Sample records for recycling regulator ehd1

  1. Transport through recycling endosomes requires EHD1 recruitment by a phosphatidylserine translocase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoken; Uchida, Yasunori; Wang, Jiao; Matsudaira, Tatsuyuki; Nakagawa, Takatoshi; Kishimoto, Takuma; Mukai, Kojiro; Inaba, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Molday, Robert S; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    P4-ATPases translocate aminophospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine (PS), to the cytosolic leaflet of membranes. PS is highly enriched in recycling endosomes (REs) and is essential for endosomal membrane traffic. Here, we show that PS flipping by an RE-localized P4-ATPase is required for the recruitment of the membrane fission protein EHD1. Depletion of ATP8A1 impaired the asymmetric transbilayer distribution of PS in REs, dissociated EHD1 from REs, and generated aberrant endosomal tubules that appear resistant to fission. EHD1 did not show membrane localization in cells defective in PS synthesis. ATP8A2, a tissue-specific ATP8A1 paralogue, is associated with a neurodegenerative disease (CAMRQ). ATP8A2, but not the disease-causative ATP8A2 mutant, rescued the endosomal defects in ATP8A1-depleted cells. Primary neurons from Atp8a2?/? mice showed a reduced level of transferrin receptors at the cell surface compared to Atp8a2+/+ mice. These findings demonstrate the role of P4-ATPase in membrane fission and give insight into the molecular basis of CAMRQ. PMID:25595798

  2. EHD1 mediates vesicle trafficking required for normal muscle growth and tubule development

    PubMed Central

    Posey, Avery D.; Swanson, Kaitlin E.; Alvarez, Manuel G.; Krishnan, Swathi; Earley, Judy E.; Band, Hamid; Pytel, Peter; McNally, Elizabeth M.; Demonbreun, Alexis R.

    2014-01-01

    EHD proteins have been implicated in intracellular trafficking, especially endocytic recycling, where they mediate receptor and lipid recycling back to the plasma membrane. Additionally, EHDs help regulate cytoskeletal reorganization and induce tubule formation. It was previously shown that EHD proteins bind directly to the C2 domains in myoferlin, a protein that regulates myoblast fusion. Loss of myoferlin impairs normal myoblast fusion leading to smaller muscles in vivo but the intracellular pathways perturbed by loss of myoferlin function are not well known. We now characterized muscle development in EHD1-null mice. EHD1-null myoblasts display defective receptor recycling and mislocalization of key muscle proteins, including caveolin-3 and Fer1L5, a related ferlin protein homologous to myoferlin. Additionally, EHD1-null myoblast fusion is reduced. We found that loss of EHD1 leads to smaller muscles and myofibers in vivo. In wildtype skeletal muscle EHD1 localizes to the transverse tubule (T-tubule), and loss of EHD1 results in overgrowth of T-tubules with excess vesicle accumulation in skeletal muscle. We provide evidence that tubule formation in myoblasts relies on a functional EHD1 ATPase domain. Moreover, we extended our studies to show EHD1 regulates BIN1 induced tubule formation. These data, taken together and with the known interaction between EHD and ferlin proteins, suggests that the EHD proteins coordinate growth and development likely through mediating vesicle recycling and the ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton. PMID:24440153

  3. Rab11 regulates recycling through the pericentriolar recycling endosome

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Small GTPases of the rab family are crucial elements of the machinery that controls membrane traffic. In the present study, we examined the distribution and function of rab11. Rab11 was shown by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and EM to colocalize with internalized transferrin in the pericentriolar recycling compartment of CHO and BHK cells. Expression of rab11 mutants that are preferentially in the GTP- or GDP-bound state caused opposite effects on the distribution of transferrin-containing elements; rab11-GTP expression caused accumulation of labeled elements in the perinuclear area of the cell, whereas rab11-GDP caused a dispersion of the transferrin labeling. Functional studies showed that the early steps of uptake and recycling for transferrin were not affected by overexpression of rab11 proteins. However, recycling from the later recycling endosome was inhibited in cells overexpressing the rab11-GDP mutant. Rab5, which regulates early endocytic trafficking, acted before rab11 in the transferrin-recycling pathway as expression of rab5-GTP prevented transport to the rab11- positive recycling endosome. These results suggest a novel role for rab11 in controlling traffic through the recycling endosome. PMID:8922376

  4. REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-01-29

    Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

  5. Using Established Regulations to Recycle Contaminated Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loewen; Eric Paul

    2000-01-01

    DOE restoration projects require acceptable standards for processing volumetrically contaminated metals: ⢠NRC has no regulations addressing recycling of scrap metal containing residual volumetric radioactivity. ⢠DOE is currently restricting outside radioactive scrap metal sales; however, previous Fernald and Ohio State clean-ups have released metals with measurable levels of radioactivity into the open market. ⢠Public sensitivity to the subject

  6. Using Established Regulations to Recycle Contaminated Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Loewen, Eric Paul

    2000-09-01

    DOE restoration projects require acceptable standards for processing volumetrically contaminated metals: • NRC has no regulations addressing recycling of scrap metal containing residual volumetric radioactivity. • DOE is currently restricting outside radioactive scrap metal sales; however, previous Fernald and Ohio State clean-ups have released metals with measurable levels of radioactivity into the open market. • Public sensitivity to the subject of non-governmental disposal of materials with residual radioactivity was heightened with the Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) issue. There are no clear guidelines for free release of volumetrically contaminated material.

  7. Synaptic activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through different recycling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ning; Jeyifous, Okunola; Munro, Charlotte; Montgomery, Johanna M; Green, William N

    2015-01-01

    Changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in brain are dependent on AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) recycling, which is assumed to occur through a single local pathway. In this study, we present evidence that AMPAR recycling occurs through different pathways regulated by synaptic activity. Without synaptic stimulation, most AMPARs recycled in dynamin-independent endosomes containing the GTPase, Arf6. Few AMPARs recycled in dynamin-dependent endosomes labeled by transferrin receptors (TfRs). AMPAR recycling was blocked by alterations in the GTPase, TC10, which co-localized with Arf6 endosomes. TC10 mutants that reduced AMPAR recycling had no effect on increased AMPAR levels with long-term potentiation (LTP) and little effect on decreased AMPAR levels with long-term depression. However, internalized AMPAR levels in TfR-containing recycling endosomes increased after LTP, indicating increased AMPAR recycling through the dynamin-dependent pathway with synaptic plasticity. LTP-induced AMPAR endocytosis is inconsistent with local recycling as a source of increased surface receptors, suggesting AMPARs are trafficked from other sites. PMID:25970033

  8. Synaptic activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through different recycling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ning; Jeyifous, Okunola; Munro, Charlotte; Montgomery, Johanna M; Green, William N

    2015-01-01

    Changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in brain are dependent on AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) recycling, which is assumed to occur through a single local pathway. In this study, we present evidence that AMPAR recycling occurs through different pathways regulated by synaptic activity. Without synaptic stimulation, most AMPARs recycled in dynamin-independent endosomes containing the GTPase, Arf6. Few AMPARs recycled in dynamin-dependent endosomes labeled by transferrin receptors (TfRs). AMPAR recycling was blocked by alterations in the GTPase, TC10, which co-localized with Arf6 endosomes. TC10 mutants that reduced AMPAR recycling had no effect on increased AMPAR levels with long-term potentiation (LTP) and little effect on decreased AMPAR levels with long-term depression. However, internalized AMPAR levels in TfR-containing recycling endosomes increased after LTP, indicating increased AMPAR recycling through the dynamin-dependent pathway with synaptic plasticity. LTP-induced AMPAR endocytosis is inconsistent with local recycling as a source of increased surface receptors, suggesting AMPARs are trafficked from other sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06878.001 PMID:25970033

  9. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260...case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. The Regional Administrator...determining whether to regulate hazardous waste recycling activities described in §...

  10. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260...case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. The Regional Administrator...determining whether to regulate hazardous waste recycling activities described in §...

  11. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260...case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. The Regional Administrator...determining whether to regulate hazardous waste recycling activities described in §...

  12. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260...case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. The Regional Administrator...determining whether to regulate hazardous waste recycling activities described in §...

  13. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260...case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. The Regional Administrator...determining whether to regulate hazardous waste recycling activities described in §...

  14. Recycling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    sgp0002

    2010-03-27

    You will be learning all about recycling and asking questions as you learn more about recycling. Afterward, you will be making recycling bins that we will use in our classroom. Click on each of the different links and research about recycling. Find out what recycling is, what can be recycled, and why we should recycle. As you find information, add it to the "describing wheel" that is given to you by Ms. Pollak. Answer the main question: What is recycling? Come ...

  15. Recycling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Sykes

    2005-10-20

    Let\\'s learn how to reduce, reuse and recycle waste! BUILDING YOUR KNOWLEDGE ABOUT RECYCLING 1. Learn the abc\\'s of recycling found here A is for Air. Be sure to click on each letter of the alphabet and read what it stands for. 2. Read the Adventures of the Garbage Gremlin in this Comic Book. 3. Steel is used to build cars, household appliances and cans. Read ...

  16. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section...260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section...260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section...260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section...260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section...260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. (a)...

  1. Cytoskeletal scaffolds regulate riboflavin endocytosis and recycling in placental trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Vanessa M; Bareford, Lisa M; Ray, Abhijit; Swaan, Peter W

    2006-12-01

    Microfilaments and microtubules (MT) play a vital role in cellular endocytic processes. The present study evaluates the role of these cytoskeletal elements in the apical internalization and postendocytic fate of riboflavin (RF) in placental trophoblasts (BeWo cells). Biochemical modification of the actin and microtubule network by (1) okadaic acid (OA), which disrupts MT-based vesicular trafficking; (2) cytochalasin D and latrunculin B, which promote actin depolymerization; and (3) 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), which inhibits myosin-actin interaction, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using actin- and tubulin-specific antibodies. Furthermore, involvement of the molecular motors dynein and kinesin was assessed in the presence of (1) sodium orthovanadate, which inhibits dynein-ATPase activity and (2) adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate tetralithium salt hydrate, a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog, which results in defective kinesin-driven processes. RF internalization consequent to cytoskeletal alterations was compared with that of a clathrin-dependent endocytic marker ([125I]-transferrin [TF]), a caveolae-mediated endocytic substrate ([3H]-folic acid [FA]), and a fluid-phase endocytic marker ([125I]-horse radish peroxidase [HRP]). Apical recycling and bidirectional transport of RF and TF was measured following cytoskeletal alterations. Results indicate that uptake of RF, TF, FA and HRP are markedly reduced (approximately 30-65%) in the presence OA and BDM, suggesting differential sensitivities to modification of kinesin-driven microtubules. However, actin depolymerization negatively affected HRP endocytosis alone, while RF, FA and TF internalization remained unchanged. Disturbances in protein phosphorylation cascades also influenced apical recycling while net ligand transport across monolayers remained unaffected. In conclusion, apical RF trafficking in placental cells is tightly regulated by microtubules and supported by accessory actin involvement. PMID:16563724

  2. Synaptotagmin 7 splice variants differentially regulate synaptic vesicle recycling

    PubMed Central

    Virmani, Tuhin; Han, Weiping; Liu, Xinran; Südhof, Thomas C.; Kavalali, Ege T.

    2003-01-01

    The speed of synaptic vesicle recycling determines the efficacy of neurotransmission during repetitive stimulation. Synaptotagmins are synaptic C2-domain proteins that are involved in exocytosis, but have also been linked to endocytosis. We now demonstrate that upon expression in transfected neurons, a short splice variant of synaptotagmin 7 that lacks C2-domains accelerates endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicles, whereas a longer splice variant that contains C2-domains decelerates recycling. These results suggest that alternative splicing of synaptotagmin 7 acts as a molecular switch, which targets vesicles to fast and slow recycling pathways. PMID:14532108

  3. 40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...reclamation must be able to demonstrate that the recycling is legitimate. Hazardous...

  4. 40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...reclamation must be able to demonstrate that the recycling is legitimate. Hazardous...

  5. 40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...reclamation must be able to demonstrate that the recycling is legitimate. Hazardous...

  6. 40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...reclamation must be able to demonstrate that the recycling is legitimate. Hazardous...

  7. 40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...reclamation must be able to demonstrate that the recycling is legitimate. Hazardous...

  8. A review of environmental and economic regulations for promoting industrial waste recycling in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, W T; Chou, Y H

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a compilation of recent Taiwan government laws/regulations to promote industrial waste recycling. The description is thus centered on legislation/regulations concerning general industrial wastes recycling in the policies of environmental protection, economic incentives and engineering technologies (3E) that have become effective since 2001. The regulatory system, including Waste Disposal Act, Resource Recycling/Reuse Act, Environmental Basis Law, and Statute for Upgrading Industries, not only gives financial incentives, but also provides technical assistance and information transfer on promoting industrial waste recycling. In order to further utilize the recyclable resources and upgrade the environmental technology, Taiwan's Environmental Protection Administration (EPA), in cooperation with the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA), has jointly ventured some promotion programs, which highlight an Industrial Waste Exchange Information Center and Environmental Technology Park Development Program, also described in the paper. PMID:15567671

  9. Cargo-Mediated Regulation of a Rapid Rab4-Dependent Recycling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yudowski, Guillermo A.; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.; Henry, Anastasia G.

    2009-01-01

    Membrane trafficking is well known to regulate receptor-mediated signaling processes, but less is known about whether signaling receptors conversely regulate the membrane trafficking machinery. We investigated this question by focusing on the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (B2AR), a G protein-coupled receptor whose cellular signaling activity is controlled by ligand-induced endocytosis followed by recycling. We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIR-FM) and tagging with a pH-sensitive GFP variant to image discrete membrane trafficking events mediating B2AR endo- and exocytosis. Within several minutes after initiating rapid endocytosis of B2ARs by the adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, we observed bright “puffs” of locally increased surface fluorescence intensity representing discrete Rab4-dependent recycling events. These events reached a constant frequency in the continuous presence of isoproterenol, and agonist removal produced a rapid (observed within 1 min) and pronounced (?twofold) increase in recycling event frequency. This regulation required receptor signaling via the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and a specific PKA consensus site located in the carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the B2AR itself. B2AR-mediated regulation was not restricted to this membrane cargo, however, as transferrin receptors packaged in the same population of recycling vesicles were similarly affected. In contrast, net recycling measured over a longer time interval (10 to 30 min) was not detectably regulated by B2AR signaling. These results identify rapid regulation of a specific recycling pathway by a signaling receptor cargo. PMID:19369423

  10. Sustainable recycling of automotive products in China: Technology and regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming

    2006-08-01

    The Chinese economy is growing rapidly, but accompanyingsuch growth are issues of environmental protection and social inequity which must be addressed. With the Automobile Industry Development Policy and the Motor Vehicle Product Recovery Technology Policy, an automobile products recoverability target has been established and will be incorporated into an automobile products authentication management system in China. By 2010, for all end-of-life automobile products, reuse and recovery shall be increased to a minimum of 85% by average weight per vehicle, and the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, and hexavalent chromium is prohibited. This paper will address the sustainable recycling of Chinese automobile products within the period of 2006 2010.

  11. Grid frequency regulation by recycling electrical energy in flywheels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew L. Lazarewicz; Alex Rojas

    2004-01-01

    Grid frequency regulation function addresses the balance between the network's load and power generated. The system operator generates a signal, area control error (ACE) signal at PJM, based on the difference between these two parameters. The expected goal is to keep the system near nominal 60 or 50 Hz. Traditionally, frequency regulation is managed by varying the output of fossil

  12. SCAMP3 Negatively Regulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Degradation and Promotes Receptor Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Aoh, Quyen L.; Castle, Anna M.; Hubbard, Charles H.; Katsumata, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is targeted for lysosomal degradation by ubiquitin-mediated interactions with the ESCRTs (endosomal-sorting complexes required for transport) in multivesicular bodies (MVBs). We show that secretory carrier membrane protein, SCAMP3, localizes in part to early endosomes and negatively regulates EGFR degradation through processes that involve its ubiquitylation and interactions with ESCRTs. SCAMP3 is multimonoubiquitylated and is able to associate with Nedd4 HECT ubiquitin ligases and the ESCRT-I subunit Tsg101 via its PY and PSAP motifs, respectively. SCAMP3 also associates with the ESCRT-0 subunit Hrs. Depletion of SCAMP3 in HeLa cells by inhibitory RNA accelerated degradation of EGFR and EGF while inhibiting recycling. Conversely, overexpression enhanced EGFR recycling unless ubiquitylatable lysines, PY or PSAP motifs in SCAMP3 were mutated. Notably, dual depletions of SCAMP3 and ESCRT subunits suggest that SCAMP3 has a distinct function in parallel with the ESCRTs that regulates receptor degradation. This function may affect trafficking of receptors from prelysosomal compartments as SCAMP3 depletion appeared to sustain the incidence of EGFR-containing MVBs detected by immunoelectron microscopy. Together, our results suggest that SCAMP3, its modification with ubiquitin, and its interactions with ESCRTs coordinately regulate endosomal pathways and affect the efficiency of receptor down-regulation. PMID:19158374

  13. Intersectin regulates dendritic spine development and somatodendritic endocytosis but not synaptic vesicle recycling in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sébastien; Ritter, Brigitte; Verbich, David; Sanson, Claire; Bourbonnière, Lyne; McKinney, R Anne; McPherson, Peter S

    2009-05-01

    Intersectin-short (intersectin-s) is a multimodule scaffolding protein functioning in constitutive and regulated forms of endocytosis in non-neuronal cells and in synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling at the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans. In vertebrates, alternative splicing generates a second isoform, intersectin-long (intersectin-l), that contains additional modular domains providing a guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity for Cdc42. In mammals, intersectin-s is expressed in multiple tissues and cells, including glia, but excluded from neurons, whereas intersectin-l is a neuron-specific isoform. Thus, intersectin-I may regulate multiple forms of endocytosis in mammalian neurons, including SV endocytosis. We now report, however, that intersectin-l is localized to somatodendritic regions of cultured hippocampal neurons, with some juxtanuclear accumulation, but is excluded from synaptophysin-labeled axon terminals. Consistently, intersectin-l knockdown (KD) does not affect SV recycling. Instead intersectin-l co-localizes with clathrin heavy chain and adaptor protein 2 in the somatodendritic region of neurons, and its KD reduces the rate of transferrin endocytosis. The protein also co-localizes with F-actin at dendritic spines, and intersectin-l KD disrupts spine maturation during development. Our data indicate that intersectin-l is indeed an important regulator of constitutive endocytosis and neuronal development but that it is not a prominent player in the regulated endocytosis of SVs. PMID:19258322

  14. ?PIX Is a Trafficking Regulator that Balances Recycling and Degradation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kortüm, Fanny; Harms, Frederike Leonie; Hennighausen, Natascha; Rosenberger, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Endosomal sorting is an essential control mechanism for signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We report here that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor ?PIX, which modulates the activity of Rho-GTPases, is a potent bimodal regulator of EGFR trafficking. ?PIX interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, an enzyme that attaches ubiquitin to EGFR, thereby labelling this tyrosine kinase receptor for lysosomal degradation. We show that EGF stimulation induces ?PIX::c-Cbl complex formation. Simultaneously, ?PIX and c-Cbl protein levels decrease, which depends on both ?PIX binding to c-Cbl and c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase activity. Through interaction ?PIX sequesters c-Cbl from EGFR and this results in reduced EGFR ubiquitination and decreased EGFR degradation upon EGF treatment. However, quantitatively more decisive for cellular EGFR distribution than impaired EGFR degradation is a strong stimulating effect of ?PIX on EGFR recycling to the cell surface. This function depends on the GIT binding domain of ?PIX but not on interaction with c-Cbl or ?PIX exchange activity. In summary, our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated function of ?PIX as a strong promoter of EGFR recycling. We suggest that the novel recycling regulator ?PIX and the degradation factor c-Cbl closely cooperate in the regulation of EGFR trafficking: uncomplexed ?PIX and c-Cbl mediate a positive and a negative feedback on EGFR signaling, respectively; ?PIX::c-Cbl complex formation, however, results in mutual inhibition, which may reflect a stable condition in the homeostasis of EGF-induced signal flow. PMID:26177020

  15. Ehd4 Encodes a Novel and Oryza-Genus-Specific Regulator of Photoperiodic Flowering in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, He; Zheng, Xiao-Ming; Fei, Guilin; Chen, Jun; Jin, Mingna; Ren, Yulong; Wu, Weixun; Zhou, Kunneng; Sheng, Peike; Zhou, Feng; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Wang, Jiu-Lin; Cheng, Zhijun; Wu, Chuanyin; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jian-Min

    2013-01-01

    Land plants have evolved increasingly complex regulatory modes of their flowering time (or heading date in crops). Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a short-day plant that flowers more rapidly in short-day but delays under long-day conditions. Previous studies have shown that the CO-FT module initially identified in long-day plants (Arabidopsis) is evolutionary conserved in short-day plants (Hd1-Hd3a in rice). However, in rice, there is a unique Ehd1-dependent flowering pathway that is Hd1-independent. Here, we report isolation and characterization of a positive regulator of Ehd1, Early heading date 4 (Ehd4). ehd4 mutants showed a never flowering phenotype under natural long-day conditions. Map-based cloning revealed that Ehd4 encodes a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein, which is localized to the nucleus and is able to bind to nucleic acids in vitro and transactivate transcription in yeast, suggesting that it likely functions as a transcriptional regulator. Ehd4 expression is most active in young leaves with a diurnal expression pattern similar to that of Ehd1 under both short-day and long-day conditions. We show that Ehd4 up-regulates the expression of the “florigen” genes Hd3a and RFT1 through Ehd1, but it acts independently of other known Ehd1 regulators. Strikingly, Ehd4 is highly conserved in the Oryza genus including wild and cultivated rice, but has no homologs in other species, suggesting that Ehd4 is originated along with the diversification of the Oryza genus from the grass family during evolution. We conclude that Ehd4 is a novel Oryza-genus-specific regulator of Ehd1, and it plays an essential role in photoperiodic control of flowering time in rice. PMID:23437005

  16. Sorghum Phytochrome B Inhibits Flowering in Long Days by Activating Expression of SbPRR37 and SbGHD7, Repressors of SbEHD1, SbCN8 and SbCN12

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shanshan; Murphy, Rebecca L.; Morishige, Daryl T.; Klein, Patricia E.; Rooney, William L.; Mullet, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Light signaling by phytochrome B in long days inhibits flowering in sorghum by increasing expression of the long day floral repressors PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR PROTEIN (SbPRR37, Ma1) and GRAIN NUMBER, PLANT HEIGHT AND HEADING DATE 7 (SbGHD7, Ma6). SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 RNA abundance peaks in the morning and in the evening of long days through coordinate regulation by light and output from the circadian clock. 58 M, a phytochrome B deficient (phyB-1, ma3R) genotype, flowered ?60 days earlier than 100 M (PHYB, Ma3) in long days and ?11 days earlier in short days. Populations derived from 58 M (Ma1, ma3R, Ma5, ma6) and R.07007 (Ma1, Ma3, ma5, Ma6) varied in flowering time due to QTL aligned to PHYB/phyB-1 (Ma3), Ma5, and GHD7/ghd7-1 (Ma6). PHYC was proposed as a candidate gene for Ma5 based on alignment and allelic variation. PHYB and Ma5 (PHYC) were epistatic to Ma1 and Ma6 and progeny recessive for either gene flowered early in long days. Light signaling mediated by PhyB was required for high expression of the floral repressors SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 during the evening of long days. In 100 M (PHYB) the floral activators SbEHD1, SbCN8 and SbCN12 were repressed in long days and de-repressed in short days. In 58 M (phyB-1) these genes were highly expressed in long and short days. Furthermore, SbCN15, the ortholog of rice Hd3a (FT), is expressed at low levels in 100 M but at high levels in 58 M (phyB-1) regardless of day length, indicating that PhyB regulation of SbCN15 expression may modify flowering time in a photoperiod-insensitive manner. PMID:25122453

  17. The palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC2 regulates recycling endosome exocytosis and synaptic potentiation through palmitoylation of AKAP79/150.

    PubMed

    Woolfrey, Kevin M; Sanderson, Jennifer L; Dell'Acqua, Mark L

    2015-01-14

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs) by kinases and phosphatases and interactions with scaffold proteins play essential roles in regulating channel biophysical properties and trafficking events that control synaptic strength during NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity, such as LTP and LTD. We previously demonstrated that palmitoylation of the AMPAR-linked scaffold protein A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) 79/150 is required for its targeting to recycling endosomes in dendrites, where it regulates exocytosis from these compartments that is required for LTP-stimulated enlargement of postsynaptic dendritic spines, delivery of AMPARs to the plasma membrane, and maintenance of synaptic potentiation. Here, we report that the recycling endosome-resident palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC2 interacts with and palmitoylates AKAP79/150 to regulate these plasticity signaling mechanisms. In particular, RNAi-mediated knockdown of DHHC2 expression in rat hippocampal neurons disrupted stimulation of exocytosis from recycling endosomes, enlargement of dendritic spines, AKAP recruitment to spines, and potentiation of AMPAR-mediated synaptic currents that occur during LTP. Importantly, expression of a palmitoylation-independent lipidated AKAP mutant in DHHC2-deficient neurons largely restored normal plasticity regulation. Thus, we conclude that DHHC2-AKAP79/150 signaling is an essential regulator of dendritic recycling endosome exocytosis that controls both structural and functional plasticity at excitatory synapses. PMID:25589740

  18. Cooperation of MICAL-L1, syndapin2, and phosphatidic acid in tubular recycling endosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Giridharan, Sai Srinivas Panapakkam; Cai, Bishuang; Vitale, Nicolas; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Endocytic transport necessitates the generation of membrane tubules and their subsequent fission to transport vesicles for sorting of cargo molecules. The endocytic recycling compartment, an array of tubular and vesicular membranes decorated by the Eps15 homology domain protein, EHD1, is responsible for receptor and lipid recycling to the plasma membrane. It has been proposed that EHD dimers bind and bend membranes, thus generating recycling endosome (RE) tubules. However, recent studies show that molecules interacting with CasL-Like1 (MICAL-L1), a second, recently identified RE tubule marker, recruits EHD1 to preexisting tubules. The mechanisms and events supporting the generation of tubular recycling endosomes were unclear. Here, we propose a mechanism for the biogenesis of RE tubules. We demonstrate that MICAL-L1 and the BAR-domain protein syndapin2 bind to phosphatidic acid, which we identify as a novel lipid component of RE. Our studies demonstrate that direct interactions between these two proteins stabilize their association with membranes, allowing for nucleation of tubules by syndapin2. Indeed, the presence of phosphatidic acid in liposomes enhances the ability of syndapin2 to tubulate membranes in vitro. Overall our results highlight a new role for phosphatidic acid in endocytic recycling and provide new insights into the mechanisms by which tubular REs are generated. PMID:23596323

  19. Regulation of Microtubule-dependent Recycling at the Trans-Golgi Network by Rab6A and Rab6A'D?

    PubMed Central

    Young, Joanne; Stauber, Tobias; del Nery, Elaine; Vernos, Isabelle; Pepperkok, Rainer; Nilsson, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    The small GTPase rab6A but not the isoform rab6A' has previously been identified as a regulator of the COPI-independent recycling route that carries Golgi-resident proteins and certain toxins from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The isoform rab6A' has been implicated in Golgi-to-endosomal recycling. Because rab6A but not A', binds rabkinesin6, this motor protein is proposed to mediate COPI-independent recycling. We show here that both rab6A and rab6A' GTP-restricted mutants promote, with similar efficiency, a microtubule-dependent recycling of Golgi resident glycosylation enzymes upon overexpression. Moreover, we used small interfering RNA mediated down-regulation of rab6A and A' expression and found that reduced levels of rab6 perturbs organization of the Golgi apparatus and delays Golgi-to-ER recycling. Rab6-directed Golgi-to-ER recycling seems to require functional dynactin, as overexpression of p50/dynamitin, or a C-terminal fragment of Bicaudal-D, both known to interact with dynactin inhibit recycling. We further present evidence that rab6-mediated recycling seems to be initiated from the trans-Golgi network. Together, this suggests that a recycling pathway operates at the level of the trans-Golgi linking directly to the ER. This pathway would be the preferred route for both toxins and resident Golgi proteins. PMID:15483056

  20. Endosomal recycling regulates anthrax toxin receptor 1\\/tumor endothelial marker 8-dependent cell spreading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingsheng Gu; Victor Faundez; Erica Werner

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms for receptor-mediated anthrax toxin internalization and delivery to the cytosol are well understood. However, far less is known about the fate followed by anthrax toxin receptors prior and after cell exposure to the toxin. We report that Anthrax Toxin Receptor 1\\/Tumor Endothelial Marker 8 (TEM8) localized at steady state in Rab11a-positive and transferrin receptor-containing recycling endosomes. TEM8 followed a

  1. SNX17 affects T cell activation by regulating TCR and integrin recycling.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Douglas G; Piotrowski, Joshua T; Dick, Christopher J; Zhang, Jin-San; Billadeau, Daniel D

    2015-05-01

    A key component in T cell activation is the endosomal recycling of receptors to the cell surface, thereby allowing continual integration of signaling and Ag recognition. One protein potentially involved in TCR transport is sorting nexin 17 (SNX17). SNX proteins have been found to bind proteins involved in T cell activation, but specifically the role of SNX17 in receptor recycling and T cell activation is unknown. Using immunofluorescence, we find that SNX17 colocalizes with TCR and localizes to the immune synapse in T- conjugates. Significantly, knockdown of the SNX17 resulted in fewer T-APC conjugates, lower CD69, TCR, and LFA-1 surface expression, as well as lower overall TCR recycling compared with control T cells. Lastly, we identified the 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin domain of SNX17 as being responsible in the binding and trafficking of TCR and LFA-1 to the cell surface. These data suggest that SNX17 plays a role in the maintenance of normal surface levels of activating receptors and integrins to permit optimum T cell activation at the immune synapse. PMID:25825439

  2. Molecular dynamics at the endocytic portal and regulations of endocytic and recycling traffics.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Hyoeun; Kim, Kyoungtae

    2015-06-01

    Endocytic and recycling pathways involve the transportation of soluble and transmembrane cargos to destinations within the cell or back to the plasma membrane for reuse. Common mechanistic themes for the traffic pathways in eukaryotic cells from yeast to mammalian cells are well-conserved, manifested by the molecular choreography of cargo segregation, membrane budding and coating, pinching off of the invaginated vesicle, cytoskeleton-mediated vesicle motility and fusion with target compartments. Here, we discuss recent insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of endocytic machinery at the plasma membrane and the molecular details of bifurcating traffics at the endosome either to the lysosome or to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). PMID:25921524

  3. Rab11-FIP2 Interaction with MYO5B Regulates Movement of Rab11a-Containing Recycling Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Jenny C.; Baetz, Nicholas W.; Lapierre, Lynne A.; McRae, Rebecca E.; Roland, Joseph T.; Goldenring, James R.

