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1

Retromer guides STxB and CD8-M6PR from early to recycling endosomes, EHD1 guides STxB from recycling endosome to Golgi.  

PubMed

Retrograde trafficking transports proteins, lipids and toxins from the plasma membrane to the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To reach the Golgi, these cargos must transit the endosomal system, consisting of early endosomes (EE), recycling endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes. All cargos pass through EE, but may take different routes to the Golgi. Retromer-dependent cargos bypass the late endosomes to reach the Golgi. We compared how two very different retromer-dependent cargos negotiate the endosomal sorting system. Shiga toxin B, bound to the external layer of the plasma membrane, and chimeric CD8-mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR), which is anchored via a transmembrane domain. Both appear to pass through the recycling endosome. Ablation of the recycling endosome diverted both of these cargos to an aberrant compartment and prevented them from reaching the Golgi. Once in the recycling endosome, Shiga toxin required EHD1 to traffic to the TGN, while the CI-M6PR was not significantly dependent on EHD1. Knockdown of retromer components left cargo in the EE, suggesting that it is required for retrograde exit from this compartment. This work establishes the recycling endosome as a required step in retrograde traffic of at least these two retromer-dependent cargos. Along this pathway, retromer is associated with EE to recycling endosome traffic, while EHD1 is associated with recycling endosome to TGN traffic of STxB. PMID:22540229

McKenzie, Jenna E; Raisley, Brent; Zhou, Xin; Naslavsky, Naava; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Caplan, Steve; Sheff, David

2012-08-01

2

Arl13b regulates endocytic recycling traffic  

PubMed Central

Intracellular recycling pathways play critical roles in internalizing membrane and fluid phase cargo and in balancing the inflow and outflow of membrane and cell surface molecules. To identify proteins involved in the regulation of endocytic recycling, we used an shRNA trafficking library and screened for changes in the surface expression of CD1a antigen-presenting molecules that follow an endocytic recycling route. We found that silencing of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf)-like small GTPase Arl13b led to a decrease in CD1a surface expression, diminished CD1a function, and delayed CD1a recycling, suggesting that Arl13b is involved in the regulation of endocytic recycling traffic. Arl13b appears to be required for the major route of endocytic trafficking, causing clustering of early endosomes and leading to the accumulation of endocytic cargo. Moreover, Arl13b colocalized with markers of the endocytic recycling pathway followed by CD1a, namely Arf6 and Rab22a. We also detected an interaction between Arl13b and the actin cytoskeleton. Arl13b was previously implicated in cilia formation and function. Our present results indicate a previously unidentified role for Arl13b in endocytic recycling traffic and suggest a link between Arl13b function and the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:23223633

Barral, Duarte C.; Garg, Salil; Casalou, Cristina; Watts, Gerald F. M.; Sandoval, Jose L.; Ramalho, Jose S.; Hsu, Victor W.; Brenner, Michael B.

2012-01-01

3

REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-01-29

4

AMPH-1/Amphiphysin/Bin1 functions with RME-1/Ehd in endocytic recycling  

PubMed Central

RME-1/EHD1 family proteins are key residents of the recycling endosome required for endosome to plasma membrane transport in C. elegans and mammals. Recent studies suggest parallels of the RME-1/EHD proteins to the Dynamin GTPase superfamily of mechanochemical pinchases that promote membrane fission. Here we show that that endogenous C. elegans AMPH-1, the only C. elegans member of Amphiphysin/BIN1 family of BAR-domain proteins, colocalizes with RME-1 on recycling endosomes in vivo, that amph-1 deletion mutants are defective in recycling endosome morphology and function, and that binding of AMPH-1 NPF (D/E) sequences to the RME-1 EH-domain promotes the recycling of transmembrane cargo. We also show a requirement for human BIN1/Amphyphysin 2 in EHD1-regulated endocytic recycling. In vitro we find that the purified recombinant AMPH-1/RME-1 complexes produce short, coated, membrane tubules that are qualitatively distinct from those produced by either protein alone. Our results indicate that AMPH-1 and RME-1 cooperatively regulate endocytic recycling, likely through functions required for the production of cargo carriers exiting the recycling endosome for the cell surface. PMID:19915558

Pant, Saumya; Sharma, Mahak; Patel, Kruti; Caplan, Steve; Carr, Chavela M.; Grant, Barth D.

2009-01-01

5

Using Established Regulations to Recycle Contaminated Metals  

SciTech Connect

DOE restoration projects require acceptable standards for processing volumetrically contaminated metals: • NRC has no regulations addressing recycling of scrap metal containing residual volumetric radioactivity. • DOE is currently restricting outside radioactive scrap metal sales; however, previous Fernald and Ohio State clean-ups have released metals with measurable levels of radioactivity into the open market. • Public sensitivity to the subject of non-governmental disposal of materials with residual radioactivity was heightened with the Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) issue. There are no clear guidelines for free release of volumetrically contaminated material.

Loewen, Eric Paul

2000-09-01

6

OsCOL4 is a constitutive flowering repressor upstream of Ehd1 and downstream of OsphyB.  

PubMed

Plants recognize environmental factors to determine flowering time. CONSTANS (CO) plays a central role in the photoperiod flowering pathway of Arabidopsis, and CO protein stability is modulated by photoreceptors. In rice, Hd1, an ortholog of CO, acts as a flowering promoter, and phytochromes repress Hd1 expression. Here, we investigated the functioning of OsCOL4, a member of the CONSTANS-like (COL) family in rice. OsCOL4 null mutants flowered early under short or long days. In contrast, OsCOL4 activation-tagging mutants (OsCOL4-D) flowered late in either environment. Transcripts of Ehd1, Hd3a, and RFT1 were increased in the oscol4 mutants, but reduced in the OsCOL4-D mutants. This finding indicates that OsCOL4 is a constitutive repressor functioning upstream of Ehd1. By comparison, levels of Hd1, OsID1, OsMADS50, OsMADS51, and OsMADS56 transcripts were not significantly changed in oscol4 or OsCOL4-D, suggesting that OsCOL4 functions independently from previously reported flowering pathways. In osphyB mutants, OsCOL4 expression was decreased and osphyB oscol4 double mutants flowered at the same time as the osphyB single mutants, indicating OsCOL4 functions downstream of OsphyB. We also present evidence for two independent pathways through which OsPhyB controls flowering time. These pathways are: (i) night break-sensitive, which does not need OsCOL4; and (ii) night break-insensitive, in which OsCOL4 functions between OsphyB and Ehd1. PMID:20409004

Lee, Yang-Seok; Jeong, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Yeon; Yi, Jakyung; Ryu, Choong-Hwan; Kim, Song L; Jeong, Hee J; Choi, Sang C; Jin, Ping; Yang, Jungil; Cho, Lae-Hyeon; Choi, Heebak; An, Gynheung

2010-07-01

7

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be learning all about recycling and asking questions as you learn more about recycling. Afterward, you will be making recycling bins that we will use in our classroom. Click on each of the different links and research about recycling. Find out what recycling is, what can be recycled, and why we should recycle. As you find information, add it to the "describing wheel" that is given to you by Ms. Pollak. Answer the main question: What is recycling? Come ...

sgp0002

2010-03-27

8

Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

Sinker, Barbara

1986-01-01

9

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What objects can be recycled? 1. Click on link. Watch video. Recycle Guy Video 2. Click on link. Watch video. Talking Trash Video 3. Click on link. Watch video. Recycling At School Video 4. Click on link. Play game. Star Fall Recycling Game 5. Click on link. Play game. National Geographic Recycling Game 6. Click on link. Ask Ms. Owens how to do it. Things We Recycle Chart 7. Please see Miss Owens for instructions on the following ...

2011-04-07

10

Recycle  

SciTech Connect

;Contents: The Problem; What`s In Our Trash; Where Does Trash Go; Where Does Our Trash Go; The Solution; What Is Recycling; Why Should We Recycle; A National Goal of 25%; What Can We Recycle; What Do We Do With Our Recyclables.

NONE

1988-10-01

11

Loss of SNAP29 impairs endocytic recycling and cell motility.  

PubMed

Intracellular membrane trafficking depends on the ordered formation and consumption of transport intermediates and requires that membranes fuse with each other in a tightly regulated and highly specific manner. Membrane anchored SNAREs assemble into SNARE complexes that bring membranes together to promote fusion. SNAP29 is a ubiquitous synaptosomal-associated SNARE protein. It interacts with several syntaxins and with the EH domain containing protein EHD1. Loss of functional SNAP29 results in CEDNIK syndrome (Cerebral Dysgenesis, Neuropathy, Ichthyosis and Keratoderma). Using fibroblast cell lines derived from CEDNIK patients, we show that SNAP29 mediates endocytic recycling of transferrin and beta1-integrin. Impaired beta1-integrin recycling affected cell motility, as reflected by changes in cell spreading and wound healing. No major changes were detected in exocytosis of VSVG protein from the Golgi apparatus, although the Golgi system acquired a dispersed morphology in SNAP29 deficient cells. Our results emphasize the importance of SNAP29 mediated membrane fusion in endocytic recycling and consequently, in cell motility. PMID:20305790

Rapaport, Debora; Lugassy, Yevgenia; Sprecher, Eli; Horowitz, Mia

2010-01-01

12

Loss of SNAP29 Impairs Endocytic Recycling and Cell Motility  

PubMed Central

Intracellular membrane trafficking depends on the ordered formation and consumption of transport intermediates and requires that membranes fuse with each other in a tightly regulated and highly specific manner. Membrane anchored SNAREs assemble into SNARE complexes that bring membranes together to promote fusion. SNAP29 is a ubiquitous synaptosomal-associated SNARE protein. It interacts with several syntaxins and with the EH domain containing protein EHD1. Loss of functional SNAP29 results in CEDNIK syndrome (Cerebral Dysgenesis, Neuropathy, Ichthyosis and Keratoderma). Using fibroblast cell lines derived from CEDNIK patients, we show that SNAP29 mediates endocytic recycling of transferrin and ?1-integrin. Impaired ?1-integrin recycling affected cell motility, as reflected by changes in cell spreading and wound healing. No major changes were detected in exocytosis of VSVG protein from the Golgi apparatus, although the Golgi system acquired a dispersed morphology in SNAP29 deficient cells. Our results emphasize the importance of SNAP29 mediated membrane fusion in endocytic recycling and consequently, in cell motility. PMID:20305790

Rapaport, Debora; Lugassy, Yevgenia; Sprecher, Eli; Horowitz, Mia

2010-01-01

13

40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section...260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. (a)...

2013-07-01

14

40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section...260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. (a)...

2011-07-01

15

40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section...260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. (a)...

2012-07-01

16

40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section...260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. (a)...

2010-07-01

17

40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...reclamation must be able to demonstrate that the recycling is legitimate. Hazardous...

2012-07-01

18

40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...reclamation must be able to demonstrate that the recycling is legitimate. Hazardous...

2013-07-01

19

40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...reclamation must be able to demonstrate that the recycling is legitimate. Hazardous...

2011-07-01

20

Src Regulates Sequence-Dependent Beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Recycling via Cortactin Phosphorylation.  

PubMed

The recycling of internalized signaling receptors, which has direct functional consequences, is subject to multiple sequence and biochemical requirements. Why signaling receptors recycle via a specialized pathway, unlike many other proteins that recycle by bulk, is a fundamental unanswered question. Here, we show that these specialized pathways allow selective control of signaling receptor recycling by heterologous signaling. Using assays to visualize receptor recycling in living cells, we show that the recycling of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (B2AR), a prototypic signaling receptor, is regulated by Src family kinases. The target of Src is cortactin, an essential factor for B2AR sorting into specialized recycling microdomains on the endosome. Phosphorylation of a single cortactin residue, Y466, regulates the rate of fission of B2AR recycling vesicles from these microdomains and, therefore, the rate of delivery of B2AR to the cell surface. Together, our results indicate that actin-stabilized microdomains that mediate signaling receptor recycling can serve as a functional point of convergence for crosstalk between signaling pathways. PMID:25077552

Vistein, Rachel; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A

2014-11-01

21

Myo1c regulates lipid raft recycling to control cell spreading, migration and Salmonella invasion  

PubMed Central

A balance between endocytosis and membrane recycling regulates the composition and dynamics of the plasma membrane. Internalization and recycling of cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched lipid rafts is an actin-dependent process that is mediated by a specialized Arf6-dependent recycling pathway. Here, we identify myosin1c (Myo1c) as the first motor protein that drives the formation of recycling tubules emanating from the perinuclear recycling compartment. We demonstrate that the single-headed Myo1c is a lipid-raft-associated motor protein that is specifically involved in recycling of lipid-raft-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cargo proteins and their delivery to the cell surface. Whereas Myo1c overexpression increases the levels of these raft proteins at the cell surface, in cells depleted of Myo1c function through RNA interference or overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant, these tubular transport carriers of the recycling pathway are lost and GPI-linked raft markers are trapped in the perinuclear recycling compartment. Intriguingly, Myo1c only selectively promotes delivery of lipid raft membranes back to the cell surface and is not required for recycling of cargo, such as the transferrin receptor, which is mediated by parallel pathways. The profound defect in lipid raft trafficking in Myo1c-knockdown cells has a dramatic impact on cell spreading, cell migration and cholesterol-dependent Salmonella invasion; processes that require lipid raft transport to the cell surface to deliver signaling components and the extra membrane essential for cell surface expansion and remodeling. Thus, Myo1c plays a crucial role in the recycling of lipid raft membrane and proteins that regulate plasma membrane plasticity, cell motility and pathogen entry. PMID:22328521

Brandstaetter, Hemma; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

2012-01-01

22

Reggies/flotillins interact with Rab11a and SNX4 at the tubulovesicular recycling compartment and function in transferrin receptor and E-cadherin trafficking  

PubMed Central

The lipid raft proteins reggie-1 and -2 (flotillins) are implicated in membrane protein trafficking but exactly how has been elusive. We find that reggie-1 and -2 associate with the Rab11a, SNX4, and EHD1–decorated tubulovesicular recycling compartment in HeLa cells and that reggie-1 directly interacts with Rab11a and SNX4. Short hairpin RNA–mediated down-regulation of reggie-1 (and -2) in HeLa cells reduces association of Rab11a with tubular structures and impairs recycling of the transferrin–transferrin receptor (TfR) complex to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of constitutively active Rab11a rescues TfR recycling in reggie-deficient HeLa cells. Similarly, in a Ca2+ switch assay in reggie-depleted A431 cells, internalized E-cadherin is not efficiently recycled to the plasma membrane upon Ca2+ repletion. E-cadherin recycling is rescued, however, by overexpression of constitutively active Rab11a or SNX4 in reggie-deficient A431 cells. This suggests that the function of reggie-1 in sorting and recycling occurs in association with Rab11a and SNX4. Of interest, impaired recycling in reggie-deficient cells leads to de novo E-cadherin biosynthesis and cell contact reformation, showing that cells have ways to compensate the loss of reggies. Together our results identify reggie-1 as a regulator of the Rab11a/SNX4-controlled sorting and recycling pathway, which is, like reggies, evolutionarily conserved. PMID:23825023

Solis, Gonzalo P.; Hulsbusch, Nikola; Radon, Yvonne; Katanaev, Vladimir L.; Plattner, Helmut; Stuermer, Claudia A. O.

2013-01-01

23

ARH directs megalin to the endocytic recycling compartment to regulate its proteolysis and gene expression  

PubMed Central

Receptors internalized by endocytosis can return to the plasma membrane (PM) directly from early endosomes (EE; fast recycling) or they can traffic from EE to the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) and recycle from there (slow recycling). How receptors are sorted for trafficking along these two pathways remains unclear. Here we show that autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) is required for trafficking of megalin, a member of the LDL receptor family, from EE to the ERC by coupling it to dynein; in the absence of ARH, megalin returns directly to the PM from EE via the connecdenn2/Rab35 fast recycling pathway. Binding of ARH to the endocytic adaptor AP-2 prevents fast recycling of megalin. ARH-mediated trafficking of megalin to the ERC is necessary for ?-secretase mediated cleavage of megalin and release of a tail fragment that mediates transcriptional repression. These results identify a novel mechanism for sorting receptors for trafficking to the ERC and link ERC trafficking to regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) and expression of megalin. PMID:23836931

Shah, Mehul; Baterina, Oscar Y.; Taupin, Vanessa

2013-01-01

24

The Stoned Proteins Regulate Synaptic Vesicle Recycling in the Presynaptic Terminal  

E-print Network

The Stoned Proteins Regulate Synaptic Vesicle Recycling in the Presynaptic Terminal Tim Fergestad The Drosophila stoned locus was identified 25 years ago on the basis of stress-sensitive behavioral mutants (Grigliatti et al., 1973). The locus is dicistronic and encodes two distinct pro- teins, stoned A and stoned B

Broadie, Kendal S.

25

Eps homology domain endosomal transport proteins differentially localize to the neuromuscular junction  

PubMed Central

Background Recycling of endosomes is important for trafficking and maintenance of proteins at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). We have previously shown high expression of the endocytic recycling regulator Eps15 homology domain-containing (EHD)1 proteinin the Torpedo californica electric organ, a model tissue for investigating a cholinergic synapse. In this study, we investigated the localization of EHD1 and its paralogs EHD2, EHD3, and EHD4 in mouse skeletal muscle, and assessed the morphological changes in EHD1?/? NMJs. Methods Localization of the candidate NMJ protein EHD1 was assessed by confocal microscopy analysis of whole-mount mouse skeletal muscle fibers after direct gene transfer and immunolabeling. The potential function of EHD1 was assessed by specific force measurement and ?-bungarotoxin-based endplate morphology mapping in EHD1?/? mouse skeletal muscle. Results Endogenous EHD1 localized to primary synaptic clefts of murine NMJ, and this localization was confirmed by expression of recombinant green fluorescent protein labeled-EHD1 in murine skeletal muscle in vivo. EHD1?/? mouse skeletal muscle had normal histology and NMJ morphology, and normal specific force generation during muscle contraction. The EHD 1–4 proteins showed differential localization in skeletal muscle: EHD2 to muscle vasculature, EHD3 to perisynaptic regions, and EHD4 to perinuclear regions and to primary synaptic clefts, but at lower levels than EHD1. Additionally, specific antibodies raised against mammalian EHD1-4 recognized proteins of the expected mass in the T. californica electric organ. Finally, we found that EHD4 expression was more abundant in EHD1?/? mouse skeletal muscle than in wild-type skeletal muscle. Conclusion EHD1 and EHD4 localize to the primary synaptic clefts of the NMJ. Lack of obvious defects in NMJ structure and muscle function in EHD1?/? muscle may be due to functional compensation by other EHD paralogs. PMID:22974368

2012-01-01

26

Snx3 regulates recycling of the transferrin receptor and iron assimilation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Sorting of endocytic ligands and receptors is critical for diverse cellular processes. The physiological significance of endosomal sorting proteins in vertebrates, however, remains largely unknown. Here we report that sorting nexin 3 (Snx3) facilitates the recycling of transferrin receptor (Tfrc), and thus is required for the proper delivery of iron to erythroid progenitors. Snx3 is highly expressed in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues. Silencing of Snx3 results in anemia and hemoglobin defects in vertebrates due to impaired transferrin (Tf)-mediated iron uptake and its accumulation in early endosomes. This impaired iron assimilation can be complemented with non-Tf iron chelates. We show that Snx3 and Vps35, a component of the retromer, interact with Tfrc to sort it to the recycling endosomes. Our findings uncover a role of Snx3 in regulating Tfrc recycling, iron homeostasis, and erythropoiesis. Thus, the identification of Snx3 provides a genetic tool for exploring erythropoiesis and disorders of iron metabolism. PMID:23416069

Chen, Caiyong; Garcia-Santos, Daniel; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Seguin, Alexandra; Li, Liangtao; Fegan, Katherine H.; Hildick-Smith, Gordon J.; Shah, Dhvanit I.; Cooney, Jeffrey D.; Chen, Wen; King, Matthew J.; Yien, Yvette Y.; Schultz, Iman J.; Anderson, Heidi; Dalton, Arthur J.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Kingsley, Paul D.; Palis, James; Hattangadi, Shilpa M.; Lodish, Harvey F.; Ward, Diane M.; Kaplan, Jerry; Maeda, Takahiro; Ponka, Prem; Paw, Barry H.

2013-01-01

27

Differential Roles of C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain Proteins as Vesiculators and Tubulators of Recycling Endosomes*  

PubMed Central

Endocytic recycling involves the return of membranes and receptors to the plasma membrane following their internalization into the cell. Recycling generally occurs from a series of vesicular and tubular membranes localized to the perinuclear region, collectively known as the endocytic recycling compartment. Within this compartment, receptors are sorted into tubular extensions that later undergo vesiculation, allowing transport vesicles to move along microtubules and return to the cell surface where they ultimately undergo fusion with the plasma membrane. Recent studies have led to the hypothesis that the C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EHD) ATPase proteins are involved in the vesiculation process. Here, we address the functional roles of the four EHD proteins. We developed a novel semipermeabilized cell system in which addition of purified EHD proteins to reconstitute vesiculation allows us to assess the ability of each protein to vesiculate MICAL-L1-decorated tubular recycling endosomes (TREs). Using this assay, we show that EHD1 vesiculates membranes, consistent with enhanced TRE generation observed upon EHD1 depletion. EHD4 serves a role similar to that of EHD1 in TRE vesiculation, whereas EHD2, despite being capable of vesiculating TREs in the semipermeabilized cells, fails to do so in vivo. Surprisingly, the addition of EHD3 causes tubulation of endocytic membranes in our semipermeabilized cell system, consistent with the lack of tubulation observed upon EHD3 depletion. Our novel vesiculation assay and in vitro electron microscopy analysis, combined with in vivo data, provide evidence that the functions of both EHD1 and EHD4 are primarily in TRE membrane vesiculation, whereas EHD3 is a membrane-tubulating protein. PMID:24019528

Cai, Bishuang; Giridharan, Sai Srinivas Panapakkam; Zhang, Jing; Saxena, Sugandha; Bahl, Kriti; Schmidt, John A.; Sorgen, Paul L.; Guo, Wei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

2013-01-01

28

Cooperation of MICAL-L1, syndapin2, and phosphatidic acid in tubular recycling endosome biogenesis  

PubMed Central

Endocytic transport necessitates the generation of membrane tubules and their subsequent fission to transport vesicles for sorting of cargo molecules. The endocytic recycling compartment, an array of tubular and vesicular membranes decorated by the Eps15 homology domain protein, EHD1, is responsible for receptor and lipid recycling to the plasma membrane. It has been proposed that EHD dimers bind and bend membranes, thus generating recycling endosome (RE) tubules. However, recent studies show that molecules interacting with CasL-Like1 (MICAL-L1), a second, recently identified RE tubule marker, recruits EHD1 to preexisting tubules. The mechanisms and events supporting the generation of tubular recycling endosomes were unclear. Here, we propose a mechanism for the biogenesis of RE tubules. We demonstrate that MICAL-L1 and the BAR-domain protein syndapin2 bind to phosphatidic acid, which we identify as a novel lipid component of RE. Our studies demonstrate that direct interactions between these two proteins stabilize their association with membranes, allowing for nucleation of tubules by syndapin2. Indeed, the presence of phosphatidic acid in liposomes enhances the ability of syndapin2 to tubulate membranes in vitro. Overall our results highlight a new role for phosphatidic acid in endocytic recycling and provide new insights into the mechanisms by which tubular REs are generated. PMID:23596323

Giridharan, Sai Srinivas Panapakkam; Cai, Bishuang; Vitale, Nicolas; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

2013-01-01

29

The Plasma Membrane Sialidase NEU3 Regulates the Malignancy of Renal Carcinoma Cells by Controlling ?1 Integrin Internalization and Recycling*  

PubMed Central

The human plasma membrane sialidase NEU3 is a key enzyme in the catabolism of membrane gangliosides, is crucial in the regulation of cell surface processes, and has been demonstrated to be significantly up-regulated in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). In this report, we show that NEU3 regulates ?1 integrin trafficking in RCC cells by controlling ?1 integrin recycling to the plasma membrane and controlling activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. NEU3 silencing in RCC cells increased the membrane ganglioside content, in particular the GD1a content, and changed the expression of key regulators of the integrin recycling pathway. In addition, NEU3 silencing up-regulated the Ras-related protein RAB25, which directs internalized integrins to lysosomes, and down-regulated the chloride intracellular channel protein 3 (CLIC3), which induces the recycling of internalized integrins to the plasma membrane. In this manner, NEU3 silencing enhanced the caveolar endocytosis of ?1 integrin, blocked its recycling and reduced its levels at the plasma membrane, and, consequently, inhibited EGFR and FAK/AKT. These events had the following effects on the behavior of RCC cells: they (a) decreased drug resistance mediated by the block of autophagy and the induction of apoptosis; (b) decreased metastatic potential mediated by down-regulation of the metalloproteinases MMP1 and MMP7; and (c) decreased adhesion to collagen and fibronectin. Therefore, our data identify NEU3 as a key regulator of the ?1 integrin-recycling pathway and FAK/AKT signaling and demonstrate its crucial role in RCC malignancy. PMID:23139422

Tringali, Cristina; Lupo, Barbara; Silvestri, Ilaria; Papini, Nadia; Anastasia, Luigi; Tettamanti, Guido; Venerando, Bruno

2012-01-01

30

Sorting nexin 17 regulates ApoER2 recycling and reelin signaling.  

PubMed

ApoER2 is a member of the low density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) family. As a receptor for reelin, ApoER2 participates in neuronal migration during development as well as synaptic plasticity and survival in the adult brain. A previous yeast two-hybrid screen showed that ApoER2 is a binding partner of sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) - a cytosolic adaptor protein that regulates the trafficking of several membrane proteins in the endosomal pathway, including LRP1, P-selectin and integrins. However, no further studies have been performed to investigate the role of SNX17 in ApoER2 trafficking and function. In this study, we present evidence based on GST pull-down and inmunoprecipitation assays that the cytoplasmic NPxY endocytosis motif of ApoER2 interacts with the FERM domain of SNX17. SNX17 stimulates ApoER2 recycling in different cell lines including neurons without affecting its endocytic rate and also facilitates the transport of ApoER2 from the early endosomes to the recycling endosomes. The reduction of SNX17 was associated with accumulation of an ApoER2 carboxy-terminal fragment (CTF). In addition, in SNX17 knockdown cells, constitutive ApoER2 degradation was not modified, whereas reelin-induced ApoER2 degradation was increased, implying that SNX17 is a regulator of the receptor's half-life. Finally, in SNX17 silenced hippocampal and cortical neurons, we underscored a positive role of this endosomal protein in the development of the dendritic tree and reelin signaling. Overall, these results establish the role of SNX17 in ApoER2 trafficking and function and aid in identifying new links between endocytic trafficking and receptor signaling. PMID:24705369

Sotelo, Pablo; Farfán, Pamela; Benitez, María Luisa; Bu, Guojun; Marzolo, María-Paz

2014-01-01

31

The Arf GAP AGAP2 interacts with ?-arrestin2 and regulates ?2-adrenergic receptor recycling and ERK activation  

PubMed Central

AGAP2 [Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) GAP (GTPase-activating protein) with GTP-binding-protein-like, ankyrin repeat and PH (pleckstrin homology) domains] is a multidomain Arf GAP that was shown to promote the fast recycling of transferrin receptors. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that AGAP2 regulates the trafficking of ?2-adrenergic receptors. We found that AGAP2 formed a complex with ?-arrestin1 and ?-arrestin2, proteins that are known to regulate ?2-adrenergic receptor signalling and trafficking. AGAP2 co-localized with ?-arrestin2 on the plasma membrane, and knockdown of AGAP2 expression reduced plasma membrane association of ?-arrestin2 upon ?2-adrenergic receptor activation. AGAP2 also co-localized with internalized ?2-adrenergic receptors on endosomes, and overexpression of AGAP2 slowed accumulation of ?2-adrenergic receptor in the perinuclear recycling endosomes. In contrast, knockdown of AGAP2 expression prevented the recycling of the ?2-adrenergic receptor back to the plasma membrane. In addition, AGAP2 formed a complex with endogenous ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) and overexpression of AGAP2 potentiated ERK phosphorylation induced by ?2-adrenergic receptors. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that AGAP2 plays a role in the signalling and recycling of ?2-adrenergic receptors. PMID:23527545

Wu, Yuanjun; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Xiaojie; Zhu, Yunjuan; Patel, Jaimin; Nie, Zhongzhen

2014-01-01

32

Endosome-to-Plasma Membrane Recycling of VEGFR2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Regulates Endothelial Function and Blood Vessel Formation  

PubMed Central

Rab GTPases are implicated in endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling, but how such membrane traffic regulators control vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2/KDR) dynamics and function are not well understood. Here, we evaluated two different recycling Rab GTPases, Rab4a and Rab11a, in regulating endothelial VEGFR2 trafficking and signalling with implications for endothelial cell migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. In primary endothelial cells, VEGFR2 displays co-localisation with Rab4a, but not Rab11a GTPase, on early endosomes. Expression of a guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound Rab4a S22N mutant caused increased VEGFR2 accumulation in endosomes. TfR and VEGFR2 exhibited differences in endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling in the presence of chloroquine. Depletion of Rab4a, but not Rab11a, levels stimulated VEGF-A-dependent intracellular signalling. However, depletion of either Rab4a or Rab11a levels inhibited VEGF-A-stimulated endothelial cell migration. Interestingly, depletion of Rab4a levels stimulated VEGF-A-regulated endothelial cell proliferation. Rab4a and Rab11a were also both required for endothelial tubulogenesis. Evaluation of a transgenic zebrafish model showed that both Rab4 and Rab11a are functionally required for blood vessel formation and animal viability. Rab-dependent endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling of VEGFR2 is important for intracellular signalling, cell migration and proliferation during angiogenesis. PMID:24785348

Jopling, Helen M.; Odell, Adam F.; Pellet-Many, Caroline; Latham, Antony M.; Frankel, Paul; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu; Walker, John H.; Zachary, Ian C.; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

2014-01-01

33

TRPV1 acts as a synaptic protein and regulates vesicle recycling.  

PubMed

Electrophysiological studies demonstrate that transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) is involved in neuronal transmission. Although it is expressed in the peripheral as well as the central nervous system, the questions remain whether TRPV1 is present in synaptic structures and whether it is involved in synaptic processes. In the present study we gathered evidence that TRPV1 can be detected in spines of cortical neurons, that it colocalizes with both pre- and postsynaptic proteins, and that it regulates spine morphology. Moreover, TRPV1 is also present in biochemically prepared synaptosomes endogenously. In F11 cells, a cell line derived from dorsal-root-ganglion neurons, TRPV1 is enriched in the tips of elongated filopodia and also at sites of cell-cell contact. In addition, we also detected TRPV1 in synaptic transport vesicles, and in transport packets within filopodia and neurites. Using FM4-64 dye, we demonstrate that recycling and/or fusion of these vesicles can be rapidly modulated by TRPV1 activation, leading to rapid reorganization of filopodial structure. These data suggest that TRPV1 is involved in processes such as neuronal network formation, synapse modulation and release of synaptic transmitters. PMID:20483957

Goswami, Chandan; Rademacher, Nils; Smalla, Karl-Heinz; Kalscheuer, Vera; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Hucho, Tim

2010-06-15

34

Rab11a and its binding partners regulate the recycling of the ?1-adrenergic receptor  

PubMed Central

?1-adrenergic receptors (?1-AR) are internalized in response to agonists and then recycle back for another round of signaling. The serine 312 to alanine mutant of the ?1-AR (S312A) is internalized but does not recycle. We determined that WT ?1-AR and S312A were internalized initially to an early sorting compartment because they colocalized by >70% with the early endosomal markers rab5a and early endosomal antigen-1 (EEA1). Subsequently, the WT ?1-AR trafficked via rab4a-expressing sorting endosomes to recycling endosomes. In recycling endosomes WT ?1-AR were colocalized by >70% with the rab11 GTPase. S312A did not colocalize with either rab4a or rab11, instead they exited from early endosomes to late endosomes/lysosomes in which they were degraded. Rab11a played a prominent role in recycling of the WT ?1-AR because dominant negative rab11a inhibited, while constitutively active rab11a accelerated the recycling of the ?1-AR. Next, we determined the effect of each of the rab11-intercating proteins on trafficking of the WT ?1-AR. The recycling of the ?1-AR was markedly inhibited when myosin Vb, FIP2, FIP3 and rabphillin were knocked down. These data indicate that rab11a and a select group of its binding partners play a prominent role recycling of the human ?1-AR. PMID:20727405

Gardner, Lidia A.; Hajjhussein, Hassan; Frederick, Katherine C.; Bahouth, Suleiman W.

2010-01-01

35

CytLEK1 Is a Regulator of Plasma Membrane Recycling through Its Interaction with SNAP-25  

PubMed Central

SNAP-25 is a component of the SNARE complex that is involved in membrane docking and fusion. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identify a novel interaction between SNAP-25 and cytoplasmic Lek1 (cytLEK1), a protein previously demonstrated to associate with the microtubule network. The binding domains within each protein were defined by yeast two-hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation, and colocalization studies. Confocal analyses reveal a high degree of colocalization between the proteins. In addition, the endogenous proteins can be isolated as a complex by immunoprecipitation. Further analyses demonstrate that cytLEK1 and SNAP-25 colocalize and coprecipitate with Rab11a, myosin Vb, VAMP2, and syntaxin 4, components of the plasma membrane recycling pathway. Overexpression of the SNAP-25–binding domain of cytLEK1, and depletion of endogenous Lek1 alters transferrin trafficking, consistent with a function in vesicle recycling. Taken together, our studies indicate that cytLEK1 is a link between recycling vesicles and the microtubule network through its association with SNAP-25. This interaction may play a key role in the regulation of the recycling endosome pathway. PMID:16672379

Pooley, Ryan D.; Reddy, Samyukta; Soukoulis, Victor; Roland, Joseph T.; Goldenring, James R.

