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1

EHD1 functions in endosomal recycling and confers salt tolerance.  

PubMed

Endocytosis is a crucial process in all eukaryotic organisms including plants. We have previously shown that two Arabidopsis proteins, AtEHD1 and AtEHD2, are involved in endocytosis in plant systems. Knock-down of EHD1 was shown to have a delayed recycling phenotype in mammalians. There are many works in mammalian systems detailing the importance of the various domains in EHDs but, to date, the domains of plant EHD1 that are required for its activity have not been characterized. In this work we demonstrate that knock-down of EHD1 causes a delayed recycling phenotype and reduces Brefeldin A sensitivity in Arabidopsis seedlings. The EH domain of EHD1 was found to be crucial for the localization of EHD1 to endosomal structures. Mutant EHD1 lacking the EH domain did not localize to endosomal structures and showed a phenotype similar to that of EHD1 knock-down seedlings. Mutants lacking the coiled-coil domain, however, showed a phenotype similar to wild-type or EHD1 overexpression seedlings. Salinity stress is a major problem in current agriculture. Microarray data demonstrated that salinity stress enhances the expression of EHD1, and this was confirmed by semi quantitative RT-PCR. We demonstrate herein that transgenic plants over expressing EHD1 possess enhanced tolerance to salt stress, a property which also requires an intact EH domain. PMID:23342166

Bar, Maya; Leibman, Meirav; Schuster, Silvia; Pitzhadza, Hilla; Avni, Adi

2013-01-14

2

Regulated recycling of mutant CFTR is partially restored by pharmacological treatment.  

PubMed

Efficient trafficking of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to and from the cell surface is essential for maintaining channel density at the plasma membrane (PM) and ensuring proper physiological activity. The most common mutation, F508del, exhibits reduced surface expression and impaired function despite treatment with currently available pharmacological small molecules, called correctors. To gain more detailed insight into whether CFTR enters compartments that allow corrector stabilization in the cell periphery, we investigated the peripheral trafficking itineraries and kinetics of wild type (WT) and F508del in living cells using high-speed fluorescence microscopy together with fluorogen activating protein detection. We directly visualized internalization and accumulation of CFTR WT from the PM to a perinuclear compartment that colocalized with the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC) markers Rab11 and EHD1, reaching steady-state distribution by 25 minutes. Stimulation by protein kinase A (PKA) depleted this intracellular pool and redistributed CFTR channels to the cell surface, elicited by reduced endocytosis and active translocation to the PM. Corrector or temperature rescue of F508del also resulted in targeting to the ERC and exhibited subsequent PKA-stimulated trafficking to the PM. Corrector treatment (24 hours) led to persistent residence of F508del in the ERC, while thermally destabilized F508del was targeted to lysosomal compartments by 3 hours. Acute addition of individual correctors, C4 or C18, acted on peripheral trafficking steps to partially block lysosomal targeting of thermally destabilized F508del. Taken together, corrector treatment redirects F508del trafficking from a degradative pathway to a regulated recycling route, and proteins that mediate this process become potential targets for improving the efficacy of current and future correctors. PMID:23572510

Holleran, John P; Zeng, Jianxin; Frizzell, Raymond A; Watkins, Simon C

2013-04-09

3

AMPH-1/Amphiphysin/Bin1 functions with RME-1/Ehd in endocytic recycling  

PubMed Central

RME-1/EHD1 family proteins are key residents of the recycling endosome required for endosome to plasma membrane transport in C. elegans and mammals. Recent studies suggest parallels of the RME-1/EHD proteins to the Dynamin GTPase superfamily of mechanochemical pinchases that promote membrane fission. Here we show that that endogenous C. elegans AMPH-1, the only C. elegans member of Amphiphysin/BIN1 family of BAR-domain proteins, colocalizes with RME-1 on recycling endosomes in vivo, that amph-1 deletion mutants are defective in recycling endosome morphology and function, and that binding of AMPH-1 NPF (D/E) sequences to the RME-1 EH-domain promotes the recycling of transmembrane cargo. We also show a requirement for human BIN1/Amphyphysin 2 in EHD1-regulated endocytic recycling. In vitro we find that the purified recombinant AMPH-1/RME-1 complexes produce short, coated, membrane tubules that are qualitatively distinct from those produced by either protein alone. Our results indicate that AMPH-1 and RME-1 cooperatively regulate endocytic recycling, likely through functions required for the production of cargo carriers exiting the recycling endosome for the cell surface.

Pant, Saumya; Sharma, Mahak; Patel, Kruti; Caplan, Steve; Carr, Chavela M.; Grant, Barth D.

2009-01-01

4

REGULATIONS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulations can have a significant impact on product use, disposal, and recycling. This report summarizes the basic aspects of current federal, state and international regulations which apply to end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules and PV manufacturing scrap destined for disposal or recycling. It also discusses proposed regulations for electronics that may set the ground of what is to be expected in this area in the near future. In the US, several states have started programs to support the recycling of electronic equipment, and materials destined for recycling often are excepted from solid waste regulations during the collection, transfer, storage and processing stages. California regulations are described separately because they are different from those of most other states. International agreements on the movement of waste between different countries may pose barriers to cross-border shipments. Currently waste moves freely among country members of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and between the US and the four countries with which the US has bilateral agreements. However, it is expected, that the US will adopt the rules of the Basel Convention (an agreement which currently applies to 128 countries but not the US) and that the Convection's waste classification system will influence the current OECD waste-handling system. Some countries adopting the Basel Convention consider end-of-life electronics to be hazardous waste, whereas the OECD countries consider them to be non-hazardous. Also, waste management regulations potentially affecting electronics in Germany and Japan are mentioned in this report.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-01-29

5

Charge Effects in the Selection of NPF Motifs by the EH Domain of EHD1  

PubMed Central

The EH domain is found in proteins associated with endocytosis and vesicle trafficking. EH domains bind to their target proteins through an asparagine-proline-phenylalanine (NPF) motif. We have measured the interaction energetics of the EH domain from EHD1 with peptides derived from two of its binding partners: Rabenosyn-5 (Ac-GPSLNPFDEED-NH2) and Rab11-Fip2 (Ac-YESTNPFTAK-NH2). HSQC spectroscopy shows that both peptides bind in the canonical binding pocket of EHD1 EH and induce identical structural changes, yet the affinity of the negatively-charged Ac-GPSLNPFDEED-NH2 (Ka=8*105 M?1) is tighter by two orders of magnitude. The thermodynamic profiles (?G, ?H, ?S) were measured for both peptides as a function of temperature. The enthalpies of binding are essentially identical and the difference in affinity is a consequence of the difference in entropic cost. Ac-GPSLNPFDEED-NH2 binding is salt-dependent, demonstrating an electrostatic component to the interaction, whereas Ac-YESTNPFTAK-NH2 binding is independent of salt. Successive replacement of acidic residues in Ac-GPSLNPFDEED-NH2 with neutral residues showed that all are important. Lysine sidechains in EHD1 EH create a region of strong positive surface potential near the NPF binding pocket. Contributions by lysine ?-amino groups to complex formation with Ac-GPSLNPFDEED-NH2 was shown using direct observe 15N NMR spectroscopy. These experiments have enabled us to define a new extended interaction motif for EHD proteins, N-P-F-[DE]-[DE]-[DE], which we have used to predict new interaction partners and hence broaden the range of cellular activities involving the EHD proteins.

Henry, Gillian D.; Corrigan, Daniel J.; Dineen, Joseph V.; Baleja, James D.

2010-01-01

6

Regulation of Plasma Membrane Recycling by CFTR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is defective in patients with cystic fibrosis. Although the protein product of the CFTR gene has been proposed to function as a chloride ion channel, certain aspects of its function remain unclear. The role of CFTR in the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent regulation of plasma membrane recycling was examined. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate is known to regulate endocytosis and exocytosis in chloride-secreting epithelial cells that express CFTR. However, mutant epithelial cells derived from a patient with cystic fibrosis exhibited no cAMP-dependent regulation of endocytosis and exocytosis until they were transfected with complementary DNA encoding wild-type CFTR. Thus, CFTR is critical for cAMP-dependent regulation of membrane recycling in epithelial tissues, and this function of CFTR could explain in part the pleiotropic nature of cystic fibrosis.

Bradbury, Neil A.; Jilling, Tamas; Berta, Gabor; Sorscher, Eric J.; Bridges, Robert J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

1992-04-01

7

Using Established Regulations to Recycle Contaminated Metals  

SciTech Connect

DOE restoration projects require acceptable standards for processing volumetrically contaminated metals: • NRC has no regulations addressing recycling of scrap metal containing residual volumetric radioactivity. • DOE is currently restricting outside radioactive scrap metal sales; however, previous Fernald and Ohio State clean-ups have released metals with measurable levels of radioactivity into the open market. • Public sensitivity to the subject of non-governmental disposal of materials with residual radioactivity was heightened with the Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) issue. There are no clear guidelines for free release of volumetrically contaminated material.

Loewen, Eric Paul

2000-09-01

8

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be learning all about recycling and asking questions as you learn more about recycling. Afterward, you will be making recycling bins that we will use in our classroom. Click on each of the different links and research about recycling. Find out what recycling is, what can be recycled, and why we should recycle. As you find information, add it to the "describing wheel" that is given to you by Ms. Pollak. Answer the main question: What is recycling? Come ...

sgp0002

2010-03-27

9

40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260...case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. The Regional Administrator...determining whether to regulate hazardous waste recycling activities described in §...

2013-07-01

10

Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)|

Sinker, Barbara

1986-01-01

11

Recycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

Sinker, Barbara

1986-01-01

12

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What objects can be recycled? 1. Click on link. Watch video. Recycle Guy Video 2. Click on link. Watch video. Talking Trash Video 3. Click on link. Watch video. Recycling At School Video 4. Click on link. Play game. Star Fall Recycling Game 5. Click on link. Play game. National Geographic Recycling Game 6. Click on link. Ask Ms. Owens how to do it. Things We Recycle Chart 7. Please see Miss Owens for instructions on the following ...

2011-04-07

13

Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recycling systems are classified into those employing typically three methods, and the progress of each method is described.\\u000a In mechanical recycling, powders of phenolic materials are recovered via a mechanical process and reused as fillers or additives in virgin materials.\\u000a The effects to flowability, curability, and mechanical properties of the materials are explained. In feedstock recycling, monomers, oligomers, or oils

Junya Goto; Michael Santorelli

2010-01-01

14

Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s learn how to reduce, reuse and recycle waste! BUILDING YOUR KNOWLEDGE ABOUT RECYCLING 1. Learn the abc\\'s of recycling found here A is for Air. Be sure to click on each letter of the alphabet and read what it stands for. 2. Read the Adventures of the Garbage Gremlin in this Comic Book. 3. Steel is used to build cars, household appliances and cans. Read ...

Sykes, Miss

2005-10-20

15

40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section...260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. (a)...

2013-07-01

16

Heading date gene, dth3 controlled late flowering in O. Glaberrima Steud. by down-regulating Ehd1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heading date in rice is an important agronomic trait controlled by several genes. In this study, flowering time of variety\\u000a Dianjingyou 1 (DJY1) was earlier than a near-isogenic line (named NIL) carried chromosome segment from African rice on chromosome\\u000a 3S, when grown in both long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions. By analyzing a large F2 population from NIL × DJY1, the locus

X. F. Bian; X. Liu; Z. G. Zhao; L. Jiang; H. Gao; Y. H. Zhang; M. Zheng; L. M. Chen; S. J. Liu; H. Q. Zhai; J. M. Wan

17

40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...reclamation must be able to demonstrate that the recycling is legitimate. Hazardous...

2013-07-01

18

40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...reclamation must be able to demonstrate that the recycling is legitimate. Hazardous...

2009-07-01

19

40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated...reclamation must be able to demonstrate that the recycling is legitimate. Hazardous...

2010-07-01

20

Reggies/flotillins interact with Rab11a and SNX4 at the tubulovesicular recycling compartment and function in transferrin receptor and E-cadherin trafficking.  

PubMed

The lipid raft proteins reggie-1 and -2 (flotillins) are implicated in membrane protein trafficking but exactly how has been elusive. We find that reggie-1 and -2 associate with the Rab11a, SNX4, and EHD1-decorated tubulovesicular recycling compartment in HeLa cells and that reggie-1 directly interacts with Rab11a and SNX4. Short hairpin RNA-mediated down-regulation of reggie-1 (and -2) in HeLa cells reduces association of Rab11a with tubular structures and impairs recycling of the transferrin-transferrin receptor (TfR) complex to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of constitutively active Rab11a rescues TfR recycling in reggie-deficient HeLa cells. Similarly, in a Ca(2+) switch assay in reggie-depleted A431 cells, internalized E-cadherin is not efficiently recycled to the plasma membrane upon Ca(2+) repletion. E-cadherin recycling is rescued, however, by overexpression of constitutively active Rab11a or SNX4 in reggie-deficient A431 cells. This suggests that the function of reggie-1 in sorting and recycling occurs in association with Rab11a and SNX4. Of interest, impaired recycling in reggie-deficient cells leads to de novo E-cadherin biosynthesis and cell contact reformation, showing that cells have ways to compensate the loss of reggies. Together our results identify reggie-1 as a regulator of the Rab11a/SNX4-controlled sorting and recycling pathway, which is, like reggies, evolutionarily conserved. PMID:23825023

Solis, Gonzalo P; Hülsbusch, Nikola; Radon, Yvonne; Katanaev, Vladimir L; Plattner, Helmut; Stuermer, Claudia A O

2013-07-03

21

Guidance manual on the RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) regulation of recycled hazardous wastes. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is a document to provide guidance to States and persons who recycle materials or persons who generate materials that are recycled to determine how EPA's Definition of Solid Waste rulemaking applies to them. This regulation deals with the question of which materials are solid and hazardous wastes when they are recycled (i.e., the effect of the rule is

N. Hammett; B. Morrison

1986-01-01

22

Goliath family E3 ligases regulate the recycling endosome pathway via VAMP3 ubiquitylation.  

PubMed

Diverse cellular processes depend on endocytosis, intracellular vesicle trafficking, sorting and exocytosis, processes regulated post-transcriptionally by modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. In addition to sorting to the lysosome, cargo is recycled to the plasma membrane via recycling endosomes. Here, we describe a role of the goliath gene family of protease-associated (PA) domain E3 ligases in regulating recycling endosome trafficking. The two Drosophila members of this family--Goliath and Godzilla(CG10277)--are located on endosomes, and both ectopic expression and loss-of-function lead to the accumulation of Rab5-positive giant endosomes. Furthermore, the human homologue RNF167 exhibits similar behaviour. We show that the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein VAMP3 is a target of these ubiquitin ligases, and that recycling endosome trafficking is abrogated in response to their activity. Furthermore, mutation of the Godzilla ubiquitylation target lysines on VAMP3 abrogates the formation of enlarged endosomes induced by either Godzilla or RNF167. Thus, Goliath ubiquitin ligases play a novel role in regulating recycling endosome trafficking via ubiquitylation of the VAMP3 SNARE protein. PMID:23353890

Yamazaki, Yasuo; Schönherr, Christina; Varshney, Gaurav K; Dogru, Murat; Hallberg, Bengt; Palmer, Ruth H

2013-01-25

23

Sustainable recycling of automotive products in China: Technology and regulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chinese economy is growing rapidly, but accompanyingsuch growth are issues of environmental protection and social inequity which must be addressed. With the Automobile Industry Development Policy and the Motor Vehicle Product Recovery Technology Policy, an automobile products recoverability target has been established and will be incorporated into an automobile products authentication management system in China. By 2010, for all end-of-life automobile products, reuse and recovery shall be increased to a minimum of 85% by average weight per vehicle, and the use of lead, mercury, cadmium, and hexavalent chromium is prohibited. This paper will address the sustainable recycling of Chinese automobile products within the period of 2006 2010.

Chen, Ming

2006-08-01

24

ARH directs megalin to the endocytic recycling compartment to regulate its proteolysis and gene expression.  

