalization and independent of EGFR-to-ERK signaling. Over-expression of Odin increased EGF-induced EGFR trafficking to recycling endosomes and recycling back to the cell surface, and decreased trafficking to lysosomes and degradation. Conversely, Odin knockdown in both HEK293 and the non-small cell lung carcinoma line RVH6849, which expresses roughly 10-fold more EGF receptors than HEK293, caused decreased EGFR recycling and accelerated trafficking to the lysosome and degradation. By governing the endocytic fate of internalized receptors, Odin may provide a layer of regulation that enables cells to contend with receptor cell densities and ligand concentration gradients that are physiologically and pathologically highly variable. PMID:23825523

Tong, Jiefei; Sydorskyy, Yaroslav; St-Germain, Jonathan R.; Taylor, Paul; Tsao, Ming S.; Moran, Michael F.

2013-01-01

196

USF Physical Plant Recycling Program Updated November 2013  

E-print Network

Recyclables (Bulbs, Tires, etc.) 7 tons #12;Recycle Ratio for FY 2012/2013 · Total waste generated: 3419 tonsUSF Physical Plant Recycling Program Updated November 2013 #12;Beginnings · Program initiated · Continuously expanding recycling efforts #12;Paper Recycling · Currently recycling mixed paper Office paper

Meyers, Steven D.

197

Materials Recycling: The Virtue of Necessity. Worldwatch Paper 56.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the necessity and advantages of recycling. Following an introduction, the report is divided into five sections, addressing respectively: the necessity of recycling; waste paper recycling; aluminum recycling; iron and steel recycling; and three steps to a "recycling society." These steps include: (1) requiring that consumers…

Chandler, William U.

198

Recycling Trends in the Plastics Manufacturing and Recycling Companies in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the findings from a study on the consumption of recycled materials and recycling practices in the plastics manufacturing industry and recycling companies in Malaysia. The findings were obtained from a survey conducted in twenty plastic manufacturing companies and detailed case studies in three recycling companies. The survey conducted in the plastic manufacturing companies` shows that the consumption rate for poly-olefins (PP and PE) is the highest among the resin types and the industrial sector that consumes the most plastic materials is the electrical and electronics sector. The consumption of recycled materials is high among the local manufacturing companies (80%) which are largely due to cost savings; about 20% of these companies conducted in-house recycling. The study has also shown that the medium scale industry consumes the most recycled materials as compared to the large and small scale industry. The rate of disposal for plastic materials in the local industry is approximately 5%. The detailed case studies conducted in the recycling companies have successfully identified the main processes involved in plastic recycling namely manual sorting, cleaning, drying, meshing/pelletising and packaging. These recycling companies obtained recycled materials from various sources including industrial scrap, dumping sites, local producers as well as imported sources. Pricing of recycled materials were based on classification according to grade and quality of the recycled materials. The study has reflected the extent of in-house recycling trends in the local plastic manufacturing companies and their dependency on the supply from the local recycling companies.

Wahab, D. A.; Abidin, A.; Azhari, C. H.

199

ParadigmParadigm Concrete RecyclingConcrete Recycling  

E-print Network

·· Whatever steel goes into PCC must comeWhatever steel goes into PCC must come out for recycleout for recycle.2. Open Graded BaseOpen Graded Base 3.3. Cement Treated BaseCement Treated Base 4.4. ConcreteConcrete 5-1/2" 100 100 1" 100 100 1/2" 25 60 No. 4 0 10 No. 8 0 5 No. 200 0 2 #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;3. Cement

200

Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

2013-11-15

201

Comparison of recycling outcomes in three types of recycling collection units.  

PubMed

Commercial institutions have many factors to consider when implementing an effective recycling program. This study examined the effectiveness of three different types of recycling bins on recycling accuracy by determining the percent weight of recyclable material placed in the recycling bins, comparing the percent weight of recyclable material by type of container used, and examining whether a change in signage increased recycling accuracy. Data were collected over 6 weeks totaling 30 days from 3 different recycling bin types at a Midwest University medical center. Five bin locations for each bin type were used. Bags from these bins were collected, sorted into recyclable and non-recyclable material, and weighed. The percent recyclable material was calculated using these weights. Common contaminates found in the bins were napkins and paper towels, plastic food wrapping, plastic bags, and coffee cups. The results showed a significant difference in percent recyclable material between bin types and bin locations. Bin type 2 was found to have one bin location to be statistically different (p=0.048), which may have been due to lack of a trash bin next to the recycling bin in that location. Bin type 3 had significantly lower percent recyclable material (p<0.001), which may have been due to lack of a trash bin next to the recycling bin and increased contamination due to the combination of commingled and paper into one bag. There was no significant change in percent recyclable material in recycling bins post signage change. These results suggest a signage change may not be an effective way, when used alone, to increase recycling compliance and accuracy. This study showed two or three-compartment bins located next to a trash bin may be the best bin type for recycling accuracy. PMID:23063307

Andrews, Ashley; Gregoire, Mary; Rasmussen, Heather; Witowich, Gretchen

2013-03-01

202

High performance polyester concrete using recycled PET  

SciTech Connect

Recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic wastes could be used in production of unsaturated polyester resins. In turn, these resins could be mixed with inorganic aggregates to produce polymer concrete (PC). Unsaturated polyesters based on recycled PET might be a potentially lower source cost of resins for producing useful PC based-products. The advantage of recycling PET in PC is that the PET materials do not have to be purified, including removal of colors, to the same extent as other PET recycling applications, which should facilitate the recycling operation and minimize its cost. The recycling of PET in PC could also help save energy and allow the long term disposal of the PET waste, an important advantage in recycling applications.

Rebeiz, K.S. [Lafayette Coll., Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1995-10-01

203

Composite material from recycled polyester for recyclable automobile structures  

SciTech Connect

DuPont has developed a compression-moldable composite made from the thermoplastic polyester PET and long glass fibers. This material, XTC{trademark}, is part of the class of materials known as GMT`s, or glass-mat thermoplastics. The PET content in XTC{trademark} allows the use of a wide variety of recycled material that might otherwise end up in landfills and incinerators. DuPont has succeeded in using 100% post-consumer polyester, from bottles, film, or fibers, in the composite. Since processing involves heating the material to the melt in air, the main technical issues are hydrolysis and oxidative degradation. Impurities in the recycled material must be carefully monitored, as they often increase the extent of degradation. The product itself, used to mold shaped structures and body panels for automobiles, may be recycled after its useful life. Depending on the needed purity level, processes ranging from injection molding to methanolysis can turn ground XTC{trademark} parts back into new, useful products.

Lertola, J.G. [DuPont Company, Newark, DE (United States)

1995-12-31

204

Reprogramming of G protein-coupled receptor recycling and signaling by a kinase switch  

PubMed Central

The postendocytic recycling of signaling receptors is subject to multiple requirements. Why this is so, considering that many other proteins can recycle without apparent requirements, is a fundamental question. Here we show that cells can leverage these requirements to switch the recycling of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (B2AR), a prototypic signaling receptor, between sequence-dependent and bulk recycling pathways, based on extracellular signals. This switch is determined by protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of B2AR on the cytoplasmic tail. The phosphorylation state of B2AR dictates its partitioning into spatially and functionally distinct endosomal microdomains mediating bulk and sequence-dependent recycling, and also regulates the rate of B2AR recycling and resensitization. Our results demonstrate that G protein-coupled receptor recycling is not always restricted to the sequence-dependent pathway, but may be reprogrammed as needed by physiological signals. Such flexible reprogramming might provide a versatile method for rapidly modulating cellular responses to extracellular signaling. PMID:24003153

Vistein, Rachel; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.

2013-01-01

205

Photoactivation approaches reveal a role for Rab11 in FGFR4 recycling and signalling.  

PubMed

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) plays important roles during development and in the adult to maintain tissue homeostasis. Moreover, overexpression of FGFR4 or activating mutations in FGFR4 has been identified as tumour-promoting events in several forms of cancer. Endocytosis is important for regulation of signalling receptors and we have previously shown that FGFR4 is mainly localized to transferrin-positive structures after ligand-induced endocytosis. Here, using a cell line with a defined pericentriolar endocytic recycling compartment, we show that FGFR4 accumulates in this compartment after endocytosis. Furthermore, using classical recycling assays and a new, photoactivatable FGFR4-PA-GFP fusion protein combined with live-cell imaging, we demonstrate that recycling of FGFR4 is dependent on Rab11. Upon Rab11b depletion, FGFR4 is trapped in the pericentriolar recycling compartment and the total levels of FGFR4 in cells are increased. Moreover, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1)-induced autophosphorylation of FGFR4 as well as phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)-? is prolonged in cells depleted of Rab11. Interestingly, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT pathways were not prolonged but rather reduced in Rab11-depleted cells, indicating that recycling of FGFR4 is important for the nature of its signalling output. Thus, Rab11-dependent recycling of FGFR4 maintains proper levels of FGFR4 in cells and regulates FGF1-induced FGFR4 signalling. PMID:24589086

Haugsten, Ellen M; Brech, Andreas; Liestøl, Knut; Norman, Jim C; Wesche, Jørgen

2014-06-01

206

Recycling and reuse of industrial wastes in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Eighteen million metric tons of industrial wastes are produced every year in Taiwan. In order to properly handle the industrial wastes, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) has set up strategic programs that include establishment of storage, treatment, and final disposal systems, establishment of a management center for industrial wastes, and promotion of recycling and reuse of industrial wastes. The Taiwan EPA has been actively promoting the recycling and reuse of industrial wastes over the years. In July 1995 the Taiwan EPA amended and promulgated the Criteria for the Industrial Waste Storage, Collection and Processing Facility, July, 1995 that added articles related to general industrial waste recycling and reuse. In June 1996 the Taiwan EPA promulgated the Non-listed General Industrial Waste Reuse Application Procedures, June, 1996, followed by the Regulations Governing the Permitting of Hazardous Industrial Waste Reuse, June 1996, setting up a full regulatory framework for governing industrial waste reuse. To broaden the recycling and reuse of general industrial wastes, the Taiwan EPA has listed 14 industrial waste items for recycling and reuse, including waste paper, waste iron, coal ash, tempered high furnace bricks (cinder), high furnace bricks (cinder), furnace transfer bricks (cinder), sweetening dregs, wood (whole/part), glass (whole/part), bleaching earth, ceramics (pottery, brick, tile and cast sand), individual metal scraps (copper, zinc, aluminum and tin), distillery grain (dregs) and plastics. As of June 1999, 99 applications for reuse of industrial wastes had been approved with 1.97 million metric tons of industrial wastes being reused. PMID:11150138

Wei, M S; Huang, K H

2001-01-01

207

DWPF recycle minimization: Brainstorming session  

SciTech Connect

The recycle stream from the DWPF constitutes a major source of water addition to the High Level Waste evaporator system. As now designed, the entire flow of 3.5 to 6.5 gal/min (@ 25% and 75% attainment, respectively), or 2 gal/min during idling, flow to the 2H evaporator system (Tank 43). Substantial improvement in the HLW water balance and tank volume management is expected if the DWPF recycle to the HLW evaporator system can be significantly reduced. A task team has been appointed to study alternatives for reducing the flow to the HLW evaporator system and make recommendations for implementation and/or further study and evaluation. The brainstorming session detailed in this report was designed to produce the first cut options for the task team to further evaluate.

Jacobs, R.A.; Poirier, M.R.

1993-10-12

208

Vanadium recycling for fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Very stringent purity specifications must be applied to low activation vanadium alloys, in order to meet recycling goals requiring low residual dose rates after 50--100 years. Methods of vanadium production and purification which might meet these limits are described. Following a suitable cooling period after their use, the vanadium alloy components can be melted in a controlled atmosphere to remove volatile radioisotopes. The aim of the melting and decontamination process will be the achievement of dose rates low enough for ``hands-on`` refabrication of new reactor components from the reclaimed metal. The processes required to permit hands-on recycling appear to be technically feasible, and demonstration experiments are recommended. Background information relevant to the use of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors, including health hazards, resources, and economics, is provided.

Dolan, T.J.; Butterworth, G.J.

1994-04-01

209

DWPF recycle stream corrosion tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupon immersion tests were performed on ASTM A537 Class 1 carbon steel in simulated DWPF recycle solutions at 90 [+-] 2[degrees]C, as part of the continuing effort to investigate the formation of shock-sensitive deposits. Coupons were partially immersed for four months in solutions of the same composition used previously at SRTC and at the DuPont Engineering Test Center (a salt

Zapp

1993-01-01

210

DWPF recycle stream corrosion tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupon immersion tests were performed on ASTM A537 Class 1 carbon steel in simulated DWPF recycle solutions at 90 {+-} 2°C, as part of the continuing effort to investigate the formation of shock-sensitive deposits. Coupons were partially immersed for four months in solutions of the same composition used previously at SRTC and at the DuPont Engineering Test Center (a salt

Zapp

1993-01-01

211

Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium  

SciTech Connect

An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

Gorman, P.K.

1995-04-05

212

Ozone bleaching of recycled paper  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated bleaching chemicals, notably chlorine and hypochlorite, are still being used to bleach deinked, woodfree pulps. Increasing environmental concern about the use of these chemicals--coupled with the industry's efforts to increase the use of recycled fibers--highlight the need to develop better techniques for producing high-quality deinked pulp. Results presented in this report suggest that deinked fibers can be treated with ozone followed by a peroxide bleaching stage to produce a high-quality pulp.

Muguet, M.; Kogan, J. (American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL (United States))

1993-11-01

213

Iron sparing and recycling in a compartmentalized cell  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on economizing, prioritizing and recycling iron in Chlamydomonas, a reference organism for discovering mechanisms of acclimation to poor iron nutrition in the plant lineage. The metabolic flexibility of Chlamydomonas offers a unique opportunity to distinguish the impact of iron nutrition on photosynthetic vs. respiratory metabolism, and the contribution of sub-cellular compartments to iron storage and mobilization. Mechanisms of iron sparing include down regulation of protein abundance by transcript reduction or protein degradation. Two well studied examples of hierarchical iron allocation are the maintenance of FeSOD in the plastid and heterotrophic metabolism in acetate-grown cells at the expense of photosynthetic metabolism. The latter implicates the existence of a pathway for inter-compartment iron recycling when access to iron becomes limiting. PMID:23962818

Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

2013-01-01

214

Endocytic Sorting and Recycling Require Membrane Phosphatidylserine Asymmetry Maintained by TAT-1/CHAT-1  

PubMed Central

Endocytic sorting is achieved through the formation of morphologically and functionally distinct sub-domains within early endosomes. Cargoes destined for recycling are sorted to and transported through newly-formed tubular membranes, but the processes that regulate membrane tubulation are poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel Caenorhabditis elegans Cdc50 family protein, CHAT-1, which acts as the chaperone of the TAT-1 P4-ATPase to regulate membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) asymmetry and endocytic transport. In chat-1 and tat-1 mutants, the endocytic sorting process is disrupted, leading to defects in both cargo recycling and degradation. TAT-1 and CHAT-1 colocalize to the tubular domain of the early endosome, the tubular endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and the recycling endosome where PS is enriched on the cytosolic surface. Loss of tat-1 and chat-1 function disrupts membrane PS asymmetry and abrogates the tubular membrane structure. Our data suggest that CHAT-1 and TAT-1 maintain membrane phosphatidylserine asymmetry, thus promoting membrane tubulation and regulating endocytic sorting and recycling. PMID:21170358

Chen, Baohui; Jiang, Yue; Zeng, Sheng; Yan, Jiacong; Li, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Wei; Wang, Xiaochen

2010-01-01

215

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

Kooda, Kevin Evan; Mc Cray, Casey William; Aitken, Darren William; Galloway, Kelly

2003-02-01

216

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W.; Aitken, D. W.

2003-02-26

217

Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.  

PubMed

Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design. PMID:16784165

Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

2006-06-01

218

Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with Power Recycling and Twin Signal Recycling cavities  

E-print Network

The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled. In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michel...

Gräf, Christian; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

2012-01-01

219

Recycling production designs : the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations  

E-print Network

The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an ...

Brommer, Tracey H. (Tracey Helenius)

2013-01-01

220

Plastic film recycling: A new beginning  

SciTech Connect

Only two years ago, plastic film recycling was considered an onerous task. Different resins had to be identified, colors had to be separated, and minute contaminants had to be weeded out almost by hand to produce a quality material. But the tide of plastic film recycling is changing now that new technologies have emerged and more organized collection infrastructure have been developed. Today, plastic film recycling maintains a lucrative market for those with the right combination of equipment and know-how.

Goff, J.A.

1995-02-01

221

Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.

Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.

2007-01-01

222

Pre-cycle, Then Recycle!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan from ATEEC will instruct students on the principles of recycling waste stream reduction. The activity would be most appropriate for technology studies or high school science classes. In all, it would require two hours of class time and about one hour for a field trip activity. The purpose of the lesson is to create a display in a grocery store to show people how to reduce the amount of trash generated by their individual household. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

Wishart, Ray

223

Optimizing plastic parts for recycling  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how proven guidelines allow engineers to consider recycling from the beginning of the design process. Applications of automotive plastics to reach specific design targets date back many years, with both weight of plastics used and share of plastics in vehicle weight increasing constantly. The amount of plastics used in the automobile will continue to increase in the future, because of more demanding design concepts, new safety requirements, customer demand for increased comfort, reduced production costs, and general demand for reduced fuel consumption.

NONE

1996-05-01

224

TTUAB PLASTIC & ALUMINUM RECYCLING PROTOCOL Fall 2012 What Plastic Do We Recycle?  

E-print Network

TTUAB PLASTIC & ALUMINUM RECYCLING PROTOCOL ­ Fall 2012 What Plastic Do We Recycle? TTUAB has taken floor. TTUAB has also placed aluminum recycling bins in the lobby and basement of the Biology Building. Technically, we are only responsible for aforementioned plastics and aluminum. However, any trash or other

Rock, Chris

225

TTUAB PLASTIC & ALUMINUM RECYCLING PROTOCOL 2013 What Plastic Do We Recycle?  

E-print Network

TTUAB PLASTIC & ALUMINUM RECYCLING PROTOCOL 2013 What Plastic Do We Recycle? TTUAB has taken floor. TTUAB has also placed aluminum recycling bins in the lobby and basement of the Biology Building and in LH100. Technically, we are only responsible for aforementioned plastics and aluminum. However, any

Rock, Chris

226

Where can I recycle it year-round? Item Local Recycling Locations  

E-print Network

., 541-737-7347 Commercial shipping stores Film Plastics First Alternative Co-op Recycling Center, 1007 accept plastic grocery bags Electronics Allied Waste Depot, 110 NE Walnut Blvd., 541-754-0444 (computersWhere can I recycle it year-round? Item Local Recycling Locations Styrofoam First Alternative Co

Escher, Christine

227

The Determinants of Household Recycling: A Material Specific Analysis of Unit Pricing and Recycling Program Attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of two popular solid waste programs on the percent recycled of several different materials found in the residential solid waste stream. We examine a unique, national, household-level data set containing information on the percent recycled of five different materials: glass bottles, plastic bottles, aluminum, newspaper, and yard waste. We find that access to curbside recycling

Karen Palmer; Salvador Martinez; Robin Jenkins; Michael Podolsky

1999-01-01

228

The Determinants of Household Recycling: A Material Specific Analysis of Recycling Program Features and Unit Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines,the impact of two popular solid waste programs on the percent recycled of several different materials found in the residential solid waste stream. We examine a unique, national, household-level data set containing information on the percent recycled of five different materials: glass bottles, plastic bottles, aluminum, newspaper, and yard waste. We find that access to curbside recycling

Robin R. Jenkins; Salvador A. Martinez; Karen Palmer; Michael J. Podolsky

2000-01-01

229

Recycle Alaska: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Activities Handbook, Teacher's Guide, and Student Worksheets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling is a very important aspect of conserving the environment for future generations. This guide addresses the topic of litter prevention for the Alaskan environment and contains 42 activities. Activity topics covered include Natural Cycles, Human Interruption of Natural Cycles, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recycled Classroom. Grade level,…

Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

230

Bituminous pavement recycling Aravind K. and Animesh Das  

E-print Network

Bituminous pavement recycling Aravind K. and Animesh Das Department of Civil Engineering IIT Kanpur Introduction The bituminous pavement rehabilitation alternatives are mainly overlaying, recycling and reconstruction. In the recycling process the material from deteriorated pavement, known as reclaimed asphalt

Das, Animesh

231

40 CFR 261.6 - Requirements for recyclable materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...subpart F); (iv) Spent lead-acid batteries that are being reclaimed (40 CFR part...Owners or operators of facilities that recycle recyclable materials without storing...hazardous waste management units that recycle hazardous wastes are subject to the...

2010-07-01

232

40 CFR 261.6 - Requirements for recyclable materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...subpart F); (iv) Spent lead-acid batteries that are being reclaimed (40 CFR part...Owners or operators of facilities that recycle recyclable materials without storing...hazardous waste management units that recycle hazardous wastes are subject to the...

2011-07-01

233

Building a Recycling Program: A Case Study in Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the development and ongoing operation of a library recycling program established at Bowling Green State University in Ohio. Discusses the initiation and projects of the library recycling committee, logistics, and future projections for library recycling operations. (two references) (MCO)

Sabol, Laurie

1992-01-01

234

Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

235

Regional or global WEEE recycling. Where to go?  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Source and Destination countries involved in the movement of WEEE have been studied. ? Legislation, facilities and EPR are presented in Source and Destination countries. ? Mostly Destination countries do not have EPR established and have informal facilities. ? Source countries: good technology, EPR established and mostly WEEE regulation enacted. ? Regional WEEE recycling should be under global standards for Sources and Destinations. - Abstract: If we consider Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) management, we can see the development of different positions in developed and developing countries. This development started with the movement of WEEE from developed countries to the developing countries. However, when the consequences for health and the environment were observed, some developing countries introduced a ban on the import of this kind of waste under the umbrella of the Basel Convention, while some developed countries have been considering a regional or global WEEE recycling approach. This paper explores the current movements between Source and Destination countries, or the importers and exporters, and examines whether it is legal and why illegal traffic is still rife; how global initiatives could support a global WEEE management scheme; the recycling characteristics of the source an destination countries and also to ascertain whether the principle of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) has been established between the different stakeholders involved in WEEE management. Ultimately, the Full Extended Producer Responsibility is presented as a possible solution because the compensation of the environmental capacity for WEEE recycling or treatment could be made by the contribution of extra responsibility; and also generating an uniform standard for processing WEEE in an environmentally sound manner could support the regional or international solution of WEEE and also improve the performance of the informal sector.