2006-01-01

36

An energy-efficient, adiabatic electrode stimulator with inductive energy recycling and feedback current regulation.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a novel energy-efficient electrode stimulator. Our stimulator uses inductive storage and recycling of energy in a dynamic power supply. This supply drives an electrode in an adiabatic fashion such that energy consumption is minimized. It also utilizes a shunt current-sensor to monitor and regulate the current through the electrode via feedback, thus enabling flexible and safe stimulation. Since there are no explicit current sources or current limiters, wasteful energy dissipation across such elements is naturally avoided. The dynamic power supply allows efficient transfer of energy both to and from the electrode and is based on a DC-DC converter topology that we use in a bidirectional fashion in forward-buck or reverse-boost modes. In an exemplary electrode implementation intended for neural stimulation, we show how the stimulator combines the efficiency of voltage control and the safety and accuracy of current control in a single low-power integrated-circuit built in a standard .35 ?m CMOS process. This stimulator achieves a 2x-3x reduction in energy consumption as compared to a conventional current-source-based stimulator operating from a fixed power supply. We perform a theoretical analysis of the energy efficiency that is in accord with experimental measurements. This theoretical analysis reveals that further improvements in energy efficiency may be achievable with better implementations in the future. Our electrode stimulator could be widely useful for neural, cardiac, retinal, cochlear, muscular and other biomedical implants where low power operation is important. PMID:23852740

Arfin, Scott K; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

2012-02-01

37

Methyl recycling activities are co-ordinately regulated during plant development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of compounds including lignin, phos- pholipids, pectin, DNA, mRNA, and proteins require methyl groups for their functionality. A detailed study of the expression and activities of two enzymes, adenosine kinase (ADK) and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH), which are both required for the maintenance and recycling of S-adenosylmethionine- dependent methylation in plants, was carried out. The abundance and tissue

L. A. R. Pereira; M. Todorova; X. Cai; C. A. Makaroff; R. J. N. Emery; B. A. Moffatt

2007-01-01

38

Precipitation Recycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

1996-01-01

39

Nrf2-regulated glutathione recycling independent of biosynthesis is critical for cell survival during oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the primary transcription factor protecting cells from oxidative stress by regulating cytoprotective genes, including the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) pathway. GSH maintains cellular redox status and affects redox signaling, cell proliferation, and death. GSH homeostasis is regulated by de novo synthesis as well as GSH redox state; previous studies have demonstrated that Nrf2

C. J. Harvey; R. K. Thimmulappa; A. Singh; D. J. Blake; G. Ling; N. Wakabayashi; J. Fujii; A. Myers; S. Biswal

2009-01-01

40

Nrf2-regulated glutathione recycling independent of biosynthesis is critical for cell survival during oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the primary transcription factor protecting cells from oxidative stress by regulating cytoprotective genes, including the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) pathway. GSH maintains cellular redox status and affects redox signaling, cell proliferation, and death. GSH homeostasis is regulated by de novo synthesis as well as GSH redox state; previous studies have demonstrated that Nrf2 regulates GSH homeostasis by affecting de novo synthesis. We report that Nrf2 modulates the GSH redox state by regulating glutathione reductase (GSR). In response to oxidants, lungs and embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Nrf2-deficient (Nrf2(-/-)) mice showed lower levels of GSR mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity relative to wild type (Nrf2(+/+)). Nrf2(-/-) MEFs exhibited greater accumulation of glutathione disulfide and cytotoxicity compared to Nrf2(+/+) MEFs in response to t-butylhydroquinone, which was rescued by restoring GSR. Microinjection of glutathione disulfide induced greater apoptosis in Nrf2(-/-) MEFs compared to Nrf2(+/+) MEFs. In silico promoter analysis of the GSR gene revealed three putative antioxidant-response elements (ARE1, -44; ARE2, -813; ARE3, -1041). Reporter analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated binding of Nrf2 to two AREs distal to the transcription start site. Overall, Nrf2 is critical for maintaining the GSH redox state via transcriptional regulation of GSR and protecting cells against oxidative stress. PMID:19028565

Harvey, C J; Thimmulappa, R K; Singh, A; Blake, D J; Ling, G; Wakabayashi, N; Fujii, J; Myers, A; Biswal, S

2009-02-15

41

Nrf2-regulated glutathione recycling independent of biosynthesis is critical for cell survival during oxidative stress  

PubMed Central

Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the primary transcription factor protecting cells from oxidative stress by regulating cytoprotective genes, including the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) pathway. GSH maintains cellular redox status and affects redox signaling, cell proliferation, and death. GSH homeostasis is regulated by de novo synthesis as well as GSH redox state; previous studies have demonstrated that Nrf2 regulates GSH homeostasis by affecting de novo synthesis. We report that Nrf2 modulates the GSH redox state by regulating glutathione reductase (GSR). In response to oxidants, lungs and embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Nrf2-deficient (Nrf2?/?) mice showed lower levels of GSR mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity relative to wild type (Nrf2+/+). Nrf2?/? MEFs exhibited greater accumulation of glutathione disulfide and cytotoxicity compared to Nrf2+/+ MEFs in response to t-butylhydroquinone, which was rescued by restoring GSR. Microinjection of glutathione disulfide induced greater apoptosis in Nrf2?/? MEFs compared to Nrf2+/+ MEFs. In silico promoter analysis of the GSR gene revealed three putative antioxidant-response elements (ARE1, ?44; ARE2, ?813; ARE3, ?1041). Reporter analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated binding of Nrf2 to two AREs distal to the transcription start site. Overall, Nrf2 is critical for maintaining the GSH redox state via transcriptional regulation of GSR and protecting cells against oxidative stress. PMID:19028565

Harvey, C.J.; Thimmulappa, R.K.; Singh, A.; Blake, D.J.; Ling, G.; Wakabayashi, N.; Fujii, J.; Myers, A.; Biswal, S.

2009-01-01

42

Recycling, Inc.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggestions for creating a successful office recycling system are enumerated from start up plans to waste reduction and paper recycling. Contact information for recycling equipment, potential buyers of recycled materials, recycled products for purchase, and ideas for promotion and education of staff are included. (MCO)

Martin, Amy

1992-01-01

43

Differential targeting of the dopamine transporter to recycling or degradative pathways during amphetamine- or PKC-regulated endocytosis in dopamine neurons  

PubMed Central

The dopamine transporter (DAT) clears the extracellular dopamine released during neurotransmission and is a major target for both therapeutic and addictive psychostimulant amphetamines. Amphetamine exposure or activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by the phorbol ester PMA has been shown to down-regulate cell surface DAT. However, in dopamine neurons, the trafficking itinerary and fate of internalized DAT has not been elucidated. By monitoring surface-labeled DAT in transfected dopamine neurons from embryonic rat mesencephalic cultures, we find distinct sorting and fates of internalized DAT after amphetamine or PMA treatment. Although both drugs promote DAT internalization above constitutive endocytosis in dopamine neurons, PMA induces ubiquitination of DAT and leads to accumulation of DAT on LAMP1-positive endosomes. In contrast, after amphetamine exposure DAT is sorted to recycling endosomes positive for Rab11 and the transferrin receptor. Furthermore, quantitative assessment of DAT recycling using an antibody-feeding assay reveals that significantly less DAT returns to the surface of dopamine neurons after internalization by PMA, compared with vehicle or amphetamine treatment. These results demonstrate that, in neurons, the DAT is sorted differentially to recycling and degradative pathways after psychostimulant exposure or PKC activation, which may allow for either the transient or sustained inhibition of DAT during dopamine neurotransmission.—Hong, W. C., Amara, S. G. Differential targeting of the dopamine transporter to recycling or degradative pathways during amphetamine- or PKC-regulated endocytosis in dopamine neurons. PMID:23612789

Hong, Weimin C.; Amara, Susan G.

2013-01-01

44

Responsible recycling  

SciTech Connect

The issues that affect the recycling of lead-acid batteries and the challenges that this issue brings to both the lead industry and to the battery manufacturers are covered. Topics include the lead market (its size and structure), the economic constraints on the recycling system, recycling rates for batteries, the technology of recycling, and future considerations.

Pugh, A. (Britannia Refined Metals, Northfleet (United Kingdom))

1993-05-01

45

Generation of Covalently Closed Circular DNA of Hepatitis B Viruses via Intracellular Recycling Is Regulated in a Virus Specific Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection requires covalently closed circular (ccc)DNA formation and amplification, which can occur via intracellular recycling of the viral polymerase-linked relaxed circular (rc) DNA genomes present in virions. Here we reveal a fundamental difference between HBV and the related duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in the recycling mechanism. Direct comparison of HBV and DHBV cccDNA

Josef Köck; Christine Rösler; Jing-Jing Zhang; Hubert E. Blum; Michael Nassal; Christian Thoma

2010-01-01

46

RECYCLING TODAY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have probably heard of recycling but what is it really and why is it so improtant to do? Please answer the questions below as well as visiting the different websites to explore what recycling really is. Form groups of 4 and explore the following websites as well as answer the questions which follow. The first website is of Recycle City where you will be exploring the City and how they recycle. Recyle City Why Recycling is Important Now please answer the following questions on paper. 1. What are the 3 R's? Explain in further ...

Smith, Miss

2010-12-03

47

Bacterial cell-wall recycling  

PubMed Central

Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many—and quite possibly all—bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. While cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall–targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC ?-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both ?-lactamase and ?-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of ?-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC ?-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall recycling inhibitors. PMID:23163477

Johnson, Jarrod W.; Fisher, Jed F.; Mobashery, Shahriar

2012-01-01

48

GPI-Anchored Proteins Are Delivered to Recycling Endosomes via a Distinct cdc42-Regulated, Clathrin-Independent Pinocytic Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocytosis of cell-surface proteins via specific pathways is critical for their function. We show that multiple glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are endocytosed to the recycling endosomal compartment but not to the Golgi via a nonclathrin, noncaveolae mediated pathway. GPI anchoring is a positive signal for internalization into rab5-independent tubular-vesicular endosomes also responsible for a major fraction of fluid-phase uptake; molecules merely

Shefali Sabharanjak; Pranav Sharma; Robert G. Parton; Satyajit Mayor

2002-01-01

49

Recycling batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hundreds of millions of large and billions of small batteries are used up annually in the service of all manner of electronic devices. Until recently, the tons of toxic materials in these batteries would wind up in the garbage, but the systematic collection and recycling of spent batteries is growing. Effective recycling involves changes at all stages of battery life,

F. C. McMichael; C. Henderson

1998-01-01

50

Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop  

SciTech Connect

Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A. [eds.] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [eds.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1993-12-31

51

Myosin VI and its interacting protein LMTK2 regulate tubule formation and transport to the endocytic recycling compartment  

PubMed Central

Summary Myosin VI is an actin-based retrograde motor protein, which plays a crucial role in both endocytic and secretory membrane trafficking pathways. Myosin VI’s targeting to and function in these intracellular pathways is mediated by a number of specific binding partners. In this paper we have identified a new myosin VI binding partner, Lemur tyrosine kinase 2 (LMTK2), which is the first transmembrane protein and kinase that directly binds to myosin VI. LMTK2 binds to the WWY site in the C-terminal myosin VI tail, the same site as the endocytic adaptor protein Dab2. When either myosin VI or LMTK2 is depleted by siRNA, the transferrin receptor (TfR) is trapped in swollen endosomes and tubule formation in the endocytic recycling pathway is dramatically reduced, showing that both proteins are required for the transport of cargo such as the TfR from early endosomes to the endocytic recycling compartment. PMID:18029400

Chibalina, Margarita V.; Seaman, Matthew N.J.; Miller, Christopher C.; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

2009-01-01

52

Extreme Recycling  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Singing the recycling blues because you have to separate your chipboard from your newspaper, your steel from your aluminum, your #1 from your #2 plastic? Pantywaists! The residents of Kamikatsu, Japan have no fewer than 34...

Hacker, Randi

2009-01-14

53

Ideas: Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents classroom ideas focusing on connections among mathematics, concern for the environment, and conservation of natural resources, including decomposition, water conservation, packaging materials, use of manufactured cans, and recycling. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

Chessin, Debby A.; And Others

1994-01-01

54

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

1997-01-01

55

Textile recycling  

SciTech Connect

The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

Jablonowski, E. (Killam Associates, Millburn, NJ (United States)); Carlton, J.

1995-01-01

56

Endocytic recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

After endocytosis, most membrane proteins and lipids return to the cell surface, but some membrane components are delivered to late endosomes or the Golgi. We now understand that the pathways taken by internalized molecules that eventually recycle to the cell surface can be surprisingly complex and can involve a series of sorting events that occur in several organelles. The molecular

Frederick R. Maxfield; Timothy E. McGraw

2004-01-01

57

Steel Recycling Institute (SRI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Steel Recycling Institute (SRI) provides information and statistics on steel recycling; it was founded by a group of steel companies and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Originally a grassroots effort focused only on the recycling of steel cans, the SRI now promotes the recycling of all steel products. The SRI homepage provides online access to its three publications, The Dockside Recycler, The Recycling Magnet, and The Appliance Recycler. Recycling information is divided into four categories: cans, cars, appliances, and construction material. Users can use the recycling database to find the nearest steel recycling location. Links provides a large list of both commercial and non-commercial steel sites.

1998-01-01

58

Computer Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given current rates of computer consumerism and technological advances, one might expect to find a lot of computers out there in the world. What happens to these old computers? This Topic in Depth explores this issue, reviews some options for recycling computers, and provides tips for anyone considering purchasing a refurbished computer. The first article from BBC News (1) reports on research which suggests that "the number of personal computers worldwide is expected to double by 2010 to 1.3 billion machines." The second article from Oasis, a project of the Irish eGovernment initiative, (2) reviews some of the issues surrounding waste from electrical and electronic equipment. This next article from PC World (3) gives some ideas for how to dispose of an old notebook computer. One option, of course, is to donate your notebook, which is discussed in this article from Tech Soup (4). Another resource for information on computer recycling and reuse is this website from CompuMentor (5). Given the current market for computers, many are considering refurbished computers. This article from Vnunet (6 ) explains what a refurbished computer is while the next website provides some tips for buying a refurbished computer (7 ). Finally, this article from About.com reports on the recently introduced National Computer Recycling Act (8).

59

Improving biomass resource recycling capacity of Rubrivivax gelatinosus cultivated in wastewater through regulating the generation and use of energy.  

PubMed

This paper investigated Mg2+ enhancement of biomass production through regulating the generation and use of energy in Rubrivivax gelatinosus wastewater treatment. Results showed that proper Mg2+ dosage range was 1.5-15 mg/L. With optimal Mg2+ dosage (10 mg/L), biomass production (5010 mg/L) was improved by 60%. Both protein and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals reached above 90%. Biomass yield improved by 38%. Hydraulic retention time was shortened by 25%. Mechanism analysis indicated that as activator, Mg2+ promoted specifically isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and Ca2+ / Mg2+ -ATPase activities in energy metabolism, and then improved the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the use of ATP. This enhanced the secretion and activity of protease, protein and COD removals, and then led to more biomass production. With 10 mg/L Mg2+, IDH and Ca2+ / Mg2+ -ATPase activities, ATP production, protease activity were improved by 43.8%, 40.6%, 39.4% and 46.5%, respectively. PMID:25145217

Wu, Pan; Wang, Yan-ling; Zhang, Guang-ming; Liu, Xian-shu; Du, Cong; Tong, Qing-yue; Li, Ning

2014-01-01

60

Green Science: Revisiting Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling

Palliser, Janna

2011-01-01

61

Recycling Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting Project," (7) Used Motor Oil Recycling," (8) "Unwrapping…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

62

Recycling policy in the european union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recycling in the European Union (EU) has benefited from R&D efforts and strict environmental regulations of the EU’s members. Thanks to the adoption of sustainable development policies by the EU’s European Institutions, economic incentives are expected to further strengthen the recycling industry. Moreover, the historical accumulation of non-ferrous metals in Europe will likely enhance secondary metal production. Also contributing to EU recycling is mining in East European countries and the resulting industrial waste. The rate of growth of the recycling industry is expected to approach double digits for at least this decade.

Gaballah, I.; Kanari, N.

2001-11-01

63

Directory of Arizona Recyclers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Environmental Quality is providing a current directory of Arizona recyclers listed alphabetically by counties and types of recyclable materials. Local recyclers are listed alphabetically by name, address and phone number, along with the ...

1990-01-01

64

Emulsified industrial oils recycling  

SciTech Connect

The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

Gabris, T.

1982-04-01

65

WASTE DESCRIPTION RECYCLED OR  

E-print Network

Batteries Recycled 7,250 Hazardous Waste $36,250 $0 $36,250 Estimate 50 lbs./battery and avoided disposalWASTE DESCRIPTION REDUCED, REUSED, RECYCLED OR CONSERVED POUNDS REDUCED, REUSED, RECYCLED OR CONSERVED IN 2000 WASTE TYPE POTENTIAL COSTS FOR TREATMENT & DISPOSAL COST OF RECYCLE, PREVENTION ESTIMATED

66

The Covered Device Recycling (Act 108) of 2010 (CDRA) A General Overview  

E-print Network

constitute one of the fastest growing streams of today's consumer and commercial waste. In November 2010 collected from consumers must be properly recycled at certified recycling facilities. Electronics Recycling of covered devices. o Currently Pennsylvania's Residual Waste Regulations require electronics processing/recycling

Bushman, Frederic

67

Recycling of pavement materials  

E-print Network

materials. A comparison was made between the recycled pavements and typical conventional asphalt concrete pavements. An economic asse?sment of thc recycled pavements was made to determine thc economic feasibility of recycling. Results of laboratory... evaluations show that: recycled pavement mixtures possess properties equivalent to conventional asphalt concrete mixtures; and rccvcl inI' con ho accom- plished with conventional ertuapment. kyar po I'lotion associated with hot-mix recycling of asphalt...

O'Neal, Randy Jim

2012-06-07

68

Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

Clearing, 2003

2003-01-01

69

Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that motor oils can be reused and recycled. Educates students about environmental hazards and oil management and includes classroom activities. Addresses the National Science Education Standards. (YDS)

White, Boyd W.

2000-01-01

70

Epidermal H2O2 Accumulation Alters Tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH4) Recycling in Vitiligo: Identification of a General Mechanism in Regulation of All 6BH4Dependent Processes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown in vivo that patients with the depigmentation disorder vitiligo accumulate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accompanied by low catalase levels and high concentrations of 6- and 7-biopterin in their epidermis. Earlier it was demonstrated that epidermal 4a-OH-tetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase, an important enzyme in the recycling process of 6(R)-L-erythro 5,6,7,8 tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH4), has extremely low activities in these patients concomitant

Karin U. Schallreuter; Jeremy Moore; John M. Wood; Wayne D. Beazley; Eva M. J. Peters; Lee K. Marles; Stefanie C. Behrens-Williams; Reinhard Dummer; Nenad Blau; Beat Thöny

2001-01-01

71

ParadigmParadigm Concrete RecyclingConcrete Recycling  

E-print Network

ParadigmParadigm Concrete RecyclingConcrete Recycling #12;Recycled ConcreteRecycled Concrete ·· Whatever steel goes into PCC must comeWhatever steel goes into PCC must come out for recycleout for recycle ·· Aggregates have a big impact on the costAggregates have a big impact on the cost of recyclingof recycling

72

Federal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper  

E-print Network

Federal Recycling Program Printed on Recycled Paper The Forest Service, U.S. Department activities: · Protection and management of resources on 191 million acres of National Forest System lands, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or familial status. (Not all

Standiford, Richard B.

73

Recycling Rules: Understanding Recycling and a MRF  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners simulate the separation techniques that materials recovery facilities (MRFs) use and then design their own series of recycling techniques. Learners identify four ways recyclable materials can be separated and sorted at a MRF: conveyor belts, blowers, flotation, and magnetism.

Keep America Beautiful, Inc.

2010-01-01

74

Recycling advanced batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This abstract introduces results from OnTo Technology's innovative recycling process to produce new materials for new batteries from materials from spent batteries. Recycling spent batteries is a growing problem for the consumer electronics electric vehicle industries.

Steven E. Sloop

2008-01-01

75

Recycling overview in Sweden  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the recycling programs currently in use in Sweden. Recycling of newspapers, batteries, plastics are all mentioned in this report by the Swedish Association of Public Cleansing and Solid Waste Management.

Not Available

1989-07-01

76

The Economics of Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the findings of a study that documented 1992 costs of residential curbside recycling versus disposal systems in four Washington State cities: Seattle, Spokane, Bellingham, and Vancouver. Results indicated that recycling can be less expensive than disposal when the revenues obtained from selling recycled materials are considered. (MDH)

Bogert, Susan; Morris, Jeffrey

1993-01-01

77

The Sustainability of Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the need for closing the business cycle in the recycling process. Discusses whether the government should mandate or the free market create uses for recycled products. Presents challenges associated with marketing recycled materials including what has been and what needs to be done to stimulate markets, encourage business, and balance…

Juniper, Christopher

1993-01-01

78

Cryogenic processing and recycling  

SciTech Connect

This article examines cryogenic processing and recycling of rubber and rubber products. The topics discussed include utilization of cryogenically recycled materials in the rubber industry, current status of the industry, economic benefit, performance advantage, environmental benefit, technology assessment, the future of cryogenic process and recycling.

Leyden, J.J.

1991-03-01

79

A novel adsorbent of Na(2)Ta(2)O(6) porous microspheres with F(-) gradient concentration distribution: high cationic selectivity and well-regulated recycling.  

PubMed

Pyrochlore Na2Ta2O6 porous microspheres with F(-) gradient concentration distribution were first prepared, which showed an excellent selectivity toward cationic dyes as an adsorbent. These dyes were regenerated rapidly by adding to NaAc solution. After then, the adsorbent still showed a high adsorption capacity. Optionally, the effective recycling of the adsorbents was achieved by UV light illumination, free of secondary environmental contamination. The rate of adsorption reaction followed the pseudo second-order kinetics, and the sorption isotherm well fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model. Eventually, the adsorption reaction for the absorbents was found to be a spontaneous and endothermic process. PMID:24365873

Liu, Xiaoqing; Huang, Shushu; Su, Yiguo; Chai, Zhanli; Zhai, Hao; Wang, Xiaojing

2014-01-30

80

Scrap tire recycling in Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the problems associated with scrap tires. For example, surface storing of scrap tires poses a fire hazard and the rainwater trapped in the tire casings is an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes. Use as a fuel for energy production is unattractive as long as oil retails at its present low price. Past reclamation processes have not met expectations. Legislation alone is not the answer, because scrap tires cannot be regulated out of existence. However, the Minnesota state legislature has come up with an approach that seems to be successful. It has passed the Waste Tire Act, which not only formulates regulations but also provides funding for research and development. Thus, it has established a tire disposal fund for financing construction costs of tire recycling facilities. One of the outcomes was the construction of the St. Louis county Waste Tire Recycling Facility. Through a leasing arrangement with Minneapolis-based Rubber Elastomerics, Inc. (RRE), construction costs financed by the tire disposal fund eventually will be repaid by RRE to the fund. The arrangement is described in detail. By a process also described, RRE produces a product that can be used in thermoset and in thermoplastic compounds. The user can incorporate between 50 percent and 85 percent of the recycled product into a rubber or plastic compound without significantly affecting the physical properties of the compound.

Not Available

1989-10-01

81

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

2008-08-31

82

Extrasynaptic vesicle recycling in mature hippocampal neurons  

PubMed Central

Fast neuronal signalling relies on highly-regulated vesicle fusion and recycling at specialized presynaptic terminals. Recently, examples of non-classical neurotransmission have also been reported, where fusion of vesicles can occur at sites remote from conventional synapses. This has potentially broad biological implications, but the underlying mechanisms are not well established. Here we show that a complete vesicle recycling pathway can occur at discrete axonal sites in mature hippocampal neurons and that extrasynaptic fusion is a robust feature of native tissue. We demonstrate that laterally mobile vesicle clusters trafficking between synaptic terminals become transiently stabilized by evoked action potentials and undergo complete but delayed Ca2+-dependent fusion along axons. This fusion is associated with dynamic actin accumulation and subsequently, vesicles can be locally recycled, reacidified and re-used. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural work demonstrates that extrasynaptic fusion sites can have apposed postsynaptic specializations, suggesting that mobile vesicle recycling may underlie highly dynamic neuron-neuron communication. PMID:22068598

Ratnayaka, Arjuna; Marra, Vincenzo; Branco, Tiago; Staras, Kevin

2012-01-01

83

Role of Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate in Regulating EHD2 Plasma Membrane Localization  

PubMed Central

The four mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain-containing proteins (EHD1-EHD4) play pivotal roles in endocytic membrane trafficking. While EHD1, EHD3 and EHD4 associate with intracellular tubular/vesicular membranes, EHD2 localizes to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Currently, little is known about the regulation of EHD2. Thus, we sought to define the factors responsible for EHD2’s association with the plasma membrane. The subcellular localization of endogenous EHD2 was examined in HeLa cells using confocal microscopy. Although EHD partner proteins typically mediate EHD membrane recruitment, EHD2 was targeted to the plasma membrane independent of two well-characterized binding proteins, syndapin2 and EHBP1. Additionally, the EH domain of EHD2, which facilitates canonical EHD protein interactions, was not required to direct overexpressed EHD2 to the cell surface. On the other hand, several lines of evidence indicate that the plasma membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) plays a crucial role in regulating EHD2 subcellular localization. Pharmacologic perturbation of PIP2 metabolism altered PIP2 plasma membrane distribution (as assessed by confocal microscopy), and caused EHD2 to redistribute away from the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpressed EHD2 localized to PIP2-enriched vacuoles generated by active Arf6. Finally, we show that although cytochalasin D caused actin microfilaments to collapse, EHD2 was nevertheless maintained at the plasma membrane. Intriguingly, cytochalasin D induced relocalization of both PIP2 and EHD2 to actin aggregates, supporting a role of PIP2 in controlling EHD2 subcellular localization. Altogether, these studies emphasize the significance of membrane lipid composition for EHD2 subcellular distribution and offer new insights into the regulation of this important endocytic protein. PMID:24040268

Simone, Laura C.; Caplan, Steve; Naslavsky, Naava

2013-01-01

84

St Andrews Recycling Points Recycling Points are situated locally to  

E-print Network

St Andrews Recycling Points Recycling Points are situated locally to allow you to recycle the following materials: To find your nearest Recycling Point please visit www.fifedirect.org.uk/wasteaware or call the Recycling Helpline on 08451 55 00 22. R&A GOLF CLUB OLD COURSE HOTEL UNIVERSITY NORTH HAUGH

St Andrews, University of

85

Recycling Service Learning Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recycling project begins with students learning about waste and resources. They complete background assignments about the energy and materials required to manufacture paper, aluminum, etc. They study landfills and the issues related to space, pollution, etc. They look at what is different if these things are recycled. The students work in groups of two or three and adopt and academic building on campus. They educate the staff and faculty about recycling - what can be recycled and where. They arrange to pick-up paper from each office. My hope is that the college faculty, staff and students will eventually recycle paper at common bins and that our project will progress to adding other recyclables to our project.

Faatz, Renee

86

Recycling of lead/acid batteries in a small plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the recycling process of lead/acid batteries in a small plant is described. The efficiency of such a recycling facility, as far as environmental regulations are concerned and its profitability considering the reasonable investment required, are demonstrated.

Bourson, Jean-Louis

87

Recycle plastics into feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal cracking of mixed-plastics wastes with a fluidized-bed reactor can be a viable and cost-effective means to meet mandatory recycling laws. Strict worldwide environmental statutes require the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) to develop and implement product applications and technologies that reuse post-consumer mixed-plastics waste. Recycling or reuse of plastics waste has a broad definition. Recycling entails more than mechanical regranulation

H. Kastner; W. Kaminsky

1995-01-01

88

Announcing: All Recycling Reduce your  

E-print Network

Announcing: All Recycling Go Green! Reduce your contribution to the landfill, by choosing to voluntarily recycle acceptable items in the green All Recycling toters and containers around campus. ONLY THE ITEMS BELOW ARE ACCEPTED FOR ALL RECYCLING Please do not contaminate the recycling containers with trash

Papautsky, Ian

89

Factors Influencing Household Recycling Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate factors encouraging or deterring recycling, telephone interviews were used to study recycling behavior, attitudes, and knowledge of 221 randomly selected adults in a suburban city that had begun a citywide curbside recycling program within the past year. Approximately 40% reported participation in the curbside recycling program, and nearly 20% more claimed that their household had been recycling in

Stuart Oskamp; Maura J. Harrington; Todd C. Edwards; Deborah L. Sherwood; Shawn M. Okuda; Deborah C. Swanson

1991-01-01

90

Operational experience and performance characteristics of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery energy-storage system for providing the customer with critical load protection and energy-management benefits at a lead-recycling plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Power Control Division of GNB Technologies, commissioned on May 13, 1996 a new facility which houses a 5-MW battery energy-storage system (BESS) at GNB's Lead Recycling Centre in Vernon, CA. When the plant loses utility power (which typically happens two or three times a year), the BESS will provide up to 5 MW of power at 4160 VAC in support of all the plant loads. Since the critical loads are not isolated, it is necessary to carry the entire plant load (maximum of 5 MVA) for a short period immediately following an incident until non-critical loads have been automatically shed. Plant loading typically peaks at 3.5 MVA with critical loads of about 2.1 MVA. The BESS also provides the manufacturing plant with customer-side-of-the-meter energy management options to reduce its energy demand during peak periods of the day. The BESS has provided a reduction in monthly electric bills through daily peak-shaving. By design, the battery can provide up to 2.5 MWh of energy and still retain 2.5 MWh of capacity in reserve to handle the possibility of a power outage in protecting the critical loads for up to 1 h. By storing energy from the utility during off-peak hours of the night in the batteries when the cost is low (US4.5¢ per kWh), GNB can then discharge this energy during high demand periods of the day (US14.50 per kW). For example, by reducing its peak demand by 300 kW, the lead-recycling centre can save over US4000 per month in its electric bills. The BESS at Vernon represents a first large-scale use of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in such a demanding application. This paper presents a summary of the operational experience and performance characteristics of the BESS over the past 2 years.

Hunt, G. W.

91

Michigan Recycled Materials Market Directory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Michigan Recycled Materials Market Directory is being made available to commercial, industrial, municipal and institutional recyclers in the State of Michigan to assist in finding markets for accumulated or collected recyclable materials. The director...

1990-01-01

92

Plastic Recycling Toter -ORANGE  

E-print Network

Plastic Recycling Toter - ORANGE Glass Recycling Toter - TEAL Garbage Yellow sharps container - bulk rinsing for small items - Clear Glass - Broken glass is ok - rinsed 3 times - may have contained - Plastic disposable pipettes - Micropipette tips - Petri dishes - cell well plates - racks - Glass

Toronto, University of

93

Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

Briscoe, Georgia

1991-01-01

94

Recycling and Composting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the value of renewable resources. Using multimedia intractives, video, and classroom activities, they learn to identify examples of renewable resources and how humans use them, understand what recycling and conservation are, learn about composting, and identify food waste and household items that can be recycled or composted.

2005-01-01

95

Recycling into Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit weaves art and science together to help students appreciate the importance of recycling. In this engaging activity, students collected items worthy of recycling from home, and with the help of the art teacher, used a loom to cr

Fioranelli, Debra

2000-10-01

96

The Fermilab recycler ring  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

Martin Hu

2001-07-24

97

Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)

Weir, Phil

1996-01-01

98

A Structural Scale for the Factors of Waste Sensors and Transducers Recycling Based on Consumer  

E-print Network

Abstract: This article first introduced the research results of both domestic and foreign scholars on the factors of waste sensors and transducers recycling, and in consideration of the four main bodies in waste sensors and transducers recycling, 14 influencing indicators of waste sensors and transducers recycling are extracted. Then this paper designed a questionnaire according to the 15 indicators of waste home appliance recycling, and put it on a research website. After verification of reliability and validity of the questionnaire, this paper analyzed the influencing factors of waste sensors and transducers recycling by using SPSS 13.0. Finally this article used factor analysis method to identify the representative factors. Two factors are concluded: Factor 1 mainly represents laws and regulations of government, governmental subsidy, governmental technology support, governmental market guidance, governmental monitor and control, recycling knowledge publication by government, social responsibilities of producers and recyclers, technique disposition ability of producers and recyclers, recyclers ' service, therefore it could be summarized as government and enterprise disposition capability; while Factor 2 mainly represents consumers ' benefit from recycling, convenience of consumers' recycling, mental satisfaction of consumers from recycling, consumers ' recycling knowledge, social recycling environment, and thus they could be summarized as consumer incentive factor. This paper would provide some references for the analysis and research on influencing factors of waste sensors and transducers recycling. Copyright © 2014 IFSA Publishing, S. L.