    2014-01-01

    A tripartite association of Rab11a with both Rab11-FIP2 and MYO5B regulates recycling endosome trafficking. We sought to define the intermolecular interactions required between Rab11-FIP2 with MYO5B. Using a random mutagenesis strategy, we identified point mutations at S229P or G233E in Rab11-FIP2 that caused loss of interaction with MYO5B in yeast 2-hybrid assays as well as loss of interaction of Rab11-FIP2(129-356) with MYO5B tail when expressed in HeLa cells. Single mutations or the double S229P/G233E mutation failed to alter the association of full-length Rab11-FIP2 with MYO5B tail in HeLa cells. While EGFP-Rab11-FIP2 wild type co-localized with endogenous MYO5B staining in MDCK cells, EGFP-Rab11-FIP2(S229P/G233E) showed a significant decrease in localization with endogenous MYO5B. Analysis of Rab11a-containing vesicle movement in live HeLa cells demonstrated that when the MYO5B/Rab11-FIP2 association is perturbed by mutation or by Rab11-FIP2 knockdown, vesicle movement is increased in both speed and track length, consistent with an impairment of MYO5B tethering at the cytoskeleton. These results support a critical role for the interaction of MYO5B with Rab11-FIP2 in stabilizing the functional complex with Rab11a, which regulates dynamic movements of membrane recycling vesicles. PMID:24372966

  4. Precipitation Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1996-01-01

    The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

  5. Regulation of citrulline recycling in nitric oxide-dependent neurotransmission in the murine proximal colon

    PubMed Central

    Shuttleworth, C W R; Conlon, S B; Sanders, K M

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of nitric oxide (NO) to inhibitory neuromuscular transmission in murine proximal colon and the possibility that citrulline is recycled to arginine to maintain the supply of substrate for NO synthesis.Intracellular microelectrode recordings were made from circular smooth muscle cells in the presence of nifedipine and atropine (both 1??M). Electrical field stimulation (EFS, 0.3–20?Hz) produced inhibitory junction potentials (i.j.ps) composed of an initial transient hyperpolarization (fast component) followed by a slow recovery to resting potential (slow component).L-Nitro-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 100??M) selectively abolished the slow component of i.j.ps. The effects of L-NAME were reversed by L-arginine (0.2–2?mM) but not by D-arginine (2?mM). Sodium nitroprusside (an NO donor, 1??M) reversibly hyperpolarized muscle cells. This suggests that NO mediates the slow component of i.j.ps.L-Citrulline (0.2?mM) also reversed the effects of L-NAME, and this action was maintained during sustained exposures to L-citrulline (0.2?mM). This may reflect intraneuronal recycling of L-citrulline to L-arginine.Higher concentrations of L-citrulline (e.g. 2?mM) had time-dependent effects. Brief exposure (15?min) reversed the effects of L-NAME, but during longer exposures (30?min) the effects of L-NAME gradually returned. In the continued presence of L-citrulline, L-arginine (2?mM) readily restored nitrergic transmission, suggesting that during long exposures to high concentrations of L-citrulline, the ability to generate arginine from citrulline was reduced.Aspartate (2?mM) had no effect on i.j.ps, the effects of L-NAME, or the actions of L-citrulline in the presence of L-NAME. L-Citrulline (0.2–2?mM) alone had no effect on i.j.ps under control conditions.S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (10??M), a novel NOS inhibitor, blocked the slow component of i.j.ps. The effects of this inhibitor were reversed by L-arginine (2?mM), but not by L-citrulline (2?mM).These results suggest that i.j.ps in the murine colon result from release of multiple inhibitory neurotransmitters. NO mediates a slow component of enteric inhibitory neurotransmission. Recycling of L-citrulline to L-arginine may sustain substrate concentrations in support of NO synthesis and this pathway may be inhibited when concentrations of L-citrulline are elevated. PMID:9051312

  6. Regulation of ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling during root development in carrot (Daucus carota L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Long; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Li, Meng-Yao; Tan, Guo-Fei; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA), also known as vitamin C, is an essential nutrient in fruits and vegetables. The fleshy root of carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a good source of AsA for humans. However, the metabolic pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of AsA content during root development in carrot have not been elucidated. To gain insights into the regulation of AsA accumulation and to identify the key genes involved in the AsA metabolism, we cloned and analyzed the expression of 21 related genes during carrot root development. The results indicate that AsA accumulation in the carrot root is regulated by intricate pathways, of which the l-galactose pathway may be the major pathway for AsA biosynthesis. Transcript levels of the genes encoding l-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase and l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase were strongly correlated with AsA levels during root development. Data from this research may be used to assist breeding for improved nutrition, quality, and stress tolerance in carrots. PMID:25956452

  7. UCHL1 regulates ubiquitination and recycling of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM.

    PubMed

    Wobst, Hilke; Förster, Sarah; Laurini, Christine; Sekulla, Agathe; Dreiseidler, Michael; Höhfeld, Jörg; Schmitz, Brigitte; Diestel, Simone

    2012-12-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is involved in neural development and in plasticity in the adult brain. NCAM140 and NCAM180 isoforms are transmembrane proteins with cytoplasmic domains that differ only in an alternatively spliced exon in the NCAM180 isoform. Both isoforms can interact with several extracellular and cytoplasmic molecules mediating NCAM-dependent functions. Most identified intracellular interaction partners bind to both isoforms, NCAM140 and NCAM180. To identify further intracellular interaction partners specifically binding to NCAM180 the cytosolic domain of human NCAM180 was recombinantly expressed and applied onto a protein macroarray containing the protein library from human fetal brain. We identified the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCHL1) which has been described as a de-ubiquitinating enzyme as a potential interaction partner of NCAM180. Since NCAM180 and NCAM140 are ubiquitinated, NCAM140 was included in the subsequent experiments. A partial colocalization of both NCAM isoforms and UCHL1 was observed in primary neurons and the B35 neuroblastoma cell line. Overexpression of UCHL1 significantly decreased constitutive ubiquitination of NCAM180 and NCAM140 whereas inhibition of endogenous UCHL1 increased NCAM's ubiquitination. Furthermore, lysosomal localization of NCAM180 and NCAM140 was significantly reduced after overexpression of UCHL1 consistent with a partial colocalization of internalized NCAM with UCHL1. These data indicate that UCHL1 is a novel interaction partner of both NCAM isoforms that regulates their ubiquitination and intracellular trafficking. PMID:23061666

  8. Regulation of Cell Death by Recycling Endosomes and Golgi Membrane Dynamics via a Pathway Involving Src-family kinases, Cdc42 and Rab11a

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Marie-Claude; Sicotte, Andréane; Champagne, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Actin dynamics and membrane trafficking influence cell commitment to programmed cell death through largely undefined mechanisms. To investigate how actin and recycling endosome (RE) trafficking can engage death signaling, we studied the death program induced by the adenovirus early region 4 open reading frame 4 (E4orf4) protein as a model. We found that in the early stages of E4orf4 expression, Src-family kinases (SFKs), Cdc42, and actin perturbed the organization of the endocytic recycling compartment and promoted the transport of REs to the Golgi apparatus, while inhibiting recycling of protein cargos to the plasma membrane. The resulting changes in Golgi membrane dynamics that relied on actin-regulated Rab11a membrane trafficking triggered scattering of Golgi membranes and contributed to the progression of cell death. A similar mobilization of RE traffic mediated by SFKs, Cdc42 and Rab11a also contributed to Golgi fragmentation and to cell death progression in response to staurosporine, in a caspase-independent manner. Collectively, these novel findings suggest that diversion of RE trafficking to the Golgi complex through a pathway involving SFKs, Cdc42, and Rab11a plays a general role in death signaling by mediating regulated changes in Golgi dynamics. PMID:19641023

  9. Blood-testis barrier dynamics are regulated by testosterone and cytokines via their differential effects on the kinetics of protein endocytosis and recycling in Sertoli cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Helen H. N.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    During spermatogenesis in the mammalian testis, preleptotene/leptotene spermatocytes differentiate from type B spermatogonia and traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) at stage VIII of the seminiferous epithelial cycle for further development. This timely movement of germ cells involves extensive junction restructuring at the BTB. Previous studies have shown that these events are regulated by testosterone (T) and cytokines [e.g., the transforming growth factor (TGF) -?s], which promote and disrupt the BTB assembly, respectively. However, the mechanisms underlying the “opening” of the BTB above a migrating preleptotene/leptotene spermatocyte and the “resealing” of the barrier underneath this cell remain obscure. We now report findings on a novel mechanism utilized by the testes to regulate these events. Using cell surface protein biotinylation coupled with immunoblotting and immunofluorescent microscopy, we assessed the kinetics of endocytosis and recycling of BTB-associated integral membrane proteins: occludin, JAM-A, and N-cadherin. It was shown that these proteins were continuously endocytosed and recycled back to the Sertoli cell surface via the clathrin-mediated but not the caveolin-mediated pathway. When T or TGF-?2 was added to Sertoli cell cultures with established functional BTB, both factors accelerated the kinetics of internalization of BTB proteins from the cell surface, perhaps above the migrating preleptotene spermatocyte, thereby opening the BTB. Likewise, T also enhanced the kinetics of recycling of internalized biotinylated proteins back to the cell surface, plausibly relocating these proteins beneath the migrating spermatocyte to reassemble the BTB. In contrast, TGF-?2 targeted internalized biotinylated proteins to late endosomes for degradation, destabilizing the BTB. In summary, the transient opening of the BTB that facilitates germ cell movement is mediated via the differential effects of T and cytokines on the kinetics of endocytosis and recycling of integral membrane proteins at the BTB. The net result of these interactions, in turn, determines the steady-state protein levels at the Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface at the BTB. PMID:18192323

  10. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions...All subpart H systems that employ conventional filtration or direct filtration treatment and that recycle spent filter...

  11. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions...All subpart H systems that employ conventional filtration or direct filtration treatment and that recycle spent filter...

  12. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions...All subpart H systems that employ conventional filtration or direct filtration treatment and that recycle spent filter...

  13. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions...All subpart H systems that employ conventional filtration or direct filtration treatment and that recycle spent filter...

  14. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions...All subpart H systems that employ conventional filtration or direct filtration treatment and that recycle spent filter...

  15. Hanford recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall DOE recycling contract at the Hanford site and a central group to control the contract. 0 Using a BOA or MTS contract as a way to get proceeds from recycling back to site facilities to provide incentives for recycling. . Upgrading tracking mechanisms to track and recycle construction waste which is presently buried in onsite pits. . Establishing contract performance measures which hold each project accountable for specific waste reduction goals. * Recycling and reusing any material or equipment possible as buildings are dismantled.

  16. Bacterial cell-wall recycling

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jarrod W.; Fisher, Jed F.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2012-01-01

    Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many—and quite possibly all—bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. While cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall–targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC ?-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both ?-lactamase and ?-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of ?-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC ?-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall recycling inhibitors. PMID:23163477

  17. The FIP3-Rab11 Protein Complex Regulates Recycling Endosome Targeting to the Cleavage Furrow during Late CytokinesisD?V?

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Gayle M.; Fielding, Andrew B.; Simon, Glenn C.; Yu, Xinzi; Andrews, Paul D.; Hames , Rebecca S.; Frey , Andrew M.; Peden, Andrew A.; Gould, Gwyn W.; Prekeris, Rytis

    2005-01-01

    An integral part of cell division is the separation of daughter cells via cytokinesis. There is now good evidence that the completion of cytokinesis requires coordinated membrane trafficking to deliver new membrane to the tip of the furrow and to complete the abscission. Here we have examined membrane traffic in cytokinesis and describe several novel observations. First, we show that Rab11- and FIP3-containing recycling endosomes accumulate near the cleavage furrow and are required for successful completion of cytokinesis. Second, we demonstrate that the Rab11-FIP3 protein complex is intimately involved in the delivery of endosomes to the cleavage furrow. Significantly, although FIP3 recruitment to endosomes is Rab11 dependent, we find that the targeting of FIP3 to the midbody is independent of Rab11. Third, we show that the Rab11-FIP3 complex is required for a late stage of cytokinesis, possibly abscission. Finally, we demonstrate that localization of FIP3 is subject to substantial spatial and temporal regulation. These data provide the first detailed analysis of recycling endosomes in cell division and provide a new model for membrane traffic to the furrow. We propose that the dynamic Rab11-FIP3 interaction controls the delivery, targeting, and fusion of recycling endosomes with furrow during late cytokinesis and abscission. PMID:15601896

  18. RECYCLING TODAY

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Smith

    2010-12-03

    We have probably heard of recycling but what is it really and why is it so improtant to do? Please answer the questions below as well as visiting the different websites to explore what recycling really is. Form groups of 4 and explore the following websites as well as answer the questions which follow. The first website is of Recycle City where you will be exploring the City and how they recycle. Recyle City Why Recycling is Important Now please answer the following questions on paper. 1. What are the 3 R's? Explain in further ...

  19. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beck

    1994-01-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in

  20. The adoption of the Australian Water Recycling Guidelines by regulators with specific reference to treatment validation requirements.

    PubMed

    Power, K N

    2010-01-01

    Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling: Managing Health and Environmental Risks (Phase 1) (AGWR) were published in 2006 and present a risk management framework. A major component is the validation of a treatment process for log removal of microorganisms. A National Water Commission (NWC) Fellowship looked at the adoption of the AGRW and the validation requirements of the individual jurisdictions within Australia. To enhance the uptake of recycled water, reduce the technical burden on jurisdictions and promote consistence between jurisdictions, three recommendations were proposed: 1. Agree that treatment systems for low exposure schemes be exempt from individual validation; 2. Develop a national database for log removal values for use with low exposure schemes; and 3. Develop a national approach to the validation of treatment processes. A process for achieving these goals is outlined in the paper. PMID:20962388

  1. GPI-Anchored Proteins Are Delivered to Recycling Endosomes via a Distinct cdc42-Regulated, Clathrin-Independent Pinocytic Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shefali Sabharanjak; Pranav Sharma; Robert G. Parton; Satyajit Mayor

    2002-01-01

    Endocytosis of cell-surface proteins via specific pathways is critical for their function. We show that multiple glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are endocytosed to the recycling endosomal compartment but not to the Golgi via a nonclathrin, noncaveolae mediated pathway. GPI anchoring is a positive signal for internalization into rab5-independent tubular-vesicular endosomes also responsible for a major fraction of fluid-phase uptake; molecules merely

  2. Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A. [eds.] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [eds.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

  3. Ideas: Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chessin, Debby A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents classroom ideas focusing on connections among mathematics, concern for the environment, and conservation of natural resources, including decomposition, water conservation, packaging materials, use of manufactured cans, and recycling. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  4. Recycle City

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

  5. Extreme Recycling

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2009-01-14

    Broadcast Transcript: Singing the recycling blues because you have to separate your chipboard from your newspaper, your steel from your aluminum, your #1 from your #2 plastic? Pantywaists! The residents of Kamikatsu, Japan have no fewer than 34...

  6. Recycled Towers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about material reuse by designing and building the strongest and tallest towers they can, using only recycled materials. They follow design constraints and build their towers to withstand earthquake and high wind simulations.

  7. Glass recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmijn, W.L.; Houwelingen, J.A. van [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Glass recycling in the Netherlands has grown from 10,000 to 300,000 tonnes per annum. The various advantages and problems of the glass cycle with reference to the state of the art in the Netherlands is given. Special attention is given to new technologies for the automated sorting of cullet with detection systems. In Western Europe the recycling of glass has become a success story. Because of this, the percentage of glass cullet used in glass furnaces has increased. To meet the quality demands of the glass industry, automated sorting for the removal of stones, non-ferrous metals and other impurities had to be developed and incorporated in glass recycling plants. In Holland, Germany and other countries, the amount of glass collected has reached a level that color-sorting becomes necessary to avoid market saturation with mixed cullet. Recently, two systems for color-sorting have been developed and tested for the separation of bottles and cullet in the size range of 20--50 mm. With the increased capacity of the new glass recycling plants, 120,000--200,000 tpy, the quality systems have also to be improved and automated. These quality control systems are based on the automated sorting technology developed earlier for the glass recycling plants. The data obtained are automatically processed and printed. The sampling system and its relation to the theory of Gy will be described. Results of both developments in glass recycling plants will be described.

  8. Tire Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  9. Endocytic recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick R. Maxfield; Timothy E. McGraw

    2004-01-01

    After endocytosis, most membrane proteins and lipids return to the cell surface, but some membrane components are delivered to late endosomes or the Golgi. We now understand that the pathways taken by internalized molecules that eventually recycle to the cell surface can be surprisingly complex and can involve a series of sorting events that occur in several organelles. The molecular

  10. Steel Recycling Institute (SRI)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    The Steel Recycling Institute (SRI) provides information and statistics on steel recycling; it was founded by a group of steel companies and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Originally a grassroots effort focused only on the recycling of steel cans, the SRI now promotes the recycling of all steel products. The SRI homepage provides online access to its three publications, The Dockside Recycler, The Recycling Magnet, and The Appliance Recycler. Recycling information is divided into four categories: cans, cars, appliances, and construction material. Users can use the recycling database to find the nearest steel recycling location. Links provides a large list of both commercial and non-commercial steel sites.

  11. ParadigmParadigm Concrete RecyclingConcrete Recycling

    E-print Network

    ParadigmParadigm Concrete RecyclingConcrete Recycling #12;Recycled ConcreteRecycled Concrete the recycle mix #12;Uses of Recycled ConcreteUses of Recycled Concrete 1.1. Aggregate BaseAggregate Base 2Two Lift Construction #12;II--35, Oklahoma35, Oklahoma ­­ Payne CountyPayne County Recycled Concrete MixRecycled

  12. Protein Kinase B\\/Akt Acts via Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 To Regulate Recycling of  v 3 and  5 1 Integrins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marnie S. Roberts; Alison J. Woods; Trevor C. Dale; Peter van der Sluijs; Jim C. Norman

    2004-01-01

    Protein kinase B (PKB)\\/Akt is known to promote cell migration, and this may contribute to the enhanced invasiveness of malignant cells. To elucidate potential mechanisms by which PKB\\/Akt promotes the migration phenotype, we have investigated its role in the endosomal transport and recycling of integrins. Whereas the internalization of v3 and 51 integrins and their transport to the recycling compartment

  13. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  14. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  15. WASTE DESCRIPTION RECYCLED OR

    E-print Network

    WASTE DESCRIPTION REDUCED, REUSED, RECYCLED OR CONSERVED POUNDS REDUCED, REUSED, RECYCLED OR CONSERVED IN 2000 WASTE TYPE POTENTIAL COSTS FOR TREATMENT & DISPOSAL COST OF RECYCLE, PREVENTION ESTIMATED and recycled approximately 1.6 liters of mercury rather than disposing of the mercury as hazardous waste

  16. Scrap car recycling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Tai, H.S.; Fan, R.K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The official figure of registered automobiles released by the Ministry of Transportation of Taiwan, R.O.C. as of the end of April 1996, is approximately 4.8 millions. Among them, 18% of the cars are between seven and ten years old and 15% of the cars are old than ten years. The result of this large number of old cars is the problem of abandoned cars on the street of Taiwan. This phenomena not only hinders traffic flow but also undermines the living quality in the cities. To minimize these negative effects, EPA has promulgated a Scrap Motor Vehicles Management Regulation to enforce the scrap car recycling in Taiwan. Under this regulation, a buyer of a new vehicle has to pay the Scrap Motor Vehicle Disposal fee (NT$ 3000, or US$ 110 for a car; and NT$ 700, or US$ 25 for a motorcycle). This paper presents the current status of scrap car recycling in Taiwan.

  17. The current status of scrap metal recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoel, Han

    1990-04-01

    Although millions of tonnes of metals are recycled around the world every year, even more can be done if the proper economic incentives are present. Increasing the rate of recycle will slow the growth of primary production and reduce the potential for environmental overload. But to progress beyond the present state of affairs, public opinion, regulations and economics must combine to encourage the responsible reprocessing of metal wastes.

  18. Recycle of waste paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, G.D.; Harris, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    One of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant's long range goals is to reduce the amount of waste from the plant. The large amount of waste paper generated by the plant is currently buried in the state permitted landfill. Methods of recycling cardboard and paper which comply with all security requirements, health, safety, and environmental regulations of the Y-12 Plant are sought to conserve the landfill. A process to compact paper into a form which may be used as fuel and fed into the existing steam plant has been developed. A water-resistant briquette has been made from waste paper, a binder, and coal. Laboratory and pilot scale briquetting and pulverizing tests have been completed. These briquettes have physical properties similar to those of coal. 12 tabs.

  19. Epidermal H2O2 Accumulation Alters Tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH4) Recycling in Vitiligo: Identification of a General Mechanism in Regulation of All 6BH4Dependent Processes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin U. Schallreuter; Jeremy Moore; John M. Wood; Wayne D. Beazley; Eva M. J. Peters; Lee K. Marles; Stefanie C. Behrens-Williams; Reinhard Dummer; Nenad Blau; Beat Thöny

    2001-01-01

    It has been shown in vivo that patients with the depigmentation disorder vitiligo accumulate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accompanied by low catalase levels and high concentrations of 6- and 7-biopterin in their epidermis. Earlier it was demonstrated that epidermal 4a-OH-tetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase, an important enzyme in the recycling process of 6(R)-L-erythro 5,6,7,8 tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH4), has extremely low activities in these patients concomitant

  20. Authorization Recycling in RBAC Systems

    E-print Network

    Authorization Recycling in RBAC Systems 1Laboratory for Education and Research in Secure Systems ·motivation ·recycling approach recycling algorithms experimental evaluations summary & future work #12 issued before (precise recycling) #12;6 Laboratory for Education and Research in Secure Systems

  1. Recycling overview in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This article discusses the recycling programs currently in use in Sweden. Recycling of newspapers, batteries, plastics are all mentioned in this report by the Swedish Association of Public Cleansing and Solid Waste Management.

  2. Federal Recycling Program Printed on recycled paper.

    E-print Network

    Hoddle, Mark S.

    #12;Federal Recycling Program Printed on recycled paper. The Forest Health Technology Enterprise hibiscus mealybug. Photo by Jeffrey W. Lotz, Florida Department of Agriculture, Conservation Service (www.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis

  3. Recycling of automotive aluminum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jirang CUI; Hans J. ROVEN

    2010-01-01

    With the global warming of concern, the secondary aluminum stream is becoming an even more important component of aluminum production and is attractive because of its economic and environmental benefits. In this work, recycling of automotive aluminum is reviewed to highlight environmental benefits of aluminum recycling, use of aluminum alloys in automotive applications, automotive recycling process, and new technologies in

  4. Recycling and the automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    This article examines the current status of automobile recycling and contains a summary of a survey which points out the major drivers and their impacts on automotive recycling. The topics of the article include computerized dismantling, polyurethane, sheet molding compound, polyester, thermoplastic polyester, recycling salvaged parts, vinyl and automotive shredder residue.

  5. Buying recycled helps market

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, G. [City of Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The waste reduction and recycling program of Thousand Oaks, California is summarized. Descriptions of the program, market development for recycled products, business development, and economic development are provided. The emphasis of the program is on market development for recycled products. Procurement guidelines used by the city are reprinted in the paper.

  6. The Economics of Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogert, Susan; Morris, Jeffrey

    1993-01-01

    Reports the findings of a study that documented 1992 costs of residential curbside recycling versus disposal systems in four Washington State cities: Seattle, Spokane, Bellingham, and Vancouver. Results indicated that recycling can be less expensive than disposal when the revenues obtained from selling recycled materials are considered. (MDH)

  7. Much Ado about Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Ian

    1993-01-01

    Discusses a solid waste recycling workshop for students and teachers sponsored by the Southwest Connecticut Regional Operating Committee (SWEROC), a consortium of 19 towns and cities organized to help implement a regional recycling program. The SWEROC workshop utilized games and team activities to teach students about recycling and the…

  8. A novel adsorbent of Na(2)Ta(2)O(6) porous microspheres with F(-) gradient concentration distribution: high cationic selectivity and well-regulated recycling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Huang, Shushu; Su, Yiguo; Chai, Zhanli; Zhai, Hao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2014-01-30

    Pyrochlore Na2Ta2O6 porous microspheres with F(-) gradient concentration distribution were first prepared, which showed an excellent selectivity toward cationic dyes as an adsorbent. These dyes were regenerated rapidly by adding to NaAc solution. After then, the adsorbent still showed a high adsorption capacity. Optionally, the effective recycling of the adsorbents was achieved by UV light illumination, free of secondary environmental contamination. The rate of adsorption reaction followed the pseudo second-order kinetics, and the sorption isotherm well fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model. Eventually, the adsorption reaction for the absorbents was found to be a spontaneous and endothermic process. PMID:24365873

  9. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  10. Extrasynaptic vesicle recycling in mature hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ratnayaka, Arjuna; Marra, Vincenzo; Branco, Tiago; Staras, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Fast neuronal signalling relies on highly-regulated vesicle fusion and recycling at specialized presynaptic terminals. Recently, examples of non-classical neurotransmission have also been reported, where fusion of vesicles can occur at sites remote from conventional synapses. This has potentially broad biological implications, but the underlying mechanisms are not well established. Here we show that a complete vesicle recycling pathway can occur at discrete axonal sites in mature hippocampal neurons and that extrasynaptic fusion is a robust feature of native tissue. We demonstrate that laterally mobile vesicle clusters trafficking between synaptic terminals become transiently stabilized by evoked action potentials and undergo complete but delayed Ca2+-dependent fusion along axons. This fusion is associated with dynamic actin accumulation and subsequently, vesicles can be locally recycled, reacidified and re-used. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural work demonstrates that extrasynaptic fusion sites can have apposed postsynaptic specializations, suggesting that mobile vesicle recycling may underlie highly dynamic neuron-neuron communication. PMID:22068598

  11. Functional Properties of Rab15 Effector Protein in Endocytic Recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A. Elferink; David J. Strick

    2005-01-01

    Receptor recycling has emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for cell surface composition, pathogen invasion, and for control over the intensity and duration of receptor signaling in multiple cell types. In the case of the transferrin receptor, receptor recycling is an important step for facilitating iron uptake into the cell, by regulating the availability of the receptor at the cell

  12. Analysis of a municipal recyclable material recycling program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-Hai Yu; Horng-Guang Leu; Sheng H. Lin

    1996-01-01

    The recyclable material recycling program organized and operated by a small town in northern Taiwan is investigated. Emphasis of the present study is placed on the operation, analysis of the annual amounts of recyclable material collection and on the operational cost-benefit analysis of the recycling program. Examination of the operational data reveals that the recycling program is in good financial

  13. St Andrews Recycling Points Recycling Points are situated locally to

    E-print Network

    St Andrews, University of

    St Andrews Recycling Points Recycling Points are situated locally to allow you to recycle the following materials: To find your nearest Recycling Point please visit www.fifedirect.org.uk/wasteaware or call the Recycling Helpline on 08451 55 00 22. R&A GOLF CLUB OLD COURSE HOTEL UNIVERSITY NORTH HAUGH

  14. Recycling Service Learning Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Renee Faatz

    The recycling project begins with students learning about waste and resources. They complete background assignments about the energy and materials required to manufacture paper, aluminum, etc. They study landfills and the issues related to space, pollution, etc. They look at what is different if these things are recycled. The students work in groups of two or three and adopt and academic building on campus. They educate the staff and faculty about recycling - what can be recycled and where. They arrange to pick-up paper from each office. My hope is that the college faculty, staff and students will eventually recycle paper at common bins and that our project will progress to adding other recyclables to our project.

  15. Recycling of the continental crust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott M. McLennan

    1988-01-01

    In order to understand the evolution of the crust-mantle system, it is important to recognize the role played by the recycling of continental crust. Crustal recycling can be considered as two fundamentally distinct processes: 1) intracrustal recycling and 2) crust-mantle recycling. Intracrustal recycling is the turnover of crustal material by processes taking place wholly within the crust and includes most

  16. Factors Influencing Household Recycling Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Oskamp; Maura J. Harrington; Todd C. Edwards; Deborah L. Sherwood; Shawn M. Okuda; Deborah C. Swanson

    1991-01-01

    To investigate factors encouraging or deterring recycling, telephone interviews were used to study recycling behavior, attitudes, and knowledge of 221 randomly selected adults in a suburban city that had begun a citywide curbside recycling program within the past year. Approximately 40% reported participation in the curbside recycling program, and nearly 20% more claimed that their household had been recycling in

  17. Announcing: All Recycling Reduce your

    E-print Network

    Papautsky, Ian

    Announcing: All Recycling Go Green! Reduce your contribution to the landfill, by choosing to voluntarily recycle acceptable items in the green All Recycling toters and containers around campus. ONLY THE ITEMS BELOW ARE ACCEPTED FOR ALL RECYCLING Please do not contaminate the recycling containers with trash

  18. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  19. 40 CFR 261.6 - Requirements for recyclable materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and the notification requirements under section 3010 of RCRA, except as provided in paragraph (a) of this section. (The recycling process itself is exempt from regulation except as provided in § 261.6(d).) (2) Owners or operators of...

  20. Risk assessment in wastewater recycling and reuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Salgot; C. Vergés; A. N. Angelakis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Wastewater recycling and reuse guidelines and\\/or regulations have been traditionally and exclusively based on the determination of bacterial indicators and nematode eggs presence. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that: (a) virus presence is not well established by bacterial indicators, (b) the viability ofnematode eggs is not determined, (c) parasites’ presence is not analysed, (d) behaviour of all pathogens once

  1. Operational experience and performance characteristics of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery energy-storage system for providing the customer with critical load protection and energy-management benefits at a lead-recycling plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, G. W.

    The Power Control Division of GNB Technologies, commissioned on May 13, 1996 a new facility which houses a 5-MW battery energy-storage system (BESS) at GNB's Lead Recycling Centre in Vernon, CA. When the plant loses utility power (which typically happens two or three times a year), the BESS will provide up to 5 MW of power at 4160 VAC in support of all the plant loads. Since the critical loads are not isolated, it is necessary to carry the entire plant load (maximum of 5 MVA) for a short period immediately following an incident until non-critical loads have been automatically shed. Plant loading typically peaks at 3.5 MVA with critical loads of about 2.1 MVA. The BESS also provides the manufacturing plant with customer-side-of-the-meter energy management options to reduce its energy demand during peak periods of the day. The BESS has provided a reduction in monthly electric bills through daily peak-shaving. By design, the battery can provide up to 2.5 MWh of energy and still retain 2.5 MWh of capacity in reserve to handle the possibility of a power outage in protecting the critical loads for up to 1 h. By storing energy from the utility during off-peak hours of the night in the batteries when the cost is low (US4.5¢ per kWh), GNB can then discharge this energy during high demand periods of the day (US14.50 per kW). For example, by reducing its peak demand by 300 kW, the lead-recycling centre can save over US4000 per month in its electric bills. The BESS at Vernon represents a first large-scale use of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in such a demanding application. This paper presents a summary of the operational experience and performance characteristics of the BESS over the past 2 years.

  2. Feedstock recycling of polymer wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur A. Garforth; Salmiaton Ali; Jesús Hernández-Martínez; Aaron Akah

    2004-01-01

    Current common polymer waste recycling methods, mechanical recycling and energy recovery, have drawbacks such as labour intensive sorting and atmospheric pollution. Feedstock recycling has emerged as an environmentally successful alternative for polymer waste management.

  3. Up-regulation of genes involved in N-acetylglucosamine uptake and metabolism suggests a recycling mode of chitin in intraradical mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Kobae, Yoshihiro; Kawachi, Miki; Saito, Katsuharu; Kikuchi, Yusuke; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Hata, Shingo; Fujiwara, Toru

    2015-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonize roots and form two kinds of mycelium, intraradical mycelium (IRM) and extraradical mycelium (ERM). Arbuscules are characteristic IRM structures that highly branch within host cells in order to mediate resource exchange between the symbionts. They are ephemeral structures and at the end of their life span, arbuscular branches collapse from the tip, fungal cytoplasm withdraws, and the whole arbuscule shrinks into fungal clumps. The exoskeleton of an arbuscule contains structured chitin, which is a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), whereas a collapsed arbuscule does not. The molecular mechanisms underlying the turnover of chitin in AM fungi remain unknown. Here, a GlcNAc transporter, RiNGT, was identified from the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Yeast mutants defective in endogenous GlcNAc uptake and expressing RiNGT took up (14)C-GlcNAc, and the optimum uptake was at acidic pH values (pH 4.0-4.5). The transcript levels of RiNGT in IRM in mycorrhizal Lotus japonicus roots were over 1000 times higher than those in ERM. GlcNAc-6-phosphate deacetylase (DAC1) and glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase (NAG1) genes, which are related to the GlcNAc catabolism pathway, were also induced in IRM. Altogether, data suggest the existence of an enhanced recycling mode of GlcNAc in IRM of AM fungi. PMID:25564438

  4. Waste hydrocarbons recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brinkman

    1986-01-01

    During the 1970s, the U.S. supply of petroleum was predicted to be quickly vanishing. The price we would have to pay for what remained would be unprecedented. All alternatives would not only have to be explored, but exploited to their fullest potential. In that decade of recycling aluminum cans, glass bottles, and newspapers by the truckloads, the recycling of petroleum

  5. Wee Recyclers Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Hands-on activities in this guide are designed to help preschool children (ages 3-5) understand that reducing, reusing, and recycling preserves natural resources and prolongs the life of landfills. Children sort, match and compare recyclable items and learn to separate some items by number and color. The 29 activities are divided into units that…

  6. Recycling and Composting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    In this lesson, students learn about the value of renewable resources. Using multimedia intractives, video, and classroom activities, they learn to identify examples of renewable resources and how humans use them, understand what recycling and conservation are, learn about composting, and identify food waste and household items that can be recycled or composted.

  7. Recycling into Art

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Debra Fioranelli

    2000-10-01

    This interdisciplinary unit weaves art and science together to help students appreciate the importance of recycling. In this engaging activity, students collected items worthy of recycling from home, and with the help of the art teacher, used a loom to cr

  8. Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Phil

    1996-01-01

    The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)

  9. Carbon dioxide recycling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the ?Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  10. The Fermilab recycler ring

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

  11. Fuel cell recycling system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sederquist

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a fuel cell recycling system comprising: first fuel cells being adapted to electrochemically convert fuel into electricity and exhaust; second fuel cells being adapted to electrochemically convert fuel into electricity and exhaust; feed means for supplying fuel to the first fuel cells in parallel; exhaust means for receiving exhaust from the first fuel cells; recycling means for

  12. The ocean is critical to the Earth's global systems, regulating weather and climate, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the re-cycling

    E-print Network

    Johannesson, Henrik

    Abstract The ocean is critical to the Earth's global systems, regulating weather and climate resources. Through evaporation to cloud formation to rain, the ocean rejuvenates the Earth's drinking water. There is a growing need and demand for more systematic ocean information at local, national, regional, and global

  13. 75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ...our planet, participating in curbside recycling and community composting programs, and...of recyclable and recycled materials. Recycling not only preserves our environment by...workers nationwide, and evolving our recycling practices can help create green...

  14. Interleukin10 Down-Regulates MHC Class II ?? Peptide Complexes at the Plasma Membrane of Monocytes by Affecting Arrival and Recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Koppelman; Jacques J Neefjes; Jan E de Vries; René de Waal Malefyt

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibits antigen-specific T cell responses when human monocytes are used as antigen-presenting cells. This is correlated with a down-regulation of MHC class II molecules on the surface of the monocyte. Here we show that IL-10 does not affect MHC class II transcription, polypeptide synthesis, subunit assembly, or antigenic peptide loading. Instead, newly synthesized mature MHC class II molecules

  15. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    SciTech Connect

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R&D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility.

  16. Solvent recycle/recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  17. RETHINKING WASTE, RECYCLING, AND HOUSEKEEPING

    E-print Network

    Howitt, Ivan

    RETHINKING WASTE, RECYCLING, AND HOUSEKEEPING EFFICIENCY.EFFICIENCY. A l GA leaner Green #12 t R li Management Recycling Staff The Office of Waste Reduction & Recycling started in The Office of Waste Reduction & Recycling started in 1990, we have 14 full time staff positions. ·We collect over 40

  18. Nottingham Trent University Plastic Recycling

    E-print Network

    Evans, Paul

    5015/03/08 Nottingham Trent University Plastic Recycling Water and fizzy drinks bottles the caps from any bottles you recycle. Please rinse all plastic bottles and containers before putting them in the recycling bins. #12;5015/03/08 Nottingham Trent University Paper Recycling Office paper Catalogues

  19. RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    NATIONAL RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by: Smith, Bucklin and Associates, Inc. Market Research and Statistics Division Chicago, Illinois July 2003 PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER #12;BCI RECYCLING RATE STUDY TABLE ....................................................................................................1 II. METHODOLOGY A. Total Pounds of Lead Recycled from Batteries

  20. CHERRY: CHECKPOINTED EARLY RESOURCE RECYCLING

    E-print Network

    Torrellas, Josep

    1 2 3 CHERRY: CHECKPOINTED EARLY RESOURCE RECYCLING Jos´e F. Mart´inez1 , Jose Renau2 Michael C. Huang3 , Milos Prvulovic2 , and Josep Torrellas2 #12;Cherry: Checkpointed Early Resource Recycling: Decouple recycling from retirement #12;Cherry: Checkpointed Early Resource Recycling in Out

  1. A Practical Recycling Project . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Raymond H.; Mikuska, James M.

    1973-01-01

    Descirbes a school district's recycling program of aluminum lunch trays that are collected after their use. The trays are used as scrap metal in industrial education workshop and used for sand castings. (PS)

  2. Making Recycled Paper

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Chemical Society

    2011-01-01

    In this activity on page 11 of the PDF, learners follow simple steps to recycle old newspaper into new paper. Use this activity to introduce conservation as well as the chemistry of cellulose and how paper products are made.

  3. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2010-11-30

    In this media-rich lesson featuring LOOP SCOOPS videos, students consider how the concept of needs vs. wants can help them think about ways to protect Earth's natural resources by reducing, reusing, and recycling materials.