Li, Jinhui, E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), School of the Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lopez N, Brenda N.; Liu, Lili; Zhao, Nana; Yu, Keli; Zheng, Lixia [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), School of the Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-04-15

236

Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and

McKoon

1993-01-01

237

Argonne National Laboratory's Recycling Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Argonne has a Recycling Pilot Plant designed to save the non-metal portions of junked cars. Here, program managers demonstrate how plastic shredder residue can be recycled. (Currently these automotive leftovers are sent to landfills.) For more information, visit Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center Web site at http://www.transportation.anl.gov.

Spangenberger, Jeff; Jody, Sam

2009-01-01

238

Erythrocyte Ascorbate Recycling: Antioxidant Effects in Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant in human plasma, but requires efficient recycling from its oxidized forms to avoid irreversible loss. Human erythrocytes prevented oxidation of ascorbate in autologous plasma, an effect that required recycling of ascorbate within the cells. Erythrocytes had a high capacity to take up dehydroascorbate, the two-electron oxidized product of ascorbate, and to reduce it to

Shalu Mendiratta; Zhi-chao Qu; James M May

1998-01-01

239

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study  

E-print Network

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California Prepared by KEMA Inc. Madison, Wisconsin July 22, 2004 Copyright © 2004 by KEMA Inc. All rights reserved

240

A Communications Strategy for Kerbside Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a case study that evaluated the effects of a communications campaign for increasing recycling rates and positively influencing recycling attitudes and the behaviour of residents in Rushcliffe. Household waste is growing by approximately 3% each year and there is a need for a planned and sustained strategy that is regularly evaluated and adapted in order to achieve

Nicky Mee

2005-01-01

241

Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent.

David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

2011-01-01

242

ON-SITE WASTE INK RECYCLING  

EPA Science Inventory

Recycling ink has good potential as a way to reduce waste and promote long-term cost avings. he evaluation summarized here addresses the product quality, waste reduction nd economic issues involved in recycling printing ink in a facility such as THE ARFORD COURANT newspaper in Ha...

243

A Little Recycling Goes A Long Way  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students understand the impact that recycling has on our lives, and the future of the planet. By calculating how much waste the students produce, they can also calculate how much of it they can recycle, and help the environment.

PBS TeacherSource - Math

2010-01-01

244

RECYCLING OF WATER IN POULTRY PROCESSING PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were conducted on recycling chiller water in a poultry processing plant. The recycling system must be provided with the capability of removing solids and controlling the microbial population. UV was used to control the microbial population. For this control to be effectiv...

245

FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

246

Sustainability and the Recycling of Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

2011-01-01

247

Preconceptual Design Description for Caustic Recycle Facility  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify both high-level and low-activity waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. One aspect of the planning includes a need for a caustic recycle process to separate sodium hydroxide for recycle. Sodium is already a major limitation to the waste-oxide loading in the low-activity waste glass to be vitrified at the Waste Treatment Plant, and additional sodium hydroxide will be added to remove aluminum and to control precipitation in the process equipment. Aluminum is being removed from the high level sludge to reduce the number of high level waste canisters produced. A sodium recycle process would reduce the volume of low-activity waste glass produced and minimize the need to purchase new sodium hydroxide, so there is a renewed interest in investigating sodium recycle. This document describes an electrochemical facility for recycling sodium for the WTP.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.

2008-04-12

248

Generalized teleportation and entanglement recycling.  

PubMed

We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka, that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient conditions for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. This generalization leads to protocols with novel properties and is needed to push forward new schemes of computation based on them. Port-based teleportation protocols and our generalizations use a large resource state consisting of N singlets to teleport only a single qubit state reliably. We provide two distinct protocols which recycle the resource state to teleport multiple states with error linearly increasing with their number. The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting qubit states, and the second teleports them in a bulk. PMID:23383769

Strelchuk, Sergii; Horodecki, Micha?; Oppenheim, Jonathan

2013-01-01

249

Issues in recycling galvanized scrap  

SciTech Connect

The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

Koros, P.J. [LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hellickson, D.A. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States); Dudek, F.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-02-10

250

Recycling of acetone by distillation  

SciTech Connect

The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone.

Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

1992-09-01

251

Increased Expression of Rififylin in A?Recycling in Proximal Tubules  

PubMed Central

Cell surface proteins are internalized into the cell through endocytosis and either degraded within lysosomes or recycled back to the plasma membrane. While perturbations in endosomal internalization are known to modulate renal function, it is not known whether similar alterations in recycling affect renal function. Rififylin is a known regulator of endocytic recycling with E3 ubiquitin protein ligase activity. In this study, using two genetically similar strains, the Dahl Salt-sensitive rat and an S.LEW congenic strain, which had allelic variants within a?recycling affect renal function. The congenic strain had 1.59-fold higher renal expression of rififylin. Transcriptome analysis indicated that components of both endocytosis and recycling were upregulated in the congenic strain. Transcription of Atp1a1 and cell surface content of the protein product of Atp1a1, the alpha subunit of Na+K+ATPase were increased in the proximal tubules from the congenic strain. Because rififylin does not directly regulate endocytosis and it is also a differentially expressed gene within the congenic segment, we reasoned that the observed alterations in the transcriptome of the congenic strain constitute a feedback response to the primary functional alteration of recycling caused by rififylin. To test this, recycling of transferrin was studied in isolated proximal tubules. Recycling was significantly delayed within isolated proximal tubules of the congenic strain, which also had a higher level of polyubiquitinated proteins and proteinuria compared with S. These data provide evidence to suggest that delayed endosomal recycling caused by excess of rififylin indirectly affects endocytosis, enhances intracellular protein polyubiquitination and contributes to proteinuria. PMID:22891072

Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Yan, Yanling; Liu, Jiang; Kalinoski, Andrea; Kothandapani, Anbarasi; Farms, Phyllis; Joe, Bina

2012-01-01

252

Centralized consolidation/recycling center  

SciTech Connect

There are approximately 175 separate locations on the Hanford Site where dangerous waste is accumulated in hundreds of containers according to compatibility. Materials that are designated as waste could be kept from entering the waste stream by establishing collection points for these materials and wastes and then transporting them to a centralized consolidation/recycling center (hereinafter referred to as the consolidation center). Once there the materials would be prepared for offsite recycling. This document discusses the removal of batteries, partially full aerosol cans, and DOP light ballasts from the traditional waste management approach, which eliminates 89 satellite accumulation areas from the Hanford Site (43 for batteries, 33 for aerosols, and 13 for DOP ballasts). Eliminating these 89 satellite accumulation areas would reduce by hundreds the total number of containers shipped offsite as hazardous waste (due to the increase in containers when the wastes that are accumulated are segregated according to compatibility for final shipment). This new approach is in line with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) draft Universal Waste Rules for these {open_quotes}nuisance{close_quotes} and common waste streams. Additionally, future reviews of other types of wastes that can be handled in this less restrictive and more cost-effective manner will occur as part of daily operations at the consolidation center. The Hanford Site has been identified as a laboratory for reinventing government by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Hazel O`Leary, and as a demonstration zone where {open_quotes}innovative ideas, processes and technologies can be created, tested and demonstrated.{close_quotes} Additionally, DOE, EPA, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) have agreed to cut Hanford cleanup costs by $1 billion over a 5-year period.

St. Georges, L.T. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Poor, A.D.

1995-05-01

253

Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

Dr. Benoit Forget; Michael Pope; Piet, Steven J.; Michael Driscoll

2012-07-30

254

Office paper recycling: A function of container proximity  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of proximity of containers on pounds of office paper recycled and not recycled by 25 employees. During a memo and central container condition, one container for recyclable paper was provided; in a memo and local container condition, desktop recycling bins, announced by memo, were successively introduced across administrative, office, and instructional settings using a multiple baseline design. Only 28% of paper was recycled in the central container condition, but when recycling containers were placed in close proximity to participants, 85% to 94% of all recyclable paper was recycled. Follow-up assessments, conducted 1, 2, 3, and 7 months after all settings received local recycling containers, showed that 84% to 98% of paper was recycled. Providing desktop recycling containers was a cost-effective procedure with long-term maintenance and program survival. PMID:16795821

Brothers, Kevin J.; Krantz, Patricia J.; McClannahan, Lynn E.

1994-01-01

255

Autophagy modulates cell migration and ?1 integrin membrane recycling  

PubMed Central

Cell migration is dependent on a series of integrated cellular events including the membrane recycling of the extracellular matrix receptor integrins. In this paper, we investigate the role of autophagy in regulating cell migration. In a wound-healing assay, we observed that autophagy was reduced in cells at the leading edge than in cells located rearward. These differences in autophagy were correlated with the robustness of MTOR activity. The spatial difference in the accumulation of autophagic structures was not detected in rapamycin-treated cells, which had less migration capacity than untreated cells. In contrast, the knockdown of the autophagic protein ATG7 stimulated cell migration of HeLa cells. Accordingly, atg3?/? and atg5?/? MEFs have greater cell migration properties than their wild-type counterparts. Stimulation of autophagy increased the co-localization of ?1 integrin-containing vesicles with LC3-stained autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy slowed down the lysosomal degradation of internalized ?1 integrins and promoted its membrane recycling. From these findings, we conclude that autophagy regulates cell migration, a central mechanism in cell development, angiogenesis, and tumor progression, by mitigating the cell surface expression of ?1 integrins. PMID:24036548

Tuloup-Minguez, Véronique; Hamaï, Ahmed; Greffard, Anne; Nicolas, Valérie; Codogno, Patrice; Botti, Joëlle

2013-01-01

256

Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies.  

PubMed

Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH&S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for "green economy". PMID:23768896

Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

2013-09-01

257

Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (? 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental results, a number of recommendations were made on how to optimize the use of recycled aggregates for structural concrete production. The results demonstrate that one of the practical ways to utilize a higher percentage of recycled aggregates in concrete is "precasting" with the use of fly ash and an initial steam curing stage immediately after casting.

Kou, Shicong

258

Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils  

SciTech Connect

Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

1995-08-01

259

Recycling technologies for thermoset composite materials—current status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technologies for recycling thermoset composite materials are reviewed. Mechanical recycling techniques involve the use of grinding techniques to comminute the scrap material and produce recyclate products in different size ranges suitable for reuse as fillers or partial reinforcement in new composite material. Thermal recycling processes involve the use of heat to break the scrap composite down and a range

S. J. Pickering

2006-01-01

260

Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns. PMID:22749721

Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

2012-11-01

261

Recycling asphalt overview of more than 25 years of use  

E-print Network

1 Recycling asphalt overview of more than 25 years of use in France Y. Brosseaud ­ LCPC hal,version1-20May2011 #12;4 Hot recycling asphalt on mixing plant Recycling in place in hot or cold conditions hal-00594740,version1-20May2011 #12;5 Techniques for recycling of reclaimed asphalt Classification

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

262

Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

1995-12-01

263

Power recycling for an interferometric gravitational wave  

E-print Network

THESIS Power recycling for an interferometric gravitational wave detector Masaki Ando Department Gravitational Waves 9 2.1 Wave solutions of the Einstein equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1.3 Gravitational wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.1.4 Effect

Ejiri, Shinji

264

Recycled Materials Resource Center Project No. 27  

E-print Network

1 Recycled Materials Resource Center Project No. 27: Full Scale Monitoring for Assessment of Exothermal Reactions in Waste Tires Final Report February 2006 by Hailey L. Wappett1 Jorge G. Zornberg2 1....................................................................................................7 Tire Shredding

Zornberg, Jorge G.

265

BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling  

SciTech Connect

The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

2010-03-22

266

Technology development for lunar base water recycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will review previous and ongoing work in aerospace water recycling and identify research activities required to support development of a lunar base. The development of a water recycle system for use in the life support systems envisioned for a lunar base will require considerable research work. A review of previous work on aerospace water recycle systems indicates that more efficient physical and chemical processes are needed to reduce expendable and power requirements. Development work on biological processes that can be applied to microgravity and lunar environments also needs to be initiated. Biological processes are inherently more efficient than physical and chemical processes and may be used to minimize resupply and waste disposal requirements. Processes for recovering and recycling nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur also need to be developed to support plant growth units. The development of efficient water quality monitors to be used for process control and environmental monitoring also needs to be initiated.

Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.

1992-01-01

267

Fermilab Recycler damper requirements and design  

SciTech Connect

The design of transverse dampers for the Fermilab Recycler storage ring is described. An observed instability and analysis of subsequent measurements where used to identify the requirements. The digital approach being implemented is presented.

Crisp, J.; Hu, M.; Tupikov, V.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

268

Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.  

PubMed

The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors. PMID:23482100

Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

2013-03-11

269

Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with Power Recycling and Twin Signal Recycling cavities  

E-print Network

The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled. In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom, enabling the long-term stable operation of the experiment. We thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer topology to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

Christian Gräf; André Thüring; Henning Vahlbruch; Karsten Danzmann; Roman Schnabel

2012-11-29

270

Recycling Mentors: an intergenerational, service-learning program to promote recycling and environmental awareness.  

PubMed

The purpose of Recycling Mentors was to implement an intergenerational, service-learning program focused on promoting recycling and environmental awareness among students enrolled in Community Health (HEA 301) and Current Issues in Gerontology (GRN 440/540) and adults older than 60 years. Recycling Mentors was conducted in New Hanover County (NHC), North Carolina, where a moderate climate and coastal location attracts many tourists, retirees, and college students. A community like NHC is a good place to implement service-learning that educates both students and older adults about the benefits of recycling to individual health and the environment. During the Fall 2009 semester, undergraduate and graduate students completed institutional review board training and then conducted the program with older adults. The education component of Recycling Mentors included a pre/post survey, brochure, and scheduled visits. Overall, Recycling Mentors was positive service-learning experience with students identifying salient outcomes such as learning about recycling and the environment and working with older adults. In addition, teaching the education component of Recycling Mentors was good practice for students who will be the future health professionals. While service-learning and environmentally themed projects are common, a program that combines the 2 like Recycling Mentors is unique and has the potential to motivate individual change while positively impacting the local community and the environment. PMID:21617416

D'abundo, Michelle L; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth I; Fiala, Kelly A

2011-01-01

271

Utility Plastic Recycling, Inc.: Closing the loop in-house  

SciTech Connect

Despite current favorable markets, ``closing the loop`` in recycling can remain a vexing problem. New York City`s Utility Plastic Recycling, Inc., has eliminated some of the guesswork by manufacturing recycled products on the premises of its materials recovery facility (MRF). Utility Plastic is a member of the Waste Management of New York (WMNY) family of companies that also includes JLJ Recycling, Commercial Recycling Technology, and Evergreen Recycling. The company is a third-generation firm that began commercially recycling glass and cardboard collected from the Knickerbocker Brewery in 1928. WMNY`s service in every aspect of recycling -- including program planning and implementation, collection, processing, manufacturing, and marketing -- makes them one of the first true close-loop recyclers. Processing almost half of the recyclables in New York City`s residential program, in addition to materials collected from several suburban communities and thousands of commercial contracts, also makes them one of the largest.

Harrison, S.

1995-07-01

272

Pavement recycling. Executive summary and report  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) initiated Demonstration Project 39 (DP 39) Recycling Asphalt Pavements in June 1976. The project showed that asphalt pavement recycling was a technically viable rehabitation technique, and it was estimated that the use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) would amount to approximately 15 percent of the total hot-mix asphalt (HMA) production by the mid-1980s. It was expected that most of the asphalt pavement removed would be reused in new pavement construction or overlays.

NONE

1995-10-01

273

Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

1996-01-01

274

Recycling: Taking care of our environment!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

6th Grade: Standard 7: The students will understand the value of service and effective consumer practices. Objcective 1: Participate in service-learning that benefits the environment. Our environment is very important to us. How we live has an impact on everyone in the world. One way to help our earth\\'s environment stay clean and a healthy place to live is to recycle. As you go through the different links about recycling, I want you to look ...

Miss Hansen

2007-11-05

275

Recycling SAW slag proves reliable and repeatable  

SciTech Connect

Submerged arc welding (SAW) slag is recycled by taking the fused part of the slag after welding and processing it in a manner that allows it to be reused for the same SAW operation. This slag recycling process has been around the welding industry for many years, and trial-and-error experimentation through the years has made it a reliable and accepted process. Two major reasons why a welding manufacturer would consider the use of recycled submerged arc welding slag are cost savings and the environment. The cost of processing recycled slag is less than the purchase of new flux from the manufacturer. Many times this can amount to savings of 50% or greater. Savings can also be realized by eliminating the need to collect the slag and have it removed to an approved landfill. Environmentally, recycling slag minimizes the use of nonrenewable resources such as minerals, and it reduces the mass of material that must be sent to a landfill. It should be noted, though, that in most recycling processes there is some loss in weight, and not all the slag is processed into reusable flux. Also, there is magnetic separation during processing in which magnetic impurities are removed and disposed of as waste. An average for this loss is 25% of the total weight processed. To realize all of the advantages of recycling, it is essential that the process is performed properly and according to the standards established by industry. Below are steps required for recycling slag as established by two standards setting organizations.

Beck, H.P.; Jackson, A.R. [Harbert`s Products, Inc., Greencastle, PA (United States)

1996-06-01

276

Plutonium recycling in hydride fueled PWR cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classic approach to the recycling of Pu in PWR is to use mixed U-oxide Pu-oxide (MOX) fuel. The mono-recycling of plutonium in PWR transmutes less than 30% of the loaded plutonium, providing only a limited reduction in the long-term radiotoxicity and in the inventory of TRU to be stored in the repository. The primary objective of this study is

Francesco Ganda; Ehud Greenspan

2009-01-01

277

Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

Not Available

1992-10-01

278

Recycling of coal combustion wastes.  

PubMed

The separation of unburned carbon from coal-fired power plant bottom ashes was conducted in order to increase the possibility of the recycling of coal combustion wastes. A two-stage flotation technique was used for this study. In the rougher flotation experiments the amounts of collector, dispersant and frother, pulp density, pH, particle size distribution, flotation time and flotation temperature were tested as variables. After rougher flotation experiments, at optimum conditions, the carbon content of the concentrate increased from 13.85 to 51.54% at a carbon recovery of 54.54%. Under the same conditions, the carbon content was reduced to 4.54% at a weight yield of over 80% in the tailings fraction. This fraction meets the industrial specifications and can be utilized as a cement additive. After the cleaner flotation experiment the carbon content of the product was enhanced to 64.81% with a 52.16% carbon recovery. This fraction can be blended back into the coal feed to the power plant boilers. PMID:19443646

Oz, Derya; Koca, Sabina; Koca, Huseyin

2009-05-01

279

FSC-Watch: FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global  

E-print Network

FSC-Watch: FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming FSC-Watch FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming Tags: Canada, Recycling, Certifier conflict of interest undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming in Pine Falls to manufacture paper with some

280

Carboxyl-terminal domains determine internalization and recycling characteristics of bombesin receptor chimeras.  

PubMed

To investigate the role of the carboxy terminus in the regulation of the bombesin (BN) receptor, we constructed two chimeric receptors with carboxyl termini transferred from either m3 muscarinic cholinergic (m3 ACh) (BMC) or cholecystokinin A (CCKA) (BCC) receptors and expressed them in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Previous studies showed that agonist treatment caused rapid internalization of CCKA but not m3 ACh receptors in these cells. In the current study we conducted separate analyses of ligand and receptor internalization and analyzed receptor recycling. Ligand internalization was assessed using acid washing. BN and CCKA receptors internalized ligand with 80 +/- 3 and 85 +/- 7% in an acid-resistant compartment at equilibrium. Ligand internalization of chimeric receptors generally assumed the properties of the donor receptors. Thus, BCC receptors internalized ligand to a similar extent as wild-type CCKA receptors (75 +/- 3%), whereas, BMC receptors showed reduced ligand internalization (38 +/- 1%). Receptor internalization was more directly assessed by determining agonist-induced loss of surface binding. BN and CCKA receptors were largely internalized (56 +/- 8 and 50 +/- 7%, respectively). BCC receptors were also extensively internalized (82 +/- 3%). In contrast, BMC receptors were minimally internalized (22 +/- 8%). Receptor recycling was assessed as recovery from agonist induced loss of binding. BN, CCKA, and BMC receptors showed rapid recycling. In contrast, BCC receptors did not recycle. These data indicate that carboxyl-terminal structures determine both internalization of ligand-receptor complexes and subsequent receptor recycling. PMID:7642540

Tseng, M J; Detjen, K; Struk, V; Logsdon, C D

1995-08-11

281

RACK-1 Directs Dynactin-dependent RAB-11 Endosomal Recycling during Mitosis in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Membrane trafficking pathways are necessary for the addition and removal of membrane during cytokinesis. In animal cells, recycling endosomes act as a major source of the additional membranes during furrow progression and abscission. However, the mechanisms and factors that regulate recycling endosomes during the cell cycle remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans Receptor of Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK-1) is required for cytokinesis, germline membrane organization, and the recruitment of RAB-11–labeled recycling endosomes to the pericentrosomal region and spindle. RACK-1 is also required for proper chromosome separation and astral microtubule length. RACK-1 localizes to the centrosomes, kinetochores, the midbody, and nuclear envelopes during the cell cycle. We found that RACK-1 directly binds to DNC-2, the C. elegans p50/dynamitin subunit of the dynactin complex. Last, RACK-1 may facilitate the sequestration of recycling endosomes by targeting DNC-2 to centrosomes and the spindle. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which RACK-1 directs the dynactin-dependent redistribution of recycling endosomes during the cell cycle, thus ensuring proper membrane trafficking events during cytokinesis. PMID:19158384

Ai, Erkang; Poole, Daniel S.