Ming Ke; Guangying Xie; Liqiang Zhao

2013-01-01

99

Blood-testis barrier dynamics are regulated by testosterone and cytokines via their differential effects on the kinetics of protein endocytosis and recycling in Sertoli cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

During spermatogenesis in the mamma- lian testis, preleptotene\\/leptotene spermatocytes differ- entiate from type B spermatogonia and traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) at stage VIII of the seminifer- ous epithelial cycle for further development. This timely movement of germ cells involves extensive junction re- structuring at the BTB. Previous studies have shown that these events are regulated by testosterone (T) and

Helen H. N. Yan; Dolores D. Mruk; Will M. Lee; C. Yan Cheng

2008-01-01

100

Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil doesn't wear out--it just gets dirty. Students and the general public may not know that used oil can be reused or recycled. The fact is, used oil can be re-fined, blended with additives, and used again. When you consider that 1.4 billion gallons

White, Boyd W.

2000-11-01

101

Interleukin10 Down-Regulates MHC Class II ?? Peptide Complexes at the Plasma Membrane of Monocytes by Affecting Arrival and Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibits antigen-specific T cell responses when human monocytes are used as antigen-presenting cells. This is correlated with a down-regulation of MHC class II molecules on the surface of the monocyte. Here we show that IL-10 does not affect MHC class II transcription, polypeptide synthesis, subunit assembly, or antigenic peptide loading. Instead, newly synthesized mature MHC class II molecules

Bruce Koppelman; Jacques J Neefjes; Jan E de Vries; René de Waal Malefyt

1997-01-01

102

RecycleMania! Improving Waste Reduction and Recycling on  

E-print Network

RecycleMania! Improving Waste Reduction and Recycling on Campus from Universities to Big Business #12;Contact Information Tracy Artley Recycling Coordinator University of Michigan Tel: 734-763-5539 Email: recycle@umich.edu #12;Agenda Waste Impacts of Large Institutions Unique Challenges Overcoming

Awtar, Shorya

103

Motivation recycling: pre-recycling case study in Minsk, Belarus.  

PubMed

Given the aim of motivating householders to behave in a recycling-friendly manner, there is a need to understand consumers' recycling behaviour. This paper documents and analyses acceptability and awareness of a pre-recycling society, through a survey carried out in the region of Minsk, Belarus. The results show a large number of people have no strong awareness about separate collection of household waste for recycling. By analysing the pre-recycling behaviour of Minsk citizens and substantive comparison with literature studies of a more mature recycling society such as Sweden, we indicate common sociodemographic variables for both cases and determine that these sociodemographic characteristics will directly influence recycling behaviour in countries like Belarus. It is also noted that the lack of recycling habit cannot directly predict subsequent recycling behaviour on the stage of implementation the recycling system. PMID:20124319

Miafodzyeva, Sviatlana; Brandt, Nils; Olsson, Monika

2010-04-01

104

GNB battery recycling plant  

SciTech Connect

The most technologically and environmentally advanced recycling plant in the world has just been completed in Columbus, Georgia, according to GNB. GNB Technologies is a wholly owned subsidiary of Pacific Dunlop. With a capacity of 9 million spent batteries per year, or 30,000 batteries a day, this new $50 million dollar plant replaces GNB`s 35-year old recycling plant in Columbus and increases recycling capacity there five-fold. The new plant will not produce any hazardous waste or sulfur emissions and the operation continuously reuses process water, completely eliminating effluent. The plant produces sodium sulfate from the battery acid, creating a third marketable product besides plastic and lead.

Hopkins, G.E.

1995-08-01

105

Dragnet: Nonprofit Computer Recyclers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you have ever wondered what happens to obsolete computers, check out these current awareness Websites. The disposal of computers is classified as hazardous waste, which has become an environmental concern as the number of obsolete computers rises. In fact, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the State of Massachusetts have banned computer equipment from landfills. Dragnet: Nonprofit Computer Recyclers is an EPA-licensed computer recycling organization that reuses all acceptable components and systems or recycles damaged or unusable components. Rebuilt computer systems are given to "persons with disabilities and persons living in disadvantaged situations."

106

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium  

SciTech Connect

The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

2008-08-31

107

RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by  

E-print Network

NATIONAL RECYCLING RATE STUDY Prepared by: Smith, Bucklin and Associates, Inc. Market Research and Statistics Division Chicago, Illinois July 2003 PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER #12;BCI RECYCLING RATE STUDY TABLE ....................................................................................................1 II. METHODOLOGY A. Total Pounds of Lead Recycled from Batteries

Laughlin, Robert B.

108

Authorization Recycling in RBAC Systems  

E-print Network

Authorization Recycling in RBAC Systems 1Laboratory for Education and Research in Secure Systems ·motivation ·recycling approach recycling algorithms experimental evaluations summary & future work #12 issued before (precise recycling) #12;6 Laboratory for Education and Research in Secure Systems

109

RETHINKING WASTE, RECYCLING, AND HOUSEKEEPING  

E-print Network

RETHINKING WASTE, RECYCLING, AND HOUSEKEEPING EFFICIENCY.EFFICIENCY. A l GA leaner Green #12 t R li Management Recycling Staff The Office of Waste Reduction & Recycling started in The Office of Waste Reduction & Recycling started in 1990, we have 14 full time staff positions. ·We collect over 40

Howitt, Ivan

110

Nottingham Trent University Plastic Recycling  

E-print Network

5015/03/08 Nottingham Trent University Plastic Recycling Water and fizzy drinks bottles the caps from any bottles you recycle. Please rinse all plastic bottles and containers before putting them in the recycling bins. #12;5015/03/08 Nottingham Trent University Paper Recycling Office paper Catalogues

Evans, Paul

111

Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting  

SciTech Connect

A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R&D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility.

McKoon, R.

1993-11-01

112

Making Recycled Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 11 of the PDF, learners follow simple steps to recycle old newspaper into new paper. Use this activity to introduce conservation as well as the chemistry of cellulose and how paper products are made.

Society, American C.

2011-01-01

113

Geodynamics: Christmas recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms for forming the abundant volcanic islands on ocean floors are debated. The geochemical signature of volcanic rocks from the northeast Indian Ocean suggests that seamounts there formed from melting recycled ancient continental rocks.

Gibson, Sally A.

2011-12-01

114

Coming round to recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of people are trying to reduce and recycle their domestic waste, but hospitals have been slower to get the message. David Hutchins and Stuart White look at the potential environmental and financial benefits

David C J Hutchins; Stuart M White

2009-01-01

115

Fermilab recycler diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The Fermilab Recycler Ring is a permanent magnet storage ring for the storage and cooling of antiprotons. The following note describes the diagnostic tools currently available for commissioning, as well as the improvements and upgrades planned for the near future.

Martin Hu

2001-07-24

116

GNB battery recycling plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most technologically and environmentally advanced recycling plant in the world has just been completed in Columbus, Georgia, according to GNB. GNB Technologies is a wholly owned subsidiary of Pacific Dunlop. With a capacity of 9 million spent batteries per year, or 30,000 batteries a day, this new $50 million dollar plant replaces GNB`s 35-year old recycling plant in Columbus

1995-01-01

117

Recyclability Index for Automobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rating system was developed to quantify the environmental impacts of light-duty motor vehicles at the end of their life-cycle based on recyclability, toxic material content and ultimate disposal. Each year, 10-11 million vehicles are retired from service in the United States. The vehicle material not recycled is called automotive shredder residue (ASR). About 4.5 to 5 million tons of

Alexander Tsuji; Yarrow Nelson; Andrew Kean; Samuel A. Vigil

2006-01-01

118

Climate Kids: Recycle This!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The site features an online game in which participants keep recyclable items out of the trash by guiding them into proper bins. Accompanying the game is a list of three categories of items that can be recycled, along with the benefits of doing so. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

119

Recycling of nonmetallics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

1996-01-01

120

Reclamation of automotive batteries: Assessment of health impacts and recycling technology. Task 1: Assessment of recycling technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Approximately ten different candidate EV battery technologies were examined based on their performance and recyclability, and were ranked based on these examinations. The batteries evaluated were lead-acid (all types), nickel-cadmium, nickel-iron, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, sodium-nickel chloride, lithium-iron disulfide, lithium-ion, lithium polymer, and zinc (zinc-air and zinc-bromine). Locations of present recycling facilities were identified. Markets for recycled products were assessed: the value of recycled materials were found too unstable to fully support recycling efforts. All these batteries exhibit the characteristic of hazardous waste in California, and are therefore subject to strict regulations (finalization of the new EPA Universal Waste Rule could change this).

Unnasch, S.; Montano, M.; Franklin, P.; Nowell, G.; Martin, C.

1995-03-01

121

Outlook for recycling large and small batteries in the future  

SciTech Connect

Although there are many kinds and varieties of batteries, batteries can be subdivided into two basic types, large lead-acid batteries and small disposable batteries. Small cells contain different metals depending upon the configuration. These materials include iron, zinc, nickel, cadmium, manganese, mercury, silver, and potassium. Recycling these materials is not economically attractive. Most small batteries are thrown away and constitute a small fraction of municipal solid waste (perhaps 1/10%). There is no effective energy savings or economic incentive for recycling and, with the exception of Ni-Cad batteries, no significant environmental incentive. Any recycle scheme would require a significant reward (probably financial) to the consumer for returning the scrap battery. Without a reward, recovery is unlikely. Large batteries of the lead-acid type are composed of lead, acid, and plastic. There is an established recycle mechanism for lead-acid batteries which works quite well. The regulations written under the Hazardous and Solid Waste Disposal Amendments (1985) favor more recycling efforts by scrap metal operators. The reason for this is that recycled batteries are exempt from EPA regulation. If batteries are not recycled, any generator disposing of 6 or more batteries per month is required to have a special EPA license or premit. Currently, working against this incentive is a decreasing demand and low market price for lead which affects waste battery salvage.

Dodds, J.; Goldsberry, J.

1986-03-01

122

Scrap tire recycling  

SciTech Connect

As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

1997-03-01

123

Used batteries collection and recycling in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the European and other countries’ legislation, e.g. USA and Japan, used batteries and accumulators are regarded as hazardous waste. In connection with these regulations spent electrochemical power sources are separately collected and sent to recovery and recycling plants. In the highly developed countries yearly collection levels achieved in practice typically surpass 100g of spent batteries per inhabitant.In this

Z. Rogulski; A. Czerwi?ski

2006-01-01

124

Recycled Aluminum Ornaments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan from ATEEC will explain the principles of recycling. The activity would be most appropriate for technology studies or high school science classes. In all, it would require 2-5 hours of class time to complete. The purpose of the lesson is to demonstrate how aluminum is recycled. This laboratory activity does require some special equipment including a heat source capable of melting aluminum and an outdoor work area. Extension activities are also provided. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

Wishart, Ray

2013-06-14

125

Power recycling for an interferometric gravitational wave  

E-print Network

THESIS Power recycling for an interferometric gravitational wave detector Masaki Ando Department . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3.3 Power recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.3.1 Principle of power recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.3.2 Recycling cavity

Ejiri, Shinji

126

CONSTANS is a photoperiod regulated activator of flowering in sorghum  

PubMed Central

Background Sorghum genotypes used for grain production in temperate regions are photoperiod insensitive and flower early avoiding adverse environments during the reproductive phase. In contrast, energy sorghum hybrids are highly photoperiod sensitive with extended vegetative phases in long days, resulting in enhanced biomass accumulation. SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 contribute to photoperiod sensitivity in sorghum by repressing expression of SbEHD1 and FT-like genes, thereby delaying flowering in long days with minimal influence in short days (PNAS_108:16469-16474, 2011; Plant Genome_in press, 2014). The GIGANTEA (GI)-CONSTANS (CO)-FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) pathway regulates flowering time in Arabidopsis and the grasses (J Exp Bot_62:2453-2463, 2011). In long day flowering plants, such as Arabidopsis and barley, CONSTANS activates FT expression and flowering in long days. In rice, a short day flowering plant, Hd1, the ortholog of CONSTANS, activates flowering in short days and represses flowering in long days. Results Quantitative trait loci (QTL) that modify flowering time in sorghum were identified by screening Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from BTx642 and Tx7000 in long days, short days, and under field conditions. Analysis of the flowering time QTL on SBI-10 revealed that BTx642 encodes a recessive CONSTANS allele containing a His106Tyr substitution in B-box 2 known to inactivate CONSTANS in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analysis characterized sorghum CONSTANS as a floral activator that promotes flowering by inducing the expression of EARLY HEADING DATE 1 (SbEHD1) and sorghum orthologs of the maize FT genes ZCN8 (SbCN8) and ZCN12 (SbCN12). The floral repressor PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR PROTEIN 37 (PRR37) inhibits sorghum CONSTANS activity and flowering in long days. Conclusion Sorghum CONSTANS is an activator of flowering that is repressed post-transcriptionally in long days by the floral inhibitor PRR37, contributing to photoperiod sensitive flowering in Sorghum bicolor, a short day plant. PMID:24884377

2014-01-01

127

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Materials Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large variety of materials are recycled by different sectors of our society. The materials recycling that is mainly addressed in this writing is from waste that is generated after manufacturing and use. Included is recycling that is generally more obvio...

A. O. Tanner

1992-01-01

128

Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

2005-01-01

129

CHERRY: CHECKPOINTED EARLY RESOURCE RECYCLING  

E-print Network

1 2 3 CHERRY: CHECKPOINTED EARLY RESOURCE RECYCLING Jos´e F. Mart´inez1 , Jose Renau2 Michael C. Huang3 , Milos Prvulovic2 , and Josep Torrellas2 #12;Cherry: Checkpointed Early Resource Recycling efficient use by aggressive recycling Opportunity: Resources reserved until retirement § ¦ ¤ ¥ Solution

Torrellas, Josep

130

Fuels from Recycling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three systems, operating at sufficient scale, produce fuels that may be alternatives to oil and gas. These three recycling systems are: Black Clawson Fiberclaim, Franklin, Ohio; Union Carbide, South Charleston, West Virginia; and Union Electric, St. Louis, Missouri. These produce a wet fuel, a pyrolytic gas, and a dry fuel, respectively. (BT)

Tillman, David A.

1975-01-01

131

Recycle Your Own Paper!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 2 of PDF), learners will prepare sheets of homemade recycled paper from several different source pulps. Once dry, each sample will be drawn on with a marker to test how far ink spreads in the fibers of the different kinds of papers. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Garbology.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2007-01-01

132

Helium-Recycling Plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

Cook, Joseph

1996-01-01

133

Recycling Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide was designed to help teachers and students understand the problems surrounding solid wastes. It includes an overview of solid waste and recycling, a glossary, suggested activities and a list of resource publications, audiovisual materials and organizations. There are 19 activity suggestions included in this guide designed for use…

Hallowell, Anne; And Others

134

The Recycle Team.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides lessons that enable students to learn how important it is for each of us to take care of the environment by minimizing the problems caused by too much trash. In the 10 lessons included here, students and their families learn how they can be part of the solution by practicing source reduction and by reusing, recycling, and…

Scott, Roger; And Others

135

Glass recycling and reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods are surveyed for recycling and\\/or reusing post-consumer glass products to determine which methods are most favorable. The following topics are included: the properties of glass, glass manufacture; analyses of alternatives to direct disposal of glass products; reuse of waste glass for glass manufacture; techniques for the separation of glass from municipal refuse; the development of degradable glass containers; returnable

H. R. Samtur

1974-01-01

136

Recycling and Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains how Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky used recycled cypress from pickle vats to build its visitor center and then “paid back” nature by creating a cypress-tupelo swamp at one end of a lake on the park grounds.

Ket

2011-01-11

137

Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boys and girls, grab your nose-plugs because today we are going to be digging through some garbage! We use a lot of garbage; the average American throws away nearly four pounds everyday. That\\'s a whopping 1,600 pounds a year! That means that every year, EACH one of you toss enough trash to equal the weight of all the students in our class...COMBINED! That\\'s a lot of garbage. Our world is big, but you might not have realized just how small it really is when it comes to holding all this trash. Would you want garbage in your backyard? Your playground? The park? There\\'s only so many places to store our waste. So, what do we do? We RECYCLE! What Does It Mean To Recycle? Recycling is taking things we use and would normally through into the trash can and putting them in a separate container. Instead of going to the dump, it goes to a recycling plant. Things like paper, newspaper, cardboard, plastic, glass, and aluminum are all products ...

Nicole

2008-11-19

138

Computer Recycling Farm USA  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS conducted a study of plastic pollution at this rural US site in the Midwest.  The recycler was receiving computers from companies at a rate which greatly exceeded the capacity of the operation.  Approximately 50,000 computers remained outdoors on 15 acres for nearly a decade.  The site has sinc...

2010-08-13

139

Comparison of the recyclability of flame-retarded plastics.  

PubMed

Mechanical recycling of plastics from waste from electrical and electronical equipment (WEEE) is increasingly expected by regulators and demanded by original equipment manufacturers (CEMs); however, mechanical recycling is generally recognized to be the most economically costly and technically challenging method of recovering WEEE plastics. With 12% of WEEE plastics requiring the use of flame-retardants in order to ensure appropriate levels of consumer fire safety, there is a distinct need for data from comparative tests on recyclability of various flame-retarded plastics. Ten commercially available flame-retarded plastic grades commonly used in electronic equipment (eight "halogen-free" grades and two grades containing brominated flame-retardants (BFRs)) were subjected to two different recycling scenarios. A standard recycling scenario was carried out by repeatedly extruding the materials and an accelerated hydrolysis scenario was carried out to study the influence of humidity from air during use on the process. Both, virgin and recycled materials were tested for a potential formation of polybrominated dibenzodioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), their mechanical properties were assessed and the fire safety rating was determined. Results indicate that none of the tested materials showed a potential to form the PBDD/Fs regulated by the German Chemicals Banning Ordinance. The halogen-free plastic grades showed a significant deterioration of mechanical properties after recycling, whereas those plastics containing BFRs were able to pass all test criteria, thus maintaining their original properties. With respect to the fire safety rating, none of the eight tested halogen-free plastic grades could maintain their fire safety rating after five recycling loops, whereas both BFR plastics continued to achieve their fire safety ratings. Therefore the tested BFR containing plastic materials showed superior recycling properties compared to the tested halogen-free plastic grades with respect to all investigated parameters. PMID:12630485

Imai, Takaretu; Hamm, Stephan; Rothenbacher, Klaus P

2003-02-01

140

Reduce, Reuse, Recycle  

MedlinePLUS

... and Cleanup Pesticides Substances and Toxics Sustainable Practices Water Laws & Regulations By Business Sector Enforcement Policy and Guidance Regulations About EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy ...

141

Municipal solid waste recycling issues  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling targets have been set nationally and in many states. Unfortunately, the definitions of recycling, rates of recycling, and the appropriate components of MSW vary. MSW recycling has been found to be costly for most municipalities compared to landfill disposal. MSW recycling policy should be determined by the cost to the community and to society more generally. In particular, recycling is a good policy only if environmental impacts and the resources used to collect, sort, and recycle a material are less than the environmental impacts and resources needed to provide equivalent virgin material plus the resources needed to dispose of the postconsumer material safely. From a review of the existing economic experience with recycling and an analysis of the environmental benefits (including estimation of external social costs), the authors find that, for most communities, curbside recycling is only justifiable for some postconsumer waste, such as aluminum and other metals. They argue that alternatives to curbside recycling collection should be explored, including product takeback for products with a toxic content (such as batteries) or product redesign to permit more effective product remanufacture.

Lave, L.B.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Conway-Schempf, N.M.; McMichael, F.C. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1999-10-01

142

Understanding recycling behavior in Kentucky: Who recycles and why  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recycling behavior and the motivations behind recycling are being analyzed in a collaborative study between the Sloan Industry Center for a Sustainable Aluminum Industry, the Center for Aluminum Technology, Secat, and the Gatton College of Business and Economics at the University of Kentucky in Lexington. The goals of this study are to determine why people recycle and to find ways to motivate people to recycle more, using Fayette County, Kentucky, as a sample study. It is hoped that the information gathered through educational and motivational efforts in this county can be used on a larger scale in communities throughout the United States.

Morgan, Fred W.; Hughes, Margaret V.

2006-08-01

143

Recycling Bin Guide Locations and prices  

E-print Network

Recycling Bin Guide Locations and prices Metal Bins Deskside Bins with Side Saddle Rubbermaid Bins.58 for auxiliaries. And Non-Public Areas Public Offices Non-Public Recyclables Recyclables RecyclablesTrash Trash Trash #12;New Recycling Bin Guidelines Frequently Asked Questions (as of December 2008) · Why

Kirschner, Denise

144

Energy and Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy and Garbage is one section of a US Department of Energy's educational Web site for kids. Features of this Web site include a section detailing the connection between energy and garbage, a thorough introduction to the history of garbage that includes facts and figures on how much waste we produce, information on recycling and reducing garbage at the source, and much more. The information in this Web site is presented in a friendly, narrative style. A short downloadable activity titled Energy from Garbage, created by the National Energy Education Development Project, is also available (grades 4-6).

145

Recycled rubber roads  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

Not Available

1989-02-01

146

Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood  

E-print Network

Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated WoodDisposal problem Recycling potentialRecycling potential ValueValue--added productsadded products Closed loop recyclingClosed loop recycling #12;Major Current Disposal OptionsMajor Current Disposal Options Incineration

147

RECYCLING AND GENERAL WASTE MANAGEMENT OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

RECYCLING AND GENERAL WASTE MANAGEMENT OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services.6.1/1 Recycling & General Waste Management Department: Estates & Facilities Management Site: Swansea University recycling and waste management facilities in Swansea university To ensure that Waste Management Objectives

Harman, Neal.A.

148

The Economic Benefits of Recycling in Virginia  

E-print Network

The Economic Benefits of Recycling in Virginia Alexander P. Miller Hang T. Nguyen Samantha D, and the recycling contacts from the participating Solid Waste Planning Units discussed in this study. #12;3 Table Determinants of Recycling_______________________________ 12 State Reports

Lewis, Robert Michael

149

RECYCLING: SUPPLY, ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

RECYCLING: SUPPLY, ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENT, AND TECHNOLOGY Panel Discussion Roundtable Moderator: S, although higher market values for recyclable will certainly stimulate increased interest in collection in recycling and deinking technologies and process design among North American, European, and Pacific Rim

Abubakr, Said

150

Flooding and Recycling Authorizations Konstantin (Kosta) Beznosov  

E-print Network

Flooding and Recycling Authorizations Konstantin (Kosta) Beznosov Laboratory for Education delivery channels with speculatively pre- computed authorizations and actively recycling them on a just Security Keywords authorization recycling, authorization flooding, access con- trol, authorization, publish

151

16 CFR 260.12 - Recyclable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...otherwise recovered from the waste stream through an established recycling program for reuse or use...about the availability of recycling programs and collection sites to consumers. (1) When recycling facilities are available...

2013-01-01

152

16 CFR 260.12 - Recyclable claims.  

...otherwise recovered from the waste stream through an established recycling program for reuse or use...about the availability of recycling programs and collection sites to consumers. (1) When recycling facilities are available...

2014-01-01

153

Closed loop recycling of lead/acid batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional lead/acid battery is a recycleable product, irrespective whether it is of an automotive, traction or standby design. The product benefits from the traditional lead metallurgy that has been developed for both primary (mines) and secondary (recycling) smelting. Secondary smelting accounts for 60% of total lead production in Europe, and this market lead the most effectively metal. In secondary smelters, scrapped batteries are crushed and smelted. The polypropylene from the boxes is recycled to produce secondary plastic for battery, automotive, or other miscellaneous uses. The lead metal is refined to be re-used in the battery industry. The acid is retreated. Recycling requires a collection network. The lead/acid battery benefits from the traditional collection network that has been established for scrap-iron and non-ferrous metal scrap. In Western Europe, the recycling rate for scrapped batteries is estimated to be 80 to 90%. All participants in the battery recycling loop agree that the process must be a clean cycle for it to be credible. The collection organization is improving the quality of storage and transportation, especially with regard to the acid that can only be neutralized in correctly-controlled facilities, generally located at the smelters. The smelters themselves tend, through local regulations, to run at the optimum level of protection of the environment.

Bied-Charreton, B.

154

Impact of increased electric vehicle use on battery recycling infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

State and Federal regulations have been implemented that are intended to encourage more widespread use of low-emission vehicles. These regulations include requirements of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and regulations pursuant to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the Energy Policy Act. If the market share of electric vehicles increases in response to these initiatives, corresponding growth will occur in quantities of spent electric vehicle batteries for disposal. Electric vehicle battery recycling infrastructure must be adequate to support collection, transportation, recovery, and disposal stages of waste battery handling. For some battery types, such as lead-acid, a recycling infrastructure is well established; for others, little exists. This paper examines implications of increasing electric vehicle use for lead recovery infrastructure. Secondary lead recovery facilities can be expected to have adequate capacity to accommodate lead-acid electric vehicle battery recycling. However, they face stringent environmental constraints that may curtail capacity use or new capacity installation. Advanced technologies help address these environmental constraints. For example, this paper describes using backup power to avoid air emissions that could occur if electric utility power outages disable emissions control equipment. This approach has been implemented by GNB Technologies, a major manufacturer and recycler of lead-acid batteries. Secondary lead recovery facilities appear to have adequate capacity to accommodate lead waste from electric vehicles, but growth in that capacity could be constrained by environmental regulations. Advances in lead recovery technologies may alleviate possible environmental constraints on capacity growth.

Vimmerstedt, L.; Hammel, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Jungst, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-12-01

155

Cross-cultural comparison of concrete recycling decision-making and implementation in construction industry.  

PubMed

Waste management is pressing very hard with alarming signals in construction industry. Concrete waste constituents major proportions of construction and demolition waste of 81% in Australia. To minimize concrete waste generated from construction activities, recycling concrete waste is one of the best methods to conserve the environment. This paper investigates concrete recycling implementation in construction. Japan is a leading country in recycling concrete waste, which has been implementing 98% recycling and using it for structural concrete applications. Hong Kong is developing concrete recycling programs for high-grade applications. Australia is making relatively slow progress in implementing concrete recycling in construction. Therefore, empirical studies in Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan were selected in this paper. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. Power spectrum was used for analysis. It was found that "increasing overall business competitiveness and strategic business opportunities" was considered as the major benefit for concrete recycling from Hong Kong and Japanese respondents, while "rising concrete recycling awareness such as selecting suitable resources, techniques and training and compliance with regulations" was considered as the major benefit from Australian respondents. However, "lack of clients' support", "increase in management cost" and "increase in documentation workload, such as working documents, procedures and tools" were the major difficulties encountered from Australian, Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. To improve the existing implementation, "inclusion of concrete recycling evaluation in tender appraisal" and "defining clear legal evaluation of concrete recycling" were major recommendations for Australian and Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. PMID:19854634

Tam, Vivian W Y; Tam, Leona; Le, Khoa N

2010-02-01

156

The dynamics of recycled acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction in vivo.  

PubMed

At the peripheral neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a significant number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) recycle back into the postsynaptic membrane after internalization to intermingle with not-yet-internalized ;pre-existing' AChRs. However, the way in which these receptor pools are maintained and regulated at the NMJ in living animals remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that recycled receptors in functional synapses are removed approximately four times faster than pre-existing receptors, and that most removed recycled receptors are replaced by new recycled ones. In denervated NMJs, the recycling of AChRs is significantly depressed and their removal rate increased, whereas direct muscle stimulation prevents their loss. Furthermore, we show that protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors cause the selective accumulation of recycled AChRs in the peri-synaptic membrane without affecting the pre-existing AChR pool. The inhibition of serine/threonine phosphatases, however, has no effect on AChR recycling. These data show that recycled receptors are remarkably dynamic, and suggest a potential role for tyrosine dephosphorylation in the insertion and maintenance of recycled AChRs at the postsynaptic membrane. These findings may provide insights into long-term recycling processes at less accessible synapses in the central nervous system in vivo. PMID:17050625

Bruneau, Emile G; Akaaboune, Mohammed

2006-11-01

157

Cross-cultural comparison of concrete recycling decision-making and implementation in construction industry  

SciTech Connect

Waste management is pressing very hard with alarming signals in construction industry. Concrete waste constituents major proportions of construction and demolition waste of 81% in Australia. To minimize concrete waste generated from construction activities, recycling concrete waste is one of the best methods to conserve the environment. This paper investigates concrete recycling implementation in construction. Japan is a leading country in recycling concrete waste, which has been implementing 98% recycling and using it for structural concrete applications. Hong Kong is developing concrete recycling programs for high-grade applications. Australia is making relatively slow progress in implementing concrete recycling in construction. Therefore, empirical studies in Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan were selected in this paper. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. Power spectrum was used for analysis. It was found that 'increasing overall business competitiveness and strategic business opportunities' was considered as the major benefit for concrete recycling from Hong Kong and Japanese respondents, while 'rising concrete recycling awareness such as selecting suitable resources, techniques and training and compliance with regulations' was considered as the major benefit from Australian respondents. However, 'lack of clients' support', 'increase in management cost' and 'increase in documentation workload, such as working documents, procedures and tools' were the major difficulties encountered from Australian, Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. To improve the existing implementation, 'inclusion of concrete recycling evaluation in tender appraisal' and 'defining clear legal evaluation of concrete recycling' were major recommendations for Australian and Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively.

Tam, Vivian W.Y., E-mail: vivianwytam@gmail.co [School of Engineering, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 1797 (Australia); Tam, Leona [College of Business and Public Administration, 2151 Constant Hall, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Le, Khoa N. [School of Engineering, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 1797 (Australia)

2010-02-15

158

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Oakwood Apartments Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the outside

Sibille, Etienne

159

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Brackenridge Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom

Sibille, Etienne

160

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Lothrop Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashrooms. Paper

Sibille, Etienne

161

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Darragh Street Apartments Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled

Sibille, Etienne

162

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Forbes-Craig Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the outside toters

Sibille, Etienne

163

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered McCormick Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom

Sibille, Etienne

164

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing s Plastics Numbered Litchfield Towers Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom

Sibille, Etienne

165

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Pennsylvania Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom

Sibille, Etienne

166

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Sutherland Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom

Sibille, Etienne

167

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing and Food Plastics Numbered Forbes Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom

Sibille, Etienne

168

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Ruskin Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashrooms. Paper

Sibille, Etienne

169

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Fraternity Houses Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the outside

Sibille, Etienne

170

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Centre Plaza Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled by the elevators. Paper

Sibille, Etienne

171

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Panther Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom. Paper

Sibille, Etienne

172

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Bruce Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the laundry room. Paper

Sibille, Etienne

173

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Bouquet Gardens Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the outside toters

Sibille, Etienne

174

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Amos Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the kitchen. Paper

Sibille, Etienne

175

PITT RECYCLES! *Please empty cans!  

E-print Network

for one of these numbers! Clear glass Green glass Brown glass Blue glass *Please empty containers! Other Plastics Paper Glass Ink cartridges Batteries Cell Phones Can be recycled at drop-off boxes around campus of Housing Plastics Numbered Holland Hall Metals, Glass and Plastics can be recycled in the trashroom. Paper

Sibille, Etienne

176

Recycled Wind: A Sound Installation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycled Wind is a sound installation in which a visitor's breath is emulated mechanically. Sensors detect the breath and trigger small fans, which blow sound-making objects such as wind chimes and leaves. Like the wind itself, the chimes and leaves are emulated, constructed of recycled materials such as jar lids and grocery bags.

Adam Scott Neal

177

Tritium recycling (processing) facility design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maintenance of a nuclear weapons capability requires the periodic replacement of tritium contained in each of the weapons in the nuclear weapons stockpile because the radioactive decay of tritium reduces its quantity by about 5.5 percent per year. The Tritium Recycling Plant (TRP) performs the activities necessary to recover, purify, and recycle tritium returned from the field. Tritium is

J. Metzler; T. Le

1995-01-01

178

Review Article: Recycling of Polystyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of polystyrene can be done by mechanical, chemical, and thermal methods. High impact polystyrene is a promising material for mechanical recycling since its properties are not extremely affected even after multiple processing of upto nine cycles. Production of liquid products and gaseous products are highly dependent on the reaction condition. The catalysts used are highly selective for the production

T. Maharana; Y. S. Negi; B. Mohanty

2007-01-01

179

TOMATO CLEANING AND WATER RECYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

A full-scale dump tank water recycle system was developed and demonstrated. A false bottom-ejector transport system removed soil from the water. Clarified water was either recycled back to the dump tank or discharged to the sewer. A vacuum belt was developed for dewatering the mu...

180

Management and performance of Taiwan's waste recycling fund.  

PubMed

Taiwan's resource recycling program was formally established in 1989, starting with the mandatory recycling of polyethylene terephthalate bottles. The number of mandatory regulated materials was extended to 8 categories with 27 items by 2002. Because of false data reporting, financial scandal, lack of transparency of the system, and the demand from parliament, the recycling policy has gradually changed from entirely privatized to being nationalized. Currently, the structure is built on six main bodies: fund management committee, consumers, industries responsible, recyclers, fee reviewing committee, and auditing agents. The industries that are responsible submit a fee, which is set by the fee reviewing committee, to the waste recycling fund (WRF), which is operated by the fund management committee. The auditing agents routinely check the responsible industries by documentation review as well as on-site counting to ensure that the fee is correctly submitted. The WRF provides initiatives to collect and dispose of the end-of-life products. The fund is split into a trust fund and a nonbusiness fund to deal with the collection, disposal, and treatment of the listed materials. The latter deals with the supporting works and ensures that the system runs effectively. The ratio of trust fund to nonbusiness fund is 80-20%. It is no doubt that the current practice achieves some improvements. Household waste has been reduced by 22%. And, most importantly, the benefit-to-cost ratio was as high as 1.24. However, similar to other state-owned systems, the resource recycling program has been criticized for false reporting from the responsible industries, a rigid system, and complicated procedures. To build a sustainable enterprise, the recycling program should be privatized as the recycling market and operating procedures are well established and fully mature. PMID:15991666

Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Lin, Chun-Hsu; Chang, Tien-Chin

2005-05-01

181

Exploring Waste and Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by Eleanor Camann of Red Rocks Community College, will introduce students to the concept of sustainability in terms of waste products and recycling practices. The overall premise of the project is to "get students to think critically about which earth materials are used to make things, and where all the waste from both mining and consumption ends up." The activity employs skills in basic mathematics, reasoning and writing. It also crosses disciplines by implementing skills in environmental geology and science. The learning activity only takes about two hours of in-class time and an additional three outside of the classroom. It uses simple materials such as a calculator, periodic table, household scale and digital camera. Lessons plans such as these are supported by a grant under the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program.