PubMed

Receptors internalized by endocytosis can return to the plasma membrane (PM) directly from early endosomes (EE; fast recycling) or they can traffic from EE to the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) and recycle from there (slow recycling). How receptors are sorted for trafficking along these two pathways remains unclear. Here we show that autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) is required for trafficking of megalin, a member of the LDL receptor family, from EE to the ERC by coupling it to dynein; in the absence of ARH, megalin returns directly to the PM from EE via the connecdenn2/Rab35 fast recycling pathway. Binding of ARH to the endocytic adaptor AP-2 prevents fast recycling of megalin. ARH-mediated trafficking of megalin to the ERC is necessary for ?-secretase mediated cleavage of megalin and release of a tail fragment that mediates transcriptional repression. These results identify a novel mechanism for sorting receptors for trafficking to the ERC and link ERC trafficking to regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) and expression of megalin. PMID:23836931

Shah, Mehul; Baterina, Oscar Y; Taupin, Vanessa; Farquhar, Marilyn G

2013-07-01

25

Differential Roles of C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain Proteins as Vesiculators and Tubulators of Recycling Endosomes.  

PubMed

Endocytic recycling involves the return of membranes and receptors to the plasma membrane following their internalization into the cell. Recycling generally occurs from a series of vesicular and tubular membranes localized to the perinuclear region, collectively known as the endocytic recycling compartment. Within this compartment, receptors are sorted into tubular extensions that later undergo vesiculation, allowing transport vesicles to move along microtubules and return to the cell surface where they ultimately undergo fusion with the plasma membrane. Recent studies have led to the hypothesis that the C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EHD) ATPase proteins are involved in the vesiculation process. Here, we address the functional roles of the four EHD proteins. We developed a novel semipermeabilized cell system in which addition of purified EHD proteins to reconstitute vesiculation allows us to assess the ability of each protein to vesiculate MICAL-L1-decorated tubular recycling endosomes (TREs). Using this assay, we show that EHD1 vesiculates membranes, consistent with enhanced TRE generation observed upon EHD1 depletion. EHD4 serves a role similar to that of EHD1 in TRE vesiculation, whereas EHD2, despite being capable of vesiculating TREs in the semipermeabilized cells, fails to do so in vivo. Surprisingly, the addition of EHD3 causes tubulation of endocytic membranes in our semipermeabilized cell system, consistent with the lack of tubulation observed upon EHD3 depletion. Our novel vesiculation assay and in vitro electron microscopy analysis, combined with in vivo data, provide evidence that the functions of both EHD1 and EHD4 are primarily in TRE membrane vesiculation, whereas EHD3 is a membrane-tubulating protein. PMID:24019528

Cai, Bishuang; Giridharan, Sai Srinivas Panapakkam; Zhang, Jing; Saxena, Sugandha; Bahl, Kriti; Schmidt, John A; Sorgen, Paul L; Guo, Wei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

2013-09-09

26

Grid frequency regulation by recycling electrical energy in flywheels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grid frequency regulation function addresses the balance between the network's load and power generated. The system operator generates a signal, area control error (ACE) signal at PJM, based on the difference between these two parameters. The expected goal is to keep the system near nominal 60 or 50 Hz. Traditionally, frequency regulation is managed by varying the output of fossil

Matthew L. Lazarewicz; Alex Rojas

2004-01-01

27

Asymmetric Rab 11 endosomes regulate delta recycling and specify cell fate in the Drosophila nervous system.  

PubMed

Drosophila sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells are a well-studied model system for asymmetric cell division. During SOP division, the determinants Numb and Neuralized segregate into the pIIb daughter cell and establish a distinct cell fate by regulating Notch/Delta signaling. Here, we describe a Numb- and Neuralized-independent mechanism that acts redundantly in cell-fate specification. We show that trafficking of the Notch ligand Delta is different in the two daughter cells. In pIIb, Delta passes through the recycling endosome which is marked by Rab 11. In pIIa, however, the recycling endosome does not form because the centrosome fails to recruit Nuclear fallout, a Rab 11 binding partner that is essential for recycling endosome formation. Using a mammalian cell culture system, we demonstrate that recycling endosomes are essential for Delta activity. Our results suggest that cells can regulate signaling pathways and influence their developmental fate by inhibiting the formation of individual endocytic compartments. PMID:16137758

Emery, Gregory; Hutterer, Andrea; Berdnik, Daniela; Mayer, Bernd; Wirtz-Peitz, Frederik; Gaitan, Marcos Gonzalez; Knoblich, Juergen A

2005-09-01

28

The centrosome regulates the Rab11- dependent recycling endosome pathway at appendages of the mother centriole.  

PubMed

The recycling endosome localizes to a pericentrosomal region via microtubule-dependent transport. We previously showed that Sec15, an effector of the recycling endosome component, Rab11-GTPase, interacts with the mother centriole appendage protein, centriolin, suggesting an interaction between endosomes and centrosomes. Here we show that the recycling endosome associates with the appendages of the mother (older) centriole. We show that two mother centriole appendage proteins, centriolin and cenexin/ODF2, regulate association of the endosome components Rab11, the Rab11 GTP-activating protein Evi5, and the exocyst at the mother centriole. Development of an in vitro method for reconstituting endosome protein complexes onto isolated membrane-free centrosomes demonstrates that purified GTP-Rab11 but not GDP-Rab11 binds to mother centriole appendages in the absence of membranes. Moreover, centriolin depletion displaces the centrosomal Rab11 GAP, Evi5, and increases mother-centriole-associated Rab11; depletion of Evi5 also increases centrosomal Rab11. This indicates that centriolin localizes Evi5 to centriolar appendages to turn off centrosomal Rab11 activity. Finally, centriolin depletion disrupts recycling endosome organization and function, suggesting a role for mother centriole proteins in the regulation of Rab11 localization and activity at the mother centriole. PMID:22981775

Hehnly, Heidi; Chen, Chun-Ting; Powers, Christine M; Liu, Hui-Lin; Doxsey, Stephen

2012-09-13

29

SCAMP3 Negatively Regulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Degradation and Promotes Receptor Recycling  

PubMed Central

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is targeted for lysosomal degradation by ubiquitin-mediated interactions with the ESCRTs (endosomal-sorting complexes required for transport) in multivesicular bodies (MVBs). We show that secretory carrier membrane protein, SCAMP3, localizes in part to early endosomes and negatively regulates EGFR degradation through processes that involve its ubiquitylation and interactions with ESCRTs. SCAMP3 is multimonoubiquitylated and is able to associate with Nedd4 HECT ubiquitin ligases and the ESCRT-I subunit Tsg101 via its PY and PSAP motifs, respectively. SCAMP3 also associates with the ESCRT-0 subunit Hrs. Depletion of SCAMP3 in HeLa cells by inhibitory RNA accelerated degradation of EGFR and EGF while inhibiting recycling. Conversely, overexpression enhanced EGFR recycling unless ubiquitylatable lysines, PY or PSAP motifs in SCAMP3 were mutated. Notably, dual depletions of SCAMP3 and ESCRT subunits suggest that SCAMP3 has a distinct function in parallel with the ESCRTs that regulates receptor degradation. This function may affect trafficking of receptors from prelysosomal compartments as SCAMP3 depletion appeared to sustain the incidence of EGFR-containing MVBs detected by immunoelectron microscopy. Together, our results suggest that SCAMP3, its modification with ubiquitin, and its interactions with ESCRTs coordinately regulate endosomal pathways and affect the efficiency of receptor down-regulation.

Aoh, Quyen L.; Castle, Anna M.; Hubbard, Charles H.; Katsumata, Osamu

2009-01-01

30

RAB-6.2 and the retromer regulate glutamate receptor recycling through a retrograde pathway  

PubMed Central

Regulated membrane trafficking of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) is a key mechanism underlying synaptic plasticity, yet the pathways used by AMPARs are not well understood. In this paper, we show that the AMPAR subunit GLR-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans utilizes the retrograde transport pathway to regulate AMPAR synaptic abundance. Mutants for rab-6.2, the retromer genes vps-35 and snx-1, and rme-8 failed to recycle GLR-1 receptors, resulting in GLR-1 turnover and behavioral defects indicative of diminished GLR-1 function. In contrast, expression of constitutively active RAB-6.2 drove the retrograde transport of GLR-1 from dendrites back to cell body Golgi. We also find that activated RAB-6.2 bound to and colocalized with the PDZ/phosphotyrosine binding domain protein LIN-10. RAB-6.2 recruited LIN-10. Moreover, the regulation of GLR-1 transport by RAB-6.2 required LIN-10 activity. Our results demonstrate a novel role for RAB-6.2, its effector LIN-10, and the retromer complex in maintaining synaptic strength by recycling AMPARs along the retrograde transport pathway.

Zhang, Donglei; Isack, Nora R.; Glodowski, Doreen R.; Liu, Jie; Chen, Carlos Chih-Hsiung; Xu, X.Z. Shawn; Grant, Barth D.

2012-01-01

31

Ypt31/32 GTPases and their novel F-box effector protein Rcy1 regulate protein recycling.  

PubMed

Ypt/Rab GTPases control various aspects of vesicle formation and targeting via their diverse effectors. We report a new role for these GTPases in protein recycling through a novel effector. The F-box protein Rcy1, which mediates plasma membrane recycling, is identified here as a downstream effector of the Ypt31/32 GTPase pair because it binds active GTP-bound Ypt31/32 and colocalizes with these GTPases on late Golgi and endosomes. Furthermore, Ypt31/32 regulates the polarized localization and half-life of Rcy1. This suggests that Ypt/Rabs can regulate the protein level of their effectors, in addition to the established ways by which they control their effectors. We show that like Rcy1, Ypt31/32 regulate the coupled phosphorylation and recycling of the plasma membrane v-SNARE Snc1. Moreover, Ypt31/32 and Rcy1 regulate the recycling of the furin-homolog Kex2 to the Golgi. Therefore, Ypt31/32 and Rcy1 mediate endosome-to-Golgi transport, because this is the only step shared by Snc1 and Kex2. Finally, we show that Rcy1 physically interacts with Snc1. Based on this result and because F-box proteins serve as adaptors between specific substrates and ubiquitin ligases, we propose that Ypt31/32 GTPases regulate the function of Rcy1 in the phosphorylation and/or ubiquitination of proteins that recycle through the Golgi. PMID:15537705

Chen, Shu Hui; Chen, Shan; Tokarev, Andrei A; Liu, Fengli; Jedd, Gregory; Segev, Nava

2004-11-10

32

Postsynaptic Kainate Receptor Recycling and Surface Expression Are Regulated by Metabotropic Autoreceptor Signalling  

PubMed Central

Kainate receptors (KARs) play fundamentally important roles in controlling synaptic function and regulating neuronal excitability. Postsynaptic KARs contribute to excitatory neurotransmission but the molecular mechanisms underlying their activity-dependent surface expression are not well understood. Strong activation of KARs in cultured hippocampal neurons leads to the downregulation of postsynaptic KARs via endocytosis and degradation. In contrast, low-level activation augments postsynaptic KAR surface expression. Here, we show that this increase in KARs is due to enhanced recycling via the recruitment of Rab11-dependent, transferrin-positive endosomes into spines. Dominant-negative Rab11 or the recycling inhibitor primaquine prevents the kainate-evoked increase in surface KARs. Moreover, we show that the increase in surface expression is mediated via a metabotropic KAR signalling pathway, which is blocked by the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine, the calcium chelator BAPTA and the G-protein inhibitor pertussis toxin. Thus, we report a previously uncharacterized positive feedback system that increases postsynaptic KARs in response to low- or moderate-level agonist activation and can provide additional flexibility to synaptic regulation.

Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Inmaculada M; Henley, Jeremy M

2013-01-01

33

D-AKAP2 interacts with Rab4 and Rab11 through its RGS domains and regulates transferrin receptor recycling.  

PubMed

Dual-specific A-kinase-anchoring protein 2 (D-AKAP2/AKAP10), which interacts at its carboxyl terminus with protein kinase A and PDZ domain proteins, contains two tandem regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domains for which the binding partners have remained unknown. We show here that these RGS domains interact with Rab11 and GTP-bound Rab4, the first demonstration of RGS domains binding small GTPases. Rab4 and Rab11 help regulate membrane trafficking through the endocytic recycling pathways by recruiting effector proteins to specific membrane domains. Although D-AKAP2 is primarily cytosolic in HeLa cells, a fraction of the protein localizes to endosomes and can be recruited there to a greater extent by overexpression of Rab4 or Rab11. D-AKAP2 also regulates the morphology of the Rab11-containing compartment, with co-expression causing accumulation of both proteins on enlarged endosomes. Knockdown of D-AKAP2 by RNA interference caused a redistribution of both Rab11 and the constitutively recycling transferrin receptor to the periphery of cells. Knockdown also caused an increase in the rate of transferrin recycling, suggesting that D-AKAP2 promotes accumulation of recycling proteins in the Rab4/Rab11-positive endocytic recycling compartment. PMID:19797056

Eggers, Christopher T; Schafer, Jenny C; Goldenring, James R; Taylor, Susan S

2009-09-21

34

D-AKAP2 Interacts with Rab4 and Rab11 through Its RGS Domains and Regulates Transferrin Receptor Recycling*  

PubMed Central

Dual-specific A-kinase-anchoring protein 2 (D-AKAP2/AKAP10), which interacts at its carboxyl terminus with protein kinase A and PDZ domain proteins, contains two tandem regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domains for which the binding partners have remained unknown. We show here that these RGS domains interact with Rab11 and GTP-bound Rab4, the first demonstration of RGS domains binding small GTPases. Rab4 and Rab11 help regulate membrane trafficking through the endocytic recycling pathways by recruiting effector proteins to specific membrane domains. Although D-AKAP2 is primarily cytosolic in HeLa cells, a fraction of the protein localizes to endosomes and can be recruited there to a greater extent by overexpression of Rab4 or Rab11. D-AKAP2 also regulates the morphology of the Rab11-containing compartment, with co-expression causing accumulation of both proteins on enlarged endosomes. Knockdown of D-AKAP2 by RNA interference caused a redistribution of both Rab11 and the constitutively recycling transferrin receptor to the periphery of cells. Knockdown also caused an increase in the rate of transferrin recycling, suggesting that D-AKAP2 promotes accumulation of recycling proteins in the Rab4/Rab11-positive endocytic recycling compartment.

Eggers, Christopher T.; Schafer, Jenny C.; Goldenring, James R.; Taylor, Susan S.

2009-01-01

35

?-Synuclein membrane association is regulated by the Rab3a recycling machinery and presynaptic activity.  

PubMed

?-Synuclein is an abundant presynaptic protein and a primary component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson disease. Although its pathogenic role remains unclear, in healthy nerve terminals ?-synuclein undergoes a cycle of membrane binding and dissociation. An ?-synuclein binding assay was used to screen for vesicle proteins involved in ?-synuclein membrane interactions and showed that antibodies directed to the Ras-related GTPase Rab3a and its chaperone RabGDI abrogated ?-synuclein membrane binding. Biochemical analyses, including density gradient sedimentation and co-immunoprecipitation, suggested that ?-synuclein interacts with membrane-associated GTP-bound Rab3a but not to cytosolic GDP-Rab3a. Accumulation of membrane-bound ?-synuclein was induced by the expression of a GTPase-deficient Rab3a mutant, by a dominant-negative GDP dissociation inhibitor mutant unable to recycle Rab3a off membranes, and by Hsp90 inhibitors, radicicol and geldanamycin, which are known to inhibit Rab3a dissociation from membranes. Thus, all treatments that inhibited Rab3a recycling also increased ?-synuclein sequestration on intracellular membranes. Our results suggest that membrane-bound GTP-Rab3a stabilizes ?-synuclein on synaptic vesicles and that the GDP dissociation inhibitor·Hsp90 complex that controls Rab3a membrane dissociation also regulates ?-synuclein dissociation during synaptic activity. PMID:23344955

Chen, Robert H C; Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine; Samuel, Filsy; Visanji, Naomi P; Zhang, Gang; Marsilio, Diana; Langman, Tammy; Fraser, Paul E; Tandon, Anurag

2013-01-23

36

Recycling of sphingosine is regulated by the concerted actions of sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphohydrolase 1 and sphingosine kinase 2.  