2009-01-01

282

Management of scrap computer recycling in Taiwan.  

PubMed

It is estimated that approximately 300,000 scrap personal computers are generated each year in Taiwan [S.-L. Chang, A Study on the Scrap Computer Treatment Cost, Environment Protection Administration of Taiwan, December 1998 (in Chinese)]. The disposal of such a huge number of scrap computers presents a difficult task for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. Also, the hazardous materials contained (i.e., phosphor coatings of cathode ray tubes (CRTs), batteries, polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, mercury-containing parts, liquid crystal display, high-lead content CRT funnel glass, and plastic containing flame-retardant bromine, etc.) in the scrap computers may seriously pollute the environment if they are not properly disposed of. Therefore, the EPA of Taiwan declared scrap personal computers the producer's recycling responsibility as of July 1997. Under this decree, the manufacturers, importers and sellers of personal computers have to properly recover and recycle the scrapped computers which they originally sell. On June 1, 1998, a producer responsibility recycling program for scrap computers was officially implemented in Taiwan. Under this program, consumers can bring their unwanted personal computers to the designated collection points and receive reward money. Currently, only six computer items are mandated to be recycled in this recycling program. They are notebooks, monitors, hard disks, power supplies, printed circuit boards and main frame shells. This article outlines the current scrap computer recycling system in Taiwan. PMID:10751692

Lee, C H; Chang, S L; Wang, K M; Wen, L C

2000-04-28

283

Quality requirements for reclaimed/recycled water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water used during current and previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will require some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little experience in the U.S. space program with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitute engineering challenges of the broadest nature that will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed U.S. Space Station. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specifications will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Present NASA Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled water. Adequate specifications for ensuring the quality of the reclaimed or recycled potable water system is reviewed, limitations of present water specifications are examined, world experience with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and systems analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent biomedical water specifications for spacecraft is presented. Space Station water specifications should be designed to ensure the health of all likely spacecraft inhabitants including man, animals, and plants.

Janik, Daniel S.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

1987-01-01

284

Economic Feasibility of Recycling Photovoltaic Modules  

SciTech Connect

The market for photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation has boomed over the last decade, and its expansion is expected to continue with the development of new technologies. Taking into consideration the usage of valuable resources and the generation of emissions in the life cycle of photovoltaic technologies dictates proactive planning for a sound PV recycling infrastructure to ensure its sustainability. PV is expected to be a 'green' technology, and properly planning for recycling will offer the opportunity to make it a 'double-green' technology - that is, enhancing life cycle environmental quality. In addition, economic feasibility and a sufficient level of value-added opportunity must be ensured, to stimulate a recycling industry. In this article, we survey mathematical models of the infrastructure of recycling processes of other products and identify the challenges for setting up an efficient one for PV. Then we present an operational model for an actual recycling process of a thin-film PV technology. We found that for the case examined with our model, some of the scenarios indicate profitable recycling, whereas in other scenarios it is unprofitable. Scenario SC4, which represents the most favorable scenario by considering the lower bounds of all costs and the upper bound of all revenues, produces a monthly profit of $107,000, whereas the least favorable scenario incurs a monthly loss of $151,000. Our intent is to extend the model as a foundation for developing a framework for building a generalized model for current-PV and future-PV technologies.

Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

2010-12-01

285

DWPF RECYCLE EVAPORATOR FLOWSHEET EVALUATION (U)  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) converts the high level waste slurries stored at the Savannah River Site into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. The vitrification process results in the generation of approximately five gallons of dilute recycle streams for each gallon of waste slurry vitrified. This dilute recycle stream is currently transferred to the H-area Tank Farm and amounts to approximately 1,400,000 gallons of effluent per year. Process changes to incorporate salt waste could increase the amount of effluent to approximately 2,900,000 gallons per year. The recycle consists of two major streams and four smaller streams. The first major recycle stream is condensate from the Chemical Process Cell (CPC), and is collected in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT). The second major recycle stream is the melter offgas which is collected in the Off Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT). The four smaller streams are the sample flushes, sump flushes, decon solution, and High Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME) dissolution solution. These streams are collected in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) or the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). All recycle streams are currently combined in the RCT and treated with sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide prior to transfer to the tank farm. Tank Farm space limitations and previous outages in the 2H Evaporator system due to deposition of sodium alumino-silicates have led to evaluation of alternative methods of dealing with the DWPF recycle. One option identified for processing the recycle was a dedicated evaporator to concentrate the recycle stream to allow the solids to be recycled to the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the condensate from this evaporation process to be sent and treated in the Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). In order to meet process objectives, the recycle stream must be concentrated to 1/30th of the feed volume during the evaporation process. The concentrated stream must be pumpable to the DWPF SRAT vessel and should not precipitate solids to avoid fouling the evaporator vessel and heat transfer coils. The evaporation process must not generate excessive foam and must have a high Decontamination Factor (DF) for many species in the evaporator feed to allow the condensate to be transferred to the ETP. An initial scoping study was completed in 2001 to evaluate the feasibility of the evaporator which concluded that the concentration objectives could be met. This initial study was based on initial estimates of recycle concentration and was based solely on OLI modeling of the evaporation process. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has completed additional studies using simulated recycle streams and OLI{reg_sign} simulations. Based on this work, the proposed flowsheet for the recycle evaporator was evaluated for feasibility, evaporator design considerations, and impact on the DWPF process. This work was in accordance with guidance from DWPF-E and was performed in accordance with the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan.

Stone, M

2005-04-30

286

Applying decision-making tools to national e-waste recycling policy: an example of Analytic Hierarchy Process.  

PubMed

As policy making is in essence a process of discussion, decision-making tools have in many cases been proposed to resolve the differences of opinion among the different parties. In our project that sought to promote a country's performance in recycling, we used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate the possibilities and determine the priority of the addition of new mandatory recycled waste, also referred to as Due Recycled Wastes, from candidate waste appliances. The evaluation process started with the collection of data based on telephone interviews and field investigations to understand the behavior of consumers as well as their overall opinions regarding the disposal of certain waste appliances. With the data serving as background information, the research team then implemented the Analytic Hierarchy Process using the information that formed an incomplete hierarchy structure in order to determine the priority for recycling. Since the number of objects to be evaluated exceeded the number that the AHP researchers had suggested, we reclassified the objects into four groups and added one more level of pair-wise comparisons, which substantially reduced the inconsistency in the judgment of the AHP participants. The project was found to serve as a flexible and achievable application of AHP to the environmental policy-making process. In addition, based on the project's outcomes derived from the project as a whole, the research team drew conclusions regarding the government's need to take back 15 of the items evaluated, and suggested instruments that could be used or recycling regulations that could be changed in the future. Further analysis on the top three items recommended by the results of the evaluation for recycling, namely, Compact Disks, Cellular Phones and Computer Keyboards, was then conducted to clarify their concrete feasibility. After the trial period for recycling ordered by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, only Computer Keyboards were referred to as the new Due Recycled Waste and their producers started to take responsibility for recycling them from 2007 onwards. PMID:20015632

Lin, Chun-Hsu; Wen, Lihchyi; Tsai, Yue-Mi

2010-05-01

287

Reuse and recycle--considering the soil below constructions.  

PubMed

The European Construction Products Regulation provides a life cycle based framework for the environmental assessment of construction products. Harmonised European standards for the assessment of the release of dangerous substances and for declaration of environmental performance are in progress. Risk based limit values for the protection of soil and groundwater below construction works will still bet set nationally. In this paper we review the possibilities to expand the ongoing harmonisation to include risk assessment and life cycle assessment (LCA). Based on reviews of national European limit value models (LMVs) for assessment of release to soil and groundwater, two areas for harmonisation emerge: 1- The toxicological criteria. Toxicological endpoints to protect human health and environment are similar, and data from the same toxicological data sets are used to establish acceptance criteria. 2- The emission part of LMVs. We extracted six generic construction works for granular materials. These encompass the most common choices and span the different release scenarios applied. Harmonised emission models would also facilitate LCA and environmental product declaration (EPD). The immission or transport part of the LVMs is less promising for harmonisation. Locating the acceptance criteria point of compliance close to the construction works is advantageous from many aspects and would facilitate harmonisation of assessments. We have identified two different strategies to include recycling in the assessments: 1- Tiered procedure where assessment and declaration of performance are made for the intended primary use of the product only and renewed assessments are made whenever the construction works are demolished and the product is recovered. 2- Scenario based procedure where future recycling scenarios, into new products and construction works, are forecasted. In this case the initial assessment and declaration of environmental performance of a construction product is performed both for the intended primary use of the product and for the recycling scenarios. PMID:24694938

Suer, Pascal; Wik, Ola; Erlandsson, Martin

2014-07-01

288

Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

Not Available

1992-10-01

289

Identification of a Novel Recycling Sequence in the C-tail of FPR2/ALX Receptor: ASSOCIATION WITH CELL PROTECTION FROM APOPTOSIS.  

PubMed

Formyl-peptide receptor type 2 (FPR2; also called ALX because it is the receptor for lipoxin A4) sustains a variety of biological responses relevant to the development and control of inflammation, yet the cellular regulation of this G-protein-coupled receptor remains unexplored. Here we report that, in response to peptide agonist activation, FPR2/ALX undergoes ?-arrestin-mediated endocytosis followed by rapid recycling to the plasma membrane. We identify a transplantable recycling sequence that is both necessary and sufficient for efficient receptor recycling. Furthermore, removal of this C-terminal recycling sequence alters the endocytic fate of FPR2/ALX and evokes pro-apoptotic effects in response to agonist activation. This study demonstrates the importance of endocytic recycling in the anti-apoptotic properties of FPR2/ALX and identifies the molecular determinant required for modulation of this process fundamental for the control of inflammation. PMID:25326384

Thompson, Dawn; McArthur, Simon; Hislop, James N; Flower, Roderick J; Perretti, Mauro

2014-12-26

290

Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood  

E-print Network

Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood estimated that about 5 million tons of spent preservative treated wood istons of spent preservative treated wood is disposed of annually into landfills in thedisposed of annually into landfills in the United

291

Energy implications of recycling packaging materials  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1994-03-01

292

Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 3. United Nations (UN) (2012), World Water Development Report 4, UNESCO Publishing

Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

2014-05-01

293

Auto industry targets fluff for recycling  

SciTech Connect

Automobiles have been one of the great recycling success stories. With car shredding operations routinely reaching recovery rates of up to 75% for decades--mostly through scrap metal reclamation--automobiles outpace most other commodities in terms of recyclability and stability of end uses. Not content to rest on its laurels, however, the automotive industry is now revving up to deal with the part of a car that is not yet easily recycled. This remaining 25%, known as automotive shredder residue (ASR) or ''fluff,'' presents a wide range of recycling challenges. Automobile fluff is the small and low-density material left over after the more easily recycled parts are taken away. Traditionally, fluff has been disposed of in municipal landfills. Today, as cars lose weight to gain fuel economy, plastic use has increased. There are now about 200 automotive shredders in the US, the largest of which produce more than 50,000 tons of fluff per year. Almost half of this fluff is made up of fabrics, fibers, and resilient foam cushioning. Just about one fourth is plastic and about 17% is fluids.

Lang, N.A.

1995-01-01

294

Energy implications of glass-container recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

Gaines, L.L.; Mintz, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-03-01

295

Progress in recycling of automobile shredder residue  

SciTech Connect

At Argonne National Laboratory, we have been developing a potentially economical process to recycle automobile shredder residue (ASR). We identified three potentially marketable materials that can be recovered from ASR and developed technologies to recover and upgrade these materials. We build and tested a field-demonstration plant for recycling polyurethane foam and produced about 2000 lb of recycled foam. Several 300-lb samples were sent for evaluation and were found to be of marketable quality. We are also preparing for a large-scale test in which about 200 tons of ASR-derived fines will be used as a raw material in cement making. A major cement company has evaluated small samples of fines prepared in the laboratory and found that they meet its requirements as a substitute for iron ore or mill scale. We also produced about 50 lb of recycled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) from obsolete automobiles and found that it has properties that could be readily upgraded to meet the specifications of the automotive industry. In this paper, we briefly discuss the process as a whole and summarize the results obtained from the field work on foam and fines recycling.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Pomykala, J.A. Jr.

1996-03-01

296

Recycler lattice for Project X at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Project X is an intense proton source that provides beam for various physics programs. The source consists of an 8 GeV H- superconducting linac that injects into the Fermilab Recycler where H- are converted to protons. Protons are provided to the Main Injector and accelerated to desired energy (in the range 60-120 GeV) or extracted from the Recycler for the 8 GeV program. A long drift space is needed to accommodate the injection chicane with stripping foils. The Recycler is a fixed 8 GeV kinetic energy storage ring using permanent gradient magnets. A phase trombone straight section is used to control the tunes. In this paper, the existing FODO lattice in RR10 straight section being converted into doublet will be described. Due to this change, the phase trombone straight section has to be modified to bring the tunes to the nominal working point. A toy lattice of recycler ring is designed to simulate the end-shim effects of each permanent gradient magnet to add the flexibility to handle the tune shift to the lattice during the operation of 1.6E14 with KV distribution of the proton beam to give {approx}0.05 of space charge tune shift. The comparison or the combinations of the two modification ways for the Recycler ring lattice will be presented also in this paper.

Xiao, Meiqin; Johnson, David E.; /Fermilab

2009-09-01

297

Software recycling at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was the first Department of Energy (DOE) complex to recycle excess software rather than dispose of it in the landfill. This plan, which took over a year to complete, was reviewed for potential legal conflicts, which could arise from recycling rather than disposal of software. It was determined that recycling was an approved method of destruction and therefore did not conflict with any of the licensing agreements that Hanford had with the software manufacturers. The Hanford Recycling Program Coordinator combined efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to recycle all Hanford software through a single contract, which went out for bid in January 1995. It was awarded to GreenDisk, Inc. located in Woodinville Washington and implemented in March 1995. The contract was later re-bid and awarded to EcoDisWGreenDisk in December 1998. The new contract included materials such as; software manuals, diskettes, tyvek wrapping, cardboard & paperboard packaging, compact disks (CDs), videotapes, reel-to-reel tapes, magnetic tapes, audio tapes, and many other types of media.

HINKELMAN, K.C.

1999-11-03

298

Use of Hsp90 Inhibitors to Disrupt GDI?Dependent Rab Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) is a central regulator of Rab GTPase family members. GDI recycles Rab proteins from the membrane and sequesters the inactive GDP?bound form of Rab in the cytosol for use in multiple rounds of transport. The balance between the membrane?bound form of Rab and the cytosolic reserve pool of the Rab–GDI complex is critical for vesicular

Christine Y. Chen; Toshiaki Sakisaka; William E. Balch

2005-01-01

299

Supercritical fractions as asphalt recycling agents and preliminary aging studies on recycled asphalts  

SciTech Connect

Several asphalts were fractionated using supercritical pentane. These fractions were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and their viscosities were measured. The properties of these fractions vary not only among the fractions of a given asphalt but also for the same fraction produced from different asphalts. These widely varied fractions previously have been shown to have potential for reblending to produce superior asphalts. This study investigates the potential for using some of the fractions as asphalt recycling agents. A modified strategic highway research program (SHRP) pressure aging vessel (PAV) test and kinetics studies were conducted on nine recycled asphalts and the original asphalt. The aging indexes of eight of the recycled asphalts are superior to the aging index of the original asphalt. Two of the blends using industrial supercritical fractions and the three blends using laboratory supercritical fractions have lower aging indexes than blends using commercial recycling agents. The kinetics investigation also indicates that at road conditions the recycled asphalts will harden more slowly than the original asphalt. The degree of hardening for a given amount of oxidation in the recycled binders was found to be a strong function of the total saturate content in the recycled binder.

Chaffin, J.M.; Liu, M.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.; Bullin, J.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1997-03-01

300

Chemical and mechanical recycling of shredder fluff  

SciTech Connect

Each year, the secondary metals industry recovers about 55--60 million tons of prompt and obsolete scrap which is used in the production of finished steel products. The single largest source of this scrap is the obsolete automobile. The shredder industry recovers about 10--12 million ton/yr of ferrous scrap, most of which is from shredded automobiles. However, for each ton of steel recovered, over 500 lb of fluff are produced. Shredder fluff is comprised of the nonmetallic content of the automobile and other shredded materials, such as refrigerators, dryers, and dishwashers, which are commonly called white goods. The plastics content of shredder fluff is typically about 15--20% by weight and is expected to increase over the next decade due to the significant increase in the use of automotive plastics over the past 10--15 years. At present, shredder fluff is landfilled. The rapidly escalating landfilling cost, along with environmental concerns over the fate of this waste, poses a significant cost and liability to the shredder industry. Research is being carried out to identify and develop recycling technologies that will reduce the volume and the mass of shredder fluff going to landfills and to minimize its cost impact on the recycling of secondary metals. Previous research has focused on exploiting the plastics content of shredder fluff and other hydrocarbons present in fluff for secondary recycling (e.g., production of wood-products substitutes) and for quaternary recycling (e.g., energy generation). Limited work was also conducted on tertiary recycling (e.g., pyrolysis and gasification). Although the previous research has established the technical feasibility of most, if not all, of the alternatives that were examined, none have proven to be cost-effective. This paper describes some research at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to develop a process to recycle some of the fluff content, primarily the thermoplastics.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Shoemaker, E.L.

1992-01-01

301

Chemical and mechanical recycling of shredder fluff  

SciTech Connect

Each year, the secondary metals industry recovers about 55--60 million tons of prompt and obsolete scrap which is used in the production of finished steel products. The single largest source of this scrap is the obsolete automobile. The shredder industry recovers about 10--12 million ton/yr of ferrous scrap, most of which is from shredded automobiles. However, for each ton of steel recovered, over 500 lb of fluff are produced. Shredder fluff is comprised of the nonmetallic content of the automobile and other shredded materials, such as refrigerators, dryers, and dishwashers, which are commonly called white goods. The plastics content of shredder fluff is typically about 15--20% by weight and is expected to increase over the next decade due to the significant increase in the use of automotive plastics over the past 10--15 years. At present, shredder fluff is landfilled. The rapidly escalating landfilling cost, along with environmental concerns over the fate of this waste, poses a significant cost and liability to the shredder industry. Research is being carried out to identify and develop recycling technologies that will reduce the volume and the mass of shredder fluff going to landfills and to minimize its cost impact on the recycling of secondary metals. Previous research has focused on exploiting the plastics content of shredder fluff and other hydrocarbons present in fluff for secondary recycling (e.g., production of wood-products substitutes) and for quaternary recycling (e.g., energy generation). Limited work was also conducted on tertiary recycling (e.g., pyrolysis and gasification). Although the previous research has established the technical feasibility of most, if not all, of the alternatives that were examined, none have proven to be cost-effective. This paper describes some research at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to develop a process to recycle some of the fluff content, primarily the thermoplastics.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Shoemaker, E.L.

1992-12-01

302

Household demand for waste recycling services.  

PubMed

Municipalities everywhere are coping with increasing amounts of solid waste and need urgently to formulate efficient and sustainable solutions to the problem. This study examines the use of economic incentives in municipal waste management. Specifically, we address the issue of recycling, if and when this waste management option is-on social welfare grounds-a preferred solution.A number of studies have recently assessed the monetary value of the externalities of alternative solid waste management options. In the present context, these subsidies could be interpreted as the implicit value of the benefits from reducing environmental externalities associated with landfilling as perceived by local government authorities. We surmise that the difference between mean households' willingness to pay (WTP) for recycling services, via the purchase of a subsidized waste disposal facility, and the above (proxy) value of externalities reflects the difference between private and public perception regarding the negative externality associated with landfilling. We believe that this information is useful in determining the level of subsidization needed (if at all) to sustain any recycling program.The study is unique in the sense that its conclusions are based on revealed household behavior when faced with increased disposal costs, as well as information on WTP responses in hypothetical but related (and, therefore, familiar) scenarios. The article also explores the influence of the subsidization schemes on recycling rates. It was found that with low levels of effort needed to participate in a curbside recycling program, households' participation rates are mainly influenced by economic variables and age, and households are willing to pay a higher price for the recycling scheme. When the required effort level is relatively high, however, households would pay a lower price, and the rate is influenced mainly by their environmental commitment and by economic considerations. We found that in both cases a subsidy would be required in order to achieve an efficient level of recycling. The median price that households are willing to pay for recycling devices is found to be about NIS 370 (New Israeli Shekel, approximately 90 dollars). PMID:15902451

Palatnik, Ruslana; Ayalon, Ofira; Shechter, Mordechai

2005-02-01

303

Self-protection in dry recycle technologies  

SciTech Connect

In response to the INFCE conclusions, the U.S. undertook development of a new dry fuel cycle. Dry recycle processes have been demonstrated to be feasible. Safeguarding such fuel cycles will be dramatically simpler than the PUREX fuel cycle. At every step of the processes, the materials meet the {open_quotes}spent-fuel standard.{close_quotes} The scale is compatible with collocation of power reactors and their recycle facility, eliminating off-site transportation and storage of plutonium-bearing materials. Material diverted either covertly or overtly would be difficult (relative to material available by other means) to process into weapons feedstock.

Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.; Stanford, G.

1995-12-01

304

Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.  

PubMed

Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future. PMID:25122953

Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

2014-07-01

305

Correlation analysis between sulphate content and leaching of sulphates in recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes.  