Camann, Eleanor

2010-11-09

182

Environmentally acceptable recycling in Europe  

SciTech Connect

The modern concept of ecologically sound recycling is to ensure, as far as possible, effective use or reuse of all materials arising during the production of a component, and also the component itself at the end of its useful life. The recycling circle is well established for widely used metals such as iron and steel, aluminium and zinc. However, for magnesium, although recycled secondary scrap was a major input into magnesium casting production in the 1950`s recycling of this type of material back to components is currently almost nonexistent. The current rapid growth in use of magnesium die castings by the automotive industry will eventually result in a significant growth in availability of secondary magnesium scrap, which will present new challenges and opportunities to the skillful recyclers. However this has not yet happened, and the major preoccupation of most recyclers is to satisfy the demands of the growing die-casting industry, balancing the triple requirements of: (1) recycling or disposing of all products arising from the die-casting operation at a price, or cost, perceived as fair by the die caster; (2) satisfying our public demands to safeguard the environment in terms of emissions, effluents and disposal to land fill; and (3) establishing and maintaining a viable business activity while satisfying (1) and (2). It is to this area that the remainder of this paper is dedicated.

King, J.F. [Magnesium Elektron, Manchester (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

183

Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it may be possible to divert the majority of plastic waste from landfills to recycling over the next decades. PMID:19528059

Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

2009-07-27

184

Lead recycling via rotary furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The lead-acid battery recycling industry was seriously affected during the 1980s by increasing environmental protection costs and poor lead prices. The process is now being repeated in the 1990s causing further difficulties for recyclers. In Europe, many lead-acid battery recycling plants use rotary furnaces. The Darley Dale smelter, redeveloped between 1984--87, uses only rotary furnaces. A review of options for this plant has been completed and concluded in favor of further investment to exploit more fully the benefits of rotary furnace technology.

Suttie, A.B. [H.J. Enthoven and Sons, Matlock (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

185

Recycling and Life Cycle Issues  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses recycling and life cycle considerations related to the growing use of lightweight materials in vehicles. The chapter first addresses the benefit of a life cycle perspective in materials choice, and the role that recycling plays in reducing energy inputs and environmental impacts in a vehicle s life cycle. Some limitations of life cycle analysis and results of several vehicle- and fleet-level assessments are drawn from published studies. With emphasis on lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites, the status of the existing recycling infrastructure and technological challenges being faced by the industry also are discussed.

Das, Sujit [ORNL

2010-01-01

186

The Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A student hand-out for a recycling unit defines the terms reduce, recycle, and reuse as they relate to solid waste management. Presents the characteristics of recyclable items such as yard wastes, metals, glass, and paper. Lists organizations through which more information about recycling can be obtained. (MCO)

Science Activities, 1991

1991-01-01

187

Waste Toolkit A-Z Battery recycling  

E-print Network

Waste Toolkit A-Z Battery recycling How can I recycle batteries? The University Safety Office make their own arrangements through a registered hazardous waste carrier. Batteries must not be put in normal waste bins or recycling boxes. To recycle batteries, select either option 1 or 2 below: Option 1

Melham, Tom

188

RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED  

E-print Network

RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED Batteries, toner, ink cartridges & cell phones and recycling is an important part of that effort. Below is a guide to on-campus recycling at RSMAS: Visit http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/msgso/ for map of recycling bin locations. NOTE: This is not an exhaustive list. If unauthorized items are found

Miami, University of

189

Ink and Toner Recycling Rewards Program Overview  

E-print Network

Ink and Toner Recycling Rewards Program Overview www.MyBusinessRecycles.com April 2013 #12;Program Overview · All BSD contract customers can participate in the MyBusinessRecycles program · Customers located in AK, HI or PR are not currently eligible. ­ Education sector customers should join the Recycling Rules

Meyers, Steven D.

190

The Environment Team to Waste & Recycling  

E-print Network

The Environment Team A-Z Guide to Waste & Recycling www.le.ac.uk/environment #12;Welcome ...to the University of Leicester's `A-Z Guide to Waste and Recycling'. Over the last 3 years, the Environment Team has introduced an award- winning recycling scheme across the campus that allows us to recycle paper, plastics

St Andrews, University of

191

Status of antiproton accumulation and cooling at Fermilab's Recycler  

SciTech Connect

The Recycler ring is an 8 GeV permanent magnet storage ring where antiprotons are accumulated and prepared for Fermilab's Tevatron Collider program. With the goal of maximizing the integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments, storing, cooling and extracting antiprotons with high efficiency has been pursued. Over the past two years, while the average accumulation rate doubled, the Recycler continued to operate at a constant level of performance thanks to changes made to the Recycler Electron Cooler (energy stability and regulation, electron beam optics), RF manipulations and operating procedures. In particular, we discuss the current accumulation cycle in which {approx} 400 x 10{sup 10} antiprotons are accumulated and extracted to the Tevatron every {approx}15 hours.

Prost, L.R.; Bhat, C.M.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Carlson, K.; Crisp, J.; Derwent, P.; Eddy, N.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Pruss, S.; /Fermilab

2009-08-01

192

Progress reported in PET recycling  

SciTech Connect

The Goodyear Polyester Division has demonstrated its ability to break down polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from recycled plastic soft drink bottles and remanufacture the material into PET suitable for containers. Most people are familiar with PET in the form of lightweight, shatter resistant beverage bottles. About 20 percent of these beverage containers currently are being recycled. The recycled PET is currently used in many applications such as carpeting, pillow stuffing, sleeping bag filling, insulation for water heaters and non-food containers. This is the first step of Goodyear's increased efforts to recycle PET from containers into a material suitable for food packing. The project is extremely complex, involving sophisticated understanding of the chemical reactions involved, PET production and the technology testing protocols necessary to design a process that addresses all the technical, safety, and regulatory concerns. The research conducted so far indicated that additional processing beyond simply cleaning the shredded material, called flake, will be required to assure a quality polymer.

Not Available

1989-06-01

193

Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?  

PubMed

Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling. PMID:25127654

Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

2014-01-01

194

Disposal, Degradation, and Recycling; Bioplastics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone is familiar with plastic waste. We throw away large volumes of it, at home, at school, at work, at fast food restaurants, on vacation. Much of it ends up in the trash. We see some of it as litter along the sides of roads, streams and lakes, and floating up on beaches. We probably recycle some used plastics, although how much depends upon where we live. In many localities, only items produced from PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and HDPE (high-density polyethylene) are collected for recycling. Why don't we recycle more of it? Why not LDPE (low-density polyethylene) and polystyrene? And what happens to it when we do? We'll develop some basic principles in this chapter on some of the avenues that help us follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's advice to "reduce, reuse, recycle."

Teegarden, David

2004-01-01

195

Make Your Own Recycled Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how paper is made. Working together, student teams make their own paper. This activity introduces students to recycling; what it is, its value and benefits, and how it affects their lives.

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

196

Molecular Modeling at Plastic Recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility to model the new materials from recycled, post industrial polymer rejects by molecular modeling methods was investigated by comparison of the results obtained from the simulation process and the experiments.

Martinelli, Laura; Sinesi, Sabino; Toaldo, Alessio Baron; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Posocco, Paola; Szczurek, Tomasz; Kozlowski, Marek

2007-04-01

197

New approaches to recycling tires  

SciTech Connect

Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

Spencer, R.

1991-03-01

198

National Recycling Directory. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The directory focuses on manufacturers and/or distributors of products made from waste materials. Companies listed in the directory manufacture products which contain some recycled or recovered material. The directory consists of separate sections for the types of recycled materials used: glass, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, paper, plastic, rubber, and textiles. The states are listed alphabetically within each subsection, and the companies are listed alphabetically under the state in which they are located.

Not Available

1982-01-01

199

Recycling Policies for Consumer Durables  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The previous chapter dealt with solid consumption waste and the associated disposal costs. In doing so, we have implicitly\\u000a assumed that the disposal cost function also reflects the recycling of the durable consumption goods (e.g. on p. 89). Of course,\\u000a such a modeling is rather abstract since it makes explicit neither the productivity of the recycled material in the production

Marco Runkel

200

Framework for Building Design Recyclability  

E-print Network

contractors sort waste and transport them to transfer stations or just send all the waste to transfer centers without sorting. 2.2.2 Transfer Stations Regardless of the method used to collect the recyclables, the next leg of their journey is usually... to the use of transfer stations in which the waste is transferred to large-capacity transfer trailers the trailers are then hauled to the landfill. Recyclables collected on site Specific transfer stations Big transfer centers Manufacturing...

Zhang, Fan

2008-01-01

201

Recycling in the Encyclopedia 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Re-cycling' is the principle that concepts are 're-cycled' rather than duplicated. At the interface between the encyclopedia and the lexicon, this means that a concept may serve both as the meaning of a word and also as part of ordinary non-linguistic cognition; for example, the ordinary concept 'bicycle' which we use in everyday life in classifying experiences is also the

Richard Hudson; Jasper Holmes

202

Key recycling in authentication  

E-print Network

In their seminal work on authentication, Wegman and Carter propose that to authenticate multiple messages, it is sufficient to reuse the same hash function as long as each tag is encrypted with a one-time pad. They argue that because the one-time pad is perfectly hiding, the hash function used remains completely unknown to the adversary. Since their proof is not composable, we revisit it using a composable security framework. It turns out that the above argument is insufficient: if the adversary learns whether a corrupted message was accepted or rejected, information about the hash function is leaked, and after a bounded finite amount of rounds it is completely known. We show however that this leak is very small: Wegman and Carter's protocol is still $\\epsilon$-secure, if $\\epsilon$-almost strongly universal$_2$ hash functions are used. This implies that the secret key corresponding to the choice of hash function can be reused in the next round of authentication without any additional error than this $\\epsilon$. We also show that if the players have a mild form of synchronization, namely that the receiver knows when a message should be received, the key can be recycled for any arbitrary task, not only new rounds of authentication.

Christopher Portmann

2012-02-06

203

Recycled Materials Affirmative Procurement Tracking System (RMAPTS). Software user`s manual  

SciTech Connect

RMAPTS is designed to interact with other computer systems. This system can upload or download data from other RMAPTS systems. RMAPTS also complies with Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs). Section 6002 of the Resource Conservation of Recovery Act (RCRA), Title 40 Part 247-25 of the Code of Federal Regulations, and Executive Order 12780 present mandates and guidelines to the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors for the procurement of products containing recycled materials. These regulations promote cost-effective waste reduction and recovery of reusable materials from Federally generated waste; promote environmentally sound and economically efficient waste reduction and recycling of the nation`s resources; and stimulate private sector markets through preferential procurement of designated items. On August 4, 1992, the Deputy Secretary of the Department of Energy requested DOE to show its commitment to Executive Order 12780, Federal Agency Recycling and Procurement Policy. This software was developed in response to this request. RMAPTS will allow users to track and report specific data concerning the procurement of products that contain recycled material and the quantity of recycled material contained in each product. This system provides greater detail, improved accuracy, and less time spent on year-end reporting. Users can quickly check the year-to-date status of recycled material purchases and recycled material contents of products at any time.

Not Available

1994-07-01

204

Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

Jungst, R.G.

1997-09-01

205

Greywater recycling systems in Germany--results, experiences and guidelines.  

PubMed

Although Germany is not considered a water-poor country, there exist regional differences in water supply and consumption. During the past 15 years, the greywater aspect has been dealt with in Germany with a greater interest and variable success. In addition to an increased environmental awareness, water costs also play an important role in increasing the demand for advanced greywater treatment plants nstalled in buildings. Under favourable conditions, the amortisation costs usually lie between 5 and 7 years. Systems that have been extensively tried and tested and have been shown to be most reliable are those employing an advanced biological treatment followed by an UV disinfection. Systems based on membrane technology are being developed and researched intensively in Germany for municipal wastewater treatment. However, so far they play no role in greywater recycling. Greywater systems operating under low energy and maintenance requirements without the use of chemicals are mostly favoured. In Germany, greywater recycling systems should be registered at the Health Office in order to guarantee that no cross-connections exist with the drinking water network and that pipes are labelled according to regulations. The hygienic requirements for recycled greywater, which is primarily used for toilet flushing, are oriented towards the EU-Guidelines for Bathing Waters. The use of recycled greywater for irrigation purposes is minor. As to the use of recycled water for laundry, the first promising investigation results are now available. PMID:16104423

Nolde, E

2005-01-01

206

RDS and Recycling Waste Diversion in Food Prep  

E-print Network

RDS and Recycling Waste Diversion in Food Prep Setting #12;Why Recycle? Recycling saves resources Recycling one ton of paper saves 17 trees! Recycling saves energy Recycling one aluminum can saves enough energy to power a television for 3 hours! Recycling is easy There are 4 waste categories here at UM

Awtar, Shorya

207

50 Simple Things Kids Can Do To Recycle. California Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides 50 recycling ideas for children and features Recycle Rex, the state of California's "spokesdinosaur" for recycling. An introduction contains recycling background information on waste disposal options and reducing, reusing, and recycling. Recycling suggestions are divided into nine sections: (1) "Learn What You Can Recycle"…

Javna, John

208

Exocytosis and cell polarity in plants - exocyst and recycling domains.  

PubMed

In plants, exocytosis is a central mechanism of cell morphogenesis. We still know surprisingly little about some aspects of this process, starting with exocytotic vesicle formation, which may take place at the trans-Golgi network even without coat assistance, facilitated by the local regulation of membrane lipid organization. The RabA4b guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), recruiting phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase to the trans-Golgi network, is a candidate vesicle formation organizer. However, in plant cells, there are obviously additional endosomal source compartments for secretory vesicles. The Rho/Rop GTPase regulatory module is central for the initiation of exocytotically active domains in plant cell cortex (activated cortical domains). Most plant cells exhibit several distinct plasma membrane domains, established and maintained by endocytosis-driven membrane recycling. We propose the concept of a 'recycling domain', uniting the activated cortical domain and the connected endosomal compartments, as a dynamic spatiotemporal entity. We have recently described the exocyst tethering complex in plant cells. As a result of the multiplicity of its putative Exo70 subunits, this complex may belong to core regulators of recycling domain organization, including the generation of multiple recycling domains within a single cell. The conventional textbook concept that the plant secretory pathway is largely constitutive is misleading. PMID:19496948

Zárský, Viktor; Cvrcková, Fatima; Potocký, Martin; Hála, Michal

2009-01-01

209

The recycling and disposal of electrical and electronic waste in China-legislative and market responses  

SciTech Connect

The development of new legislation on collection, recycling and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) as well as the scaling-up and privatisation of the WEEE processing industry, are indications of major changes for WEEE management in China. However, China's attempts to regulate the industry and establish a financially viable, environmentally benign and safe WEEE management system are facing significant challenges. The existence of an extensive informal sector, combined with a lack of environmental awareness among WEEE collectors, recyclers and consumers, are contributing to China's difficulties in developing a financially and environmentally sound recycling and disposal system. This paper discusses the current status of WEEE recycling and disposal in China, and its impacts on the environment, human health, and the economy. It also examines the legislative and market responses to the WEEE issue, and how these will be affected by Chinese attitudes and practices towards WEEE recycling.

Hicks, C. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Sino-German Technical Cooperation Programme 'Environment Oriented Enterprise Consultancy Zhejiang' (EECZ), 306 Wen Yi Rd., Room 617, Hangzhou, 310012, Zhejiang (China)]. E-mail: charlotte@eecz.org; Dietmar, R. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Sino-German Technical Cooperation Programme 'Environment Oriented Enterprise Consultancy Zhejiang' (EECZ), 306 Wen Yi Rd., Room 617, Hangzhou, 310012, Zhejiang (China)]. E-mail: dietmar@eecz.org; Eugster, M. [ETechnology and Society Lab., Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland)]. E-mail: martin.eugster@empa.ch

2005-07-15

210

Biogeochemical Recycling on Aerosol Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace elements are recycled on sea-salt particles that are produced and later re-deposited in the surface ocean. This recycling process involves aluminum, iron, and other elements commonly associated with mineral dust. Non-crustal Al can amount to as much as ~ 30% of the total aerosol Al at Bermuda, but this occurs only during a few months of the year when the dust concentrations and deposition rates are low. Simple model calculations suggest that ~15 to 20% of the total Al dry deposition during December and January can be attributed to recycled sea salt, but when dust concentrations are higher, recycling accounts for only ~ 1% of the Al dry deposition. Non-crustal/non-sea salt (NC/NSS) sources account for > 70% of the aerosol Sb, Se, V, and Zn, but differences in the dry deposition velocities for particles of different sizes are such that the amount of Sb and Se recycled on sea spray approaches or exceeds their new inputs to the open ocean from dust and the NC/NSS sources. More recently, recycling on aerosol particles has been found to occur in other environments, including the deserts in the southwestern USA. In this case, the recycling of radionuclides released during nuclear weapons tests many years ago occurs via the resuspension of contaminated soil particles. Studies conducted near Carlsbad, NM have shown that the temporal variability in ^{239,240}Pu and ^{241}Am activities tracks that of Al, a mineral dust indictor, in aerosol samples. Analyses of soil samples from various sites have shown that plutonium is released from the particles by chemical procedures developed for removing iron oxides from mineral particles; this implies that the dust/plutonium relationship is mediated by iron oxides.

Arimoto, R.; Stewart, B.; Khaing, H.; Tatro, D. P.

2006-12-01

211

Recycling of plastics in Germany  

SciTech Connect

This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO{sub 2} abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO{sub 2}, representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling.

Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.

1999-07-01

212

Mercury recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reclamation and recycling of mercury from used mercury- containing products and treatment of byproduct mercury from gold mining is vital to the continued, though declining, use of this metal. Mercury is reclaimed from mercury-containing waste by treatment in multistep high-temperature retorts-the mercury is volatized and then condensed for purification and sale. Some mercury-containing waste, however, may be landfilled, and landfilled material represents loss of a recyclable resource and a threat to the environment. Related issues include mercury disposal and waste management, toxicity and human health, and regulation of mercury releases in the environment. End-users of mercury-containing products may face fines and prosecution if these products are improperly recycled or not recycled. Local and State environmental regulations require adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act to regulate generation, treatment, and disposal of mercury-containing products. In the United States, several large companies and a number of smaller companies collect these products from a variety of sources and then reclaim and recycle the mercury. Because mercury has not been mined as a principal product in the United States since 1992, mercury reclamation from fabricated products has become the main source of mercury. Principal product mercury and byproduct mercury from mining operations are considered to be primary materials. Mercury may also be obtained as a byproduct from domestic or foreign gold-processing operations. In the early 1990s, U.S. manufacturers used an annual average that ranged from 500 to 600 metric tons of recycled and imported mercury for fabrication of automobile convenience switches, dental amalgam, fluorescent lamps, medical uses and thermometers, and thermostats. The amount now used for fabrication is estimated to be 200 metric tons per year or less. Much of the data on mercury is estimated because it is a low-volume commodity and its production, use, and disposal is difficult to track. The prices and volumes of each category of mercury-containing material may change dramatically from year to year. For example, the average price of mercury was approximately $150 per flask from 2000 until 2003 and then rose sharply to $650 per flask in fall 2004 and approximately $850 per flask in spring 2005. Since 1927, the common unit for measuring and pricing mercury has been the flask in order to conform to the system used at Almaden, Spain (Meyers, 1951). One flask weighs 34.5 kilograms, and 29 flasks of mercury are contained in a metric ton. In the United States, the chlorine-caustic soda industry, which is the leading end-user of elemental mercury, recycles most of its mercury in-plant as home scrap. Annual purchases of replacement mercury by the chlorine-caustic soda industry indicate that some mercury may be lost through evaporation to the environment, put into a landfill as industrial waste, or trapped within pipes in the plant. Impending closure of domestic and foreign mercury-cell chlorine-caustic soda plants and the shift to nonmercury technology for chlorine-caustic soda production could ultimately result in a significant volume of elemental mercury for recycling, sale, or storage. Globally, mercury is widely used in artisanal, or small-scale, gold mining. Most of that mercury is lost to the environment and is not recycled. The recycling rate for mercury was not available owing to insufficient data in 2000, and the efficiency of mercury recycling was estimated to be 62 percent.

Brooks, William E.; Matos, Grecia R.

2005-01-01

213

RAB-10 Is Required for Endocytic Recycling in the Caenorhabditis elegans IntestineD?  

PubMed Central

The endocytic pathway of eukaryotes is essential for the internalization and trafficking of macromolecules, fluid, membranes, and membrane proteins. One of the most enigmatic aspects of this process is endocytic recycling, the return of macromolecules (often receptors) and fluid from endosomes to the plasma membrane. We have previously shown that the EH-domain protein RME-1 is a critical regulator of endocytic recycling in worms and mammals. Here we identify the RAB-10 protein as a key regulator of endocytic recycling upstream of RME-1 in polarized epithelial cells of the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine. rab-10 null mutant intestinal cells accumulate abnormally abundant RAB-5-positive early endosomes, some of which are enlarged by more than 10-fold. Conversely most RME-1-positive recycling endosomes are lost in rab-10 mutants. The abnormal early endosomes in rab-10 mutants accumulate basolaterally recycling transmembrane cargo molecules and basolaterally recycling fluid, consistent with a block in basolateral transport. These results indicate a role for RAB-10 in basolateral recycling upstream of RME-1. We found that a functional GFP-RAB-10 reporter protein is localized to endosomes and Golgi in wild-type intestinal cells consistent with a direct role for RAB-10 in this transport pathway. PMID:16394106

Chen, Carlos Chih-Hsiung; Schweinsberg, Peter J.; Vashist, Shilpa; Mareiniss, Darren P.; Lambie, Eric J.; Grant, Barth D.

2006-01-01

214

National Center for Electronics Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Used cellphones and laptops can't go in the recycling with the empty soda cans and cereal boxes. So where do they go to be recycled once consumers find new ones? The National Center for Electronics Recycling (NCER) is working on that very problem. Visitors can click on the "Ecycling Basics" tab on the left side of the page to be taken to links to three websites that allow you to search by zip code or an interactive map of the U.S. In the "Resources" tab on the left side of the page, there are many links to resources that include Advocacy Group Reports, Electronics Disposal Studies, Environmentally Sound Management Guidelines, and International documents. Visitors interested in keeping up with the news from NCER, can sign up for their newsletter in the Google groups box, which is located below the menu on the left side of the page.

215

Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximizing the reclamation\\/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is

Jungst

1997-01-01

216

Collection and recycling of portable batteries: a worldwide overview compared to the Brazilian situation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the world there is no doubt about the increasing importance of recycling and the connected issue of sustainable development. In Brazil the new 2000 regulations have prompted society to discuss the future of spent batteries. Worldwide, different battery collection systems and recycling processes have been applied in the last 10 years. This paper presents the options applied in Europe and in the USA and compares the world situation to the current Brazilian reality.

Moura Bernardes, Andréa; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares

217

The recyclability of lead alloys  

SciTech Connect

In 1996, the production of battery lead and alloys from the recycle industry was 3 times the Primary lead production in the United States. The Buick Resource Recovery Center of the Doe Run Lead Company at a capacity of 90,000 tons per year is one of 25 plants recycling lead metal in the United States. This plant was commissioned in 1991 and has been running with a 0.30 Lost Time Accident rate per 200,000 hours of work. The paper delineates and ranks the cost of treating various impurities found in lead.

Worcester, A.W.; Sankovitch, M.J. [Doe Run Co., Herculaneum, MO (United States)

1997-12-01

218

Recycler short kicker beam impedance  

SciTech Connect

Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

2009-07-01

219

Process to recycle shredder residue  

DOEpatents

A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

Jody, Bassam J. (Chicago, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL); Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Channahon, IL)

2001-01-01

220

A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

221

Automobile Recycling Policy: Findings and Recommendations  

E-print Network

This report focuses on recycling. As an objective neutral party, MIT has compiled a knowledge base that examines the many complex issues relating to re-cycling. Although this report was prepared at the request of the ...

Field, Frank

222

Food Service Recycling: Whose Responsibility Is It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The food service department at a Pennsylvania school district recycles polystyrene "styrofoam" cups, plates, and food trays. In addition, the department recycles glass, aluminum, and paper. Offers advice on how to set up a school program. (MLF)

Settanni, Barbara

1990-01-01

223

Converting Garbage to Gold: Recycling Our Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling conserves energy, fights pollution and inflation, creates jobs, and improves the outlook for the future of materials. But converting a throwaway society to recycling will depend on finding good markets for waste paper and scrap metals. (RM)

Chandler, William U.

1984-01-01

224

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study  

E-print Network

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California

225

75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...developments, including the recycling of electronic products...Currently, most discarded consumer electronics end up in...caused by electronic waste, American businesses...their use and eventual recycling, recovery, and disposal...leads as a responsible consumer, my...

2010-11-19

226

Compositional evaluation of asphalt binder recycling agents  

E-print Network

new asphalt binder. The high temperature Superpave TM Performance Grade (PG) specifications for recycled asphalt binders were found to be highly dependent on the aged asphalt. In addition, as the amount of saturates in the aromatic recycling agent...

Madrid, Richard Charles

2012-06-07

227

Waste Management and Recycling in Lab Batteries can be recycled in the VWR stockroom  

E-print Network

Waste Management and Recycling in Lab · Batteries can be recycled in the VWR stockroom · Electronic odors and collect the first rinse with its associated hazardous waste stream), remove or deface recycle it! · MIT recycled 2773 tons of waste in 2010 · Remember b onl hat o need!· Remember buy only what

Cohen, Robert E.

228

What Makes a Recycler?A Comparison of Recyclers and Nonrecyclers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge and motivational factors represent important but neglected topics in the study of recycling behavior. This article examines differences in knowledge, motives, and demographic characteristics of people who have the opportunity to recycle voluntarily. Information on these variables was obtained for 197 households in Illinois. The results indicated that recyclers in general were more aware of publicity about recycling and

Joanne Vining; Angela Ebreo

1990-01-01

229

Welcome new and returning residents! Help us make USC greener by recycling! Your Room Recycling Bin  

E-print Network

Recycling will take only a few minutes but will have a profound impact on the environment. MIXED PAPER White.housing.sc.edu/sus_about.html All recycling centers look something like this. Have you found yours yet? #12;What to Recycle? Recycling an aluminum can uses only 5% as much energy as it does to make one from raw materials. GLASS Clear

Almor, Amit

230

School Recycling Programs: A Handbook for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure describes some of the many recycling program options that schools can implement in their communities. It focuses on implementing actual recycling projects as a way of teaching the importance and benefits of recycling. The text examines the solid waste crisis and why Americans cannot continue to possess a disposable mentality. It…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

231

Super recycled water: quenching January 30, 2014  

E-print Network

purifying" wastewater, plus recycling waste to replace concrete We know water is a precious resource purifying" this water, which is then reused in the cooling towers that support our high performance- 1 - Super recycled water: quenching computers January 30, 2014 Conserving, recycling and "super

232

Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

Ryan Ott

2012-09-05

233

Chapter 3 The Global Water Recycling Situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter gives an overview of the current situation of water recycling in the world. Starting from the history of wastewater recycling, the objectives for recycling in the 21st century are identified. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. An overview of existing projects will be given for

B. Van der Bruggen

2010-01-01

234

Recycling Technology: Can It Be Taught?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the content of a seminar-type engineering course dealing with materials reutilization (recycling). The course, consisting of lecture and discussion by various faculty and outside experts as well as student presentations of research papers on recycling topics, is intended to investigate current areas in which recycling of…

Clum, James A.; Loper, Carl R., Jr.

235

Recycled Office Paper: Why It Costs More.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses obstacles to making recycled office paper cheaper. Explains how the economics of recycled office paper discourages recycling by commodity mills. Includes discussion of integrated and nonintegrated mills, commodity and specialty mills, specialty printing and writing mills, postconsumer material, supply and demand, and economic…

Usherson, Judy

1992-01-01

236

WasteTraining Booklet Waste & Recycling Impacts  

E-print Network

Mania is an international campus waste and recycling competition for college and university recycling programs to promoteWasteTraining Booklet #12;Waste & Recycling Impacts Environment: The majority of our municipal solid waste is buried in landfills or incinerated. In 2010, 29 million tons of waste was incinerated

Saldin, Dilano

237

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FOR THE AUTOMOBILE RECYCLING INDUSTRY  

E-print Network

#12;ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FOR THE AUTOMOBILE RECYCLING INDUSTRY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Volume 1 Pollution Abatement Office. Funds were also provided by BC Auto Recyclers, the BC Ministry of Environment 224 West Esplanade North Vancouver, B.C. Vm3H7 #12;BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE AUTO RECYCLING

238

Recycling at Mooov-In 2011  

E-print Network

Cardboard Recycling at Mooov-In 2011 For the second year in a row, Division of Housing and Food Service (DHFS) and Recycling & Sustainability teamed up to divert as much cardboard as possible from area landfills. In addition to the paper, cardboard, aluminum and plastic recycling available in all residence

Julien, Christine

239

Properties of HPC with recycled aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of recycled aggregates can minimize environmental impact and slow the huge consumption of natural resources used for concrete applications. However, recycled aggregates are not suitable for use in the production of High Performance Concrete (HPC) due to their relatively high absorption capacity, unstable properties and recycled aggregates' weaker strength. Such inadequacies can be overcome through carefully examining the

Tsung-Yueh Tu; Yuen-Yuen Chen; Chao-Lung Hwang

2006-01-01

240

Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

2001-01-01

241

Energy and Environmental Considerations in Recycling  

E-print Network

;How Recycling Works: Collection · Factors to consider: o Infrastructure o Convenience for consumers (waste producers) o Quality of recyclables · Collection methods: o Drop-off centers o Buy-back centers (e.g. CRV) o Curbside collection Mixed waste Single-stream/commingled recyclables Source separation #12

Budker, Dmitry

242

Campus Recycling: Everyone Plays a Part.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The broad appeal of recycling makes it the most widespread and popular campus environmental activity. Recycling programs have a wide variety of designs and can fit into an overall waste management strategy, but effective planning for campus recycling requires awareness of a variety of issues and needs. (Author/MSE)

Ching, Raymond; Grogan, Robert

1992-01-01

243

Recycled Unbound Base Pooled Fund Study  

E-print Network

absorption ­! Un-Hydrated cement increases strength and durability ·! Recycled asphalt pavement (RAP suggested nomenclature for RAP ­!Recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) ·! Hot mix asphalt (HMA) layer ­!Full depth to as RAP #12;RESULTS OF SURVEY BY RMRC 2009 The Usage, Storage and Testing of Recycled Materials #12

Minnesota, University of

244

Recycled Wash Water Crushed Returned Concrete  

E-print Network

.ORG 4000 4500 5000 Control 4h 1d 7d Age of Slurry 28-dCompressiveS Reclaimers w/Gray Water Recycling WWW. NRMCA.ORG Gray Water Recycling Monitoring gray water Specific gravity Temperature Age Plumbing back1 Recycled Wash Water Crushed Returned Concrete National Concrete Consortium March 2012 Colin Lobo

245

Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling  

ScienceCinema

Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

Ryan Ott

2013-06-05

246

The status of recycling of waste rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of recycling of waste rubber in protecting the environment and conserving energy is discussed. Various kinds of recycling approaches to waste rubber are summed up, such as reclaiming energy as fuel, reuse of the products of thermal decomposition, cleaning of leaking oil, reuse after simple modification, regenerative rubber and powdered rubber (PR). Recycling as PR is covered in

Yi Fang; Maosheng Zhan; Ying Wang

2001-01-01

247

State-of-the-art recycling plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer electronics giant Matsushita has opened up the METEC (Matsushita Eco Technology Center Company) recycling plant in Japan. The center, the largest of its kind in Japan, opened in 2001 in response to Japan's new law for recycling specific kinds of home appliances. The Hyogo plant recycles all four appliances specified in the law: television sets, refrigerators, air conditioners, and

T. S. Perry

2002-01-01

248

Toward a Rationale for Recycling in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encourages educators to design new strategies to incorporate a range of options that include teaching recycling and waste management in schools to ensure recycling behavior and more participation in waste management. States that more education will make the difference and that recycling should be a part of the school curriculum. Lists major…

Cherif, Abour H.

1995-01-01

249

The Hang-Ups on Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While all seem to agree that recycling will alleviate solid waste problems and energy and mineral shortages, recycling is, at present, bogged down by the thin market for recycled materials, the recessionary business picture, the vertical integration of many companies, unfavorable tax laws, and high rail freight rates. (BT)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

1975-01-01

250

Recycled Yo-Yo Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are challenged to build their own yo-yo toys using items found in their recycling bins. Learners search for materials to use for each part of the toy: two discs, an axle, and string. Learners then sketch their invention, assemble the parts, and test it out. Learners are encouraged to tweak their yo-yos and make improvements.