  4. Climate Kids: Recycle This!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The site features an online game in which participants keep recyclable items out of the trash by guiding them into proper bins. Accompanying the game is a list of three categories of items that can be recycled, along with the benefits of doing so. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

  5. Recycling of composite materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Buggy; L. Farragher; W. Madden

    1995-01-01

    An economic survey of composite manufacturing was carried out to help to identify suitable fibre\\/resin systems for recycling trials. Three separate recycling strategies were also adopted. The first of these was the re-use of in-process polyester\\/glass prepreg offcuts, which were quantified and then reprocessed using a simple pressing technique. Three different panel types were pressed and subjected to comparative physical

  6. Recycling of PET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Firas Awaja; Dumitru Pavel

    2005-01-01

    The recycling of post-consumer PET (POSTC-PET) as a technology is a cross-disciplinary practice with many fields of science involved. These include polymer chemistry and physics, process engineering and manufacturing engineering. This paper presents a concise background of the current state of knowledge with respect to POSTC-PET recycling covering the disciplines mentioned above. In the first section of this paper, a

  7. Recycling of nonmetallics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  8. An ACAP1-containing clathrin coat complex for endocytic recycling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Peters, Peter J.; Bai, Ming; Dai, Jun; Bos, Erik; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Kandror, Konstantin V.; Hsu, Victor W.

    2007-01-01

    Whether coat proteins play a widespread role in endocytic recycling remains unclear. We find that ACAP1, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) 6, is part of a novel clathrin coat complex that is regulated by ARF6 for endocytic recycling in two key physiological settings, stimulation-dependent recycling of integrin that is critical for cell migration and insulin-stimulated recycling of glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4), which is required for glucose homeostasis. These findings not only advance a basic understanding of an early mechanistic step in endocytic recycling but also shed key mechanistic insights into major physiological events for which this transport plays a critical role. PMID:17664335

  9. Evidence for a recycling role for Rab7 in regulating a late step in endocytosis and in retention of lysosomal enzymes in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Buczynski, G; Bush, J; Zhang, L; Rodriguez-Paris, J; Cardelli, J

    1997-01-01

    The mammalian small molecular weight GTPase Rab7 (Ypt7 in yeast) has been implicated in regulating membrane traffic at postinternalization steps along the endosomal pathway. A cDNA encoding a protein 85% identical at the amino acid level to mammalian Rab7 has been cloned from Dictyostelium discoideum. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that Rab7 was enriched in lysosomes, postlysosomes, and maturing phagosomes. Cell lines were generated that overexposed Rab7 wild-type (WT), Rab7 Q67L (constitutively active form), and Rab7 T22N (dominant negative form) proteins. The Rab7 T22N cell line internalized fluid phase markers and latex beads (phagocytosis) at one-third the rate of control cells, whereas Rab7 WT and Rab7 Q67L cell lines were normal in uptake rates but exocytosed fluid phase faster than control cells. In contrast, fluid phase markers resided in acidic compartments for longer periods of time and were more slowly exocytosed from Rab7 T22N cells as compared with control cells. Light microscopy indicated that Rab7-expressing cell lines contained morphologically altered endosomal compartments. Compared with control cells, Rab7 WT- and Rab7 Q67L-expressing cells contained a reduced number of vesicles, the size of postlysosomes (> 2.5 microns) and an increased number of smaller vesicles, many of which were nonacidic; in control cells, > 90% of the smaller vesicles were acidic. In contrast, Rab7 T22N cells contained an increased proportion of large acidic vesicles relative to nonacidic vesicles. Radiolabel pulse-chase experiments indicated that all of the cell lines processed and targeted lysosomal alpha-mannosidase normally, indicating the lack of a significant role for Rab7 in the targeting pathway; however, retention of mature lysosomal hydrolases was affected in Rab7 WT and Rab7 T22N cell lines. Contrary to the results observed for the fluid phase efflux experiments, Rab7 T22N cells oversecreted alpha-mannosidase, whereas Rab7 WT cells retained this hydrolase as compared with control cells. These data support a model that Rab7 may regulate retrograde transport of lysosomal enzymes and the V-type H(+)-ATPase from postlysosomes to lysosomes coupled with the efficient release of fluid phase from cells. Images PMID:9243512

  10. Consumer-mediated recycling and cascading trophic interactions.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Shawn J; Loreau, Michel

    2010-07-01

    Cascading trophic interactions mediated by consumers are complex phenomena, which encompass many direct and indirect effects. Nonetheless, most experiments and theory on the topic focus uniquely on the indirect, positive effects of predators on producers via regulation of herbivores. Empirical research in aquatic ecosystems, however, demonstrate that the indirect, positive effects of consumer-mediated recycling on primary producer stocks may be larger than the effects of herbivore regulation, particularly when predators have access to alternative prey. We derive an ecosystem model with both recipient- and donor-controlled trophic relationships to test the conditions of four hypotheses generated from recent empirical work on the role of consumer-mediated recycling in cascading trophic interactions. Our model predicts that predator regulation of herbivores will have larger, positive effects on producers than consumer-mediated recycling in most cases but that consumer-mediated recycling does generally have a positive effect on producer stocks. We demonstrate that herbivore recycling will have larger effects on producer biomass than predator recycling when turnover rates and recycling efficiencies are high and predators prefer local prey. In addition, predictions suggest that consumer-mediated recycling has the largest effects on primary producers when predators prefer allochthonous prey and predator attack rates are high. Finally, our model predicts that consumer-mediated recycling effects may not be largest when external nutrient loading is low. Our model predictions highlight predator and prey feeding relationships, turnover rates, and external nutrient loading rates as key determinants of the strength of cascading trophic interactions. We show that existing hypotheses from specific empirical systems do not occur under all conditions, which further exacerbates the need to consider a broad suite of mechanisms when investigating trophic cascades. PMID:20715638

  11. Protein recycling pathways in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Fecto, Faisal; Esengul, Y Taylan; Siddique, Teepu

    2014-01-01

    Many progressive neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and frontotemporal lobe dementia, are associated with the formation of insoluble intracellular proteinaceous inclusions. It is therefore imperative to understand the factors that regulate normal, as well as abnormal, protein recycling in neurons. Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome or autophagy pathways might contribute to the pathology of various neurodegenerative diseases. Induction of these pathways may offer a rational therapeutic strategy for a number of these diseases. PMID:25031631

  12. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  13. Processing solid propellants for recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Whinnery, L.L.; Griffiths, S.K.; Handrock, J.L.; Lipkin, J.

    1994-05-01

    Rapid evolution in the structure of military forces worldwide is resulting in the retirement of numerous weapon systems. Many of these systems include rocket motors containing highly energetic propellants based on hazardous nitrocellulose/nitroglycerin (NC/NG) mixtures. Even as the surplus quantities of such material increases, however, current disposal methods -- principally open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) -- are coming under close scrutiny from environmental regulators. Environmentally conscious alternatives to disposal of propellant and explosives are thus receiving renewed interest. Recycle and reuse alternatives to OB/OD appear particularly attractive because some of the energetic materials in the inventories of surplus weapon systems represent potentially valuable resources to the commercial explosives and chemical industries. The ability to reclaim such resources is therefore likely to be a key requirement of any successful technology of the future in rocket motor demilitarization. This document consists of view graphs from the poster session.

  14. Scrap tire recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1997-03-01

    As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

  15. Chemical Recycling of Polyurethanes and Applications for the Recyclates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. You; D. T. Durocher; P. Ch. Kierkus; T. L. Fishback

    1998-01-01

    The recycling of thermoset materials, including polyurethane, has always posed unique challenges. Traditional approaches to recycling such materials include mechanical regrinding and the use of the regrind as filler. Chemical recycling of polyurethanes by such means as hydrolysis, aminolysis, and glycolysis, is for the most part considered economically uncompetitive compared to formulating with virgin raw materials. To protect our environment

  16. Recycled Aluminum Ornaments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wishart, Ray

    This lesson plan from ATEEC will explain the principles of recycling. The activity would be most appropriate for technology studies or high school science classes. In all, it would require 2-5 hours of class time to complete. The purpose of the lesson is to demonstrate how aluminum is recycled. This laboratory activity does require some special equipment including a heat source capable of melting aluminum and an outdoor work area. Extension activities are also provided. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

  17. Power recycling for an interferometric gravitational wave

    E-print Network

    Ejiri, Shinji

    THESIS Power recycling for an interferometric gravitational wave detector Masaki Ando Department . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3.3 Power recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.3.1 Principle of power recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.3.2 Recycling cavity

  18. Urban waste recycling in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon C. C. Yang

    1995-01-01

    The urban waste recycling program in Taiwan is discussed. During the past few years, the quantity of urban waste generated in Taiwan has greatly increased, about 8–10% per year. Approx., 50 wt.% or more of the waste items in urban waste are found to be valuable and worth recycling. Recycling is of much significance to Taiwan because of a lack

  19. PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    PITT RECYCLES! Steel Aluminum Tin cans *Please empty cans! *Please empty containers! *Plastic bags can be recycled at Giant Eagle and Trader Joe's. Look on the bottom or the side of the container NOT Recyclable... Food waste Lunch bags Coffee cups Cellophane Tissues Paper towels Carbon paper Styrofoam Metals

  20. Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

    2005-01-01

    This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

  1. Antiproton stacking in the Recycler

    SciTech Connect

    Alexey Burov

    2003-06-23

    Possibilities to accumulate antiprotons in the Recycler are considered for three different cases: with current stochastic cooling, with upgraded stochastic cooling and with electron cooling. With stochastic cooling only, even upgraded, Recycler looks hardly useful. However, with electron cooling at its goal parameters and reasonably good vacuum in the Recycler, this machine would be efficient.

  2. Recycled concrete aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nik. D. Oikonomou

    2005-01-01

    The subject of concrete recycling is regarded as very important in the general attempt for sustainable development in our times. In a parallel manner, it is directly connected with (a) increase of demolition structures past out of performance time, (b) demand for new structures and (c) results––especially in Greece––of destruction by natural phenomena (earthquakes, etc.). The present paper refers to

  3. Helium-Recycling Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

  4. Recycling and Restoration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    KET

    2011-01-11

    This video explains how Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky used recycled cypress from pickle vats to build its visitor center and then “paid back” nature by creating a cypress-tupelo swamp at one end of a lake on the park grounds.

  5. RECYCLABILITY INDEX FOR AUTOMOBILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project's purpose is to create a rating system for the ecological impacts of vehicles at the end of their life based on recyclability, toxic material content, and ultimate disposal. Each year, 10-11 million vehicles are retired from service in the United States. The vehi...

  6. Computer Recycling Farm USA

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS conducted a study of plastic pollution at this rural US site in the Midwest.  The recycler was receiving computers from companies at a rate which greatly exceeded the capacity of the operation.  Approximately 50,000 computers remained outdoors on 15 acres for nearly a decade.  The site has sinc...

  7. CONSTANS is a photoperiod regulated activator of flowering in sorghum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sorghum genotypes used for grain production in temperate regions are photoperiod insensitive and flower early avoiding adverse environments during the reproductive phase. In contrast, energy sorghum hybrids are highly photoperiod sensitive with extended vegetative phases in long days, resulting in enhanced biomass accumulation. SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 contribute to photoperiod sensitivity in sorghum by repressing expression of SbEHD1 and FT-like genes, thereby delaying flowering in long days with minimal influence in short days (PNAS_108:16469-16474, 2011; Plant Genome_in press, 2014). The GIGANTEA (GI)-CONSTANS (CO)-FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) pathway regulates flowering time in Arabidopsis and the grasses (J Exp Bot_62:2453-2463, 2011). In long day flowering plants, such as Arabidopsis and barley, CONSTANS activates FT expression and flowering in long days. In rice, a short day flowering plant, Hd1, the ortholog of CONSTANS, activates flowering in short days and represses flowering in long days. Results Quantitative trait loci (QTL) that modify flowering time in sorghum were identified by screening Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from BTx642 and Tx7000 in long days, short days, and under field conditions. Analysis of the flowering time QTL on SBI-10 revealed that BTx642 encodes a recessive CONSTANS allele containing a His106Tyr substitution in B-box 2 known to inactivate CONSTANS in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analysis characterized sorghum CONSTANS as a floral activator that promotes flowering by inducing the expression of EARLY HEADING DATE 1 (SbEHD1) and sorghum orthologs of the maize FT genes ZCN8 (SbCN8) and ZCN12 (SbCN12). The floral repressor PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR PROTEIN 37 (PRR37) inhibits sorghum CONSTANS activity and flowering in long days. Conclusion Sorghum CONSTANS is an activator of flowering that is repressed post-transcriptionally in long days by the floral inhibitor PRR37, contributing to photoperiod sensitive flowering in Sorghum bicolor, a short day plant. PMID:24884377

  8. The Fernald Waste Recycling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Motl, G.P.

    1993-10-26

    Recycling is considered a critical component of the waste disposition strategy at the Fernald Plant. It is estimated that 33 million cubic feet of waste will be generated during the Fernald cleanup. Recycling some portion of this waste will not only conserve natural resources and disposal volume but will, even more significantly, support the preservation of existing disposition options such as off-site disposal or on-site storage. Recognizing the strategic implications of recycling, this paper outlines the criteria used at Fernald to make recycle decisions and highlights several of Fernald`s current recycling initiatives.

  9. Microfilaments and microtubules regulate recycling from phagosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria T Damiani; Maria I Colombo

    2003-01-01

    It is clear that the uptake of large particles is driven by a finely controlled rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we present evidence that myosin motors and microtubules also participate in the Fc?-mediated internalization process in macrophages. During phagocytosis, a substantial amount of plasma membrane is internalized without a net reduction in cell surface area, implying an active mechanism

  10. Recycling prosodic boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yuki

    2003-03-01

    The present study investigates the role of prosodic structure in selecting a syntactic analysis at different stages of parsing in silent reading of Japanese relative clauses. Experiments 1 and 2 (sentence-completion questionnaires) revealed an effect of the length of the sentence-initial constituent on the resolution of a clause boundary ambiguity in Japanese. Experiment 3 (fragment-reading) showed that this length manipulation is also reflected in prosodic phrasing in speech. Its influence on ambiguity resolution is attributed to "recycling" of prosodic boundaries established during the first-pass parse. This explanation is based on the implicit prosody proposals of Bader (1998) and Fodor (1998). Experiment 4 (self-paced reading) demonstrated the immediacy of the influence on ambiguity resolution on-line. Experiment 5 (self-paced reading) found support for the additional prediction that when no boundary is available to be recycled, processing the relative clause construction is more difficult. PMID:12690830

  11. Composting to Recycle Biowaste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    György Füleky; Szilveszter Benedek

    \\u000a If agriculture is to be made sustainable, few activities like composting are very important. Composting not only allows organic\\u000a waste of agricultural origin to be recycled and returned to the soil, but also provides a solution for managing much of the\\u000a waste, which is currently a major problem. If urban organic waste is selectively collected and composted, it no longer

  12. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating out radioactive contamination, the copper cable was coated with a surrogate contaminant. The demonstration took place at the Bonneville County Technology Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  13. Recycling of pavement materials 

    E-print Network

    O'Neal, Randy Jim

    1976-01-01

    as test projects. Samples of loose mix were obtained for Hveem and Marshall stabilities, direct tension, splitting tensile, and. Schmidt tests. Four inch diameter cores were obtained after compaction and. service. Samples were cut from the cores... for testing of Hveem and Marshall stabilities, splitting tensile, and Schmidt tests. Data was compi. led and analyzed. Test results were inputed into the layered elastic design program in order to determine the structural adequacy of the recycled...

  14. Waste hydrocarbons recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.W.

    1986-03-01

    During the 1970s, the U.S. supply of petroleum was predicted to be quickly vanishing. The price we would have to pay for what remained would be unprecedented. All alternatives would not only have to be explored, but exploited to their fullest potential. In that decade of recycling aluminum cans, glass bottles, and newspapers by the truckloads, the recycling of petroleum products that had become contaminated, oxidized, or otherwise made unsuitable for their intended use seemed so obvious as to be trivial. Indeed, the level of interest in recycling petroleum products in the 70s was reflected on the quantity of research performed, papers published and patents granted. More than 1,200 reports, patents, and other technical publications were recently documented for this rather narrow subject. And the potential would seem to justify this level of interest. A table shows some of the major waste of used petroleum streams available in the United States alone. Many of these streams represent highly refined products into which we have already invested considerable time and energy. Can these products be recovered for a relatively low additional investment in time and energy. Examples addressing the two largest categories - used lubricating oil and contaminated fuels - are discussed here.

  15. Why recycle? A comparison of recycling motivations in four communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Vining; Nancy Linn; Rabel J. Burdge

    1992-01-01

    Four Illinois communities with different sociode-mographic compositions and at various stages of planning for solid waste\\u000a management were surveyed to determine the influence of sociodemographic variables and planning stages on the factors that\\u000a motivate recycling behavior. A factor analysis of importance ratings of reasons for recycling and for not recycling yielded\\u000a five factors interpreted as altruism, personal inconvenience, social influences,

  16. Effect of recycled coarse aggregate on damage of recycled concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belén González-Fonteboa; Fernando Martínez-Abella; Javier Eiras-López; Sindy Seara-Paz

    This study evaluates the possibility of measuring the damage of the recycled concrete. In this way, two conventional concretes\\u000a with a w\\/c ratio of 0.55 and 0.65 were designed. Based on them, six recycled concretes with different percentages of replacement\\u000a of natural coarse aggregates with recycled coarse aggregate (20, 50 and 100%) were obtained. To take into account the high

  17. Why recycle? A comparison of recycling motivations in four communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vining, Joanne; Linn, Nancy; Burdge, Rabel J.

    1992-11-01

    Four Illinois communities with different sociode-mographic compositions and at various stages of planning for solid waste management were surveyed to determine the influence of sociodemographic variables and planning stages on the factors that motivate recycling behavior. A factor analysis of importance ratings of reasons for recycling and for not recycling yielded five factors interpreted as altruism, personal inconvenience, social influences, economic incentives, and household storage. The four communities were shown to be significantly different in multivariate analyses of the five motivational factors. However, attempts to explain these community differences with regression analyses, which predicted the motivational factors with dummy codes for planning stages, a measure of self-reported recycling behavior, and sociodemographic measures were unsatisfactory. Contrary to expectation, the solid waste management planning stages of the cities (curbside pickup, recycling dropoff center, and planning in progress) contributed only very slightly to the prediction of motivational factors for recycling. Community differences were better explained by different underlying motivational structures among the four communities. Altruistic reasons for recycling (e.g., conserving resources) composed the only factor which was similar across the four communities. This factor was also perceived to be the most important reason for recycling by respondents from all four communities. The results of the study supported the notion that convenient, voluntary recycling programs that rely on environmental concern and conscience for motivation are useful approaches to reducing waste.

  18. MOTIVATIONS AND BEHAVIORS THAT SUPPORT RECYCLING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol M. Werner; Eeva Makela

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that recycling researchers should pay attention to both attitudes towards recycling and the processes involved in recycling (recyclers' phenomenal experiences and organizing strategies). As predicted by Sansone and colleagues' model of how people induce themselves to engage in necessary but boring tasks, people who had reasons to persist at recycling (that is, who held strong prorecycling attitudes

  19. Recycling Bin Guide Locations and prices

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Denise

    Recycling Bin Guide Locations and prices Metal Bins Deskside Bins with Side Saddle Rubbermaid Bins.58 for auxiliaries. And Non-Public Areas Public Offices Non-Public Recyclables Recyclables RecyclablesTrash Trash Trash #12;New Recycling Bin Guidelines Frequently Asked Questions (as of December 2008) · Why

  20. Recycling Best Practices Report August 2011

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Denise

    Recycling Best Practices Report August 2011 Elizabeth Fox, Recycling Best Practices Intern Office of Waste Reduction and Recycling University of Michigan Plant Building and Grounds Services #12;Recycling Best Practices Report Office of Waste Reduction and Recycling 1 Executive Summary Due to the high

  1. Zero Waste Program 2011 Recycling Benefits

    E-print Network

    Delgado, Mauricio

    Rutgers Zero Waste Program 2011 Recycling Benefits Through WM's Recycling Program, our company saved energy and reduced Greenhouse Gases through recycling. Recycling uses less energy, preserves from recycled material than from virgin, raw material. RESOURCE SAVINGS 4203 Metric Tons (MTCO2E

  2. Environmental Management Waste and Recycling Policy

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    Environmental Management Waste and Recycling Policy October 2006 The University is committed and promoting recycling and the use of recycled materials. We will actively encourage the recycling of office reduction techniques · Provide facilities for recycling on campus · Give guidance and information to staff

  3. PHOSPHORUS FEEDING AND MANURE NUTRIENT RECYCLING ON WISCONSIN DAIRY FARMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management regulations for livestock operations are focused on a farm¿s ability to recycle the phosphorus (P) contained in manure. Most efforts to improve dairy manure management emphasize manure handling, storage, and land application techniques. Little is known about relationships betwee...

  4. Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood

    E-print Network

    Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated WoodDisposal problem Recycling potentialRecycling potential ValueValue--added productsadded products Closed loop recyclingClosed loop recycling #12;Major Current Disposal OptionsMajor Current Disposal Options Incineration

  5. Synaptic vesicle recycling: steps and principles

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle recycling is one of the best-studied cellular pathways. Many of the proteins involved are known, and their interactions are becoming increasingly clear. However, as for many other pathways, it is still difficult to understand synaptic vesicle recycling as a whole. While it is generally possible to point out how synaptic reactions take place, it is not always easy to understand what triggers or controls them. Also, it is often difficult to understand how the availability of the reaction partners is controlled: how the reaction partners manage to find each other in the right place, at the right time. I present here an overview of synaptic vesicle recycling, discussing the mechanisms that trigger different reactions, and those that ensure the availability of reaction partners. A central argument is that synaptic vesicles bind soluble cofactor proteins, with low affinity, and thus control their availability in the synapse, forming a buffer for cofactor proteins. The availability of cofactor proteins, in turn, regulates the different synaptic reactions. Similar mechanisms, in which one of the reaction partners buffers another, may apply to many other processes, from the biogenesis to the degradation of the synaptic vesicle. PMID:24596248

  6. Recycling parental sexual messages.

    PubMed

    Darling, C A; Hicks, M W

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore parent-child sexual communication by investigating the impact of direct and indirect parental messages on the sexual attitudes and sexual satisfaction of young adults. A survey research design was used to obtain data from undergraduate students attending a large Southern university. The findings indicate that both direct and indirect parental sexual messages are negative and restrictive and have a differential impact on sexual satisfaction and sexual attitudes. While sexual satisfaction was positive, sexual attitudes were found to be problematic, especially among females. Suggestions are given for approaches that family life educators and parents may use in order to recycle previous sexual messages. PMID:6631981

  7. Porosity of recycled concrete with substitution of recycled concrete aggregate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. V Gómez-Soberón

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental analysis of samples of recycled concrete (RC) with replacement of natural aggregate (NA) by recycled aggregate originating from concrete (RCA). The results of the tests of mechanical properties of RC were used for comparison with tests of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), in which the distribution of the theoretical pore radius, critical pore ratio,

  8. Cross-cultural comparison of concrete recycling decision-making and implementation in construction industry.

    PubMed

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Tam, Leona; Le, Khoa N

    2010-02-01

    Waste management is pressing very hard with alarming signals in construction industry. Concrete waste constituents major proportions of construction and demolition waste of 81% in Australia. To minimize concrete waste generated from construction activities, recycling concrete waste is one of the best methods to conserve the environment. This paper investigates concrete recycling implementation in construction. Japan is a leading country in recycling concrete waste, which has been implementing 98% recycling and using it for structural concrete applications. Hong Kong is developing concrete recycling programs for high-grade applications. Australia is making relatively slow progress in implementing concrete recycling in construction. Therefore, empirical studies in Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan were selected in this paper. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. Power spectrum was used for analysis. It was found that "increasing overall business competitiveness and strategic business opportunities" was considered as the major benefit for concrete recycling from Hong Kong and Japanese respondents, while "rising concrete recycling awareness such as selecting suitable resources, techniques and training and compliance with regulations" was considered as the major benefit from Australian respondents. However, "lack of clients' support", "increase in management cost" and "increase in documentation workload, such as working documents, procedures and tools" were the major difficulties encountered from Australian, Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. To improve the existing implementation, "inclusion of concrete recycling evaluation in tender appraisal" and "defining clear legal evaluation of concrete recycling" were major recommendations for Australian and Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. PMID:19854634

  9. Cross-cultural comparison of concrete recycling decision-making and implementation in construction industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Vivian W.Y., E-mail: vivianwytam@gmail.co [School of Engineering, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 1797 (Australia); Tam, Leona [College of Business and Public Administration, 2151 Constant Hall, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Le, Khoa N. [School of Engineering, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 1797 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Waste management is pressing very hard with alarming signals in construction industry. Concrete waste constituents major proportions of construction and demolition waste of 81% in Australia. To minimize concrete waste generated from construction activities, recycling concrete waste is one of the best methods to conserve the environment. This paper investigates concrete recycling implementation in construction. Japan is a leading country in recycling concrete waste, which has been implementing 98% recycling and using it for structural concrete applications. Hong Kong is developing concrete recycling programs for high-grade applications. Australia is making relatively slow progress in implementing concrete recycling in construction. Therefore, empirical studies in Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan were selected in this paper. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. Power spectrum was used for analysis. It was found that 'increasing overall business competitiveness and strategic business opportunities' was considered as the major benefit for concrete recycling from Hong Kong and Japanese respondents, while 'rising concrete recycling awareness such as selecting suitable resources, techniques and training and compliance with regulations' was considered as the major benefit from Australian respondents. However, 'lack of clients' support', 'increase in management cost' and 'increase in documentation workload, such as working documents, procedures and tools' were the major difficulties encountered from Australian, Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. To improve the existing implementation, 'inclusion of concrete recycling evaluation in tender appraisal' and 'defining clear legal evaluation of concrete recycling' were major recommendations for Australian and Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively.

  10. RECYCLING AND GENERAL WASTE MANAGEMENT OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE

    E-print Network

    Harman, Neal.A.

    RECYCLING AND GENERAL WASTE MANAGEMENT OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services.6.1/1 Recycling & General Waste Management Department: Estates & Facilities Management Site: Swansea University recycling and waste management facilities in Swansea university To ensure that Waste Management Objectives

  11. The Economic Benefits of Recycling in Virginia

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    The Economic Benefits of Recycling in Virginia Alexander P. Miller Hang T. Nguyen Samantha D, and the recycling contacts from the participating Solid Waste Planning Units discussed in this study. #12;3 Table Determinants of Recycling_______________________________ 12 State Reports

  12. Energy and Environmental Considerations in Recycling

    E-print Network

    Budker, Dmitry

    Energy and Environmental Considerations in Recycling Griffin Hosseinzadeh 11 April 2012 Physics H materials from recyclables · Carbon emissions & water pollution from production of virgin materials vs. recycling · Methane from decomposing materials in landfill · Depletion of natural resources (trees, minerals

  13. Flooding and Recycling Authorizations Konstantin (Kosta) Beznosov

    E-print Network

    Flooding and Recycling Authorizations Konstantin (Kosta) Beznosov Laboratory for Education delivery channels with speculatively pre- computed authorizations and actively recycling them on a just Security Keywords authorization recycling, authorization flooding, access con- trol, authorization, publish

  14. 16 CFR 260.12 - Recyclable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...the waste stream through an established recycling program for reuse or use in manufacturing...deception about the availability of recycling programs and collection sites to consumers. (1) When recycling facilities are available to a...

  15. 76 FR 71861 - America Recycles Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ...advanced the common good of our Nation by recycling regularly and promoting conservation...growth. Since then, we have bolstered recycling programs through individual action...we must update and expand existing recycling programs and dedicate ourselves to...

  16. RECYCLING: SUPPLY, ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Abubakr, Said

    RECYCLING: SUPPLY, ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY Panel Discussion Roundtable Moderator: S, although higher market values for recyclable will certainly stimulate increased interest in collection in recycling and deinking technologies and process design among North American, European, and Pacific Rim

  17. 16 CFR 260.12 - Recyclable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...the waste stream through an established recycling program for reuse or use in manufacturing...deception about the availability of recycling programs and collection sites to consumers. (1) When recycling facilities are available to a...

  18. Management and performance of Taiwan's waste recycling fund.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Lin, Chun-Hsu; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2005-05-01

    Taiwan's resource recycling program was formally established in 1989, starting with the mandatory recycling of polyethylene terephthalate bottles. The number of mandatory regulated materials was extended to 8 categories with 27 items by 2002. Because of false data reporting, financial scandal, lack of transparency of the system, and the demand from parliament, the recycling policy has gradually changed from entirely privatized to being nationalized. Currently, the structure is built on six main bodies: fund management committee, consumers, industries responsible, recyclers, fee reviewing committee, and auditing agents. The industries that are responsible submit a fee, which is set by the fee reviewing committee, to the waste recycling fund (WRF), which is operated by the fund management committee. The auditing agents routinely check the responsible industries by documentation review as well as on-site counting to ensure that the fee is correctly submitted. The WRF provides initiatives to collect and dispose of the end-of-life products. The fund is split into a trust fund and a nonbusiness fund to deal with the collection, disposal, and treatment of the listed materials. The latter deals with the supporting works and ensures that the system runs effectively. The ratio of trust fund to nonbusiness fund is 80-20%. It is no doubt that the current practice achieves some improvements. Household waste has been reduced by 22%. And, most importantly, the benefit-to-cost ratio was as high as 1.24. However, similar to other state-owned systems, the resource recycling program has been criticized for false reporting from the responsible industries, a rigid system, and complicated procedures. To build a sustainable enterprise, the recycling program should be privatized as the recycling market and operating procedures are well established and fully mature. PMID:15991666

  19. Recycling the news

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, K.A.

    1997-09-01

    With its infamous bureaucracy, legions of news organizations, and the prominence of the federal government, Washington, D.C., and its environs generate literally tons of paper every day. Paper represents almost 40% of the waste stream, according to the US EPA. The agency`s figures show that more than 80 million tpy of paper are generated, and with such a significant portion of this waste capable of being recycled, it is essential that the nation`s capital have enough paper recycling facilities. Capital Fiber (Springfield, VA.), a large-scale intermediate paper processing facility, is an example of one such facility. Its primary material is old newspapers (ONP), and its operations consist of receiving, sorting, and consolidating waste paper for baling and resale. The company is a joint venture between daily newspaper giant the Washington Post (Washington, D.C.), which owns 80%, and the Canusa Corp. (Baltimore), a waste paper brokerage firm, which owns the other 20% of Capitol Fiber. Capital Fiber`s Springfield facility handles nine grades of paper, including pre-consumer and post-consumer ONP, blank news (newspaper trimmings that have not been printed on), old corrugated containers (OCC), sorted white ledger and sorted office waste, and various wrappers, supermixes, and other mixed grades. Within each of these categories are various sub-grades of paper, and the facility also takes old telephone books, computer paper, and flyleaf, the extra tim cut from periodicals. But, not surprisingly, the predominant material is ONP.

  20. The Fernald Waste Recycling Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motl

    1993-01-01

    Recycling is considered a critical component of the waste disposition strategy at the Fernald Plant. It is estimated that 33 million cubic feet of waste will be generated during the Fernald cleanup. Recycling some portion of this waste will not only conserve natural resources and disposal volume but will, even more significantly, support the preservation of existing disposition options such

  1. Management of scrap car recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Hwa Lee

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the current scrap car management system in Taiwan. In Taiwan, most metal scrap for recycling is imported from foreign countries. Since scrap cars contain 80% metal, they are a significant domestic feed source for metal recycling industries in Taiwan. However, many scrap cars are abandoned on the street by the last owner, causing traffic and environmental problems.

  2. TOMATO CLEANING AND WATER RECYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full-scale dump tank water recycle system was developed and demonstrated. A false bottom-ejector transport system removed soil from the water. Clarified water was either recycled back to the dump tank or discharged to the sewer. A vacuum belt was developed for dewatering the mu...

  3. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  4. Climate Kids: Recycling Program Educator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Using her countywide program as an example, a recycling educator offers incentives for recycling by providing data on energy savings and explaining how her county in Michigan supports the program. The Climate Kids website is a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

  5. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from

  6. Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

    1973-01-01

    Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)

  7. Flotation separation of waste plastics for recycling-A review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jian-Gang; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-07-01

    The sharp increase of plastic wastes results in great social and environmental pressures, and recycling, as an effective way currently available to reduce the negative impacts of plastic wastes, represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Froth flotation is a promising method to solve the key problem of recycling process, namely separation of plastic mixtures. This review surveys recent literature on plastics flotation, focusing on specific features compared to ores flotation, strategies, methods and principles, flotation equipments, and current challenges. In terms of separation methods, plastics flotation is divided into gamma flotation, adsorption of reagents, surface modification and physical regulation. PMID:25869841

  8. USF Physical Plant Recycling Program Updated November 2013

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    USF Physical Plant Recycling Program Updated November 2013 #12;Beginnings · Program initiated · Continuously expanding recycling efforts #12;Paper Recycling · Currently recycling mixed paper Office paper, newspaper, magazines, cardboard, paperbacks · PPD has distributed about 2,400 office-size recycling

  9. Exploring Waste and Recycling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Camann, Eleanor

    This resource, created by Eleanor Camann of Red Rocks Community College, will introduce students to the concept of sustainability in terms of waste products and recycling practices. The overall premise of the project is to "get students to think critically about which earth materials are used to make things, and where all the waste from both mining and consumption ends up." The activity employs skills in basic mathematics, reasoning and writing. It also crosses disciplines by implementing skills in environmental geology and science. The learning activity only takes about two hours of in-class time and an additional three outside of the classroom. It uses simple materials such as a calculator, periodic table, household scale and digital camera. Lessons plans such as these are supported by a grant under the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program.

  10. Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Shen; Ernst Worrell; Martin K. Patel

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling were analysed. Three allocation methods are applied for open-loop recycling, i.e. the “cut-off” approach, the “waste valuation” approach and the “system expansion” approach. Nine environmental impact indicators were

  11. Recycling and Life Cycle Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This chapter addresses recycling and life cycle considerations related to the growing use of lightweight materials in vehicles. The chapter first addresses the benefit of a life cycle perspective in materials choice, and the role that recycling plays in reducing energy inputs and environmental impacts in a vehicle s life cycle. Some limitations of life cycle analysis and results of several vehicle- and fleet-level assessments are drawn from published studies. With emphasis on lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites, the status of the existing recycling infrastructure and technological challenges being faced by the industry also are discussed.