PubMed

In yeast, the long-chain sphingoid base phosphate phosphohydrolase Lcb3p is required for efficient ceramide synthesis from exogenous sphingoid bases. Similarly, in this study, we found that incorporation of exogenous sphingosine into ceramide in mammalian cells was regulated by the homologue of Lcb3p, sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphohydrolase 1 (SPP-1), an endoplasmic reticulum resident protein. Sphingosine incorporation into endogenous long-chain ceramides was increased by SPP-1 overexpression, whereas recycling of C(6)-ceramide into long-chain ceramides was not altered. The increase in ceramide was inhibited by fumonisin B(1), an inhibitor of ceramide synthase, but not by ISP-1, an inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase, the rate-limiting step in the de novo biosynthesis of ceramide. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that SPP-1 expression increased the incorporation of sphingosine into all ceramide acyl chain species, particularly enhancing C16:0, C18:0, and C20:0 long-chain ceramides. The increased recycling of sphingosine into ceramide was accompanied by increased hexosylceramides and, to a lesser extent, sphingomyelins. Sphingosine kinase 2, but not sphingosine kinase 1, acted in concert with SPP-1 to regulate recycling of sphingosine into ceramide. Collectively, our results suggest that an evolutionarily conserved cycle of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation regulates recycling and salvage of sphingosine to ceramide and more complex sphingolipids. PMID:17895250

Le Stunff, Hervé; Giussani, Paola; Maceyka, Michael; Lépine, Sandrine; Milstien, Sheldon; Spiegel, Sarah

2007-09-25

37

Eps15 homology domain-NPF motif interactions regulate clathrin coat assembly during synaptic vesicle recycling.  

PubMed

Although genetic and biochemical studies suggest a role for Eps15 homology domain containing proteins in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the specific functions of these proteins have been elusive. Eps15 is found at the growing edges of clathrin-coated pits, leading to the hypothesis that it participates in the formation of coated vesicles. We have evaluated this hypothesis by examining the effect of Eps15 on clathrin assembly. We found that although Eps15 has no intrinsic ability to assemble clathrin, it potently stimulates the ability of the clathrin adaptor protein, AP180, to assemble clathrin at physiological pH. We have also defined the binding sites for Eps15 on squid AP180. These sites contain an NPF motif, and peptides derived from these binding sites inhibit the ability of Eps15 to stimulate clathrin assembly in vitro. Furthermore, when injected into squid giant presynaptic nerve terminals, these peptides inhibit the formation of clathrin-coated pits and coated vesicles during synaptic vesicle endocytosis. This is consistent with the hypothesis that Eps15 regulates clathrin coat assembly in vivo, and indicates that interactions between Eps15 homology domains and NPF motifs are involved in clathrin-coated vesicle formation during synaptic vesicle recycling. PMID:12807910

Morgan, Jennifer R; Prasad, Kondury; Jin, Suping; Augustine, George J; Lafer, Eileen M

2003-06-14

38

Rab11b regulates the trafficking and recycling of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC).  

PubMed

Expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) at the apical membrane of cortical collecting duct (CCD) principal cells is modulated by regulated trafficking mediated by vesicle insertion and retrieval. Small GTPases are known to facilitate vesicle trafficking, recycling, and membrane fusion events; however, little is known about the specific Rab family members that modify ENaC surface density. Using a mouse CCD cell line that endogenously expresses ENaC (mpkCCD), the channel was localized to both Rab11a- and Rab11b-positive endosomes by immunoisolation and confocal fluorescent microscopy. Expression of a dominant negative (DN) form of Rab11a or Rab11b significantly reduced the basal and cAMP-stimulated ENaC-dependent sodium (Na(+)) transport. The greatest reduction in Na(+) transport was observed with the expression of DN-Rab11b. Furthermore, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of each Rab11 isoform demonstrated the requirement for Rab11b in ENaC surface expression. These data indicate that Rab11b, and to a lesser extent Rab11a, is involved in establishing the constitutive and cAMP-stimulated Na(+) transport in mpkCCD cells. PMID:22129970

Butterworth, Michael B; Edinger, Robert S; Silvis, Mark R; Gallo, Luciana I; Liang, Xiubin; Apodaca, Gerard; Frizzell, Raymond A; Fizzell, Raymond A; Johnson, John P

2011-11-30

39

Urothelial endocytic vesicle recycling and lysosomal degradative pathway regulated by lipid membrane composition.  

PubMed

The urothelium, a specialized epithelium that covers the mucosa cell surface of the urinary bladder, undergoes dramatic morphological changes during the micturition cycle that involve a membrane apical traffic. This traffic was first described as a lysosomal pathway, in addition to the known endocytosis/exocytosis membrane recycling. In an attempt to understand the role of membrane lipid composition in those effects, we previously described the lipid-dependent leakage of the endocytosed vesicle content. In this work, we demonstrated clear differences in the traffic of both the fluid probe and the membrane-bound probe in urothelial umbrella cells by using spectrofluorometry and/or confocal and epifluorescence microscopy. Different membrane lipid compositions were established by using three diet formulae enriched in oleic acid, linoleic acid and a commercial formula. Between three and five animals for each dietary treatment were used for each analysis. The decreased endocytosis of both fluid and membrane-bound probes (approximately 32 and 49 % lower, respectively) in oleic acid-derived umbrella cells was concomitant with an increased recycling (approximately 4.0 and 3.7 times, respectively) and diminished sorting to the lysosome (approximately 23 and 37 %, respectively) when compared with the control umbrella cells. The higher intravesicular pH and the impairment of the lysosomal pathway of oleic acid diet-derived vesicles compared to linoleic acid diet-derived vesicles and control diet-derived vesicles correlate with our findings of a lower V-ATPase activity previously reported. We integrated the results obtained in the present and previous work to determine the sorting of endocytosed material (fluid and membrane-bound probes) into the different cell compartments. Finally, the weighted average effect of the individual alterations on the intracellular distribution was evaluated. The results shown in this work add evidences for the modulatory role of the membrane lipid composition on sorting of the endocytosed material. This suggests that changes in the membrane organization can be one of the underlying mechanisms for regulating the endocytosis/exocytosis processes and membrane intracellular trafficking. PMID:23064746

Grasso, E J; Calderón, R O

2012-10-12

40

Rab35 and Its GAP EPI64C in T Cells Regulate Receptor Recycling and Immunological Synapse Formation*S?  

PubMed Central

Upon antigen recognition, T-cell receptor (TCR/CD3) and other signaling molecules become enriched in a specialized contact site between the T cell and antigen-presenting cell, i.e. the immunological synapse (IS). Enrichment occurs via mechanisms that include polarized secretion from recycling endosomes, but the Rabs and RabGAPs that regulate this are unknown. EPI64C (TBC1D10C) is an uncharacterized candidate RabGAP we identified by mass spectrometry as abundant in human peripheral blood T cells that is preferentially expressed in hematopoietic cells. EPI64C is a Rab35-GAP based both on in vitro Rab35-specific GAP activity and findings in transfection assays. EPI64C and Rab35 dominant negative (DN) constructs each impaired transferrin export from a recycling pathway in Jurkat T-cells and induced large vacuoles marked by transferrin receptor, TCR, and SNAREs implicated in TCR-polarized secretion. Rab35 localized to the plasma membrane and to intracellular vesicles where it substantially colocalized with TfR and with TCR. Rab35 was strongly recruited to the IS. Conjugate formation was impaired by transfection with Rab35-DN or EPI64C and by EPI64C knock down. TCR enrichment at the IS was impaired by Rab35-DN. Thus, EPI64C and Rab35 regulate a recycling pathway in T cells and contribute to IS formation, most likely by participating in TCR transport to the IS.

Patino-Lopez, Genaro; Dong, Xiaoyun; Ben-Aissa, Khadija; Bernot, Kelsie M.; Itoh, Takashi; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Kruhlak, Michael J.; Samelson, Lawrence E.; Shaw, Stephen

2008-01-01

41

Regulation of synaptic vesicle recycling by complex formation between intersectin 1 and the clathrin adaptor complex AP2  

PubMed Central

Clathrin-mediated synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling involves the spatiotemporally controlled assembly of clathrin coat components at phosphatidylinositiol (4, 5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]-enriched membrane sites within the periactive zone. Such spatiotemporal control is needed to coordinate SV cargo sorting with clathrin/AP2 recruitment and to restrain membrane fission and synaptojanin-mediated uncoating until membrane deformation and clathrin coat assembly are completed. The molecular events underlying these control mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that the endocytic SH3 domain-containing accessory protein intersectin 1 scaffolds the endocytic process by directly associating with the clathrin adaptor AP2. Acute perturbation of the intersectin 1-AP2 interaction in lamprey synapses in situ inhibits the onset of SV recycling. Structurally, complex formation can be attributed to the direct association of hydrophobic peptides within the intersectin 1 SH3A-B linker region with the “side sites” of the AP2 ?- and ?-appendage domains. AP2 appendage association of the SH3A-B linker region inhibits binding of the inositol phosphatase synaptojanin 1 to intersectin 1. These data identify the intersectin-AP2 complex as an important regulator of clathrin-mediated SV recycling in synapses.

Pechstein, Arndt; Bacetic, Jelena; Vahedi-Faridi, Ardeschir; Gromova, Kira; Sundborger, Anna; Tomlin, Nikolay; Krainer, Georg; Vorontsova, Olga; Schafer, Johannes G.; Owe, Simen G.; Cousin, Michael A.; Saenger, Wolfram; Shupliakov, Oleg; Haucke, Volker

2010-01-01

42

Regulation of synaptic vesicle recycling by complex formation between intersectin 1 and the clathrin adaptor complex AP2.  

PubMed

Clathrin-mediated synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling involves the spatiotemporally controlled assembly of clathrin coat components at phosphatidylinositiol (4, 5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)]-enriched membrane sites within the periactive zone. Such spatiotemporal control is needed to coordinate SV cargo sorting with clathrin/AP2 recruitment and to restrain membrane fission and synaptojanin-mediated uncoating until membrane deformation and clathrin coat assembly are completed. The molecular events underlying these control mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that the endocytic SH3 domain-containing accessory protein intersectin 1 scaffolds the endocytic process by directly associating with the clathrin adaptor AP2. Acute perturbation of the intersectin 1-AP2 interaction in lamprey synapses in situ inhibits the onset of SV recycling. Structurally, complex formation can be attributed to the direct association of hydrophobic peptides within the intersectin 1 SH3A-B linker region with the "side sites" of the AP2 alpha- and beta-appendage domains. AP2 appendage association of the SH3A-B linker region inhibits binding of the inositol phosphatase synaptojanin 1 to intersectin 1. These data identify the intersectin-AP2 complex as an important regulator of clathrin-mediated SV recycling in synapses. PMID:20160082

Pechstein, Arndt; Bacetic, Jelena; Vahedi-Faridi, Ardeschir; Gromova, Kira; Sundborger, Anna; Tomlin, Nikolay; Krainer, Georg; Vorontsova, Olga; Schäfer, Johannes G; Owe, Simen G; Cousin, Michael A; Saenger, Wolfram; Shupliakov, Oleg; Haucke, Volker

2010-02-16

43

Regulation of integrin endocytic recycling and chemotactic cell migration by syntaxin 6 and VAMP3 interaction  

PubMed Central

Summary Integrins are the primary receptors of cells adhering to the extracellular matrix, and play key roles in various cellular processes including migration, proliferation and survival. The expression and distribution of integrins at the cell surface is controlled by endocytosis and recycling. The present study examines the function of syntaxin 6 (STX6), a t-SNARE located in the trans-Golgi network, in integrin trafficking. STX6 is overexpressed in many types of human cancer. We show that depletion of STX6 inhibits chemotactic cell migration and the delivery of the laminin receptor ?3?1 integrin to the cell surface, whereas STX6 overexpression stimulates chemotactic cell migration, integrin delivery, and integrin-initiated activation of focal adhesion kinase. These data indicate that STX6 plays a rate-limiting role in cell migration and integrin trafficking. In STX6-depleted cells, ?3?1 integrin is accumulated in recycling endosomes that contain the v-SNARE VAMP3. Importantly, we show that STX6 and VAMP3 form a v-/t-SNARE complex, VAMP3 is required in ?3?1 integrin delivery to the cell surface, and endocytosed ?3?1 integrin traffics to both VAMP3 and STX6 compartments. Collectively, our data suggest a new integrin trafficking pathway in which endocytosed integrins are transported from VAMP3-containing recycling endosomes to STX6-containing trans-Golgi network before being recycled to the plasma membrane.

Riggs, Krista A.; Hasan, Nazarul; Humphrey, David; Raleigh, Christy; Nevitt, Chris; Corbin, Deborah; Hu, Chuan

2012-01-01

44

Rab22a Regulates the Sorting of Transferrin to Recycling Endosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rab22a is a member of the Rab family of small GTPases that localizes in the endocytic pathway. In CHO cells, expression of canine Rab22a (cRab22a) causes a dramatic enlargement of early endocytic compartments. We wondered whether transferrin recycling is altered in these cells. Expression of the wild-type protein and a GTP hydrolysis-deficient mutant led to the redistribution of transferrin receptor

Javier G. Magadan; M. Alejandro Barbieri; Rosana Mesa; Philip D. Stahl; Luis S. Mayorga

2006-01-01

45

Methyl recycling activities are co-ordinately regulated during plant development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of compounds including lignin, phos- pholipids, pectin, DNA, mRNA, and proteins require methyl groups for their functionality. A detailed study of the expression and activities of two enzymes, adenosine kinase (ADK) and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH), which are both required for the maintenance and recycling of S-adenosylmethionine- dependent methylation in plants, was carried out. The abundance and tissue

L. A. R. Pereira; M. Todorova; X. Cai; C. A. Makaroff; R. J. N. Emery; B. A. Moffatt

2007-01-01

46

Rme-1 regulates the distribution and function of the endocytic recycling compartment in mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

RME-1 is an Eps15-homology (EH)-domain protein that was identified in a genetic screen for endocytosis genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. When expressed in a CHO cell line, the worm RME-1 protein and a mouse homologue are both associated with the endocytic recycling compartment. Here we show that expression of a dominant-negative construct with a point mutation near the EH domain results

Sharron X. Lin; Barth Grant; David Hirsh; Frederick R. Maxfield

2001-01-01

47

Vasoconstrictor-induced endocytic recycling regulates focal adhesion protein localization and function in vascular smooth muscle.  

PubMed

Turnover of focal adhesions (FAs) is known to be critical for cell migration and adhesion of proliferative vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. However, it is often assumed that FAs in nonmigratory, differentiated VSM (dVSM) cells embedded in the wall of healthy blood vessels are stable structures. Recent work has demonstrated agonist-induced actin polymerization and Src-dependent FA phosphorylation in dVSM cells, suggesting that agonist-induced FA remodeling occurs. However, the mechanisms and extent of FA remodeling are largely unknown in dVSM. Here we show, for the first time, that a distinct subpopulation of dVSM FA proteins, but not the entire FA, remodels in response to the ?-agonist phenylephrine. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein and zyxin displayed the largest redistributions, while ?-integrin and FA kinase showed undetectable redistribution. Vinculin, metavinculin, Src, Crk-associated substrate, and paxillin displayed intermediate degrees of redistribution. Redistributions into membrane fractions were especially prominent, suggesting endosomal mechanisms. Deconvolution microscopy, quantitative colocalization analysis, and Duolink proximity ligation assays revealed that phenylephrine increases the association of FA proteins with early endosomal markers Rab5 and early endosomal antigen 1. Endosomal disruption with the small-molecule inhibitor primaquine inhibits agonist-induced redistribution of FA proteins, confirming endosomal recycling. FA recycling was also inhibited by cytochalasin D, latrunculin B, and colchicine, indicating that the redistribution is actin- and microtubule-dependent. Furthermore, inhibition of endosomal recycling causes a significant inhibition of the rate of development of agonist-induced dVSM contractions. Thus these studies are consistent with the concept that FAs in dVSM cells, embedded in the wall of the aorta, remodel during the action of a vasoconstrictor. PMID:23703522

Poythress, Ransom H; Gallant, Cynthia; Vetterkind, Susanne; Morgan, Kathleen G

2013-05-22

48

Nrf2-regulated glutathione recycling independent of biosynthesis is critical for cell survival during oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the primary transcription factor protecting cells from oxidative stress by regulating cytoprotective genes, including the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) pathway. GSH maintains cellular redox status and affects redox signaling, cell proliferation, and death. GSH homeostasis is regulated by de novo synthesis as well as GSH redox state; previous studies have demonstrated that Nrf2 regulates GSH homeostasis by affecting de novo synthesis. We report that Nrf2 modulates the GSH redox state by regulating glutathione reductase (GSR). In response to oxidants, lungs and embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Nrf2-deficient (Nrf2(-/-)) mice showed lower levels of GSR mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity relative to wild type (Nrf2(+/+)). Nrf2(-/-) MEFs exhibited greater accumulation of glutathione disulfide and cytotoxicity compared to Nrf2(+/+) MEFs in response to t-butylhydroquinone, which was rescued by restoring GSR. Microinjection of glutathione disulfide induced greater apoptosis in Nrf2(-/-) MEFs compared to Nrf2(+/+) MEFs. In silico promoter analysis of the GSR gene revealed three putative antioxidant-response elements (ARE1, -44; ARE2, -813; ARE3, -1041). Reporter analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated binding of Nrf2 to two AREs distal to the transcription start site. Overall, Nrf2 is critical for maintaining the GSH redox state via transcriptional regulation of GSR and protecting cells against oxidative stress. PMID:19028565

Harvey, C J; Thimmulappa, R K; Singh, A; Blake, D J; Ling, G; Wakabayashi, N; Fujii, J; Myers, A; Biswal, S

2008-11-05

49

Responsible recycling  

SciTech Connect

The issues that affect the recycling of lead-acid batteries and the challenges that this issue brings to both the lead industry and to the battery manufacturers are covered. Topics include the lead market (its size and structure), the economic constraints on the recycling system, recycling rates for batteries, the technology of recycling, and future considerations.