History, National M.

2012-06-26

251

Recycling of auto shredder residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, about 75% of end-of-life vehicle's (ELV) total weight is recycled in EU countries. The remaining 25%, which is called auto shredder residues (ASR) or auto fluff, is disposed of as landfill because of its complexity. It is a major challenge to reduce this percentage of obsolete cars. The European draft directive states that by the year 2006, only 15%

Menad Nourreddine

2007-01-01

252

How to Succeed in Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A detailed manual for the establishment and maintenance of a recycling center. Presented in steps, it covers the following: Start Up; Operation (glass, paper, aluminum cans, etc., troubles and recommendations); and Key Addresses of organizations able to supply helpful information. (LK)

Ross, Mark

1973-01-01

253

Centralized consolidation\\/recycling center  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are approximately 175 separate locations on the Hanford Site where dangerous waste is accumulated in hundreds of containers according to compatibility. Materials that are designated as waste could be kept from entering the waste stream by establishing collection points for these materials and wastes and then transporting them to a centralized consolidation\\/recycling center (hereinafter referred to as the consolidation

L. T. St. Georges; A. D. Poor

1995-01-01

254

Estimation of continental precipitation recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: (1) advection from the surrounding areas external to the region and (2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface within the region. The latter supply mechanism is tantamount to the recycling of precipitation over the Continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is

Kaye L. Brubaker; Dara Entekhabi; P. S. Eagleson

1993-01-01

255

Flexural Test On Recycled Polystyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In socio-environmental scenario increased the nature resources concern beyond products and subproducts reuse. Recycling is the approach for a material or energy reintroducing in productive system. This method allows the reduction of garbage volume dumped in environment, saving energy and decreasing the requirement of natural resources use. In general, the ending of expanded polystyrene is deposited sanitary landfills or garbage

P. N. S. Schmidt; M. O. H. Cioffi; H. J. C. Voorwald; J. L. Silveira

2011-01-01

256

Chemical recycling of scrap composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no well-developed technologies for recycling composite materials other than grinding to produce fillers. New approaches are needed to reclaim these valuable resources. Chemical or tertiary recycling, conversion of polymers into low molecular weight hydrocarbons for reuse as chemicals or fuels, is emerging as the most practical means for obtaining value from waste plastics and composites. Adherent Technologies is exploring a low-temperature catalytic process for recycling plastics and composites. Laboratory results show that all types of plastics, thermosets as well as thermoplastics, can be converted in high yields to valuable hydrocarbon products. This novel catalytic process runs at 200 C, conversion times are rapid, the process is closed and, thus, nonpolluting, and no highly toxic gas or liquid products have been observed so no negative environmental impact will result from its implementation. Tests on reclamation of composite materials show that epoxy, imide, and engineering thermoplastic matrices can be converted to low molecular weight hydrocarbons leaving behind the reinforcing fibers for reuse as composite reinforcements in secondary, lower-performance applications. Chemical recycling is also a means to dispose of sensitive or classified organic materials without incineration and provides a means to eliminate or reduce mixed hazardous wastes containing organic materials.

Allred, Ronald E.; Salas, Richard M.

1994-01-01

257

Chemical solutions for greywater recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents

Marc Pidou; Lisa Avery; Tom Stephenson; Paul Jeffrey; Simon A. Parsons; Shuming Liu; Fayyaz A. Memon; Bruce Jefferson

2008-01-01

258

NATURAL SURFACTANTS IN PAPER RECYCLING  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project is to introduce new types of surfactants based on renewable materials (sugar surfactants) for use in ink removal from recycled paper. By applying green chemistry approaches we not only will solve an important industry and environmental problem but...

259

New approaches to recycling tires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to

1991-01-01

260

Status of the Fermilab Recycler  

SciTech Connect

The author presents the current operational status of the Fermilab Recycler Ring. Using a mix of stochastic and electron cooling, we prepare antiproton beams for the Fermilab Tevatron Collider program. Included are discussion of stashing and cooling performance, operational scenarios, and collider performance.

Derwent, P.F.; /Fermilab

2007-09-01

261

Performance of water recycling technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolonged drought conditions and increased water consumption, especially in Australia, have forced water authorities, consumers and local councils to consider wastewater recycling as a supplementary water supply. As a consequence there is a growing momentum favouring reuse of wastewater. Due to a fear of the potential effects of micro-pollutants on wildlife and human health, there has been a concomitant increase

Jawad Hilmi Al-rifai

2008-01-01

262

Questions 1823 There are exactly three recycling centers in Rivertown  

E-print Network

, and Center 3. Exactly five kinds of material are recycled at these recycling centers: glass, newsprint of the recycling centers recycles plastic, and that recycling center does not recycle glass. 18. Which one in Rivertown? (A) Center 1: newsprint, plastic, wood; Center 2: newsprint, wood; Center 3: glass, tin, wood (B

Cappello, Peter

263

Aircraft de-icer: Recycling can cut carbon emissions in half  

SciTech Connect

Flight-safety regulations in most countries require aircraft to be ice-free upon takeoff. In icy weather, this means that the aircraft usually must be de-iced (existing ice is removed) and sometimes anti-iced (to protect against ice-reformation). For both processes, aircraft typically are sprayed with an 'antifreeze' solution, consisting mainly of glycol diluted with water. This de/anti-icing creates an impact on the environment, of which environmental regulators have grown increasingly conscious. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for example, recently introduced stricter rules that require airports above minimum size to collect de-icing effluents and send them to wastewater treatment. De-icer collection and treatment is already done at most major airports, but a few have gone one step further: rather than putting the effluent to wastewater, they recycle it. This study examines the carbon savings that can be achieved by recycling de-icer. There are two key findings. One, recycling, as opposed to not recycling, cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40-50% - and even more, in regions where electricity-generation is cleaner. Two, recycling petrochemical-based de-icer generates a 15-30% lower footprint than using 'bio' de-icer without recycling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon footprint of aircraft de-icing can be measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling aircraft de-icer cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40-50%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling 'fossil' de-icer is lower carbon than not recycling 'bio' de-icer.

Johnson, Eric P., E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.uk

2012-01-15

264

Odin (ANKS1A) Modulates EGF Receptor Recycling and Stability  

PubMed Central

The ANKS1A gene product, also known as Odin, was first identified as a tyrosine-phosphorylated component of the epidermal growth factor receptor network. Here we show that Odin functions as an effector of EGFR recycling. In EGF-stimulated HEK293 cells tyrosine phosphorylation of Odin was induced prior to EGFR internalization and independent of EGFR-to-ERK signaling. Over-expression of Odin increased EGF-induced EGFR trafficking to recycling endosomes and recycling back to the cell surface, and decreased trafficking to lysosomes and degradation. Conversely, Odin knockdown in both HEK293 and the non-small cell lung carcinoma line RVH6849, which expresses roughly 10-fold more EGF receptors than HEK293, caused decreased EGFR recycling and accelerated trafficking to the lysosome and degradation. By governing the endocytic fate of internalized receptors, Odin may provide a layer of regulation that enables cells to contend with receptor cell densities and ligand concentration gradients that are physiologically and pathologically highly variable. PMID:23825523

Tong, Jiefei; Sydorskyy, Yaroslav; St-Germain, Jonathan R.; Taylor, Paul; Tsao, Ming S.; Moran, Michael F.

2013-01-01

265

Integrated treatment and recycling of stormwater: a review of Australian practice.  

PubMed

With the use of water approaching, and in some cases exceeding, the limits of sustainability in many locations, there is an increasing recognition of the need to utilise stormwater for non-potable requirements, thus reducing the demand on potable sources. This paper presents a review of Australian stormwater treatment and recycling practices as well as a discussion of key lessons and identified knowledge gaps. Where possible, recommendations for overcoming these knowledge gaps are given. The review of existing stormwater recycling systems focussed primarily on the recycling of general urban runoff (runoff generated from all urban surfaces) for non-potable purposes. Regulations and guidelines specific to stormwater recycling need to be developed to facilitate effective design of such systems, and to minimise risks of failure. There is a clear need for the development of innovative techniques for the collection, treatment and storage of stormwater. Existing stormwater recycling practice is far ahead of research, in that there are no technologies designed specifically for stormwater recycling. Instead, technologies designed for general stormwater pollution control are frequently utilised, which do not guarantee the necessary reliability of treatment. Performance modelling for evaluation purposes also needs further research, so that industry can objectively assess alternative approaches. Just as many aspects of these issues may have impeded adoption of stormwater, another impediment to adoption has been the lack of a practical and widely accepted method for assessing the many financial, social and ecological costs and benefits of stormwater recycling projects against traditional alternatives. Such triple-bottom-line assessment methodologies need to be trialled on stormwater recycling projects. If the costs and benefits of recycling systems can be shown to compare favourably with the costs and benefits of conventional practices this will provide an incentive to overcome other obstacles to widespread adoption of stormwater recycling. PMID:16256264

Hatt, Belinda E; Deletic, Ana; Fletcher, Tim D

2006-04-01

266

Recycling Trends in the Plastics Manufacturing and Recycling Companies in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the findings from a study on the consumption of recycled materials and recycling practices in the plastics manufacturing industry and recycling companies in Malaysia. The findings were obtained from a survey conducted in twenty plastic manufacturing companies and detailed case studies in three recycling companies. The survey conducted in the plastic manufacturing companies` shows that the consumption rate for poly-olefins (PP and PE) is the highest among the resin types and the industrial sector that consumes the most plastic materials is the electrical and electronics sector. The consumption of recycled materials is high among the local manufacturing companies (80%) which are largely due to cost savings; about 20% of these companies conducted in-house recycling. The study has also shown that the medium scale industry consumes the most recycled materials as compared to the large and small scale industry. The rate of disposal for plastic materials in the local industry is approximately 5%. The detailed case studies conducted in the recycling companies have successfully identified the main processes involved in plastic recycling namely manual sorting, cleaning, drying, meshing/pelletising and packaging. These recycling companies obtained recycled materials from various sources including industrial scrap, dumping sites, local producers as well as imported sources. Pricing of recycled materials were based on classification according to grade and quality of the recycled materials. The study has reflected the extent of in-house recycling trends in the local plastic manufacturing companies and their dependency on the supply from the local recycling companies.

Wahab, D. A.; Abidin, A.; Azhari, C. H.

267

Recycling Guide: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Recycling Information Call 301-496-7990 or visit the NEMS Website at http://www.nems.nih.gov  

E-print Network

Recycling Guide: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Recycling Information ­ Call 301-496-7990 or visit the NEMS in COMMINGLED bin Rinse food/beverage containers before recycling No Pyrex or Styrofoam Printer and Copier Toner Cartridges in TONER CARTRIDGE bin Recycle packaging material in appropriate bin NIH charities

Baker, Chris I.

268

DWPF recycle minimization: Brainstorming session  

SciTech Connect

The recycle stream from the DWPF constitutes a major source of water addition to the High Level Waste evaporator system. As now designed, the entire flow of 3.5 to 6.5 gal/min (@ 25% and 75% attainment, respectively), or 2 gal/min during idling, flow to the 2H evaporator system (Tank 43). Substantial improvement in the HLW water balance and tank volume management is expected if the DWPF recycle to the HLW evaporator system can be significantly reduced. A task team has been appointed to study alternatives for reducing the flow to the HLW evaporator system and make recommendations for implementation and/or further study and evaluation. The brainstorming session detailed in this report was designed to produce the first cut options for the task team to further evaluate.

Jacobs, R.A.; Poirier, M.R.

1993-10-12

269

Vanadium recycling for fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Very stringent purity specifications must be applied to low activation vanadium alloys, in order to meet recycling goals requiring low residual dose rates after 50--100 years. Methods of vanadium production and purification which might meet these limits are described. Following a suitable cooling period after their use, the vanadium alloy components can be melted in a controlled atmosphere to remove volatile radioisotopes. The aim of the melting and decontamination process will be the achievement of dose rates low enough for ``hands-on`` refabrication of new reactor components from the reclaimed metal. The processes required to permit hands-on recycling appear to be technically feasible, and demonstration experiments are recommended. Background information relevant to the use of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors, including health hazards, resources, and economics, is provided.

Dolan, T.J.; Butterworth, G.J.

1994-04-01

270

Recycling in the metals industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990, scrap was a major feedstock component of U.S. metals production. Steel scrap represented 56% of raw steel production, old lead scrap was 66% of total lead production, and purchased aluminum scrap represented 37% of total production. Copper scrap makes up 44% of total U.S. copper consumption annually. Although some recycling operations, such as past (but now obsolete) lead-acid

Harry V. Makar

1996-01-01

271

Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium  

SciTech Connect

An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

Gorman, P.K.

1995-04-05

272

Recycling of aluminum matric composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of matrix metals in composites was tried on alumina short fiber-reinforced aluminum and 6061 alloy composites and\\u000a SiC whisker-reinforced 6061 alloy composite for recycling. It is possible to separate molten matrix metals from fibers in\\u000a the composites using fluxes that are used for melt treatment to remove inclusions. About 50 vol pct of the matrix metals was\\u000a separated from

Yoshinori Nishida; Norihisa Izawa; Yukio Kuramasu

1999-01-01

273

Recycling of aluminum matrix composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of matrix metals in composites was tried on alumina short fiber-reinforced aluminum and 6061 alloy composites and\\u000a SiC whisker-reinforced 6061 alloy composite for recycling. It is possible to separate molten matrix metals from fibers in\\u000a the composites using fluxes that are used for melt treatment to remove inclusions. About 50 vol pct of the matrix metals was\\u000a separated from

Yoshinori Nishida; Norihisa Izawa; Yukio Kuramasu

1999-01-01

274

Total Ni-Cd battery recycling by INMETCO U.S.A.  

SciTech Connect

The processing and recycling of various batteries has been occurring at INMETCO (a wholly owned subsidiary of Inco Ltd.) since the early 1980`s. Due to changing environmental regulations, INMETCO`s spent nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) and nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery recycling has steadily grown since 1990. INMETCO`s new Cadmium Recovery Operation will be discussed along with its unique ability to recycle/reuse 100% of the battery components on site. Start up results, along with actual cadmium analysis, as well as actual air and water environmental impact will be highlighted. INMETCO has been, and continues to be, the major recycler of stainless steel by-products, both hazardous and non-hazardous, back into a stainless steel remelt alloy which is accepted in North America, Europe, and Japan.

Hanewald, R.H.; McComas, D.M.; Onuska, J.C. Jr. [Inmetco, Ellwood City, PA (United States)

1997-12-31

275

[Recycling and reuse of disposable products in radiology].  

PubMed

Legitimacy and appropriateness of recycling and reuse of single-use disposable medical devices is a common issue in many areas of medicine. Advocates of reprocessing claim economic savings and environmental benefits. From the manufacturers' point of view, the single use is a characteristic property of their products. Moreover, they warn that using of recycled instruments makes the procedure more difficult and increases the rate of adverse events. As comparative tests demonstrate, reused products are sometimes inferior to the genuine ones with respect to mechanical properties, but these differences may have relatively little consequence for the performance of the products and the success rate of the interventions. With rigorous cleaning and sterilizing of the instruments, patients do not run an increased risk of infection. Sterile single-use products are subject to the German Medical Products Act (1994) and the German Medical Devices Ordinance (1998). New legal provisions (in force since January 1st 2002) have restricted professional recycling of used devices further. Companies reprocessing medical products for the original users are free from certification liability. CE can no longer be issued for devices newly placed on the market. Lawyers controversially discuss whether patients must be informed about the use of recycled products. In view of the otherwise strict regulations concerning the information given to patients, it seems imperative to obtain a written informed consent when reprocessed devices are used. This might interfere with the confidential relationship of patients and physicians. The combination of increased risk, strict legal regulations, ethical concern and adverse publicity demand to refrain from reprocessing and reusing disposable equipment in diagnostic and interventional radiology. PMID:12635012

Golder, W

2003-03-01

276

The connecdenn DENN domain: a GEF for Rab35 mediating cargo-specific exit from early endosomes  

PubMed Central

Summary The DENN domain is an evolutionarily ancient protein module. Mutations in the DENN domain cause developmental defects in plants and human diseases, yet the function of this common module is unknown. We now demonstrate that the connecdenn DENN domain functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab35 to regulate endosomal trafficking. Loss of Rab35 activity causes an enlargement of early endosomes, inhibits MHCI recycling, and prevents the early endosomal recruitment of EHD1, a common component recycling tubules on endosomes. Our data are the first to reveal an enzymatic activity for a DENN domain and demonstrate that distinct Rab GTPases can recruit a common protein machinery to various sites within the endosomal network to establish cargo-selective recycling pathways. PMID:20159556

Allaire, Patrick D.; Marat, Andrea L.; Dall'Armi, Claudia; Di Paolo, Gilbert; McPherson, Peter S.; Ritter, Brigitte

2010-01-01

277

Endocytic Sorting and Recycling Require Membrane Phosphatidylserine Asymmetry Maintained by TAT-1/CHAT-1  

PubMed Central

Endocytic sorting is achieved through the formation of morphologically and functionally distinct sub-domains within early endosomes. Cargoes destined for recycling are sorted to and transported through newly-formed tubular membranes, but the processes that regulate membrane tubulation are poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel Caenorhabditis elegans Cdc50 family protein, CHAT-1, which acts as the chaperone of the TAT-1 P4-ATPase to regulate membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) asymmetry and endocytic transport. In chat-1 and tat-1 mutants, the endocytic sorting process is disrupted, leading to defects in both cargo recycling and degradation. TAT-1 and CHAT-1 colocalize to the tubular domain of the early endosome, the tubular endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and the recycling endosome where PS is enriched on the cytosolic surface. Loss of tat-1 and chat-1 function disrupts membrane PS asymmetry and abrogates the tubular membrane structure. Our data suggest that CHAT-1 and TAT-1 maintain membrane phosphatidylserine asymmetry, thus promoting membrane tubulation and regulating endocytic sorting and recycling. PMID:21170358

Chen, Baohui; Jiang, Yue; Zeng, Sheng; Yan, Jiacong; Li, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Wei; Wang, Xiaochen

2010-01-01

278

Xerox's closed recycling loop still contains kinks  

SciTech Connect

Xerox Corp. has established a recycling loop for plastics screw-top toner bottles and dry-ink containers used in most of the company's high-volume copiers. However, a severe shortage of post-consumer recycled plastic has been short-circuiting Xerox's good intentions. Last year, the Stamford, Conn.-based company stopped manufacturing toner containers from virgin plastics and instead began using recycled raw materials, such as discarded milk and water jugs collected from municipal curbside recycling programs. The bottles are ground and remolded into such products as air filters for vacuum cleaners, plastic lumber, compost bins, landscape ties, benches and fence posts. However, what sounds like a win-win situation actually is costing too much money. Contrary to popular belief, post-consumer recycled plastic costs more than virgin plastic. Despite the added expense, Xerox will continue to use recycled plastics when possible.

Not Available

1995-02-01

279

Recycling production designs : the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations  

E-print Network

The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an ...

Brommer, Tracey H. (Tracey Helenius)

2013-01-01

280

Minerals yearbook, 1992: Materials recycling. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

A large variety of materials are recycled by different sectors of our society. The materials recycling that is mainly addressed in this writing is from waste that is generated after manufacturing and use. Included is recycling that is generally more obvious to the public: the collection, reprocessing, and remanufacture of materials into new products from post-consumer UBC's, scrap metal, glass containers, paper goods, increasingly plastics, as well as rubber tires and other used goods.

Tanner, A.O.

1992-01-01

281

Recycling in Multifamily Dwellings: Does Convenience Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that decrease the time cost of recycling have significant positive correlations with recycling rates in multifamily dwellings (MFDs). Waste-management experts have previously used anecdotes to infer a link between convenience and waste-diversion rates in MFD recycling programs. This article confirms and quantifies that link by applying probit and double-censored tobit analysis to survey data from 214 households in Urbana,

Amy W. Ando; Anne Y. Gosselin

2005-01-01

282

Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.

Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.

2007-01-01

283

Source reduction and recycling: Are they compatible or at odds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experts on source reduction and recycling answered six questions about the effect source reduction and recycling have on each other, and on recycling goals, packaging, consumers, and the economy. This article presents their opinions on source reduction and recycling. The questions are: How would you suggest measuring source reduction There appears to be a natural tension between recycling and

Rabasca

1994-01-01

284

Modeling of Recycling Coefficients and Wall Equilibration in Tore Supra  

Microsoft Academic Search

to understand wall recycling. Wall recycling usually evolves as a function of time during the discharge from low recycling (depleted walls) to high recycling (saturated walls). Since the particle fluxes can vary over the vacuum vessel wall by up to five orders of magnitude, the recycling coefficients will vary correspondingly. Furthermore, since the particle fluence to the various parts of

P. K. Mioduszewski; L. W. Owen; B. Pégourié

285

Precipitation recycling in the Amazon basin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precipitation recycling is the contribution of evaporation within a region to precipitation in that same region. The recycling rate is a diagnostic measure of the potential for interactions between land surface hydrology and regional climate. In this paper we present a model for describing the seasonal and spatial variability of the recycling process. The precipitation recycling ratio, rho, is the basic variable in describing the recycling process. Rho is the fraction of precipitation at a certain location and time which is contributed by evaporation within the region under study. The recycling model is applied in studyiing the hydrologic cycle in the Amazon basin. It is estimated that about 25% of all the rain that falls in the Amazon basin is contributed by evaporation within the basin. This estimate is based on analysis of a data set supplied by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The same analysis is repeated using a different data set from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). Based on this data set, the recycling ratio is estimated to be 35%. The seasonal variability of the recycling ratio is small compared with the yearly average. The new estimates of the recycling ratio are compared with results of previous studies, and the differences are explained.

Eltahir, E. A. B.; Bras, R. L.

1994-01-01

286

Gold recycling; a materials flow study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This materials flow study includes a description of trends in consumption, loss, and recycling of gold-containing materials in the United States in 1998 in order to illustrate the extent to which gold is presently being recycled and to identify recycling trends. The quantity of gold recycled, as a percent of the apparent supply of gold, was estimated to be about 30 percent. Of the approximately 446 metric tons of gold refined in the United States in 1998, the fabricating and industrial use losses were 3 percent.

Amey, Earle B.

2000-01-01

287

Cu(II)-Mediated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate via a Strategy of Thermo-Regulated Phase-Separable Catalysis in a Liquid/Liquid Biphasic System: Homogeneous Catalysis, Facile Heterogeneous Separation, and Recycling.  

PubMed

A strategy of thermo-regulated phase-separable catalysis (TPSC) is applied to the Cu(II)-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in a p-xylene/PEG-200 biphasic system. Initiators for continuous activator regeneration ATRP (ICAR ATRP) are used to establish the TPSC-based ICAR ATRP system using water-soluble TPMA as a ligand, EBPA as an initiator, CuBr2 as a catalyst, and AIBN as a reducing agent. By heating to 70 °C, unlimited miscibility of both solvents is achieved and the polymerization can be carried out under homogeneous conditions; then on cooling to 25 °C, the mixture separates into two phases again. As a result, the catalyst complex remains in the PEG-200 phase while the obtained polymers stay in the p-xylene phase. The catalyst can therefore be removed from the resultant polymers by easily separating the two different layers and can be reused again. It is important that well-defined PMMA with a controlled molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution could be obtained using this TPSC-based ICAR ATRP system. PMID:25155655

Pan, Jinlong; Zhang, Bingjie; Jiang, Xiaowu; Zhang, Lifen; Cheng, Zhenping; Zhu, Xiulin

2014-09-01

288

Influenza A virus recycling revisited.  

PubMed Central

Current textbooks link influenza pandemics to influenza A virus subtypes H2 (1889-91), H3 (1990), H1 (1918-20), H2 (1957-58) and H3 (1968), a pattern suggesting subtype recycling in humans. Since H1 reappeared in 1977, whatever its origin, some workers feel that H2 is the next pandemic candidate. This report reviews the publications on which the concept of influenza A virus subtype recycling is based and concludes that the data are inconsistent with the purported sequence of events. The three influenza pandemics prior to 1957-58 were linked with subtypes through retrospective studies of sera from the elderly, or through seroarchaeology. The pandemic seroarchaeological model for subtype H1 has been validated by the recent recovery of swine virus RNA fragments from persons who died from influenza in 1918. Application of the model to pre-existing H3 antibody among the elderly links the H3 subtype to the pandemic of 1889-91, not that of 1900 as popularly quoted. Application of the model to pre-existing H2 antibody among the elderly fails to confirm that this subtype caused a pandemic in the late 1800's, a finding which is consistent with age-related excess mortality patterns during the pandemics of 1957 (H2) and 1968 (H3). H2 variants should be included in pandemic planning for a number of reasons, but not because of evidence of recycling. It is not known when the next pandemic will occur or which of the 15 (or more) haemagglutinin subtypes will be involved. Effective global surveillance remains the key to influenza preparedness. PMID:10593030

Dowdle, W. R.

1999-01-01

289

The Determinants of Household Recycling: A Material Specific Analysis of Recycling Program Features and Unit Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines,the impact of two popular solid waste programs on the percent recycled of several different materials found in the residential solid waste stream. We examine a unique, national, household-level data set containing information on the percent recycled of five different materials: glass bottles, plastic bottles, aluminum, newspaper, and yard waste. We find that access to curbside recycling

Robin R. Jenkins; Salvador A. Martinez; Karen Palmer; Michael J. Podolsky

2000-01-01

290

The Determinants of Household Recycling: A Material Specific Analysis of Unit Pricing and Recycling Program Attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of two popular solid waste programs on the percent recycled of several different materials found in the residential solid waste stream. We examine a unique, national, household-level data set containing information on the percent recycled of five different materials: glass bottles, plastic bottles, aluminum, newspaper, and yard waste. We find that access to curbside recycling

Karen Palmer; Salvador Martinez; Robin Jenkins; Michael Podolsky

1999-01-01

291

Research Report Recycling gone bad: When the option to recycle increases  

E-print Network

shows that consumers used more paper while evaluating a pair of scissors when the option to recycle for Consumer Psychology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Sustainability; Recycling energy and natural resources. The term recycling refers to "minimizing waste generation by recovering

Loudon, Catherine

292

Optimising recycling effort: an evaluation of local authority PCW recycling initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure to divert post-consumer waste (PCW) from landfill has focused on recycling and, to a lesser extent, incineration with energy recovery. Waste collection authorities (WCAs) seeking to minimize costs have favoured the use of centralized rather than localized recycling options. This paper compares the environmental burdens associated with various collection options for recyclables. It shows that, whilst kerbside collection offers

John Butler; Paul Hooper

1999-01-01

293

Material Recycling Technologies for Closed-Loop Recycle System of Cross Flow Fan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Japan, the Home Appliance Recycling Law has been implemented and the recycling of plastics taken from waste appliances has become a topic. Therefore, the development of material recycling for cross flow fans of home air conditioners is launched. As a result of establishing a system for recovering waste cross flow fans and eliminating contamination and the optimum blending of

T. Takagi; S. Iwata; Y. Iseki

2005-01-01

294

Recycling and resource recovery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses recycling and resource recovery strategies being developed to maintain continued operations at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Several industrial decontamination techniques for minimization, segregation, and recycling of wastes volumes are presented. A wide variety of liquid wastewater streams are generated from the operations of these research facilities. The major chemical constituents -- bicarbonates of calcium, magnesium, and sodium -- are introduced by local river water and shallow drainage wells. Liquid low-level waste (LLLW), generated in support of DOE's nuclear energy technology programs over the past 40 years, are highly contaminated with fission products and transuranic (TRU) elements. These wastes are routinely collected in centralized collection tanks, concentrated by evaporation, and stored for future processing and disposal. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 mandated a nationwide system for the safe management of wastes that have been determined hazardous from their creation of their ultimate disposal (i.e., cradle-to-grave control). The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HWSA) prohibited the continued placement of RCRA regulated hazardous wastes in or on the land without following Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) treatment standards. The EPA promulgated RCRA-LDR (land-disposal-restricted) regulations, minimizing short- and long-term threats arising from land disposal, will not allow facilities to store mixed LLLW after 1994 (56 FR 42730, August 29, 1991). Tank storage volume capacities are approaching maximum limits while treatment facilities to process and dispose these type wastes have been delayed indefinitely. As a result, these regulations and additional challenges have increased emphasis on recycling and resource recovery. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Hall, R.; Benson, C.E.; Grubb, R.G.; Patton, B.D.

1991-01-01

295

Effects of Amendments to the Basel Convention on battery recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Basel Convention was originally designed to prevent the uncontrolled dumping of toxic waste and focused particularly on shipments of materials from OECD countries to the developing world. Amendments to the Basel Convention now restrict trade in waste materials destined for recycling, reprocessing and reuse. There are serious consequences for the secondary lead industry and the world community if the regulations prohibit the environmentally sound reprocessing of scrap batteries. It is incumbent on the industry to understand the implications of the recent and proposed amendments, and to address the potential problems posed by the legislation.

Stone, Hillary

296

Estimation of continental precipitation recycling  

SciTech Connect

The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: (1) advection from the surrounding areas external to the region and (2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface within the region. The latter supply mechanism is tantamount to the recycling of precipitation over the Continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is supplied by recycled moisture is a potentially significant climate feedback mechanism and land surface-atmosphere interaction, which may contribute to the persistence and intensification of droughts. Gridded data on observed wind and humidity in the global atmosphere are used to determine the convergence of atmospheric water vapor over continental regions. A simplified model of the atmospheric moisture over continents and simultaneous estimates of regional precipitation are employed to estimate, for several large continental regions, the fraction of precipitation that is locally derived. The results indicate that the contribution of regional evaporation to regional precipitation varies substantially with location and season. For the regions studied, the ratio of locally contributed to total monthly precipitation generally lies between 0. 10 and 0.30 but is as high as 0.40 in several cases. 48 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Brubaker, K.L.; Entekhabi, D.; Eagleson, P.S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States))

1993-06-01

297

Estimation of continental precipitation recycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: 1) advection from the surrounding areas external to the region and 2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface within the region. The latter supply mechanism is tantamount to the recycling of precipitation over the continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is supplied by recycled moisture is a potentially significant climate feedback mechanism and land surface-atmosphere interaction, which may contribute to the persistence and intensification of droughts. Gridded data on observed wind and humidity in the global atmosphere are used to determine the convergence of atmospheric water vapor over continental regions. A simplified model of the atmospheric moisture over continents and simultaneous estimates of regional precipitation are employed to estimate, for several large continental regions, the fraction of precipitation that is locally derived. The results indicate that the contribution of regional evaporation to regional precipitation varies substantially with location and season. For the regions studied, the ratio of locally contributed to total monthly precipitation generally lies between 0. 10 and 0.30 but is as high as 0.40 in several cases.

Brubaker, Kaye L.; Entekhabi, Dara; Eagleson, P. S.

1993-01-01

298

Chemical solutions for greywater recycling.  

PubMed

Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents the study of alternative processes, coagulation and magnetic ion exchange resin, for the treatment of greywater for reuse. The potential of these processes as well as the influence of parameters such as coagulant or resin dose, pH or contact time were investigated for the treatment of two greywaters of low and high organic strengths. The results obtained revealed that magnetic ion exchange resin and coagulation were suitable treatment solutions for low strength greywater sources. However, they were unable to achieve the required level of treatment for the reuse of medium to high strength greywaters. Consequently, these processes could only be considered as an option for greywater recycling in specific conditions that is to say in case of low organic strength greywater or less stringent standards for reuse. PMID:18155127

Pidou, Marc; Avery, Lisa; Stephenson, Tom; Jeffrey, Paul; Parsons, Simon A; Liu, Shuming; Memon, Fayyaz A; Jefferson, Bruce

2008-03-01

299

Integrated Recycling Test Fuel Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Recycling Test is a collaborative irradiation test that will electrochemically recycle used light water reactor fuel into metallic fuel feedstock. The feedstock will be fabricated into a metallic fast reactor type fuel that will be irradiation tested in a drop in capsule test in the Advanced Test Reactor on the Idaho National Laboratory site. This paper will summarize the fuel fabrication activities and design efforts. Casting development will include developing a casting process and system. The closure welding system will be based on the gas tungsten arc burst welding process. The settler/bonder system has been designed to be a simple system which provides heating and controllable impact energy to ensure wetting between the fuel and cladding. The final major pieces of equipment to be designed are the weld and sodium bond inspection system. Both x-radiography and ultrasonic inspection techniques have been examine experimentally and found to be feasible, however the final remote system has not been designed. Conceptual designs for radiography and an ultrasonic system have been made.