  12. Recycled Materials Affirmative Procurement Tracking System (RMAPTS). Software user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    RMAPTS is designed to interact with other computer systems. This system can upload or download data from other RMAPTS systems. RMAPTS also complies with Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs). Section 6002 of the Resource Conservation of Recovery Act (RCRA), Title 40 Part 247-25 of the Code of Federal Regulations, and Executive Order 12780 present mandates and guidelines to the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors for the procurement of products containing recycled materials. These regulations promote cost-effective waste reduction and recovery of reusable materials from Federally generated waste; promote environmentally sound and economically efficient waste reduction and recycling of the nation`s resources; and stimulate private sector markets through preferential procurement of designated items. On August 4, 1992, the Deputy Secretary of the Department of Energy requested DOE to show its commitment to Executive Order 12780, Federal Agency Recycling and Procurement Policy. This software was developed in response to this request. RMAPTS will allow users to track and report specific data concerning the procurement of products that contain recycled material and the quantity of recycled material contained in each product. This system provides greater detail, improved accuracy, and less time spent on year-end reporting. Users can quickly check the year-to-date status of recycled material purchases and recycled material contents of products at any time.

  13. Technical activities 1980 office of recycled materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Becker; J. G. Berke; R. T. Matthews; H. Yakowitz

    1980-01-01

    A review of recycled materials programs at NBS, for FY 1980 is presented in this annual report. This report contains the following: The Office of Recycled Materials - A plan for the future; The NBS recycled oil program--(Introduction, the NBS role in recycled oil, the current NBS program, plan, implementation, and discussion); The resource conservation and recovery program--(Introduction, needs, goal

  14. Recycled Wash Water Crushed Returned Concrete

    E-print Network

    1 Recycled Wash Water Crushed Returned Concrete National Concrete Consortium March 2012 Colin Lobo% increase by 2030 "Waste" to "Recycled" Returned Concrete - estimated 2 - 10% of production 8 to 12 by 2030 Recycled content: 200% increase by 2020 400% increase by 2030 Recycled Content: Where are we

  15. Super recycled water: quenching January 30, 2014

    E-print Network

    purifying" wastewater, plus recycling waste to replace concrete We know water is a precious resource creating recycled material to replace concrete, the most widely used construction material on Earth which- 1 - Super recycled water: quenching computers January 30, 2014 Conserving, recycling and "super

  16. Shear strength of recycled concrete beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belén González-Fonteboa; Fernando Martínez-Abella

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the shear behaviour of concrete made with recycled concrete aggregates. Tests have been performed on recycled aggregates and on two concrete mixes (conventional concrete and recycled concrete with 50% of recycled coarse aggregates). For every concrete, four reinforced beams with different amount of transverse reinforcement were made and were tested to failure. The results showed that

  17. Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Recycled Concrete Beams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryoichi Sato; Ippei Maruyama; Takahisa Sogabe; Masaru Sogo

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate whether concrete with recycled aggregate can be applied for concrete structures, flexural loading tests of reinforced recycled concrete members were carried out. The recycled coarse aggregate and the recycled fine aggregate were produced mainly from various reinforced concrete members of a building structure as well as from 300 mm cubic concrete specimens. The properties of concrete

  18. EXPLAINING RURAL HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Jakus; Kelly H. Tiller; William M. Park

    1997-01-01

    Rising landfill costs have forced solid waste managers to consider waste stream reduction alternatives such as household recycling. Explaining the factors which motivate households to recycle is important to regions where households must bear a large portion of the recycling cost because unit-based garbage disposal fees and curbside recycling are not feasible options. Empirical results indicate that residents are responsive

  19. RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED Batteries, toner, ink cartridges & cell phones and recycling is an important part of that effort. Below is a guide to on-campus recycling at RSMAS: Visit http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/msgso/ for map of recycling bin locations. NOTE: This is not an exhaustive list. If unauthorized items are found

  20. The Environment Team to Waste & Recycling

    E-print Network

    St Andrews, University of

    The Environment Team A-Z Guide to Waste & Recycling www.le.ac.uk/environment #12;Welcome ...to the University of Leicester's `A-Z Guide to Waste and Recycling'. Over the last 3 years, the Environment Team has introduced an award- winning recycling scheme across the campus that allows us to recycle paper, plastics

  1. Ink and Toner Recycling Rewards Program Overview

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Ink and Toner Recycling Rewards Program Overview www.MyBusinessRecycles.com April 2013 #12;Program Overview · All BSD contract customers can participate in the MyBusinessRecycles program · Customers located in AK, HI or PR are not currently eligible. ­ Education sector customers should join the Recycling Rules

  2. You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

  3. State strategy for recycling market development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Millberg

    1991-01-01

    The ultimate importance of developing recycling markets is to accomplish these five objectives: Assist local governments and state offices in achieving the recycling goals in the SCORE (Select Committee on Recycling and the Environment) legislation through the development of recycling markets, while focusing on longer-term market development for additional materials in the waste stream that currently are not recovered, or

  4. A RECYCLED LAN DSCAPE Richard H. Durrell

    E-print Network

    Maynard, J. Barry

    A RECYCLED LAN DSCAPE by Richard H. Durrell Department of Geology University of Cincinnati Drafting, May 1977 (R.A. Davis, editor) Reprinted 1982 A recycled landscape "Recycling" is the word of the day the same way, Nature recycles even the very hills and valleys beneath our feet. But, as usual, Nature

  5. WASTE MINIMISATION AND RECYCLING POLICY 1.Introduction

    E-print Network

    Mottram, Nigel

    WASTE MINIMISATION AND RECYCLING POLICY 1.Introduction University of Glasgow has stated its overall as it relates to waste minimisation and recycling. 2.Recycling Policy Statement The University of Glasgow of awareness of waste minimisation and recycling within the University community · Promote economy in the use

  6. TTUAB PLASTIC RECYCLING PROTOCOL Fall 2011 What Plastic Do We Recycle?

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    TTUAB PLASTIC RECYCLING PROTOCOL ­ Fall 2011 What Plastic Do We Recycle? TTUAB has taken on the responsibility of recycling #1 PET and #2 HDPE plastics by placing a yellow TTUAB Plastic Recycling bin on each recyclables encountered in our bins are ALSO our responsibility (e.g. tin cans, aluminum cans, glass). So

  7. Welcome new and returning residents! Help us make USC greener by recycling! Your Room Recycling Bin

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    Welcome new and returning residents! Help us make USC greener by recycling! Your Room Recycling Bin Every room is provided with a recycling bin to make it easy for you to recycle while living in University Housing. Use this bin to collect mixed recyclables in your room and take them to your nearest

  8. Greywater recycling systems in Germany--results, experiences and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Nolde, E

    2005-01-01

    Although Germany is not considered a water-poor country, there exist regional differences in water supply and consumption. During the past 15 years, the greywater aspect has been dealt with in Germany with a greater interest and variable success. In addition to an increased environmental awareness, water costs also play an important role in increasing the demand for advanced greywater treatment plants nstalled in buildings. Under favourable conditions, the amortisation costs usually lie between 5 and 7 years. Systems that have been extensively tried and tested and have been shown to be most reliable are those employing an advanced biological treatment followed by an UV disinfection. Systems based on membrane technology are being developed and researched intensively in Germany for municipal wastewater treatment. However, so far they play no role in greywater recycling. Greywater systems operating under low energy and maintenance requirements without the use of chemicals are mostly favoured. In Germany, greywater recycling systems should be registered at the Health Office in order to guarantee that no cross-connections exist with the drinking water network and that pipes are labelled according to regulations. The hygienic requirements for recycled greywater, which is primarily used for toilet flushing, are oriented towards the EU-Guidelines for Bathing Waters. The use of recycled greywater for irrigation purposes is minor. As to the use of recycled water for laundry, the first promising investigation results are now available. PMID:16104423

  9. Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?

    PubMed

    Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

    2014-01-01

    Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling. PMID:25127654

  10. The College that Recycled Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrimore, Earl

    1978-01-01

    At Davidson College in North Carolina, a recycling program has turned attics into lecture halls, laboratories, and a museum; a banquet hall is now an art gallery; and the main classroom building was remodeled. (Author/MLF)

  11. Make Your Own Recycled Paper

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn how paper is made. Working together, student teams make their own paper. This activity introduces students to recycling; what it is, its value and benefits, and how it affects their lives.

  12. Disposal, Degradation, and Recycling; Bioplastics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Teegarden

    2004-01-01

    Everyone is familiar with plastic waste. We throw away large volumes of it, at home, at school, at work, at fast food restaurants, on vacation. Much of it ends up in the trash. We see some of it as litter along the sides of roads, streams and lakes, and floating up on beaches. We probably recycle some used plastics, although how much depends upon where we live. In many localities, only items produced from PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and HDPE (high-density polyethylene) are collected for recycling. Why don't we recycle more of it? Why not LDPE (low-density polyethylene) and polystyrene? And what happens to it when we do? We'll develop some basic principles in this chapter on some of the avenues that help us follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's advice to "reduce, reuse, recycle."

  13. Progress reported in PET recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The Goodyear Polyester Division has demonstrated its ability to break down polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from recycled plastic soft drink bottles and remanufacture the material into PET suitable for containers. Most people are familiar with PET in the form of lightweight, shatter resistant beverage bottles. About 20 percent of these beverage containers currently are being recycled. The recycled PET is currently used in many applications such as carpeting, pillow stuffing, sleeping bag filling, insulation for water heaters and non-food containers. This is the first step of Goodyear's increased efforts to recycle PET from containers into a material suitable for food packing. The project is extremely complex, involving sophisticated understanding of the chemical reactions involved, PET production and the technology testing protocols necessary to design a process that addresses all the technical, safety, and regulatory concerns. The research conducted so far indicated that additional processing beyond simply cleaning the shredded material, called flake, will be required to assure a quality polymer.

  14. Plutonium Multiple Recycling In PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Nigon, Jean-Louis [COGEMA, DRD, 2 rue Paul Dautier 78141 Velizy - Villacoublay Cedex (France); Lenain, Richard [SERMA, CEA Saclay (France); Zaetta, Alain [SPRC - CEA Cadarache (France)

    2002-07-01

    Reprocessing and recycling open the road to a sustainable management of nuclear materials and an environment friendly management of nuclear waste. However, long or very long term recycling implies fast neutron reactors. High burn-ups of irradiated standard UO{sub 2} fuel as well as recycling of plutonium fuel in thermal reactors lead to a 'degradation' of plutonium that means a low fissile content, which is hardly compatible with recycling in LWRs. Thus the question of plutonium management has been raised; although there are some limitations, a truly large variety of options do exist; no one of the presently selected ways of plutonium management is a dead end road. Among these various options, some are fully compatible with the existing reactors and may be considered for the mid term future; they offer a competitive management of plutonium during the transition from thermal to fast reactors. (authors)

  15. Proliferation aspects of plutonium recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Pellaud

    2002-01-01

    Plutonium recycling offers benefits in an energy perspective of sustainable development, and, moreover it contributes to non-proliferation. Prior to recycling, reactor-grade plutonium from light-water reactors does not lend itself easily to the assembly of explosive nuclear devices; thereafter, practically not at all. Control systems for material security and non-proliferation should identify and adopt several categories of plutonium covering various isotopic

  16. Recycling steel. Conducting a waste audit.

    PubMed

    Crawford, G

    1996-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three articles regarding steel can recycling from foodservice operations of healthcare facilities. This article highlights the basic methods of recycling steel cans, and includes information on conducting a waste audit and negotiating with a hauler regarding the benefits of recycling. The previous article discussed how steel is recycled across the country. The next article will convey a case history of actual foodservice recycling practice from a healthcare facility. PMID:10157569

  17. Recycling incineration: Evaluating the choices

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, R.A.; Ruston, J. (eds.)

    1993-01-01

    Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling and incineration. It is intended for citizens, government officials, and business people who want to help resolve the solid-waste crisis.' The book is divided into three parts: recycling and incineration; health and environmental risk of incineration; and planning, public participation, and environmental review requirements. The book does an excellent job of discussing the benefits of recycling and the pitfalls of incineration. It provides helpful information for identifying questions that should be raised about incineration, but it does not raise similar queries about recycling. There is much worthwhile information here, but the book would be more useful if it identified critical issues for all waste reduction and management options.

  18. Disposable product design and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Stessel, R.I. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Of late, recycling has lost some of its luster, even as prices are increasing for recovered materials. First, collection costs continue to be high. Second, recycling rates seem to be leveling off. These two difficulties are related. The paper begins with an overview of the causes of these problems, concluding, as have many practitioners, that an increase in automation is required. Automation expands options for solving some of the problems, but the structure of the recycling industry, embodying a fundamental disconnect between producers of consumer products and waste management, raises special difficulties. Consumer product companies have done their best to be environmentally responsible, studying packaging reduction, sales of concentrated products, etc. They have included recycled content in packages. However, few significant steps have been taken to increase the recyclability of the products; elimination of base cups in PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottles is a notable exception. This paper explores the gap between product design and recyclability. It brings the missing component to packaging design: the technology of materials recovery. The objective was to develop overriding design concepts.

  19. Key recycling in authentication

    E-print Network

    Christopher Portmann

    2014-09-29

    In their seminal work on authentication, Wegman and Carter propose that to authenticate multiple messages, it is sufficient to reuse the same hash function as long as each tag is encrypted with a one-time pad. They argue that because the one-time pad is perfectly hiding, the hash function used remains completely unknown to the adversary. Since their proof is not composable, we revisit it using a composable security framework. It turns out that the above argument is insufficient: if the adversary learns whether a corrupted message was accepted or rejected, information about the hash function is leaked, and after a bounded finite amount of rounds it is completely known. We show however that this leak is very small: Wegman and Carter's protocol is still $\\epsilon$-secure, if $\\epsilon$-almost strongly universal$_2$ hash functions are used. This implies that the secret key corresponding to the choice of hash function can be reused in the next round of authentication without any additional error than this $\\epsilon$. We also show that if the players have a mild form of synchronization, namely that the receiver knows when a message should be received, the key can be recycled for any arbitrary task, not only new rounds of authentication.

  20. Mercury recovering and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, T.E.; Rose, M.V.

    1995-11-01

    Efficient, economical treatment of mercury-contaminated soils and industrial wastes requires a treatment process that reduces mercury content to near background levels and recovers the removed mercury in pure recyclable form without producing liquid, solid, or gaseous secondary wastes. Mercury Recovery Services, Inc. has successfully developed and placed commercial operation a medium-temperature thermal desorption process that has into co successfully achieved these goals. The efficacy of the MRS Process to treat mercury-contaminated soils and industrial wastes was first Demonstrated on a pilot scale by means of treating (a) simulated soils containing varying amounts of metallic mercury, mercury oxide, mercury sulfide and mercury chloride, (b) actual natural gas metering site pipeline clay, sandy, and loam soils having total mercury contents in the range of 250 ppm to 15,000 ppm, and (c) waste water treatment sludges from chloralkali production containing up to 20,000 ppm mercury and large significant concentrations of sulfur and chlorine. In every case, the residual total mercury content was reduced to less than 2 ppm after treatment. The performance of MRS` first mobile commercial thermal desorption unit compares very favorably with the previously reported pilot-scale results.

  1. Identification of a Novel Recycling Sequence in the C-tail of FPR2/ALX Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Dawn; McArthur, Simon; Hislop, James N.; Flower, Roderick J.; Perretti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Formyl-peptide receptor type 2 (FPR2; also called ALX because it is the receptor for lipoxin A4) sustains a variety of biological responses relevant to the development and control of inflammation, yet the cellular regulation of this G-protein-coupled receptor remains unexplored. Here we report that, in response to peptide agonist activation, FPR2/ALX undergoes ?-arrestin-mediated endocytosis followed by rapid recycling to the plasma membrane. We identify a transplantable recycling sequence that is both necessary and sufficient for efficient receptor recycling. Furthermore, removal of this C-terminal recycling sequence alters the endocytic fate of FPR2/ALX and evokes pro-apoptotic effects in response to agonist activation. This study demonstrates the importance of endocytic recycling in the anti-apoptotic properties of FPR2/ALX and identifies the molecular determinant required for modulation of this process fundamental for the control of inflammation. PMID:25326384

  2. Rethinking Recycling in Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P.; Behn, M. D.; Jagoutz, O.

    2012-12-01

    Hacker et al EPSL 2011 and Behn et al Nature Geosci 2011 investigated pathways for return of buoyant, subducted material to arc crust. These include (1) diapirs rising into the hot mantle wedge, with extensive melts adding a component to arc magmas, (2) flow of material back up a relatively cold "subduction channel", adding solids to the lower crust and small-degree partial melts to the upper crust, (3) flow from the forearc along the base of arc crust, and (4) imbrication of forearc material into arc crust. These processes add felsic, incompatible-element-rich components to arc crust. The flux of incompatible elements such as Th in arc lavas, thought to be mainly recycled from subducted sediments, is > sediment subduction flux. There are large uncertainties: arc crustal growth rates are imprecise; young, primitive arc lavas may not be representative of magmatic flux into arc crust; sediment subduction flux may have varied. Nevertheless, this result is found for all arcs examined, using recently published growth rates. Perhaps arc growth rates that include subduction erosion are systematically overestimated. Instead or in addition, maybe significant Th comes from material other than sediments. Here, we consider the implications of pathways 1-4 for arc growth rates and incompatible element enrichment, in the context of subduction erosion and arc-arc collision. Subducting arc lithologies can become separated, with only felsic components returned to arc crust. Buoyant lithologies are mobile in viscous instabilities at > 700-800°C. Whereas thin layers such as sediments may become mobile all at once, instabilities may periodically strip the hottest parts from the top of thick buoyant layers, replacing them with hot mantle. In arc-arc collision, the top of a subducting plate starts at about 0°C on the seafloor, so heating is slow. In subduction erosion, forearc material in the subducting package can be > 200°C before erosion so buoyant lithologies reach 700-800°C faster, and in larger volumes at a given time. Subduction erosion rarely, if ever, transports significant amounts of buoyant material deep into the convecting mantle. Because buoyant material can remain part of the crust, it may often be a mistake to add all of the eroded material to the observed arc volume to derive crustal growth rates. Buoyancy instabilities during subduction erosion or arc-arc collision will accumulate felsic arc crust. For example, > 50% of Aleutian arc lavas and exposed plutons are more buoyant than mantle peridotite at 700-800°C, 3-4 GPa. The buoyant material has an average of 60-62 wt% SiO2, molar Mg/(Mg+Fe) 0.4-0.5, and trace elements identical to bulk continental crust, though western Aleutian lavas have the most depleted Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios of all arc lavas worldwide. In general, density sorting of arc lithologies, and subsequent partial melting as buoyant rocks rise through the mantle wedge or along a subduction channel, could lead to a kind of double and triple distillation. Incompatible elements such as Th would be enriched in arc crust, retaining correlations with isotopic indicators of a recycled sediment component, while Th-poor, dense, mafic lavas and lower crustal cumulates return to the convecting mantle.

  3. Deep Recycling of Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    While most of the subducted H2O is recycled at shallow and subarc depths, carbon is less readily mobilized and susceptive to complex redox processes involving CO2 in solids, fluids and melts, elemental carbon, Fe- and Si- carbides, and methane. Here I review the various ways of recycling carbon during subduction and present a spectrum of possible reaction products in the mantle. Metamorphic reactions liberate <20% of the subducted CO2 to the subarc region (Connolly 2005, EPSL). Larger amounts might be mobilized through (sediment) melting. Although the wet pelite solidus is only shifted by 30-50 oC (at 3 GPa) with carbonates, the latter remain stable with melts that are saturated in a H2O+CO2-fluid. Complete dissolution of carbonates requires temperatures above any predicted subduction geotherm. Carbonated sediments yield CO2-rich phonolites to 5 GPa but carbonatites at higher pressures. The silicate melts become increasingly potassic with pressure, while the alkali-rich carbonatites have their highest K/Na at 8 GPa, slightly decreasing to 13 GPa and become sodic with the disappearance of residual cpx at ~16 GPa. What may happen when carbonated pelite derived melts migrate into the mantle is illustrated in Central Italy: in this case, it can be experimentally demonstrated that hybridization of ultrapotassic phonolitic melts with ~2 wt% H2O and ~6 wt% CO2 in the mantle results in the primitive parents of the ultrapotassic kamafugite suites which have ~43 wt% SiO2. Hence, despite a crustal isotopic signature of C, O, and Sr in these rocks, the CO2 of the Italian magmatism does not stem from assimilation in the crust but from melts derived from subducted marine carbonates mixed with pelagic clays and then reacted in the mantle. The migration of CO2-bearing fluids and melts into the mantle may lead to a redox-shock. Where high liquid/mantle ratios prevail, carbonatites rest in their oxidized form and may only freeze in relatively cold lithospheric keels where they form metasomatic zones prone to generate kimberlites in the context of a much later remelting event. Where the redox-capacity of the oxidized crust-derived material is subequal to the reduced mantle, iron carbides are to be expected. The eutectic in the Fe-Ni-C system is at lower temperatures than the mantle adiabat, leading to the distinct possibility that such zones entrained in global mantle convection will contain ~1% of eutectic Fe-C-melt. When the amount of subduction derived CO2 is small compared to the redox capacity of a metal bearing reduced mantle, diamond will form, but diamond itself is not truly reducing at high pressures. The most extreme reducing case leads to moissanite (found together with diamond), which isotopic signature implies involvement of organically derived carbon. Moissanite (SiC) only forms at fO2 <6-8 log units below iron-wustite and coexists with mantle silicates that have an XMg of 0.995-0.998. Our calculations show that a fluid or melt with a bulk, which is slightly more reduced than the CO2-H2O-tieline in C-O-H, may evolve to ultra-reduced residual C-H-rich fluids through removal of CO2 (through carbonate precipitation) followed by removal of H2O (through hydrous silicate formation). As SiC may only be in grain scale equilibrium with the mantle and requires a protracted fluid-fractionation, we propose that SiC is generally a low temperature phase formed from originally already reducing fluids involving organic carbon and hence subduction.

  4. Autophagy, plant senescence, and nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Avila-Ospina, Liliana; Moison, Michael; Yoshimoto, Kohki; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline

    2014-07-01

    Large numbers of publications have appeared over the last few years, dealing with the molecular details of the regulation and process of the autophagy machinery in animals, plants, and unicellular eukaryotic organisms. This strong interest is caused by the fact that the autophagic process is involved in the adaptation of organisms to their environment and to stressful conditions, thereby contributing to cell and organism survival and longevity. In plants, as in other eukaryotes, autophagy is associated with longevity as mutants display early and strong leaf senescence symptoms, however, the exact role of autophagy as a pro-survival or pro-death process is unclear. Recently, evidence that autophagy participates in nitrogen remobilization has been provided, but the duality of the role of autophagy in leaf longevity and/or nutrient recycling through cell component catabolism remains. This review aims to give an overview of leaf senescence-associated processes from the physiological point of view and to discuss relationships between nutrient recycling, proteolysis, and autophagy. The dual role of autophagy as a pro-survival or pro-death process is discussed. PMID:24687977

  5. Mercury recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2005-01-01

    Reclamation and recycling of mercury from used mercury- containing products and treatment of byproduct mercury from gold mining is vital to the continued, though declining, use of this metal. Mercury is reclaimed from mercury-containing waste by treatment in multistep high-temperature retorts-the mercury is volatized and then condensed for purification and sale. Some mercury-containing waste, however, may be landfilled, and landfilled material represents loss of a recyclable resource and a threat to the environment. Related issues include mercury disposal and waste management, toxicity and human health, and regulation of mercury releases in the environment. End-users of mercury-containing products may face fines and prosecution if these products are improperly recycled or not recycled. Local and State environmental regulations require adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act to regulate generation, treatment, and disposal of mercury-containing products. In the United States, several large companies and a number of smaller companies collect these products from a variety of sources and then reclaim and recycle the mercury. Because mercury has not been mined as a principal product in the United States since 1992, mercury reclamation from fabricated products has become the main source of mercury. Principal product mercury and byproduct mercury from mining operations are considered to be primary materials. Mercury may also be obtained as a byproduct from domestic or foreign gold-processing operations. In the early 1990s, U.S. manufacturers used an annual average that ranged from 500 to 600 metric tons of recycled and imported mercury for fabrication of automobile convenience switches, dental amalgam, fluorescent lamps, medical uses and thermometers, and thermostats. The amount now used for fabrication is estimated to be 200 metric tons per year or less. Much of the data on mercury is estimated because it is a low-volume commodity and its production, use, and disposal is difficult to track. The prices and volumes of each category of mercury-containing material may change dramatically from year to year. For example, the average price of mercury was approximately $150 per flask from 2000 until 2003 and then rose sharply to $650 per flask in fall 2004 and approximately $850 per flask in spring 2005. Since 1927, the common unit for measuring and pricing mercury has been the flask in order to conform to the system used at Almaden, Spain (Meyers, 1951). One flask weighs 34.5 kilograms, and 29 flasks of mercury are contained in a metric ton. In the United States, the chlorine-caustic soda industry, which is the leading end-user of elemental mercury, recycles most of its mercury in-plant as home scrap. Annual purchases of replacement mercury by the chlorine-caustic soda industry indicate that some mercury may be lost through evaporation to the environment, put into a landfill as industrial waste, or trapped within pipes in the plant. Impending closure of domestic and foreign mercury-cell chlorine-caustic soda plants and the shift to nonmercury technology for chlorine-caustic soda production could ultimately result in a significant volume of elemental mercury for recycling, sale, or storage. Globally, mercury is widely used in artisanal, or small-scale, gold mining. Most of that mercury is lost to the environment and is not recycled. The recycling rate for mercury was not available owing to insufficient data in 2000, and the efficiency of mercury recycling was estimated to be 62 percent.

  6. Procurement of products containing recycled/recovered materials in the state of Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The report examines the current State activities, regulations, statutes, and policies, as well as technical institutional and economic barriers relating to the public procurement of products containing recovered or recycled materials. The report also lists the top ten commodities procured by the State in dollars plus a listing of products that, in the opinion of the State, have a high potential for the use of recycled or recovered material. The report includes a list of recommendations or suggested actions that could be taken to potentially improve the manufacture, distribution, and procurement of products containing recovered or recycled materials.

  7. State of Washington: a study of procurement of products containing recycled materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The report examines the current State activities, regulations, statutes, and policies, as well as technical institutional and economic barriers relating to the public procurement of products containing recovered or recycled materials. The report also lists the top ten commodities procured by the State in dollars plus a listing of products that, in the opinion of the State, have a high potential for the use of recycled or recovered material. The report includes a list of recommendations or suggested actions that could be taken to potentially improve the manufacture, distribution, and procurement of products containing recovered or recycled materials.

  8. The VEGFR2 receptor tyrosine kinase undergoes constitutive endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen M. Jopling; Gareth J. Howell; Nikita Gamper; Sreenivasan Ponnambalam

    2011-01-01

    The VEGFR2 receptor tyrosine kinase regulates vascular physiology and animal development. The mechanism underlying VEGFR2 membrane trafficking is not well understood. Herein, we show that VEGFR2 undergoes membrane recycling in both vascular and non-vascular cells. In primary human endothelial cells, VEGFR2 normally distributes between the plasma membrane and early endosomes undergoing endocytosis and recycling. This pathway is independent of VEGFR

  9. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungst

    1997-01-01

    Maximizing the reclamation\\/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is

  10. The McGraw-Hill recycling handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, H.F.

    1992-01-01

    This reference begins with an overview of recycling, federal, local and state legislation, municipal and commercial waste streams, setting recycling priorities, separation and collection systems, processing facilities, marketing problems and solutions, public awareness programs, and the psychology of recycling. The second section covers recyclable materials, providing information on collection, processing, transportation, marketing, new product potential, and costs. The book offers details on facility design and recycling equipment, and a section on the implementation and control of recycling. Extensive appendixes, a glossary, and an index are included.

  11. Three CCT domain-containing genes were identified to regulate heading date by candidate gene-based association mapping and transformation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Li, Qiuping; Dong, Haijiao; He, Qin; Liang, Liwen; Tan, Cong; Han, Zhongmin; Yao, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Zhao, Hu; Xie, Weibo; Xing, Yongzhong

    2015-01-01

    CCT domain-containing genes generally control flowering in plants. Currently, only six of the 41 CCT family genes have been confirmed to control flowering in rice. To efficiently identify more heading date-related genes from the CCT family, we compared the positions of heading date QTLs and CCT genes and found that 25 CCT family genes were located in the QTL regions. Association mapping showed that a total of 19 CCT family genes were associated with the heading date. Five of the seven associated genes within QTL regions and two of four associated genes outside of the QTL regions were confirmed to regulate heading date by transformation. None of the seven non-associated genes outside of the QTL regions regulates heading date. Obviously, combination of candidate gene-based association mapping with linkage analysis could improve the identification of functional genes. Three novel CCT family genes, including one non-associated (OsCCT01) and two associated genes (OsCCT11 and OsCCT19) regulated the heading date. The overexpression of OsCCT01 delayed flowering through suppressing the expression of Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 under both long day and short day conditions. Potential functions in regulating heading date of some untested CCT family genes were discussed. PMID:25563494

  12. Recycling Expensive Medication: Why Not?

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantz, Jay M

    2004-01-01

    New (and proposed) advances in packaging, preserving, labeling, and verifying product integrity of individual tablets and capsules may allow for the recycling of certain expensive medicines. Previously sold, but unused, medication, if brought back to special pharmacies for resale or donation, may provide a low-cost source of patent-protected medicines. Benefits of such a program go beyond simply providing affordable medication to the poor. This article suggests that medicine recycling may be a possibility (especially if manufacturers are mandated to blister-package and bar-code individual tablets and capsules). This early discussion of medication recycling identifies relevant issues, such as: need, rationale, existing programs, available supplies, expiration dates, new technology for ensuring safety and potency, environmental impact, public health benefits, program focus, program structure, and liability. PMID:15266231

  13. National Center for Electronics Recycling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Used cellphones and laptops can't go in the recycling with the empty soda cans and cereal boxes. So where do they go to be recycled once consumers find new ones? The National Center for Electronics Recycling (NCER) is working on that very problem. Visitors can click on the "Ecycling Basics" tab on the left side of the page to be taken to links to three websites that allow you to search by zip code or an interactive map of the U.S. In the "Resources" tab on the left side of the page, there are many links to resources that include Advocacy Group Reports, Electronics Disposal Studies, Environmentally Sound Management Guidelines, and International documents. Visitors interested in keeping up with the news from NCER, can sign up for their newsletter in the Google groups box, which is located below the menu on the left side of the page.

  14. Polymer recycling: opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, R S

    1992-01-01

    The disposal of polymer solid waste by means other than landfilling is necessary. The various approaches-source reduction, incineration, degradation, composting, and recycling-all have their roles and must be employed in an integrated manner. Where appropriate, recycling has ecological advantages, but its application is dependent upon the feasibility of collection, sorting, and/or compatibilization of resulting mixtures to produce economically viable products. The practice should be encouraged by societal or legislative pressure which recognizes that the cost of disposal should be a factor in determining the cost of a product. PMID:11607263

  15. RecycleMania! Improving Waste Reduction and Recycling on

    E-print Network

    Awtar, Shorya

    champion-to-employee ratio Large amount of space Information overload Variety of audiences Top;Unique Challenges Large amount of space More recycling resources needed More area to cover with outreach on the same methods of information sharing for all topics People become blind & deaf to these and filter out

  16. Recycled Unbound Base Pooled Fund Study

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Geological Engineering Program University of Wisconsin-Madison #12;·! Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCARecycled Unbound Base Pooled Fund Study Tuncer B. Edil Recycled Materials Resource Center) ­! Demolition and reprocessing of existing concrete structures (buildings, roads, runways, etc.) ­! Produced

  17. Compositional evaluation of asphalt binder recycling agents 

    E-print Network

    Madrid, Richard Charles

    1997-01-01

    Several experiments were performed to determine how recycling agent composition affects the high, intermediate, and low temperature properties as well as long term oxidative aging characteristics of recycled asphalt blends. Specifically, several...

  18. Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study

    E-print Network

    Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California

  19. Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes

    DOEpatents

    Grot, Stephen (Middletown, DE); Grot, Walther (Chadds Ford, PA)

    2007-08-14

    A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

  20. Compositional evaluation of asphalt binder recycling agents

    E-print Network

    Madrid, Richard Charles

    1997-01-01

    Several experiments were performed to determine how recycling agent composition affects the high, intermediate, and low temperature properties as well as long term oxidative aging characteristics of recycled asphalt blends. Specifically, several...

  1. Food Service Recycling: Whose Responsibility Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settanni, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    The food service department at a Pennsylvania school district recycles polystyrene "styrofoam" cups, plates, and food trays. In addition, the department recycles glass, aluminum, and paper. Offers advice on how to set up a school program. (MLF)

  2. Aircraft de-icer: Recycling can cut carbon emissions in half

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric P., E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.uk

    2012-01-15

    Flight-safety regulations in most countries require aircraft to be ice-free upon takeoff. In icy weather, this means that the aircraft usually must be de-iced (existing ice is removed) and sometimes anti-iced (to protect against ice-reformation). For both processes, aircraft typically are sprayed with an 'antifreeze' solution, consisting mainly of glycol diluted with water. This de/anti-icing creates an impact on the environment, of which environmental regulators have grown increasingly conscious. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for example, recently introduced stricter rules that require airports above minimum size to collect de-icing effluents and send them to wastewater treatment. De-icer collection and treatment is already done at most major airports, but a few have gone one step further: rather than putting the effluent to wastewater, they recycle it. This study examines the carbon savings that can be achieved by recycling de-icer. There are two key findings. One, recycling, as opposed to not recycling, cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40-50% - and even more, in regions where electricity-generation is cleaner. Two, recycling petrochemical-based de-icer generates a 15-30% lower footprint than using 'bio' de-icer without recycling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon footprint of aircraft de-icing can be measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling aircraft de-icer cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40-50%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling 'fossil' de-icer is lower carbon than not recycling 'bio' de-icer.

  3. Influence of amount of recycled coarse aggregates and production process on properties of recycled aggregate concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Etxeberria; E. Vázquez; A. Marí; M. Barra

    2007-01-01

    In this study recycled coarse aggregates obtained by crushed concrete were used for concrete production. Four different recycled aggregate concretes were produced; made with 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% of recycled coarse aggregates, respectively. The mix proportions of the four concretes were designed in order to achieve the same compressive strengths. Recycled aggregates were used in wet condition, but not

  4. Recycling at Penn State's Beaver Stadium. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    With a 13-year-old recycling program, The Pennsylvania State University's (Penn State) Beaver Stadium in the past diverted nearly 30 tons of recyclables per year from local landfills. A new initiative to promote recycling in the stadium's tailgating area has helped Penn State more than triple its old recycling record, collecting 112 tons in 2008.…

  5. What Makes a Recycler?A Comparison of Recyclers and Nonrecyclers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Vining; Angela Ebreo

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge and motivational factors represent important but neglected topics in the study of recycling behavior. This article examines differences in knowledge, motives, and demographic characteristics of people who have the opportunity to recycle voluntarily. Information on these variables was obtained for 197 households in Illinois. The results indicated that recyclers in general were more aware of publicity about recycling and

  6. Waste Management and Recycling in Lab Batteries can be recycled in the VWR stockroom

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Robert E.