Pugh, A. (Britannia Refined Metals, Northfleet (United Kingdom))

1993-05-01

50

Ribosome Recycling, Diffusion, and mRNA Loop Formation in Translational Regulation  

PubMed Central

We explore and quantify the physical and biochemical mechanisms that may be relevant in the regulation of translation. After elongation and detachment from the 3? termination site of mRNA, parts of the ribosome machinery can diffuse back to the initiation site, especially if it is held nearby, enhancing overall translation rates. The elongation steps of the mRNA-bound ribosomes are modeled using exact and asymptotic results of the totally asymmetric exclusion process. Since the ribosome injection rates of the totally asymmetric exclusion process depend on the local concentrations at the initiation site, a source of ribosomes emanating from the termination end can feed back to the initiation site, leading to a self-consistent set of equations for the steady-state ribosome throughput. Additional mRNA binding factors can also promote loop formation, or cyclization, bringing the initiation and termination sites into close proximity. The probability distribution of the distance between the initiation and termination sites is described using simple noninteracting polymer models. We find that the initiation, or initial ribosome adsorption binding required for maximal throughput, can vary dramatically depending on certain values of the bulk ribosome concentration and diffusion constant. If cooperative interactions among the loop-promoting proteins and the initiation/termination sites are considered, the throughput can be further regulated in a nonmonotonic manner. Experiments that can potentially test the hypothesized physical mechanisms are discussed.

Chou, Tom

2003-01-01

51

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycle City contains an interactive city map that demonstrates how residents of every section of the city, formerly Dumptown, have recycled, reduced, and reused waste to turn their town around. There is a Dumptown Game with a Control Center to monitor displays while Dumptown changes as waste reduction programs are put in place. Students can create their own Recycle City scavenger hunt or go to the Activities area and see other ways to put Recycle City to use to help protect the environment.

1997-01-01

52

Hanford recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals fo...

I. M. Leonard

1996-01-01

53

Regulation of V-ATPase recycling via a RhoA- and ROCKII-dependent pathway in epididymal clear cells  

PubMed Central

Luminal acidification in the epididymis is critical for sperm maturation and storage. Clear cells express the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in their apical membrane and are major contributors to proton secretion. We showed that this process is regulated via recycling of V-ATPase-containing vesicles. We now report that RhoA and its effector ROCKII are enriched in rat epididymal clear cells. In addition, cortical F-actin was detected beneath the apical membrane and along the lateral membrane of “resting” clear cells using a pan-actin antibody or phalloidin-TRITC. In vivo luminal perfusion of the cauda epididymal tubule with the ROCK inhibitors Y27632 (10–30 ?M) and HA1077 (30 ?M) or with the cell-permeable Rho inhibitor Clostridium botulinum C3 transferase (3.75 ?g/ml) induced the apical membrane accumulation of V-ATPase and extension of V-ATPase-labeled microvilli in clear cells. However, these newly formed microvilli were devoid of ROCKII. In addition, Y27632 (30 ?M) or HA1077 (30 ?M) decreased the ratio of F-actin to G-actin detected by Western blot analysis in epididymal epithelial cells, and Y27632 also decreased the ratio of F-actin to G-actin in clear cells isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting from B1-enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) transgenic mice. These results provide evidence that depolymerization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton via inhibition of RhoA or its effector ROCKII favors the recruitment of V-ATPase from the cytosolic compartment into the apical membrane in clear cells. In addition, our data suggest that the RhoA-ROCKII pathway is not locally involved in the elongation of apical microvilli. We propose that inhibition of RhoA-ROCKII might be part of the intracellular signaling cascade that is triggered upon agonist-induced apical membrane V-ATPase accumulation.

Shum, Winnie Waichi; Da Silva, Nicolas; Belleannee, Clemence; McKee, Mary; Brown, Dennis

2011-01-01

54

RECYCLING TODAY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have probably heard of recycling but what is it really and why is it so improtant to do? Please answer the questions below as well as visiting the different websites to explore what recycling really is. Form groups of 4 and explore the following websites as well as answer the questions which follow. The first website is of Recycle City where you will be exploring the City and how they recycle. Recyle City Why Recycling is Important Now please answer the following questions on paper. 1. What are the 3 R's? Explain in further ...

Smith, Miss

2010-12-03

55

Bacterial cell-wall recycling.  

PubMed

Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many--and quite possibly all--bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. Although cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall-targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC ?-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both ?-lactamase and ?-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of ?-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC ?-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall-recycling inhibitors. PMID:23163477

Johnson, Jarrod W; Fisher, Jed F; Mobashery, Shahriar

2012-11-16

56

Interactions between NEEP21, GRIP1 and GluR2 regulate sorting and recycling of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2.  

PubMed

Trafficking of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR) between endosomes and the postsynaptic plasma membrane of neurons plays a central role in the control of synaptic strength associated with learning and memory. The molecular mechanisms of its regulation remain poorly understood, however. Here we show by biochemical and atomic force microscopy analyses that NEEP21, a neuronal endosomal protein necessary for receptor recycling including AMPAR, is associated with the scaffolding protein GRIP1 and the AMPAR subunit GluR2. Moreover, the interaction between NEEP21 and GRIP1 is regulated by neuronal activity. Expression of a NEEP21 fragment containing the GRIP1-binding site decreases surface GluR2 levels and delays recycling of internalized GluR2, which accumulates in early endosomes and lysosomes. Infusion of this fragment into pyramidal neurons of hippocampal slices induces inward rectification of AMPAR-mediated synaptic responses, suggesting decreased GluR2 expression at synapses. These results indicate that NEEP21-GRIP1 binding is crucial for GluR2-AMPAR sorting through endosomes and their recruitment to the plasma membrane, providing a first molecular mechanism to differentially regulate AMPAR subunit cycling in internal compartments. PMID:16037816

Steiner, Pascal; Alberi, Stefano; Kulangara, Karina; Yersin, Alexandre; Sarria, Juan-Carlos Floyd; Regulier, Etienne; Kasas, Sandor; Dietler, Giovanni; Muller, Dominique; Catsicas, Stefan; Hirling, Harald

2005-07-21

57

Interactions between NEEP21, GRIP1 and GluR2 regulate sorting and recycling of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2  

PubMed Central

Trafficking of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR) between endosomes and the postsynaptic plasma membrane of neurons plays a central role in the control of synaptic strength associated with learning and memory. The molecular mechanisms of its regulation remain poorly understood, however. Here we show by biochemical and atomic force microscopy analyses that NEEP21, a neuronal endosomal protein necessary for receptor recycling including AMPAR, is associated with the scaffolding protein GRIP1 and the AMPAR subunit GluR2. Moreover, the interaction between NEEP21 and GRIP1 is regulated by neuronal activity. Expression of a NEEP21 fragment containing the GRIP1-binding site decreases surface GluR2 levels and delays recycling of internalized GluR2, which accumulates in early endosomes and lysosomes. Infusion of this fragment into pyramidal neurons of hippocampal slices induces inward rectification of AMPAR-mediated synaptic responses, suggesting decreased GluR2 expression at synapses. These results indicate that NEEP21–GRIP1 binding is crucial for GluR2-AMPAR sorting through endosomes and their recruitment to the plasma membrane, providing a first molecular mechanism to differentially regulate AMPAR subunit cycling in internal compartments.

Steiner, Pascal; Alberi, Stefano; Kulangara, Karina; Yersin, Alexandre; Sarria, Juan-Carlos Floyd; Regulier, Etienne; Kasas, Sandor; Dietler, Giovanni; Muller, Dominique; Catsicas, Stefan; Hirling, Harald

2005-01-01

58

Ligand-induced Internalization and Recycling of the Human Neuropeptide Y2 Receptor Is Regulated by Its Carboxyl-terminal Tail*  

PubMed Central

Agonist-induced internalization of G protein-coupled receptors plays an important role in signal regulation. The underlying mechanisms of the internalization of the human neuropeptide Y2 receptor (hY2R), as well as its desensitization, endocytosis, and resensitization are mainly unknown. In the present study we have investigated the role of carboxyl-terminal (C-terminal) Ser/Thr residues and acidic amino acids in regulating receptor internalization, arrestin interaction, and recycling by fluorescence microscopy, cell surface enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer in several cell lines. Strikingly, C-terminal truncation mutants revealed two different internalization motifs. Whereas a distal motif 373DSXTEXT379 was found to be the primary regulatory internalization sequence acting in concert with arrestin-3, the proximal motif 347DXXXSEXSXT356 promoted ligand-induced internalization in an arrestin-3-independent manner. Moreover, we identified a regulatory sequence located between these internalization motifs (357FKAKKNLEVRKN368), which serves as an inhibitory element. We found that hY2R recycling is also governed by structural determinants within the proximal internalization motif. In conclusion, these results indicate that the hY2R C terminus is involved in multiple molecular events that regulate internalization, interaction with arrestin-3, and receptor resensitization. Our findings provide novel insights into complex mechanisms of controlled internalization of hY2R, which is likely applicable to other GPCRs.

Walther, Cornelia; Nagel, Stefanie; Gimenez, Luis E.; Morl, Karin; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.

2010-01-01

59

Ligand-induced internalization and recycling of the human neuropeptide Y2 receptor is regulated by its carboxyl-terminal tail.  

PubMed

Agonist-induced internalization of G protein-coupled receptors plays an important role in signal regulation. The underlying mechanisms of the internalization of the human neuropeptide Y(2) receptor (hY(2)R), as well as its desensitization, endocytosis, and resensitization are mainly unknown. In the present study we have investigated the role of carboxyl-terminal (C-terminal) Ser/Thr residues and acidic amino acids in regulating receptor internalization, arrestin interaction, and recycling by fluorescence microscopy, cell surface enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer in several cell lines. Strikingly, C-terminal truncation mutants revealed two different internalization motifs. Whereas a distal motif (373)DSXTEXT(379) was found to be the primary regulatory internalization sequence acting in concert with arrestin-3, the proximal motif (347)DXXXSEXSXT(356) promoted ligand-induced internalization in an arrestin-3-independent manner. Moreover, we identified a regulatory sequence located between these internalization motifs ((357)FKAKKNLEVRKN(368)), which serves as an inhibitory element. We found that hY(2)R recycling is also governed by structural determinants within the proximal internalization motif. In conclusion, these results indicate that the hY(2)R C terminus is involved in multiple molecular events that regulate internalization, interaction with arrestin-3, and receptor resensitization. Our findings provide novel insights into complex mechanisms of controlled internalization of hY(2)R, which is likely applicable to other GPCRs. PMID:20959467

Walther, Cornelia; Nagel, Stefanie; Gimenez, Luis E; Mörl, Karin; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

2010-10-18

60

Myosin VI and its interacting protein LMTK2 regulate tubule formation and transport to the endocytic recycling compartment  

PubMed Central

Summary Myosin VI is an actin-based retrograde motor protein, which plays a crucial role in both endocytic and secretory membrane trafficking pathways. Myosin VI’s targeting to and function in these intracellular pathways is mediated by a number of specific binding partners. In this paper we have identified a new myosin VI binding partner, Lemur tyrosine kinase 2 (LMTK2), which is the first transmembrane protein and kinase that directly binds to myosin VI. LMTK2 binds to the WWY site in the C-terminal myosin VI tail, the same site as the endocytic adaptor protein Dab2. When either myosin VI or LMTK2 is depleted by siRNA, the transferrin receptor (TfR) is trapped in swollen endosomes and tubule formation in the endocytic recycling pathway is dramatically reduced, showing that both proteins are required for the transport of cargo such as the TfR from early endosomes to the endocytic recycling compartment.

Chibalina, Margarita V.; Seaman, Matthew N.J.; Miller, Christopher C.; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

2009-01-01

61

Myosin VI and its interacting protein LMTK2 regulate tubule formation and transport to the endocytic recycling compartment.  

PubMed

Myosin VI is an actin-based retrograde motor protein that plays a crucial role in both endocytic and secretory membrane trafficking pathways. Myosin VI's targeting to and function in these intracellular pathways is mediated by a number of specific binding partners. In this paper we have identified a new myosin-VI-binding partner, lemur tyrosine kinase 2 (LMTK2), which is the first transmembrane protein and kinase that directly binds to myosin VI. LMTK2 binds to the WWY site in the C-terminal myosin VI tail, the same site as the endocytic adaptor protein Dab2. When either myosin VI or LMTK2 is depleted by siRNAs, the transferrin receptor (TfR) is trapped in swollen endosomes and tubule formation in the endocytic recycling pathway is dramatically reduced, showing that both proteins are required for the transport of cargo, such as the TfR, from early endosomes to the endocytic recycling compartment. PMID:18029400

Chibalina, Margarita V; Seaman, Matthew N J; Miller, Christopher C; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

2007-11-20

62

GPI-Anchored Proteins Are Delivered to Recycling Endosomes via a Distinct cdc42-Regulated, Clathrin-Independent Pinocytic Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocytosis of cell-surface proteins via specific pathways is critical for their function. We show that multiple glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are endocytosed to the recycling endosomal compartment but not to the Golgi via a nonclathrin, noncaveolae mediated pathway. GPI anchoring is a positive signal for internalization into rab5-independent tubular-vesicular endosomes also responsible for a major fraction of fluid-phase uptake; molecules merely

Shefali Sabharanjak; Pranav Sharma; Robert G. Parton; Satyajit Mayor

2002-01-01

63

Recycle City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling made fun. The Environmental Protection Agency's Recycle City Web site offers students an interactive way to learn how recycling can affect their environment. Users can click any part of the cartoon drawing of the city to learn about that particular building or site and what can be done to decrease waste. The site also contains a more involved exercise called the Dumptown game, where visitors click on City Hall to view various recycling programs and choose the program(s) the city will implement. Once implemented, that activity can be seen taking place in Dumptown. Although the Dumptown exercise may require the help of a teacher to navigate for younger students, both exercises are excellent for K-12 teachers and students.

1997-01-01

64

Generation of covalently closed circular DNA of hepatitis B viruses via intracellular recycling is regulated in a virus specific manner.  

PubMed

Persistence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection requires covalently closed circular (ccc)DNA formation and amplification, which can occur via intracellular recycling of the viral polymerase-linked relaxed circular (rc) DNA genomes present in virions. Here we reveal a fundamental difference between HBV and the related duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in the recycling mechanism. Direct comparison of HBV and DHBV cccDNA amplification in cross-species transfection experiments showed that, in the same human cell background, DHBV but not HBV rcDNA converts efficiently into cccDNA. By characterizing the distinct forms of HBV and DHBV rcDNA accumulating in the cells we find that nuclear import, complete versus partial release from the capsid and complete versus partial removal of the covalently bound polymerase contribute to limiting HBV cccDNA formation; particularly, we identify genome region-selectively opened nuclear capsids as a putative novel HBV uncoating intermediate. However, the presence in the nucleus of around 40% of completely uncoated rcDNA that lacks most if not all of the covalently bound protein strongly suggests a major block further downstream that operates in the HBV but not DHBV recycling pathway. In summary, our results uncover an unexpected contribution of the virus to cccDNA formation that might help to better understand the persistence of HBV infection. Moreover, efficient DHBV cccDNA formation in human hepatoma cells should greatly facilitate experimental identification, and possibly inhibition, of the human cell factors involved in the process. PMID:20824087

Köck, Josef; Rösler, Christine; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Blum, Hubert E; Nassal, Michael; Thoma, Christian

2010-09-02

65

Textile recycling  

SciTech Connect

The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

Jablonowski, E. (Killam Associates, Millburn, NJ (United States)); Carlton, J.