PubMed

In some recycled aggregates applications, such as component of new concrete or roads, the total content of soluble sulphates should be measured and controlled. Restrictions are usually motivated by the resistance or stability of the new structure, and in most cases, structural concerns can be remedied by the use of techniques such as sulphur-resistant cements. However, environmental risk assessment from recycling and reuse construction products is often forgotten. The purpose of this study is to analyse the content of soluble sulphate on eleven recycled aggregates and six samples prepared in laboratory by the addition of different gypsum percentages. As points of reference, two natural aggregates were tested. An analysis of the content of the leachable amount of heavy metals regulated by European regulation was included. As a result, the correlation between solubility and leachability data allow suggest a limiting gypsum amount of 4.4% on recycled aggregates. This limit satisfies EU Landfill Directive criteria, which is currently used as reference by public Spanish Government for recycled aggregates in construction works. PMID:22410435

Barbudo, Auxi; Galvín, Adela P; Agrela, Francisco; Ayuso, Jesús; Jiménez, Jose Ramón

2012-06-01

306

Project ROSE (recycled oil saves energy): Alabama's used oil recycling program  

SciTech Connect

Project ROSE is a non-profit energy conservation program funded by the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Science, Technology and Energy Division and sponsored by the University of Alabama. Project ROSE's goal is conserving energy, preserving a valuable natural resource and protecting the environment. To accomplish its purpose, Project ROSE educates the public about recycling used oil, helps establish used oil recycling programs, and offers used oil collection and recycling assistance. Project ROSE has served the people of Alabama and the nation since 1977.

April, G.C.; Powell, S.D. (Alabama Energy Extension Service, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Alabama Energy Div.)

1994-01-01

307

Library Regulations Library Regulations  

E-print Network

Library Regulations 2012-13 Library Regulations UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM REGULATIONS LIBRARY REGULATIONS Preamble: The Library Regulations apply to all users of library facilities managed on behalf of the University by Library Services, and thus there are sections that apply also to non- members of the University

Birmingham, University of

308

Aluminum recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the flow of aluminum from production through its uses with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2000. This materials flow study includes a description of aluminum supply and demand factors for the United States to illustrate the extent of aluminum recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding the system of materials flow from source to ultimate disposition can assist in improving the management of natural resources in a manner that is compatible with sound environmental practices. In 2000, the old scrap recycling efficiency for aluminum was estimated to be 42 percent. Almost 60 percent of the aluminum that was recycled in 2000 came from new scrap, and the recycling rate was estimated to be 36 percent. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Plunkert, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

309

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Electricity generation and treatment of paper recycling  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Electricity generation and treatment of paper recycling wastewater production and treatment of a paper recycling plant wastewater using microbial fuel cells. Treatment batch cycle). These results demonstrate limitations to treatment efficiencies with actual wastewaters

310

16 CFR 260.13 - Recycled content claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...content from rebuilt parts),” or “Recycled Transmission (85% recycled content from rebuilt parts).” Given consumer perception in the automotive context, these claims are not deceptive. 51 The term “rebuilding” means that the dealer...

2013-01-01

311

16 CFR 260.13 - Recycled content claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...content from rebuilt parts),” or “Recycled Transmission (85% recycled content from rebuilt parts).” Given consumer perception in the automotive context, these claims are not deceptive. 51 The term “rebuilding” means that the dealer...

2014-01-01

312

Model of competition in the chemostat with instantaneous recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for competition of three populations in a chemostat with instantaneous recycling environment with nutrient recycling is considered. Conditions for the existence of nonnegative equilibria, boundedness and persistence of the solutions are given.

F. M. Kandil

2000-01-01

313

Study of recycling impurity retention in Alcator C-mod  

E-print Network

This work was aimed at reproducing experimental results in impurity compression of Ar, as well as the screening of recycling and non-recycling impurities from reaching the core plasma. As part of the study the code was ...

Chung, Taekyun

2004-01-01

314

BLEACHABILITY OF RECYCLED FIBERS DEINKED WITH ENZYME PREPARATIONS  

E-print Network

BLEACHABILITY OF RECYCLED FIBERS DEINKED WITH ENZYME PREPARATIONS Marguerite Sykes John Klungness the recycling emphasis from ink removal to color removal. Our research indicates that enzymes can available enzyme preparations used for deinking office wastepaper on pulp brightness and bleachability

Abubakr, Said

315

EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. he specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtration and distilla...

316

Recycling Authorizations: Toward Secondary and Approximate Authorizations Model  

E-print Network

1 Recycling Authorizations: Toward Secondary and Approximate Authorizations Model (SAAM) Konstantin 2005 Abstract: In large and complex enterprises, obtaining authorizations could be communicationally. This paper establishes the concept of recycling previously made authorizations for serving new authorization

317

EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

318

EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). his evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory....

319

Relationship between composition and performance of asphalt recycling agents  

E-print Network

This research was aimed at determining the effects of recycling agent composition on the performance of recycled asphalt with aging. To accomplish this, five experiments were performed, in which blends were produced with controlled compositions...

Peterson, Gerald Dean

1993-01-01

320

Process modelling evaluates feasibility of water recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of process simulation software in designing and evaluating the performance of water purification and wastewater treatment facilities is growing. Here, Demetri Petrides of Intelligen Inc, USA, talks about SuperPro Designer, a simulation programme that helped engineers at a semiconductor fabrication facility to assess process water recycling options.

Demetri Petrides

2001-01-01

321

Technological improvements in automotive battery recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of automotive batteries for the recovery of secondary lead is extremely important in Brazil, for the country does not possess large reserves of this metal. Lead is one of the most widely used metals in the world, but it is highly toxic, posing risks for humans and for the environment if not utilized or treated adequately. Industrial waste containing

M. A. Kreusch; M. J. J. S. Ponte; H. A. Ponte; N. M. S. Kaminari; C. E. B. Marino; V. Mymrin

2007-01-01

322

They're plastic, but they recycle.  

PubMed

Dendritic spines form and grow during hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). In this issue of Neuron, a new study by Park et al. uses both serial reconstruction electron microscopy and time-lapse imaging to show that plasma membrane for such spine expansion is trafficked from recycling endosomes that reside locally at the spines themselves. PMID:17145496

Halpain, Shelley

2006-12-01

323

Rethinking Recycling: An Oregon Waste Reduction Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This updated curriculum guide is designed to provide teachers of elementary school science with a set of activities on recycling and waste reduction. The curriculum has three sections: (1) Grades K-3 Lessons; (2) Grades 4-5 Lessons; and (3) Teacher's Resource Guide. It is designed to take students from an introduction to natural resources and…

Oregon State Dept. of Environmental Quality, Portland.

324

MOBILE AIR-CONDITIONING RECYCLING MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives guidelines on the recovery and recycle of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), from mobile air conditions. It is intended for wide distribution internationally and is especially for use by developing countries and the World Bank to ass...

325

Transverse instability at the recycler ring  

SciTech Connect

Sporadic transverse instabilities have been observed at the Fermilab Recycler Ring leading to increase in transverse emittances and beam loss. The driving source of these instabilities has been attributed to the resistive-wall impedance with space-charge playing an important role in suppressing Landau damping. Growth rates of the instabilities are computed. Remaining problems are discussed.

Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

2004-10-01

326

California town rolls out pavement recycling  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the experience of Brawley, California in using asphalt recycling techniques in the repair of 25 percent of the city's 80 miles of roads. The topics of the article are restoring strength and durability, selection criteria for streets to be repaired, and the savings realized in the project.

Ayers, S.

1993-12-01

327

An Updated Evaluation of ReCycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process variation reduces a pipeline's maximum attainable fre- quency by creating unbalance in the stage delays. As a result, the pipeline ends up cycling with a period close to that of the slow- est pipeline stage. ReCycle was proposed in ISCA 2007 as a framework for comprehensively applying cycle time stealingto bal- ance the stage delays under process variation, thereby

Abhishek Tiwari; Josep Torrellas

328

Process and apparatus for recycling organic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This defines a process and an apparatus to treat wet organic wastes, such as manures, to protect the environment and to recycle the solid content in the form of a soil conditioner or fertilizer. This process and apparatus are made to remove the bad smell and to separate the solid content in a very dry form, adapted to be readily

J. A. Chartrand; I. Perreault

1982-01-01

329

WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94.

Bechtold, T.E. [ed.

1993-12-01

330

Recycling Lithium Carbonate/Lithium Hydroxide Waste  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hazardous waste disposal problem eliminated by regeneration. Li2CO3/ LiOH recycling process relies on low solubility of alkali carbonates in corresponding hydroxides. Li2CO3 precipitate calcined to LI2O, then rehydrated LiOH. Regeneration eliminates need to dispose caustic waste and uses less energy than simple calcination of entire waste mass.

Flowers, J.; Flowers, J.

1983-01-01

331

COUPLING OF IMMUNOASSAYS WITH ENZYMATIC RECYCLING ELECTRODES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic substrate regeneration is a tool to enhance the sensitivity of enzyme electrodes both for substrate analysis and immunoassays. The combination of immunoreactions and electrode based substrate recycling connects specific recognition of an analyte with highly sensitive detection. Most important for this field of application is the sensitivity, which permits to detect a label at very low concentration. Enzymatic substrate

Frieder W. Scheller; Christian G. Bauer; Alexander Makower; Ulla Wollenberger; Axel Warsinke; Frank F. Bier

2001-01-01

332

Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop  

DOEpatents

Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2001-01-01

333

SEPARATION OF CRUMB AND FIBER IN TIRE RECYCLING OPERATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tests at a research laboratory and field evaluation at a commercial tire recycling facility demonstrated the viability and economic value of a new machine to separate the waste fluff produced by tire recycling plants into marketable products such as crumb rubber and fiber. Two new fluff recycling m...

334

Improved recycling with life cycle information tagged to the product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising demand for product means that the recycling of materials is now more important than ever, saving a lot of energy embedded in materials, thus reducing CO2 emissions. Providing relevant information can raise the recycling efficiency, which is too low at present. A Recycling Information Matrix (RIM) concentrating on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is suggested in order to

Conrad Luttropp; Jan Johansson

2009-01-01

335

Updated 9/23/2010 HOW TO RECYCLE  

E-print Network

Updated 9/23/2010 HOW TO RECYCLE Recycling & Solid Waste Magnuson Health Sciences Center http Peanuts #12;Updated 9/23/2010 · Televisions · 3-Ring Binders · Tip Boxes, Pipette · Tires · Tissue Paper (Room: I-534, Phone: 5-1584) has volunteered to handle the recycling of Styrofoam BLOCKS and BOXES

Clark, John

336

The Oil Saving Efficiency of Recycling Technology for Waste Plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the first oil crisis many companies in Japan started on projects to recycle waste plastics by transforming them into oil. These projects, however, were disrupted after the fall of oil price in the successive periods of the oil crisis. This disruption was mainly caused by inefficiency of the recycling technology in those days. Recently a new technology for recycling,

Toyoaki Washida

337

PLACEMENT OF OUTDOOR RECYCLING CONTAINERS AROUND UBC CAMPUS  

E-print Network

of recyclable items in order to approach our goal towards a waste-free environment. #12;DATA & PROCEDURES BasePLACEMENT OF OUTDOOR RECYCLING CONTAINERS AROUND UBC CAMPUS UBC SEEDS Project by Iong, Sin I (Jace RECYCLING CONTAINERS ON UBC CAMPUS by Jace Iong 24 April, 2009 INTRODUCTION This SEEDS (Social, Ecological

338

Fermilab Recycler Ring: Technical design report. Revision 1.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the technical design of the Fermilab Recycler Ring. The purpose of the Recycler is to augment the luminosity increase anticipated from the implementation of the Fermi III upgrade project, which has as its main component the Fermilab Main Injector construction project. The Recycler is a fixed 8 GeV kinetic energy storage ring. It is located in the

1996-01-01

339

Polyethylene Terephthalate Waste Recycling and Application Possibilities: a Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of works that cover PET post-consumer waste recycling and application during last twenty years. It is shown that physically recycled PET can be used in the blends with other polymers, such as high and low density polyethylene, polycarbonates, polyvinyl chloride, etc. The compatibilizers and other additives often are used to obtain valuable blends of recycled

Gintaras MACIJAUSKAS

340

Atmospheric Moisture Recycling: Role of Advection and Local Evaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approximate formulation of how much moisture that precipitates out comes from local evaporation versus horizontal transport, referred to as ''recycling,'' has allowed new estimates of recycling to be mapped globally as a function of length scale. The recycling is formulated in terms of the ''intensity of the hydrological cycle'' I, which is alternatively referred to as a ''precipitation efficiency''

Kevin E. Trenberth

1999-01-01

341

The implementation for DVD recycling process by arc-discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is focusing on the newly developed recycling techniques. This paper proposes a novel process to handle recycling issue by the arc discharge of high voltage and high frequency. It can not only replace the original recycle process that smashes the disk up and then separates metal cladding material from the disk, but also can solve the problem

Chia-Ching Lin; Wen-Bin Lin; Huann-Keng Chiang; Chien-An Chen

2010-01-01

342

Multivalent immune complexes divert FcRn to lysosomes by exclusion from recycling sorting tubules  

PubMed Central

The neonatal receptor for immunoglobulin G (IgG; FcRn) prevents IgG degradation by efficiently sorting IgG into recycling endosomes and away from lysosomes. When bound to IgG-opsonized antigen complexes, however, FcRn traffics cargo into lysosomes, where antigen processing can occur. Here we address the mechanism of sorting when FcRn is bound to multivalent IgG-opsonized antigens. We find that only the unbound receptor or FcRn bound to monomeric IgG is sorted into recycling tubules emerging from early endosomes. Cross-linked FcRn is never visualized in tubules containing the unbound receptor. Similar results are found for transferrin receptor, suggesting a general mechanism of action. Deletion or replacement of the FcRn cytoplasmic tail does not prevent diversion of trafficking to lysosomes upon cross-linking. Thus physical properties of the lumenal ligand–receptor complex appear to act as key determinants for sorting between the recycling and lysosomal pathways by regulating FcRn entry into recycling tubules. PMID:23741050

Weflen, Andrew W.; Baier, Nina; Tang, Qing-Juan; Van den Hof, Malon; Blumberg, Richard S.; Lencer, Wayne I.; Massol, Ramiro H.

2013-01-01

343

A Functional Slow Recycling Pathway of Transferrin is Required for Growth of Chlamydia  

PubMed Central

An inhibitor of host cell lysophospholipid acyltransferase, an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism blocked growth of the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia through its action on the transport of transferrin (Tf) via the slow pathway of recycling. A detailed characterization of this inhibition revealed that Tf accumulated in vesicles positive for Rab11, with a concomitant reduction in the level of Tf found within the transport intermediate Rab4/11 hybrid vesicles. The net result was the failure to be recycled to the plasma membrane. In chlamydiae-infected cells, the Tf-containing Rab11-positive vesicles were typically found intimately associated with the inclusion, and treatment with the inhibitor caused their accumulation, suggesting that the timely progression and completion of Tf recycling was necessary for proper chlamydial growth. Growth inhibition by the compound could be negated by the simple removal of the Tf-containing fraction of the serum, a further indication that accumulation of Tf around the chlamydial inclusion was deleterious to the pathogen. Thus, it appears that manipulating the slow recycling pathway can have biological consequences for Chlamydia and implies the need to regulate carefully the interaction of the inclusion with this host trafficking pathway. PMID:21607082

Ouellette, Scot P.; Carabeo, Rey A.

2010-01-01

344

Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes  

SciTech Connect

Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950's, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K. (eds.)

1992-01-01

345

Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes. A workshop report  

SciTech Connect

Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950`s, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K. [eds.

1992-10-01

346

Polymer recycling: potential application of radiation technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of solid waste is an important problem, which is becoming progressively worse as a byproduct of continuing economic growth and development. Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) comprise a steadily increasing proportion of the municipal and industrial waste going into landfill. Development of technologies for reducing polymeric waste, which are acceptable from the environmental standpoint, and which are cost-effective, has proven to be a difficult challenge due to complexities inherent in the reuse of polymers. Establishing optimal processes for the reuse/recycling of polymeric materials thus remains a worldwide challenge as we enter the new century. Due to the ability of ionizing radiation to alter the structure and properties of bulk polymeric materials, and the fact that it is applicable to essentially all polymer types, irradiation holds promise for impacting the polymer waste problem. The three main possibilities for use of radiation in this application are: (1) enhancing the mechanical properties and performance of recovered materials or material blends, principally through crosslinking, or through surface modification of different phases being combined; (2) treatment causing or enhancing the decomposition of polymers, particularly through chain scission, leading to recovery of either low molecular weight mixtures, or powders, for use as chemical feedstocks or additives; (3) production of advanced polymeric materials designed for environmental compatibility. This paper provides an overview of the polymer recycling problem, describes the major technological obstacles to the implementation of recycling technologies, and outlines some of the approaches being taken. A review of radiation-based recycling research is then provided, followed by a discussion of future directions where irradiation may be relevant to the problems currently inhibiting the widespread recycling of polymeric materials.

Burillo, Guillermina; Clough, Roger L.; Czvikovszky, Tibor; Guven, Olgun; Le Moel, Alain; Liu, Weiwei; Singh, Ajit; Yang, Jingtian; Zaharescu, Traian

2002-04-01

347

Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules  

SciTech Connect

How will photovoltaic modules (PVMS) be recycled at the end of their service lives? This question has technological and institutional components (Reaven, 1994a). The technological aspect concerns the physical means of recycling: what advantages and disadvantages of the several existing and emerging mechanical, thermal, and chemical recycling processes and facilities merit consideration? The institutional dimension refers to the arrangements for recycling: what are the operational and financial roles of the parties with an interest in PVM recycling? These parties include PVM manufacturers, trade organizations; distributors, and retailers; residential, commercial, and utility PVM users; waste collectors, transporters, reclaimers, and reclaimers; and governments.

Reaven, S.J.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.

1996-01-01

348

Measurements of Wall Recycling Coefficient in the HANBIT Mirror Device  

SciTech Connect

Wall recycling and results of ICRH discharge in the HANBIT mirror device are presented. The amount of gas loading due to recycling from the wall and recycling coefficient are estimated quantitatively by the time evolution of the pressures in each region of the HANBIT mirror device during plasma discharges. These measured pressures are compared with a model calculation made in terms of a coupled set of rate equations. Also we introduce a gas recycling model based on atomic and molecular processes. In this model, enhancement of fueling due to the recycling is evaluated on the basis of the calculated probabilities of neutral and ion production by using the rate coefficients of these reactions.

Seo, D.C.; Na, H.K.; Yoon, J.S.; Yoon, S.W. [Korea Basic Science Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2005-01-15

349

Beryllium recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2004-01-01

350

Beryllium Recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of beryllium in the United States in 2000 with emphasis on the extent to which beryllium was either recycled or reused. Beryllium was recycled mostly from new scrap that was generated during the manufacture of beryllium-related components. In 2000, about 35 metric tons of beryllium was either recycled or reused, about 14 percent of which was derived from old scrap. The beryllium recycling rate was calculated to be about 10 percent, and beryllium scrap recycling efficiency, about 7 percent.

Cunningham, Larry D.

2003-01-01

351

Recycling of aluminum salt cake  

SciTech Connect

The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

1991-12-01

352

Recycling in 1998: States moving forward to reach higher goals  

SciTech Connect

As the end of the decade--and century--approaches, the US still is working to push the recycling envelope. The US as a whole has reached its higher recycling rate ever--27%, according to the US EPA, and individual states are striving to meet and surpass their own recycling goals. Yet, it is difficult to compare rates and goals and budgets of individual states to one another, and come up with the nationwide trend in terms of recycling. Comparing recycling programs from state to state is like comparing apples and oranges. Individual states recycle a different amount of material, include a range of materials in their recycling-rate calculations, and have a variety of costs associated with performing these activities. Recycling in New York City is nothing like recycling in Boise, Idaho, for instance. This article presents information from all 50 states and the District of Columbia on their recycling rates, goals, waste generation rates, and the resources they have allocated toward recycling efforts.

Heumann, J.M.; Egan, K.

1998-08-01

353

Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, in the water, and in the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling rate for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent?almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from diecasting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Kramer, Deborah A.

2001-01-01

354

Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, the water, and the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium in the United States from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling efficiency for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent--almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from die-casting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Kramer, Deborah A.

2002-01-01

355

Transfer Rates of Enteric Microorganisms in Recycled Water during Machine Clothes Washing?  

PubMed Central

Approximately 15% of overall Australian household water usage is in the laundry; hence, a significant reduction in household drinking water demand could be achieved if potable-quality water used for clothes washing is replaced with recycled water. To investigate the microbiological safety of using recycled water in washing machines, bacteriophages MS-2 and PRD-1, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were used in a series of experiments to investigate the transfer efficiency of enteric microorganisms from washing machine water to objects including hands, environmental surfaces, air, and fabric swatches. By determining the transference efficiency, it is possible to estimate the numbers of microorganisms that the user will be exposed to if recycled water with various levels of residual microorganisms is used in washing machines. Results, expressed as transfer rates to a given surface area per object, showed that the mean transfer efficiency of E. coli, bacteriophages MS-2 and PRD-1, and C. parvum oocysts from seeded water to fabric swatches ranged from 0.001% to 0.090%. Greatest exposure to microorganisms occurred through direct contact of hands with seeded water and via hand contact with contaminated fabric swatches. No microorganisms were detected in the air samples during the washing machine spin cycle, and transfer rates of bacteriophages from water to environmental surfaces were 100-fold less than from water directly to hands. Findings from this study provide relevant information that can be used to refine regulations governing recycled water and to allay public concerns about the use of recycled water. PMID:19124592

O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

2009-01-01

356

Cold in-situ recycling evaluation  

SciTech Connect

In 1984 the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department began using Cold Insitu Recycling for the rehabilitation of asphalt concrete pavements. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive evaluation of the method from the standpoint of pavement performance and cost. The evaluation was performed by selecting and investigating by physical tests, condition inspections and review of other data, 45 projects located throughout the state of New Mexico. It is concluded that performance will generally exceed the 10 year service life assumed during design. Costs were evaluated in comparison to a mill and overlay rehabilitation method with an equal structural coefficient on the basis of construction costs and estimated maintenance costs during the design life. It is clear from this study that the use of cold insitu recycling is cost effective and provides excellent performance for a service life that is yet to be determined, certainly exceeding ten years.