    Waste Management and Recycling in Lab · Batteries can be recycled in the VWR stockroom · Electronic material can be recycled for free by MIT facilities (via SAP web) · Bulk equipment can be disposed be placed in recycling bin ­ Cardboard ­ Please break down and flatten boxes ­ Containers (aluminum, metal

  7. Where can I recycle it year-round? Item Local Recycling Locations

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    Where can I recycle it year-round? Item Local Recycling Locations Styrofoam First Alternative Co-op Recycling Center, 1007 SE 3rd St., 541-753-3115 (small fee) Packing Peanuts OSU Surplus, 644 SW 13 th St., 541-737-7347 Commercial shipping stores Film Plastics First Alternative Co-op Recycling Center, 1007

  8. Research Report Recycling gone bad: When the option to recycle increases

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Research Report Recycling gone bad: When the option to recycle increases resource consumption Jesse Abstract In this study, we propose that the ability to recycle may lead to increased resource usage compared to when a recycling option is not available. Supporting this hypothesis, our first experiment

  9. Recycling in Schools: From Fad to Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, J. Winston

    1991-01-01

    Numerous business issues arise when organizing a school recycling program. Important questions include the appropriate program organization, deciding what materials to recycle, the selection of appropriate business partners, and various financial issues. Offers suggestions for achieving a successful recycling program. (MLF)

  10. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Schipper; A. Klapwijk; A. Potjer; W. H. Rulkens; B. G. Temmink; F. D. G. Kiestra; A. C. M. Lijmbach

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the treatment plant; using Ca or Al, or bio-P-removal, increases the recycling potential

  11. Properties of HPC with recycled aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsung-Yueh Tu; Yuen-Yuen Chen; Chao-Lung Hwang

    2006-01-01

    The utilization of recycled aggregates can minimize environmental impact and slow the huge consumption of natural resources used for concrete applications. However, recycled aggregates are not suitable for use in the production of High Performance Concrete (HPC) due to their relatively high absorption capacity, unstable properties and recycled aggregates' weaker strength. Such inadequacies can be overcome through carefully examining the

  12. Recycling Report FY2012 FY2012

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    FY 2013 Recycling Report FY2012 FY2012 Month Tons Revenue Tons Revenue Lbs Revenue Tons Revenue Saved 2,987 Gallons of Water Conserved 1,230,411 Paper Cardboard Aluminum Plastic Misc (Tin, Copper, Scrap) RESOURCES SAVED BY RECYCLING Total Tons Recycled 175.77 Cubic Feet of Landfill Space Conserved 15

  13. Recycled Materials Resource Jeffrey S. Melton

    E-print Network

    projects completed to date Project 1: Mitigating Alkali Silicate Reaction in Recycled Concrete Project 2: Using Lithium to Mitigate ASR in RCA Concrete Project 38: Recycled Concrete Aggregate Concrete Pavement Reaction (ASR) in Recycled Concrete Partners: Penn DOT, Maine DOT, Wyoming DOT, FMC Lithium Corporation

  14. Use of building rubbles as recycled aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    How-Ji Chen; Tsong Yen; Kuan-Hung Chen

    2003-01-01

    The application of building rubble collected from damaged and demolished structures is an important issue in every country. After crushing and screening, this material could serve as recycled aggregate in concrete. A series of experiments using recycled aggregate of various compositions from building rubble was conducted. The test results show that the building rubble could be transformed into useful recycled

  15. Creep and shrinkage of recycled aggregate concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Domingo-Cabo; C. Lázaro; F. López-Gayarre; M. A. Serrano-López; P. Serna; J. O. Castaño-Tabares

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental research into concrete produced by replacing the natural aggregates with recycled aggregates coming from construction waste and concrete work demolitions. The main aim of this work was to determine creep and shrinkage variations experienced in recycled concrete, made by replacing the main fraction of the natural aggregate with a recycled aggregate coming from

  16. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Ott

    2012-09-05

    Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

  17. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling

    ScienceCinema

    Ryan Ott

    2013-06-05

    Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

  18. Acceleration of landfill stabilization using leachate recycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. Townsend; W. L. Miller; Hyung-Jib Lee; J. F. K. Earle

    1996-01-01

    A leachate recycle system was constructed and operated at an existing lined landfill in North-Central Florida to observe the effects of leachate recycle on landfill stabilization. Samples of leachate, landfill gas, and landfilled solid waste were collected and analyzed throughout a four-year period, before and after the start of leachate recycle. The settlement of landfilled waste was also measured in

  19. Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

  20. Material Recycling and Waste Disposal Document Control

    E-print Network

    Guillas, Serge

    1 Material Recycling and Waste Disposal Procedure Document Control Document Created by 23, treatment, handling, transport and disposal of recyclable materials and residual wastes so as to maximise the opportunity and value for the recyclable materials and to minimise the quantity of residual materials

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FOR THE AUTOMOBILE RECYCLING INDUSTRY

    E-print Network

    #12;ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FOR THE AUTOMOBILE RECYCLING INDUSTRY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Volume 1 Pollution Abatement Office. Funds were also provided by BC Auto Recyclers, the BC Ministry of Environment 224 West Esplanade North Vancouver, B.C. Vm3H7 #12;BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE AUTO RECYCLING

  2. Recycling at Mooov-In 2011

    E-print Network

    Julien, Christine

    Cardboard Recycling at Mooov-In 2011 For the second year in a row, Division of Housing and Food Service (DHFS) and Recycling & Sustainability teamed up to divert as much cardboard as possible from area landfills. In addition to the paper, cardboard, aluminum and plastic recycling available in all residence

  3. Campus Recycling: Everyone Plays a Part.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Raymond; Grogan, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The broad appeal of recycling makes it the most widespread and popular campus environmental activity. Recycling programs have a wide variety of designs and can fit into an overall waste management strategy, but effective planning for campus recycling requires awareness of a variety of issues and needs. (Author/MSE)

  4. Communication and Recycling in Park Campgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Sam H.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Canby Washington State Park campground recycling program by determining whether campers (N=147) read and followed the provided instructions when disposing of garbage, understood the sorting and disposal instructions, and arrived at the park equipped with receptacles for recyclables and non-recyclables.…

  5. Really Recycled-SeaWorld Classroom Activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sea World - Just for Teachers

    2012-04-03

    In this activity, students will be able to recycle newspaper into their own conservation message. Students will also be given the opportunity to write about their experience with recycling or persuade the reader why it is important to recycle based on what they learned in the activity.

  6. 78 FR 69531 - America Recycles Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...schools, let us strive to make recycling a part of our daily lives. We should reuse or donate when possible, and recycle or compost as much as we are able. Students can get involved by championing waste-free lunches, recycling programs, and...

  7. RECYCLE TO EARN Rishi Bhailal Chandra

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    RECYCLE TO EARN Rishi Bhailal Chandra Supply Chain Management, Accounting, Kelley School of Business, IUPUI Recycling is a key aspect of any sustainability effort, one that calls for the participation of the entire campus community. Getting students to recycle is very difficult. Students lack

  8. The status of recycling of waste rubber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Fang; Maosheng Zhan; Ying Wang

    2001-01-01

    The significance of recycling of waste rubber in protecting the environment and conserving energy is discussed. Various kinds of recycling approaches to waste rubber are summed up, such as reclaiming energy as fuel, reuse of the products of thermal decomposition, cleaning of leaking oil, reuse after simple modification, regenerative rubber and powdered rubber (PR). Recycling as PR is covered in

  9. Toward a Rationale for Recycling in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherif, Abour H.

    1995-01-01

    Encourages educators to design new strategies to incorporate a range of options that include teaching recycling and waste management in schools to ensure recycling behavior and more participation in waste management. States that more education will make the difference and that recycling should be a part of the school curriculum. Lists major…

  10. Recycling and reuse of industrial wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Smith; J. Means; E. Barth

    1995-01-01

    The handbook assists pollution prevention efforts by encouraging recycling and reuse of wastes found on Superfund or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action sites. It outlines specific technologies for recycling and reuse of materials that require remediation at contaminated sites. Case studies document applications of these technologies to real-world conditions. Site and waste type, technology application, recycling benefits,

  11. Integrated treatment and recycling of stormwater: a review of Australian practice.

    PubMed

    Hatt, Belinda E; Deletic, Ana; Fletcher, Tim D

    2006-04-01

    With the use of water approaching, and in some cases exceeding, the limits of sustainability in many locations, there is an increasing recognition of the need to utilise stormwater for non-potable requirements, thus reducing the demand on potable sources. This paper presents a review of Australian stormwater treatment and recycling practices as well as a discussion of key lessons and identified knowledge gaps. Where possible, recommendations for overcoming these knowledge gaps are given. The review of existing stormwater recycling systems focussed primarily on the recycling of general urban runoff (runoff generated from all urban surfaces) for non-potable purposes. Regulations and guidelines specific to stormwater recycling need to be developed to facilitate effective design of such systems, and to minimise risks of failure. There is a clear need for the development of innovative techniques for the collection, treatment and storage of stormwater. Existing stormwater recycling practice is far ahead of research, in that there are no technologies designed specifically for stormwater recycling. Instead, technologies designed for general stormwater pollution control are frequently utilised, which do not guarantee the necessary reliability of treatment. Performance modelling for evaluation purposes also needs further research, so that industry can objectively assess alternative approaches. Just as many aspects of these issues may have impeded adoption of stormwater, another impediment to adoption has been the lack of a practical and widely accepted method for assessing the many financial, social and ecological costs and benefits of stormwater recycling projects against traditional alternatives. Such triple-bottom-line assessment methodologies need to be trialled on stormwater recycling projects. If the costs and benefits of recycling systems can be shown to compare favourably with the costs and benefits of conventional practices this will provide an incentive to overcome other obstacles to widespread adoption of stormwater recycling. PMID:16256264

  12. Vermitechnology for sewage sludge recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meena Khwairakpam; Renu Bhargava

    2009-01-01

    The present paper is aimed at safe reuse and recycling of sewage sludge (SS) and production of good quality compost using vermicomposting. Three different earthworm species Eiseniafetida (E. fetida), Eudrilus eugeniae (E. eugeniae), Perionyx excavatus (P. excavatus) in individual and combinations were utilized to compare the suitability of worm species for composting of sewage sludge as well as the quality

  13. Particle recycling in volcanic plumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham Veitch; Andrew W. Woods

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a new theoretical model of an eruption column that accounts for the re-entrainment of particles as they fall out of the laterally spreading umbrella cloud. The model illustrates how the mass flux of particles in the plume may increase with height in the plume, by a factor as large as 2.5 because of this recycling. Three important

  14. Chemical solutions for greywater recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Pidou; Lisa Avery; Tom Stephenson; Paul Jeffrey; Simon A. Parsons; Shuming Liu; Fayyaz A. Memon; Bruce Jefferson

    2008-01-01

    Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents

  15. Estimation of continental precipitation recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaye L. Brubaker; Dara Entekhabi; P. S. Eagleson

    1993-01-01

    The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: (1) advection from the surrounding areas external to the region and (2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface within the region. The latter supply mechanism is tantamount to the recycling of precipitation over the Continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is

  16. Household-battery recycling plant

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.; Antenen, A. [Batrec Technology A.G., Dietikon (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Batrec operates a plant for the recycling of used dry batteries with a capacity of 3,000 tons per year. The plant is situated in a tourist area of Switzerland and has complied with all the strict emission restrictions. The process yields four products: FeMn, Zn, Hg and slag. No hazardous waste is produced. All types of batteries can be treated.

  17. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Patel; Norbert von Thienen; Eberhard Jochem; Ernst Worrell

    2000-01-01

    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO2 emissions. Since most of the experience available is for packaging the paper first gives an outline of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. The recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors

  18. New Pathways in Plastics Recycling.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky; Hartmann

    2000-01-01

    The catalytic degradation of polyethylene to short-chain hydrocarbons is possible with zirconium hydride compounds (see picture), and represents the first step in the reversal of Ziegler - Natta polymerization. Thus, even in the case of polyolefins the important target of plastics recycling, the recovery of reusable monomers from polymer waste, may be achieved. PMID:10649399

  19. Authorization recycling in RBAC systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Wei; Jason Crampton; Konstantin Beznosov; Matei Ripeanu

    2008-01-01

    As distributed applications increase in size and complexity, tradi- tional authorization mechanisms based on a single policy decision point are increasingly fragile because this decision point represents a single point of failure and a performance bottleneck. Authoriza- tion recycling is one technique that has been used to address these challenges. This paper introduces and evaluates the mechanisms for autho- rization

  20. LUBRICATING THE RECYCLING MACHINE 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rutger Gyllenram; Sven Ekerot; Pär Jönsson

    2008-01-01

    When introducing a new control paradigm in industry or society you have to accept that it is an evolutionary process where people, methods and processes must develop simultaneously. This takes time. The recycling of materials has been studied intensely for the last ten years using different approaches to material flow analyses, MFAs. They have provided a good view of the

  1. Recycled Yo-Yo Challenge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners are challenged to build their own yo-yo toys using items found in their recycling bins. Learners search for materials to use for each part of the toy: two discs, an axle, and string. Learners then sketch their invention, assemble the parts, and test it out. Learners are encouraged to tweak their yo-yos and make improvements.

  2. Chemical recycling of scrap composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Salas, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    There are no well-developed technologies for recycling composite materials other than grinding to produce fillers. New approaches are needed to reclaim these valuable resources. Chemical or tertiary recycling, conversion of polymers into low molecular weight hydrocarbons for reuse as chemicals or fuels, is emerging as the most practical means for obtaining value from waste plastics and composites. Adherent Technologies is exploring a low-temperature catalytic process for recycling plastics and composites. Laboratory results show that all types of plastics, thermosets as well as thermoplastics, can be converted in high yields to valuable hydrocarbon products. This novel catalytic process runs at 200 C, conversion times are rapid, the process is closed and, thus, nonpolluting, and no highly toxic gas or liquid products have been observed so no negative environmental impact will result from its implementation. Tests on reclamation of composite materials show that epoxy, imide, and engineering thermoplastic matrices can be converted to low molecular weight hydrocarbons leaving behind the reinforcing fibers for reuse as composite reinforcements in secondary, lower-performance applications. Chemical recycling is also a means to dispose of sensitive or classified organic materials without incineration and provides a means to eliminate or reduce mixed hazardous wastes containing organic materials.

  3. Recycling Trends in the Plastics Manufacturing and Recycling Companies in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, D. A.; Abidin, A.; Azhari, C. H.

    This study presents the findings from a study on the consumption of recycled materials and recycling practices in the plastics manufacturing industry and recycling companies in Malaysia. The findings were obtained from a survey conducted in twenty plastic manufacturing companies and detailed case studies in three recycling companies. The survey conducted in the plastic manufacturing companies` shows that the consumption rate for poly-olefins (PP and PE) is the highest among the resin types and the industrial sector that consumes the most plastic materials is the electrical and electronics sector. The consumption of recycled materials is high among the local manufacturing companies (80%) which are largely due to cost savings; about 20% of these companies conducted in-house recycling. The study has also shown that the medium scale industry consumes the most recycled materials as compared to the large and small scale industry. The rate of disposal for plastic materials in the local industry is approximately 5%. The detailed case studies conducted in the recycling companies have successfully identified the main processes involved in plastic recycling namely manual sorting, cleaning, drying, meshing/pelletising and packaging. These recycling companies obtained recycled materials from various sources including industrial scrap, dumping sites, local producers as well as imported sources. Pricing of recycled materials were based on classification according to grade and quality of the recycled materials. The study has reflected the extent of in-house recycling trends in the local plastic manufacturing companies and their dependency on the supply from the local recycling companies.

  4. Flowering Time Genes Heading date 1 and Early heading date 1 Together Control Panicle Development in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Endo-Higashi, Naokuni; Izawa, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Although flowering time is often associated with plant size, little is known about how flowering time genes affect plant architecture. We grew four rice lines having different flowering time genotypes (hd1 ehd1, hd1 Ehd1, Hd1 ehd1 and Hd1 Ehd1) under distinct photoperiod conditions. By using genotype–treatment combinations that resulted in similar flowering times, we were able to compare the effects of flowering time genes on traits related to plant architecture. The results revealed that the combination of Heading-date 1 (Hd1) and Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) can reduce the number of primary branches in a panicle, resulting in smaller spikelet numbers per panicle; this occurs independently of the control of flowering time. In addition, expression of the Hd3a and Rice Flowering-locus T 1 (RFT1) florigen genes was up-regulated in leaves of the Hd1 Ehd1 line at the time of the floral transition. We further revealed that Hd1 and/or Ehd1 caused up-regulation of Terminal Flower 1-like genes and precocious expression of panicle formation-related genes at shoot apical meristems during panicle development. Therefore, two key flowering time genes, Hd1 and Ehd1, can control panicle development in rice; this may affect crop yields in the field through florigen expression in leaf. PMID:21565907

  5. An overview of recycling refractory materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    2004-09-01

    Refractory materials must be disposed of or recycled when removed from service. Off-specification or reject material has been reused by the refractory industry for a number of years, with small percentages of these materials added as a part of refractory formulations. Historically, limed reuse of spent refractory materials in other applications has occurred. Environmental legislation, stewardship programs, and other forces encouraged some businesses to recycle spent refractories. Reuse of spent refractory material varies considerably among different industries and with the location of the industrial user. Efforts to recycle, the driving forces for recycling, and issues and steps to be taken into account initiating a recycling program will be discussed.

  6. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    SciTech Connect

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  7. Recycling Guide: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Recycling Information Call 301-496-7990 or visit the NEMS Website at http://www.nems.nih.gov

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Recycling Guide: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Recycling Information ­ Call 301-496-7990 or visit the NEMS in COMMINGLED bin Rinse food/beverage containers before recycling No Pyrex or Styrofoam Printer and Copier Toner Cartridges in TONER CARTRIDGE bin Recycle packaging material in appropriate bin NIH charities

  8. High performance polyester concrete using recycled PET

    SciTech Connect

    Rebeiz, K.S. [Lafayette Coll., Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1995-10-01

    Recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic wastes could be used in production of unsaturated polyester resins. In turn, these resins could be mixed with inorganic aggregates to produce polymer concrete (PC). Unsaturated polyesters based on recycled PET might be a potentially lower source cost of resins for producing useful PC based-products. The advantage of recycling PET in PC is that the PET materials do not have to be purified, including removal of colors, to the same extent as other PET recycling applications, which should facilitate the recycling operation and minimize its cost. The recycling of PET in PC could also help save energy and allow the long term disposal of the PET waste, an important advantage in recycling applications.

  9. Composite material from recycled polyester for recyclable automobile structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lertola, J.G. [DuPont Company, Newark, DE (United States)

    1995-12-31

    DuPont has developed a compression-moldable composite made from the thermoplastic polyester PET and long glass fibers. This material, XTC{trademark}, is part of the class of materials known as GMT`s, or glass-mat thermoplastics. The PET content in XTC{trademark} allows the use of a wide variety of recycled material that might otherwise end up in landfills and incinerators. DuPont has succeeded in using 100% post-consumer polyester, from bottles, film, or fibers, in the composite. Since processing involves heating the material to the melt in air, the main technical issues are hydrolysis and oxidative degradation. Impurities in the recycled material must be carefully monitored, as they often increase the extent of degradation. The product itself, used to mold shaped structures and body panels for automobiles, may be recycled after its useful life. Depending on the needed purity level, processes ranging from injection molding to methanolysis can turn ground XTC{trademark} parts back into new, useful products.

  10. Nanochannel Based Single Molecule Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Lesoine, John F.; Venkataraman, Prahnesh A.; Maloney, Peter C.; Dumont, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the fluorescence from a single molecule hundreds of times without surface immobilization. The approach is based on the use of electroosmosis to repeatedly drive a single target molecule in a fused silica nanochannel through a stationary laser focus. Single molecule fluorescence detected during the transit time through the laser focus is used to repeatedly reverse the electrical potential controlling the flow direction. Our method does not rely on continuous observation and therefore is less susceptible to fluorescence blinking than existing fluorescence-based trapping schemes. The variation in the turnaround times can be used to measure the diffusion coefficient on a single molecule level. We demonstrate the ability to recycle both proteins and DNA in nanochannels and show that the procedure can be combined with single-pair Förster energy transfer. Nanochannel-based single molecule recycling holds promise for studying conformational dynamics on the same single molecule in solution and without surface tethering. PMID:22662745

  11. Hail Formation via Microphysical Recycling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflaum, John C.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that alternation of low-density riming and wet growth processes play a role in hailstone formation. Such alternation of growth processes, which has been called microphysical recycling, is envisioned to operate in the following manner. During low-density riming growth, hailstones require reduced updraft velocities as compared to hailstones growing via classical high-density ice acquisition. During subsequent wet growth, water soaks into the previously acquired porous rime and on freezing produces hard, dense hailstones compatible with samples collected at the surface. Such a two-stage process lessens the dynamical requirements of hail formation.This article elucidates the microphysical recycling mechanism, cloud conditions necessary to initiate it, evidence that it is operational in the atmosphere, and the possible consequences of its existence with regard to hail suppression.

  12. DWPF recycle minimization: Brainstorming session

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R.A.; Poirier, M.R.

    1993-10-12

    The recycle stream from the DWPF constitutes a major source of water addition to the High Level Waste evaporator system. As now designed, the entire flow of 3.5 to 6.5 gal/min (@ 25% and 75% attainment, respectively), or 2 gal/min during idling, flow to the 2H evaporator system (Tank 43). Substantial improvement in the HLW water balance and tank volume management is expected if the DWPF recycle to the HLW evaporator system can be significantly reduced. A task team has been appointed to study alternatives for reducing the flow to the HLW evaporator system and make recommendations for implementation and/or further study and evaluation. The brainstorming session detailed in this report was designed to produce the first cut options for the task team to further evaluate.

  13. Recycling of aluminum matrix composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinori Nishida; Norihisa Izawa; Yukio Kuramasu

    1999-01-01

    Separation of matrix metals in composites was tried on alumina short fiber-reinforced aluminum and 6061 alloy composites and\\u000a SiC whisker-reinforced 6061 alloy composite for recycling. It is possible to separate molten matrix metals from fibers in\\u000a the composites using fluxes that are used for melt treatment to remove inclusions. About 50 vol pct of the matrix metals was\\u000a separated from

  14. Recycling of aluminum matric composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinori Nishida; Norihisa Izawa; Yukio Kuramasu

    1999-01-01

    Separation of matrix metals in composites was tried on alumina short fiber-reinforced aluminum and 6061 alloy composites and\\u000a SiC whisker-reinforced 6061 alloy composite for recycling. It is possible to separate molten matrix metals from fibers in\\u000a the composites using fluxes that are used for melt treatment to remove inclusions. About 50 vol pct of the matrix metals was\\u000a separated from

  15. INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kooda, Kevin Evan; Mc Cray, Casey William; Aitken, Darren William; Galloway, Kelly

    2003-02-01

    Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

  16. INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W.; Aitken, D. W.

    2003-02-26

    Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

  17. Acceleration of landfill stabilization using leachate recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, T.G.; Miller, W.L.; Lee, H.J.; Earle, J.F.K. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A leachate recycle system was constructed and operated at an existing lined landfill in North-Central Florida to observe the effects of leachate recycle on landfill stabilization. Samples of leachate, landfill gas, and landfilled solid waste were collected and analyzed throughout a four-year period, before and after the start of leachate recycle. The settlement of landfilled waste was also measured in wetted and dry areas of the landfill. Leachate quality was not dramatically impacted by leachate recycle. Moisture content was significantly greater in the area of the landfill subjected to leachate recycle. Waste temperature and pH measurements indicated that conditions suitable for anaerobic decomposition were present in both the treated and untreated areas. Measurements of solid waste biochemical methane potential and subsidence showed that a greater degree of landfill stabilization had occurred in the leachate recycle area relative to the untreated area.

  18. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    PubMed

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design. PMID:16784165

  19. Xerox's closed recycling loop still contains kinks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    Xerox Corp. has established a recycling loop for plastics screw-top toner bottles and dry-ink containers used in most of the company's high-volume copiers. However, a severe shortage of post-consumer recycled plastic has been short-circuiting Xerox's good intentions. Last year, the Stamford, Conn.-based company stopped manufacturing toner containers from virgin plastics and instead began using recycled raw materials, such as discarded milk and water jugs collected from municipal curbside recycling programs. The bottles are ground and remolded into such products as air filters for vacuum cleaners, plastic lumber, compost bins, landscape ties, benches and fence posts. However, what sounds like a win-win situation actually is costing too much money. Contrary to popular belief, post-consumer recycled plastic costs more than virgin plastic. Despite the added expense, Xerox will continue to use recycled plastics when possible.

  20. Recycled aggregate concrete as structural material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Etxeberria; A. R. Marí; E. Vázquez

    2007-01-01

    The use of recycled aggregates in concrete opens a whole new range of possibilities in the reuse of materials in the building\\u000a industry. The utilisation of recycled aggregates is a good solution to the problem of an excess of waste material, provided\\u000a that the desired final product quality is reached. The studies on the use of recycled aggregates have been

  1. Recycling light metals: Optimal thermal decoating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Kvithyld; C. E. M. Meskers; Sean Gaal; Markus Reuter; Thorvald Abel Engh

    2008-01-01

    Thermal de-coating of painted and lacquered scrap is one of the new innovations developed for aluminum recycling. If implemented\\u000a in all recycling and optimized as suggested in this article, recovery would be improved with considerable economic impact.\\u000a Generally, contaminated scrap is difficult to recycle. Direct re-melting of coated scrap results in the generation of gaseous\\u000a emissions, with increased metal oxidation,

  2. Plastic film recycling: A new beginning

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Only two years ago, plastic film recycling was considered an onerous task. Different resins had to be identified, colors had to be separated, and minute contaminants had to be weeded out almost by hand to produce a quality material. But the tide of plastic film recycling is changing now that new technologies have emerged and more organized collection infrastructure have been developed. Today, plastic film recycling maintains a lucrative market for those with the right combination of equipment and know-how.

  3. The impact of social capital on regional waste recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsung-hsiu Tsai

    2008-01-01

    Waste recycling is a prominent indicator of environmental sustainability in the pursuit of sustainable development. Exploring the determinants of waste recycling is therefore of importance to policy makers. Current research in recycling has explored several important factors to assess household participation in recycling. The local community policy towards recycling is regarded as an important factor, as it can assist households

  4. Recycling Campaign Award Prizes for best project proposal to improve

    E-print Network

    van der Torre, Leon

    Recycling Campaign Award Prizes for best project proposal to improve waste recycling. Recycling bins contain inappropriate waste that cannot be recycled and thus are not picked up. THE REASON for picking up the waste. 60% of the waste budget. Your task: - To develop a new project to improve recycling

  5. Recycling Campaign Prizes for best project proposal to

    E-print Network

    van der Torre, Leon

    Recycling Campaign Award Prizes for best project proposal to improve waste recycling The Guide #12;Recycling Campaign Award OIKOS Luxembourg in collaboration with the University of Luxembourg's Cell to participate in the Recycling Campaign Award. The Recycling Campaign Award invites you to work in teams

  6. Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.

    2007-01-01

    Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.

  7. Public Perception of Strategies for Increasing Participation in Recycling Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyamwange, Monica

    1996-01-01

    Assesses public perception of selected strategies for increasing participation in city recycling programs: increasing the level of knowledge about recycling, using effective channels to inform the community about recycling, increasing the convenience of recycling by placing recycling containers in accessible locations, and getting input from the…

  8. Recyclability Evaluation Method Considering Material Combination and Degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naohiko Oyasato; Hideki Kobayashi

    2006-01-01

    A new method of recyclability evaluation is proposed. The recyclability of a product is given by summing up recyclability of all units to which the product is manually disassembled. The recyclability of a unit is calculated if all names and amounts of materials of which the unit is composed are known. The recyclability of a disassembled unit consisting of multiple

  9. Waste Toolkit A-Z Can I recycle paper cups?

    E-print Network

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Paper cups Can I recycle paper cups? Yes. Paper cups can be recycled in the Grundon recycling boxes. Do not leave dregs of drink in them, as this will contaminate the recycling box. Although it is good to recycle paper cups, it is more sustainable to use china cups that can be washed

  10. Waste Toolkit A-Z Can I recycle stationery?

    E-print Network

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Stationery Can I recycle stationery? Yes! You can recycle paper and paper based products such as used note pads, paper and cardboard files in the University Grundon recycling boxes. You can't recycle mixed materials that are made of non- recyclable plastic, such as plastic files

  11. Wee Recyclers. An Activity Guide for Ages 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Recycling and reusing are skills that can be developed in early child care programs. This activity guide is intended to help teach children (ages 3-5) about recycling using simple, hands-on activities. Teacher-directed activities involve setting up a recycling center, sorting recyclable items, landfills, litter, a recycling alphabet, and ways that…

  12. Gold recycling; a materials flow study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, Earle B.

    2000-01-01

    This materials flow study includes a description of trends in consumption, loss, and recycling of gold-containing materials in the United States in 1998 in order to illustrate the extent to which gold is presently being recycled and to identify recycling trends. The quantity of gold recycled, as a percent of the apparent supply of gold, was estimated to be about 30 percent. Of the approximately 446 metric tons of gold refined in the United States in 1998, the fabricating and industrial use losses were 3 percent.

  13. Precipitation recycling in the Amazon basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, E. A. B.; Bras, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is the contribution of evaporation within a region to precipitation in that same region. The recycling rate is a diagnostic measure of the potential for interactions between land surface hydrology and regional climate. In this paper we present a model for describing the seasonal and spatial variability of the recycling process. The precipitation recycling ratio, rho, is the basic variable in describing the recycling process. Rho is the fraction of precipitation at a certain location and time which is contributed by evaporation within the region under study. The recycling model is applied in studyiing the hydrologic cycle in the Amazon basin. It is estimated that about 25% of all the rain that falls in the Amazon basin is contributed by evaporation within the basin. This estimate is based on analysis of a data set supplied by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The same analysis is repeated using a different data set from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). Based on this data set, the recycling ratio is estimated to be 35%. The seasonal variability of the recycling ratio is small compared with the yearly average. The new estimates of the recycling ratio are compared with results of previous studies, and the differences are explained.

  14. Economic Analysis of Recycling Chiller Water in Poultry-Processing Plants Using Ultrafiltration Membrane Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horacio Saravia; Jack E. Houston; James E. Epperson; Heather M. Nelson

    2005-01-01

    The poultry industry, one of the most important agribusiness industries in the United States, is facing multiple water-usage problems. These problems stem from rising water and sewer charges and an increase in pollution regulations. One way to reduce water usage and volume of wastewater is through internal recycling. Food scientists and applied economists at the University of Georgia are collaborating

  15. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING CHILLER WATER IN POULTRY PROCESSING PLANTS BY ULTRAFILTRATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horacio Saravia; Jack E. Houston; Romeo Toledo; Heather M. Nelson

    2005-01-01

    The poultry industry is the single largest agribusiness industry in Georgia and one of the most important in the United States. It is also facing multiple water usage problems stemming from rising water and sewer charges and an increase in pollution regulations. One way to reduce water usage and volume of wastewater is through recycling the chiller water used in

  16. Assessment of recycling process induced damage sensitivity of recycled concrete aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Nagataki; A Gokce; T Saeki; M Hisada

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the complex nature of recycled concrete aggregates that are susceptible to damage due to recycling. The study was carried out by microstructural assessment techniques beyond the standard testing methods normally specified for aggregates. The laboratory produced recycled concrete aggregates were investigated using fluorescent microscopy and image analysis. Contrary to common opinion, microstructural studies showed that adhered mortar

  17. TTUAB PLASTIC & ALUMINUM RECYCLING PROTOCOL 2013 What Plastic Do We Recycle?

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    TTUAB PLASTIC & ALUMINUM RECYCLING PROTOCOL 2013 What Plastic Do We Recycle? TTUAB has taken floor. TTUAB has also placed aluminum recycling bins in the lobby and basement of the Biology Building and in LH100. Technically, we are only responsible for aforementioned plastics and aluminum. However, any

  18. TTUAB PLASTIC & ALUMINUM RECYCLING PROTOCOL Fall 2012 What Plastic Do We Recycle?

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    TTUAB PLASTIC & ALUMINUM RECYCLING PROTOCOL ­ Fall 2012 What Plastic Do We Recycle? TTUAB has taken floor. TTUAB has also placed aluminum recycling bins in the lobby and basement of the Biology Building. Technically, we are only responsible for aforementioned plastics and aluminum. However, any trash or other

  19. The Determinants of Household Recycling: A Material Specific Analysis of Recycling Program Features and Unit Pricing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin R. Jenkins; Salvador A. Martinez; Karen Palmer; Michael J. Podolsky

    2000-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines,the impact of two popular solid waste programs on the percent recycled of several different materials found in the residential solid waste stream. We examine a unique, national, household-level data set containing information on the percent recycled of five different materials: glass bottles, plastic bottles, aluminum, newspaper, and yard waste. We find that access to curbside recycling

  20. Influenza A virus recycling revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Dowdle, W. R.

    1999-01-01

    Current textbooks link influenza pandemics to influenza A virus subtypes H2 (1889-91), H3 (1990), H1 (1918-20), H2 (1957-58) and H3 (1968), a pattern suggesting subtype recycling in humans. Since H1 reappeared in 1977, whatever its origin, some workers feel that H2 is the next pandemic candidate. This report reviews the publications on which the concept of influenza A virus subtype recycling is based and concludes that the data are inconsistent with the purported sequence of events. The three influenza pandemics prior to 1957-58 were linked with subtypes through retrospective studies of sera from the elderly, or through seroarchaeology. The pandemic seroarchaeological model for subtype H1 has been validated by the recent recovery of swine virus RNA fragments from persons who died from influenza in 1918. Application of the model to pre-existing H3 antibody among the elderly links the H3 subtype to the pandemic of 1889-91, not that of 1900 as popularly quoted. Application of the model to pre-existing H2 antibody among the elderly fails to confirm that this subtype caused a pandemic in the late 1800's, a finding which is consistent with age-related excess mortality patterns during the pandemics of 1957 (H2) and 1968 (H3). H2 variants should be included in pandemic planning for a number of reasons, but not because of evidence of recycling. It is not known when the next pandemic will occur or which of the 15 (or more) haemagglutinin subtypes will be involved. Effective global surveillance remains the key to influenza preparedness. PMID:10593030

  1. THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE RECYCLING SCHEME Under the new recycling scheme commencing at the beginning of Hilary Term the following

    E-print Network

    Capdeboscq, Yves

    THE QUEEN'S COLLEGE RECYCLING SCHEME Under the new recycling scheme commencing at the beginning in all student rooms and offices o one for normal waste o one for co-mingled recycling1 Bins these bins. If any recycling is contaminated it will be `waste' not recycling and it would need to go

  2. Effects of Amendments to the Basel Convention on battery recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Hillary

    The Basel Convention was originally designed to prevent the uncontrolled dumping of toxic waste and focused particularly on shipments of materials from OECD countries to the developing world. Amendments to the Basel Convention now restrict trade in waste materials destined for recycling, reprocessing and reuse. There are serious consequences for the secondary lead industry and the world community if the regulations prohibit the environmentally sound reprocessing of scrap batteries. It is incumbent on the industry to understand the implications of the recent and proposed amendments, and to address the potential problems posed by the legislation.