1995-01-01

66

Recycling polyurethanes  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the PolyUrethane Recycle and Recovery Council`s continuing evaluation of the technical and commercial viability of polyurethane recovery and recycling technologies. In North America, 240,000 tonnes of post-industrial and 16,000 tonnes of post-consumer polyurethane foam was recycled into carpet rebound underlay and other applications in 1993. Demand was so great in North America that 60,000 t of primarily post-industrial scarp was imported from Europe and the Far East. Polyurethane from the seats of the 9 million vehicles scrapped each year could yield 82,000 t of flexible post-consumer foam scrap: instrument and door panels could yield another 10,000 t of semi-flexible scrap.

NONE

1995-08-01

67

Recycled pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsars that have undergone a binary history have come to be known as "recycled pulsars". The very first binary pulsar to be discovered-the Hulse-Taylor pulsar-provided evidence for such a recycling. It is now widely accepted that the first-born neutron star dies a natural death as a pulsar due to its period lengthening. But eventually, it is spun back into life, once again, when it accretes matter and angular momentum from its companion. Such a spin up continues till the neutron star attains an "equilibrium period", which is determined by the strength of its magnetic field and the accretion rate. This article will attempt to give a historical perspective of how the various steps in the evolution of such a recycled neutron star were understood.

Srinivasan, G.

2010-03-01

68

78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY...regulations that will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue...described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue,...

2013-04-05

69

Improvement Plan of Recycling rate of the Electronic & Electrical Equipment with Considering of Economics; Case study of Vacuum Cleaner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many electrical and electronic manufacturing companies have started to look more intensively at the recycling rate and cost. The main purpose of this research is to ensure the products competitiveness by recycling cost reduction, to meet the international recycling regulation related with product recycling. The focus of this paper is evaluated the recycling \\/recovery rate and recycling cost of vacuum

Junbeum Kim; Braden R. Allenby; Kyouhyung Kim; Sungmo Yeon; Kwanglim Choi

2006-01-01

70

Endocytic recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

After endocytosis, most membrane proteins and lipids return to the cell surface, but some membrane components are delivered to late endosomes or the Golgi. We now understand that the pathways taken by internalized molecules that eventually recycle to the cell surface can be surprisingly complex and can involve a series of sorting events that occur in several organelles. The molecular

Frederick R. Maxfield; Timothy E. McGraw

2004-01-01

71

The ATG1/ATG13 Protein Kinase Complex Is Both a Regulator and a Target of Autophagic Recycling in Arabidopsis[C][W  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is an intracellular recycling route in eukaryotes whereby organelles and cytoplasm are sequestered in vesicles, which are subsequently delivered to the vacuole for breakdown. The process is induced by various nutrient-responsive signaling cascades converging on the Autophagy-Related1 (ATG1)/ATG13 kinase complex. Here, we describe the ATG1/13 complex in Arabidopsis thaliana and show that it is both a regulator and a target of autophagy. Plants missing ATG13 are hypersensitive to nutrient limitations and senesce prematurely similar to mutants lacking other components of the ATG system. Synthesis of the ATG12-ATG5 and ATG8-phosphatidylethanolamine adducts, which are essential for autophagy, still occurs in ATG13-deficient plants, but the biogenesis of ATG8-decorated autophagic bodies does not, indicating that the complex regulates downstream events required for autophagosome enclosure and/or vacuolar delivery. Surprisingly, levels of the ATG1a and ATG13a phosphoproteins drop dramatically during nutrient starvation and rise again upon nutrient addition. This turnover is abrogated by inhibition of the ATG system, indicating that the ATG1/13 complex becomes a target of autophagy. Consistent with this mechanism, ATG1a is delivered to the vacuole with ATG8-decorated autophagic bodies. Given its responsiveness to nutrient demands, the turnover of the ATG1/13 kinase likely provides a dynamic mechanism to tightly connect autophagy to a plant’s nutritional status.

Suttangkakul, Anongpat; Li, Faqiang; Chung, Taijoon; Vierstra, Richard D.

2011-01-01

72

Steel Recycling Institute (SRI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Steel Recycling Institute (SRI) provides information and statistics on steel recycling; it was founded by a group of steel companies and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Originally a grassroots effort focused only on the recycling of steel cans, the SRI now promotes the recycling of all steel products. The SRI homepage provides online access to its three publications, The Dockside Recycler, The Recycling Magnet, and The Appliance Recycler. Recycling information is divided into four categories: cans, cars, appliances, and construction material. Users can use the recycling database to find the nearest steel recycling location. Links provides a large list of both commercial and non-commercial steel sites.

1998-01-01

73

Recycling BIOPOL–Composting and Material Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling of biodegradable thermoplastics such as ZENECA's BIOPOL range of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly-3-hydroxyvalerate copolymers needs to be considered in terms of both material recycling and organic recycling by composting. BIOPOL can be recycled as regrind. The addition of BIOPOL to a model waste stream demonstrates that at the anticipated addition levels, BIOPOL should not have a deleterious effect on

M. K. Cox

1995-01-01

74

Recycled plastics for food packaging  

SciTech Connect

There is a strong movement in this country to decrease the amount of waste produced and to use resources more efficiently. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is interested in helping to resolve the solid waste problem. The FDA supports recycling and the broader societal goal of diverting material from the solid waste stream, when it is consistent with the statutory responsibilities to protect the public health. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) mandates that the FDA review the impact of new food-packaging materials on the environment. Currently, no regulations have been issued for the use of recycled polymers in contact with food. Plastics are permeable, and the possibility that a contaminant such as a pesticide or motor oil might be absorbed by a plastic container and remain in the resin after recycling is very real. The paper discusses FDA policy and research to ensure that recycled plastics are safe for food-contact use.

Thorsheim, H.R.; Armstrong, D.J.

1993-08-01

75

Computer Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given current rates of computer consumerism and technological advances, one might expect to find a lot of computers out there in the world. What happens to these old computers? This Topic in Depth explores this issue, reviews some options for recycling computers, and provides tips for anyone considering purchasing a refurbished computer. The first article from BBC News (1) reports on research which suggests that "the number of personal computers worldwide is expected to double by 2010 to 1.3 billion machines." The second article from Oasis, a project of the Irish eGovernment initiative, (2) reviews some of the issues surrounding waste from electrical and electronic equipment. This next article from PC World (3) gives some ideas for how to dispose of an old notebook computer. One option, of course, is to donate your notebook, which is discussed in this article from Tech Soup (4). Another resource for information on computer recycling and reuse is this website from CompuMentor (5). Given the current market for computers, many are considering refurbished computers. This article from Vnunet (6 ) explains what a refurbished computer is while the next website provides some tips for buying a refurbished computer (7 ). Finally, this article from About.com reports on the recently introduced National Computer Recycling Act (8).

76

Recycling Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting Project," (7) Used Motor Oil Recycling," (8) "Unwrapping…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

77

Green Science: Revisiting Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling

Palliser, Janna

2011-01-01

78

Green Science: Revisiting Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling

Palliser, Janna

2011-01-01

79

Management and Performance of Taiwan’s Waste Recycling Fund  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan’s resource recycling program was formally established in 1989, starting with the mandatory recycling of polyethylene terephthalate bottles. The number of mandatory regulated materials was extended to 8 categories with 27 items by 2002. Because of false data reporting, financial scandal, lack of transparency of the system, and the demand from parliament, the recycling policy has gradually changed from entirely

Kuo-Shuh Fan; Chun-Hsu Lin; Tien-Chin Chang

2005-01-01

80

PIP2-dependent regulation of Munc13-4 endocytic recycling: impact on the cytolytic secretory pathway.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic lymphocytes clear infected and transformed cells by releasing the content of lytic granules at cytolytic synapses, and the ability of cytolytic effectors to kill in an iterative manner has been documented previously. Although bidirectional trafficking of cytolytic machinery components along the endosomal pathway has begun to be elucidated, the molecular mechanisms coordinating granule retrieval remain completely unexplored. In the present study, we focus on the lytic granule priming factor Munc13-4, the mutation of which in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 3 results in a profound defect of cytotoxic function. We addressed the role of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2) in the regulation of Munc13-4 compartmentalization. We observed that in human natural killer cells, PIP2 is highly enriched in membrane rafts. Granule secretion triggering induces a transient Munc13-4 raft recruitment, followed by AP-2/clathrin-dependent internalization. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) ? gene silencing leads to the impairment of granule secretion associated with increased levels of raft-associated Munc13-4, which is attributable to a defect in AP-2 membrane recruitment. In such conditions, the ability to subsequently kill multiple targets was significantly impaired. These observations indicate that Munc13-4 reinternalization is required for the maintenance of an intracellular pool that is functional to guarantee the serial killing potential. PMID:22271450

Capuano, Cristina; Paolini, Rossella; Molfetta, Rosa; Frati, Luigi; Santoni, Angela; Galandrini, Ricciarda

2012-01-23

81

Recycling: Additional Efforts Could Increase Municipal Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although recycling can generate environmental and economic benefits, the national recycling rate has increased only slightly since 2000, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While local governments have the primary role in operating rec...

2006-01-01

82

Recycling at naval shore installations: One means of curbing the garbage glut. Research report, August 1992April 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The document provides techniques and strategies to aid Federal recycling program managers. Highlights the major laws and regulations that stimulated recycling within the Department of Defense, discusses several benefits of recycling, and addressees start-up and operating costs associated with a recycling program. Briefly examines the Navy's current recycling efforts at shore activities; and contends that the real breakthrough in effective

1993-01-01

83

Emulsified industrial oils recycling  

SciTech Connect

The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

Gabris, T.

1982-04-01

84

Recycling Improves USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes are occurring in recycling that will improve the United States. There are significant improvements in the economy, environment and the health of Americans due to recycling efforts. Recycling will be shown as a superior option compared to landfill, incineration and virgin material processing. Many Case studies will be discussed that show how communities are making long-term decisions for recycling.

Luke Monroe

85

Visiting a Recycling Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recycling is perhaps the most well-known and successful part of the popular three-pronged resource conservation strategy known as 'reduce, reuse, and recycle'. This site provides some general information about recycling, and a video segment from the television program 'ZOOM', in which a cast member visits a material recovery center to watch the recycling process unfold.

2005-01-01

86

Recycled pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a survey of ~4,150 square degrees, we discovered 26 previously unknown pulsars, including 7 "recycled" millisecond or binary pulsars. The most significant discovery of this survey is PSR J1909-3744, a 2.95 ms pulsar in an extremely circular 1.5 d orbit with a low-mass white dwarf companion. Though this system is a fairly typical low-mass binary pulsar (LMBP) system, it has several exceptional qualities: an extremely narrow pulse profile and stable rotation have enabled the most precise long-term timing ever reported, and a nearly edge-on orbit gives rise to a strong Shapiro delay which has allowed the most precise measurement of the mass of a millisecond pulsar: m p = (1.438 +/- 0.024) [Special characters omitted.] . Our accurate parallax distance measurement, d p = ([Special characters omitted.] ) kpc, combined with the mass of the optically-detected companion, m c = (0.2038 +/- 0.022) [Special characters omitted.] , will provide an important calibration for white dwarf models relevant to other LMBP companions. We have detected optical counterparts for two intermediate mass binary pulsar (IMBP) systems; taken together with optical detections and non-detections of several similar systems, our results indicate that the characteristic age t = c P /2 P consistently overestimates the time since the end of mass accretion in these recycled systems. We have measured orbital decay in the double neutron star system PSR B2127+11C in the globular cluster M15. This has allowed an improved measurement of the mass of the pulsar, m p = (1.3584 +/- 0.0097) [Special characters omitted.] , and companion, m c = (1.3544 +/- 0.0097) [Special characters omitted.] , as well as a test of general relativity at the 3% level. We find that the proper motions of this pulsar as well as PSR B2127+11A and PSR B2127+11B are consistent with each other and with one published measurement of the cluster proper motion. We have discovered three binary millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster M62 using the 100-m Green Bank Telescope (GBT). These pulsars are the first objects discovered with the GBT. We briefly describe a wide-bandwidth coherent dedispersion backend used for some of the high precision pulsar timing observations presented here.

Jacoby, Bryan Anthony

2005-11-01

87

WEEE recycling in China. Present situation and main obstacles for improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently the waste processing and recycling of electronics in China is managed mostly by informal recycling businesses. This sector runs a considerable risk of causing environmental and occupational hazard. It also loses valuable materials by applying inappropriate recycling techniques. Formal recycling industries have to compete with informal businesses, whilst still complying with environmental and occupational regulations. Several obstacles prevent formal

Martin Streicher-Porte; Jianxin Yang

2007-01-01

88

Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)

Clearing, 2003

2003-01-01

89

Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that motor oils can be reused and recycled. Educates students about environmental hazards and oil management and includes classroom activities. Addresses the National Science Education Standards. (YDS)

White, Boyd W.

2000-01-01

90

Recycled Art: Create Puppets Using Recycled Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity from "Healthy Foods from Healthy Soils" for making puppets using recycled food packaging materials. Includes background information, materials, instructions, literature links, resources, and benchmarks. (NB)|

Clearing, 2003

2003-01-01

91

Challenges in metal recycling.  

PubMed

Metals are infinitely recyclable in principle, but in practice, recycling is often inefficient or essentially nonexistent because of limits imposed by social behavior, product design, recycling technologies, and the thermodynamics of separation. We review these topics, distinguishing among common, specialty, and precious metals. The most beneficial actions that could improve recycling rates are increased collection rates of discarded products, improved design for recycling, and the enhanced deployment of modern recycling methodology. As a global society, we are currently far away from a closed-loop material system. Much improvement is possible, but limitations of many kinds--not all of them technological--will preclude complete closure of the materials cycle. PMID:22879508

Reck, Barbara K; Graedel, T E

2012-08-10

92

Recycling Research. Tracking Trash.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An activity in which students research the effectiveness of recycling is presented. Students compare the types and amount of litter both before and after recycling is implemented. Directions for the activity and a sample data sheet are included. (KR)|

DeLago, Louise Furia

1991-01-01

93

Recycling Rules: Understanding Recycling and a MRF  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners simulate the separation techniques that materials recovery facilities (MRFs) use and then design their own series of recycling techniques. Learners identify four ways recyclable materials can be separated and sorted at a MRF: conveyor belts, blowers, flotation, and magnetism.

Keep America Beautiful, Inc.

2010-01-01

94

Cell biology: Notch recycling is numbed.  

PubMed

During asymmetric cell division, the Notch regulator Numb segregates unequally to establish different cell fates in the two daughter cells. Numb is thought to act as an endocytic protein. Two new studies show that Numb antagonizes Notch signaling by also regulating recycling of Sanpodo-Notch complexes via AP-1. PMID:23578871

Reichardt, Ilka; Knoblich, Jürgen A

2013-04-01

95

Recycling of automotive aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the global warming of concern, the secondary aluminum stream is becoming an even more important component of aluminum production and is attractive because of its economic and environmental benefits. In this work, recycling of automotive aluminum is reviewed to highlight environmental benefits of aluminum recycling, use of aluminum alloys in automotive applications, automotive recycling process, and new technologies in

Jirang CUI; Hans J. ROVEN

2010-01-01

96

Recycling and the automobile  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the current status of automobile recycling and contains a summary of a survey which points out the major drivers and their impacts on automotive recycling. The topics of the article include computerized dismantling, polyurethane, sheet molding compound, polyester, thermoplastic polyester, recycling salvaged parts, vinyl and automotive shredder residue.

Holt, D.J.