NONE

1996-12-01

357

Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel.  

PubMed

The sustainable supply of lipids is the bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here microbial recycling of glycerol, byproduct of biodiesel production to biodiesel in engineered Escherichia coli strains was reported. The KC3 strain with capability of producing fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from glucose was used as a starting strain to optimize fermentation conditions when using glycerol as sole carbon source. The YL15 strain overexpressing double copies of atfA gene displayed 1.7-fold increase of FAEE productivity compared to the KC3 strain. The titer of FAEE in YL15 strain reached to 813 mg L(-1) in minimum medium using glycerol as sole carbon source under optimized fermentation conditions. The titer of glycerol-based FAEE production can be significantly increased by both genetic modifications and fermentation optimization. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel expands carbon sources for biodiesel production. PMID:24140944

Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Xuefeng

2013-12-01

358

Recovery of recyclable materials from shredder residue  

SciTech Connect

Each year, about 11 million tons of metals (ferrous and nonferrous) are recovered in the US from about 10 million discarded automobiles. The recovered metals account for about 75% of the total weight of the discarded vehicles. The balance of the material or shredder residue, which amounts to about 3 million tons annually, is currently landfilled. The residue contains a diversity of potentially recyclable materials, including polyurethane foams, iron oxides, and certain thermoplastics. This paper discusses a process under development at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and recover the recyclable materials from this waste stream. The process consists essentially of two-stages. First, a physical separation is used to recover the foams and the metal oxides, followed by a chemical process to extract certain thermoplastics. Status of the technology is discussed and process economics reviewed.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Brockmeier, N.F.

1994-01-01

359

Argonne explains nuclear recycling in 4 minutes  

ScienceCinema

Currently, when using nuclear energy only about five percent of the uranium used in a fuel rod gets fissioned for energy; after that, the rods are taken out of the reactor and put into permanent storage. There is a way, however, to use almost all of the uranium in a fuel rod. Recycling used nuclear fuel could produce hundreds of years of energy from just the uranium we've already mined, all of it carbon-free. Problems with older technology put a halt to recycling used nuclear fuel in the United States, but new techniques developed by scientists at Argonne National Laboratory address many of those issues. For more information, visit http://www.anl.gov/energy/nuclear-energy.

None

2013-04-19

360

Imaging and quantification of recycled KATP channels.  

PubMed

This chapter describes immunochemistry-based methods to investigate recycling of membrane proteins at the cell surface. Two methods are described, one qualitative and the other quantitative. Both methods consist of two rounds of extracellular antibody capture. Firstly, a primary antibody is captured by an extracellular epitope presented by the target membrane protein and is subsequently internalized. Secondly, the primary antibody-labelled protein is recycled back to the membrane where it is captured by a probe--conjugated secondary antibody. In the qualitative assay, the probe is a fluorophore, which can be imaged by fluorescence microscopy. In the quantitative assay, the probe is horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) and enzyme activity can be assayed by chemiluminescence. PMID:23529434

Cockcroft, Christopher J

2013-01-01

361

Transverse Instabilities in the Fermilab Recycler  

SciTech Connect

Transverse instabilities of the antiproton beam have been observed in the Recycler ring soon after its commissioning. After installation of transverse dampers, the threshold for the instability limit increased significantly but the instability is still found to limit the brightness of the antiprotons extracted from the Recycler for Tevatron shots. In this paper, we describe observations of the instabilities during the extraction process as well as during dedicated studies. The measured instability threshold phase density agrees with the prediction of the rigid beam model within a factor of 2. Also, we conclude that the instability threshold can be significantly lowered for a bunch contained in a narrow and shallow potential well due to effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping.

Prost, L.R.; Burov, A.; Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.M.; Crisp, J.; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab

2011-07-01

362

40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - SAE J2788 Standard for Recovery/Recycle and Recovery/Recycle/Recharging Equipment for HFC-134a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...for the recovery/recycling of HFC-134a that...Refrigerant Recovery/Recycling Equipment 3. Specification...automotive service garage environment and be capable of continuous... 4. Refrigerant Recycling Equipment...

2012-07-01

363

40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - SAE J2788 Standard for Recovery/Recycle and Recovery/Recycle/Recharging Equipment for HFC-134a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...for the recovery/recycling of HFC-134a that...Refrigerant Recovery/Recycling Equipment 3. Specification...automotive service garage environment and be capable of continuous... 4. Refrigerant Recycling Equipment...

2013-07-01

364

40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - SAE J2788 Standard for Recovery/Recycle and Recovery/Recycle/Recharging Equipment for HFC-134a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...for the recovery/recycling of HFC-134a that...Refrigerant Recovery/Recycling Equipment 3. Specification...automotive service garage environment and be capable of continuous... 4. Refrigerant Recycling Equipment...

2014-07-01

365

Recovery of monomers from recycled plastics  

SciTech Connect

Plastics make up approximately 20% by volume of the material disposed of in landfills in the United States. The increased interest in recycling has focused attention on ways to expand our current recycling efforts. Types of commodity plastics typically found in a postconsumer stream include high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polystyrene (PS). In addition to plastics such as these, a number of organic and inorganic constituents will be present, including paper, paint, food, and various metals. These constituents are present as a result of introduction into the plastics during manufacturing (to give a plastic product selective properties) or as residual matter from use by the consumer. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is one of several groups in the United States and Europe that, over the last several years, has worked toward developing a process to thermally break down postconsumer plastics to hydrocarbon liquids and gases. Such a process, sometimes referred to as thermal depolymerization, thermal recycling, or feedstock recycling, produces hydrocarbon liquids and gases that could be used for the manufacture of new plastics or other petroleum products. The specific slate of products depends on processing conditions. Subsequent studies have identified several relatively high-value products possible from the process, including ethylene (C{sub 2}{sup -}), propylene (C{sub 3}{sup -}), and butylenes. Past work at the EERC has also indicated that optimal processing conditions exist for these olefin yields. The proposed the EPA work is based on information, presented here, that was obtained in studies completed at the EERC under the sponsorship of the American Plastics Council (APC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

Sharp, L.L.; Ness, R.O. Jr. [Univ. of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Sosa, J.M. [Fina Oil and Chemical Co., Deer Park, TX (United States)

1995-10-01

366

Soaring Towers: Building with Recycled Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will build the highest tower they can out of recycled materials. As they work on this activity, they explore which shapes and sizes make good tower bases, which work well in the middle, and how to make sure the configuration is stable, even when some of the shapes are quite irregular. Available as a web page, downloadable pdf, and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

367

Lithium Ion Batteries: Recycling and Repurposing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains a set of eleven modules and supporting labs developed by Grand Valley State University and Muskegon Community College concerning processes for the remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of advanced energy storage systems. They were developed for use in community college and university programs as well as on-the job training through seed funding from the CAAT. Included with each module is an overview of the topic and lab activities with review questions (instructor version with solutions included).

College, Grand V.

368

Wastewater Recycle- A Sustainable Approach Towards Desalination  

E-print Network

in cleaning mode ( high pH) ?HERO permeate can be reused as process, cooling & Demin system make-up Bioreactor A i r ESL-IE-13-05-07 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 Strictly... Recycle Technologies ? Membrane Filtration ?Microfiltration ?Ultrafiltration ?Nano-filtration ? Membrane Bioreactor ?Submerged MBR ?External MBR ? Reverse Osmosis ?Conventional Reverse Osmosis ?High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HEROTM) ? Thermal...

Mittal, A.

2013-01-01

369

Recycling and alloying of polyethylene terephthalate  

E-print Network

, base-sheeting for photographic film and recording tape, and packaging for carbonated beverages [1, 2]. PET usage has undergone a particularly rapid growth in the packaging area since it was introduced as a container resin in 1977 and is today... resins. The effects of container processing were studied through mechanical and rheological testing, gel permeation chromatography, and thermal analysis of virgin resin, parison regrind, and bottle regrind. The recycling potential of the soft...

Bugg, Marie Sandra

1988-01-01

370

Characterization of asphalt and asphalt recyclability  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research program was to construct a simple model and computer programs that will allow at least a qualitative understand of the phase behavior of asphalt (i.e., how asphalt components mix with one another), mixtures of different types of asphalt (i.e., in recycling) and mixtures of asphalt with other materials, such as synthetic polymers. The authors have constructed such a model and computer programs (for Macintosh computers) that allow such calculations to be performed easily.

Painter, P.C.

1993-10-01

371

Compression Molding of Composite of Recycled HDPE and Recycled Tire Particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plastic and rubber recycling is an effective means of reducing solid waste to the environment and preserving natural resources. A project aimed at developing a new composite material from recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and recycled rubber is currently being conducted at Eastern Illinois University. The recycled plastic pellets with recycled rubber particles are extruded into some HDPE/rubber composite strands. The strand can be further cut into pellets that can be used to fabricate other material forms or products. This experiment was inspired by the above-mentioned research activity. In order to measure Durometer hardness of the extruded composite, a specimen with relatively large dimensions was needed. Thus, compression molding was used to form a cylindrical specimen of 1 in. diameter and 1 in. thickness. The initial poor quality of the molded specimen prompted a need to optimize the processing parameters such as temperature, holding time, and pressure. Design of experiment (DOE) was used to obtain optimum combination of the parameters.

Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.; Chen, Zhengyu; Li, Yanze; Peng, Linda

1996-01-01

372

Recycling of irradiated high-density polyethylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation crosslinking of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a well-recognized modification of improving basic material characteristics. This research paper deals with the utilization of electron beam irradiated HDPE (HDPEx) after the end of its lifetime. Powder of recycled HDPEx (irradiation dose 165 kGy) was used as a filler into powder of virgin low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in concentrations ranging from 10% to 60%. The effect of the filler on processability and mechanical behavior of the resulting mixtures was investigated. The results indicate that the processability, as well as mechanical behavior, highly depends on the amount of the filler. Melt flow index dropped from 13.7 to 0.8 g/10 min comparing the lowest and the highest concentration; however, the higher shear rate the lower difference between each concentration. Toughness and hardness, on the other hand, grew with increasing addition of the recycled HDPEx. Elastic modulus increased from 254 to 450 MPa and material hardness increased from 53 to 59 ShD. These results indicate resolving the problem of further recycling of irradiated polymer materials while taking advantage of the improved mechanical properties.

Navratil, J.; Manas, M.; Mizera, A.; Bednarik, M.; Stanek, M.; Danek, M.

2015-01-01

373

Gas recycling studies on the TFR tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas recycling has been studied in a large number of tokamaks for several years. On TFR, a previous experiment with an inconel limiter has shown that, after many discharges in hydrogen, when we change the working gas to deuterium the wall adsorbed isotope accounts for less than 5% after a few shots. In order to improve our better knowledge of the gas recycling we have performed similar experiments with two different limiters — an inconel limiter and a graphite limiter — at room temperature and with hot walls (250 ° C < T< 300 ° C). With the graphite limiter, when the filling gas is changed from 100% H 2 to 100% D 2, the isotopic ration {H}/{(H + D)} is between 25 and 30% after five shots and reaches the limit of 12% after ten shots. This ratio decreases more rapidly with hot walls but the lower limit is higher: 10 and 20% with inconel and graphite limiters respectively, instead of 5% and 12% at room temperature. This recycling coefficient is always higher with hot walls; this consequently should reduce the plasma edge temperature. The sputtering and the thermal load on the wall and the limiters might then also decrease.

TFR Group

1982-12-01

374

Recyclable Waste Paper Sorting Using Template Matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the application of image processing techniques in recyclable waste paper sorting. In recycling, waste papers are segregated into various grades as they are subjected to different recycling processes. Highly sorted paper streams will facilitate high quality end products, and save processing chemicals and energy. Since 1932 to 2009, different mechanical and optical paper sorting methods have been developed to fill the demand of paper sorting. Still, in many countries including Malaysia, waste papers are sorted into different grades using manual sorting system. Due to inadequate throughput and some major drawbacks of mechanical paper sorting systems, the popularity of optical paper sorting systems is increased. Automated paper sorting systems offer significant advantages over human inspection in terms of fatigue, throughput, speed, and accuracy. This research attempts to develop a smart vision sensing system that able to separate the different grades of paper using Template Matching. For constructing template database, the RGB components of the pixel values are used to construct RGBString for template images. Finally, paper object grade is identified based on the maximum occurrence of a specific template image in the search image. The outcomes from the experiment in classification for White Paper, Old Newsprint Paper and Old Corrugated Cardboard are 96%, 92% and 96%, respectively. The remarkable achievement obtained with the method is the accurate identification and dynamic sorting of all grades of papers using simple image processing techniques.

Osiur Rahman, Mohammad; Hussain, Aini; Scavino, Edgar; Hannan, M. A.; Basri, Hassan

375

Influence of RFID tags on recyclability of plastic packaging.  

PubMed

The use of Radio Frequency IDentification Technology (RFID) in the packaging sector is an important logistical improvement regarding the advantages offered by this technology in comparison with barcodes. Nevertheless, the presence of these devices in plastic packaging, and consequently in plastic waste, can cause several problems in the recycling plants due to the materials included in these devices. In this study, the mentioned recycling constraints have been experimentally identified in a pilot scale recycling study consisting in three recycling tests with an increasing presence of RFID tags. Differences in each test were evaluated. Furthermore, the quality of the recycled material of each test was studied through the injection and testing of tests probes. The results of the pilot scale recycling tests did not show a decrease in the quality of the recycled plastic due to the presence of RFID tags. Nevertheless, several operational problems during the recycling process were observed such as the obstruction of the screens, which lessened the process yield and created process interruptions, as well as the loss of extruded plastic during the process. These recycling constraints cannot be directly extrapolated to the industrial plants due to the different working scales. Nevertheless, technological solutions are proposed in order to avoid these recycling constraints if they appear. PMID:21295460

Aliaga, César; Ferreira, Beatriz; Hortal, Mercedes; Pancorbo, María Ángeles; López, José Manuel; Navas, Francisco Javier

2011-06-01

376

Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.  

PubMed

Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible. PMID:20952443

Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

2011-11-01

377

Assessing relationships among properties of demolished concrete, recycled aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete using regression analysis.  

PubMed

Recycled demolished concrete (DC) as recycled aggregate (RA) and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is generally suitable for most construction applications. Low-grade applications, including sub-base and roadwork, have been implemented in many countries; however, higher-grade activities are rarely considered. This paper examines relationships among DC characteristics, properties of their RA and strength of their RAC using regression analysis. Ten samples collected from demolition sites are examined. The results show strong correlation among the DC samples, properties of RA and RAC. It should be highlighted that inferior quality of DC will lower the quality of RA and thus their RAC. Prediction of RAC strength is also formulated from the DC characteristics and the RA properties. From that, the RAC performance from DC and RA can be estimated. In addition, RAC design requirements can also be developed at the initial stage of concrete demolition. Recommendations are also given to improve the future concreting practice. PMID:17764837

Tam, Vivian W Y; Wang, K; Tam, C M

2008-04-01

378

Changing patterns in the use, recycling, and material substitution of mercury in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental concerns have led to numerous regulations that have dramatically decreased the reported production and use of mercury in the United States since the 1980s. Government legislation and subsequent industry actions have led to increased collection of mercury-containing materials and the recovery of mercury through recycling. Mercury emissions have been reduced and effective alternatives to mercury products have been developed for many applications. This study updates and quantifies the changes in demand, supply, use, and material flow for mercury in various sectors in the United States that have taken place since 1996. Nearly all primary mercury produced in the United States is derived as a byproduct of processing of gold and silver ore in Nevada. Since 2001, annual production of mercury from gold and silver mining in Nevada has decreased by 22 percent overall because ore from greater depths containing low grade mercury is recovered, and mercury emissions from this source have decreased by 95 percent as a result of increased regulation and improved collection and suppression technology. The distribution of consumption of mercury in the United States has changed as a result of regulation (elimination of large-scale mercury use in the paint and battery sectors), reduction by consumers (decommissioning of mercury-cell chloralkali manufacturing capacity), and technological advances (improvements in dental, lighting, and wiring sectors). Mercury use in the chloralkali sector, the leading end-use sector in the United States in 1996, has declined by 98 percent from 136 metric tons (t) in 1996 to about 0.3 t in 2010 because of increased processing and recycling efficiencies and plant closures or conversion to other technologies. As plants were closed, mercury recovered from the infrastructure of decommissioned plants has been exported, making the United States a net exporter of mercury, even though no mercury has been produced as the primary product from mines in the United States since 1992. In 1996, the three leading end-use sectors for mercury in the United States were chloralkali manufacturing (accounting for 38 percent of consumption), electrical and electronic instrumentation (13 percent of consumption), and instruments and measuring devices (11 percent of consumption). In 2010, the three leading end-use sectors were dental amalgam (accounting for between 35 and 57 percent of consumption), electrical and electronic instrumentation (29 percent of consumption), and batteries (8 percent of consumption). Mercury use in lighting is increasing because incandescent lights are being phased out in favor of mercury-containing compact fluorescent bulbs, but the demand for mercury per unit produced is small. Dental amalgam constituted the largest amount of mercury in use in the United States. One study reported about 290 t of mercury in dental amalgam was estimated to be contained in human mouths, an estimated 30 t of mercury amalgam was treated as waste, 28.5 t of mercury amalgam was released to the environment, 6 t of amalgam was recycled, and 3.5 t was treated and stored in landfills in 2009. Mercury contained in products recovered by State, municipal, or industry collection activities is recycled, but the estimated overall recycling rate is less than 10 percent. Increasingly, the U.S. mercury recycling industry has been processing a significant amount of mercury-containing material derived from foreign gold mining operations or decommissioned mercury-cell chloralkali plants. Regulation of mercury export and storage is expected to result in surplus mercury inventories in the United States. The Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 limits elemental mercury exports for unregulated uses such as artisanal gold mining after January 1, 2013, and requires development of adequate long-term storage facilities in the United States for elemental mercury. During the past 4 years, producers and recyclers of elemental mercury have been exporting large quantities of mercury in anticipation of this regulation, but the U.S. inventory of mercury

Wilburn, David R.

2013-01-01

379

Influence of recycled aggregate quality and proportioning criteria on recycled concrete properties.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of experimental research using concrete produced by substituting part of the natural coarse aggregates with recycled aggregates from concrete demolition. The influence of the quality of the recycled aggregate (amount of declassified and source of aggregate), the percentage of replacement on the targeted quality of the concrete to be produced (strength and workability) has been evaluated. The granular structure of concrete and replacement criteria were analyzed in this study, factors which have not been analyzed in other studies. The following properties of recycled concretes were analyzed: density, absorption, compressive strength, elastic modulus, amount of occluded air, penetration of water under pressure and splitting tensile strength. A simplified test program was designed to control the costs of the testing while still producing sufficient data to develop reliable conclusions in order to make the number of tests viable whilst guaranteeing the reliability of the conclusions. Several factors were analyzed including the type of aggregate, the percentage of replacement, the type of sieve curve, the declassified content, the strength of concrete and workability of concrete and the replacement criteria. The type of aggregate and the percentage of replacement were the only factors that showed a clear influence on most of the properties. Compressive strength is clearly affected by the quality of recycled aggregates. If the water-cement ratio is kept constant and the loss of workability due to the effect of using recycled aggregate is compensated for with additives, the percentage of replacement of the recycled aggregate will not affect the compressive strength. The elastic modulus is affected by the percentage of replacement. If the percentage of replacement does not exceed 50%, the elastic modulus will only change slightly. PMID:19709870

López-Gayarre, F; Serna, P; Domingo-Cabo, A; Serrano-López, M A; López-Colina, C

2009-12-01

380

Use of recycled plastics in wood plastic composites - a review.  

PubMed

The use of recycled and waste thermoplastics has been recently considered for producing wood plastic composites (WPCs). They have great potential for WPCs manufacturing according to results of some limited researches. This paper presents a detailed review about some essential properties of waste and recycled plastics, important for WPCs production, and of research published on the effect of recycled plastics on the physical and mechanical properties of WPCs. PMID:23777666

Kazemi Najafi, Saeed

2013-09-01

381

Strategies for recycling CdTe photovoltaic modules  

SciTech Connect

Recycling end-of-life cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) modules may enhance the competitive advantage of CdTe PV in the marketplace, but the experiences of industries with comparable Environmental, Health and Safety (EH&S) challenges suggest that collection and recycling costs can impose significant economic burdens. Customer cooperation and pending changes to US Federal law may improve recycling economics.

Eberspacher, C.; Gay, C.F. [UNISUN, Newbury Park, CA. (United States); Moskowitz, P.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-12-31

382

Evaluating the feasibility of recycling steelmaking dust in cupolas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expediency of recycling zinc-bearing steelmaking dust in cupolas equipped with a gas tract having modern gas-cleaning\\u000a equipment is evaluated. It is shown that the use of such furnaces to recycle steelmaking dust briquetted with other iron-bearing\\u000a wastes makes it possible to: recycle all the steelmaking dust formed at a large metallurgical plant; obtain pig iron of acceptable\\u000a quality without

E. S. Emel’yanova; I. V. Butorina

2011-01-01

383

Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials Abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains a minimum of 58 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01

384

Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-01-01

385

Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01

386

Recyclable automobiles. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and characteristics of non-metal, recyclable components used in automobiles. Existing polymer, plastic, and composite technology and materials are discussed. The citations also examine design and development of new recyclable materials that are durable. Design features and constraints are included. Some citations address future trends leading to the 100 percent recyclable automobile. (Contains a minimum of 77 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

387

Survey and alignment of the Fermilab Recycler Antiproton Storage Ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June of 1999 Fermilab commissioned a newly constructed antiproton storage ring, the Recycler Ring, in the Main Injector tunnel directly above the Main Injector beamline. The Recycler Ring is a fixed 8 GeV kinetic energy storage ring and is constructed of strontium ferrite permanent magnets. The 3,319.4-meter-circumference Recycler Ring consists of 344 gradient magnets and 100 quadrupoles all of

Babatunde OSheg Oshinowo

2000-01-01

388

Microscopic analysis of recycled paper effect on print quality parameters.  