  3. Pre-cycle, Then Recycle!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wishart, Ray

    This lesson plan from ATEEC will instruct students on the principles of recycling waste stream reduction. The activity would be most appropriate for technology studies or high school science classes. In all, it would require two hours of class time and about one hour for a field trip activity. The purpose of the lesson is to create a display in a grocery store to show people how to reduce the amount of trash generated by their individual household. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

  4. Recycling of acetylcholine receptors at ectopic postsynaptic clusters induced by exogenous agrin in living rats.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hans Rudolf; Akaaboune, Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    During the development of the neuromuscular junction, motor axons induce the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and increase their metabolic stability in the muscle membrane. Here, we asked whether the synaptic organizer agrin might regulate the metabolic stability and density of AChRs by promoting the recycling of internalized AChRs, which would otherwise be destined for degradation, into synaptic sites. We show that at nerve-free AChR clusters induced by agrin in extrasynaptic membrane, internalized AChRs are driven back into the ectopic synaptic clusters where they intermingle with pre-existing and new receptors. The extent of AChR recycling depended on the strength of the agrin stimulus, but not on the development of junctional folds, another hallmark of mature postsynaptic membranes. In chronically denervated muscles, in which both AChR stability and recycling are significantly decreased by muscle inactivity, agrin maintained the amount of recycled AChRs at agrin-induced clusters at a level similar to that at denervated original endplates. In contrast, AChRs did not recycle at agrin-induced clusters in C2C12 or primary myotubes. Thus, in muscles in vivo, but not in cultured myotubes, neural agrin promotes the recycling of AChRs and thereby increases their metabolic stability. PMID:25093969

  5. Inactivation of Caenorhabditis elegans aminopeptidase DNPP-1 restores endocytic sorting and recycling in tat-1 mutants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Chen, Baohui; Yoshina, Sawako; Cai, Tanxi; Yang, Fuquan; Mitani, Shohei; Wang, Xiaochen

    2013-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, the P4-ATPase TAT-1 and its chaperone, the Cdc50 family protein CHAT-1, maintain membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) asymmetry, which is required for membrane tubulation during endocytic sorting and recycling. Loss of tat-1 and chat-1 disrupts endocytic sorting, leading to defects in both cargo recycling and degradation. In this study, we identified the C. elegans aspartyl aminopeptidase DNPP-1, loss of which suppresses the sorting and recycling defects in tat-1 mutants without reversing the PS asymmetry defect. We found that tubular membrane structures containing recycling cargoes were restored in dnpp-1 tat-1 double mutants and that these tubules overlap with RME-1–positive recycling endosomes. The restoration of the tubular structures in dnpp-1 tat-1 mutants requires normal functions of RAB-5, RAB-10, and RME-1. In tat-1 mutants, we observed alterations in membrane surface charge and targeting of positively charged proteins that were reversed by loss of dnpp-1. DNPP-1 displays a specific aspartyl aminopeptidase activity in vitro, and its enzymatic activity is required for its function in vivo. Our data reveal the involvement of an aminopeptidase in regulating endocytic sorting and recycling and suggest possible roles of peptide signaling and/or protein metabolism in these processes. PMID:23427264

  6. Occurrence and fate of acrylamide in water-recycling systems and sludge in aggregate industries.

    PubMed

    Junqua, Guillaume; Spinelli, Sylvie; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    Acrylamide is a hazardous substance having irritant and toxic properties as well as carcinogen, mutagen, and impaired fertility possible effects. Acrylamide might be found in the environment as a consequence of the use of polyacrylamides (PAMs) widely added as a flocculant for water treatment. Acrylamide is a monomer used to produce polyacrylamide (PAM) polymers. This reaction of polymerization can be incomplete, and acrylamide molecules can be present as traces in the commercial polymer. Thus, the use of PAMs may generate a release of acrylamide in the environment. In aggregate industries, PAM is widely involved in recycling process and water reuse (aggregate washing). Indeed, these industries consume large quantities of water. Thus, European and French regulations have favored loops of recycling of water in order to reduce water withdrawals. The main goal of this article is to study the occurrence and fate of acrylamide in water-recycling process as well as in the sludge produced by the flocculation treatment process in aggregate production plants. Moreover, to strengthen the relevance of this article, the objective is also to demonstrate if the recycling system leads to an accumulation effect in waters and sludge and if free acrylamide could be released by sludge during their storage. To reach this objective, water sampled at different steps of recycling water process has been analyzed as well as different sludge corresponding to various storage times. The obtained results reveal no accumulation effect in the water of the water-recycling system nor in the sludge. PMID:24840357

  7. Rapid Recycling of ?2-Adrenergic Receptors is Dependent on the Actin Cytoskeleton and Myosin Vb

    PubMed Central

    Millman, Ellen E.; Zhang, Haibin; Zhang, Haixia; Godines, Veronica; Bean, Andrew J.; Knoll, Brian J.; Moore, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    For the ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2AR), published evidence suggests that an intact actin cytoskeleton is required for the endocytosis of receptors and their proper sorting to the rapid recycling pathway. We have characterized the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the regulation of ?2AR trafficking in HEK293 cells using two distinct actin filament disrupting compounds, cytochalasin D and latrunculin B. In cells pretreated with either drug, ?2AR internalization into transferrin-positive vesicles was not altered, but both agents significantly decreased the rate at which ?2ARs recycled to the cell surface. In latrunculin B-treated cells, nonrecycled ?2ARs were localized to EEA1-positive endosomes and also accumulated in the recycling endosome, but only a small fraction of receptors localized to LAMP-positive late endosomes and lysosomes. Treatment with latrunculin B also markedly enhanced the inhibitory effect of rab11 overexpression on receptor recycling. Dissociating receptors from actin by expression of the myosin Vb tail fragment resulted in missorting of ?2ARs to the recycling endosome, while the expression of various CART fragments or the depletion of actinin-4 had no detectable effect on ?2AR sorting. These results indicate that the actin cytoskeleton is required for the efficient recycling of ?2ARs, a process that likely is dependent on myosin Vb. PMID:18785920

  8. Functional diversification of closely related ARF-GEFs in protein secretion and recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Richter; Niko Geldner; Jarmo Schrader; Hanno Wolters; York-Dieter Stierhof; Gabino Rios; Csaba Koncz; David G. Robinson; Gerd Jürgens

    2007-01-01

    Guanine-nucleotide exchange factors on ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases (ARF-GEFs) regulate vesicle formation in time and space by activating ARF substrates on distinct donor membranes. Mammalian GBF1 (ref. 2) and yeast Gea1\\/2 (ref. 3) ARF-GEFs act at Golgi membranes, regulating COPI-coated vesicle formation. In contrast, their Arabidopsis thaliana homologue GNOM (GN) is required for endosomal recycling, playing an important part in development.

  9. The Energy Impact of Industrial Recycling and Waste Exchange 

    E-print Network

    Phillips, W. C.

    1992-01-01

    Recycling and waste exchange, particularly in the industrial sector, has a substantial positive energy impact and one that can often be accomplished at little or no expense. Recycling saves energy because the secondary materials being recycled...

  10. Bituminous pavement recycling Aravind K. and Animesh Das

    E-print Network

    Das, Animesh

    Bituminous pavement recycling Aravind K. and Animesh Das Department of Civil Engineering IIT Kanpur Introduction The bituminous pavement rehabilitation alternatives are mainly overlaying, recycling and reconstruction. In the recycling process the material from deteriorated pavement, known as reclaimed asphalt

  11. Building a Recycling Program: A Case Study in Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, Laurie

    1992-01-01

    Presents the development and ongoing operation of a library recycling program established at Bowling Green State University in Ohio. Discusses the initiation and projects of the library recycling committee, logistics, and future projections for library recycling operations. (two references) (MCO)

  12. [Analysis of residual volatiles in recycled polyethylene terephthalate].

    PubMed

    Ohkado, Yuka; Kawamura, Yoko; Mutsuga, Motoh; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-02-01

    The residual volatiles in recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were analyzed using headspace/GC/MS. Recycled PET samples were made from PET bottles used for beverages, alcohol and soy sauce, and they were recycled in physical recycling plants, chemical recycling plants and superclean-like recycling trials. The physically recycled PET flakes contained small amounts of volatiles such as ethanol, limonene, 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane, acetone, octanal and nonanal. Most of them originated from foods packed in bottles, and only 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane was derived from polymer impurities. In contrast, the superclean-like or chemically recycled PET contained no detectable volatiles, like new PET pellets. The PET sheets shaped from physically recycled PET had no detectable volatiles. Not only the chemically and superclean-like recycled PET, but also the physically recycled PET contained no hazardous volatiles. It was concluded that there is no safety concern about volatiles in recycled PET, for the present use. PMID:15881250

  13. Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  14. Regional or global WEEE recycling. Where to go?

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jinhui, E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), School of the Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lopez N, Brenda N.; Liu, Lili; Zhao, Nana; Yu, Keli; Zheng, Lixia [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), School of the Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Source and Destination countries involved in the movement of WEEE have been studied. ? Legislation, facilities and EPR are presented in Source and Destination countries. ? Mostly Destination countries do not have EPR established and have informal facilities. ? Source countries: good technology, EPR established and mostly WEEE regulation enacted. ? Regional WEEE recycling should be under global standards for Sources and Destinations. - Abstract: If we consider Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) management, we can see the development of different positions in developed and developing countries. This development started with the movement of WEEE from developed countries to the developing countries. However, when the consequences for health and the environment were observed, some developing countries introduced a ban on the import of this kind of waste under the umbrella of the Basel Convention, while some developed countries have been considering a regional or global WEEE recycling approach. This paper explores the current movements between Source and Destination countries, or the importers and exporters, and examines whether it is legal and why illegal traffic is still rife; how global initiatives could support a global WEEE management scheme; the recycling characteristics of the source an destination countries and also to ascertain whether the principle of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) has been established between the different stakeholders involved in WEEE management. Ultimately, the Full Extended Producer Responsibility is presented as a possible solution because the compensation of the environmental capacity for WEEE recycling or treatment could be made by the contribution of extra responsibility; and also generating an uniform standard for processing WEEE in an environmentally sound manner could support the regional or international solution of WEEE and also improve the performance of the informal sector.

  15. Estimation of continental precipitation recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; Entekhabi, D.; Eagleson, P.S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: (1) advection from the surrounding areas external to the region and (2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface within the region. The latter supply mechanism is tantamount to the recycling of precipitation over the Continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is supplied by recycled moisture is a potentially significant climate feedback mechanism and land surface-atmosphere interaction, which may contribute to the persistence and intensification of droughts. Gridded data on observed wind and humidity in the global atmosphere are used to determine the convergence of atmospheric water vapor over continental regions. A simplified model of the atmospheric moisture over continents and simultaneous estimates of regional precipitation are employed to estimate, for several large continental regions, the fraction of precipitation that is locally derived. The results indicate that the contribution of regional evaporation to regional precipitation varies substantially with location and season. For the regions studied, the ratio of locally contributed to total monthly precipitation generally lies between 0. 10 and 0.30 but is as high as 0.40 in several cases. 48 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Estimation of continental precipitation recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brubaker, Kaye L.; Entekhabi, Dara; Eagleson, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: 1) advection from the surrounding areas external to the region and 2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface within the region. The latter supply mechanism is tantamount to the recycling of precipitation over the continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is supplied by recycled moisture is a potentially significant climate feedback mechanism and land surface-atmosphere interaction, which may contribute to the persistence and intensification of droughts. Gridded data on observed wind and humidity in the global atmosphere are used to determine the convergence of atmospheric water vapor over continental regions. A simplified model of the atmospheric moisture over continents and simultaneous estimates of regional precipitation are employed to estimate, for several large continental regions, the fraction of precipitation that is locally derived. The results indicate that the contribution of regional evaporation to regional precipitation varies substantially with location and season. For the regions studied, the ratio of locally contributed to total monthly precipitation generally lies between 0. 10 and 0.30 but is as high as 0.40 in several cases.

  17. Integrated Recycling Test Fuel Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    R.S. Fielding; K.H. Kim; B. Grover; J. Smith; J. King; K. Wendt; D. Chapman; L. Zirker

    2013-03-01

    The Integrated Recycling Test is a collaborative irradiation test that will electrochemically recycle used light water reactor fuel into metallic fuel feedstock. The feedstock will be fabricated into a metallic fast reactor type fuel that will be irradiation tested in a drop in capsule test in the Advanced Test Reactor on the Idaho National Laboratory site. This paper will summarize the fuel fabrication activities and design efforts. Casting development will include developing a casting process and system. The closure welding system will be based on the gas tungsten arc burst welding process. The settler/bonder system has been designed to be a simple system which provides heating and controllable impact energy to ensure wetting between the fuel and cladding. The final major pieces of equipment to be designed are the weld and sodium bond inspection system. Both x-radiography and ultrasonic inspection techniques have been examine experimentally and found to be feasible, however the final remote system has not been designed. Conceptual designs for radiography and an ultrasonic system have been made.

  18. Chemical solutions for greywater recycling.

    PubMed

    Pidou, Marc; Avery, Lisa; Stephenson, Tom; Jeffrey, Paul; Parsons, Simon A; Liu, Shuming; Memon, Fayyaz A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents the study of alternative processes, coagulation and magnetic ion exchange resin, for the treatment of greywater for reuse. The potential of these processes as well as the influence of parameters such as coagulant or resin dose, pH or contact time were investigated for the treatment of two greywaters of low and high organic strengths. The results obtained revealed that magnetic ion exchange resin and coagulation were suitable treatment solutions for low strength greywater sources. However, they were unable to achieve the required level of treatment for the reuse of medium to high strength greywaters. Consequently, these processes could only be considered as an option for greywater recycling in specific conditions that is to say in case of low organic strength greywater or less stringent standards for reuse. PMID:18155127

  19. Model Used Oil Recycling Act. [Booklet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1976-01-01

    This pamphlet contains a model bill, with commentary, designed for state and local governments interested in adopting programs for recycling used oil. Today, half of the more than one billion gallons of used oil generated annually in the U.S. is lost from a resource recovery point of view. Increased collection and recycling would make an important contribution to both energy

  20. A model recycling program for Alabama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Tilman; Ravinder Sandhu

    1998-01-01

    Solid waste disposal is becoming a difficult problem for many states. Since 1960, the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been increasing at a rate of 1% per year. More than 75% of the waste is comprised of recyclable materials. Several states have mandated recycling to decrease the volume of waste intended for disposal. Those mandated programs are very

  1. Expanded recycling at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Betschart; L. Malinauskas; M. Burns

    1996-01-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Office has increased recycling activities, reuse, and options to reduce the solid waste streams through streamlining efforts that applied best management practices. The program has prioritized efforts based on volume and economic considerations and has greatly increased Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) recycle volumes. The Pollution Prevention Program established and chairs a Solid Waste Management Solutions

  2. Failure mechanism of recycled aggregate concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Casuccio; M. C. Torrijos; G. Giaccio; R. Zerbino

    2008-01-01

    The use of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) acquires particular interest in civil construction regarding sustainable development. Recycled aggregates usually present greater porosity and absorption, and lower density and strength than natural aggregates. Microstructural studies on RAC indicate differences in the characteristics of the interfacial transition zones between the cement paste and the aggregates. At the same time most experiences verify

  3. Frost resistance of recycled aggregate concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roumiana Zaharieva; François Buyle-Bodin; Eric Wirquin

    2004-01-01

    The research presented in this paper deals with concrete containing building waste recycled as aggregates. The frost resistance is used as a durability indicator. The characteristics of recycled aggregates (RAs) and their impact on the characteristics of RA concrete are presented. Some basic factors concerning the frost resistance of RA concrete as RA content and degree of water saturation are

  4. Argonne National Laboratory's Recycling Pilot Plant

    ScienceCinema

    Spangenberger, Jeff; Jody, Sam;

    2013-04-19

    Argonne has a Recycling Pilot Plant designed to save the non-metal portions of junked cars. Here, program managers demonstrate how plastic shredder residue can be recycled. (Currently these automotive leftovers are sent to landfills.) For more information, visit Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center Web site at http://www.transportation.anl.gov.

  5. Utility of Recycled Bedding for Laboratory Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Toru; Li, Zhixia; Kibushi, Tomomi; Okano, Shinya; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Animal facilities generate a large amount of used bedding containing excrement as medical waste. We developed a recycling system for used bedding that involves soft hydrothermal processing. In this study, we examined the effects of bedding type on growth, hematologic and serum biochemical values, and organ weights of female and male mice reared on either recycled or fresh bedding from 3 to 33 wk of age. Neither growth nor physiology differed between mice housed on recycled bedding compared with fresh bedding. When 14-wk-old mice were bred, litter size and total number of weaned pups showed no significant differences between animals raised on recycled or fresh bedding. Because bedding type influences the environment within cages and animal rooms, we evaluated particulate and ammonia data from cages and animal rooms. Values were significantly lower from cages and rooms that used recycled bedding than from those using fresh bedding, thus indicating that recycled bedding has the potential to improve the environment within both cages and animal rooms. Overall, this study revealed that recycled bedding is an excellent material for use in housing laboratory rodents. Specifically, recycled bedding may reduce medical waste and maintain healthy environments within cages and animal rooms. PMID:19653951

  6. RECYCLING OF WATER IN POULTRY PROCESSING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted on recycling chiller water in a poultry processing plant. The recycling system must be provided with the capability of removing solids and controlling the microbial population. UV was used to control the microbial population. For this control to be effectiv...

  7. Pallets: A Growing Source of Recycled Wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Bush; Vijay S. Reddy; Philip A. Araman

    Considerable volumes of solid hardwoods, solid softwoods, and wood panels are used to manufacture pallets and containers in the United States. Increasing quantities of these materials are recovered from the waste stream for reuse and recycling. Two important groups involved in this recovery and recycling are firms in the pallet industry (SIC 2448) and landfill operations (municipal solid waste landfills

  8. Recycling in the states: 1994 update

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. (Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States))

    1995-03-01

    Recycling fell off the radar scope of most state and federal legislators in 1994. Most states waited to see if local governments could meet recycling goals and if market development efforts would be fruit. The few laws that passed only made minor changes to existing laws. On the federal level, Congress did even less. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act was not reauthorized, newspaper recycled-content legislation died in committee, and beverage container deposit legislation never came to a vote. 1995 will probably be no different than 1994. Republicans control both houses of Congress for the first time in 40 years. Recycling, however, is not a partisan issue. State and national republican legislators have introduced many pro-recycling bills. State action also will be affected by the rise in prices in 1994 for paper, plastic, and aluminum recyclables. Starting with old corrugated container price increases in early 1994 and continuing throughout the year for most grades of waste paper, prices for recyclables were at or near historic highs. If prices remain strong in 1995, it is unlikely that state legislators will see the need for additional recycling legislation.

  9. Energy Conservation in the Recycling Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert U. Ayres

    This paper reviews the potential for energy savings by recycling packaging materials (including paper, glass and plastics), scrap metals, and byproduct energy streams from electric power generation and industrial processes, etc. Technical difficulties, largely due to the presence of hard-to-remove contaminants limit the potential for recycling packaging materials and metals, although there is some potential that could be realized through

  10. Idea Notebook: Recycling with an Educational Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerth, Tom; Wilson, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Four students at St. Louis University High School developed a project to clean up the environment while saving energy and natural resources. Aluminum and steel cans were recycled and the money was used to buy and plant trees. Students learned about recycling, organization, money management, and improving the environment. (JMM)

  11. Properties of concrete incorporating fine recycled aggregate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Khatib

    2005-01-01

    The properties of concrete containing fine recycled aggregate are investigated. Recycled aggregate consisted of crushed concrete (CC) or crushed brick (CB) with particles less than 5 mm in diameter. The free water\\/cement ratio was kept constant for all mixes. The fine aggregate in concrete was replaced with 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% CC or CB. Generally, there is strength reduction

  12. ON-SITE WASTE INK RECYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recycling ink has good potential as a way to reduce waste and promote long-term cost avings. he evaluation summarized here addresses the product quality, waste reduction nd economic issues involved in recycling printing ink in a facility such as THE ARFORD COURANT newspaper in Ha...

  13. Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shicong Kou

    2006-01-01

    The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and

  14. A Little Recycling Goes A Long Way

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PBS TeacherSource - Math

    2010-01-01

    This activity helps students understand the impact that recycling has on our lives, and the future of the planet. By calculating how much waste the students produce, they can also calculate how much of it they can recycle, and help the environment.

  15. Pedagogical Recycling: How Colleagues Change Colleagues' Minds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell-Allen, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    A teacher-researcher uses the metaphor of recycling along a continuum to describe how teachers adapt the ideas of their colleagues with varying degrees of change based on their different contexts. The objective of recycling is not only to reduce waste but also to extend use and the key to lasting changes in mind is sustained participation in…

  16. Argonne National Laboratory's Recycling Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Spangenberger, Jeff; Jody, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Argonne has a Recycling Pilot Plant designed to save the non-metal portions of junked cars. Here, program managers demonstrate how plastic shredder residue can be recycled. (Currently these automotive leftovers are sent to landfills.) For more information, visit Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center Web site at http://www.transportation.anl.gov.

  17. Erythrocyte Ascorbate Recycling: Antioxidant Effects in Blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shalu Mendiratta; Zhi-chao Qu; James M May

    1998-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant in human plasma, but requires efficient recycling from its oxidized forms to avoid irreversible loss. Human erythrocytes prevented oxidation of ascorbate in autologous plasma, an effect that required recycling of ascorbate within the cells. Erythrocytes had a high capacity to take up dehydroascorbate, the two-electron oxidized product of ascorbate, and to reduce it to

  18. PCC Mix Designs Using Recycled Concrete

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    PCC Mix Designs Using Recycled Concrete Pavements Mary E. Vancura, Derek Tompkins, & Lev comfortable designing, specifying, and producing concrete with Coarse RCA Why ArenÕ t More States Using RCA Khazanovich 21st Annual Transportation Research Conference #12;·! Reassessment of recycled concrete aggregate

  19. Plutonium recycle in French PWR plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rome; G. Francillon; M. le Bars

    1987-01-01

    A significant amount of plutonium from pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel reprocessing will be available in France as soon as 1990. Due to the breeder program delay, this amount will be sufficient to permit plutonium recycle in a large number of French PWR plants. According to the French spent fuel reprocessing policy, plutonium recycling approaches two concerns: (1) economic

  20. Waste Toolkit A-Z Battery recycling

    E-print Network

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Battery recycling How can I recycle batteries? The University Safety Office make their own arrangements through a registered hazardous waste carrier. Batteries must not be put complete the Disposal of Hazardous Substances form which can be downloaded from the Safety Office website

  1. Recycle/Reuse: Utilizing New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaglia, John S.

    In the early 1990s, efforts were initiated to help countries move toward a solution of the global pollution problem. Technology education classrooms and laboratories are among the best places for bring the concepts of recycling/reuse and waste management to students' attention. Important concepts about pollution, waste prevention, and recycling

  2. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  3. Recycling and reuse of industrial wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Smith; J. Means; E. Barth

    1995-01-01

    This handbook assists pollution prevention efforts by encouraging recycling and reuse of wastes found on Superfund or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action sites. It outlines specific technologies for recycling and reuse of materials that require remediation at contaminated sites. Case studies within the book document applications of these technologies to real world conditions. Site and waste type,

  4. Preconceptual Design Description for Caustic Recycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2008-04-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify both high-level and low-activity waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. One aspect of the planning includes a need for a caustic recycle process to separate sodium hydroxide for recycle. Sodium is already a major limitation to the waste-oxide loading in the low-activity waste glass to be vitrified at the Waste Treatment Plant, and additional sodium hydroxide will be added to remove aluminum and to control precipitation in the process equipment. Aluminum is being removed from the high level sludge to reduce the number of high level waste canisters produced. A sodium recycle process would reduce the volume of low-activity waste glass produced and minimize the need to purchase new sodium hydroxide, so there is a renewed interest in investigating sodium recycle. This document describes an electrochemical facility for recycling sodium for the WTP.

  5. Linguistic recycling in typical and atypical interaction.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    I present evidence that linguistic "recycling" - i.e., the redeployment of linguistic material from prior utterances during conversation - is a striking and prevalent feature not only of interaction between typical speakers, but also, and notably, of interaction involving the communication impaired. In the latter case, recycling may sometimes be used as a compensatory communicative resource when linguistic ability is compromised. Despite its prevalence, however, recycling has largely been ignored by clinical linguists. In addition to providing illustrations of linguistic recycling across a range of communication disorders, I also examine how it is subserved by phenomena such as priming, short-term memory and alignment. I subsequently argue for a shift in perspective that puts recycling at the heart of our perception of how typical and atypical interaction works, and suggest a number of potential benefits for clinical linguistics, ranging from the way we understand and analyse communication disorders to how we assess and treat them. PMID:25000380

  6. Increased Expression of Rififylin in A?Recycling in Proximal Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Yan, Yanling; Liu, Jiang; Kalinoski, Andrea; Kothandapani, Anbarasi; Farms, Phyllis; Joe, Bina

    2012-01-01

    Cell surface proteins are internalized into the cell through endocytosis and either degraded within lysosomes or recycled back to the plasma membrane. While perturbations in endosomal internalization are known to modulate renal function, it is not known whether similar alterations in recycling affect renal function. Rififylin is a known regulator of endocytic recycling with E3 ubiquitin protein ligase activity. In this study, using two genetically similar strains, the Dahl Salt-sensitive rat and an S.LEW congenic strain, which had allelic variants within a?recycling affect renal function. The congenic strain had 1.59-fold higher renal expression of rififylin. Transcriptome analysis indicated that components of both endocytosis and recycling were upregulated in the congenic strain. Transcription of Atp1a1 and cell surface content of the protein product of Atp1a1, the alpha subunit of Na+K+ATPase were increased in the proximal tubules from the congenic strain. Because rififylin does not directly regulate endocytosis and it is also a differentially expressed gene within the congenic segment, we reasoned that the observed alterations in the transcriptome of the congenic strain constitute a feedback response to the primary functional alteration of recycling caused by rififylin. To test this, recycling of transferrin was studied in isolated proximal tubules. Recycling was significantly delayed within isolated proximal tubules of the congenic strain, which also had a higher level of polyubiquitinated proteins and proteinuria compared with S. These data provide evidence to suggest that delayed endosomal recycling caused by excess of rififylin indirectly affects endocytosis, enhances intracellular protein polyubiquitination and contributes to proteinuria. PMID:22891072

  7. RECYCLING COORDINATOR GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIP University of Nebraska--Lincoln Landscape Services

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    RECYCLING COORDINATOR GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIP University of Nebraska--Lincoln Landscape Services, implementing and maintaining recycling on campus. Assist in annual recycler's survey; tracking of recycling drop- off program; assist in market research for selected recycled materials; assist in developing

  8. Autophagy modulates cell migration and ?1 integrin membrane recycling

    PubMed Central

    Tuloup-Minguez, Véronique; Hamaï, Ahmed; Greffard, Anne; Nicolas, Valérie; Codogno, Patrice; Botti, Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    Cell migration is dependent on a series of integrated cellular events including the membrane recycling of the extracellular matrix receptor integrins. In this paper, we investigate the role of autophagy in regulating cell migration. In a wound-healing assay, we observed that autophagy was reduced in cells at the leading edge than in cells located rearward. These differences in autophagy were correlated with the robustness of MTOR activity. The spatial difference in the accumulation of autophagic structures was not detected in rapamycin-treated cells, which had less migration capacity than untreated cells. In contrast, the knockdown of the autophagic protein ATG7 stimulated cell migration of HeLa cells. Accordingly, atg3?/? and atg5?/? MEFs have greater cell migration properties than their wild-type counterparts. Stimulation of autophagy increased the co-localization of ?1 integrin-containing vesicles with LC3-stained autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy slowed down the lysosomal degradation of internalized ?1 integrins and promoted its membrane recycling. From these findings, we conclude that autophagy regulates cell migration, a central mechanism in cell development, angiogenesis, and tumor progression, by mitigating the cell surface expression of ?1 integrins. PMID:24036548

  9. Issues in recycling galvanized scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Koros, P.J. [LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hellickson, D.A. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States); Dudek, F.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-02-10

    The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

  10. Structural shear behaviour of recycled concrete with silica fume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belén González-Fonteboa; Fernando Martínez-Abella; Isabel Martínez-Lage; Javier Eiras-López

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of the second stage of studies carried out on the structural behaviour of recycled concrete. The first stage determined, using beams specimens, the shear behaviour of recycled concrete with which 50% of the coarse aggregate was replaced by recycled coarse aggregate (obtained from concrete demolition waste). This stage revealed minor differences (recycled concrete – conventional

  11. RECYCLE OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses technical and economic studies to assess the impact of recycle on the furnace sorbent injection process. Levelized costs of various recycle schemes were compared to baseline (non-recycle) costs using the EPA LIMB Cost Model and the LIMB Recycle Model. Laborato...

  12. Recycling asphalt overview of more than 25 years of use

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Recycling asphalt overview of more than 25 years of use in France Y. Brosseaud ­ LCPC hal with ring for recycling ­ Average rate with high proportion : 30 to 50% ­ Used of rejuvenators (soft oil,version1-20May2011 #12;4 Hot recycling asphalt on mixing plant Recycling in place in hot or cold

  13. Factors Influencing Community Residents' Participation in Commingled Curbside Recycling Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond J. Gamba; Stuart Oskamp

    1994-01-01

    Commingled curbside recycling, a system where household residents put all recyclable materials in one container, is a new form of recycling that has been initiated to decrease the amount of household waste sent to landfills. In a suburb with a new commingled program, a mail survey of environmental and recycling attitudes was sent to 603 households with a 76% response

  14. Evaluating Water Recycling in California Sachi De Souza

    E-print Network

    Lund, Jay R.

    i Evaluating Water Recycling in California By Sachi De Souza B.Sc.Hon (Queen's University) 2005 Recycling in California ii ABSTRACT This document describes how to complete an economic analysis, financial analysis, and cost allocation for a water recycling project. Water recycling is gaining importance

  15. "Maximum recycling of Material and Energy, Minimum of Landfilling"

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    1 "Maximum recycling of Material and Energy, Minimum of Landfilling" "A Sustainable Solution" Håkan with an Integrated Waste Management - with a Combination of Methods Maximum Recycling, Minimum landfilling #12 in "Recycling". "Waste-to-Energy" is now defined as Recycling, when energy efficiency is > 0,65 Prevention Reuse

  16. Recycling Realities: ASU's Quest for Zero Solid Waste

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Junshan

    Recycling Realities: ASU's Quest for Zero Solid Waste Dawn RatcliffePast Recycling Coordinator Alana LevineRecycling Program Manager For the last 16 years, Dawn Ratcliffe has worked and volunteered in the sustainability and animal-advocacy fields. She has organized several Earth Day events, recycling events

  17. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns. PMID:22749721

  18. ReCycle: Pipeline Adaptation to Tolerate Process Variation

    E-print Network

    Torrellas, Josep

    ReCycle: Pipeline Adaptation to Tolerate Process Variation Abhishek Tiwari, Smruti R. Sarangi, Josep Torrellasg 1 #12;OutlineOutline · MotivationMotivation · ReCycle Idea U i R C l· Using ReCycle · ReCycle System overview · Results 2 #12;MotivationMotivation V i ti k t l th· Variation makes some

  19. What Gets Recycled: An Information Theory Based Model for

    E-print Network

    Gutowski, Timothy

    What Gets Recycled: An Information Theory Based Model for Product Recycling J E F F R E Y B . D A H focuses on developing a concise representation of the material recycling potential for products at end for the two different applications. Cost estimates for product recycling systems are developed using Shannon

  20. Control structure selection for Reactor, Separator and Recycle Process

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control structure selection for Reactor, Separator and Recycle Process T. Larsson M.S. Govatsmark S to control", for a simple plant with a liquid phase reactor, a distillation column and recycle of unreacted processes is the presence of recycle. Variations of a plant with reaction, separation and mass recycle, see

  1. Environmentally-friendly organochlorine waste processing and recycling

    E-print Network

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Environmentally-friendly organochlorine waste processing and recycling Sergei A. Kurta a , Alex A waste recycling. Environmentally-friendly processing and recycling methods of organochlorine waste. The possibility of joint chlorine and sulfide-containing chemical waste recycling into polysulfide oligomeric

  2. Linear Programming Uses for Recycling and Product Reuse

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    ;Outline Introduction Construction Waste Recycling Paper Waste Recycling Printer Component Reuse #12;Reverse Logistics Returns/ Damaged Product Recycling of waste materials Reuse of product components #12;Construction Waste Recycling (A.I. Barros, R. Dekker, and V. Scholten, 1999) Three types of sand Facility

  3. Characterization of PHYTOCHROME B and CONSTANS: Key Regulators of Flowering Time in Sorghum

    E-print Network

    Yang, Shanshan

    2014-07-10

    in rice [54]. The expression of EHD1 is controlled by several upstream modulators including the repressors GHD7, GRAIN NUMBER, PLANT HEIGHT AND HEADING DATE 8 (GHD8) [55], Os CONSTANS-LIKE4(OsCOL4) [56], Os LEC1 AND FUSCA-LIKE1 (OsLFL1)[57], OsMADS56...