R.S. Fielding; K.H. Kim; B. Grover; J. Smith; J. King; K. Wendt; D. Chapman; L. Zirker

2013-03-01

300

Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

301

Bituminous pavement recycling Aravind K. and Animesh Das  

E-print Network

Bituminous pavement recycling Aravind K. and Animesh Das Department of Civil Engineering IIT Kanpur Introduction The bituminous pavement rehabilitation alternatives are mainly overlaying, recycling and reconstruction. In the recycling process the material from deteriorated pavement, known as reclaimed asphalt

Das, Animesh

302

Building a Recycling Program: A Case Study in Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the development and ongoing operation of a library recycling program established at Bowling Green State University in Ohio. Discusses the initiation and projects of the library recycling committee, logistics, and future projections for library recycling operations. (two references) (MCO)

Sabol, Laurie

1992-01-01

303

A survey of lead battery recycling sites and soil remediation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is intended to provide some background information on lead battery recycling sites (LBRSs) in the U.S. Included in the report are (a) a discussion of the regulations and guidelines governing lead in soil; (b) a description of typical LBRS operations; (c) a listing of the 47 sites studied by the EPA under CERCLA; (d) a discussion of a

Tim Nedwed; Dennis A. Clifford

1998-01-01

304

The recycling and disposal of electrical and electronic waste in China—legislative and market responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new legislation on collection, recycling and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) as well as the scaling-up and privatisation of the WEEE processing industry, are indications of major changes for WEEE management in China. However, China's attempts to regulate the industry and establish a financially viable, environmentally benign and safe WEEE management system are facing

C.. Hicks; R.. Dietmar; M.. Eugster

2005-01-01

305

Enhancement of the recycling of waste Ni–Cd and Ni–MH batteries by mechanical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serious environmental problem was presented by waste batteries resulting from lack of relevant regulations and effective recycling technologies in China. The present work considered the enhancement of waste Ni–Cd and Ni–MH batteries recycling by mechanical treatment. In the process of characterization, two types of waste batteries (Ni–Cd and Ni–MH batteries) were selected and their components were characterized in relation

Kui Huang; Jia Li; Zhenming Xu

2011-01-01

306

Recycling Primer: Getting Back to Basics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The disposal of garbage is a complex issue. Four strategies have been developed to attack the problem. They deal with: (1) waste reduction; (2) recycling; (3) energy recovery; and (4) land filling. This handbook emphasizes recycling as a method of handling the problem of dealing with solid wastes. Included are a list of the categories and uses of…

Connecticut State Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hartford.

307

The Automobile Recycling Industry in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automobile recycling industry in North America is a success story in material recovery. It operates unregulated, market driven. It is an example of how effectively self-profit-maximising parties, without interference, can manage recycling. Or at least, that is the claim. However, reductions in vehicle weight and increases in plastic composition might undermine the future viability of the industry. This work

Pavel Zamudio-Ramirez

308

Sustainability and the Recycling of Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

2011-01-01

309

Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

Dasgupta, Probal

2001-01-01

310

Pedagogical Recycling: How Colleagues Change Colleagues' Minds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher-researcher uses the metaphor of recycling along a continuum to describe how teachers adapt the ideas of their colleagues with varying degrees of change based on their different contexts. The objective of recycling is not only to reduce waste but also to extend use and the key to lasting changes in mind is sustained participation in…

O'Donnell-Allen, Cindy

2005-01-01

311

A Little Recycling Goes A Long Way  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students understand the impact that recycling has on our lives, and the future of the planet. By calculating how much waste the students produce, they can also calculate how much of it they can recycle, and help the environment.

Math, Pbs T.; Pbs

2010-01-01

312

WASTE DESCRIPTION CONTACT PHONE RECYCLED OR  

E-print Network

, RECYCLED OR CONSERVED IN 1999 WASTE TYPE POTENTIAL COSTS FOR TREATMENT & DISPOSAL COST OF RECYCLE of specialty paints. Disposal cost is estimated at $12,000. Internal handling, characterization lbs of water). Estimated cost for supplying and then disposing of water is $1.35/1000 gallons

313

Recycle/Reuse: Utilizing New Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the early 1990s, efforts were initiated to help countries move toward a solution of the global pollution problem. Technology education classrooms and laboratories are among the best places for bring the concepts of recycling/reuse and waste management to students' attention. Important concepts about pollution, waste prevention, and recycling

Vaglia, John S.

314

Feasibility of Recycling Post-Consumer Diapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposable diapers constitute about 2% of all U.S. municipal solid waste. Recycling discarded diapers depends on reducing the level ofcontaminants in the pulp. Thisreportdescribeshowconventional separa­ tion equipment was used to reduce the level of veg­ etable hulls, absorbent gel material, and synthetic fiber in pulp recovered from discarded diapers re­ claimed in a demonstration study at the Rabanco Recycling Company

John H. Klungness; Robert H. Siegfried

1992-01-01

315

Maryland's program for buying recycled paper (innovations)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maryland was the first state to mandate large purchases of recycled paper. In 1977, the legislature passed House Bill 153 which requires the State to increase its purchase of recycled paper (paper containing 80 percent post-consumer waste) to five percent of the total paper purchases by 1978, 25 percent by 1981, and 40 percent by 1985. Since the passage of

1980-01-01

316

Energy implications of recycling packaging materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the

L. L. Gaines; F. Stodolsky

1994-01-01

317

Ten-year review of plastics recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short history of the practice of plastics recycling as practiced in the United States and Europe for the past ten years indicates that much progress has been made in educating the public sector about the environmental damage done by the indiscriminating disposal of plastic items and potential opportunities to recycle them. Recent legislation has made the collection of some

S. Garry Howell

1992-01-01

318

Recycled Materials Resource Jeffrey S. Melton  

E-print Network

distressed pavement from I-95 Evaluated class F fly ash, silica fume, ground granulated blast furnace slag projects completed to date Project 1: Mitigating Alkali Silicate Reaction in Recycled Concrete Project 2: Using Lithium to Mitigate ASR in RCA Concrete Project 38: Recycled Concrete Aggregate Concrete Pavement

319

Utility of Recycled Bedding for Laboratory Rodents  

PubMed Central

Animal facilities generate a large amount of used bedding containing excrement as medical waste. We developed a recycling system for used bedding that involves soft hydrothermal processing. In this study, we examined the effects of bedding type on growth, hematologic and serum biochemical values, and organ weights of female and male mice reared on either recycled or fresh bedding from 3 to 33 wk of age. Neither growth nor physiology differed between mice housed on recycled bedding compared with fresh bedding. When 14-wk-old mice were bred, litter size and total number of weaned pups showed no significant differences between animals raised on recycled or fresh bedding. Because bedding type influences the environment within cages and animal rooms, we evaluated particulate and ammonia data from cages and animal rooms. Values were significantly lower from cages and rooms that used recycled bedding than from those using fresh bedding, thus indicating that recycled bedding has the potential to improve the environment within both cages and animal rooms. Overall, this study revealed that recycled bedding is an excellent material for use in housing laboratory rodents. Specifically, recycled bedding may reduce medical waste and maintain healthy environments within cages and animal rooms. PMID:19653951

Miyamoto, Toru; Li, Zhixia; Kibushi, Tomomi; Okano, Shinya; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kasai, Noriyuki

2009-01-01

320

Mound Laboratory's Reclamation and Recycling Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In keeping with Mound Laboratory's tradition for innovation and forward-looking action, several studies were recently conducted to seek out alternatives to incineration and landfill of all nonradioactive solid waste. Efforts were directed towards reclamation, reuse, and recycling of solid wastes. These efforts resulted in a reclamation and recycling program which is being implemented in three separate phases: 1. Phase I

Garbe; Yvonne M

1974-01-01

321

Municipal Commercial RecyclingBarriers to Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

As recycling programs achieve success and gain popularity throughout U.S. communities, local governments are confronted with “doing more” in the environmental arena; yet with mounting state and federal government pressure, local governments must increase municipal waste diversion rates. Although commercial, industrial, and institutional sectors generate the largest percentage of the waste stream, they are generally not part of municipal recycling

Hunter Bacot; Bill McCoy; Jennifer Plagman-Galvin

2002-01-01

322

RECYCLING OF WATER IN POULTRY PROCESSING PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were conducted on recycling chiller water in a poultry processing plant. The recycling system must be provided with the capability of removing solids and controlling the microbial population. UV was used to control the microbial population. For this control to be effectiv...

323

Argonne National Laboratory's Recycling Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Argonne has a Recycling Pilot Plant designed to save the non-metal portions of junked cars. Here, program managers demonstrate how plastic shredder residue can be recycled. (Currently these automotive leftovers are sent to landfills.) For more information, visit Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center Web site at http://www.transportation.anl.gov.

Spangenberger, Jeff; Jody, Sam

2009-01-01

324

Recycling Today Makes for a Better Tomorrow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's children must be educated about solid waste management and recycling to reduce the amount of waste that goes into landfills. The article describes what can be recycled (newspapers, corrugated cardboard, paper, glass, aluminum, textiles, motor oil, organic wastes, appliances, steel cans, and plastics). It also lists student environment…

Raze, Robert E., Jr.

1992-01-01

325

Recycling, king of the trash heap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across the nation, state governments, municipalities and industrial organizations representing the makers of steel, paper, glass and plastics are working together to create markets for recycled materials. This article describes a number of recycling projects. Since this paper is the most abundant refuse, businesses already have begun to capitalize on it. As a result of a newspaper glut, a new

Lipkin

1990-01-01

326

Cleaner environment: removing the barriers to lead-acid battery recycling  

SciTech Connect

The author notes that 60% of battery manufacturing lead supplies come from recycled batteries. Without battery recycling, both the availability and the price of lead would radically change business climate of operations. But, the bad news is that, if the lead-acid battery is considered sufficiently harmful to justify closing down the battery recycling industry, what kind of attitude will environmental regulators develop toward the manufacturers of batteries if there is no way to dispose of them. At present, battery recyclers are caught-up in a web of what has come to be known as environmental gridlock, wherein well-intentioned environmental regulations have become so flexible that they actually defeat their original purpose. One example of this condition is the strict, joint and several liability provisions of SUPERFUND. People who collect and transport spent batteries may be held financially responsible for the consequences of circumstances totally beyond their control. Other examples, including excessive hazardous-waste taxes in California, are cited as the author summarizes the environmental gridlock situation. He concludes that, because of the tremendous importance of lead-acid batteries to the American way of life, the real problem is how do we accomplish the goal of recycling 100% of the spent batteries, thereby removing the threat of the spent battery solution.

Palmer, J.G.

1988-12-01

327

The battery recycling loop: a European perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restricting the loss of lead into the environment is essential and European legislation has reacted by requiring the recycling of lead/acid batteries. With the forecast of strong growth in the battery market over the next decade, secondary lead output will need to increase substantially to supply this demand. Battery recycling rates are vulnerable, however, to low lead prices and restrictive legislation. Effective recycling schemes are required to ensure maximum recovery and several are successfully in operation. Environmentally sound technology exists to recycle the lead and polypropylene components of batteries. A full range of lead and lead alloys are available to the battery industry from secondary material and now challenge primary products in most battery applications. It is important to optimize recycling efficiency and minimize environmental damage.

Ahmed, F.

328

Preconceptual Design Description for Caustic Recycle Facility  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify both high-level and low-activity waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. One aspect of the planning includes a need for a caustic recycle process to separate sodium hydroxide for recycle. Sodium is already a major limitation to the waste-oxide loading in the low-activity waste glass to be vitrified at the Waste Treatment Plant, and additional sodium hydroxide will be added to remove aluminum and to control precipitation in the process equipment. Aluminum is being removed from the high level sludge to reduce the number of high level waste canisters produced. A sodium recycle process would reduce the volume of low-activity waste glass produced and minimize the need to purchase new sodium hydroxide, so there is a renewed interest in investigating sodium recycle. This document describes an electrochemical facility for recycling sodium for the WTP.

Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.

2008-04-12

329

Linguistic recycling in typical and atypical interaction.  

PubMed

I present evidence that linguistic "recycling" - i.e., the redeployment of linguistic material from prior utterances during conversation - is a striking and prevalent feature not only of interaction between typical speakers, but also, and notably, of interaction involving the communication impaired. In the latter case, recycling may sometimes be used as a compensatory communicative resource when linguistic ability is compromised. Despite its prevalence, however, recycling has largely been ignored by clinical linguists. In addition to providing illustrations of linguistic recycling across a range of communication disorders, I also examine how it is subserved by phenomena such as priming, short-term memory and alignment. I subsequently argue for a shift in perspective that puts recycling at the heart of our perception of how typical and atypical interaction works, and suggest a number of potential benefits for clinical linguistics, ranging from the way we understand and analyse communication disorders to how we assess and treat them. PMID:25000380

Perkins, Michael R

2014-01-01

330

Recycling production designs: the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an intermediate recycling facility that can reprocess the secondary materials into a liquid product Two downstream aluminum remelters will incorporate the liquid products into their aluminum alloy production schedules. Energy and environmental benefits result from delivering the products as liquid but coordination challenges persist because of the energy cost to maintain the liquid. Further coordination challenges result from the necessity to establish a long term recycling production plan in the presence of long term downstream aluminum remelter production uncertainty and inherent variation in the daily order schedule of the downstream aluminum remelters. In this context a fundamental question arises, considering the metallurgical complexities of dross reprocessing, what is the value of operating a coordinated set of by-product reprocessing plants and remelting cast houses? A methodology is presented to calculate the optimal recycling center production parameters including 1) the number of recycled products, 2) the volume of recycled products, 3) allocation of recycled materials across recycled products, 4) allocation of recycled products across finished alloys, 4) the level of flexibility for the recycling center to operate. The methods implemented include, 1) an optimization model to describe the long term operations of the recycling center, 2) an uncertainty simulation tool, 3) a simulation optimization method, 4) a dynamic simulation tool with four embedded daily production optimization models of varying degrees of flexibility. This methodology is used to quantify the performance of several recycling center production designs of varying levels of coordination and flexibility. This analysis allowed the identification of the optimal recycling center production design based on maximizing liquid recycled product incorporation and minimizing cast sows. The long term production optimization model was used to evaluate the theoretical viability of the proposed two stage scrap and aluminum dross reprocessing operation including the impact of reducing coordination on model performance. Reducing the coordination between the recycling center and downstream remelters by reducing the number of recycled products from ten to five resulted in only 1.3% less secondary materials incorporated into downstream production. The dynamic simulation tool was used to evaluate the performance of the calculated recycling center production plan when resolved on a daily timeframe for varying levels of operational flexibility. The dynamic simulation revealed the optimal performance corresponded to the fixed recipe with flexible production daily optimization model formulation. Calculating recycled product characteristics using the proposed simulation optimization method increased profitability in cases of uncertain downstream remelter production and expensive aluminum dross and post-consumed secondary materials. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs@mit.edu)

Brommer, Tracey H.

331

Is municipal solid waste recycling economically efficient?  

PubMed

It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000-2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be. PMID:17687596

Lavee, Doron

2007-12-01

332

Recycled rubber in cement composites  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of 200 million waste tires in the US each year has become a major problem. An environmentally sound innovative technology of recycling rubber in cement matrix was examined. Using silane coupling agent the rubber was bonded to the hydrating cement making a lighter composite, which absorbed more energy than ordinary Portland cement. The bonding information was obtained by peel strength analysis. SEM was used to understand the mode of fracture in pure cement paste, cement bonded rubber composite and rubber filled cement paste. It was found that cracks propagate through the rubber particle in rubber bonded cement composite while in unbonded rubber cement mix, the cracks propagate around the interface. The density and shrinkage measurements are also discussed.

Raghavan, D. [Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Tratt, K.; Wool, R.P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Material Science and Engineering

1994-12-31

333

Multi-market impacts of market based recycling initiatives  

SciTech Connect

In 1994 states enacted 110 new laws concerning recycling. These laws range from mandatory recycling programs to tax credits for businesses that use recycled material. All of the policies move to accomplish the end of more recycling. However, upon close examination of the recycling externality, one finds that recycling is not the appropriate end. Rather, recycling is one possible means of accomplishing the end of waste management. In this context, recycling finds its place after waste reduction, reuse and composting. Policy makers must consider the impacts of recycling initiatives on all parts of the waste cycle . In this paper, the multi-market impacts of three of the more popular policy instruments: recycling subsidies, per-bag fees, and a disposal tax/reuse subsidy are considered through close analysis of the consumer choice problem. Although all three policies encourage recycling, they differ in terms of the amount of waste created, reused, composted, illegally burned and dumped.

Rudolph, L.R. [St. Lawrence Univ., Canton, NY (United States). Dept. of Economics

1997-12-31

334

RECYCLING COORDINATOR GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIP University of Nebraska--Lincoln Landscape Services  

E-print Network

RECYCLING COORDINATOR GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIP University of Nebraska--Lincoln Landscape Services, implementing and maintaining recycling on campus. Assist in annual recycler's survey; tracking of recycling drop- off program; assist in market research for selected recycled materials; assist in developing

Farritor, Shane

335

Crustal recycling and the aleutian arc  

SciTech Connect

Two types of crustal recycling transfer continental crust back into its mantle source. The first of these, upper crustal recycling, involves elements that have been fractionated by the hydrosphere-sediment system, and are subducted as a part of the oceanic crust. The subduction process (S-process) then fractionates these elements, and those not removed at shallow tectonic levels and as excess components of arc magmas are returned to the mantle. Newly determined trace element composition of Pacific oceanic sedimants are variable and mixing is necessary during the S-process, if sediment is to provide excess element in the ratios observed in Aleutian arc magmas. Only a small fraction of the total sediment subducted at the Aleutian trench is required to furnish the excess elements in Aleutian arc magmas. Ba and {sub 10}Be data indicate that this small fraction includes a contribution from the youngest subducted sediment. The second type of recycling, lower crustal recycling, involves crystal cumulates of both arc and oceanic crustal origin, and residues from crustal melting within arc crust. Unlike the silicic sediments, recycled lower crust is mafic to ultramafic in composition. Trace element analyses of xenoliths representing Aleutian arc lower crust are presented. Recycling by delamination of lower crust and attached mantle lithosphere may occur following basalt eclogite phase transformations that are facilitated by terrane suturing events that weld oceanic island arcs to the continents. The relative importance of upper and lower crustal recycling exerts a primary control on continental crustal composition.

Kay, R.W.; Kay, S.M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1988-06-01

336

Cost effectiveness of recycling: a systems model.  

PubMed

Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets. PMID:23816311

Tonjes, David J; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

2013-11-01

337

Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies.  

PubMed

Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH&S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for "green economy". PMID:23768896

Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

2013-09-01

338

Autophagy modulates cell migration and ?1 integrin membrane recycling  

PubMed Central

Cell migration is dependent on a series of integrated cellular events including the membrane recycling of the extracellular matrix receptor integrins. In this paper, we investigate the role of autophagy in regulating cell migration. In a wound-healing assay, we observed that autophagy was reduced in cells at the leading edge than in cells located rearward. These differences in autophagy were correlated with the robustness of MTOR activity. The spatial difference in the accumulation of autophagic structures was not detected in rapamycin-treated cells, which had less migration capacity than untreated cells. In contrast, the knockdown of the autophagic protein ATG7 stimulated cell migration of HeLa cells. Accordingly, atg3?/? and atg5?/? MEFs have greater cell migration properties than their wild-type counterparts. Stimulation of autophagy increased the co-localization of ?1 integrin-containing vesicles with LC3-stained autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy slowed down the lysosomal degradation of internalized ?1 integrins and promoted its membrane recycling. From these findings, we conclude that autophagy regulates cell migration, a central mechanism in cell development, angiogenesis, and tumor progression, by mitigating the cell surface expression of ?1 integrins. PMID:24036548

Tuloup-Minguez, Veronique; Hamai, Ahmed; Greffard, Anne; Nicolas, Valerie; Codogno, Patrice; Botti, Joelle

2013-01-01

339

Recycling domains in plant cell morphogenesis: small GTPase effectors, plasma membrane signalling and the exocyst.  

PubMed

The Rho/Rop small GTPase regulatory module is central for initiating exocytotically ACDs (active cortical domains) in plant cell cortex, and a growing array of Rop regulators and effectors are being discovered in plants. Structural membrane phospholipids are important constituents of cells as well as signals, and phospholipid-modifying enzymes are well known effectors of small GTPases. We have shown that PLDs (phospholipases D) and their product, PA (phosphatidic acid), belong to the regulators of the secretory pathway in plants. We have also shown that specific NOXs (NADPH oxidases) producing ROS (reactive oxygen species) are involved in cell growth as exemplified by pollen tubes and root hairs. Most plant cells exhibit several distinct plasma membrane domains (ACDs), established and maintained by endocytosis/exocytosis-driven membrane protein recycling. We proposed recently the concept of a 'recycling domain' (RD), uniting the ACD and the connected endosomal recycling compartment (endosome), as a dynamic spatiotemporal entity. We have described a putative GTPase-effector complex exocyst involved in exocytic vesicle tethering in plants. Owing to the multiplicity of its Exo70 subunits, this complex, along with many RabA GTPases (putative recycling endosome organizers), may belong to core regulators of RD organization in plants. PMID:20298250

Zárský, Viktor; Potocký, Martin

2010-04-01

340

Issues in recycling and disposal of radioactively contaminated materials  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s present stock of potentially re-usable and minimally radioactively contaminated materials will increase significantly as the Department`s remediation activities expand. As part of its effort to minimize wastes, the Department is pursuing several approaches to recover valuable materials such as nickel, copper, and steel, and reduce the high disposal costs associated with contaminated materials. Key approaches are recycling radioactively contaminated materials or disposing of them as non-radioactive waste. These approaches are impeded by a combination of potentially conflicting Federal regulations, State actions, and Departmental policies. Actions to promote or implement these approaches at the Federal, State, or Departmental level involve issues which must be addressed and resolved. The paramount issue is the legal status of radioactively contaminated materials and the roles of the Federal and State governments in regulating those materials. Public involvement is crucial in the debate surrounding the fate of radioactively contaminated materials.

Kluk, A.F. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hocking, E.K. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Roberts, R. [Dept. of Energy, San Francisco, CA (United States); Phillips, J.W. [Analytical Services, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

1993-10-01

341

Recycling of lithium ion cells and batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new process for recycling lithium ion cells and batteries is described. In order to gain maximum value, the process aims to recover every component from the cell. In contrast with existing recycling processes, the AEA Technology process operates at ambient temperatures. There are three main stages; electrolyte extraction, electrode dissolution, and cobalt reduction. The technology is currently in development, with a demonstration unit linking the process stages together in active operation. Based on the projected quantities of lithium ion batteries available for recycling in the next few years, there is a significant market opportunity for a successful technology.

Lain, Michael J.

342

Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (? 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental results, a number of recommendations were made on how to optimize the use of recycled aggregates for structural concrete production. The results demonstrate that one of the practical ways to utilize a higher percentage of recycled aggregates in concrete is "precasting" with the use of fly ash and an initial steam curing stage immediately after casting.

Kou, Shicong

343

Cash Recycling as an Efficiency Enhancing Anti-Poverty Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there are many descriptive articles about cash recyclers this is the first empirical study of people recycling for cash. A new survey shows that cash recycling is an important part of the income of the working poor and that an astonishing twenty percent of the income of professional scavengers comes from recycling. At the same time professional and workplace

Bevin Ashenmiller

344

Recycling Realities: ASU's Quest for Zero Solid Waste  

E-print Network

Recycling Realities: ASU's Quest for Zero Solid Waste Dawn RatcliffePast Recycling Coordinator Alana LevineRecycling Program Manager For the last 16 years, Dawn Ratcliffe has worked and volunteered in the sustainability and animal-advocacy fields. She has organized several Earth Day events, recycling events

Zhang, Junshan

345

Factors Influencing Community Residents' Participation in Commingled Curbside Recycling Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commingled curbside recycling, a system where household residents put all recyclable materials in one container, is a new form of recycling that has been initiated to decrease the amount of household waste sent to landfills. In a suburb with a new commingled program, a mail survey of environmental and recycling attitudes was sent to 603 households with a 76% response

Raymond J. Gamba; Stuart Oskamp

1994-01-01

346

Cellubrevin-targeted Fluorescence Uncovers Heterogeneity in the Recycling Endosomes*  

E-print Network

Cellubrevin-targeted Fluorescence Uncovers Heterogeneity in the Recycling Endosomes* (Received, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3200 The pH and trafficking of recycling endosomes have-enriched recycling endosomes (pHCb) and FITC-transferrin to measure the pH of transferrin- enriched recycling

Machen, Terry E.

347

Recycling asphalt overview of more than 25 years of use  

E-print Network

1 Recycling asphalt overview of more than 25 years of use in France Y. Brosseaud ­ LCPC hal with ring for recycling ­ Average rate with high proportion : 30 to 50% ­ Used of rejuvenators (soft oil,version1-20May2011 #12;4 Hot recycling asphalt on mixing plant Recycling in place in hot or cold

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

348

Evaluating Water Recycling in California Sachi De Souza  

E-print Network

i Evaluating Water Recycling in California By Sachi De Souza B.Sc.Hon (Queen's University) 2005 Recycling in California ii ABSTRACT This document describes how to complete an economic analysis, financial analysis, and cost allocation for a water recycling project. Water recycling is gaining importance

Lund, Jay R.

349

Environmentally-friendly organochlorine waste processing and recycling  

E-print Network

Environmentally-friendly organochlorine waste processing and recycling Sergei A. Kurta a , Alex A waste recycling. Environmentally-friendly processing and recycling methods of organochlorine waste Byproduct Recycling Dichloroethane Vinyl chloride Trichloroethane a b s t r a c t Due to environmental

Volinsky, Alex A.

350

R-20: new recycling technology for the 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycled rubber can now be used because a new rubber recycle process converts cured scrap rubber to a fine powder characterized by a particle size range never before realized with good economics. The recycling process is carried out by mechanical means at ambient temperatures without the use of undesirable chemicals which are used for devulcanization. When the recycled rubber particles

R. A. Swor; H. V. Newton

1980-01-01

351

Development of materials and technologies for control of polymer recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement toward a recycling-based society through the essential development of recyclable materials alongside technologies for controlling recycling is reviewed. Recently, there has been progress in producing various polymers and technologies with the aim of achieving circulative utilization. For example, the upgrade recycling of commodity plastics, selective transformation of engineering plastics, selective depolymerization of various polymers in supercritical fluids, crosslinking–decrosslinking

Haruo Nishida

2011-01-01

352

The deubiquitinases USP33 and USP20 coordinate beta2 adrenergic receptor recycling and resensitization.  

PubMed

Agonist-induced ubiquitination of the beta(2) adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) functions as an important post-translational modification to sort internalized receptors to the lysosomes for degradation. We now show that this ubiquitination is reversed by two deubiquitinating enzymes, ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs) 20 and 33, thus, inhibiting lysosomal trafficking when concomitantly promoting receptor recycling from the late-endosomal compartments as well as resensitization of recycled receptors at the cell surface. Dissociation of constitutively bound endogenously expressed USPs 20 and 33 from the beta(2)AR immediately after agonist stimulation and reassociation on prolonged agonist treatment allows receptors to first become ubiquitinated and then deubiquitinated, thus, providing a 'trip switch' between degradative and recycling pathways at the late-endosomal compartments. Thus, USPs 20 and 33 serve as novel regulators that dictate both post-endocytic sorting as well as the intensity and extent of beta(2)AR signalling from the cell surface. PMID:19424180

Berthouze, Magali; Venkataramanan, Vidya; Li, Yi; Shenoy, Sudha K

2009-06-17

353

Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils  

SciTech Connect

Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

1995-08-01

354

Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

1995-12-01

355

Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

2010-10-01

356

A mechanism for crustal recycling on Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Entrainment of lower crust by convective mantle downflows is proposed as a crustal recycling mechanism on Venus. The mechanism is characterized by thin sheets of crust being pulled into the mantle by viscous flow stresses. Finite element models of crust/mantle interaction are used to explore tectonic conditions under which crustal entrainment may occur. The recycling scenarios suggested by the numerical models are analogous to previously studied problems for which analytic and experimental relationships assessing entrainment rates have been derived. We use these relationships to estimate crustal recycling rates on Venus. Estimated rates are largely determined by (1) strain rate at the crust/mantle interface (higher strain rate leads to greater entrainment); and (2) effective viscosity of the lower crust (viscosity closer to that of mantle lithosphere leads to greater entrainment). Reasonable geologic strain rates and available crustal flow laws suggest entrainment can recycle approximately equal 1 cu km of crust per year under favorable conditions.

Lenardic, A.; Kaula, W. M.; Bindschadler, D. L.

1993-01-01

357

printed on recycled paper INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT CENTER  

E-print Network

printed on recycled paper INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT CENTER ENERGY EFFICIENCY, POLLUTION PREVENTION ASSESSMENT REPORT FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY, POLLUTION PREVENTION, AND PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT No. CO0999 ASSESSMENT DATE: February 29, 2000 LOCATION: ______, Colorado PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS: Injection molded plastic

358

BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling  

SciTech Connect

The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

2010-03-22

359

Coming of Age: Recycling on Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of campus recycling and how colleges and universities can best contribute to their community and to the industry. A sampling of programs illustrate the diverse approaches taken as well as some of the lessons learned. (LZ)

DeBell, Jack

1994-01-01

360

Aluminum: Recycling of Aluminum Dross/Saltcake  

SciTech Connect

As this NICE3 publication details, the objective of this project is to commercialize the process technology to eliminate all landfill waste associated with black dross and saltcake generated from aluminum recycling in the United States.

Blazek, S.

1999-01-29

361

Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat  

E-print Network

condenser operates above ambient temperature, the rejected heat also contains unused availability. By incorporating an absorption heat pump (AHP) into the distillation process, these sources of unused availability can be tapped so as to recycle (and hence...

Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

1982-01-01

362

Strengthening weak value amplification with recycled photons  

E-print Network

We consider the use of cyclic weak measurements to improve the sensitivity of weak-value amplification precision measurement schemes. Previous weak-value experiments have used only a small fraction of events, while discarding the rest through the process of "post-selection". We extend this idea by considering recycling of events which are typically unused in a weak measurement. Here we treat a sequence of polarized laser pulses effectively trapped inside an interferometer using a Pockels cell and polarization optics. In principle, all photons can be post-selected, which will improve the measurement sensitivity. We first provide a qualitative argument for the expected improvements from recycling photons, followed by the exact result for the recycling of collimated beam pulses, and numerical calculations for diverging beams. We show that beam degradation effects can be mitigated via profile flipping or Zeno reshaping. The main advantage of such a recycling scheme is an effective power increase, while maintaining an amplified deflection.

Justin Dressel; Kevin Lyons; Andrew N. Jordan; Trent M. Graham; Paul G. Kwiat

2013-05-20

363

Technology development for lunar base water recycling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will review previous and ongoing work in aerospace water recycling and identify research activities required to support development of a lunar base. The development of a water recycle system for use in the life support systems envisioned for a lunar base will require considerable research work. A review of previous work on aerospace water recycle systems indicates that more efficient physical and chemical processes are needed to reduce expendable and power requirements. Development work on biological processes that can be applied to microgravity and lunar environments also needs to be initiated. Biological processes are inherently more efficient than physical and chemical processes and may be used to minimize resupply and waste disposal requirements. Processes for recovering and recycling nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur also need to be developed to support plant growth units. The development of efficient water quality monitors to be used for process control and environmental monitoring also needs to be initiated.

Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.

1992-01-01

364

Recycling Mentors: an intergenerational, service-learning program to promote recycling and environmental awareness.  

PubMed

The purpose of Recycling Mentors was to implement an intergenerational, service-learning program focused on promoting recycling and environmental awareness among students enrolled in Community Health (HEA 301) and Current Issues in Gerontology (GRN 440/540) and adults older than 60 years. Recycling Mentors was conducted in New Hanover County (NHC), North Carolina, where a moderate climate and coastal location attracts many tourists, retirees, and college students. A community like NHC is a good place to implement service-learning that educates both students and older adults about the benefits of recycling to individual health and the environment. During the Fall 2009 semester, undergraduate and graduate students completed institutional review board training and then conducted the program with older adults. The education component of Recycling Mentors included a pre/post survey, brochure, and scheduled visits. Overall, Recycling Mentors was positive service-learning experience with students identifying salient outcomes such as learning about recycling and the environment and working with older adults. In addition, teaching the education component of Recycling Mentors was good practice for students who will be the future health professionals. While service-learning and environmentally themed projects are common, a program that combines the 2 like Recycling Mentors is unique and has the potential to motivate individual change while positively impacting the local community and the environment. PMID:21617416

D'abundo, Michelle L; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth I; Fiala, Kelly A

2011-01-01

365

Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.  

PubMed

The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors. PMID:23482100

Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

2013-03-11

366

Impacts of EV battery production and recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric vehicles batteries use energy and produce environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for four selected battery types (sodium-sulfur, nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium, and advanced lead-acid), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found

L. Gaines; M. Singh

1996-01-01

367

Photon recycling semiconductor light-emitting diode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new white light emitting diode, the photon recycling semiconductor light emitting diode (PRS-LED) is demonstrated. The device consists of a GaInN\\/GaN LED emitting in the blue spectral range and an AlGaInP photon recycling semiconductor emitting at the complementary color. Thus the PRS-LED has two emission peaks, one in the blue and one in the amber wavelength range. The theoretical

Xiaoyun Guo; John W. Graff; E. Fred Schubert; Robert F. Karlicek

2000-01-01

368

Photon recycling semiconductor light emitting diode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new white light emitting diode, the photon recycling semiconductor light emitting diode (PRS-LED) is demonstrated. The device consists of a GaInN\\/GaN LED emitting in the blue spectral range and an AlGaInP photon recycling semiconductor emitting at the complementary color. The PRS-LED thus has two emission lines, one in the blue and one in the amber wavelength range. The theoretical

Xiaoyun Guo; J. Graff; E. F. Schubert

1999-01-01

369

Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

1996-01-01

370

Pavement recycling. Executive summary and report  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) initiated Demonstration Project 39 (DP 39) Recycling Asphalt Pavements in June 1976. The project showed that asphalt pavement recycling was a technically viable rehabitation technique, and it was estimated that the use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) would amount to approximately 15 percent of the total hot-mix asphalt (HMA) production by the mid-1980s. It was expected that most of the asphalt pavement removed would be reused in new pavement construction or overlays.