PubMed

To determine whether the geometrical accuracy of small printed elements does not worsen on recycled paper, microscopic analysis of the dot area and the graphic elements raggedness printed on different types of recycled and coated papers at different screen ruling was carried out. Experimental tests have shown that geometrical accuracy of small elements printed on recycled paper/cardboard, in comparison to pictures printed on primary production paper is almost the same. PMID:23766143

Kibirkštis, Edmundas; Kabelkait?, Asta; Markowski, Leszek; Mili?nas, Valdas

2013-09-01

389

Beyond the Egg Carton Alligator: To Recycle Is To Recall and Restore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that the art of recycling has more to do with connecting people with objects, traditions, and rituals than sustaining the natural environment. Discusses some lessons learned in four categories: (1) recycling as self-sufficiency; (2) recycling as renewal; (3) recycling as a spiritual activity; and (4) recycling as aesthetic transformation.…

Congdon, Kristin G.

2000-01-01

390

Scavengers: A behind-the-scenes recycling battle  

SciTech Connect

Though it may not garner a spotlight as the number-one issue facing the recycling industry, the theft of recyclables is a subtle and elusive vexation that is costing haulers and recyclers thousands of dollars each year. Scavenging is not a new dilemma for the industry. But aside from an occasional seminar on the topic, not much attention has been devoted to the problem, despite the fact that poaching deprives curbside programs of revenues that help offset operating costs. In some locations, losses due to scavenging have sabotaged the efficacy of curbside recycling as a whole.

Goff, J.A.

1994-09-01

391

Beam dynamics simulations for the Fermilab Recycler Ring barrier buckets  

SciTech Connect

The Recycler Ring (RR) is an 8 GeV pbar storage ring for future ppbar collider operations at Fermilab. By design, the beam in the Recycler is stored in three segments (hot, cold and newly transferred beam) azimuthally, using barrier buckets. Properties of the beam in the Recycler are found to be affected by stray magnetic field caused by the Main Injector acceleration ramping process. Here we present results of our measurements of the longitudinal emittance growth of the beam in the Recycler Ring due to the Main Injector ramp and the results of model simulation of this effect using a multi-particle beam dynamics simulation program (ESME).

H. Kang et al.

2003-06-02

392

Volume tracking of commercial recyclables: An economic and environmental analysis  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the tracking study was to gather data on the amount of cardboard and office paper that businesses in the sample were recycling on a weekly basis. The data was then translated into information about potential monetary and environmental savings that could be realized by the businesses if they continued to recycle. The study was intended to help persuade the commercial sector that recycling can save them money. After eight weeks of tracking, almost 80% of the businesses involved in the study decided to continue recycling based on the study results. Detailed tracking data from the study is provided.

Weller, S.L.

1996-08-01

393

Packing in a tradition of recycling: Manufacturer-turned-recycler Free-Flow Packaging Corp. , Redwood City, Calif  

SciTech Connect

Free-Flow Packaging Corp. recycles polystyrene. Loose-fill -- an industry name for expanded polystyrene (EPS) packaging modules, or what the public more commonly calls peanuts'' -- represents a material that can easily and economically be recycled over and over. The company manufactures a 100% recycled packaging peanut called FLO-PAK, as well as a variety of other EPS packaging products. Indeed, to date, Free-Flow Packaging has set up post-consumer EPS recycling operations at five of its 11 manufacturing facilities, both across the country and overseas. The corporation's original facility in Redwood City began this tradition when it first started processing industrial EPS scrap in 1978 and, later, pioneered the recycling of post-consumer EPS on site for use in its products in 1989. Now, only five years later, the result has produced a recycling operation that is truly successful, profitable, and closed-loop.

White, K.M.

1994-01-01

394

Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits  

SciTech Connect

In response to the increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last decade and the problems associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap, with a design capacity of 48,000 tonnes annually, has been in operation in East Chicago, Indiana since early in 1993. The first 450 t of scrap degalvanized in the pilot plant have residual zinc below 0.01% and sodium dragout below 0.01%. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials, environmental compliance, and opportunity costs to steel- and iron-makers. Availability of clean degalvanized scrap may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant and EAF shops to produce flat products without use of high quality scrap alternatives such as DRI, pig iron, or iron carbide. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap. The quantities of zinc available by the year 2000 from prompt and obsolete automotive scrap win approach 25% of zinc consumed in the major automotive production centers of the world. Zinc recycling from galvanized steel scrap, either before or after scrap melting, will have to be implemented.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States)

1993-08-01

395

Recycling of superfine resolution agarose gel.  

PubMed

Genetic markers are now routinely used in a wide range of applications, from forensic DNA analysis to marker-assisted plant and animal breeding. The usual practice in such work is to extract the DNA, prime the markers of interest, and sift them out by electrically driving them through an appropriate matrix, usually a gel. The gels, made from polyacrylamide or agarose, are of high cost, limiting their greater applications in molecular marker work, especially in developing countries where such technology has great potential. Trials using superfine resolution (SFR) agarose for SSR marker screening showed that it is capable of resolving SSR loci and can be reused up to 14 times, thus greatly reducing the cost of each gel run. Furthermore, for certain applications, low concentrations of agarose sufficed and switching to lithium borate buffer, instead of the conventional Tris-borate-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer, will further save time and cost. The 2.5% gel was prepared following the Agarose SFR(TM) manual by adding 2.5 g agarose powder into 100 mL 1X lithium borate buffer in a 250-mL flask with rapid stirring. Two midigels (105 x 83 mm, 17 wells) or 4 minigels (50 x 83 mm, 8 wells), 4 mm thickness can be prepared from 100 mL gel solution. A total of 1680 PCR products amplified using 140 SSR markers from oil palm DNA samples were tested in this study using SFR recycled gel. As average, the gel can be recycled 8 times with good resolution, but can be recycled up to 14 times before the resolutions get blurred. PMID:23546970

Seng, T-Y; Singh, R; Faridah, Q Z; Tan, S-G; Alwee, S S R S

2013-01-01

396

Recycling cultured cells for immunofluorescent labeling.  

PubMed

A method to use sequential rounds of immunofluorescent labeling in cell cultures is presented. The method is based on the utilization of a non-liquid reducing agent, sodium dithionite, in conjunction with ionic or non-ionic detergents (SDS or TX100, respectively) at room temperature. This method preserves cell morphology and substrate antigenicity, and operates through the complete extraction of most primary and secondary antibodies. Using this protocol, the sequential immunolocalization of different proteins is possible, without signal interference with previous immunolabeling rounds. In addition, the method is also useful to recycle blotted membranes in immunoblots. PMID:11479721

Espada, J; Juarranz, A; Villanueva, A; Cañete, M; Andrés, I; Stockert, J C

2001-07-01

397

Recycling of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feasibility of reprocessing a vanadium alloy after its use as a structural material in a fusion reactor, in order to enable its subsequent hands-on recycling within the nuclear industry, has been determined. For less neutron-exposed components, clearance of materials has also been considered. A conceptual model for the radiochemical processing of the alloy has been developed and tested experimentally. Using di-2-ethyl-hexyl-phosphoric acid it is possible to purify the components of the V-Cr-Ti alloy after its exposure in a fusion reactor down to the required level of activation product concentrations.

Bartenev, S. A.; Ciampichetti, A.; Firsin, N. G.; Forrest, R. A.; Kolbasov, B. N.; Kvasnitskij, I. B.; Romanov, P. V.; Romanovskij, V. N.; Zucchetti, M.

2007-08-01

398

Waste Management and Recycling in Lab Batteries can be recycled in the VWR stockroom  

E-print Network

material can be recycled for free by MIT facilities (via SAP web) · Bulk equipment can be disposed of for free by MIT facilities (via SAP web)· Bulk equipment can be disposed of for free by MIT facilities (via SAP web) · Toner & Ink Cartridges - All MIT Distributed Mail Centers (DMC's) contain drop boxes

Cohen, Robert E.

399

University of Tennessee, Neyland Stadium's Recycling Program. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neyland Stadium, located on the University of Tennessee (UT) campus in Knoxville, is home of the UT Volunteers football team. With a seating capacity of 104,079, it is the largest football stadium in the South, and the third-largest college stadium in the country. Since 1993, the stadium has collected more than 50 tons of materials for recycling.…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

2007-01-01

400

Project ROSE (recycled oil saves energy): Alabama's used oil recycling program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project ROSE is a non-profit energy conservation program funded by the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Science, Technology and Energy Division and sponsored by the University of Alabama. Project ROSE's goal is conserving energy, preserving a valuable natural resource and protecting the environment. To accomplish its purpose, Project ROSE educates the public about recycling used oil, helps establish

G. C. April; S. D. Powell

1994-01-01

401

Recycling and Ambivalence: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Household Recycling among Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories about ambivalence, as well as quantitative and qualitative empirical approaches, are applied to obtain an understanding of recycling among young adults. A questionnaire was mailed to 422 Swedish young people. Regression analyses showed that a mix of negative emotions (worry) and positive emotions (hope and joy) about the environmental…

Ojala, Maria

2008-01-01

402

Patterns of new versus recycled primary production in the terrestrial biosphere.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability regulate plant productivity throughout the terrestrial biosphere, influencing the patterns and magnitude of net primary production (NPP) by land plants both now and into the future. These nutrients enter ecosystems via geologic and atmospheric pathways and are recycled to varying degrees through the plant-soil-microbe system via organic matter decay processes. However, the proportion of global NPP that can be attributed to new nutrient inputs versus recycled nutrients is unresolved, as are the large-scale patterns of variation across terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we combined satellite imagery, biogeochemical modeling, and empirical observations to identify previously unrecognized patterns of new versus recycled nutrient (N and P) productivity on land. Our analysis points to tropical forests as a hotspot of new NPP fueled by new N (accounting for 45% of total new NPP globally), much higher than previous estimates from temperate and high-latitude regions. The large fraction of tropical forest NPP resulting from new N is driven by the high capacity for N fixation, although this varies considerably within this diverse biome; N deposition explains a much smaller proportion of new NPP. By contrast, the contribution of new N to primary productivity is lower outside the tropics, and worldwide, new P inputs are uniformly low relative to plant demands. These results imply that new N inputs have the greatest capacity to fuel additional NPP by terrestrial plants, whereas low P availability may ultimately constrain NPP across much of the terrestrial biosphere. PMID:23861492

Cleveland, Cory C; Houlton, Benjamin Z; Smith, W Kolby; Marklein, Alison R; Reed, Sasha C; Parton, William; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Running, Steven W

2013-07-30

403

Impacts of residence time during storage on potential of water saving for grey water recycling system.  

PubMed

Grey water recycling has been generally accepted and is about to move into practice in terms of sustainable development. Previous research has revealed the bacteria re-growth in grey water and reclaimed municipal water during storage. However, in most present grey water recycling practices, impacts of water quality changes during storage on the system's performance and design regulation have not been addressed. In this paper, performance of a constructed wetland based grey water recycling system was analysed by taking the constraint of residence time during storage into account using an object based household water cycle model. Two indicators, water saving efficiency (WSE) and residence time index (RTI), are employed to reflect the system's performance and residence time during storage respectively. Results show that WSE and RTI change with storage tank volumes oppositely. As both high WSE and RTI cannot be achieved simultaneously, it is concluded that in order to achieve the most cost-effective and safe solution, systems with both small grey and green tanks are needed, whilst accepting that only relatively modest water saving efficiency targets can be achieved. Higher efficiencies will only be practicable if water quality deterioration in the green water tank can be prevented by some means (e.g. disinfection). PMID:19796787

Liu, S; Butler, D; Memon, F A; Makropoulos, C; Avery, L; Jefferson, B

2010-01-01

404

Investigation of separation, treatment, and recycling options for hazardous paint blast media waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Army depot depaint operations generate over 4 million kg per year of contaminated paint blast media wastes. The objective of this work was to investigate technologies that might significantly mitigate this Army hazardous waste disposal problem. Most of the technologies investigated either failed to meet acceptable TCLP levels for hazardous metals content, or failed to meet Army disposal requirements. However, based on a review of several commercially available services, it is recommended that Army depot depaint operations consider processing hazardous blast media waste through properly regulated contractors that offer safe, effective, and economical stabilization, fixation, and recycling technologies.

Boy, J.H.; Race, T.D.; Reinbold, K.A.

1996-02-01

405

MSU Recycling recycle.msu.edu 517-355-1723 MARCH 15, 2014 9:00A.M.1:00P.M.  

E-print Network

Ln Green Way Public Recycling Drop-o Center E-Waste Drop-o MSU Surplus Store & Recycling Center Service Rd: recycle.msu.edu NORTH Green Way Public Recycling Drop-o Center E-Waste Drop-o MSU Surplus Store

Liu, Taosheng

406

Identifying recycled ash in basaltic eruptions.  

PubMed

Deposits of mid-intensity basaltic explosive eruptions are characterized by the coexistence of different types of juvenile clasts, which show a large variability of external properties and texture, reflecting alternatively the effects of primary processes related to magma storage or ascent, or of syn-eruptive modifications occurred during or immediately after their ejection. If fragments fall back within the crater area before being re-ejected during the ensuing activity, they are subject to thermally- and chemically-induced alterations. These 'recycled' clasts can be considered as cognate lithic for the eruption/explosion they derive. Their exact identification has consequences for a correct interpretation of eruption dynamics, with important implications for hazard assessment. On ash erupted during selected basaltic eruptions (at Stromboli, Etna, Vesuvius, Gaua-Vanuatu), we have identified a set of characteristics that can be associated with the occurrence of intra-crater recycling processes, based also on the comparison with results of reheating experiments performed on primary juvenile material, at variable temperature and under different redox conditions. PMID:25069064

D'Oriano, Claudia; Bertagnini, Antonella; Cioni, Raffaello; Pompilio, Massimo

2014-01-01

407

Identifying recycled ash in basaltic eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposits of mid-intensity basaltic explosive eruptions are characterized by the coexistence of different types of juvenile clasts, which show a large variability of external properties and texture, reflecting alternatively the effects of primary processes related to magma storage or ascent, or of syn-eruptive modifications occurred during or immediately after their ejection. If fragments fall back within the crater area before being re-ejected during the ensuing activity, they are subject to thermally- and chemically-induced alterations. These `recycled' clasts can be considered as cognate lithic for the eruption/explosion they derive. Their exact identification has consequences for a correct interpretation of eruption dynamics, with important implications for hazard assessment. On ash erupted during selected basaltic eruptions (at Stromboli, Etna, Vesuvius, Gaua-Vanuatu), we have identified a set of characteristics that can be associated with the occurrence of intra-crater recycling processes, based also on the comparison with results of reheating experiments performed on primary juvenile material, at variable temperature and under different redox conditions.

D'Oriano, Claudia; Bertagnini, Antonella; Cioni, Raffaello; Pompilio, Massimo

2014-07-01

408

Corrosion tests of DWPF recycle solution  

SciTech Connect

Coupon immersion tests were performed on ASTM A537, Class 1 carbon steel in simulated Defense Waste Processing Facility recycle solutions at 93 {plus_minus} 2{degree}C, in an effort to reproduce the results of earlier tests in which hard, shock-sensitive deposits were found. There was no evidence of pitting corrosion on the coupons exposed to solutions containing 0.5 M hydroxide and 2000 ppm (0.043 M) nitrite. Liquid mercury and small solid deposits were found on the specimens` immersed surfaces. However, the deposits were soft and not shock-sensitive. The absence of shock-sensitive deposits may have been due to a lower mercuric ion concentration in the test solutions or to different post-immersion handling. Coupons of 304L stainless steel and alloy C276 were also immersed in the simulated recycle solution. These coupons were not subject to localized corrosion, nor were shock-sensitive deposits found. Additional immersion tests on A537 coupons will be started in July 1992.

Zapp, P.E.

1992-07-28

409

Corrosion tests of DWPF recycle solution  

SciTech Connect

Coupon immersion tests were performed on ASTM A537, Class 1 carbon steel in simulated Defense Waste Processing Facility recycle solutions at 93 [plus minus] 2[degree]C, in an effort to reproduce the results of earlier tests in which hard, shock-sensitive deposits were found. There was no evidence of pitting corrosion on the coupons exposed to solutions containing 0.5 M hydroxide and 2000 ppm (0.043 M) nitrite. Liquid mercury and small solid deposits were found on the specimens' immersed surfaces. However, the deposits were soft and not shock-sensitive. The absence of shock-sensitive deposits may have been due to a lower mercuric ion concentration in the test solutions or to different post-immersion handling. Coupons of 304L stainless steel and alloy C276 were also immersed in the simulated recycle solution. These coupons were not subject to localized corrosion, nor were shock-sensitive deposits found. Additional immersion tests on A537 coupons will be started in July 1992.

Zapp, P.E.

1992-07-28

410

A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. (Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada))

1992-01-01

411

A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap  

SciTech Connect

In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

1992-08-01

412

Recycling Krylov subspaces for CFD applications  

E-print Network

The most popular iterative linear solvers in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations are restarted GMRES and BiCGStab. At the beginning of most incompressible flow calculations, the computation time and the number of iterations to converge for the pressure Poisson equation are quite high. In this case, the BiCGStab algorithm, with relatively cheap but non-optimal iterations, may fail to converge for stiff problems. Thus, a more robust algorithm like GMRES, which guarantees monotonic convergence, is preferred. To reduce the large storage requirements of GMRES, a restarted version - GMRES(m) or its variants - is used in CFD applications. However, GMRES(m) can suffer from stagnation or very slow convergence. For this reason, we use the rGCROT method. rGCROT is an algorithm that improves restarted GMRES by recycling a selected subspace of the search space from one restart of GMRES(m) to the next as well as building and recycling this outer vector space from one problem to the next (subsequent time steps i...

Amritkar, Amit; ?wirydowicz, Katarzyna; Tafti, Danesh; Ahuja, Kapil

2015-01-01

413

Interim storage of recyclable materials. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate long-term, economical, outdoor storage of a variety of postconsumer recyclable materials. Field investigations and laboratory analysis were performed to examine how protected and unprotected storage would affect marketability and product quality of baled plastics, papers, and other miscellaneous potentially recyclable materials. Baled materials were stored and evaluated over a period of approximately two years. Evaluation of the stored paper products was undertaken using handsheets to perform tests as published by the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI). A beater curve analysis of selected stored papers, a pilot-scale papermaking run on a Number 2 Fourdrinier Paper machine, and two microbial analysis of the paper materials were also undertaken. Plastic samples obtained from the field were evaluated for oxidation using an Infrared Spectrophotometer (IR), and a controlled `blackbox` IR study was completed. Liquid run-off from bales was analyzed on a quarterly basis. The authors` investigations show that inexpensive outdoor storage for some paper and plastic products is potentially viable as some postconsumer paper and plastic products can be stored outdoors for long periods of time, 300 days or more, without protection. Few potential negative environmental impacts of such storage were found.

NONE

1998-11-01

414

Subduction and volatile recycling in Earth's mantle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subduction of water and other volatiles into the mantle from oceanic sediments and altered oceanic crust is the major source of volatile recycling in the mantle. Until now, the geotherms that have been used to estimate the amount of volatiles that are recycled at subduction zones have been produced using the hypothesis that the slab is rigid and undergoes no internal deformation. On the other hand, most fluid dynamical mantle flow calculations assume that the slab has no greater strength than the surrounding mantle. Both of these views are inconsistent with laboratory work on the deformation of mantle minerals at high pressures. We consider the effects of the strength of the slab using two-dimensional calculations of a slab-like thermal downwelling with an endothermic phase change. Because the rheology and composition of subducting slabs are uncertain, we consider a range of Clapeyron slopes which bound current laboratory estimates of the spinel to perovskite plus magnesiowustite phase transition and simple temperature-dependent rheologies based on an Arrhenius law diffusion mechanism. In uniform viscosity convection models, subducted material piles up above the phase change until the pile becomes gravitationally unstable and sinks into the lower mantle (the avalanche). Strong slabs moderate the 'catastrophic' effects of the instabilities seen in many constant-viscosity convection calculations; however, even in the strongest slabs we consider, there is some retardation of the slab descent due to the presence of the phase change.

King, S. D.; Ita, J. J.; Staudigel, H.

1994-01-01

415

Analysis of the cost of recycling compliance for the automobile industry  

E-print Network

Cars are one of the most recycled commercial products. Currently, approximately 75% of the total vehicle weight is recycled. The EU directives on End-of-life vehicles try to push the recycling process further: it fixed the ...

Dantec, Delphine

2005-01-01

416

78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental...generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under...the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying...

2013-04-05

417

7 CFR 3201.53 - Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products. 3201.53...Items § 3201.53 Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products. (a) Definition. Products formulated to dissolve EPS foam to reduce the volume of recycled...

2014-01-01

418

7 CFR 3201.53 - Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products. 3201.53...Items § 3201.53 Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products. (a) Definition. Products formulated to dissolve EPS foam to reduce the volume of recycled...

2013-01-01

419

7 CFR 2902.53 - Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products. 2902.53...Items § 2902.53 Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products. (a) Definition. Products formulated to dissolve EPS foam to reduce the volume of recycled...