1993-10-01

97

Rethink, Rework, Recycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)|

Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

1991-01-01

98

Rethink, Rework, Recycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

1991-01-01

99

Recycling calls for revaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop the value concept for recycling contexts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is a conceptual discussion supported by empirical illustrations of value development for recycled paper and electric and electronics products. Findings – Demonstrates the fundamental effects of applying the economic value concept for recycling. Suggests that value can be seen as

Maria Huge Brodin; Helén Anderson

2008-01-01

100

Neuronal Ca2+ sensor protein VILIP-1 affects cGMP signalling of guanylyl cyclase B by regulating clathrin-dependent receptor recycling in hippocampal neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

B are co-expressed in many but not all neurons and partially co-localize in the soma and in dendrites. Our data indicate that VILIP-1 modulates GC-B activity by influencing clathrin-dependent receptor recycling. These data support a general physiological role for VILIP-1 in membrane trafficking in the intact hippocampus, where the NCS protein may affect processes, such as neuronal differentiation and synaptic

Marian Brackmann; Sebastian Schuchmann; Rene Anand; Karl-Heinz Braunewell

2005-01-01

101

Epidermal H2O2 Accumulation Alters Tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH4) Recycling in Vitiligo: Identification of a General Mechanism in Regulation of All 6BH4Dependent Processes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown in vivo that patients with the depigmentation disorder vitiligo accumulate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accompanied by low catalase levels and high concentrations of 6- and 7-biopterin in their epidermis. Earlier it was demonstrated that epidermal 4a-OH-tetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase, an important enzyme in the recycling process of 6(R)-L-erythro 5,6,7,8 tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH4), has extremely low activities in these patients concomitant

Karin U. Schallreuter; Jeremy Moore; John M. Wood; Wayne D. Beazley; Eva M. J. Peters; Lee K. Marles; Stefanie C. Behrens-Williams; Reinhard Dummer; Nenad Blau; Beat Thöny

2001-01-01

102

Scrap tire recycling in Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the problems associated with scrap tires. For example, surface storing of scrap tires poses a fire hazard and the rainwater trapped in the tire casings is an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes. Use as a fuel for energy production is unattractive as long as oil retails at its present low price. Past reclamation processes have not met expectations. Legislation alone is not the answer, because scrap tires cannot be regulated out of existence. However, the Minnesota state legislature has come up with an approach that seems to be successful. It has passed the Waste Tire Act, which not only formulates regulations but also provides funding for research and development. Thus, it has established a tire disposal fund for financing construction costs of tire recycling facilities. One of the outcomes was the construction of the St. Louis county Waste Tire Recycling Facility. Through a leasing arrangement with Minneapolis-based Rubber Elastomerics, Inc. (RRE), construction costs financed by the tire disposal fund eventually will be repaid by RRE to the fund. The arrangement is described in detail. By a process also described, RRE produces a product that can be used in thermoset and in thermoplastic compounds. The user can incorporate between 50 percent and 85 percent of the recycled product into a rubber or plastic compound without significantly affecting the physical properties of the compound.

Not Available

1989-10-01

103

Does the UK Government's target to recycle 25% of household waste by the year 2000 represent an economic approach to recycling? A case study of plastic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UK Government has set a target for the recycling of domestic waste. There are already some regulations in effect that aim to improve the condition of the market, but the market for recycled materials still remains fragmented and inefficient. When private and social costs and benefits are taken into account, the benefits of recycling in certain sectors may not

Joshua Singer

1995-01-01

104

Recycling Service Learning Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recycling project begins with students learning about waste and resources. They complete background assignments about the energy and materials required to manufacture paper, aluminum, etc. They study landfills and the issues related to space, pollution, etc. They look at what is different if these things are recycled. The students work in groups of two or three and adopt and academic building on campus. They educate the staff and faculty about recycling - what can be recycled and where. They arrange to pick-up paper from each office. My hope is that the college faculty, staff and students will eventually recycle paper at common bins and that our project will progress to adding other recyclables to our project.

Faatz, Renee

105

Fusion of Endosomes Involved in Synaptic Vesicle Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of vesicles of the regulated secretory pathway presumably involves passage through an early endosomal compartment as an intermediate step. To learn more about the involvement of endosomes in the recycling of synaptic and secretory vesicles we studied in vitro fusion of early endosomes derived from pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Fusion was not affected by cleavage of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive

Claudia Holroyd; Ute Kistner; Wim Annaert; Reinhard Jahn

1999-01-01

106

Factors Influencing Household Recycling Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate factors encouraging or deterring recycling, telephone interviews were used to study recycling behavior, attitudes, and knowledge of 221 randomly selected adults in a suburban city that had begun a citywide curbside recycling program within the past year. Approximately 40% reported participation in the curbside recycling program, and nearly 20% more claimed that their household had been recycling in

Stuart Oskamp; Maura J. Harrington; Todd C. Edwards; Deborah L. Sherwood; Shawn M. Okuda; Deborah C. Swanson

1991-01-01

107

Benchmarking survey for recycling.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

2005-06-01

108

Households’ recycling efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Households’ recycling effort is often argued to be of an insignificant size. It is also frequently argued that this contribution, if significant, is not a cost to households, since it is voluntary. Thus households’ use of time and energy are frequently disregarded in cost-benefit analyses of stricter recycling targets. In this survey, based on 1162 interviews, we find that sorting

Annegrete Bruvoll; Bente Halvorsen; Karine Nyborg

2002-01-01

109

Economics of PC Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of personal computers (PCs) increases, their short life cycle and the fact that they contain many hazardous materials means that their retirement and disposal represents a significant environmental concern. Many communities are mandating the recycling of these PCs, to recover parts and materials, and to minimize the amount of waste landfilled or incinerated. An industry to recycle

Jane E. Boon; Jacqueline A. Isaacs; Surendra M. Gupta

110

Refuse recycling and recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing sense of dissatisfaction over the waste of resources in traditional disposal methods has not yet overcome the economic barriers of recycling costs and the difficulties of marketing recycled materials. The author examines several waste-recovery technologies, such as incineration and waste-derived fuels, and the constraints which work against time. He describes two plants in the United Kingdom and the

1981-01-01

111

Recycling TATB PBX.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of recycling IHE has been successfully demonstrated on a large scale by processing over 750 kg of machining scrap. The content of machine cuttings in the recycled PBX lots was 50, 75, and 100%. Physical strengths were generally above norma...

A. G. Osborn H. D. Johnson T. L. Stallings

1978-01-01

112

Is mandated recycling possible  

Microsoft Academic Search

If piles of potentially recyclable materials are accumulated as a result of a mandatory source separation program, what options exist for the community First, it could attempt to market the recyclables through normal commercial channels. Second, the community could attempt to market the materials at lower prices to the consumers, since any contribution above available disposal cost is a profit

Cutler

1988-01-01

113

Recycling the junk car  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systems approach to recycling junk cars as a major renewable resource is proposed, although this will require some legislative, technological, and economic changes. The volume of materials contained in automobiles makes them the major source of scrap steel, but recycling can also yield secondary supplies of zinc, copper, aluminum, rubber, and plastics. Economic considerations have historically singled out scrap

Harwood

1977-01-01

114

Recycle of battery materials  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: Nickel/Zinc, Nickel/Iron, Zinc/Chlorine, Zinc/Bromine, Sodium/Sulfur, and Lithium-Aluminum/Iron Sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes has been developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials.

Pemsler, J.P.; Spitz, R.A.

1981-01-01

115

Study on TV recyclability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the depletion of natural resources, the shortage of dumping sites and the environmental pollution caused by hazardous chemical substances, there is a growing demand for the recycling of discarded products. The electrical home appliance industry has continued its efforts to develop easy-to-recycle products. In order to recognize the effects of these improvements and to identify subjects for future

Takayuki Nishi; M. Hirano; T. Ohashi; K. Ueno; Y. Hiroshige

1999-01-01

116

AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY WASTEWATER RECYCLING  

EPA Science Inventory

The feasibility of recycling certain categories of water used in the manufacture of airplanes was demonstrated. Water in four categories was continuously recycled in 380-liter (100-gallon) treatment plants; chemical process rinse water, dye-penetrant crack-detection rinse water, ...

117

Visiting a Recycling Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this ZOOM video segment, cast member Francesco follows the paper trail to find out what happens to his recyclables. He visits a material recovery center and learns how paper is recycled and the number of trees that are saved as a result.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-10-21

118

Recycling into Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary unit weaves art and science together to help students appreciate the importance of recycling. In this engaging activity, students collected items worthy of recycling from home, and with the help of the art teacher, used a loom to cr

Fioranelli, Debra

2000-10-01

119

Recycling at Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a Michigan summer camp's efforts to reduce solid waste disposal by recycling cardboard, tin, glass, aluminum, and plastic milk containers. Points out variables affecting the success of such efforts. Discusses Michigan state funding for the development of recycling programs. (SV)

Cummins, William M.

1988-01-01

120

Partnership: Recycling $/$ Outdoor Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Ottawa Board of Education (Ontario, Canada) has committed revenues generated by a districtwide recycling program to help fund the MacSkimming Outdoor Education Centre. A partnership between recycling and outdoor education is valuable in developing an environmental ethic among students and in finding new ways to fund outdoor education. (LP)|

Weir, Phil

1996-01-01

121

How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos\\/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos,

Jantzen

2000-01-01

122

Advances in plastic recycling. Volume 1: Recycling of polyurethanes  

SciTech Connect

``Recycling of Polyurethanes'', the first volume in the Advances in Plastics Recycling series, is focused on the physical and chemical recycling of polyurethanes, with attention given to energy conversion. A compilation of the present ongoing studies on recycling of urethane and, in general, isocyanate-based polymers, the focus is on thermosetting urethane polymers. Contents include: Recycling of Polyurethane Plastics in the European Automotive Industry; Present State of Polyurethane Recycling in Europe; Processing Overview of Bonded Polyurethane Foam; Mechanical Recycling of Polyurethane Scrap; Ecostream{trademark}--A Technology Beyond Recycling; Recycling of Flexible polyurethane Foam; General purpose Adhesives Prepared from Chemically Recycled Waste Rigid Polyurethane Foams; and Utilization of Isocyanate Binders in Recycling of Scrap Automotive Headliners.

Frisch, K.C.; Klempner, D.; Prentice, G.

1999-07-01

123

40 CFR 261.6 - Requirements for recyclable materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reclaimed (40 CFR part 266, subpart F); (iv) Spent lead-acid batteries that are being reclaimed (40 CFR part 266...except as provided in paragraph (a) of this section. (The recycling process itself is exempt from regulation except as...

2013-07-01

124

75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...our planet, participating in curbside recycling and community composting programs, and...of recyclable and recycled materials. Recycling not only preserves our environment by...workers nationwide, and evolving our recycling practices can help create green...

2010-11-19

125

Recycle Used Oil on America Recycles Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil doesn't wear out--it just gets dirty. Students and the general public may not know that used oil can be reused or recycled. The fact is, used oil can be re-fined, blended with additives, and used again. When you consider that 1.4 billion gallons

White, Boyd W.

2000-11-01

126

The ALS8 protein VAPB interacts with the ER-Golgi recycling protein YIF1A and regulates membrane delivery into dendrites.  

PubMed

The vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) associated protein B (VAPB) is an integral membrane protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The P56S mutation in VAPB has been linked to motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 8 (ALS8) and forms ER-like inclusions in various model systems. However, the role of wild-type and mutant VAPB in neurons is poorly understood. Here, we identified Yip1-interacting factor homologue A (YIF1A) as a new VAPB binding partner and important component in the early secretory pathway. YIF1A interacts with VAPB via its transmembrane regions, recycles between the ER and Golgi and is mainly localized to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartments (ERGICs) in rat hippocampal neurons. VAPB strongly affects the distribution of YIF1A and is required for intracellular membrane trafficking into dendrites and normal dendritic morphology. When VAPB-P56S is present, YIF1A is recruited to the VAPB-P56S clusters and loses its ERGIC localization. These data suggest that both VAPB and YIF1A are important for ER-to-Golgi transport and that missorting of YIF1A may contribute to VAPB-associated motor neuron disease. PMID:23736259

Kuijpers, Marijn; Yu, Ka Lou; Teuling, Eva; Akhmanova, Anna; Jaarsma, Dick; Hoogenraad, Casper C

2013-06-04

127

Motivation recycling: pre-recycling case study in Minsk, Belarus.  

PubMed

Given the aim of motivating householders to behave in a recycling-friendly manner, there is a need to understand consumers' recycling behaviour. This paper documents and analyses acceptability and awareness of a pre-recycling society, through a survey carried out in the region of Minsk, Belarus. The results show a large number of people have no strong awareness about separate collection of household waste for recycling. By analysing the pre-recycling behaviour of Minsk citizens and substantive comparison with literature studies of a more mature recycling society such as Sweden, we indicate common sociodemographic variables for both cases and determine that these sociodemographic characteristics will directly influence recycling behaviour in countries like Belarus. It is also noted that the lack of recycling habit cannot directly predict subsequent recycling behaviour on the stage of implementation the recycling system. PMID:20124319

Miafodzyeva, Sviatlana; Brandt, Nils; Olsson, Monika

2010-02-02

128

Dragnet: Nonprofit Computer Recyclers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you have ever wondered what happens to obsolete computers, check out these current awareness Websites. The disposal of computers is classified as hazardous waste, which has become an environmental concern as the number of obsolete computers rises. In fact, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the State of Massachusetts have banned computer equipment from landfills. Dragnet: Nonprofit Computer Recyclers is an EPA-licensed computer recycling organization that reuses all acceptable components and systems or recycles damaged or unusable components. Rebuilt computer systems are given to "persons with disabilities and persons living in disadvantaged situations."

129

Newell's metals recycling tradition  

SciTech Connect

Since 1976, Newell Recycling Co., Inc.'s metals recycling facility in Atlanta has been processing everything from aluminum cans to automobiles. It is a full-service metals recycling center, handling both ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Newell Recycling takes metal components and machinery and processes it into usable feedstock for metal smelters and steel mills. The facility is split into five basic processing operations: ferrous metal shredding; ferrous shearing and torching; a heavy media separation plant; a nonferrous warehouse; and aluminum can operations. The shredder is capable of handling 100 tons of steel an hour, but the actual amount varies depending on the market demand. Anywhere from between 7,000 and 9,000 tons a month are typically shredded at the facility. The Atlanta facility also processes aluminum and steel cans, demolition scrap, copper wire, brass, and over 200 other products.

Dabaie, M.

1994-11-01

130

Reduce, Reuse, Recycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson featuring LOOP SCOOPS videos, students consider how the concept of needs vs. wants can help them think about ways to protect Earth's natural resources by reducing, reusing, and recycling materials.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

131

A Practical Recycling Project . . .  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descirbes a school district's recycling program of aluminum lunch trays that are collected after their use. The trays are used as scrap metal in industrial education workshop and used for sand castings. (PS)

Durant, Raymond H.; Mikuska, James M.

1973-01-01

132

Recycling of nonmetallics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Amey, E. B.; Kelly, T. D.

1996-01-01

133

The N-Myc Down Regulated Gene1 (NDRG1) Is a Rab4a Effector Involved in Vesicular Recycling of E-Cadherin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell to cell adhesion is mediated by adhesion molecules present on the cell surface. Downregulation of molecules that form the adhesion complex is a characteristic of metastatic cancer cells. Downregulation of the N-myc down regulated gene1 (NDRG1) increases prostate and breast metastasis. The exact function of NDRG1 is not known. Here by using live cell confocal microscopy and in vitro

Sushant K. Kachhap; Dennis Faith; David Z. Qian; Shabana Shabbeer; Nathan L. Galloway; Roberto Pili; Samuel R. Denmeade; Angelo M. Demarzo; Michael A. Carducci; Carl-Philipp Heisenberg

2007-01-01

134

Interleukin10 Down-Regulates MHC Class II ?? Peptide Complexes at the Plasma Membrane of Monocytes by Affecting Arrival and Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) inhibits antigen-specific T cell responses when human monocytes are used as antigen-presenting cells. This is correlated with a down-regulation of MHC class II molecules on the surface of the monocyte. Here we show that IL-10 does not affect MHC class II transcription, polypeptide synthesis, subunit assembly, or antigenic peptide loading. Instead, newly synthesized mature MHC class II molecules

Bruce Koppelman; Jacques J Neefjes; Jan E de Vries; René de Waal Malefyt

1997-01-01

135

Reclamation of automotive batteries: Assessment of health impacts and recycling technology. Task 1: Assessment of recycling technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Approximately ten different candidate EV battery technologies were examined based on their performance and recyclability, and were ranked based on these examinations. The batteries evaluated were lead-acid (all types), nickel-cadmium, nickel-iron, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, sodium-nickel chloride, lithium-iron disulfide, lithium-ion, lithium polymer, and zinc (zinc-air and zinc-bromine). Locations of present recycling facilities were identified. Markets for recycled products were assessed: the value of recycled materials were found too unstable to fully support recycling efforts. All these batteries exhibit the characteristic of hazardous waste in California, and are therefore subject to strict regulations (finalization of the new EPA Universal Waste Rule could change this).