  4. Life-cycle flow of mercury and recycling scenario of fluorescent lamps in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asari, Misuzu; Fukui, Kazuki; Sakai, Shin-Ichi

    2008-04-01

    We summarized the mercury flow of mercury-containing products from their manufacture to their disposal in Japan and discussed the current management of mercury-containing hazardous household waste (HHW). The mercury flow originating from these products was estimated to be about 10-20 tonnes annually, about 5 tonnes of which was attributable to fluorescent lamps, the major mercury-containing product in Japan. The recent rapid increase in digital home electronics with liquid crystal displays (e.g.,televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and digital cameras) has led to a marked increase in the production of backlights, which are also fluorescent and contain mercury. Most of the annual flow was disposed of as waste, with only 0.6 tonnes Hg recovered. The mercury flow for end-of-life fluorescent lamps (excluding backlights) was analyzed under three scenarios for Kyoto, Japan for 2003: the present condition scenario, the improved recycling scenario, and the complete recycling scenario. Under the present condition scenario, mercury flow was calculated to be 34 kg Hg for incineration, 21 kg Hg for landfill, and only 4 kg Hg for recycling. The complete recycling scenario shows a simple flow, with all mercury recycled. Under this scenario for Kyoto, we calculated that a cyclic system having 47 kg of mercury (3.5 tonnes Hg in Japan) could be established if all fluorescent lamps (excluding those stored in residences) were collected and recycled. Mercury is a HHW priority chemical, and we need to limit its use and establish a closed-loop system. There are currently no regulations to achieve this, and the management of most HHWs is left to local governments. Therefore, products are disposed of in landfills or incinerated, except for some that are voluntarily collected and recycled. In order to recycle all of the waste fluorescent lamps, we must have a complete recycling system that has a high rate of public participation in collection. We also must have a closed-loop system of mercury recovery and reuse in which all stakeholders participate. Furthermore, it is important to share information and policies regarding fluorescent lamp recycling and related technologies with other countries, especially those in other countries, where fluorescent lamps are becoming more popular because of their high energy efficiency and long life. Also, it is important to develop mercury free and energy efficient lamps including LEDs (light emitting diodes). PMID:18237763

  5. Assessing relationships among properties of demolished concrete, recycled aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete using regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivian W. Y. Tam; K. Wang; C. M. Tam

    2008-01-01

    Recycled demolished concrete (DC) as recycled aggregate (RA) and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is generally suitable for most construction applications. Low-grade applications, including sub-base and roadwork, have been implemented in many countries; however, higher-grade activities are rarely considered. This paper examines relationships among DC characteristics, properties of their RA and strength of their RAC using regression analysis. Ten samples collected

  6. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.

    PubMed

    Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-03-11

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors. PMID:23482100

  7. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with Power Recycling and Twin Signal Recycling cavities

    E-print Network

    Christian Gräf; André Thüring; Henning Vahlbruch; Karsten Danzmann; Roman Schnabel

    2012-11-29

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled. In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom, enabling the long-term stable operation of the experiment. We thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer topology to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

  8. Aluminum: Recycling of Aluminum Dross\\/Saltcake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blazek

    1999-01-01

    As this NICE3 publication details, the objective of this project is to commercialize the process technology to eliminate all landfill waste associated with black dross and saltcake generated from aluminum recycling in the United States.

  9. The feasibility of recycling contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, K.W,; Corroon, W.; Parker, F.L.

    1999-07-01

    The changing mission of the Department of Energy along with the aging of many of its facilities has resulted in renewed emphasis on decontaminating and decommissioning surplus structures. Currently DOE is decontaminating some concrete and sending the clean material to C and D disposal facilities. In other instance, DOE is sending contaminated concrete to LLW disposal facilities. This paper examines the economic feasibility of decontaminating the concrete and recycling the rubble as clean aggregate. A probabilistic cost model was used to examine six potential recycling and disposal scenarios. The model predicted potential costs saving across the DOE complex of nearly one billion dollars. The ability of local markets to assimilate the recycled material was estimated for Washington, Idaho, Tennessee, New Mexico, and South Carolina. The relationships between a number of the economic model's variables were examined to develop operating ranges for initial managerial evaluation of recycling.

  10. Technology development for lunar base water recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will review previous and ongoing work in aerospace water recycling and identify research activities required to support development of a lunar base. The development of a water recycle system for use in the life support systems envisioned for a lunar base will require considerable research work. A review of previous work on aerospace water recycle systems indicates that more efficient physical and chemical processes are needed to reduce expendable and power requirements. Development work on biological processes that can be applied to microgravity and lunar environments also needs to be initiated. Biological processes are inherently more efficient than physical and chemical processes and may be used to minimize resupply and waste disposal requirements. Processes for recovering and recycling nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur also need to be developed to support plant growth units. The development of efficient water quality monitors to be used for process control and environmental monitoring also needs to be initiated.

  11. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  12. Plastics waste trashes German recycling scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1993-06-30

    Plastics waste is causing a major headache for Duales System Deutschland (DSD: Bonn), one of Europe`s groundbreaking national packaging recycling programs. Five of Germany`s states have threatened to withdraw from the plan mainly because of the lack of plastics recycling capacity, says a DSD spokeswoman. {open_quotes}The pace of establishing recycling capacity does not meet the zeal in collection.{close_quotes} she notes. In addition, the organization has been crippled by a lack of funds. It claims that up to half the subscribers to the scheme - who pay a fee to display a green dot on packaging - are either irregular payers or not paying fees in proportion to their use of the green dot. The cost of setting up and paying for plastics recycling - not originally part of DSD`s responsibility - is also hurting the organization.

  13. Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

    2010-10-01

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  14. A mechanism for crustal recycling on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenardic, A.; Kaula, W. M.; Bindschadler, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Entrainment of lower crust by convective mantle downflows is proposed as a crustal recycling mechanism on Venus. The mechanism is characterized by thin sheets of crust being pulled into the mantle by viscous flow stresses. Finite element models of crust/mantle interaction are used to explore tectonic conditions under which crustal entrainment may occur. The recycling scenarios suggested by the numerical models are analogous to previously studied problems for which analytic and experimental relationships assessing entrainment rates have been derived. We use these relationships to estimate crustal recycling rates on Venus. Estimated rates are largely determined by (1) strain rate at the crust/mantle interface (higher strain rate leads to greater entrainment); and (2) effective viscosity of the lower crust (viscosity closer to that of mantle lithosphere leads to greater entrainment). Reasonable geologic strain rates and available crustal flow laws suggest entrainment can recycle approximately equal 1 cu km of crust per year under favorable conditions.

  15. Recycle with Heating: A Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foord, A.; Mason, G.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an apparatus (built from domestic plumbing pipes and fittings) that uses only water and electricity (as consumables) to investigate basic mass and heat balances in a system with recycle. Also describes experiments using the apparatus. (JN)

  16. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  17. Jennings Area Recycling Program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-08

    A program for collecting the following items from the curb is described: aluminum cans, bi-metal cans, clear glass bottles, colored glass bottles, and newspapers. The amount of materials recycled and the revenues raised are listed.

  18. Recycled Words: Holistic Instruction for LEP Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Mary E.; Majors, Patricia L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an alternative, holistic vocabulary strategy for students with limited English proficiency that draws high-frequency words from a variety of literary publications, then recycles that vocabulary in reading, writing, listening, and speaking activities. (SR)

  19. Fermilab Recycler damper requirements and design

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, J.; Hu, M.; Tupikov, V.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The design of transverse dampers for the Fermilab Recycler storage ring is described. An observed instability and analysis of subsequent measurements where used to identify the requirements. The digital approach being implemented is presented.

  20. Design and optimization of photovoltaics recycling infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2010-11-15

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States. PMID:20886824

  1. Diagnosing the influence of radiative forcing on local recycling of precipitation using a three-dimensional recycling model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Li; N. Mölders

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge on precipitation recycling is an important access to understand the the impact of radiative forcing on the regional water cycle and water availability. In this paper, a recycling model was developed as a precipitation recycling diagnosis tool. The recycling diagnosis tool will be introduced. Results from tests performed with artificial data will be presented to evaluate this three-dimensional diagnosis

  2. The collection system for residential recyclables in communities in Haidian District, Beijing: A possible approach for China recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Wang; Ling Han; Shushu Li

    2008-01-01

    Recycling and reusing recyclables is an important way to solve the municipal solid waste (MSW) problem. As the collection of solid waste takes up the largest percentage of MSW management budgets, improving the collection of recyclables is important. Since the decline of government-run waste buying depots in the late 1980s, the collection of recyclables from households and waste deposit sites

  3. EMPTY CHEMICAL BOTTLES RECYCLING PROGRAM Empty Chemical Bottles Recycling includes all glass, plastic and metal bottles and containers that previously

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    EMPTY CHEMICAL BOTTLES RECYCLING PROGRAM Empty Chemical Bottles Recycling includes all glass Disposal Guide. Do not place empty chemical bottles in commingled recycling bins on hallways, trash cans and with a 20 gallons capacity. It is made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with 100% post-consumer recycled

  4. FSC-Watch: FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global

    E-print Network

    FSC-Watch: FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming FSC-Watch FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming Tags: Canada, Recycling, Certifier conflict of interest undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming in Pine Falls to manufacture paper with some

  5. Mechanical properties modeling of recycled aggregate concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Eduardo Bezerra Cabral; Valdir Schalch; Denise Carpena Coitinho Dal Molin; José Luis Duarte Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    The variability observed in the composition of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is a problem that inhibits the use of recycled aggregates in concrete production. To contribute in this field, a research was carried out varying water\\/cement ratio and substitution percent of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. The experimental program used samples of main Brazilian C&D waste sources, which are

  6. TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT MG-SCRAP RECYCLING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Hanko; Gernot Macher

    2003-01-01

    Currently, only high grade clean Mg-scrap without impurities can be recycled easily into high purity alloys. More complex handling is required for old magnesium-base or post consumer scrap e.g. automotive parts and electronic devices. The additional process steps determine the economical attractiveness of Mg-recycling. This article will provide a detailed overview of the current research activities of ecka granules -

  7. FLEXURAL PROPERTIES OF REINFORCED RECYCLED CONCRETE BEAMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ippei Maruyama; Masaru Sogo; Takahisa Sogabe; Ryoichi Sato; Kenji Kawai

    Flexural properties of reinforced recycled concrete (RRC) beams are investigated experimentally. Their parameters are water-cement ratio, type, combination of aggregates and usage of expansive additive. Flexural properties of RRC beams, i.e. cracking moment, maximum crack spacing, maximum crack width, deflection under serviceable load and plastic deflection are discussed. Experimental results indicate the mechanics-based possibility of utilizing recycled concrete for reinforced

  8. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  9. New approaches for MOX multi-recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gain, T.; Bouvier, E.; Grosman, R.; Senentz, G.H.; Lelievre, F.; Bailly, F.; Brueziere, J. [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean Millier, Paris La Defense, 92084 (France); Murray, P. [AREVA Federal Services LLC, 4800 Hampden Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Due to its low fissile content after irradiation, Pu from used MOX fuel is considered by some as not recyclable in LWR (Light Water Reactors). The point of this paper is hence to go back to those statements and provide a new analysis based on AREVA extended experience in the fields of fissile and fertile material management and optimized waste management. This is done using the current US fuel inventory as a case study. MOX Multi-recycling in LWRs is a closed cycle scenario where U and Pu management through reprocessing and recycling leads to a significant reduction of the used assemblies to be stored. The recycling of Pu in MOX fuel is moreover a way to maintain the self-protection of the Pu-bearing assemblies. With this scenario, Pu content is also reduced repetitively via a multi-recycling of MOX in LWRs. Simultaneously, {sup 238}Pu content decreases. All along this scenario, HLW (High-Level Radioactive Waste) vitrified canisters are produced and planned for deep geological disposal. Contrary to used fuel, HLW vitrified canisters do not contain proliferation materials. Moreover, the reprocessing of used fuel limits the space needed on current interim storage. With MOX multi-recycling in LWR, Pu isotopy needs to be managed carefully all along the scenario. The early introduction of a limited number of SFRs (Sodium Fast Reactors) can therefore be a real asset for the overall system. A few SFRs would be enough to improve the Pu isotopy from used LWR MOX fuel and provide a Pu-isotopy that could be mixed back with multi-recycled Pu from LWRs, hence increasing the Pu multi-recycling potential in LWRs.

  10. Recycling: Taking care of our environment!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Hansen

    2007-11-05

    6th Grade: Standard 7: The students will understand the value of service and effective consumer practices. Objcective 1: Participate in service-learning that benefits the environment. Our environment is very important to us. How we live has an impact on everyone in the world. One way to help our earth\\'s environment stay clean and a healthy place to live is to recycle. As you go through the different links about recycling, I want you to look ...

  11. Concrete manufacture with ungraded recycled aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Richardson; K. Coventry; S. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether concrete that includes un-graded recycled aggregates can be manufactured to a comparable strength to concrete manufactured from virgin aggregates. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A paired comparison test was used to evaluate the difference between concrete made with virgin aggregates (plain control) and concrete including recycled waste. Un-graded construction demolition waste and

  12. Recycling of sodium metaborate to borax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Hee Park; Seong Uk Jeong; Un Ho Jung; Sung Hyun Kim; Jaeyoung Lee; Suk Woo Nam; Tae Hoon Lim; Young Jun Park; Yong Ho Yu

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated an electrochemical method for recycling sodium metaborate (NaBO2) to sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Palladium (Pd), boron-doped diamond (BDD), gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) were used as electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to recycle the NaBO2 either to NaBH4 or to an intermediate material for making NaBH4. The electrochemical products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) as

  13. Molybdenum recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blossom, John W.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the flow of molybdenum in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which molybdenum was recycled. Molybdenum was mostly recycled from products of molybdenum-bearing steels and superalloys, with some molybdenum products recovered specifically for their high molybdenum content. In 1998, 8,000 metric tons (t) of molybdenum was estimated to have been recycled, and the recycling rate was calculated to be 33 percent, with recycling efficiency at about 30 percent.

  14. Asphalt recycling technology: Literature review and research plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomb, D. E.; Epps, J. A.

    1981-06-01

    A review of current technology for the rehabilitation and maintenance of pavement surfaces by recycling was conducted. While the primary concern was asphalt concrete recycling, a brief review of portland cement concrete recycling is included. Reports of cases involving recycling technology and lessons learned are reviewed. Recommendations are presented outlining research required to advance the state-of-the-art in a manner that will permit the U.S. Air Force to fully attain the benefits of recycling technology.

  15. Applying decision-making tools to national e-waste recycling policy: an example of Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Hsu; Wen, Lihchyi; Tsai, Yue-Mi

    2010-05-01

    As policy making is in essence a process of discussion, decision-making tools have in many cases been proposed to resolve the differences of opinion among the different parties. In our project that sought to promote a country's performance in recycling, we used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate the possibilities and determine the priority of the addition of new mandatory recycled waste, also referred to as Due Recycled Wastes, from candidate waste appliances. The evaluation process started with the collection of data based on telephone interviews and field investigations to understand the behavior of consumers as well as their overall opinions regarding the disposal of certain waste appliances. With the data serving as background information, the research team then implemented the Analytic Hierarchy Process using the information that formed an incomplete hierarchy structure in order to determine the priority for recycling. Since the number of objects to be evaluated exceeded the number that the AHP researchers had suggested, we reclassified the objects into four groups and added one more level of pair-wise comparisons, which substantially reduced the inconsistency in the judgment of the AHP participants. The project was found to serve as a flexible and achievable application of AHP to the environmental policy-making process. In addition, based on the project's outcomes derived from the project as a whole, the research team drew conclusions regarding the government's need to take back 15 of the items evaluated, and suggested instruments that could be used or recycling regulations that could be changed in the future. Further analysis on the top three items recommended by the results of the evaluation for recycling, namely, Compact Disks, Cellular Phones and Computer Keyboards, was then conducted to clarify their concrete feasibility. After the trial period for recycling ordered by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, only Computer Keyboards were referred to as the new Due Recycled Waste and their producers started to take responsibility for recycling them from 2007 onwards. PMID:20015632

  16. Characterization of cold recycled asphalt mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tia, M.

    1982-01-01

    In this study, the long-term behavior of the cold-recycled asphalt mixtures was investigated through nine experimental designs. The scope of the study covered two types of pavement material, three levels of oxydized condition of the old binder and one type of virgin aggregate. The added softening agents included a high-float asphalt emulsion AE-150, a foamed asphalt, and the rejuvenating agents, Reclamite, Mobilsol and DUTREX 739. The Water Sensitivity Test was used to evaluate the resistance of the recycled mixes to water. The results of the study indicated that most of the rejuvenating action of the added binder on the old binder took place during the compaction process. The binders of the recycled mixes which underwent the initial softening during the compaction process generally increased in stiffness with increasing curing time. The results indicated that the gyratory stability index and the gyratory elasto-plastic index could be used to determine the optimum binder content of a recycled mix. However, they could not be used to estimate the resilient modulus or the Marshall stability of the mix.A higher compactive effort generally produced a higher resilient modulus and Marshall stability of the recycled mix. When the binder content is too high, a higher compactive effort generally produces a lower Hveem R-value.The structural performance of these recycled mixes was compared to that of an asphalt concrete using a linear elastic multilayer analysis.

  17. Isotopic constraints on crustal growth and recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    The Sm-Nd isotopic data on clastic and chemical sediments are used with the present-day age distribution of continental crustal rocks to estimate the rates of crustal accretion, growth and recycling throughout earth's history. A new method for interpreting Nd model ages on both chemical and clastic sediments is proposed. A general relationship is derived between the mean crustal residence time of material recycled from the crust to the mantle (i.e., sediments), the mean age of the crust, and the crustal growth and recycling rates. This relationship takes into account the fact that the age distribution of material in the continental crust is generally different from the age distribution of material recycled into the mantle. The episodic nature of the present-day age distribution in crustal rocks results in similar episodicity in the accretion and recycling rates. The results suggest that by about 3.8 Ga ago, about 40 percent of the present continental volume was present. Recycling rates were extremely high 3-4 Ga ago and declined rapidly to an insignificant value of about 0.1 cu km/a during most of the Phanerozoic. The Nd model age pattern on sediments suggests a fairly high rate of growth during the Phanerozoic.

  18. Generalized teleportation and entanglement recycling

    E-print Network

    Sergii Strelchuk; Micha? Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim

    2012-12-13

    We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group [Bennett, et al. Physical Review Letters, 70(13) 1895-1899] and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka [Physical Review Letters, 101(24) 240501], that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient condition for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. This generalization leads to protocols with novel properties and is needed to push forward new schemes of computation based on them. Port-based teleportation protocols and our generalizations use a large resource state consisting of N singlets to teleport only a single qubit state reliably. We provide two distinct protocols which recycle the resource state to teleport multiple states with error linearly increasing with their number. The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting qubit states, and the second teleports them in a bulk.

  19. Identification of a novel recycling sequence in the C-tail of FPR2/ALX receptor: association with cell protection from apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dawn; McArthur, Simon; Hislop, James N; Flower, Roderick J; Perretti, Mauro

    2014-12-26

    Formyl-peptide receptor type 2 (FPR2; also called ALX because it is the receptor for lipoxin A4) sustains a variety of biological responses relevant to the development and control of inflammation, yet the cellular regulation of this G-protein-coupled receptor remains unexplored. Here we report that, in response to peptide agonist activation, FPR2/ALX undergoes ?-arrestin-mediated endocytosis followed by rapid recycling to the plasma membrane. We identify a transplantable recycling sequence that is both necessary and sufficient for efficient receptor recycling. Furthermore, removal of this C-terminal recycling sequence alters the endocytic fate of FPR2/ALX and evokes pro-apoptotic effects in response to agonist activation. This study demonstrates the importance of endocytic recycling in the anti-apoptotic properties of FPR2/ALX and identifies the molecular determinant required for modulation of this process fundamental for the control of inflammation. PMID:25326384

  20. Reuse and recycle--considering the soil below constructions.

    PubMed

    Suer, Pascal; Wik, Ola; Erlandsson, Martin

    2014-07-01

    The European Construction Products Regulation provides a life cycle based framework for the environmental assessment of construction products. Harmonised European standards for the assessment of the release of dangerous substances and for declaration of environmental performance are in progress. Risk based limit values for the protection of soil and groundwater below construction works will still bet set nationally. In this paper we review the possibilities to expand the ongoing harmonisation to include risk assessment and life cycle assessment (LCA). Based on reviews of national European limit value models (LMVs) for assessment of release to soil and groundwater, two areas for harmonisation emerge: 1- The toxicological criteria. Toxicological endpoints to protect human health and environment are similar, and data from the same toxicological data sets are used to establish acceptance criteria. 2- The emission part of LMVs. We extracted six generic construction works for granular materials. These encompass the most common choices and span the different release scenarios applied. Harmonised emission models would also facilitate LCA and environmental product declaration (EPD). The immission or transport part of the LVMs is less promising for harmonisation. Locating the acceptance criteria point of compliance close to the construction works is advantageous from many aspects and would facilitate harmonisation of assessments. We have identified two different strategies to include recycling in the assessments: 1- Tiered procedure where assessment and declaration of performance are made for the intended primary use of the product only and renewed assessments are made whenever the construction works are demolished and the product is recovered. 2- Scenario based procedure where future recycling scenarios, into new products and construction works, are forecasted. In this case the initial assessment and declaration of environmental performance of a construction product is performed both for the intended primary use of the product and for the recycling scenarios. PMID:24694938

  1. Mechanical properties of polymer concrete made with recycled PET and recycled concrete aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-Wan Jo; Seung-Kook Park; Jong-Chil Park

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to solve some of the solid waste problems posed by plastics and concrete demolition. To this end, we evaluated the mechanical properties of polymer concrete, in particular, polymer concrete made of unsaturated polyester resins from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic waste and recycled concrete aggregates. The strength and the resistances to acid and alkali

  2. Influence of recycled aggregate quality and proportioning criteria on recycled concrete properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. López-Gayarre; P. Serna; A. Domingo-Cabo; M. A. Serrano-López; C. López-Colina

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental research using concrete produced by substituting part of the natural coarse aggregates with recycled aggregates from concrete demolition. The influence of the quality of the recycled aggregate (amount of declassified and source of aggregate), the percentage of replacement on the targeted quality of the concrete to be produced (strength and workability) has been

  3. Distinguishing Potential Recyclers from Nonrecyclers: A Basis for Developing Recycling Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansana, Florence M.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of recycling behavior for aid in strategy development to stimulate participation in community recycling programs. Suggests strategies that focus on the specific needs and problems of participating households, accommodate community variations, use appropriate information channels, and consider the relevance of operation…

  4. Development of plutonium recycle in thermal reactors. Evaluation of plutonium recycle in pressurized water reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Tomonto; J. S. Tulenko; J. Fiscella; J. Ray

    1969-01-01

    An evaluation of the utilization of plutonium recycle fuel in the ; Obrigheim power reactor was performed in order to study the characteristics of ; typical large PWR's operated with plutonium recycle fuel. The evaluation ; included nuclear characteristics, fuel management, a thermal-hydraulic analysis, ; and an economic analysis. (JWR)

  5. Recycling of treated wood poles

    SciTech Connect

    Fansham, P. [TWT Wood Products, Inc., Alberta (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    There are approximately 150 million utilities poles in service in North America. Of the 3 million poles removed from service each year, many poles still contain a sound and structurally intact core and only the outer layer has deteriorated. Since most of the old poles are treated with either pentachlorophenol or creosote there are limited disposal options available to pole users. The practice of giving old poles away to farmers or other interested parties in falling into disfavour since this practice does not absolve the utility of the environmental liability associated with the treated wood. TWT has commercialised a thermolysis (Pyrolysis) based process capable of removing oil based preservatives from treated wood. The patented process involves: the shaving of the weathered pole exterior; the rapid distillation of oil based preservatives in an oxygen depleted environment; condensation of the vapours; and separation of liquids. TWT has constructed a 30,000 pole per year facility east of Calgary and has provided recycled poles for the construction of two power lines now in use by TransAlta Utilities Corporation, Canada`s largest investor owned electric utility. TWT has tested two thermolysis (Pyrolysis) technologies and has determined that contact thermolysis using a heated auger design performed better and with less plugging than a fast fluid bed reactor. The fluid bed reactor is prone to coke formation and contamination of the oil by fine char particles. Residual PCP concentration in the shavings was reduced from 9500 ppm to 10 ppm. Leachate testing on the char yielded a PCP concentration of 1.43 ppm in the Leachate, well below the EPA standard maximum of 100 ppm.

  6. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 3. United Nations (UN) (2012), World Water Development Report 4, UNESCO Publishing

  7. Photo Courtesy of Carlsbad Water Distict Economic Evaluation for Water Recycling

    E-print Network

    Lund, Jay R.

    -i- Photo Courtesy of Carlsbad Water Distict Economic Evaluation for Water Recycling In Urban Areas........................................................................................................................................... 4 BENEFICIAL USES OF RECYCLED WATER................................................................................................ 5 MOTIVATIONS FOR RECYCLED WATER USE

  8. Recycled vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW)--a novel method of recycling greywater for irrigation in small communities and households.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Shmueli, O; Ronen, Z; Raveh, E

    2007-01-01

    The use of greywater for irrigation is becoming increasingly common. However, raw greywater is often contaminated and can cause environmental harm and pose health risks. Nevertheless, it is often used without any significant pretreatment, a practice mistakenly considered safe. The aim of this study was to develop an economically sound, low-tech and easily maintainable treatment system that would allow safe and sustainable use of greywater for landscape irrigation in small communities and households. The system is based on a combination of vertical flow constructed wetland with water recycling and trickling filter, and is termed recycled vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW). The RVFCW's properties, removal efficiency, hydraulic parameters and feasibility were studied, as well as the environmental effects of the treated greywater, as reflected by soil and plant parameters over time. The RVFCW was efficient at removing virtually all of the suspended solids and biological oxygen demand, and about 80% of the chemical oxygen demand after 8h. Fecal coliforms dropped by three to four orders of magnitude from their initial concentration after 8h, but this was not always enough to meet current regulations for unlimited irrigation. The treated greywater had no significant negative impact on plants or soil during the study period. The feasibility analysis indicated a return over investment after approximately three years. We concluded that the RVFCW is a sustainable and promising treatment system for greywater use that can be run and maintained by unskilled operators. PMID:16844197

  9. Reverse logistics system planning for recycling electrical appliances and computers in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Hsing Shih

    2001-01-01

    Since the disposition of end-of-life home appliances has caused tremendous attention, Taiwan recently promulgated a Scrap Home Appliances and Computers Recycling Regulation that mandates manufacturers and importers to take back their products. Reverse logistics system planning shall become vital as the take-back rate increases and the service area expands in the future. This study utilizes a mixed integer programming model

  10. Risk of cancer among paper recycling workers.

    PubMed Central

    Rix, B A; Villadsen, E; Engholm, G; Lynge, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies in traditional paper mills have indicated an excess cancer risk, and mutagenic compounds have been identified in the industry. No studies have reported on risk of cancer in paper recycling. Therefore the cancer incidence in Danish paper recycling mills was investigated. METHODS: 5377 employees in five paper recycling plants were included in a historical cohort study. The workers had been employed in paper recycling in 1965-90, and the cohort was followed up until 31 December 1993. The expected number of cancer cases was calculated from national rates. RESULTS: There was significantly more pharyngeal cancer among male workers (seven observed (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 3.33, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.34 to 6.87)). There was slightly more lung cancer among male workers in production (39 observed, SIR 1.21, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.65). Risk of Hodgkin's disease was doubled in male production worker (four observed, SIR 1.90, 95% CI 0.51 to 4.85). CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of pharyngeal cancer found in this study is interesting but may be influenced by confounders such as smoking and alcohol intake. This study also indicates an excess risk of Hodgkin's disease, which is in accordance with some studies in the traditional paper mills. As this is the first report on risk of cancer in paper recycling, further studies are needed. PMID:9404320

  11. Feedstock recycling program gets go ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Layman, P.

    1994-03-28

    Feedstock recycling--recycling mixed plastics wastes back into chemical feedstocks such as olefins and naphtha--has received a commercial go ahead in Germany. DKR--Deutsche Kunstsoff recycling, a subsidiary of a commercial company, Duales System Deutschland, responsible for recycling packaging wastes in Germany--has issued three contracts to companies with feedstock recycling technology to convert to liquid feedstocks a total of some 500,000 metric tons per year of mixed plastics packaging wastes by 1996. DKR has also pledged to discontinue exports of used plastics packaging to foreign countries by that date. The three contracts go to a consortium between BASF and OTTO Kunststoff service, of Dossenheim; the oil and chemical producer Veba; and the electric power utilities company RWE. DKR's current processing costs are about $1,765 per ton of wastes. That total includes all costs for collecting, sorting, cleaning, and transporting the wastes. In its bid, the BASF-OTTO consortium envisioned a fee of about $190 per ton. That fee, says Niess, was determined by looking at BASF's and OTTO's costs, offset by the savings in raw materials BASF would be making as its technology converts mixed plastics wastes to a mixture of naphtha, aromatics, and oils, all of which can be used in BASF's processes in Ludwigshafen. And because BASF's technology requires no presorting or cleaning before it gets the wastes, the process will trim DKR's costs significantly.

  12. Building recycling rates through the informal sector.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David C; Araba, Adebisi O; Chinwah, Kaine; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2009-02-01

    Many developing country cities aspire to modern waste management systems, which are associated with relatively high recycling rates of clean, source separated materials. Most already have informal sector recycling systems, which are driven solely by the revenues derived from selling recovered materials, even though they are saving the formal sector money by reducing waste quantities. There is clear potential for 'win-win' co-operation between the formal and informal sectors, as providing support to the informal sector, to build recycling rates and to address some of the social issues could reduce the overall costs of waste management for the formal sector. This paper shows that recycling rates already achieved by the informal sector can be quite high, typically in the range from 20% to 50%; often up to half of this is in the form of clean, source separated materials collected directly from households and businesses by itinerant waste buyers. Four country case studies provide a number of lessons on how this solid foundation could be used to build high recycling rates of clean materials. PMID:18701272

  13. Building recycling rates through the informal sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, David C. [Centre for Environmental Control and Waste Management, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, Skempton Building, London SW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Araba, Adebisi O. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Chinwah, Kaine [Centre for Environmental Control and Waste Management, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, Skempton Building, London SW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Cheeseman, Christopher R. [Centre for Environmental Control and Waste Management, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, Skempton Building, London SW1 2BU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.cheeseman@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-02-15

    Many developing country cities aspire to modern waste management systems, which are associated with relatively high recycling rates of clean, source separated materials. Most already have informal sector recycling systems, which are driven solely by the revenues derived from selling recovered materials, even though they are saving the formal sector money by reducing waste quantities. There is clear potential for 'win-win' co-operation between the formal and informal sectors, as providing support to the informal sector, to build recycling rates and to address some of the social issues could reduce the overall costs of waste management for the formal sector. This paper shows that recycling rates already achieved by the informal sector can be quite high, typically in the range from 20% to 50%; often up to half of this is in the form of clean, source separated materials collected directly from households and businesses by itinerant waste buyers. Four country case studies provide a number of lessons on how this solid foundation could be used to build high recycling rates of clean materials.

  14. Progress in recycling of automobile shredder residue

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Pomykala, J.A. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory, we have been developing a potentially economical process to recycle automobile shredder residue (ASR). We identified three potentially marketable materials that can be recovered from ASR and developed technologies to recover and upgrade these materials. We build and tested a field-demonstration plant for recycling polyurethane foam and produced about 2000 lb of recycled foam. Several 300-lb samples were sent for evaluation and were found to be of marketable quality. We are also preparing for a large-scale test in which about 200 tons of ASR-derived fines will be used as a raw material in cement making. A major cement company has evaluated small samples of fines prepared in the laboratory and found that they meet its requirements as a substitute for iron ore or mill scale. We also produced about 50 lb of recycled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) from obsolete automobiles and found that it has properties that could be readily upgraded to meet the specifications of the automotive industry. In this paper, we briefly discuss the process as a whole and summarize the results obtained from the field work on foam and fines recycling.

  15. Antimony recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlin, James F.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of recycling has become more obvious as concerns about the environment and import dependence have grown in recent years. When materials are recycled, fewer natural resources are consumed, and less waste products go to landfills or pollute the water and air. This study, one of a series of reports on metals recycling in 2000, discusses the flow of antimony from mining through its uses and disposal with emphasis on recycling. In 2000, the recycling efficiency for antimony was estimated to be 89 percent, and the recycling rate was about 20 percent.

  16. Correlation analysis between sulphate content and leaching of sulphates in recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes.

    PubMed

    Barbudo, Auxi; Galvín, Adela P; Agrela, Francisco; Ayuso, Jesús; Jiménez, Jose Ramón

    2012-06-01

    In some recycled aggregates applications, such as component of new concrete or roads, the total content of soluble sulphates should be measured and controlled. Restrictions are usually motivated by the resistance or stability of the new structure, and in most cases, structural concerns can be remedied by the use of techniques such as sulphur-resistant cements. However, environmental risk assessment from recycling and reuse construction products is often forgotten. The purpose of this study is to analyse the content of soluble sulphate on eleven recycled aggregates and six samples prepared in laboratory by the addition of different gypsum percentages. As points of reference, two natural aggregates were tested. An analysis of the content of the leachable amount of heavy metals regulated by European regulation was included. As a result, the correlation between solubility and leachability data allow suggest a limiting gypsum amount of 4.4% on recycled aggregates. This limit satisfies EU Landfill Directive criteria, which is currently used as reference by public Spanish Government for recycled aggregates in construction works. PMID:22410435

  17. Recycling and reuse: Are they the answer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    At a time when reuse is widely recognized as a partial solution to the US mounting waste problem, it comes as no surprise that drinking water suppliers are giving thought to reclaiming residuals. This reuse may occur within the treatment plant, for example, by recovering alum from sludge or recycling waste streams, or outside the plant, where endeavors such as controlled land application return components of sludge to the soil. By nature, sludges and other residuals likely contain contaminants that have been removed from the water--e.g., Giardia and Cryptosporidium, trihalomethane precursors, and heavy metals. Recycling waste flows has the potential to disturb the treatment process or to affect the quality of finished water. Proper treatment and monitoring of waste streams can render them acceptable for recycling.