2011-01-01

420

7 CFR 3201.53 - Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products. 3201.53...Items § 3201.53 Expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam recycling products. (a) Definition. Products formulated to dissolve EPS foam to reduce the volume of recycled...

2012-01-01

421

77 FR 26588 - In the Matter of Recycle Tech, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Recycle Tech, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading May 2...information concerning the securities of Recycle Tech, Inc. (``Recycle Tech'') because it has not filed a periodic...

2012-05-04

422

Identification of Genes Required for Recycling Reducing Power during Photosynthetic Growth†  

PubMed Central

Photosynthetic organisms have the unique ability to transform light energy into reducing power. We study the requirements for photosynthesis in the ?-proteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Global gene expression analysis found that ?50 uncharacterized genes were regulated by changes in light intensity and O2 tension, similar to the expression of genes known to be required for photosynthetic growth of this bacterium. These uncharacterized genes included RSP4157 to -4159, which appeared to be cotranscribed and map to plasmid P004. A mutant containing a polar insertion in RSP4157, CT01, was able to grow via photosynthesis under autotrophic conditions using H2 as an electron donor and CO2 as a carbon source. However, CT01 was unable to grow photoheterotrophically in a succinate-based medium unless compounds that could be used to recycle reducing power (the external electron acceptor dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or CO2) were provided. This suggests that the insertion in RSP4157 caused a defect in recycling reducing power during photosynthetic growth when a fixed carbon source was present. CT01 had decreased levels of RNA for genes encoding putative glycolate degradation functions. We found that exogenous glycolate also rescued photoheterotrophic growth of CT01, leading us to propose that CO2 produced from glycolate metabolism can be used by the Calvin cycle to recycle reducing power generated in the photosynthetic apparatus. The ability of glycolate, CO2, or DMSO to support photoheterotrophic growth of CT01 suggests that one or more products of RSP4157 to -4159 serve a previously unknown role in recycling reducing power under photosynthetic conditions. PMID:16030219

Tavano, Christine L.; Podevels, Angela M.; Donohue, Timothy J.

2005-01-01

423

Application of NIR hyperspectral imaging for post-consumer polyolefins recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient large-scale recycling approach of particulate solid wastes is always accomplished according to the quality of the materials fed to the recycling plant and/or to any possible continuous and reliable control of the different streams inside the processing plants. Processing technologies addressed to recover plastics need to be extremely powerful, since they must be relatively simple to be cost-effective, but also accurate enough to create high-purity products and able to valorize a substantial fraction of the plastic waste materials into useful products of consistent quality in order to be economical. On the other hand, the potential market for such technologies is large and the boost of environmental regulations, and the oil price increase, has made many industries interested both in "general purpose" waste sorting technologies, as well as in developing more specialized sensing devices and/or inspection logics for a better quality assessment of plastic products. In this perspective recycling strategies have to be developed taking into account some specific aspects as i) mixtures complexity: the valuable material has to be extracted from the residue, ii) overall production: the profitability of plastic can be achieved only with mass production and iii) costs: low-cost sorting processes are required. In this paper new analytical strategies, based on hyperspectral imaging in the near infrared field (1000-1700 nm), have been investigated and set up in order to define sorting and/or quality control logics that could be profitably applied, at industrial plant level, for polyolefins recycling.

Serranti, Silvia; Gargiulo, Aldo; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

2012-06-01

424

Guidance receptor promotes the asymmetric distribution of exocyst and recycling endosome during collective cell migration.  

PubMed

During collective migration, guidance receptors signal downstream to result in a polarized distribution of molecules, including cytoskeletal regulators and guidance receptors themselves, in response to an extracellular gradient of chemotactic factors. However, the underlying mechanism of asymmetry generation in the context of the migration of a group of cells is not well understood. Using border cells in the Drosophila ovary as a model system for collective migration, we found that the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) PDGF/VEGF receptor (PVR) is required for a polarized distribution of recycling endosome and exocyst in the leading cells of the border cell cluster. Interestingly, PVR signaled through the small GTPase Rac to positively affect the levels of Rab11-labeled recycling endosomes, probably in an F-actin-dependent manner. Conversely, the exocyst complex component Sec3 was required for the asymmetric localization of RTK activity and F-actin, similar to that previously reported for the function of Rab11. Together, these results suggested a positive-feedback loop in border cells, in which RTKs such as PVR act to induce a higher level of vesicle recycling and tethering activity in the leading cells, which in turn enables RTK activity to be distributed in a more polarized fashion at the front. We also provided evidence that E-cadherin, the major adhesion molecule for border cell migration, is a specific cargo in the Rab11-labeled recycling endosomes and that Sec3 is required for the delivery of the E-cadherin-containing vesicles to the membrane. PMID:24198275

Wan, Ping; Wang, Dou; Luo, Jun; Chu, Dandan; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Lijun; Chen, Jiong

2013-12-01

425

Purine metabolism during neuronal differentiation: the relevance of purine synthesis and recycling.  

PubMed

Purines are a class of small organic molecules that are essential for all cells. They play critical roles in neuronal differentiation and function. Their importance is highlighted by several inherited disorders of purine metabolism, such as Lesch-Nyhan disease, which is caused by a deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt). Despite the known importance of purines in the nervous system, knowledge regarding their metabolism in neurons is limited. In the current studies, purine pools and their metabolism were examined in rat PC6-3 cells, a PC12 pheochromocytoma subclone that undergoes robust differentiation with nerve growth factor. The results were compared with five new independent PC6-3 subclones with defective purine recycling because of different mutations affecting HGprt enzyme activity. The results demonstrate an increase in most purines and in energy state following neuronal differentiation, as well as specific abnormalities when purine recycling is lost. The loss of HGprt-mediated purine recycling also is associated with significant loss of dopamine and related metabolites in the mutant PC6-3 lines, suggesting an important connection between purine and dopamine pathways. These results provide insights into how purine pools and metabolism change with neuronal differentiation, and how specific enzyme defects may cause neuronal dysfunction. Differentiation of dopaminergic PC6-3 cells is accompanied by increased purine pools and energy state. The lack of a functional purine recycling pathway causes purine limitation in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells, as well as profound loss of dopamine content. The results imply an unknown mechanism by which intracellular purine levels regulate dopamine levels. PMID:23859490

Göttle, Martin; Burhenne, Heike; Sutcliffe, Diane; Jinnah, H A

2013-12-01

426

Curbside Recycling: Waste Resource or Waste of Resources?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we address the often contentious debate over state and local recycling policy by carefully estimating the social net benefit of curbside recycling. Benefits are estimated using household survey data from over 4,000 households across 40 western U.S. cities. We calibrate household willingness to pay for hypothetical bias using an…

Aadland, David; Caplan, Arthur J.

2006-01-01

427

Recycled Coarse Aggregate Produced by Pulsed Discharge in Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Japan, the recycling ratio of concrete scraps has been kept over 98 % after the Law for the Recycling of Construction Materials was enforced in 2000. In the present, most of concrete scraps were recycled as the Lower Subbase Course Material. On the other hand, it is predicted to be difficult to keep this higher recycling ratio in the near future because concrete scraps increase rapidly and would reach to over 3 times of present situation in 2010. In addition, the demand of concrete scraps as the Lower Subbase Course Material has been decreased. Therefore, new way to reuse concrete scraps must be developed. Concrete scraps normally consist of 70 % of coarse aggregate, 19 % of water and 11 % of cement. To obtain the higher recycling ratio, the higher recycling ratio of coarse aggregate is desired. In this paper, a new method for recycling coarse aggregate from concrete scraps has been developed and demonstrated. The system includes a Marx generator and a point to hemisphere mesh electrode immersed in water. In the demonstration, the test piece of concrete scrap was located between the electrodes and was treated by the pulsed discharge. After discharge treatment of test piece, the recycling coarse aggregates were evaluated under JIS and TS and had enough quality for utilization as the coarse aggregate.

Namihira, Takao; Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakashima, Kazuyuki; Murakami, Akira; Kuroki, Kaori; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Yuichi; Sakugawa, Takashi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Ohtsu, Masayasu

428

Small scale water recycling systems - risk assessment and modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to use quantitative risk analysis, risk modelling and simulation modelling tools to assess the performance of a proprietary single house grey water recycling system. A preliminary Hazard and Operability study (HAZOP) identified the main hazards, both health related and economic, associated with installing the recycling system in a domestic environment. The health related consequences of system failure

C. Diaper; A. Dixon; D. Butler; A. Fewkes; S. A. Parsons; M. Strathern; T. Stephenson; J. Strutt

2001-01-01

429

Environmental Compliance for Auto Recyclers (ECAR) home page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like most businesses, automotive recycling facilities are subject to stringent federal, state and local environmental laws. The ECAR website is designed to provide a state-by-state breakdown of the requirements that apply specifically to industry activities for those states having developed said guidelines. This site offers the user numerous links to investigate specific criteria and guidelines pertinent to the auto recycling industry.

2007-10-04

430

Catalytic coal liquefaction with treated solvent and SRC recycle  

DOEpatents

A process for the solvent refining of coal to distillable, pentane soluble products using a dephenolated and denitrogenated recycle solvent and a recycled, pentane-insoluble, solvent-refined coal material, which process provides enhanced oil-make in the conversion of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01

431

AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. he specific recycling units evaluated are a fleet-size unit and a portable unit, both based on the technology of chemical filtration...

432

A normative strategy for sustainable resource choice and recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normative strategy is proposed for resource choice and recycling to meet the criterion of sustainability, defined as near constancy of natural resources. In this strategy resource choice should be fitted to the fate of products and product wastes, with geochemically scarce virtually non-renewable resources being reserved for uses that allow for nearly 100% recycling and negligible loss of irretrievable

L. Reijnders

2000-01-01

433

Environmental Impact of Irrigating Turf with Type I Recycled Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

As our water reserves diminish, recycled water is increasingly being used for irrigation of turfgrasses. This study was conducted to deter- mine the fate of nutrients contained in Type I recycled water used to irrigate turf and its effect on turf quality. Eighteen plots were randomly assigned to three replications of three irrigation treatments and two grasses. Irrigation treatments included

James C. Thomas; Richard H. White; Jonathan T. Vorheis; Heather G. Harris; Kenneth Diehl

2006-01-01

434

Phosphorus recovery from centralised municipal water recycling plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depletion of world phosphorus reserves is driving research into options to recover and recycle this essential, non-renewable resource. Phosphate (PO43?) recovery at centralised wastewater treatment plants can be achieved through biosolids reuse or sidestream precipitation though the PO43? levels are low compared with decentralised systems based on source separation. However, the recent growth in membrane based water recycling projects, where

Zenah Bradford-Hartke; Paul Lant; Gregory Leslie

435

Recycled materials in geotechnical applications. Geotechnical special publication No. 79  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycled materials have the potential for use in a variety of geotechnical and geoenvironmental applications. This proceedings contains 15 papers on field applications and laboratory testing related to recycled materials. Papers cover: geotechnics of industrial by-products; paper mill sludge for landfill cover; mitigation of void development under bridge approach slabs using rubber tire chips; tire shreds as lightweight fill for

C. Vipulanandan; D. J. Elton

1998-01-01

436

AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY DISTILLATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants for a facility such as the New Jersey Department of Transportation garage in Ewing, New Jersey. he specific recycling evaluated is b...

437

General Guidelines for Sustainable Purchasing 3R's -Reduce, Reuse, Recycle  

E-print Network

......................................................... 3R's - Reduce, Reuse, Recycle In order to conserve natural resources and to protect the environment considerations o Made of recycled materials, maximizing post-consumer content. o Remanufactured products, such as laser toner cartridges, tires, furniture, equipment and automotive parts whenever practicable and cost

Jiang, Huiqiang

438

Investigation of factors affecting asphalt pavement recycling and asphalt compatibility  

SciTech Connect

Both economic and environmental factors dictate that asphalt pavement be recycled. Many recycling projects have been completed using a variety of recycling additives, but little work has been done on the physiochemical aspects of pavement recycling. The present exploratory study was undertaken to better define the physiochemical variables of recycling. Objectives of the present study include: (1) to determine if molecular structuring in the asphalt binder could be observed in oxidized (air-aged) asphalt-aggregate briquets, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquits, and if so, how was structuring affected during briquet recycling and (2) to determine if recycling agents penetrate the strongly adsorbed asphalt layer on the aggregate surface. Differences were seen in asphalt component compatibility as judged by the state of peptization parameters. In extreme cases the values of the parameters correlated with properties of asphalts of known compatibility; however, a relationship between the parameters determined on a series of asphalts in pavements was not established. The parameters might be useful in evaluating additives for pavement recycling; however, more systems need to be studied to fully assess their potential usefulness. Finally, the parameters need to be correlated with performance-related measurements such as asphalt rheological and mix properties. Examination of the parameters and their changes on asphalt oxidative aging may also be informative with regard to asphalt durability inasmuch as oxidation-induced changes are a major cause of asphalt pavement failure.

Venable, R.L.; Petersen, J.C.; Robertson, R.E.; Plancher, H.

1983-03-01

439

Pesticide Container Recycling "It's Just The Right Thing To Do!"  

E-print Network

(The old county landfill). About 6,000 containers are recycled each year at this location have been an issue on a site evaluation or audit, but that was not the purpose of that day. Pesticide; or disposed of in an approved landfill. In choosing to recycle empty used pesticide containers you need

Jawitz, James W.

440

Recycling the Cycle of Perception: A Polemic Extended Talk Abstract  

E-print Network

Recycling the Cycle of Perception: A Polemic Extended Talk Abstract Alan Mackworth Laboratory Heidelberg 2002 #12;Recycling the Cycle of Perception: A Polemic 103 to see the oscillation from one pole or between the agent and its environment. The obvious dilemma for any synthesis is that a coherent theory

Mackworth, Alan K.

441

INDUSTRIAL REUSE AND RECYCLE OF WASTEWATERS - LITERATURE REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

A review of the literature on reuse/recycle of wastewaters by industry is presented in this report. The principal time period reviewed was 1967-1978. A total of 912 references are cited. Since the literature on reuse/recycle is voluminous, it was impossible to include all referen...

442

Use of recycled aggregates in molded concrete bricks and blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to develop a technique for producing concrete bricks and paving blocks using recycled aggregates obtained from construction and demolition waste. Laboratory trials were conducted to investigate the possibility of using recycled aggregates from different sources in Hong Kong, as the replacement of both coarse and fine natural aggregates in molded bricks and blocks. A series of tests

C. S. Poon; S. C. Kou; L. Lam

2002-01-01

443

EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT.  

EPA Science Inventory

This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. The specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtrat...

444

MOBILE ON-SITE RECYCLING OF METALWORKING FLUIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues were evaluated for a technology designed to recycle metalworking fluids. mulsion-type fluids were tested at two sites and a synthetic fluid was tested at a third site. he specific recycling unit evaluated is based on the techn...

445

Rural Recycling Center for tin, glass, aluminum, and newspaper  

SciTech Connect

Data on the outcome of the project are presented. Recycling was available to the residents of Pleasant Mount and Forest City, Pennsylvania on alternate Saturdays at the beginning of the project in February 1980. In April, the schedule was altered; the recycling centers in each community were open only 1 Saturday per month. A baler, a fork lift and safety equipment were purchased. (DMC)

Not Available

1980-01-01

446

Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment  

SciTech Connect

Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

1994-03-01

447

Biomass recycling and species competition in continuous cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemostat with cell feedback is analyzed for three kinds of limiting nutrient: a substrate dissolved in the inflow, a gas bubbled directly into the reactor, and light. The effects of recycle are distinct in each case, because the relationships between hydraulic detention time and nutrient inflow and outflow are different for each type of nutrient. Effluent recycle, in which

Joseph C. Weissman; John R. Benemann

1979-01-01

448

RECYCLING ZINC IN VISCOSE RAYON PLANTS BY TWO STAGE PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

In an EPA demonstration grant, a process for precipitating a dense sludge of high zinc assay was proven. The zinc in the sludge was recovered and recycled to the rayon manufacturing plant. This recycling of zinc was shown to have no ill effects on rayon yarn. This process greatly...

449

Progress in Recycling of Retired Cadmium-Telluride Photovoltaic Modules  

E-print Network

-Talk Program July 21, 2005 #12;Recycling Retired Photovoltaic Modules to Valuable Products, Where Are WeProgress in Recycling of Retired Cadmium- Telluride Photovoltaic Modules Postdoctoral: Wenming Wang Fragments Tellurium Product #12;CdTe Module Fragments(Crushed with Hammer Mill) Components of the fragments

450

Transport from the Recycler Ring to the Antiproton Source Beamlines  

SciTech Connect

In the post-NOvA era, the protons are directly transported from the Booster ring to the Recycler ring rather than the Main Injector. For Mu2e and g-2 project, the Debuncher ring will be modified into a Delivery ring to deliver the protons to both Mu2e and g-2 experiments. Therefore, it requires the transport of protons from the Recycler Ring to the Delivery ring. A new transfer line from the Recycler ring to the P1 beamline will be constructed to transport proton beam from the Recycler Ring to existing Antiproton Source beamlines. This new beamline provides a way to deliver 8 GeV kinetic energy protons from the Booster to the Delivery ring, via the Recycler, using existing beam transport lines, and without the need for new civil construction. This paper presents the Conceptual Design of this new beamline.

Xiao, M.; /Fermilab

2012-05-14

451

Survey and alignment of the Fermilab Recycler Antiproton Storage Ring  

SciTech Connect

In June of 1999 Fermilab commissioned a newly constructed antiproton storage ring, the Recycler Ring, in the Main Injector tunnel directly above the Main Injector beamline. The Recycler Ring is a fixed 8 GeV kinetic energy storage ring and is constructed of strontium ferrite permanent magnets. The 3,319.4-meter-circumference Recycler Ring consists of 344 gradient magnets and 100 quadrupoles all of which are permanent magnets. This paper discusses the methods employed to survey and align these permanent magnets within the Recycler Ring with the specified accuracy. The Laser Tracker was the major instrument used for the final magnet alignment. The magnets were aligned along the Recycler Ring with a relative accuracy of {+-}0.25.

Babatunde O'Sheg Oshinowo

2000-06-13

452

Strength of masonry blocks made with recycled concrete aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of recycling concrete of demolished buildings aims at preserving the environment. Indeed, the reuse of concrete as aggregate in new concrete mixes helped to reduce the expenses related to construction and demolition (C&D) waste management and, especially, to protect the environment by reducing the development rate of new quarries. This paper presents the results of an experimental study conducted on masonry blocks containing aggregates resulting from concrete recycling. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of recycled aggregates on compressive strength of concrete blocks. Tests were performed on series of concrete blocks: five series each made of different proportions of recycled aggregates, and one series of reference blocks exclusively composed of natural aggregates. Tests showed that using recycled aggregates with addition of cement allows the production of concrete blocks with compressive strengths comparable to those obtained on concrete blocks made exclusively of natural aggregates.

Matar, Pierre; Dalati, Rouba El

453

Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant  

SciTech Connect

The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that pays for itself'' through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

1992-02-01

454

Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant  

SciTech Connect

The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that ``pays for itself`` through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

1992-02-01

455

40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01...false Standards for recycling and recovery equipment...158 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions...

2014-07-01

456

40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01...false Standards for recycling and recovery equipment...158 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions...

2010-07-01

457

40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01...false Standards for recycling and recovery equipment...158 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions...

2012-07-01

458

40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01...false Standards for recycling and recovery equipment...158 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions...

2011-07-01

459

40 CFR 82.158 - Standards for recycling and recovery equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01...false Standards for recycling and recovery equipment...158 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions...

2013-07-01

460

CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS) for recycling. These include  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM BATTERIES All types of batteries are collected by Chemical Waste Services (CWS) for recycling. These include alkaline, lithium, rechargeable, coin batteries, lead-acid and all other types. Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS) batteries must be removed from the UPS casing

Baker, Chris I.

461

The determinants of household recycling: a material-specific analysis of recycling program features and unit pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the impact of two popular solid waste programs on the percent recycled of several different materials found in the residential solid waste stream. We examine a unique, household-level data set representing middle and upper-middle income groups in 20 metropolitan statistical areas across the country and containing information on the percent recycled of five different materials: glass bottles,

Robin R. Jenkins; Salvador A. Martinez; Karen Palmer; Michael J. Podolsky

2003-01-01

462

Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) for direct food contact applications: challenge test of an inline recycling process.  

PubMed

Of all the plastics used for packaging, due to its low diffusivity and chemical inertness, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is one of the favoured candidate plastics for closed-loop recycling for new packaging applications. In the work reported here, a PET-recycling process was investigated with respect to its cleaning efficiency and compliance of the PET recyclate with food law. The key technology of the investigated PET-recycling process to remove contaminants consists of a predecontamination-extruder combination. At the end of the recycling process, there is either a pelletizing system or downstream equipment to produce preforms or flat sheets. Therefore, the process has two process options, an inline production of PET preforms and a batch option producing PET pellets. In the case of possible misuse of PET bottles by the consumer, the inline process produces higher concentrations in the bottle wall of the recyclate containing preforms. Owing to the dilution of the PET output material by large amounts of uncontaminated PET, the batch option is the less critical process in terms of consumer protection. Regarding an appropriate testing procedure for the evaluation of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process, both process options have their own specific requirements with respect to the design of a challenge test. A novel challenge test approach to the inline mode of a recycling process is presented here. PMID:12028650

Franz, R; Welle, F

2002-05-01

463

The collection system for residential recyclables in communities in Haidian District, Beijing: a possible approach for China recycling.  