Unnasch, S.; Montano, M.; Franklin, P.; Nowell, G.; Martin, C.

1995-03-01

136

Recycling in a megacity.  

PubMed

In the aftermath of the 9/11 disaster, Mayor Bloomberg of New York City unveiled an aggressive budget plan that included the temporary suspension of glass and plastics recycling. This was considered by many to be anti-environmental, but the results of this study show that for lack of markets, even at zero or negative prices, nearly 90% of the plastic and glass set aside by thoughtful New Yorkers was transported to materials recovery facilities (MRFs) and from there to landfills. Sending bales of plastics to landfills is not limited to New York City. It is an environmental paradox that the United States is digging up new oil fields in pristine areas and, at the same time, continues to convert greenfields to brownfields by burying nearly 20 million tons of plastic fuel annually. The study also determined that at the present rate of source separation, estimated to be less than 30% of the available recyclables in 1999, building large, modern MRFs may increase substantially the rate of New York City recycling and also allow single-stream collection of commingled recyclables, as is done in Phoenix, AZ. Single-stream collection simplifies separation at the source by citizens and increases the amount of collected recyclables. Also, because collection represents a large fraction of the costs of waste management, it may have a significant economic advantage. PMID:15115367

Themelis, Nickolas J; Todd, Claire E

2004-04-01

137

Scrap tire recycling  

SciTech Connect

As the automobile tire technology has grown and met the need for safer and more durable tires, stronger reinforcement and more chemically resistant rubber compounds have made recycling tires more difficult. In an effort to resolve this problem, techniques and equipment were developed to grind tires into small pieces, and new markets were sought to utilize the crumb rubber product streams from ground tires. Industrial combustion processes were modified to accept scrap tires as fuel. These efforts have been beneficial, steadily increasing the percentage of scrap tires recycled to about 10% in 1985, and reaching 72% in 1995. By the end of 1997, fully 100% of tires generated in the U.S. are expected to be recycled.

Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

1997-03-01

138

Recycling Opportunities for Neighbourhoods and Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses recycling paper, glass, plastics, and metals. It presents a community technology approach to recycling, and reviews present efforts in repair and renovation, reuse, and recycling. A final chapter on the appropriateness of recycling te...

C. Thomas

1981-01-01

139

Processing solid propellants for recycling  

SciTech Connect

Rapid evolution in the structure of military forces worldwide is resulting in the retirement of numerous weapon systems. Many of these systems include rocket motors containing highly energetic propellants based on hazardous nitrocellulose/nitroglycerin (NC/NG) mixtures. Even as the surplus quantities of such material increases, however, current disposal methods -- principally open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) -- are coming under close scrutiny from environmental regulators. Environmentally conscious alternatives to disposal of propellant and explosives are thus receiving renewed interest. Recycle and reuse alternatives to OB/OD appear particularly attractive because some of the energetic materials in the inventories of surplus weapon systems represent potentially valuable resources to the commercial explosives and chemical industries. The ability to reclaim such resources is therefore likely to be a key requirement of any successful technology of the future in rocket motor demilitarization. This document consists of view graphs from the poster session.

Whinnery, L.L.; Griffiths, S.K.; Handrock, J.L.; Lipkin, J.

1994-05-01

140

Botswana's environmental policy on recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling operations have become one of the primary strategies for waste management, worldwide. Especially, recycling operations are viewed as among the most effective techniques for reducing the amount of municipal solid waste disposed at landfill sites. Botswana's environmental policy on recycling stipulates, among others, that all waste management authorities should provide information on the classification and quantities of controlled waste

C. Ketlogetswe; T. H. Mothudi

2005-01-01

141

Study on electronics recycling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discarding of electronics is a growing problem around the world. This paper first analyzes the possible limitations in current electronics recycling models and methods through the review of the literature, and this paper then presents a study of the complete electronics recycling process based on electronics features. The five main stages in the recycling process are described: collection, product

Weiwei Chen; Rui Kang; Diganta Das; Michael Pecht

2009-01-01

142

Recycling incineration: Evaluating the choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling

R. A. Denison; J. Ruston

1993-01-01

143

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Materials Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A large variety of materials are recycled by different sectors of our society. The materials recycling that is mainly addressed in this writing is from waste that is generated after manufacturing and use. Included is recycling that is generally more obvio...

A. O. Tanner

1992-01-01

144

Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

2005-01-01

145

Public participation in plastics recycling schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without public contributions, recycling from domestic waste would not be possible. In order to support recycling projects it is important to try to understand who recycles, how they recycle, and why they recycle. This paper presents the results of a structured survey of 500 members of the public served by schemes to collect plastics waste for recycling. Data were gathered

Seonaidh McDonald; Rob Ball

1998-01-01

146

THE OPTIMAL LOCATION OF TWO RECYCLING CENTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose a municipality optimally locates two recycling\\/sorting centers to minimize the sum of the transportation costs from i) households to the recycling centers and ii) recycling centers to the landfill. Assume that all household waste is taken to a recycling center, sorted, and the non-recyclables are subsequently transported to the landfill. The landfill location and the proportion of waste recycled

Jannett Highfill; Michael McAsey; Libin Mou

147

Kinetic analysis of internalization, recycling and redistribution of atrial natriuretic factor-receptor complex in cultured vascular smooth-muscle cells. Ligand-dependent receptor down-regulation.  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of internalization, sequestration and metabolic degradation of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)-receptor complex were studied in rat thoracic aortic smooth-muscle (RTASM) cells. These parameters were directly determined by measuring 125I-ANF binding to total, intracellular and cell-surface receptors. Pretreatment of cells with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine and the energy depleter dinitrophenol led to an increase in the intracellular 125I-ANF radioactivity. After 60 min incubation at 37 degrees C, cell-associated 125I-ANF radioactivity fell rapidly in chloroquine-treated cells (> 85%) compared with the controls (< 45%). 125I-ANF radioactivity increased to a peak of 65% of the initial level within 15 min in chloroquine-treated cells compared with only 22% in the control cells. During the initial incubation period at 37 degrees C, chloroquine inhibited the release of both intact and degraded 125I-ANF in a time-dependent manner. However, at later incubation times, the effect of chloroquine was diminished and release of both degraded and intact ligand was resumed. Extracellular unlabelled ANF did not affect the release of degraded 125I-ANF but it accelerated the release of intact ANF by a retroendocytotic mechanism. After the endocytosis, about 30-40% of ANF receptors were restored to the cell surface from the internalized pool of receptors. The restoration was blocked by chloroquine or dinitrophenol but not by cycloheximide. Exposure of RTASM cells to unlabelled ANF resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent loss of ANF receptors. Unlabelled ANF (10 nM) induced a loss of more than 52% of 125I-ANF binding, and a complete loss occurred at micromolar concentrations. It is inferred that ANF-induced down-regulation of its receptor resulted primarily from an increased rate in internalization and metabolic degradation of ligand-receptor complex by receptor-mediated endocytotic mechanisms.

Pandey, K N

1992-01-01

148

Fuels from Recycling Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three systems, operating at sufficient scale, produce fuels that may be alternatives to oil and gas. These three recycling systems are: Black Clawson Fiberclaim, Franklin, Ohio; Union Carbide, South Charleston, West Virginia; and Union Electric, St. Louis, Missouri. These produce a wet fuel, a pyrolytic gas, and a dry fuel, respectively. (BT)|

Tillman, David A.

1975-01-01

149

Recycling in a Megacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the aftermath of the 9\\/11 disaster, Mayor Bloomberg of New York City unveiled an aggressive budget plan that included the temporary suspension of glass and plastics recycling. This was considered by many to be anti-environmental, but the results of this study show that for lack of markets, even at zero or negative prices, nearly 90% of the plastic and

Nickolas J. Themelis; Claire E. Todd

2004-01-01

150

Recycling Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide was designed to help teachers and students understand the problems surrounding solid wastes. It includes an overview of solid waste and recycling, a glossary, suggested activities and a list of resource publications, audiovisual materials and organizations. There are 19 activity suggestions included in this guide designed for use…

Hallowell, Anne; And Others

151

Designing for recycling  

SciTech Connect

The instrument panel (IP) with its variety of materials is one of the most difficult parts of the automobile to recycle. Selection of materials to minimize material count and maximize separability is critical to cost-effective IP recycling. Choices of assembly and disassembly techniques also should consider recycling. Current practices for recycling automobiles focus on the recovery of usable parts and metals with other materials becoming landfill. New design practices or significant developments in recovery technology must occur to reduce the volume of landfill materials. Design practices will be most effective if they allow cost-effective recovery of desired materials from the plastic components before shredding. Recovery technology continues to improve, but most parts are shredded with the car and land-filled as automotive shredder residue (ASR). Shredding followed by mechanical separation conceptually is the most cost-effective option, but the typical instrument panel contains six or more plastic materials. This makes separation difficult and expensive to get acceptable material yields and purity.

NONE

1997-08-01

152

Computer Recycling Farm USA  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS conducted a study of plastic pollution at this rural US site in the Midwest.  The recycler was receiving computers from companies at a rate which greatly exceeded the capacity of the operation.  Approximately 50,000 computers remained outdoors on 15 acres for nearly a decade.  The site has sinc...

2010-08-13

153

Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Boys and girls, grab your nose-plugs because today we are going to be digging through some garbage! We use a lot of garbage; the average American throws away nearly four pounds everyday. That\\'s a whopping 1,600 pounds a year! That means that every year, EACH one of you toss enough trash to equal the weight of all the students in our class...COMBINED! That\\'s a lot of garbage. Our world is big, but you might not have realized just how small it really is when it comes to holding all this trash. Would you want garbage in your backyard? Your playground? The park? There\\'s only so many places to store our waste. So, what do we do? We RECYCLE! What Does It Mean To Recycle? Recycling is taking things we use and would normally through into the trash can and putting them in a separate container. Instead of going to the dump, it goes to a recycling plant. Things like paper, newspaper, cardboard, plastic, glass, and aluminum are all products ...

Nicole

2008-11-19

154

DRAINAGE WATER RECYCLING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Researchers in Ohio have developed a drainage water recycling approach that is called Wetland, Reservoir, SubIrrigation System, or WRSIS. This system directs surface runoff and subsurface drainage water to a constructed wetland where there is opportunity for some sediment and nutrient removal from t...

155

Recycling and Restoration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains how Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest near Louisville, Kentucky used recycled cypress from pickle vats to build its visitor center and then “paid back” nature by creating a cypress-tupelo swamp at one end of a lake on the park grounds.

Ket

2011-01-11

156

Recycled Insect Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

2007-01-01

157

WRAMS, sustainable water recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Reclamation and Management Scheme (WRAMS) at Sydney Olympic Park was built as part of the Olympic Games in 2000. The Scheme was designed to treat raw domestic sewage into recycled water which is then sold back to consumers. The main elements of WRAMS are a water reclamation plant, a water treatment plant, storm water collection, clean water storage

H. Chapman

2006-01-01

158

Measuring Recycling Guidance Glossary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

PVC:  (Polyvinyl Chloride) Refers to the family of plastic copolymers, also known as vinyl. PVC is used to make products such as pipes, bottles, upholstery, and automotive parts. (U.S. EPA, 1995c)   From Measuring Recycling Guidance Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing "PVC"

2011-04-14

159

Comparison of the recyclability of flame-retarded plastics.  

PubMed

Mechanical recycling of plastics from waste from electrical and electronical equipment (WEEE) is increasingly expected by regulators and demanded by original equipment manufacturers (CEMs); however, mechanical recycling is generally recognized to be the most economically costly and technically challenging method of recovering WEEE plastics. With 12% of WEEE plastics requiring the use of flame-retardants in order to ensure appropriate levels of consumer fire safety, there is a distinct need for data from comparative tests on recyclability of various flame-retarded plastics. Ten commercially available flame-retarded plastic grades commonly used in electronic equipment (eight "halogen-free" grades and two grades containing brominated flame-retardants (BFRs)) were subjected to two different recycling scenarios. A standard recycling scenario was carried out by repeatedly extruding the materials and an accelerated hydrolysis scenario was carried out to study the influence of humidity from air during use on the process. Both, virgin and recycled materials were tested for a potential formation of polybrominated dibenzodioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), their mechanical properties were assessed and the fire safety rating was determined. Results indicate that none of the tested materials showed a potential to form the PBDD/Fs regulated by the German Chemicals Banning Ordinance. The halogen-free plastic grades showed a significant deterioration of mechanical properties after recycling, whereas those plastics containing BFRs were able to pass all test criteria, thus maintaining their original properties. With respect to the fire safety rating, none of the eight tested halogen-free plastic grades could maintain their fire safety rating after five recycling loops, whereas both BFR plastics continued to achieve their fire safety ratings. Therefore the tested BFR containing plastic materials showed superior recycling properties compared to the tested halogen-free plastic grades with respect to all investigated parameters. PMID:12630485

Imai, Takaretu; Hamm, Stephan; Rothenbacher, Klaus P

2003-02-01

160

Protecting groundwater resources at biosolids recycling sites.  

PubMed

In developing the national biosolids recycling rule (Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation Part 503 or Part 503), the USEPA conducted deterministic risk assessments whose results indicated that the probability of groundwater impairment associated with biosolids recycling was insignificant. Unfortunately, the computational capabilities available for performing risk assessments of pollutant fate and transport at that time were limited. Using recent advances in USEPA risk assessment methodology, the present study evaluates whether the current national biosolids pollutant limits remain protective of groundwater quality. To take advantage of new risk assessment approaches, a computer-based groundwater risk characterization screening tool (RCST) was developed using USEPA's Multimedia, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Exposure and Risk Assessment program. The RCST, which generates a noncarcinogenic human health risk estimate (i.e., hazard quotient [HQ] value), has the ability to conduct screening-level risk characterizations. The regulated heavy metals modeled in this study were As, Cd, Ni, Se, and Zn. Results from RCST application to biosolids recycling sites located in Yakima County, Washington, indicated that biosolids could be recycled at rates as high as 90 Mg ha, with no negative human health effects associated with groundwater consumption. Only under unrealistically high biosolids land application rates were public health risks characterized as significant (HQ ? 1.0). For example, by increasing the biosolids application rate and pollutant concentrations to 900 Mg ha and 10 times the regulatory limit, respectively, the HQ values varied from 1.4 (Zn) to 324.0 (Se). Since promulgation of Part 503, no verifiable cases of groundwater contamination by regulated biosolids pollutants have been reported. PMID:23673931

McFarland, Michael J; Kumarasamy, Karthik; Brobst, Robert B; Hais, Alan; Schmitz, Mark D

161

Recycling endosomes contribute to autophagosome formation.  

PubMed

Autophagosome formation is a complex cellular process, which requires major membrane rearrangements leading to the creation of a relatively large double-membrane vesicle that directs its contents to the lysosome for degradation. Although various membrane compartments have been identified as sources for autophagosomal membranes, the molecular mechanism underlying these membrane trafficking steps remains elusive. To address this question we performed a systematic analysis testing all known Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC) domain-containing proteins for their ability to inhibit autophagosome formation by disrupting a specific membrane trafficking step. TBC proteins are thought to act as inhibitors of Rab GTPases, which regulate membrane trafficking events. Up to 11 TBC proteins inhibit autophagy when overexpressed and one of these, TBC1D14, acts at an early stage during autophagosome formation and is involved in regulating recycling endosomal traffic. We found that the early acting autophagy proteins ATG9 and ULK1 localize to transferrin receptor (TFR)-positive recycling endosomes (RE), which are tubulated by excess TBC1D14 leading to an inhibition of autophagosome formation. Finally, transferrin (TF)-containing recycling endosomal membranes can be incorporated into newly forming autophagosomes, although it is likely that most of the autophagosome membrane is subsequently acquired from other sources. PMID:22874560

Longatti, Andrea; Tooze, Sharon A

2012-08-09

162

COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating out radioactive contamination, the copper cable was coated with a surrogate contaminant. The demonstration took place at the Bonneville County Technology Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

Chelsea Hubbard

2001-05-01

163

Municipal solid waste recycling issues  

SciTech Connect

Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling targets have been set nationally and in many states. Unfortunately, the definitions of recycling, rates of recycling, and the appropriate components of MSW vary. MSW recycling has been found to be costly for most municipalities compared to landfill disposal. MSW recycling policy should be determined by the cost to the community and to society more generally. In particular, recycling is a good policy only if environmental impacts and the resources used to collect, sort, and recycle a material are less than the environmental impacts and resources needed to provide equivalent virgin material plus the resources needed to dispose of the postconsumer material safely. From a review of the existing economic experience with recycling and an analysis of the environmental benefits (including estimation of external social costs), the authors find that, for most communities, curbside recycling is only justifiable for some postconsumer waste, such as aluminum and other metals. They argue that alternatives to curbside recycling collection should be explored, including product takeback for products with a toxic content (such as batteries) or product redesign to permit more effective product remanufacture.