  18. New developments in RTR fuel recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lelievre, F.; Brueziere, J.; Domingo, X.; Valery, J.F.; Leroy, J.F.; Tribout-Maurizi, A. [AREVA, Tour AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense (France)

    2013-07-01

    As most utilities in the world, Research and Test Reactors (RTR) operators are currently facing two challenges regarding the fuel, in order to comply with local safety and waste management requirements as well as global non-proliferation obligation: - How to manage used fuel today, and - How fuel design changes that are currently under development will influence used fuel management. AREVA-La-Hague plant has a large experience in used fuel recycling, including traditional RTR fuel (UAl). Based on that experience and deep knowledge of RTR fuel manufacturing, AREVA is currently examining possible options to cope with both challenges. This paper describes the current experience of AREVA-La-Hague in UAl used fuels recycling and its plan to propose recycling for various types of fuels such as U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel or UMo fuel on an industrial scale. (authors)

  19. Heisenberg-limited metrology with information recycling

    E-print Network

    Simon A. Haine; Stuart S. Szigeti; Matthias D. Lang; Carlton M. Caves

    2015-05-01

    Information recycling has been shown to improve the sensitivity of atom interferometers by exploiting atom-light entanglement. In this paper, we apply information recycling to an interferometer where the input quantum state has been partially transferred from some donor system. We demonstrate that when the quantum state of this donor system is from a particular class of number-correlated Heisenberg-limited states, information recycling yields a Heisenberg-limited phase measurement. Crucially, this result holds irrespective of the fraction of the quantum state transferred to the interferometer input and also for a general class of number-conserving quantum-state-transfer processes, including ones that destroy the first-order phase coherence between the branches of the interferometer. This result could have significant applications in Heisenberg-limited atom interferometry, where the quantum state is transferred from a Heisenberg-limited photon source, and in optical interferometry where the loss can be monitored.

  20. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  1. Aluminum recycling—An integrated, industrywide approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subodh K.; Green, John A. S.; Kaufman, J. Gilbert; Emadi, Daryoush; Mahfoud, M.

    2010-02-01

    The aluminum industry is a leading proponent of global sustainability and strongly advocates the use of recycled metal. As the North American primary aluminum industry continues to move offshore to other geographic areas such as Iceland and the Middle East, where energy is more readily available at lower cost, the importance of the secondary (i.e., recycled metal) market in the U.S. will continue to increase. The purpose of this paper is to take an integrated, industry-wide look at the recovery of material from demolished buildings, shredded automobiles, and aging aircraft, as well as from traditional cans and other rigid containers. Attempts will be made to assess how the different alloys used in these separate markets can be recycled in the most energy-efficient manner.

  2. Heisenberg-limited metrology with information recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haine, Simon A.; Szigeti, Stuart S.; Lang, Matthias D.; Caves, Carlton M.

    2015-04-01

    Information recycling has been shown to improve the sensitivity of atom interferometers by exploiting atom-light entanglement. In this Rapid Communication, we apply information recycling to an interferometer where the input quantum state has been partially transferred from some donor system. We demonstrate that when the quantum state of this donor system is from a particular class of number-correlated Heisenberg-limited states, information recycling yields a Heisenberg-limited phase measurement. Crucially, this result holds irrespective of the fraction of the quantum state transferred to the interferometer input and also for a general class of number-conserving quantum-state-transfer processes, including ones that destroy the first-order phase coherence between the branches of the interferometer. This result could have significant applications in Heisenberg-limited atom interferometry, where the quantum state is transferred from a Heisenberg-limited photon source, and in optical interferometry where the loss can be monitored.

  3. Management of recyclable fissile and fertile materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bertel, Evelyne; Dujardin, Thierry [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency 12 boulevard des Iles, F-92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2007-07-01

    The possibility to recycle fuel is a very attractive - nearly unique - feature of nuclear energy systems. Fissile and fertile materials that are contained in spent nuclear fuels and enrichment plant tails for example may be retrieved and re-used to provide additional energy and reduce the amount and toxicity of ultimate waste to be sent to repositories. While recycling becomes increasingly attractive in the context of renewed interest for nuclear energy and of sustainable development goals, extended interim storage and direct disposal of recyclable materials remain options favoured by many countries. Recyclable materials which are not intended to be re-used may be disposed of in a safe way guaranteeing their isolation from the biosphere over very long periods of time until they become harmless for humans and the environment. The study on recyclable fissile and fertile materials published in 2007 by the OECD was carried out by its Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in order to review technical, strategic and policy issues raised by the management of those materials and to provide some insights on the opportunities and challenges offered by alternative options in this regard. The materials considered include: spent fuel; depleted uranium from enrichment plant tails; separated uranium and plutonium from commercial reprocessing plants; ex-military materials (highly enriched uranium and plutonium) declared excess to national security by the Russian Federation and the United States; and thorium inventories. The present paper is based on the analyses, findings and conclusions from the NEA study. It provides overview on the quantities and potential energetic value of recyclable materials available worldwide. The main advantages and drawbacks of the two management options that may be adopted are described. Some findings and conclusions are drawn from the identification and analysis of economic, social and environmental indicators associated with each option that need to be taken into account in assessing and selecting the best solution in various specific contexts. (authors)

  4. Chemical and mechanical recycling of shredder fluff

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Shoemaker, E.L.

    1992-12-01

    Each year, the secondary metals industry recovers about 55--60 million tons of prompt and obsolete scrap which is used in the production of finished steel products. The single largest source of this scrap is the obsolete automobile. The shredder industry recovers about 10--12 million ton/yr of ferrous scrap, most of which is from shredded automobiles. However, for each ton of steel recovered, over 500 lb of fluff are produced. Shredder fluff is comprised of the nonmetallic content of the automobile and other shredded materials, such as refrigerators, dryers, and dishwashers, which are commonly called white goods. The plastics content of shredder fluff is typically about 15--20% by weight and is expected to increase over the next decade due to the significant increase in the use of automotive plastics over the past 10--15 years. At present, shredder fluff is landfilled. The rapidly escalating landfilling cost, along with environmental concerns over the fate of this waste, poses a significant cost and liability to the shredder industry. Research is being carried out to identify and develop recycling technologies that will reduce the volume and the mass of shredder fluff going to landfills and to minimize its cost impact on the recycling of secondary metals. Previous research has focused on exploiting the plastics content of shredder fluff and other hydrocarbons present in fluff for secondary recycling (e.g., production of wood-products substitutes) and for quaternary recycling (e.g., energy generation). Limited work was also conducted on tertiary recycling (e.g., pyrolysis and gasification). Although the previous research has established the technical feasibility of most, if not all, of the alternatives that were examined, none have proven to be cost-effective. This paper describes some research at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to develop a process to recycle some of the fluff content, primarily the thermoplastics.

  5. Chemical and mechanical recycling of shredder fluff

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Shoemaker, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    Each year, the secondary metals industry recovers about 55--60 million tons of prompt and obsolete scrap which is used in the production of finished steel products. The single largest source of this scrap is the obsolete automobile. The shredder industry recovers about 10--12 million ton/yr of ferrous scrap, most of which is from shredded automobiles. However, for each ton of steel recovered, over 500 lb of fluff are produced. Shredder fluff is comprised of the nonmetallic content of the automobile and other shredded materials, such as refrigerators, dryers, and dishwashers, which are commonly called white goods. The plastics content of shredder fluff is typically about 15--20% by weight and is expected to increase over the next decade due to the significant increase in the use of automotive plastics over the past 10--15 years. At present, shredder fluff is landfilled. The rapidly escalating landfilling cost, along with environmental concerns over the fate of this waste, poses a significant cost and liability to the shredder industry. Research is being carried out to identify and develop recycling technologies that will reduce the volume and the mass of shredder fluff going to landfills and to minimize its cost impact on the recycling of secondary metals. Previous research has focused on exploiting the plastics content of shredder fluff and other hydrocarbons present in fluff for secondary recycling (e.g., production of wood-products substitutes) and for quaternary recycling (e.g., energy generation). Limited work was also conducted on tertiary recycling (e.g., pyrolysis and gasification). Although the previous research has established the technical feasibility of most, if not all, of the alternatives that were examined, none have proven to be cost-effective. This paper describes some research at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to develop a process to recycle some of the fluff content, primarily the thermoplastics.

  6. Household demand for waste recycling services.

    PubMed

    Palatnik, Ruslana; Ayalon, Ofira; Shechter, Mordechai

    2005-02-01

    Municipalities everywhere are coping with increasing amounts of solid waste and need urgently to formulate efficient and sustainable solutions to the problem. This study examines the use of economic incentives in municipal waste management. Specifically, we address the issue of recycling, if and when this waste management option is-on social welfare grounds-a preferred solution.A number of studies have recently assessed the monetary value of the externalities of alternative solid waste management options. In the present context, these subsidies could be interpreted as the implicit value of the benefits from reducing environmental externalities associated with landfilling as perceived by local government authorities. We surmise that the difference between mean households' willingness to pay (WTP) for recycling services, via the purchase of a subsidized waste disposal facility, and the above (proxy) value of externalities reflects the difference between private and public perception regarding the negative externality associated with landfilling. We believe that this information is useful in determining the level of subsidization needed (if at all) to sustain any recycling program.The study is unique in the sense that its conclusions are based on revealed household behavior when faced with increased disposal costs, as well as information on WTP responses in hypothetical but related (and, therefore, familiar) scenarios. The article also explores the influence of the subsidization schemes on recycling rates. It was found that with low levels of effort needed to participate in a curbside recycling program, households' participation rates are mainly influenced by economic variables and age, and households are willing to pay a higher price for the recycling scheme. When the required effort level is relatively high, however, households would pay a lower price, and the rate is influenced mainly by their environmental commitment and by economic considerations. We found that in both cases a subsidy would be required in order to achieve an efficient level of recycling. The median price that households are willing to pay for recycling devices is found to be about NIS 370 (New Israeli Shekel, approximately 90 dollars). PMID:15902451

  7. Recycling of titanium alloys in plasma furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrzy?ski, A.; Greze?kowiak, K.; Namy?lak, R.

    2004-03-01

    The scheme of prototype stand for melting reactive metals and alloys and the results of experimental investigation on recycling process of titanium alloy grade TiAl6V4 have been presented in this paper. On the basis of chemical compositions and gases contents analysis in alloy (before and after remelting process) it was shown that application of prototype stand is a very effective way of the recycling process of titanium alloys. Application of the plasma jet generated from inert gas as a heat source inside the melting chamber enables creating the atmosphere with low partial pressure of oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen.

  8. The value of recycling on water conservation.

    SciTech Connect

    Ludi-Herrera, Katlyn D.

    2013-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is working to conserve water through recycling. This report will focus on the water conservation that has been accumulated through the recycling of paper, ceiling tiles, compost, and plastic. It will be discussed the use of water in the process of manufacturing these materials and the amount of water that is used. The way that water is conserved will be reviewed. From the stand point of SNL it will be discussed the amount of material that has been accumulated from 2010 to the first two quarters of 2013 and how much water this material has saved.

  9. Self-protection in dry recycle technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.; Stanford, G.

    1995-12-01

    In response to the INFCE conclusions, the U.S. undertook development of a new dry fuel cycle. Dry recycle processes have been demonstrated to be feasible. Safeguarding such fuel cycles will be dramatically simpler than the PUREX fuel cycle. At every step of the processes, the materials meet the {open_quotes}spent-fuel standard.{close_quotes} The scale is compatible with collocation of power reactors and their recycle facility, eliminating off-site transportation and storage of plutonium-bearing materials. Material diverted either covertly or overtly would be difficult (relative to material available by other means) to process into weapons feedstock.

  10. Fernald scrap metal recycling and beneficial reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Fernald site, formerly the Feed Materials Production Facility, produced uranium metal products to meet defense production requirements for the Department of Energy from 1953 to 1989. In this report is is described how the Fernald scrap metal project has demonstrated that contractor capabilities can be used successfully to recycle large quantities of Department of Energy scrap metal. The project has proven that the {open_quotes}beneficial reuse{close_quotes} concept makes excellent economic sense when a market for recycled products can be identified. Topics covered in this report include the scrap metal pile history, the procurement strategy, scrap metal processing, and a discussion of lessons learned.

  11. Waste water recycling in steam flood operations

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, R.

    1983-03-01

    A pilot waste water recycling project was conducted at Conoco's Cat Canyon Field, Santa Barbara County, California. The project developed a process to treat the field's high silica produced water for reuse in steam generation. The treatment of produced water was found to be more complex than conventional fresh water treatment techniques currently employed in the field. Oil, solids, and iron were each removed from the process stream before softening the water. Softening was then conducted in a two-stage process consisting of strong acid primary softeners followed by a weak acid polisher. Continuous operation of this pilot recycling plant virtually eliminated scale deposition inside a test steam generator.

  12. Recyclization reactions of 1-alkylpyrimidinium salts

    PubMed Central

    Vardanyan, Ruben S.; Danagulyan, Gevork G.; Mkrtchyan, Armen D.; Hruby, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of 4-amino-2-benzyl-1-methyl-5-ethoxycarbonylpyrimidinium iodide (3) with alcoholic methylamine resulted in the formation of the methylimine of 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methylamino-5-phenylpyridine-3-carbaldehyde (5). Heating of the same pyrimidinium salt in benzylamine gave a mixture of products of two C–C recyclizations: 2-benzyl-4-benzylamino-5-carbamoylpyrimidine (7) and the benzylimine of 4-amino-2-benzyl-6-benzylaminopyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde (8). The reaction of 2-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5-ethoxycarbonylpyrimidinium iodide (10) with KOH ethanolic solution gave a single product of C–C-recyclization: 2-amino-5-acetyl-4-hydroxypyrimidine (11). PMID:25400328

  13. A comparison of public policies for lead recycling

    E-print Network

    Sigman, Hilary

    1992-01-01

    Policies that encourage recycling may be used to reduce environmental costs from waste disposal when direct restrictions on disposal are difficult to enforce. Four recycling policies have been advanced: (i) taxes on the ...

  14. BLEACHABILITY OF RECYCLED FIBERS DEINKED WITH ENZYME PREPARATIONS

    E-print Network

    Abubakr, Said

    BLEACHABILITY OF RECYCLED FIBERS DEINKED WITH ENZYME PREPARATIONS Marguerite Sykes John Klungness the recycling emphasis from ink removal to color removal. Our research indicates that enzymes can available enzyme preparations used for deinking office wastepaper on pulp brightness and bleachability

  15. HOUSEHOLD WILLINGNESS TO RECYCLE ELECTRONIC WASTE - An Application to California

    E-print Network

    Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Nixon, Hilary; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Shapiro, Andrew A

    2006-01-01

    that important predictors of the willingness to recycle e-recycle is best explained by variables other than political affiliation, and education is an importantrecycle e- waste. Living in a rural community, is even more important

  16. Relationship between composition and performance of asphalt recycling agents

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Gerald Dean

    1993-01-01

    This research was aimed at determining the effects of recycling agent composition on the performance of recycled asphalt with aging. To accomplish this, five experiments were performed, in which blends were produced with controlled compositions...

  17. Manganese recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the flow and processing of manganese within the U.S. economy in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which manganese is recycled. Manganese was used mostly as an alloying agent in alloys in which it was a minor component. Manganese was recycled mostly within scrap of iron and steel. A small amount was recycled within aluminum used beverage cans. Very little manganese was recycled from materials being recovered specifically for their manganese content. For the United States in 1998, 218,000 metric tons of manganese was estimated to have been recycled from old scrap, of which 96% was from iron and steel scrap. Efficiency of recycling was estimated as 53% and recycling rate as 37%. Metallurgical loss of manganese was estimated to be about 1.7 times that recycled. This loss was mostly into slags from iron and steel production, from which recovery of manganese has yet to be shown economically feasible.

  18. Aluminum recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plunkert, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the flow of aluminum from production through its uses with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2000. This materials flow study includes a description of aluminum supply and demand factors for the United States to illustrate the extent of aluminum recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding the system of materials flow from source to ultimate disposition can assist in improving the management of natural resources in a manner that is compatible with sound environmental practices. In 2000, the old scrap recycling efficiency for aluminum was estimated to be 42 percent. Almost 60 percent of the aluminum that was recycled in 2000 came from new scrap, and the recycling rate was estimated to be 36 percent. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

  19. 16 CFR 260.13 - Recycled content claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...content from rebuilt parts),” or “Recycled Transmission (85% recycled content from rebuilt parts).” Given consumer perception in the automotive context, these claims are not deceptive. 51 The term “rebuilding” means that the dealer...

  20. 16 CFR 260.13 - Recycled content claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...content from rebuilt parts),” or “Recycled Transmission (85% recycled content from rebuilt parts).” Given consumer perception in the automotive context, these claims are not deceptive. 51 The term “rebuilding” means that the dealer...

  1. Business plan for the Solar Recycle-o-Sort

    E-print Network

    Kalk, David O. (David Oliver)

    2008-01-01

    There exists much room for growth in recycling participation with almost 1 in every 4 Americans still not recycling at all. In many communities this fraction is significantly higher, with low awareness of the benefits of ...

  2. [Analysis of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and oligomers in recycled polyethylene terephthalate].

    PubMed

    Ohkado, Yuka; Kawamura, Yoko; Mutsuga, Motoh; Tamura, Hiro-omi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Formaldehyde (FA), acetaldehyde (AA) and oligomers in recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were analyzed by HPLC. All of the physically recycled PET contained detectable levels of FA, AA and oligomers, and the levels were almost the same as in used bottles. Most superclean-like and chemically recycled PET contained lower levels than new pellets. These compounds showed no decrease upon physical recycling, but showed a marked decrease upon superclean-like recycling. In PET sheets made using physically recycled PET, FA was decreased, though AA was increased by the sheeting process as same as new one. FA, AA and oligomers originated from PET resin and their levels in recycled products were almost equivalent to those in new products. It was concluded that there is no particular safety concern about their presence in recycled PET. PMID:16305177

  3. Study of recycling impurity retention in Alcator C-mod

    E-print Network

    Chung, Taekyun

    2004-01-01

    This work was aimed at reproducing experimental results in impurity compression of Ar, as well as the screening of recycling and non-recycling impurities from reaching the core plasma. As part of the study the code was ...

  4. Recycling used lubricating oil at the deep space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison is made of the lubricating oil recycling methods used in the Deep Space Station 43 test and the basic requirements which could favor recycling of oil for continuous reuse. The basic conditions for successful recycling are compared to the conditions that exist in the Deep Space Network (DSN). This comparison shows that to recycle used oil in the DSN would not only be expensive but also nonproductive.

  5. Multivalent immune complexes divert FcRn to lysosomes by exclusion from recycling sorting tubules

    PubMed Central

    Weflen, Andrew W.; Baier, Nina; Tang, Qing-Juan; Van den Hof, Malon; Blumberg, Richard S.; Lencer, Wayne I.; Massol, Ramiro H.

    2013-01-01

    The neonatal receptor for immunoglobulin G (IgG; FcRn) prevents IgG degradation by efficiently sorting IgG into recycling endosomes and away from lysosomes. When bound to IgG-opsonized antigen complexes, however, FcRn traffics cargo into lysosomes, where antigen processing can occur. Here we address the mechanism of sorting when FcRn is bound to multivalent IgG-opsonized antigens. We find that only the unbound receptor or FcRn bound to monomeric IgG is sorted into recycling tubules emerging from early endosomes. Cross-linked FcRn is never visualized in tubules containing the unbound receptor. Similar results are found for transferrin receptor, suggesting a general mechanism of action. Deletion or replacement of the FcRn cytoplasmic tail does not prevent diversion of trafficking to lysosomes upon cross-linking. Thus physical properties of the lumenal ligand–receptor complex appear to act as key determinants for sorting between the recycling and lysosomal pathways by regulating FcRn entry into recycling tubules. PMID:23741050

  6. A Preferentially Segregated Recycling Vesicle Pool of Limited Size Supports Neurotransmission in Native Central Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Vincenzo; Burden, Jemima J.; Thorpe, Julian R.; Smith, Ikuko T.; Smith, Spencer L.; Häusser, Michael; Branco, Tiago; Staras, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Summary At small central synapses, efficient turnover of vesicles is crucial for stimulus-driven transmission, but how the structure of this recycling pool relates to its functional role remains unclear. Here we characterize the organizational principles of functional vesicles at native hippocampal synapses with nanoscale resolution using fluorescent dye labeling and electron microscopy. We show that the recycling pool broadly scales with the magnitude of the total vesicle pool, but its average size is small (?45 vesicles), highly variable, and regulated by CDK5/calcineurin activity. Spatial analysis demonstrates that recycling vesicles are preferentially arranged near the active zone and this segregation is abolished by actin stabilization, slowing the rate of activity-driven exocytosis. Our approach reveals a similarly biased recycling pool distribution at synapses in visual cortex activated by sensory stimulation in vivo. We suggest that in small native central synapses, efficient release of a limited pool of vesicles relies on their favored spatial positioning within the terminal. PMID:23141069

  7. An ESCRT–spastin interaction promotes fission of recycling tubules from the endosome

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Rachel; Lumb, Jennifer H.; Fassier, Coralie; Connell, James W.; Ten Martin, Daniel; Seaman, Matthew N.J.; Hazan, Jamilé

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms coordinating endosomal degradation and recycling are poorly understood, as are the cellular roles of microtubule (MT) severing. We show that cells lacking the MT-severing protein spastin had increased tubulation of and defective receptor sorting through endosomal tubular recycling compartments. Spastin required the ability to sever MTs and to interact with ESCRT-III (a complex controlling cargo degradation) proteins to regulate endosomal tubulation. Cells lacking IST1 (increased sodium tolerance 1), an endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) component to which spastin binds, also had increased endosomal tubulation. Our results suggest that inclusion of IST1 into the ESCRT complex allows recruitment of spastin to promote fission of recycling tubules from the endosome. Thus, we reveal a novel cellular role for MT severing and identify a mechanism by which endosomal recycling can be coordinated with the degradative machinery. Spastin is mutated in the axonopathy hereditary spastic paraplegia. Zebrafish spinal motor axons depleted of spastin or IST1 also had abnormal endosomal tubulation, so we propose this phenotype is important for axonal degeneration. PMID:23897888

  8. Designing Aluminum Alloys for a Recycling Friendly World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subodh K. Das

    2006-01-01

    Recycling aluminum alloys has been shown to provide major economic benefits, as a result it is appropriate for the aluminum industry and the United States as a whole to identify, develop, and implement all technologies that will optimize the benefits of recycling. This paper will focus primarily alloy design for optimizing the reuse of recycled metal; this is both the

  9. The development of recycle-friendly automotive aluminum alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subodh K. Das; J. A. S. Green; J. Gilbert Kaufman

    2007-01-01

    The continuing growth of aluminum alloy usage in transportation applications, notably passenger automobiles and minivans, and the demonstrated economic benefits of recycling aluminum-rich vehicles increase the need to seriously consider the desirability of designing recycling-friendly alloys. This article focuses on that aspect of the recycling process for passenger vehicles. The goals are to illustrate the opportunities afforded by identifying and

  10. Aging characteristics of recycled ACSR wires for distribution lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju-Yong Kim; Sang-Joon Kim; Il-Keun Song; Jae-Hong Han

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results on the recycling aluminum wire used in the actual field. Several tests were carried out with the recycled aluminum wires to prove that they are reusable. Mechanical, electrical and oxidation properties of recycled and new ACSR 160 mm2 were compared after 7.5 years service aging in the salt contaminated areas of the Korean peninsular

  11. Economic comparison of concrete recycling: A case study approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivian W. Y. Tam

    2008-01-01

    Recycling of construction material helps saving the limited landfill space. Among various types of materials, concrete waste accounts for about 50% of the total waste generation. The current practice for dumping construction materials to landfills generates a significant quantity of waste from construction sites. Recycling concrete waste as recycled aggregate is one of the methods to reduce the concrete waste.

  12. Hot-mix recycling of asphalt concrete airfield pavements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tere A. DeMoss

    2005-01-01

    The hot-mix recycling of existing airfield pavements is cost effective and can produce asphalt concrete mixtures with material properties equivalent to those of new materials for airfield pavements. Recycled pavement mixes from four different airfields were investigated for performance and current material properties compared to the original or “as constructed” properties. Pavement samples were obtained from each recycled pavement. Properties

  13. Recycle of modified fly ash from furnace sorbent injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kresovich; R. D. Stern; E. A. Stokes; C. C. Clark; R. S. Dahlin

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses recycle of modified fly ash from furnace sorbent injection.According to the authors, significant cost savings can be realized by use of a recycle process in conjunction with furnace sorbent injection. The largest savings appear to result from the replacement of an expensive sorbent with a less costly feedstock (e.g., replacing hydrated lime with coarse limestone). However, recycle

  14. Assessing the Performance of Solid Waste Recycling Programs Over Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Feiock; Lesley Graham Kalan

    2001-01-01

    This article examines variation in the success of solid waste recycling programs in Florida based on the administrative design of recycling programs, state-level incentives and constraints, economic resources, and citizens’ environmental support. After describing trends in solid waste programs and recycling success in Florida counties from 1991 through 1996, the authors estimate a model to explain variation in the success

  15. Beneficial use of recycled materials in concrete mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick L. Maier; Stephan A. Durham

    The need to incorporate recycled materials in building products is becoming more important than ever before. The use of recycled materials in concrete mixtures creates landfill avoidance and decreases the depletion of virgin raw materials. The basis for this research was to investigate the effects of using recycled materials, in varying amounts, on the fresh and hardened concrete properties. The

  16. Atmospheric Moisture Recycling: Role of Advection and Local Evaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin E. Trenberth

    1999-01-01

    An approximate formulation of how much moisture that precipitates out comes from local evaporation versus horizontal transport, referred to as ''recycling,'' has allowed new estimates of recycling to be mapped globally as a function of length scale. The recycling is formulated in terms of the ''intensity of the hydrological cycle'' I, which is alternatively referred to as a ''precipitation efficiency''

  17. Using OWL Ontologies Selective Waste Sorting and Recycling

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Using OWL Ontologies for Selective Waste Sorting and Recycling Arnab Sinha and Paul Couderc INRIA for better recycling of materials. Our motive for using ontologies is for representing and rea- soning, recyclable materials, N-ary relations 1 Introduction Today Pervasive computing is gradually entering people

  18. Archetypes: Durer's Rhino and the Recycling of Images

    E-print Network

    Boyd, John P.

    Chapter 17 Archetypes: D¨urer's Rhino and the Recycling of Images 17.1 Introduction: Aref's Rule Rule-of-Thumb 5 (Aref's Rule) Never publish the same graph more than once. As we shall below, recycling illustrate when recycling of previously published images is good, and also when and how it can go

  19. Recycling Computed Answers in Rewrite Systems for Abduction Fangzhen Lin #

    E-print Network

    Wu, Dekai

    Recycling Computed Answers in Rewrite Systems for Abduction Fangzhen Lin # http computed answers can be recycled arises. A yes answer could result in sub­ stantial savings of repeated tends to be­ lieve that the answer should be no, since recycling is a form of adding information

  20. Development/Plasticity/Repair Identification of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Recycling

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    Development/Plasticity/Repair Identification of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Recycling and Its, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 In the CNS, receptor recycling is critical for synaptic plasticity; however, the recycling of receptors has never been observed at peripheral synapses. Using a novel

  1. Locating a Recycling Center: The General Density Case Jannett Highfill

    E-print Network

    Mou, Libin

    Locating a Recycling Center: The General Density Case Jannett Highfill Department of Economics) 677-3374. #12;2 Locating a Recycling Center: The General Density Case Abstract: The present paper considers a municipality that has a landfill (fixed in location) and plans to optimally locate a "recycling

  2. Pesticide Container Recycling "It's Just The Right Thing To Do!"

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Pesticide Container Recycling "It's Just The Right Thing To Do!" Some of you may recall that when I Container Recycling Programs in counties around the state. Highlands County was one of the first counties to establish a Pesticide Container Recycling Collection Center (which is still in operation). I set up twenty

  3. Production and recycling of oceanic crust in the early Earth

    E-print Network

    van Thienen, Peter

    Chapter 6 Production and recycling of oceanic crust in the early Earth Abstract Because in the production and recycling of oceanic crust: (1) Small scale (x · 100km) convection involving the lower crust have been different from those in the present-day Earth. Crustal recycling must however have taken

  4. 2014 International and Western States In-Place Recycling Conference

    E-print Network

    2014 International and Western States In-Place Recycling Conference August 5­7, 2014 Denver and the road to revitalizing in-place recycling technologies. · Join this prestigious forum especially designed/research agencies to discuss the status of in-place recycling. · Experience what we know today for each form of in

  5. The Oil Saving Efficiency of Recycling Technology for Waste Plastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toyoaki Washida

    After the first oil crisis many companies in Japan started on projects to recycle waste plastics by transforming them into oil. These projects, however, were disrupted after the fall of oil price in the successive periods of the oil crisis. This disruption was mainly caused by inefficiency of the recycling technology in those days. Recently a new technology for recycling,

  6. Material Recycling of Waste Plastics for Home Appliances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Matsuo; A. Fujita; M. Mukuda; Y. Iseki; S. Ogasawara; T. Takagi; T. Ishii

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the plastics recycling process consisting of mixing, washing and pelletizing on the mechanical properties and the coefficients of variation of the recycled polypropylene (PP) were evaluated. The tensile, bending and impact properties of the PP recycled from the waste refrigerator vegetable cases and washing machine water tubs were measured. There were no differences in the static modulus

  7. RDS and Recycling Waste Diversion in Food Prep

    E-print Network

    Awtar, Shorya

    rather than trash Saves landfill space, avoids water pollution and makes great compost!! #12;Food Waste is fun!!!!!!!!! #12;Gotta Question? Gotta Comment? Need Help? Call UM Waste Management Services (76RDS and Recycling Waste Diversion in Food Prep Setting #12;Why Recycle? Recycling saves resources

  8. Recycled dehydrated lithosphere observed in plume-influenced

    E-print Network

    Langmuir, Charles H.

    Recycled dehydrated lithosphere observed in plume-influenced mid-ocean-ridge basalt Jacqueline Eaby the deep mantle through the subduction and recycling of hydrated oceanic lithosphere. Here we address the question of recycling of water into the deep mantle by characterizing the volatile contents of different

  9. Job Position Description Job Title: Groundskeeper/Recycler

    E-print Network

    Moore, Paul A.

    Job Position Description Job Title: Groundskeeper/Recycler A. Main purpose of the job: Perform grounds keeping and recycling duties. B. Primary responsibilities or key duties of the job (tasks performed regularly): 1. Pick up, transport and unload trash and recycling into appropriate

  10. Commitment Approach to Motivating Community Recycling: New Zealand Curbside Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce, Wendy J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    In a New Zealand community, 200 households made commitment to recycle and 201 did not; 198 were asked to pay for recycling bins, 203 were not. A control group received only recycling information. Verbal commitment significantly increased participation. Difficulties in administering the financial incentive made it impossible to determine effect on…

  11. Waste Toolkit A-Z How can I recycle computers?

    E-print Network

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Computers How can I recycle computers? The University policy for computer disposal is outlined in detail, here: www.ict.ox.ac.uk/oxford/disposal/index.xml Recycle/reuse 1. Before If the computer can't be reused, it should be recycled by an authorised contractor who will guarantee that all

  12. Recycling and Waste Diversion Effectiveness: Evidence from Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida Ferrara; Paul Missios

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between recycling policy options and recycling behavior to study the most effective methods of diverting post-consumer waste from landfills. We employ data from a unique, micro-data set collected from households in communities across Ontario, Canada. We estimate the relationships between several commonly recycled materials (newsprint, glass, plastics, aluminum cans, tin cans, cardboard, and

  13. FEASIBILITY OF TARGET MATERIAL RECYCLING AS WASTE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVE

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    FEASIBILITY OF TARGET MATERIAL RECYCLING AS WASTE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVE L. EL-GUEBALY,* P. WILSON on the amount of waste generated relative to the nuclear island, the strategy to solve the recycling prob- lem-level waste (Class A) and offers attractive design and economics features. Recycling reduces the target waste

  14. Recycling rates of waste home appliances in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Hsu; C.-M. Kuo

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a calculation of recycling rates of waste home appliances in Taiwan, for the EPA to amend these rates in order to increase the recycling efficiency. The recycling rate is calculated by a formula according to the statistical results obtained through: (1) an estimation of domestic use of home appliances using time series

  15. REVIEW OF STRATEGY FOR RECYCLING AND REUSE OF WASTE MATERIALS

    E-print Network

    Hill, Gary

    REVIEW OF STRATEGY FOR RECYCLING AND REUSE OF WASTE MATERIALS B J Sealey G J Hill Dr P S Phillips to reuse or recycle the waste that is produced, but to minimise the amount of waste that is produced. In this paper we consider the ready-mixed concrete plant waste stream. Minimise Reuse Recycle Dispose Figure 1

  16. OFFICE WASTE DATA 2010 Recyclable Materials 1680 tons / 62%

    E-print Network

    Guillas, Serge

    OFFICE WASTE DATA 2010 Recyclable Materials 1680 tons / 62% Landfill 1080 tons / 38% Electricals 36 the mechanical processing of general waste using screens, shredders and separators to recover recyclable WASTE Is your waste paper really confidential? Could some of it be disposed of as recyclable paper

  17. PLACEMENT OF OUTDOOR RECYCLING CONTAINERS AROUND UBC CAMPUS

    E-print Network

    Waste Management holds several recycling programs to promote waste and litter reduction. Its waste management fleets collect recycling items such as paper products, cans and bottles, e-waste such as computer equipment, and compostable waste such as food, animal and yard waste. This new outdoor recycling container

  18. Waste Toolkit A-Z Food waste (recycling on-site)

    E-print Network

    Melham, Tom

    Waste Toolkit A-Z Food waste (recycling on-site) How can I recycle food waste on-site? Recycling to be recycled. While this is better than sending waste to landfill, there is a more sustainable way to recycle and parks. See examples of Tidy Planet's customers recycling on-site: www.tidyplanet.co.uk/our-news Short

  19. Recycling GTL catalysts—A new challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Brumby; Michel Verhelst; Daniel Cheret

    2005-01-01

    The Fischer Tropsch synthesis of motor fuel from natural gas on a large scale may become significant in the near future for economic and environmental reasons. This process requires solid-phase catalysts containing large amounts of cobalt (catalyst) and traces of platinum group metals or rhenium (promoter). The economic data presented in this paper shows why recycling of those metals will

  20. Impediments to refractory recycling decision-making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halvard E. Nystrom; William R. Kehr; James Pollock

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on organizational impediments to the successful implementation of industrial recycling programs. Even if a technologically viable and mutually beneficial solution were to exist, there are a number of organizational impediments that make it unlikely to succeed unless the benefits are very large and apparent. These impediments stem from the difficulty in identifying potential partners and involving the