PubMed

Recycling and reusing recyclables is an important way to solve the municipal solid waste (MSW) problem. As the collection of solid waste takes up the largest percentage of MSW management budgets, improving the collection of recyclables is important. Since the decline of government-run waste buying depots in the late 1980s, the collection of recyclables from households and waste deposit sites in China is done by buyers with small informal bases and waste pickers, who are usually unskilled rural people who have come to the cities. Because of this, the current system is seen to have social problems. So, the recyclable collection system has both social as well as economic significance. China is in the process of rapid industrialization and urbanization, and a new mode of community collection system is emerging. It operates by market mechanisms, with waste collection companies that are supported by the municipal government, establishing recycle service sites, and employing workers to buy recyclables door-to-door. This paper is a case study of the new system in the Haidian District, Beijing. It summarizes the system, compares it to experiences in other countries and discusses whether the new approach contributes to resources recycling in China. PMID:17967528

Wang, Jia; Han, Ling; Li, Shushu

2008-01-01

464

Balancing act creating the right regulation for coal combustion waste  

SciTech Connect

The December 2008 collapse of a coal ash pond in Tennessee threw safe management of coal combustion waste (CCW) into the spotlight. Millions of tons of CCW are produced in the United States each year, and a large percentage of that is recycled. The US Environmental Protection Agency is pursuing a host of initiatives that could directly or indirectly affect the disposition of CCW. States, too, are taking a look at how they regulate CCW. Among the options is the possibility of regulating CCW under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a move that could have far-reaching implications for both the recycling and the disposal of this waste.

Manuel, J.

2009-11-15

465

Buy-back program recycles old refrigerators  

SciTech Connect

A refrigerator Buy-Back Program was initiated by the regional power utility, BC Hydron in 1990, with six pilot collection areas in British Columbia. As a result of the program's initial success, BC Hydro started a facility to dismantle old refrigerators, and the utility plans to expand its Refrigerator Buy-Back Program province-wide. BC Hydro's Refrigerator Buy-Back is the first utility-sponsored program of its kind in Canada. Similar appliance recycling efforts are underway in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and Hartford, Connecticut. Each of these programs was initiated to conserve electricity, but added benefits include waste reduction and removal of potential hazards such as freons and PCBs from the environment.

Musick, M.

1991-06-01

466

CO2 Sequestration and Recycle by Photosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Visible light-photocatalysis could provide a cost-effective route to recycle CO2 to useful chemicals or fuels. Research is planned to study the reactivity of adsorbates, their role in the photosynthesis reaction, and their relation to the nature of surface sites during photosynthesis of methanol and hydrocarbons from CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O. The year two research focus catalyst screening and IR studies. Key research results show Pd/TiO2 exhibits the highest activity for hydrocarbon synthesis from photocatalytic reactions. The in situ IR could successfully monitor the adsorbate hydrocarbon species on Cu/TiO2. Year III research will focus on developing a better understanding of the key factors which control the catalyst activity.

Steven S.C. Chuang

2004-02-01

467

Volcanic recycling of carbonates on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal erosion of carbonate deposits by turbulently-flowing lava is investigated as a means of recycling carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere of Mars. Erosion rates of several meters/day are found, implying that up to hundreds of meters of carbonate could be removed over the lifetime of a flow. A large fraction of the northern plains and other parts of Mars were covered by lava during the Hesperian, and may have released the carbon dioxide trapped in carbonate deposits. This period of time, several times 10 exp 8 yrs, is comparable to that for the redeposition of such carbonate deposits. Therefore, there could have existed a relatively dense atmosphere, and enhanced weathering and erosion, after the Noachian era. This may help explain the apparent observational evidence for late fluvial and lacustrine activity on Mars.

Schaefer, M. W.

1993-05-01

468

HI Recycling: Formation of Tidal Dwarf Galaxies  

E-print Network

Galactic collisions trigger a number of phenomena, such as transportation inward of gas from distances of up to kiloparsecs from the center of a galaxy to the nuclear region, fuelling a central starburst or nuclear activity. The inverse process, the ejection of material into the intergalactic medium by tidal forces, is another important aspect and can be studied especially well through detailed HI observations of interacting systems which have shown that a large fraction of the gaseous component of colliding galaxies can be expelled. Part of this tidal debris might fall back, be dispersed throughout the intergalactic medium or recondense to form a new generation of galaxies: the so-called tidal dwarf galaxies. The latter are nearby examples of galaxies in formation. The properties of these recycled objects are reviewed here and different ways to identify them are reviewed.

Pierre-Alain Duc; Elias Brinks

2000-08-23

469

Used lubricating oil recycling using hydrocarbon solvents.  

PubMed

A solvent extraction process using new hydrocarbon solvents was employed to treat used lubricant oil. The solvents used were liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) condensate and stabilized condensate. A demulsifier was used to enhance the treatment process. The extraction process using stabilized condensate demonstrated characteristics that make it competitive with existing used oil treatment technologies. The process is able to reduce the asphaltene content of the treated lubricating oil to 0.106% (w/w), the ash content to 0.108%, and the carbon residue to 0.315% with very low levels of contaminant metals. The overall yield of oil is 79%. The treated used oil can be recycled as base lubricating oil. The major disadvantage of this work is the high temperature of solvent recovery. Experimental work and results are presented in detail. PMID:15627468

Hamad, Ahmad; Al-Zubaidy, Essam; Fayed, Muhammad E

2005-01-01

470

Tritium recycling and retention in JET  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JET's 1997 Deuterium Tritium Experiment (DTE1) allows a detailed study of hydrogenic isotope recycling and retention in a pumped divertor configuration relevant to ITER. There appear to be two distinct forms of retained tritium. (1) A dynamic inventory which controls the fueling behaviour of a single discharge, and in particular determines the isotopic composition. This is shown to be consistent with neutral particle implantation over the whole vessel surface area. (2) A continually growing inventory, which plays a small role in the particle balance of a single discharge, but ultimately dominates the hydrogenic inventory for an experimental campaign comprising thousands of pulses. This will be the dominant retention mechanism in long-pulse devices like ITER. The JET retention scaled-up to ITER proportions suggests that ITER may reach its tritium inventory limit in less than 100 pulses.

Andrew, P.; Brennan, D.; Coad, J. P.; Ehrenberg, J.; Gadeberg, M.; Gibson, A.; Groth, M.; How, J.; Jarvis, O. N.; Jensen, H.; Lässer, R.; Marcus, F.; Monk, R.; Morgan, P.; Orchard, J.; Peacock, A.; Pearce, R.; Pick, M.; Rossi, A.; Schunke, B.; Stamp, M.; von Hellermann, M.; Hillis, D. L.; Hogan, J.

471

Development and realization of shredder fluff recycling  

SciTech Connect

In the past shredder fluff from automobile recycling was discarded in landfills, but shrinking landfill space and the partly hazardous content of the fluff as well as its caloric value, all resulted in efforts to turn this waste problem into an energy resource. In order to produce a fuel, the inorganic compounds have to be removed. Extensive analyses and particle size measurements were made on fluff from various shredder. For optimal separation all particles are reduced to a uniform, relatively small size. In a subsequent combined screening and air classification process, successful separation into organic and inorganic fractions is achieved. The inorganic fraction is treated in a heavy media or an eddy-current separator to recover the valuable metals, while the organic fraction is now suitable for thermal processing, such as fluidized bed gasification and using the resulting carbon as a chemical reagent.

Meyer, M. [Sortec GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

1995-12-31

472

INSURANCE REGULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter summarizes the economic understanding of insurance regulation with a focus on solvency regulation, underwriting regulation, contract regulation and competition law exemptions. Insurance industry solvency regulation is viewed as a solution to a collective action problem that might otherwise induce insurers to take excessive risk. The chapter analyzes the economics of regulations addressing adverse selection, including traditional doctrines of

Seth J. Chandler

473

Energy Return on Investment - Fuel Recycle  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a methodology and requisite data to assess the potential Energy Return On Investment (EROI) for nuclear fuel cycle alternatives, and applies that methodology to a limited set of used fuel recycle scenarios. This paper is based on a study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a parallel evaluation by AREVA Federal Services LLC, both of which were sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program. The focus of the LLNL effort was to develop a methodology that can be used by the FCT program for such analysis that is consistent with the broader energy modeling community, and the focus of the AREVA effort was to bring industrial experience and operational data into the analysis. This cooperative effort successfully combined expertise from the energy modeling community with expertise from the nuclear industry. Energy Return on Investment is one of many figures of merit on which investment in a new energy facility or process may be judged. EROI is the ratio of the energy delivered by a facility divided by the energy used to construct, operate and decommission that facility. While EROI is not the only criterion used to make an investment decision, it has been shown that, in technologically advanced societies, energy supplies must exceed a minimum EROI. Furthermore, technological history shows a trend towards higher EROI energy supplies. EROI calculations have been performed for many components of energy technology: oil wells, wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, biofuels, and nuclear reactors. This report represents the first standalone EROI analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing (or recycling) facilities.

Halsey, W; Simon, A J; Fratoni, M; Smith, C; Schwab, P; Murray, P

2012-06-06

474

Allocation of environmental loads in recycling: a model based in the qualitative value of recycled material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the life cycle of a product, material or service, studied in a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) affect other life cycles not included in the system in analysis, it is necessary to apply allocation rules. Allocation can be defined, in LCA context, as the act of assigning the environmental loads of a system to the functions of that system in proportionate shares. Most of the available allocation methods are of generic application, they do not take into account the quality of the materials to be recycled and the few that do take it into account attribute to it a quantitative value. Methods that are both generic and scientifically correct are generally difficult to apply. Rules that are too simple for a case by case application could lead to studies of life cycle assessment that cannot be compared. This way, the best will be to dispose of simple methods but just and mathematically correct with a fundamentally driven application to a sector of economic activity. In this study a method of allocation is proposed which takes into account primarily the "qualitative" value of the material to be recycled, irrespective of being a pos-consumption product/material or a secondary material of a production process. Through a case study, the potential of application of the proposed method is demonstrated, in the recycling of products coming from wood industries and its derivatives, when compared with other allocation methods.

Ferreira, Jose V. R.; Domingos, Idalina; Antunes, Paula

2001-02-01

475

Rab5 and Rab4 Regulate Axon Elongation in the Xenopus Visual System  

PubMed Central

The elongation rate of axons is tightly regulated during development. Recycling of the plasma membrane is known to regulate axon extension; however, the specific molecules involved in recycling within the growth cone have not been fully characterized. Here, we investigated whether the small GTPases Rab4 and Rab5 involved in short-loop recycling regulate the extension of Xenopus retinal axons. We report that, in growth cones, Rab5 and Rab4 proteins localize to endosomes, which accumulate markers that are constitutively recycled. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching experiments showed that Rab5 and Rab4 are recruited to endosomes in the growth cone, suggesting that they control recycling locally. Dynamic image analysis revealed that Rab4-positive carriers can bud off from Rab5 endosomes and move to the periphery of the growth cone, suggesting that both Rab5 and Rab4 contribute to recycling within the growth cone. Inhibition of Rab4 function with dominant-negative Rab4 or Rab4 morpholino and constitutive activation of Rab5 decreases the elongation of retinal axons in vitro and in vivo, but, unexpectedly, does not disrupt axon pathfinding. Thus, Rab5- and Rab4-mediated control of endosome trafficking appears to be crucial for axon growth. Collectively, our results suggest that recycling from Rab5-positive endosomes via Rab4 occurs within the growth cone and thereby supports axon elongation. PMID:24403139

Konopacki, Filip A.; Zivraj, Krishna H.; Holt, Christine E.

2014-01-01

476

Cytosolic phospholipase A?? drives recycling through the clathrin-independent endocytic route.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that membrane tubule-mediated transport events in biosynthetic and endocytic routes require phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. Here, we show that cytosolic phospholipase A2? (cPLA2?, also known as PLA2G4E) is targeted to the membrane compartments of the clathrin-independent endocytic route through a C-terminal stretch of positively charged amino acids, which allows the enzyme to interact with phosphoinositide lipids [especially PI(4,5)P2] that are enriched in clathrin-independent endosomes. Ablation of cPLA2? suppressed the formation of tubular elements that carry internalized clathrin-independent cargoes, such as MHC-I, CD147 and CD55, back to the cell surface and, therefore, caused their intracellular retention. The ability of cPLA2? to support recycling through tubule formation relies on the catalytic activity of the enzyme, because the inactive cPLA2?(S420A) mutant was not able to recover either tubule growth or transport from clathrin-independent endosomes. Taken together, our findings indicate that cPLA2? is a new important regulator of trafficking processes within the clathrin-independent endocytic and recycling route. The affinity of cPLA2? for this pathway supports a new hypothesis that different PLA2 enzymes use selective targeting mechanisms to regulate tubule formation locally during specific trafficking steps in the secretory and/or endocytic systems. PMID:24413173

Capestrano, Mariagrazia; Mariggio, Stefania; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Egorova, Anastasia V; Iacobacci, Simona; Santoro, Michele; Di Pentima, Alessio; Iurisci, Cristiano; Egorov, Mikhail V; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Buccione, Roberto; Luini, Alberto; Polishchuk, Roman S

2014-03-01

477

ADF/cofilin promotes invadopodial membrane recycling during cell invasion in vivo.  

PubMed

Invadopodia are protrusive, F-actin-driven membrane structures that are thought to mediate basement membrane transmigration during development and tumor dissemination. An understanding of the mechanisms regulating invadopodia has been hindered by the difficulty of examining these dynamic structures in native environments. Using an RNAi screen and live-cell imaging of anchor cell (AC) invasion in Caenorhabditis elegans, we have identified UNC-60A (ADF/cofilin) as an essential regulator of invadopodia. UNC-60A localizes to AC invadopodia, and its loss resulted in a dramatic slowing of F-actin dynamics and an inability to breach basement membrane. Optical highlighting indicated that UNC-60A disassembles actin filaments at invadopodia. Surprisingly, loss of unc-60a led to the accumulation of invadopodial membrane and associated components within the endolysosomal compartment. Photobleaching experiments revealed that during normal invasion the invadopodial membrane undergoes rapid recycling through the endolysosome. Together, these results identify the invadopodial membrane as a specialized compartment whose recycling to form dynamic, functional invadopodia is dependent on localized F-actin disassembly by ADF/cofilin. PMID:24662568

Hagedorn, Elliott J; Kelley, Laura C; Naegeli, Kaleb M; Wang, Zheng; Chi, Qiuyi; Sherwood, David R

2014-03-31

478

ADF/cofilin promotes invadopodial membrane recycling during cell invasion in vivo  

PubMed Central

Invadopodia are protrusive, F-actin–driven membrane structures that are thought to mediate basement membrane transmigration during development and tumor dissemination. An understanding of the mechanisms regulating invadopodia has been hindered by the difficulty of examining these dynamic structures in native environments. Using an RNAi screen and live-cell imaging of anchor cell (AC) invasion in Caenorhabditis elegans, we have identified UNC-60A (ADF/cofilin) as an essential regulator of invadopodia. UNC-60A localizes to AC invadopodia, and its loss resulted in a dramatic slowing of F-actin dynamics and an inability to breach basement membrane. Optical highlighting indicated that UNC-60A disassembles actin filaments at invadopodia. Surprisingly, loss of unc-60a led to the accumulation of invadopodial membrane and associated components within the endolysosomal compartment. Photobleaching experiments revealed that during normal invasion the invadopodial membrane undergoes rapid recycling through the endolysosome. Together, these results identify the invadopodial membrane as a specialized compartment whose recycling to form dynamic, functional invadopodia is dependent on localized F-actin disassembly by ADF/cofilin. PMID:24662568

Hagedorn, Elliott J.; Kelley, Laura C.; Naegeli, Kaleb M.; Wang, Zheng; Chi, Qiuyi

2014-01-01

479

Nitrogen recycling and flowering time in perennial bioenergy crops.  

PubMed

Perennials have a number of traits important for profitability and sustainability of a biofuel crop. Perennialism is generally defined as the ability to grow and reproduce in multiple years. In temperate climates, many perennial plants enter dormancy during winter and recycle nutrients, such as nitrogen, to below ground structures for the next growing season. Nitrogen is expensive to produce and application of nitrogen increases the potent greenhouse gas NO x . Perennial bioenergy crops have been evaluated for biomass yields with nitrogen fertilization, location, year, and genotype as variables. Flowering time and dormancy are closely related to the N recycling program. Substantial variation for flowering time and dormancy has been identified in the switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) species, which provides a source to identify the genetic components of N recycling, and for use in breeding programs. Some studies have addressed recycling specifically, but flowering time and developmental differences were largely ignored, complicating interpretation of the results. Future studies on recycling need to appreciate plant developmental stage to allow comparison between experiments. A perennial/annual model(s) and more environmentally controlled experiments would be useful to determine the genetic components of nitrogen recycling. Increasing biomass yield per unit of nitrogen by maximizing recycling might mean the difference for profitability of a biofuel crop and has the added benefit of minimizing negative environmental effects from agriculture. PMID:23626592

Schwartz, Christopher; Amasino, Richard

2013-01-01

480

Study of recycling feasibility. Final report, May 1993-March 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a feasibility of recycling asphalt pavements using two major analytical techniques: High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HP-GPC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). HP-GPG probes the chemistry of the asphalt cement. DMA measures certain physical characteristics of the asphalt cement and of the mix. Four projects that had been recycled, three by hot methods, the other by a cold, in-place process (CIPR), were studied. Specifically, the HP-GPC characteristics of the asphalts before and after recycling and the resilient moduli of some recycled mixtures were obtained. In addition, three sources of recovered asphalt pavement were subjected to modeling of hot and cold recycling strategies and tested by DMA on mixes as well as by HP-GPC. Finally, an additional five pavements that are candidates for recycling were sampled and the asphalt cements extracted for HP-GPC and DMA testing using both hot and cold recycling simulations. This report details the study procedures and discusses the data and their interpretations. Included in this report is data on the HP-GPC characteristics of the asphalt cements available in the state of Montana in 1993. Also, testing of asphalt cements from an experimental project and a distressed pavement is addressed briefly.

Pribanic, J.A.S.; Smith, J.A.; Jennings, P.W.; Bell, C.A.

1996-03-01

481

Performance of recycled mixtures in State of Georgia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) has been constructing recycled asphalt pavements routinely for about four years. This research project was undertaken to evaluate the performance of recycled pavements in comparison to virgin (control) asphalt pavements. Five projects, each consisting of a recycled section and a control section, were subjected to detailed evaluation. In-situ mix properties (such as percent air voids, resilient modulus and indirect tensile strength), recovered asphalt binder properties, and laboratory recompacted mix properties (such as Gyratory Stability Index and confined, dynamic creep modulus) were measured. A paired t-test statistical analysis indicated no significant differences between these properties of virgin and recycled mix pavements which have been in service from 1 1/2 to 3 1/2 years. Ten additional virgin mix pavements and 13 additional recycled pavements were also evaluated as two independent groups. No statistically significant differences were found between the recovered asphalt properties (penetration and viscosity) of these virgin and recycled pavements in service. The current GDOT recycling specifications and mix design procedures appear to be satisfactory based on the results of this study.

Kandhal, P.S.; Rao, S.S.; Young, B.

1994-01-01

482

Technological, Economic, and Environmental Optimization of Aluminum Recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The four strategic directions (referring to the entire life cycle of aluminum) are as follows: production, primary use, recycling, and reuse. Thus, in this work, the following are analyzed and optimized: reducing greenhouse gas emissions from aluminum production, increasing energy efficiency in aluminum production, maximizing used-product collection, recycling, and reusing. According to the energetic balance at the gaseous environment level, the conductive transfer model is also analyzed through the finished elements method. Several principles of modeling and optimization are presented and analyzed: the principle of analogy, the principle of concepts, and the principle of hierarchization. Based on these principles, an original diagram model is designed together with the corresponding logic diagram. This article also presents and analyzes the main benefits of aluminum recycling and reuse. Recycling and reuse of aluminum have the main advantage that it requires only about 5% of energy consumed to produce it from bauxite. The aluminum recycling and production process causes the emission of pollutants such as dioxides and furans, hydrogen chloride, and particulate matter. To control these emissions, aluminum recyclers are required to comply with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Aluminum Production. The results of technological, economic, and ecological optimization of aluminum recycling are based on the criteria function's evaluation in the modeling system.

Ioana, Adrian; Semenescu, Augustin

2013-08-01

483

Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes model approaches to designing an institutional infrastructure for the recycling of decommissioned photovoltaic modules; more detailed discussion of the information presented in this paper is contained in Reaven et al., (1996)[1]. The alternative approaches are based on experiences in other industries, with other products and materials. In the aluminum, scrap iron, and container glass industries, where recycling is a long-standing, even venerable practice, predominantly private, fully articulated institutional infrastructures exist. Nevertheless, even in these industries, arrangements are constantly evolving in response to regulatory changes, competition, and new technological developments. Institutional infrastructures are less settled for younger large- scale recycling industries that target components of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, such as cardboard and newspaper, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastics, and textiles. In these industries the economics, markets, and technologies are rapidly changing. Finally, many other industries are developing projects to ensure that their products are recycled (and recyclable) e.g., computers, non-automotive batteries, communications equipment, motor and lubrication oil and oil filters, fluorescent lighting fixtures, automotive plastics and shredder residues, and bulk industrial chemical wastes. The lack of an an adequate recycling infrastructure, attractive end-markets, and clear the economic incentives, can be formidable impediments to a self- sustaining recycling system.

Moscowitz, P.D.; Reaven, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

1996-07-01

484

Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Given a large flow rate of CRT glass {approx}10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

Mueller, Julia R., E-mail: mueller.143@osu.edu [Ohio State University, William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, OH (United States) and University of Queensland, School of Chemical Engineering (Australia) and Ohio State University, Materials Science and Engineering, OH (United States); Boehm, Michael W. [University of Queensland, School of Chemical Engineering (Australia); Drummond, Charles [Ohio State University, Materials Science and Engineering, OH (United States)

2012-08-15

485

A quantitative link between recycling and osmium isotopes.  

PubMed

Recycled subducted ocean crust has been traced by elevated 187Os/188Os in some studies and by high nickel and low manganese contents in others. Here, we show that these tracers are linked for Quaternary lavas of Iceland, strengthening t