NONE

1995-10-01

371

Learning about Sustainable Communities with Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a column devoted to interactive resoures for the K-5 classroom, this article features Recycle City, an EPA-produced, student-friendly web site designed to teach students about actions that create a sustainable community. Students will learn about recycling, reducing waste, and using less energy. The column regularly appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which focuses on the essential principles of climate literacy.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-12-01

372

FSC-Watch: FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global  

E-print Network

FSC-Watch: FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming FSC-Watch FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming Tags: Canada, Recycling, Certifier conflict of interest undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming in Pine Falls to manufacture paper with some

373

Generalized teleportation and entanglement recycling  

E-print Network

We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group [Bennett, et al. Physical Review Letters, 70(13) 1895-1899] and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka [Physical Review Letters, 101(24) 240501], that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient condition for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. This generalization leads to protocols with novel properties and is needed to push forward new schemes of computation based on them. Port-based teleportation protocols and our generalizations use a large resource state consisting of N singlets to teleport only a single qubit state reliably. We provide two distinct protocols which recycle the resource state to teleport multiple states with error linearly increasing with their number. The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting qubit states, and the second teleports them in a bulk.

Sergii Strelchuk; Micha? Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim

2012-09-12

374

Molybdenum recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of molybdenum in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which molybdenum was recycled. Molybdenum was mostly recycled from products of molybdenum-bearing steels and superalloys, with some molybdenum products recovered specifically for their high molybdenum content. In 1998, 8,000 metric tons (t) of molybdenum was estimated to have been recycled, and the recycling rate was calculated to be 33 percent, with recycling efficiency at about 30 percent.

Blossom, John W.

2002-01-01

375

Recycling of eukaryotic posttermination ribosomal complexes.  

PubMed

After translational termination, mRNA and P site deacylated tRNA remain associated with ribosomes in posttermination complexes (post-TCs), which must therefore be recycled by releasing mRNA and deacylated tRNA and by dissociating ribosomes into subunits. Recycling of bacterial post-TCs requires elongation factor EF-G and a ribosome recycling factor RRF. Eukaryotes do not encode a RRF homolog, and their mechanism of ribosomal recycling is unknown. We investigated eukaryotic recycling using post-TCs assembled on a model mRNA encoding a tetrapeptide followed by a UAA stop codon and report that initiation factors eIF3, eIF1, eIF1A, and eIF3j, a loosely associated subunit of eIF3, can promote recycling of eukaryotic post-TCs. eIF3 is the principal factor that promotes splitting of posttermination ribosomes into 60S subunits and tRNA- and mRNA-bound 40S subunits. Its activity is enhanced by eIFs 3j, 1, and 1A. eIF1 also mediates release of P site tRNA, whereas eIF3j ensures subsequent dissociation of mRNA. PMID:17956730

Pisarev, Andrey V; Hellen, Christopher U T; Pestova, Tatyana V

2007-10-19

376

Maryland's program for buying recycled paper (innovations)  

SciTech Connect

Maryland was the first state to mandate large purchases of recycled paper. In 1977, the legislature passed House Bill 153 which requires the State to increase its purchase of recycled paper (paper containing 80 percent post-consumer waste) to five percent of the total paper purchases by 1978, 25 percent by 1981, and 40 percent by 1985. Since the passage of the law, the state has purchased 272,000 reams of recycled bond paper, 40,000 corrugated boxes, and 25,000 cases of recycled paper towels. State agencies have also purchased an additional 438,616 dollars of recycled towels, napkins, and toilet tissue. These purchases, totaling over 1.2 million dollars, have saved approximately 81 billion Btu's or enough home heating oil for 643 homes for a year. Over 1,700 tons of solid waste have been withheld from the Nation's solid waste stream. The recycled paper has generally been less expensive than virgin paper. All of these benefits have been achieved without loss of quality. Program implementation and problems are discussed.

Keller, R.

1980-07-01

377

DWPF RECYCLE EVAPORATOR FLOWSHEET EVALUATION (U)  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) converts the high level waste slurries stored at the Savannah River Site into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. The vitrification process results in the generation of approximately five gallons of dilute recycle streams for each gallon of waste slurry vitrified. This dilute recycle stream is currently transferred to the H-area Tank Farm and amounts to approximately 1,400,000 gallons of effluent per year. Process changes to incorporate salt waste could increase the amount of effluent to approximately 2,900,000 gallons per year. The recycle consists of two major streams and four smaller streams. The first major recycle stream is condensate from the Chemical Process Cell (CPC), and is collected in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT). The second major recycle stream is the melter offgas which is collected in the Off Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT). The four smaller streams are the sample flushes, sump flushes, decon solution, and High Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME) dissolution solution. These streams are collected in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) or the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). All recycle streams are currently combined in the RCT and treated with sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide prior to transfer to the tank farm. Tank Farm space limitations and previous outages in the 2H Evaporator system due to deposition of sodium alumino-silicates have led to evaluation of alternative methods of dealing with the DWPF recycle. One option identified for processing the recycle was a dedicated evaporator to concentrate the recycle stream to allow the solids to be recycled to the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the condensate from this evaporation process to be sent and treated in the Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). In order to meet process objectives, the recycle stream must be concentrated to 1/30th of the feed volume during the evaporation process. The concentrated stream must be pumpable to the DWPF SRAT vessel and should not precipitate solids to avoid fouling the evaporator vessel and heat transfer coils. The evaporation process must not generate excessive foam and must have a high Decontamination Factor (DF) for many species in the evaporator feed to allow the condensate to be transferred to the ETP. An initial scoping study was completed in 2001 to evaluate the feasibility of the evaporator which concluded that the concentration objectives could be met. This initial study was based on initial estimates of recycle concentration and was based solely on OLI modeling of the evaporation process. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has completed additional studies using simulated recycle streams and OLI{reg_sign} simulations. Based on this work, the proposed flowsheet for the recycle evaporator was evaluated for feasibility, evaporator design considerations, and impact on the DWPF process. This work was in accordance with guidance from DWPF-E and was performed in accordance with the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan.

Stone, M

2005-04-30

378

Discontinuous Behavioral Responses to Recycling Laws and Plastic Water Bottle Deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic theory predicts that individual recycling behavior gravitates toward extremes—either diligent recycling or no recycling at all. Using a nationally representative sample of 3,158 bottled water users, this article finds that this prediction is borne out for consumer recycling of plastic water bottles. Both water bottle deposits and recycling laws foster recycling through a discontinuous effect that converts reluctant recyclers

W. Kip Viscusi; Joel Huber; Jason Bell; Caroline Cecot

2009-01-01

379

Reuse and recycle--considering the soil below constructions.  

PubMed

The European Construction Products Regulation provides a life cycle based framework for the environmental assessment of construction products. Harmonised European standards for the assessment of the release of dangerous substances and for declaration of environmental performance are in progress. Risk based limit values for the protection of soil and groundwater below construction works will still bet set nationally. In this paper we review the possibilities to expand the ongoing harmonisation to include risk assessment and life cycle assessment (LCA). Based on reviews of national European limit value models (LMVs) for assessment of release to soil and groundwater, two areas for harmonisation emerge: 1- The toxicological criteria. Toxicological endpoints to protect human health and environment are similar, and data from the same toxicological data sets are used to establish acceptance criteria. 2- The emission part of LMVs. We extracted six generic construction works for granular materials. These encompass the most common choices and span the different release scenarios applied. Harmonised emission models would also facilitate LCA and environmental product declaration (EPD). The immission or transport part of the LVMs is less promising for harmonisation. Locating the acceptance criteria point of compliance close to the construction works is advantageous from many aspects and would facilitate harmonisation of assessments. We have identified two different strategies to include recycling in the assessments: 1- Tiered procedure where assessment and declaration of performance are made for the intended primary use of the product only and renewed assessments are made whenever the construction works are demolished and the product is recovered. 2- Scenario based procedure where future recycling scenarios, into new products and construction works, are forecasted. In this case the initial assessment and declaration of environmental performance of a construction product is performed both for the intended primary use of the product and for the recycling scenarios. PMID:24694938

Suer, Pascal; Wik, Ola; Erlandsson, Martin

2014-07-01

380

Brazilian policy on battery disposal and its practical effects on battery recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disposal of batteries is a problem that has grown in the last few years, due to the increase in the use of portable devices. Batteries may contain toxic metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead, so their disposal must be controlled. Brazil was the first country in Latin America to regulate the disposal and treatment of batteries. Limits were established on the concentration of heavy metals within batteries, so that they could be disposed along with domestic waste. Since batteries are products used broadly, it is very difficult to control their disposal. In order to have an efficient collection, the population must be engaged, and that can only happen if they are informed about the laws and regulations regarding the subject, as well as the importance of disposing of batteries with higher concentrations of heavy metals or toxic substances separately from domestic garbage. Around the world, there are some long-established recycling processes for batteries. In Brazil, automotive (lead-acid) batteries have been recycled for several years, whereas the recycling of other types of batteries is just starting. This work does an analysis of the Brazilian law for battery recycling and presents some suggestions and examples of the initiatives of other countries, in order to manage of this kind of dangerous waste.

Crocce Romano Espinosa, Denise; Moura Bernardes, Andréa; Alberto Soares Tenório, Jorge

381

Recycling of treated wood poles  

SciTech Connect

There are approximately 150 million utilities poles in service in North America. Of the 3 million poles removed from service each year, many poles still contain a sound and structurally intact core and only the outer layer has deteriorated. Since most of the old poles are treated with either pentachlorophenol or creosote there are limited disposal options available to pole users. The practice of giving old poles away to farmers or other interested parties in falling into disfavour since this practice does not absolve the utility of the environmental liability associated with the treated wood. TWT has commercialised a thermolysis (Pyrolysis) based process capable of removing oil based preservatives from treated wood. The patented process involves: the shaving of the weathered pole exterior; the rapid distillation of oil based preservatives in an oxygen depleted environment; condensation of the vapours; and separation of liquids. TWT has constructed a 30,000 pole per year facility east of Calgary and has provided recycled poles for the construction of two power lines now in use by TransAlta Utilities Corporation, Canada`s largest investor owned electric utility. TWT has tested two thermolysis (Pyrolysis) technologies and has determined that contact thermolysis using a heated auger design performed better and with less plugging than a fast fluid bed reactor. The fluid bed reactor is prone to coke formation and contamination of the oil by fine char particles. Residual PCP concentration in the shavings was reduced from 9500 ppm to 10 ppm. Leachate testing on the char yielded a PCP concentration of 1.43 ppm in the Leachate, well below the EPA standard maximum of 100 ppm.

Fansham, P. [TWT Wood Products, Inc., Alberta (Canada)

1995-11-01

382

Printed on Recycled Paper. NOTICE  

E-print Network

This guide has been subjected to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency peer and administrative review, and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or processes constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. This document is intended as advisory guidance only to the wood preserving industry in developing @preaches for pollution prevention. Compliance with environmental @d occupational safety and health laws is the responsibility of each individual business and is not the focus of this document. Worksheets are provided for conducting waste minimization assessments of wood preserving plants. Users are encouraged to duplicate portions of this publication as needed to implement a waste minimization program. FOREWORD., This guide provides an overview of the wood preserving industry and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling. Treatment with both oilbome and waterborne preservatives is discussed in this guide. However, because, in the United States, the majority of wood is treated with chromated copper arsenate, the guide focuses on waterborne preservatives. Process wastewater, surface runoff water, and sludge are possible sources of contamination in the wood preserving industry, although in waterborne processes the majority of wastewater is reused. Process wastewater includes water from conditioning, kiln drying, treated wood washing, accumulations in doors or retort sumps, preservative formulation recovery, and rinsing. Surface runoff water flows from nonprocess areas, such as treated wood storage yards. Sludge consists of oil-water emulsions, water/debris mixtures, and wood debris. Reducing the amount of this waste will benefit both the wood preserving industry and the environment.

unknown authors

1993-01-01

383

Electroless nickel recycling via electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Electroless nickel is widely used in the metal finishing industry as a coating. It plates evenly on a variety of surfaces and replicates or enhances the surface finish. It has high hardness and good corrosion resistance and machinability. However, its bath life is limited and it has a tendency to spontaneously plate out on the tank and associated equipment. These problems add to the cost per unit component plated. Also, expensive waste treatment is required before users can dispose of the spent solution. Electroless nickel`s limited bath life is inherent in its chemical make-up. Using hypophosphite as the reducing agent for the nickel ion generates by-products of nickel metal and orthophosphite. When the level of orthophosphite in the solution reaches a high concentration, the reaction slows and finally stops. The bath must be disposed of, and its treatment and replacement costs are high. Metal salts have a tendency to plate out because of the dissolved solids present, and this also makes it necessary to discard the bath. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a study of an electrodialysis process that can reduce both chemical purchases and disposal costs. Electrodialysis employs a membrane, deionized water, and an electromotive potential to separate the orthophosphite and other dissolved solids from the nickel ions. With the aid of the electromotive potential, the dissolved solids migrate across the membrane from the process solution into the water in the recycling unit`s holding cell. This migration lowers the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the process solution and improves plating performance. The dialysis process makes it possible to reuse the bath many times without disposal.

Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

1995-04-01

384

Recycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, nickel  

E-print Network

Battery Per Bag Please sort the batteries by battery type, using a separate receptacle for nickel cadmiumRecycle Batteries CSM recycles a variety of battery types including automotive, sealed lead acid, and alkaline batteries. All batteries need to be sorted by battery type. Each battery type must be accumulated

385

Financing electronic waste recycling Californian households’ willingness to pay advanced recycling fees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of electronic waste (e-waste) is of increasing concern because of its toxic content and low recycling rates. The e-waste recycling infrastructure needs to be developed, yet little is known about people's willingness to fund its expansion. This paper examines this issue based on a 2004 mail survey of California households. Using an ordered logit model, we find that

Hilary Nixon; Jean-Daniel M. Saphores

2007-01-01

386

Energy implications of recycling packaging materials  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1994-03-01

387

Library Regulations Library Regulations  

E-print Network

Library Regulations 2012-13 Library Regulations UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM REGULATIONS LIBRARY REGULATIONS Preamble: The Library Regulations apply to all users of library facilities managed on behalf of the University by Library Services, and thus there are sections that apply also to non- members of the University

Birmingham, University of

388

Photo Courtesy of Carlsbad Water Distict Economic Evaluation for Water Recycling  

E-print Network

-i- Photo Courtesy of Carlsbad Water Distict Economic Evaluation for Water Recycling In Urban Areas........................................................................................................................................... 4 BENEFICIAL USES OF RECYCLED WATER................................................................................................ 5 MOTIVATIONS FOR RECYCLED WATER USE

Lund, Jay R.

389

Recycling biowaste--human and animal health problems.  

PubMed

Biowaste from the food chain is of potential benefit to use in agriculture. Agriculture in general and organic farming in particular needs alternative plant nutrients. However, the quality concerning hygiene and soil contaminants must be assured. This recycling has to be regulated in a way that harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man are prevented. The problems with heavy metals and organic contaminants have been focused on. Still, maximum threshold values are continuously discussed to avoid an increase of soil concentrations. The effect on the ecosystems of residues from use of medicines needs further attention. There is also a risk for a spread of antibiotic resistant micro-organisms in the environment and then to animals and man. Infectious diseases may be spread from biowaste and new routes of disease transmission between animals and humans can be created. Zoonotic diseases in this context play a central role. Pathogens recently introduced to a country may be further spread when biowaste is recycled. The very good health status of domestic animals in the Nordic countries may then quickly change. The quality of biowaste is of enormous importance if biowaste is to gain general acceptance for agricultural use, especially for organic production. A balance needs to be maintained between risk and advantage for its use. PMID:11995393

Albihn, A

2001-01-01

390

Recycling for reinstatement -- The gas experience  

SciTech Connect

Trenching and small hole operations, for the construction and maintenance of the British Gas plc distribution system, require the disposal of large quantities of excavated material and the import of similar amounts of newly crushed rock. The cost of disposal of the excavated material to landfill sites is high, and is set to rise further with the proposed introduction of the Government`s landfill levy. The excavated material, therefore, has a significant potential financial value if it was to be recycled for reuse. In addition, there would be considerable environmental benefits generated by adopting recycling as the method of waste management as opposed to that of landfill disposal. British Gas are therefore currently engaged in research to determine the feasibility and economic benefits of recycling excavated material. This paper presents details of field trials to recycle excavated material using screening and crushing equipment similar to that used in recycling demolition waste. The paper also reports on the steps being taken to investigate the performance of such materials.

Owen, R.C.; Parker, J.E. [British Gas plc, Loughborough (United Kingdom). Gas Research Centre] [British Gas plc, Loughborough (United Kingdom). Gas Research Centre

1996-12-31

391

Software recycling at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site was the first Department of Energy (DOE) complex to recycle excess software rather than dispose of it in the landfill. This plan, which took over a year to complete, was reviewed for potential legal conflicts, which could arise from recycling rather than disposal of software. It was determined that recycling was an approved method of destruction and therefore did not conflict with any of the licensing agreements that Hanford had with the software manufacturers. The Hanford Recycling Program Coordinator combined efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to recycle all Hanford software through a single contract, which went out for bid in January 1995. It was awarded to GreenDisk, Inc. located in Woodinville Washington and implemented in March 1995. The contract was later re-bid and awarded to EcoDisWGreenDisk in December 1998. The new contract included materials such as; software manuals, diskettes, tyvek wrapping, cardboard & paperboard packaging, compact disks (CDs), videotapes, reel-to-reel tapes, magnetic tapes, audio tapes, and many other types of media.

HINKELMAN, K.C.

1999-11-03

392

Energy implications of glass-container recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

Gaines, L.L.; Mintz, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1994-03-01

393

Building recycling rates through the informal sector.  

PubMed

Many developing country cities aspire to modern waste management systems, which are associated with relatively high recycling rates of clean, source separated materials. Most already have informal sector recycling systems, which are driven solely by the revenues derived from selling recovered materials, even though they are saving the formal sector money by reducing waste quantities. There is clear potential for 'win-win' co-operation between the formal and informal sectors, as providing support to the informal sector, to build recycling rates and to address some of the social issues could reduce the overall costs of waste management for the formal sector. This paper shows that recycling rates already achieved by the informal sector can be quite high, typically in the range from 20% to 50%; often up to half of this is in the form of clean, source separated materials collected directly from households and businesses by itinerant waste buyers. Four country case studies provide a number of lessons on how this solid foundation could be used to build high recycling rates of clean materials. PMID:18701272

Wilson, David C; Araba, Adebisi O; Chinwah, Kaine; Cheeseman, Christopher R

2009-02-01

394

Progress in recycling of automobile shredder residue  

SciTech Connect

At Argonne National Laboratory, we have been developing a potentially economical process to recycle automobile shredder residue (ASR). We identified three potentially marketable materials that can be recovered from ASR and developed technologies to recover and upgrade these materials. We build and tested a field-demonstration plant for recycling polyurethane foam and produced about 2000 lb of recycled foam. Several 300-lb samples were sent for evaluation and were found to be of marketable quality. We are also preparing for a large-scale test in which about 200 tons of ASR-derived fines will be used as a raw material in cement making. A major cement company has evaluated small samples of fines prepared in the laboratory and found that they meet its requirements as a substitute for iron ore or mill scale. We also produced about 50 lb of recycled acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) from obsolete automobiles and found that it has properties that could be readily upgraded to meet the specifications of the automotive industry. In this paper, we briefly discuss the process as a whole and summarize the results obtained from the field work on foam and fines recycling.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Pomykala, J.A. Jr.

1996-03-01

395

Metallurgy of recycled lead for recombinant batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recombinant and stationary lead/acid batteries generally use lead—calcium—tin alloys for grids, lead—tin alloys for strap and top lead, and high purity lead for oxide. In many cases, primary lead has been specified for these materials in recombinant batteries because both recycled lead and recycled lead alloys were not thought to be of sufficient purity. With improvements in analytical instruments, it is now possible to determine impurity elements at much lower levels. Because problem elements can be analyzed, refining procedures have now been developed to remove gas-producing impurity elements from recycled lead to levels as low as, or lower than, those in primary lead. These new refinery practices and analytical tests have increased the purity of refined recycled lead, and have permitted the use of recycled lead in recombinant and stand-by batteries. Some elements, deemed to be impurities that must be removed, may in fact be beneficial in alloys for recombinant batteries. This paper examines the purity requirements of lead and lead alloys for recombinant and stand-by batteries, indicates the problem elements, and shows the effects of beneficial elements.

David Prengaman, R.

396

Recycler lattice for Project X at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Project X is an intense proton source that provides beam for various physics programs. The source consists of an 8 GeV H- superconducting linac that injects into the Fermilab Recycler where H- are converted to protons. Protons are provided to the Main Injector and accelerated to desired energy (in the range 60-120 GeV) or extracted from the Recycler for the 8 GeV program. A long drift space is needed to accommodate the injection chicane with stripping foils. The Recycler is a fixed 8 GeV kinetic energy storage ring using permanent gradient magnets. A phase trombone straight section is used to control the tunes. In this paper, the existing FODO lattice in RR10 straight section being converted into doublet will be described. Due to this change, the phase trombone straight section has to be modified to bring the tunes to the nominal working point. A toy lattice of recycler ring is designed to simulate the end-shim effects of each permanent gradient magnet to add the flexibility to handle the tune shift to the lattice during the operation of 1.6E14 with KV distribution of the proton beam to give {approx}0.05 of space charge tune shift. The comparison or the combinations of the two modification ways for the Recycler ring lattice will be presented also in this paper.

Xiao, Meiqin; Johnson, David E.; /Fermilab

2009-09-01

397

INEL metal recycle annual report, FY-94  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, the mission of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was changed from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to development of technologies for conditioning of spent nuclear fuels and other high-level wastes for disposal in a geologic repository. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a program plan addressing the management of radioactive contaminated scrap metal (RSM) within the DOE complex. Based on discussions with the EM-30 organization, the INEL Metal Recycle program plan was developed to address all issues of RSM management. Major options considered for RSM management were engineered interim storage, land disposal as low-level waste, and beneficial reuse/recycle. From its inception, the Metal Recycle program has emphasized avoidance of storage and disposal costs through beneficial reuse of RSM. The Metal Recycle program plan includes three major activities: Site-by-site inventory of RSM resources; validation of technologies for conversion of RSM to usable products; and identification of parties prepared to participate in development of a RSM recycle business.

Bechtold, T.E. [ed.

1994-09-01

398

Antimony recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of recycling has become more obvious as concerns about the environment and import dependence have grown in recent years. When materials are recycled, fewer natural resources are consumed, and less waste products go to landfills or pollute the water and air. This study, one of a series of reports on metals recycling in 2000, discusses the flow of antimony from mining through its uses and disposal with emphasis on recycling. In 2000, the recycling efficiency for antimony was estimated to be 89 percent, and the recycling rate was about 20 percent.

Carlin, James F.

2006-01-01

399

R-20: new recycling technology for the 1980s  

SciTech Connect

Recycled rubber can now be used because a new rubber recycle process converts cured scrap rubber to a fine powder characterized by a particle size range never before realized with good economics. The recycling process is carried out by mechanical means at ambient temperatures without the use of undesirable chemicals which are used for devulcanization. When the recycled rubber particles are used to extend high quality compounds, the degree of retention of key properties of the extended compounds surpasses that of compounds extended with conventional recycled materials. Tests using the recycled rubber in recapped tires and results are described.

Swor, R.A.; Newton, H.V.

1980-06-01

400

Recycled vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW)--a novel method of recycling greywater for irrigation in small communities and households.  

PubMed

The use of greywater for irrigation is becoming increasingly common. However, raw greywater is often contaminated and can cause environmental harm and pose health risks. Nevertheless, it is often used without any significant pretreatment, a practice mistakenly considered safe. The aim of this study was to develop an economically sound, low-tech and easily maintainable treatment system that would allow safe and sustainable use of greywater for landscape irrigation in small communities and households. The system is based on a combination of vertical flow constructed wetland with water recycling and trickling filter, and is termed recycled vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW). The RVFCW's properties, removal efficiency, hydraulic parameters and feasibility were studied, as well as the environmental effects of the treated greywater, as reflected by soil and plant parameters over time. The RVFCW was efficient at removing virtually all of the suspended solids and biological oxygen demand, and about 80% of the chemical oxygen demand after 8h. Fecal coliforms dropped by three to four orders of magnitude from their initial concentration after 8h, but this was not always enough to meet current regulations for unlimited irrigation. The treated greywater had no significant negative impact on plants or soil during the study period. The feasibility analysis indicated a return over investment after approximately three years. We concluded that the RVFCW is a sustainable and promising treatment system for greywater use that can be run and maintained by unskilled operators. PMID:16844197

Gross, A; Shmueli, O; Ronen, Z; Raveh, E

2007-01-01

401

Reuse and recycling - reverse logistics opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This book is intended to serve as a managerial guide for planning and implementing waste reduction programs. It is based on the premise that proactive management of environmental issues is becoming vital to corporate success, and that these issues are creating new roles and opportunities for logistic professionals. Examined in detail are nonhazardous waste reduction activities; reuse and recycling activities; and source reduction. The book is based on in-depth interviews with seventeen firms and several trade associations acknowledged to be leaders in waste reduction efforts. Topics discussed include adapting inbound supply chains to use more recycled goods; minimizing packaging waste; reverse distribution capabilities for taking back products and packaging; and the use of third party services for recycling, reuse, and source reduction activities. Included are two case analyses of progressive firms like E.I. Dupont Nemours and Home Depot and their waste reduction efforts.

Kopicki, R.; Berg, M.J.; Legg, L.

1993-12-31

402

New developments in RTR fuel recycling  

SciTech Connect

As most utilities in the world, Research and Test Reactors (RTR) operators are currently facing two challenges regarding the fuel, in order to comply with local safety and waste management requirements as well as global non-proliferation obligation: - How to manage used fuel today, and - How fuel design changes that are currently under development will influence used fuel management. AREVA-La-Hague plant has a large experience in used fuel recycling, including traditional RTR fuel (UAl). Based on that experience and deep knowledge of RTR fuel manufacturing, AREVA is currently examining possible options to cope with both challenges. This paper describes the current experience of AREVA-La-Hague in UAl used fuels recycling and its plan to propose recycling for various types of fuels such as U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel or UMo fuel on an industrial scale. (authors)

Lelievre, F.; Brueziere, J.; Domingo, X.; Valery, J.F.; Leroy, J.F.; Tribout-Maurizi, A. [AREVA, Tour AREVA, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense (France)

2013-07-01

403

Aluminum recycling—An integrated, industrywide approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aluminum industry is a leading proponent of global sustainability and strongly advocates the use of recycled metal. As the North American primary aluminum industry continues to move offshore to other geographic areas such as Iceland and the Middle East, where energy is more readily available at lower cost, the importance of the secondary (i.e., recycled metal) market in the U.S. will continue to increase. The purpose of this paper is to take an integrated, industry-wide look at the recovery of material from demolished buildings, shredded automobiles, and aging aircraft, as well as from traditional cans and other rigid containers. Attempts will be made to assess how the different alloys used in these separate markets can be recycled in the most energy-efficient manner.

Das, Subodh K.; Green, John A. S.; Kaufman, J. Gilbert; Emadi, Daryoush; Mahfoud, M.

2010-02-01

404

Impacts of EV battery production and recycling  

SciTech Connect

Electric vehicles batteries use energy and produce environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for four selected battery types (sodium-sulfur, nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium, and advanced lead-acid), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. Nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, for example, but energy requirements for the production of cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for metal hydride electrodes, while the latter may be more difficult to recycle.

Gaines, L.; Singh, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.

1996-06-01

405

Inhibitors for Bacterial Cell-Wall Recycling  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative bacteria have evolved an elaborate process for the recycling of their cell wall, which is initiated in the periplasmic space by the action of lytic transglycosylases. The product of this reaction, ?-d-N-acetylglucosamine-(1?4)-1,6-anhydro-?-d-N-acetylmuramyl-l-Ala-?-d-Glu-meso-DAP-d-Ala-d-Ala (compound 1), is internalized to begin the recycling events within the cytoplasm. The first step in the cytoplasmic recycling is catalyzed by the NagZ glycosylase, which cleaves in a hydrolytic reaction the N-acetylglucosamine glycosidic bond of metabolite 1. The reactions catalyzed by both the lytic glycosylases and NagZ are believed to involve oxocarbenium transition species. We describe herein the synthesis and evaluation of four iminosaccharides as possible mimetics of the oxocarbenium species, and we disclose one as a potent (compound 3, Ki = 300 ± 15 nM) competitive inhibitor of NagZ. PMID:22844551

2012-01-01

406

Reverse logistics system planning for recycling electrical appliances and computers in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the disposition of end-of-life home appliances has caused tremendous attention, Taiwan recently promulgated a Scrap Home Appliances and Computers Recycling Regulation that mandates manufacturers and importers to take back their products. Reverse logistics system planning shall become vital as the take-back rate increases and the service area expands in the future. This study utilizes a mixed integer programming model

Li-Hsing Shih

2001-01-01

407

Recyclization reactions of 1-alkylpyrimidinium salts  

PubMed Central

The reaction of 4-amino-2-benzyl-1-methyl-5-ethoxycarbonylpyrimidinium iodide (3) with alcoholic methylamine resulted in the formation of the methylimine of 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methylamino-5-phenylpyridine-3-carbaldehyde (5). Heating of the same pyrimidinium salt in benzylamine gave a mixture of products of two C–C recyclizations: 2-benzyl-4-benzylamino-5-carbamoylpyrimidine (7) and the benzylimine of 4-amino-2-benzyl-6-benzylaminopyrimidine-5-carbaldehyde (8). The reaction of 2-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5-ethoxycarbonylpyrimidinium iodide (10) with KOH ethanolic solution gave a single product of C–C-recyclization: 2-amino-5-acetyl-4-hydroxypyrimidine (11).

Vardanyan, Ruben S.; Danagulyan, Gevork G.; Mkrtchyan, Armen D.; Hruby, Victor J.

2014-01-01

408

Recycling of copper/brass radiators  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how eliminating the lead content from radiators enhances their recyclability. Traditional radiators assembled with tin-lead solder are giving way to two other types: those assembled with a solder made of tin alloyed with copper, silver, and/or antimony; and those assembled with a CuNiSnP-alloy braze, which is more advanced technique. Both of these types of heat exchangers can go back to the melting shop for production of new tube strip. This will be a case where real recycling back into the same product is possible.

NONE

1996-08-01

409

Household demand for waste recycling services.  

PubMed

Municipalities everywhere are coping with increasing amounts of solid waste and need urgently to formulate efficient and sustainable solutions to the problem. This study examines the use of economic incentives in municipal waste management. Specifically, we address the issue of recycling, if and when this waste management option is-on social welfare grounds-a preferred solution.A number of studies have recently assessed the monetary value of the externalities of alternative solid waste management options. In the present context, these subsidies could be interpreted as the implicit value of the benefits from reducing environmental externalities associated with landfilling as perceived by local government authorities. We surmise that the difference between mean households' willingness to pay (WTP) for recycling services, via the purchase of a subsidized waste disposal facility, and the above (proxy) value of externalities reflects the difference between private and public perception regarding the negative externality associated with landfilling. We believe that this information is useful in determining the level of subsidization needed (if at all) to sustain any recycling program.The study is unique in the sense that its conclusions are based on revealed household behavior when faced with increased disposal costs, as well as information on WTP responses in hypothetical but related (and, therefore, familiar) scenarios. The article also explores the influence of the subsidization schemes on recycling rates. It was found that with low levels of effort needed to participate in a curbside recycling program, households' participation rates are mainly influenced by economic variables and age, and households are willing to pay a higher price for the recycling scheme. When the required effort level is relatively high, however, households would pay a lower price, and the rate is influenced mainly by their environmental commitment and by economic considerations. We found that in both cases a subsidy would be required in order to achieve an efficient level of recycling. The median price that households are willing to pay for recycling devices is found to be about NIS 370 (New Israeli Shekel, approximately 90 dollars). PMID:15902451

Palatnik, Ruslana; Ayalon, Ofira; Shechter, Mordechai

2005-02-01

410

Business plan for the Solar Recycle-o-Sort  

E-print Network

There exists much room for growth in recycling participation with almost 1 in every 4 Americans still not recycling at all. In many communities this fraction is significantly higher, with low awareness of the benefits of ...

Kalk, David O. (David Oliver)

2008-01-01

411

BLEACHABILITY OF RECYCLED FIBERS DEINKED WITH ENZYME PREPARATIONS  

E-print Network

BLEACHABILITY OF RECYCLED FIBERS DEINKED WITH ENZYME PREPARATIONS Marguerite Sykes John Klungness the recycling emphasis from ink removal to color removal. Our research indicates that enzymes can available enzyme preparations used for deinking office wastepaper on pulp brightness and bleachability

Abubakr, Said

412

Study of recycling impurity retention in Alcator C-mod  

E-print Network

This work was aimed at reproducing experimental results in impurity compression of Ar, as well as the screening of recycling and non-recycling impurities from reaching the core plasma. As part of the study the code was ...

Chung, Taekyun

2004-01-01

413

Minnesota Recycling Directory. Statewide Markets, Greater Minnesota Collection Locations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Minnesota Markets for Recyclable Materials Directory is designed to establish a link between collection programs and markets around Minnesota. This directory is divided into two parts. The first part lists markets for the specific recyclable materials...

1988-01-01

414

Minnesota Recycling Directory, 1991. Statewide Markets and Collection Locations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Minnesota Recycling Industries: (Individual Company Listings; Recycling Industries by County; Glass Collection, Processing and End-Use by County; Metal Collection, Processing and End-Use by County; Paper Collection, Processing and End-U...

D. Cera, C. Cloutier, L. Estrem, C. Halpine, K. Johnson, T. Nolan, K. O'Donnell, G. Prest, J. Roe, C. Smith, S. Wiley

1991-01-01

415

Manganese recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow and processing of manganese within the U.S. economy in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which manganese is recycled. Manganese was used mostly as an alloying agent in alloys in which it was a minor component. Manganese was recycled mostly within scrap of iron and steel. A small amount was recycled within aluminum used beverage cans. Very little manganese was recycled from materials being recovered specifically for their manganese content. For the United States in 1998, 218,000 metric tons of manganese was estimated to have been recycled from old scrap, of which 96% was from iron and steel scrap. Efficiency of recycling was estimated as 53% and recycling rate as 37%. Metallurgical loss of manganese was estimated to be about 1.7 times that recycled. This loss was mostly into slags from iron and steel production, from which recovery of manganese has yet to be shown economically feasible.

Jones, Thomas S.

2001-01-01

416

EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). his evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory....

417

EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

418

Aluminum recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the flow of aluminum from production through its uses with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2000. This materials flow study includes a description of aluminum supply and demand factors for the United States to illustrate the extent of aluminum recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding the system of materials flow from source to ultimate disposition can assist in improving the management of natural resources in a manner that is compatible with sound environmental practices. In 2000, the old scrap recycling efficiency for aluminum was estimated to be 42 percent. Almost 60 percent of the aluminum that was recycled in 2000 came from new scrap, and the recycling rate was estimated to be 36 percent. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

Plunkert, Patricia A.

2006-01-01

419

A comparison of public policies for lead recycling  

E-print Network

Policies that encourage recycling may be used to reduce environmental costs from waste disposal when direct restrictions on disposal are difficult to enforce. Four recycling policies have been advanced: (i) taxes on the ...

Sigman, Hilary

1992-01-01

420

Molybdenum Recycling in the United States in 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the flow of molybdenum in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which molybdenum was recycled. Molybdenum was mostly recycled from products of molybdenum-bearing steels and superalloys, with some molybdenum product...

J. W. Blossom

2002-01-01

421

Relationship between composition and performance of asphalt recycling agents  

E-print Network

This research was aimed at determining the effects of recycling agent composition on the performance of recycled asphalt with aging. To accomplish this, five experiments were performed, in which blends were produced with controlled compositions...

Peterson, Gerald Dean

2012-06-07

422

40 CFR 261.6 - Requirements for recyclable materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Recyclable materials from which precious metals are reclaimed (40 CFR part 266, subpart F); (iv) Spent lead-acid batteries that are being reclaimed (40 CFR part 266, subpart G). (3) The following recyclable materials are...

2010-07-01

423

Recycling used lubricating oil at the deep space stations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison is made of the lubricating oil recycling methods used in the Deep Space Station 43 test and the basic requirements which could favor recycling of oil for continuous reuse. The basic conditions for successful recycling are compared to the conditions that exist in the Deep Space Network (DSN). This comparison shows that to recycle used oil in the DSN would not only be expensive but also nonproductive.

Koh, J. L.

1981-01-01

424

Used consumer electronics: a comparative analysis of materials recycling technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The useful life of consumer electronic devices is relatively short, and decreasing as a result of rapid changes in equipment features and capabilities. This creates a large waste stream of obsolete electronic equipment, e-waste. In this paper, various recycling technologies for the glass, plastics, and metals found in e-waste are discussed. For glass recycling, glass-to-glass recycling and glass-to-lead recycling technologies

Hai-Yong Kang; Julie M. Schoenung

2004-01-01

425

Impact of Electronic Wastes Recycling on Environmental Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the environmental quality of Guiyu, Guangdong impacted by the electronic waste recycling industry. Methods The surface water, ground water and sediment samples taken separately from two sites that recycle E-wastes and other rubbish relevant to the E-waste recycling, and an agricultural area, were analyzed, and the data were used to evaluate the impact of E-waste recycling on

JIAN-PING WANG; XI-KUN GUO

426

The Energy Impact of Industrial Recycling and Waste Exchange  

E-print Network

THE ENERGY IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL RECYCLING AND WASTE EXCHANGE W. CURTIS PHILLIPS, SYSTEMS ENGINEER/INDUSTRIAL PROJECT MANAGER, N.C. ENERGY DIVISION, RALEIGH, NC ABSTRACT Recycling and waste exchange, particularly in the industrial sector, has a... substantial positive energy impact and one that can often be accomplished at little or no expense. Recycling saves energy because the secondary materials being recycled are "pre-processed", and this requires less manufacturing operations than creating...

Phillips, W. C.

427

What materials can I recycle? Material Where Whose  

E-print Network

What materials can I recycle? Material Where Whose responsibility Batteries Chatham reception desk Individuals Clay Recycled in the workshop Users of the purchased material Cardboard Designated skip Recycled via swop bins in the studios and outside the fabric store Unwanted items to Grumpy ( Greater

428

A Guide to Recycled Papers: Problems, Sources, and Samples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide explains what is involved in recycling paper. Some background history is presented on the use of recycled paper. Sources of use for this product are pointed out, especially instances where business and industry have found that recycled paper could be used in place of the virgin product. The major part of the guide consists of samples of…

Carroll, Katherine

429

University and college solid-waste reduction and recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the report is to provide background data and recycling methodologies necessary to comply with the Illinois 'College Recycling Law'. It provides universities and community colleges with guidance on how to address the elements of the 'College Recycling Law'. University plans must address\\/manage solid waste generated by academic, administrative, student housing and institutional functions. Assessing the campus solid

B. A. Hegberg; G. R. Brenniman; W. H. Hallenbeck

1992-01-01

430

Archetypes: Durer's Rhino and the Recycling of Images  

E-print Network

Chapter 17 Archetypes: D¨urer's Rhino and the Recycling of Images 17.1 Introduction: Aref's Rule Rule-of-Thumb 5 (Aref's Rule) Never publish the same graph more than once. As we shall below, recycling illustrate when recycling of previously published images is good, and also when and how it can go

Boyd, John P.

431

Pesticide Container Recycling "It's Just The Right Thing To Do!"  

E-print Network

Pesticide Container Recycling "It's Just The Right Thing To Do!" Some of you may recall that when I Container Recycling Programs in counties around the state. Highlands County was one of the first counties to establish a Pesticide Container Recycling Collection Center (which is still in operation). I set up twenty

Jawitz, James W.

432

Recycling Computed Answers in Rewrite Systems for Abduction Fangzhen Lin #  

E-print Network

Recycling Computed Answers in Rewrite Systems for Abduction Fangzhen Lin # http computed answers can be recycled arises. A yes answer could result in sub­ stantial savings of repeated tends to be­ lieve that the answer should be no, since recycling is a form of adding information

Wu, Dekai

433

Locating a Recycling Center: The General Density Case Jannett Highfill  

E-print Network

Locating a Recycling Center: The General Density Case Jannett Highfill Department of Economics) 677-3374. #12;2 Locating a Recycling Center: The General Density Case Abstract: The present paper considers a municipality that has a landfill (fixed in location) and plans to optimally locate a "recycling

Mou, Libin

434

Development/Plasticity/Repair Identification of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Recycling  

E-print Network

Development/Plasticity/Repair Identification of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Recycling and Its, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 In the CNS, receptor recycling is critical for synaptic plasticity; however, the recycling of receptors has never been observed at peripheral synapses. Using a novel

Alford, Simon

435

Refrigerator Recycling Evaluation Protocol Doug Bruchs, The Cadmus Group, Inc.  

E-print Network

1 Refrigerator Recycling Evaluation Protocol Doug Bruchs, The Cadmus Group, Inc. Refrigerator recycling programs have become a staple of residential demand-side management portfolios. 1 Measure Description Refrigerator recycling programs are designed to save energy through the removal of old

436

Using OWL Ontologies Selective Waste Sorting and Recycling  

E-print Network

Using OWL Ontologies for Selective Waste Sorting and Recycling Arnab Sinha and Paul Couderc INRIA for better recycling of materials. Our motive for using ontologies is for representing and rea- soning, recyclable materials, N-ary relations 1 Introduction Today Pervasive computing is gradually entering people

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

2014 International and Western States In-Place Recycling Conference  

E-print Network

2014 International and Western States In-Place Recycling Conference August 5­7, 2014 Denver and the road to revitalizing in-place recycling technologies. · Join this prestigious forum especially designed/research agencies to discuss the status of in-place recycling. · Experience what we know today for each form of in

438

Commitment Approach to Motivating Community Recycling: New Zealand Curbside Trial.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a New Zealand community, 200 households made commitment to recycle and 201 did not; 198 were asked to pay for recycling bins, 203 were not. A control group received only recycling information. Verbal commitment significantly increased participation. Difficulties in administering the financial incentive made it impossible to determine effect on…

Bryce, Wendy J.; And Others

1997-01-01

439

Ideas and Activities for Recycling Education for Grades K-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In June 1997, Tennessee Technological University's Center for Manufacturing Research conducted a one-week program on plastics recycling for science teachers. The purpose of the program was to increase the teachers' basic knowledge about the importance of recycling plastics and to better prepare the teachers for teaching recycling in the classroom.…

Ayers, Jerry B., Ed.; Olberding, April H., Ed.

440

ENDOGENOUS CONSUMER PARTICIPATION AND THE RECYCLING PROBLEM &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We endogenise the extent of consumer participation in the recycling process, and analyse its effect on the ‘recycling problem’. When recycling requires consumers to undertake costly sorting activities to separate scrap from household waste, they will participate only if the net reward from sorting is positive. Consumers' sorting cost is subject to a network effect arising due to social norms.

SOHAM BAKSI; NGO VAN LONG

2009-01-01

441

Study on Consumer Opposition to Exporting Recyclable Wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trans-boundary trade from Japan to China of recyclable wastes such as waste copper has increased rapidly, because of resource demands through economic growth. These wastes are recycled at high rates thanks to the Chinese manual recycling process by a lot of low wage migrant workers from rural districts. China benefits by supplying jobs to many migrant workers and getting cheap

Yoshiyuki Suzuki; Kunishige Koizumi; Weisheng Zhou

2009-01-01

442

Polyethylene Terephthalate Waste Recycling and Application Possibilities: a Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of works that cover PET post-consumer waste recycling and application during last twenty years. It is shown that physically recycled PET can be used in the blends with other polymers, such as high and low density polyethylene, polycarbonates, polyvinyl chloride, etc. The compatibilizers and other additives often are used to obtain valuable blends of recycled

Gintaras MACIJAUSKAS

443

Recycling and Waste Diversion Eectiveness: Evidence from Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the relationship between recycling policy options and recycling behavior to study the most eective methods of diverting post-consumer waste from landlls. We employ data from a unique, micro-data set collected from households in communities across Ontario, Canada. We estimate the relationships between several commonly recycled materials (newsprint, glass, plastics, aluminum cans, tin cans, cardboard, and

Ida Ferrara; Paul Missios

444

Recycling and Waste Diversion Effectiveness: Evidence from Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the relationship between recycling policy options and recycling behavior to study the most effective methods of diverting post-consumer waste from landfills. We employ data from a unique, micro-data set collected from households in communities across Ontario, Canada. We estimate the relationships between several commonly recycled materials (newsprint, glass, plastics, aluminum cans, tin cans, cardboard, and

Ida Ferrara; Paul Missios

2005-01-01

445

The consumer's changing role: the case of recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The emerging material flows of recycled goods have effects on roles, responsibilities and positions of a range of industrial actors, but also on the consumer as a part of the industrial recycling process. The purpose of the paper is to discuss the changing role and position of the final-product customer, the consumer, as recycling is introduced into the

Helén Anderson; Maria Huge Brodin

2005-01-01

446

Research on LRP Model of Recyclable EOL Electronic Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most EOL electronic products come from industrial by-products and consumer goods as solid waste. Recycling the EOL electronic products is a complex and long term process. This paper focuses on the location and routing problem of electronic products recycling center. Firstly this paper applies AHP method to select the locations of electronic products recycling centers, and sort various elements by

Daijiang Chen

2010-01-01

447

Study of electrical and mechanical properties of recycled polymer blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of municipal solid waste plastic is very important. In general, recycled resins have a low values in the world market due to degradation of their properties. In it is necessary to study methods to preserve the properties of the materials and increase the applicability of recycled material. In this work, we studied electrical and mechanical properties of three kinds

J. H. Vilckas; L. G. Albiero; S. A. Cruz; M. M. Ueki; M. Zanin

2005-01-01

448

RECYCLING PRACTICES OF SPENT MgO-C REFRACTORIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling options of spent MgO-C refractories from an electrical arc furnace (EAF) have been evaluated. The economic, quality of spent refractories and products made from it, the ease of implementation of a recycling practice and the interest of steel melt shops were considered. It was decided that the best option of most EAF shops would be to recycle spent

Kyei-Sing Kwong; James P. Bennett

449

Progress in Recycling of Retired Cadmium-Telluride Photovoltaic Modules  

E-print Network

Progress in Recycling of Retired Cadmium- Telluride Photovoltaic Modules Postdoctoral: Wenming Wang-Talk Program July 21, 2005 #12;Recycling Retired Photovoltaic Modules to Valuable Products, Where Are We.M., Feasibility of Recycling of Cadmium-Telluride Photovoltaics, Presented at 134th TMS Annual Meeting &Exhibition

450

Promoting Recycling: Private Values, Social Norms, and Economic Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from a nationally representative sample of households illuminates the determinants of recycling behavior for plastic water bottles. Private values of the environment are influential in promoting recycling, as are personal norms for pro-environmental behavior. However, social norms with respect to the assessment of the household's recycling behaviors by others have little independent effect. Particularly influential are policies that create

W. Kip Viscusi; Joel Huber; Jason Bell

2011-01-01

451

Lifecycle assessment and economic evaluation of recycling: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling is widely assumed to be environmentally beneficial, although the collection, sorting and processing of materials into new products also entails significant environmental impacts. This study compares the relative environmental impacts of a recycling system (incorporating the kerbside collection of recyclable materials and their subsequent use by manufacturers), with a waste disposal system (in which the waste is disposed to

Amelia L. Craighill; Jane C. Powell

1996-01-01

452

Beyond “Information”: Integrating Consultation and Education for Water Recycling Initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling is starting to play a significant role in water management in drought-prone Australia. Public responses to recycling are still not well understood, and opportunities for public participation have been limited. We have experimented with a technique to explore responses qualitatively and to encourage deliberation. In small-group meetings, we provide information on recycling technologies and issues and integrate this with

Stewart Russell; Colleen Lux; Greg Hampton

2008-01-01

453

Emergy Evaluation Indices for Valuing Construction and Demolition Wastes Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents to evaluate construction and demolition waste's recycling by integrating economical, social, and environmental aspects. Traditional cost-benefit analysis for recycling wastes based on money does not consider social, environmental benefits. Making recycling trajectories choices that are ecologically conscious requires Emergy analysis of both economic and environmental impacts. This paper sums up success and shortage of using Emergy theory

Fang Yuan; Jan-Li Hao; Li-Yin Shen; Qi-Ming Li

2008-01-01

454

Willingness to pay for kerbside recycling in Brisbane, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic waste policy in Australia has a strong focus on kerbside recycling. In this paper mixed logit choice modelling is used to estimate the willingness to pay of households in Brisbane, Australia, for kerbside waste collection services including recycling. Respondents were found to have a positive willingness to pay for the fortnightly kerbside recycling and would be willing to pay

Robert Gillespie; Jeff Bennett

2012-01-01

455

"Maximum recycling of Material and Energy, Minimum of Landfilling"  

E-print Network

in "Recycling". "Waste-to-Energy" is now defined as Recycling, when energy efficiency is > 0,65 Prevention Reuse Recycling and Waste-to Energy? #12;6 European Policies on Landfill Ban The EU Landfill Directive The amount Ban decided upon in 2000, in force in 2005. A very strong effect, with a strong increase of Waste-to-Energy

Columbia University

456

Transverse instability at the recycler ring  

SciTech Connect

Sporadic transverse instabilities have been observed at the Fermilab Recycler Ring leading to increase in transverse emittances and beam loss. The driving source of these instabilities has been attributed to the resistive-wall impedance with space-charge playing an important role in suppressing Landau damping. Growth rates of the instabilities are computed. Remaining problems are discussed.

Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

2004-10-01

457

Car recycling and producer responsibility in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

BIL Automobile Producer Responsibility Sweden (BPS) is the automobile industry's organisation for producer responsibility in Sweden. The company is wholly owned by Swedish automobile manufacturers and importers, organised under the name BIL Sweden. BPS was founded in May 1999 with the aim of supporting the members of BIL Sweden in producer responsibility and recycling issues. BPS works with companies, industries,

N. Hernborg

2001-01-01

458

Technological improvements in automotive battery recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of automotive batteries for the recovery of secondary lead is extremely important in Brazil, for the country does not possess large reserves of this metal. Lead is one of the most widely used metals in the world, but it is highly toxic, posing risks for humans and for the environment if not utilized or treated adequately. Industrial waste containing

M. A. Kreusch; M. J. J. S. Ponte; H. A. Ponte; N. M. S. Kaminari; C. E. B. Marino; V. Mymrin

2007-01-01

459

Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop  

DOEpatents

Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2001-01-01

460

PET-Recycling Schweiz Naglerwiesenstrasse 4  

E-print Network

PET-Recycling Schweiz Naglerwiesenstrasse 4 8049 Zurigo Telefono: 044 344 10 80 Fax: 044 344 10 99 E-mail: info@prs.ch www.petrecycling.ch #12;Il PET è un materiale riciclabile. Riciclare PET utilizzato il PET. Riconsegna le bottiglie PET, se no mancano altrove! #12;PET ­ più di un semplice materiale

Krause, Rolf

461

Recycling and alloying of polyethylene terephthalate  

E-print Network

resins. The effects of container processing were studied through mechanical and rheological testing, gel permeation chromatography, and thermal analysis of virgin resin, parison regrind, and bottle regrind. The recycling potential of the soft... . LIST OF TABLES . INTRODUCTION 1V V1 Properties of PET Production of PET Resin. PLASTIC CONTAINERS . Manufacture of PET Containers . . . . . Injection Molding. Parison Heating. Stretch-Blowing. Orientation. Orientation Factors...

Bugg, Marie Sandra

2012-06-07

462

Heat exchange system for recycling waste heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of heat exchange system for recycling waste heat, such as that leaving a building stack or flue, to supply heat where needed, such as to incoming fresh air or to tempered stored water of the building water storage system, wherein the building has a source of heat at a constant temperature (such as a furnace, a cooking facility, or

A. A. Giuffre; A. F. Giuffre

1982-01-01

463

Heat exchange system for recycling stack heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat exchange system is described for recycling waste heat leaving a building stack to supply heat to incoming fresh air or temper stored water of the building water storage system, wherein the building has a source of heat at constant temperature, such as a cooking facility, from which air conveying waste heat is drawn and impelled through a stack

Giuffre

1980-01-01

464

Recycling Lithium Carbonate/Lithium Hydroxide Waste  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hazardous waste disposal problem eliminated by regeneration. Li2CO3/ LiOH recycling process relies on low solubility of alkali carbonates in corresponding hydroxides. Li2CO3 precipitate calcined to LI2O, then rehydrated LiOH. Regeneration eliminates need to dispose caustic waste and uses less energy than simple calcination of entire waste mass.

Flowers, J.; Flowers, J.

1983-01-01

465

Environmental Management Waste and Recycling Policy  

E-print Network

Environmental Management Waste and Recycling Policy October 2006 The University is committed the university will: � Advise staff on how to minimise the production of waste by the utilisation of waste to sustainable waste management through reducing our consumption of materials, encouraging re-use where possible

Haase, Markus

466

Garbage, Recycling, and Illicit Burning or Dumping  

Microsoft Academic Search

With garbage and recycling as the only two disposal options, we confirm prior results that the optimal curbside fee for garbage collection equals the direct resource cost plus external environment cost. When illicit burning or dumping is a third disposal option that cannot be taxed directly, the optimal curbside tax on garbage changes sign. The optimal fee structure is a

Don Fullerton; Thomas C. Kinnaman

1995-01-01

467

The College Student's Guide to Recycling,  

E-print Network

. Reuse grocery bags, or buy reusable cloth bags for your shopping. More recycling and reuse tips canTons of Paper ElectronicElectronic OR ReusableReusable Cloth BagsCloth Bags PlasticPlastic Grocery BagsGrocery Bags The University at Albany disposes of approximate ly 2,500 tons of garbage per year. In the 200910

Kidd, William S. F.

468

Metals recycling: economic and environmental implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are in a period of economic transition. The `cowboy economy' of the past is obsolescent, if not obsolete. Environmental services are no longer free goods, and this fact is driving major changes. Recycling is the wave of the (immediate) future. The potential savings in terms of energy and capital have long been obvious. The savings in terms of reduced

Robert U. Ayres

1997-01-01

469

Transverse instability digital damper for the Recycler  

SciTech Connect

Transverse beam instability of a coasting beam with a digital damper is examined. Threshold of instability is calculated in specific cases with Landau damping taken into account. The results are applied to the Fermilab Recycler Ring. Some improvement of existing RR damper is proposed.

Balbekov, V.; /Fermilab

2006-02-01

470

Partial static equilibrium model of newsprint recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of the demand for old newspapers as an input to US newsprint production reveals that demand is highly price-inelastic in both the short and long run. This implies that separation and collection programmes, which lower prices in secondary markets, will not effectively stimulate recycled newsprint production. The results also indicate that policies to raise the price of woodpulp will

Deborah Vaughn Nestor

1992-01-01

471

Plastics recycling: Quantity projections and cost estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper updates the projections of manufacturing and post-consumer plastic wastes presented in Curlee (1986). Also updated are estimates of the costs of disposing and recycling plastic wastes. The production and use of plastics are expected to increase at a rapid rate during the coming decade, increasing from an estimated 55 billion pounds in 1987 to almost 72 billion pounds

T. R. Curlee; S. Das

1991-01-01

472

Resource recovery and recycling. [includes glossary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides a broad view of the interrelationship between energy demands, resource limitations, and environmental pollution, and illustrates the important contribution that recycling has made and will make in solving these problems. It shows how waste treatment can be achieved at a much lower cost than at present through materials and energy recovery. It begins with an explanation of

1979-01-01

473

WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94.

Bechtold, T.E. [ed.

1993-12-01

474

RECOVERY, REUSE, AND RECYCLE OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The major goal of this work is to produce a document useful in planning efforts aimed at elimination of industrial wastes through the application of recycle, recovery, and reuse technology. The pollutants considered in this study are basically organic and inorganic by-products fr...

475

Recycling Best Practices Report August 2011  

E-print Network

receptacles, and dock/sorting space set-up Communication of recycling information and educational materials in recent years and, as part of the University's focus on environmental stewardship, it is important Buildings: Alumni Center & Fleming Administration Building Athletic/Recreation Buildings: Intramural Sports

Kirschner, Denise

476

Colleges Organize Campuswide Efforts to Recycle Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spurred by soaring garbage-disposal costs and the closings of local landfills, colleges and universities are organizing campus wide recycling programs. The Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges will soon be adding the subject to its computerized list of information available to member colleges. (MLW)

Magner, Denise K.

1989-01-01

477

Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing

Sresty

1990-01-01

478

California town rolls out pavement recycling  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the experience of Brawley, California in using asphalt recycling techniques in the repair of 25 percent of the city's 80 miles of roads. The topics of the article are restoring strength and durability, selection criteria for streets to be repaired, and the savings realized in the project.

Ayers, S.

1993-12-01

479

Biomass recycling heat technology and energy products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relevance is determined by necessity of utilizing of local low-grade fuels by energy equpment. Most widespread Tomsk oblast (Russian Federation region) low-grade fuels are described and listed. Capability of utilizing is analysed. Mass balances of heat-technology conversion materials and derived products are described. As a result, recycling capability of low-grade fuels in briquette fuel is appraised.

Tabakaev, R. B.; Gergelizhiu, P. S.; Kazakov, A. V.; Zavorin, A. S.

2014-10-01

480

Creating Art Projects From Recycled Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why not challenge students to design a collage, mosaic, or shadowbox entirely from "found objects"--recycled, natural, and discarded materials? The aesthetic nature of the art of salvage connects students not only to ancient, creative roots, but also to a

Eichinger, John

2009-05-15

481

Plastic bottles > Remove lids (not recyclable)  

E-print Network

bottle accepted Clear, opaque and coloured bottles Labels can remain on X No plastic bags X No plastics towels or tissues X No paper cups or cartons X No `Jiffy' bags with plastic filling X No books #12;CansPlastic bottles Please: > Remove lids (not recyclable) > Empty bottles > Rinse milk bottles

Brierley, Andrew

482

Recycling Endosomes Supply AMPA Receptors for LTP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength, the most established cellular model of information storage in the brain, is expressed by an increase in the number of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. However, the source of AMPA receptors mobilized during LTP is unknown. We report that AMPA receptors are transported from recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane for LTP. Stimuli that triggered LTP

Esther C. Penick; Jeffrey G. Edwards; Julie A. Kauer; Michael D. Ehlers

2004-01-01

483

LIGNOCELLULOSIC-PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Waste wood, waste paper, and waste plastics are major components of MSW and offer great opportunities as recycled ingredients in wood-fiber plastic composites. USEPA and the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) are collaborating on a research project to investigate the processin...

484

Recycling, production and use of reprocessed rubbers  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the various methods used to produce recycled rubber and to compare their characteristics and application. The topics discussed include reclaiming by chemical digestion, devulcanization by the severing of sulfur bonds, ambient temperature and cryogenically ground rubber, processing and mixing of ground rubber, and properties of reclaimed rubbers by reclamation method.

Klingensmith, B. (Akron Rubber Consulting, OH (United States))

1991-03-01

485

Minerals yearbook, 1993: Materials recycling. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Data in this report are derived from a variety of published and unpublished sources that are mostly external to the USBM. Much of the solid waste data and some of the recycling data come from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) studies. The other main data sources were various industry, trade association, and independent contractor studies and journal and media reports.

Tanner, A.O.

1995-06-01

486

Our university now recycles your pens!  

E-print Network

.terracycle.ch What is collected? Pens Fine liners Whiteboard, text and permanent markers Fountain pens Mechanical ballpoint pens Ink eraser Tipp Ex and other correction fluids Pencils, crayons #12;Our university now recycles your pens! Our university now participates in the BIC and Terra

Krause, Rolf

487

Recycling Report FY2012 FY2012  

E-print Network

FY 2013 Recycling Report FY2012 FY2012 Month Tons Revenue Tons Revenue Lbs Revenue Tons Revenue (Approx. $77.45 per ton) $13,613.39 Gallons of Oil Conserved 66,794 Home Powered for 6 Months 175 Trees Saved 2,987 Gallons of Water Conserved 1,230,411 Paper Cardboard Aluminum Plastic Misc (Tin, Copper

Mohanty, Saraju P.

488

1. Recycle all bottles and cans 2. Recycle all personal electronics  

E-print Network

reusable grocery bags when shopping 4. Buy things with recycled material in them 5. Reduce waste as much cardboard boxes, plastic bags and paper sacks 35. Use biodegradable disposable dishes 36. Remember to pick

Howitt, Ivan

489

TTUAB PLASTIC RECYCLING PROTOCOL Fall 2011 What Plastic Do We Recycle?  

E-print Network

the Recycling Committee! Committee members' e-mail: steve.collins@ttu.edu, janice.kelly@ttu.edu, or huynh.hm@rogers. By Thursday, email your collection time to Steve Collins (steve.collins@ttu.edu). Instructions for Collection

Rock, Chris

490

Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes. A workshop report  

SciTech Connect

Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950`s, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K. [eds.

1992-10-01

491

Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes  

SciTech Connect

Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950's, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K. (eds.)

1992-01-01

492

Multivalent immune complexes divert FcRn to lysosomes by exclusion from recycling sorting tubules  

PubMed Central

The neonatal receptor for immunoglobulin G (IgG; FcRn) prevents IgG degradation by efficiently sorting IgG into recycling endosomes and away from lysosomes. When bound to IgG-opsonized antigen complexes, however, FcRn traffics cargo into lysosomes, where antigen processing can occur. Here we address the mechanism of sorting when FcRn is bound to multivalent IgG-opsonized antigens. We find that only the unbound receptor or FcRn bound to monomeric IgG is sorted into recycling tubules emerging from early endosomes. Cross-linked FcRn is never visualized in tubules containing the unbound receptor. Similar results are found for transferrin receptor, suggesting a general mechanism of action. Deletion or replacement of the FcRn cytoplasmic tail does not prevent diversion of trafficking to lysosomes upon cross-linking. Thus physical properties of the lumenal ligand–receptor complex appear to act as key determinants for sorting between the recycling and lysosomal pathways by regulating FcRn entry into recycling tubules. PMID:23741050

Weflen, Andrew W.; Baier, Nina; Tang, Qing-Juan; Van den Hof, Malon; Blumberg, Richard S.; Lencer, Wayne I.; Massol, Ramiro H.

2013-01-01

493

Polymer recycling: potential application of radiation technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of solid waste is an important problem, which is becoming progressively worse as a byproduct of continuing economic growth and development. Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) comprise a steadily increasing proportion of the municipal and industrial waste going into landfill. Development of technologies for reducing polymeric waste, which are acceptable from the environmental standpoint, and which are cost-effective, has proven to be a difficult challenge due to complexities inherent in the reuse of polymers. Establishing optimal processes for the reuse/recycling of polymeric materials thus remains a worldwide challenge as we enter the new century. Due to the ability of ionizing radiation to alter the structure and properties of bulk polymeric materials, and the fact that it is applicable to essentially all polymer types, irradiation holds promise for impacting the polymer waste problem. The three main possibilities for use of radiation in this application are: (1) enhancing the mechanical properties and performance of recovered materials or material blends, principally through crosslinking, or through surface modification of different phases being combined; (2) treatment causing or enhancing the decomposition of polymers, particularly through chain scission, leading to recovery of either low molecular weight mixtures, or powders, for use as chemical feedstocks or additives; (3) production of advanced polymeric materials designed for environmental compatibility. This paper provides an overview of the polymer recycling problem, describes the major technological obstacles to the implementation of recycling technologies, and outlines some of the approaches being taken. A review of radiation-based recycling research is then provided, followed by a discussion of future directions where irradiation may be relevant to the problems currently inhibiting the widespread recycling of polymeric materials.

Burillo, Guillermina; Clough, Roger L.; Czvikovszky, Tibor; Guven, Olgun; Le Moel, Alain; Liu, Weiwei; Singh, Ajit; Yang, Jingtian; Zaharescu, Traian

2002-04-01

494

Recycling of chrome containing materials hereinbefore landfilled  

SciTech Connect

Chrome containing materials, especially with high phosphorus, are acceptable for recycling the chrome containing materials, including F006 chrome sludges, resulting from the conversion of hexavalent chrome to trivalent chrome and then precipitation, exceed the phosphorus limit of recycling in the metallurgical industry, phosphorus less than 0.05 weight percent. If, however, the same chrome bearing sludge is evaluated as an alternate feed stock for the manufacture of basic chrome chemicals such as sodium dichromate, basic chromium sulfate and chromium acid, the material is acceptable at certain chrome chemical plants. Most F006 chrome sludges are the result of treating waste water containing chrome, with metering from spent baths of hard chrome (chromic acid plus sulfuric acid or chromic acid plus hydrofluoric acid), anodizing (of aluminum alloys) or chrome/phosphate conversion coatings (F019). Sludges produced from the above spent baths, up to equivalent chrome and phosphorus contents from the chrome/phosphate conversion coating are acceptable in the chemical industry. Chrome sludges typically analyze at a chrome content of twenty percent, on a dry weight basis, with a moisture content in excess of thirty percent, even after drying at the generator`s location. By additional treatment the same chrome sludges can have the contained chrome content increased to forty percent, which is superior to typical chrome ore used for the production of chrome chemicals, usually 28% Cr, and the moisture reduced to less than ten percent. Other chrome materials evaluated for chrome recovery include, chrome/alumina, chrome/iron and copper/chrome catalysts, and other, non-RCRA, chrome by-products, with very positive results. This recycling scheme for chrome bearing by products opens up a whole new avenue for recycling chrome which hitherto has been landfilled or blended with other metals-thus has not been recycled.

Ahmad, M.N.; Reddy, R.G. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

1995-09-01

495

Mathematical Modeling for CostMathematical Modeling for Cost Optimization of PV RecyclingOptimization of PV Recycling  

E-print Network

Mathematical Modeling for CostMathematical Modeling for Cost Optimization of PV RecyclingOptimization of PV Recycling InfrastructureInfrastructure JunJun--Ki ChoiKi Choi & Vasilis Fthenakis& Vasilis Recycling ­Cost Optimization 1. Where is the optimized location? · Centralized/decentralized collection

496

Recycling as Altruistic BehaviorNormative and Behavioral Strategies to Expand Participation in a Community Recycling Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and survey data were gathered from residents of a large urban neighborhood with a community wide curbside recycling program in order to determine the extent to which recycling could be conceptualized as altruistic behavior. Results confirmed that recycling behavior is consistent with Schwartz's altruism model, according to which behavior is influenced by social norms, personal norms, and awareness of