Lave, L.B.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Conway-Schempf, N.M.; McMichael, F.C. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1999-10-01

164

Why recycle? A comparison of recycling motivations in four communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four Illinois communities with different sociode-mographic compositions and at various stages of planning for solid waste management were surveyed to determine the influence of sociodemographic variables and planning stages on the factors that motivate recycling behavior. A factor analysis of importance ratings of reasons for recycling and for not recycling yielded five factors interpreted as altruism, personal inconvenience, social influences, economic incentives, and household storage. The four communities were shown to be significantly different in multivariate analyses of the five motivational factors. However, attempts to explain these community differences with regression analyses, which predicted the motivational factors with dummy codes for planning stages, a measure of self-reported recycling behavior, and sociodemographic measures were unsatisfactory. Contrary to expectation, the solid waste management planning stages of the cities (curbside pickup, recycling dropoff center, and planning in progress) contributed only very slightly to the prediction of motivational factors for recycling. Community differences were better explained by different underlying motivational structures among the four communities. Altruistic reasons for recycling (e.g., conserving resources) composed the only factor which was similar across the four communities. This factor was also perceived to be the most important reason for recycling by respondents from all four communities. The results of the study supported the notion that convenient, voluntary recycling programs that rely on environmental concern and conscience for motivation are useful approaches to reducing waste.

Vining, Joanne; Linn, Nancy; Burdge, Rabel J.

1992-11-01

165

Impacts of residence time during storage on potential of water saving for grey water recycling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grey water recycling has been generally accepted and is about to move into practice in terms of sustainable development. Previous research has revealed the bacteria re-growth in grey water and reclaimed municipal water during storage. However, in most present grey water recycling practices, impacts of water quality changes during storage on the system's performance and design regulation have not been

S. Liu; D. Butler; F. A. Memon; C. Makropoulos; L. Avery; B. Jefferson

2010-01-01

166

A model of plastics recycling: Does recycling reduce the amount of waste?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for recycling plastics is made to ‘phase in’ recycling over a given period. The recycled plastic can either replace virgin plastic or enter a new market where plastics are not normally used. The former is denoted as ‘true recycling’ and the latter, ‘new market recycling’. It is shown that ‘true recycling’ will eventually reduce the amount of waste

Brenton L. Fletcher; Michael E. Mackay

1996-01-01

167

Recycled rubber roads  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes several innovative approaches for recycling old tires in the construction of roads. In one, 18 inches of shredded tire chips (2 X 2 inches) were used on top of 6-8 inches of small stone to construct a road across a sanitary landfill. No compacting or linders were needed. In another application, sidewall mats linked together with steel strapping were used as a sub-base for a road across a swampy area. A third application uses 1/2 inch bits of groundup rubber tires as a replacement for aggregate in an asphalt road base.

Not Available

1989-02-01

168

Energy and Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy and Garbage is one section of a US Department of Energy's educational Web site for kids. Features of this Web site include a section detailing the connection between energy and garbage, a thorough introduction to the history of garbage that includes facts and figures on how much waste we produce, information on recycling and reducing garbage at the source, and much more. The information in this Web site is presented in a friendly, narrative style. A short downloadable activity titled Energy from Garbage, created by the National Energy Education Development Project, is also available (grades 4-6).

169

Recycling and Composting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about the value renewable resources hold for our society and the broader community of living things. Because trees, fresh water, and clean air support most forms of life, we must protect these and other critical natural resources from over exploitation and pollution. Conservation, the practice of using natural resources in a way that ensures their continuing availability to future generations, is one approach. Through class discussion and various activities, students broaden their understanding of two important conservation activities that humans can engage in: recycling and composting.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-07-13

170

State Strategy for Recycling Market Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ultimate importance of developing recycling markets is to accomplish these five objectives: Assist local governments and state offices in achieving the recycling goals in the SCORE (Select Committee on Recycling and the Environment) legislation throug...

L. Millberg

1991-01-01

171

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #0041  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... bags are an acceptable use of recycled plastic. ... of recycled HDPE in produce bags is acceptable ... use of post-consumer recycled plastics in contact ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

172

40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a) Applicability...or direct filtration treatment and that recycle spent filter backwash water,...

2010-07-01

173

40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Disinfection] [Sec. 141.76 - Recycle provisions.] 40 PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...Filtration and Disinfection Sec. 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a) Applicability. All...or direct filtration treatment and that recycle spent filter backwash water,...

2009-07-01

174

40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a) Applicability...or direct filtration treatment and that recycle spent filter backwash water,...

2012-07-01

175

16 CFR 260.12 - Recyclable claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the waste stream through an established recycling program for reuse or use in manufacturing...deception about the availability of recycling programs and collection sites to consumers. (1) When recycling facilities are available to a...

2013-01-01

176

76 FR 71861 - America Recycles Day, 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...advanced the common good of our Nation by recycling regularly and promoting conservation...growth. Since then, we have bolstered recycling programs through individual action...we must update and expand existing recycling programs and dedicate ourselves to...

2011-11-18

177

Expanded recycling at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Pollution Prevention Program Office has increased recycling activities, reuse, and options to reduce the solid waste streams through streamlining efforts that applied best management practices. The program has prioritized efforts based on volume and economic considerations and has greatly increased Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) recycle volumes. The Pollution Prevention Program established and chairs a Solid Waste Management Solutions Group to specifically address and solve problems in nonradioactive, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), state-regulated, and sanitary and industrial waste streams (henceforth referred to as sanitary waste in this paper). By identifying materials with recycling potential, identifying best management practices and pathways to return materials for reuse, and introducing the concept and practice of {open_quotes}asset management,{open_quotes} the Group will divert much of the current waste stream from disposal. This Group is developing procedures, agreements, and contracts to stage, collect, sort, segregate, transport and process materials, and is also garnering support for the program through the involvement of upper management, facility managers, and generators.

Betschart, J.F.; Malinauskas, L.; Burns, M.

1996-07-01

178

Cross-cultural comparison of concrete recycling decision-making and implementation in construction industry.  

PubMed

Waste management is pressing very hard with alarming signals in construction industry. Concrete waste constituents major proportions of construction and demolition waste of 81% in Australia. To minimize concrete waste generated from construction activities, recycling concrete waste is one of the best methods to conserve the environment. This paper investigates concrete recycling implementation in construction. Japan is a leading country in recycling concrete waste, which has been implementing 98% recycling and using it for structural concrete applications. Hong Kong is developing concrete recycling programs for high-grade applications. Australia is making relatively slow progress in implementing concrete recycling in construction. Therefore, empirical studies in Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan were selected in this paper. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. Power spectrum was used for analysis. It was found that "increasing overall business competitiveness and strategic business opportunities" was considered as the major benefit for concrete recycling from Hong Kong and Japanese respondents, while "rising concrete recycling awareness such as selecting suitable resources, techniques and training and compliance with regulations" was considered as the major benefit from Australian respondents. However, "lack of clients' support", "increase in management cost" and "increase in documentation workload, such as working documents, procedures and tools" were the major difficulties encountered from Australian, Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. To improve the existing implementation, "inclusion of concrete recycling evaluation in tender appraisal" and "defining clear legal evaluation of concrete recycling" were major recommendations for Australian and Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. PMID:19854634

Tam, Vivian W Y; Tam, Leona; Le, Khoa N

2009-10-24

179

Cross-cultural comparison of concrete recycling decision-making and implementation in construction industry  

SciTech Connect

Waste management is pressing very hard with alarming signals in construction industry. Concrete waste constituents major proportions of construction and demolition waste of 81% in Australia. To minimize concrete waste generated from construction activities, recycling concrete waste is one of the best methods to conserve the environment. This paper investigates concrete recycling implementation in construction. Japan is a leading country in recycling concrete waste, which has been implementing 98% recycling and using it for structural concrete applications. Hong Kong is developing concrete recycling programs for high-grade applications. Australia is making relatively slow progress in implementing concrete recycling in construction. Therefore, empirical studies in Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan were selected in this paper. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. Power spectrum was used for analysis. It was found that 'increasing overall business competitiveness and strategic business opportunities' was considered as the major benefit for concrete recycling from Hong Kong and Japanese respondents, while 'rising concrete recycling awareness such as selecting suitable resources, techniques and training and compliance with regulations' was considered as the major benefit from Australian respondents. However, 'lack of clients' support', 'increase in management cost' and 'increase in documentation workload, such as working documents, procedures and tools' were the major difficulties encountered from Australian, Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively. To improve the existing implementation, 'inclusion of concrete recycling evaluation in tender appraisal' and 'defining clear legal evaluation of concrete recycling' were major recommendations for Australian and Hong Kong, and Japanese respondents, respectively.

Tam, Vivian W.Y., E-mail: vivianwytam@gmail.co [School of Engineering, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 1797 (Australia); Tam, Leona [College of Business and Public Administration, 2151 Constant Hall, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Le, Khoa N. [School of Engineering, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 1797 (Australia)

2010-02-15

180

Recycling Solid Waste in Chattanooga  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students undertook a group project in collaboration with city officials to study garbage types in the community and possibilities of recycling solid wastes. Data collected from various sources revealed that public attitude was favorable for recycling efforts and that it was feasible economically. (PS)|

Vredeveld, Ruth; Martin, Robin

1973-01-01

181

Garbage project on recycling behavior  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of a study undertaken to determine the factors which are most effective in motivating different socio-economic groups to change their recycling behaviors and participate in recycling programs. Four types of data were collected and analyzed in Tucson: (1) purchase data from local recyclers, (2) traditional interview-survey data on recycling behavior, (3) long-term and short-term household refuse data, and (4) combined interview-garbage data. Findings reveal that disposal patterns for newspapers and aluminum cans are tuse data, and (4) combined interview-garbage data. Findings reveal that disposal patterns for newspapers and aluminum cans are the same across census tracts with significantly different socio-economic characteristics. Further, analysis of interview and garbage data matched by household reaffirm that what people say about recycling and how they dispose of recyclable materials are two different things. Thus, interview reports of newspaper recycling correlate with higher income informants, but their interview reports do not correlate with what is thrown into their garbage cans. Money is concluded to be the most powerful incentive toward recycling.

McGuire, R.H.; Hughes, W.W.; Rathje, W.L.

1982-02-01

182

Recycling oceanic crust: Quantitative constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycled ancient oceanic crust with variable amounts of aging, or inclusion of sediments of differing types and origins has often been invoked as a source for present-day ocean island basalts (OIB), but the current evidence remains largely qualitative. Previous quantitative modeling has shown that much has to be learned in order to better understand the implications of crustal recycling on

Andreas Stracke; Michael Bizimis; Vincent J. M. Salters

2003-01-01

183

MAGNESIUM RECYCLING YESTERDAY, TODAY, TOMORROW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium recycling has been used to recover both new scrap and old scrap. It was used extensively in Germany during WWII to expand the magnesium supply. There were a large number of magnesium recyclers in the US who got their start smelting old scrap, old airplanes and old waste dumps from the WWII build up. As the world magnesium industry

Robert E. Brown

184

Recycling TATB PBX. [Machining scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of recycling IHE has been successfully demonstrated on a large scale by processing over 750 kg of machining scrap. The content of machine cuttings in the recycled PBX lots was 50, 75, and 100%. Physical strengths were generally above normal and tensile strains were 0.29% or better.

A. G. Osborn; T. L. Stallings; H. D. Johnson

1978-01-01

185

Plastic recycling in business machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process was developed and implemented for the recovery and recycling of plastics from end-of-life IBM products into new IBM products. In general, the economics for this type of recycling, closed loop, has the greatest potential for achieving profitability. In addition to keeping the plastic out of the landfill, product material cost is reduced and there is no expense for

S. Ching; J. R. Kirby; O. D. Pitts

1993-01-01

186

Recycling Study Guide [Resource Packet].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This resource packet contains six documents developed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in order to help teachers infuse the environmental education topics of recycling and solid waste into social studies, art, English, health, mathematics, science, and environmental education classes. "Recycling Study Guide" contains 19 activities…

Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

187

Recycling Study Guide [Resource Packet].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource packet contains six documents developed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in order to help teachers infuse the environmental education topics of recycling and solid waste into social studies, art, English, health, mathematics, science, and environmental education classes. "Recycling Study Guide" contains 19 activities…

Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

188

Vehicle fluids: The other recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling is no longer limited to paper and various types of plastics and metals. Many truck and automotive fluids, including antifreeze, are also recycled regularly throughout the US. Antifreeze is used today in almost every type of internal combustion engine. Whether the fuel is gasoline, diesel, propane, or natural gas, almost all engines need to use a liquid medium to

Walther

1994-01-01

189

Impact of increased electric vehicle use on battery recycling infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

State and Federal regulations have been implemented that are intended to encourage more widespread use of low-emission vehicles. These regulations include requirements of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and regulations pursuant to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the Energy Policy Act. If the market share of electric vehicles increases in response to these initiatives, corresponding growth will occur in quantities of spent electric vehicle batteries for disposal. Electric vehicle battery recycling infrastructure must be adequate to support collection, transportation, recovery, and disposal stages of waste battery handling. For some battery types, such as lead-acid, a recycling infrastructure is well established; for others, little exists. This paper examines implications of increasing electric vehicle use for lead recovery infrastructure. Secondary lead recovery facilities can be expected to have adequate capacity to accommodate lead-acid electric vehicle battery recycling. However, they face stringent environmental constraints that may curtail capacity use or new capacity installation. Advanced technologies help address these environmental constraints. For example, this paper describes using backup power to avoid air emissions that could occur if electric utility power outages disable emissions control equipment. This approach has been implemented by GNB Technologies, a major manufacturer and recycler of lead-acid batteries. Secondary lead recovery facilities appear to have adequate capacity to accommodate lead waste from electric vehicles, but growth in that capacity could be constrained by environmental regulations. Advances in lead recovery technologies may alleviate possible environmental constraints on capacity growth.

Vimmerstedt, L.; Hammel, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Jungst, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-12-01

190

PHOSPHORUS FEEDING AND MANURE NUTRIENT RECYCLING ON WISCONSIN DAIRY FARMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrient management regulations for livestock operations are focused on a farm¿s ability to recycle the phosphorus (P) contained in manure. Most efforts to improve dairy manure management emphasize manure handling, storage, and land application techniques. Little is known about relationships betwee...

191

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #153  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Packaging & Food Contact Substances (FCS). Recycled Plastics. -. No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #153. August 24, 2011. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

192

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #166  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Packaging & Food Contact Substances (FCS). Recycled Plastics. -. No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #166. March 25, 2013. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

193

Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling were analysed. Three allocation methods are applied for open-loop recycling, i.e. the “cut-off” approach, the “waste valuation” approach and the “system expansion” approach. Nine environmental impact indicators were

Li Shen; Ernst Worrell; Martin K. Patel

2010-01-01

194

Exploring Waste and Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by Eleanor Camann of Red Rocks Community College, will introduce students to the concept of sustainability in terms of waste products and recycling practices. The overall premise of the project is to "get students to think critically about which earth materials are used to make things, and where all the waste from both mining and consumption ends up." The activity employs skills in basic mathematics, reasoning and writing. It also crosses disciplines by implementing skills in environmental geology and science. The learning activity only takes about two hours of in-class time and an additional three outside of the classroom. It uses simple materials such as a calculator, periodic table, household scale and digital camera. Lessons plans such as these are supported by a grant under the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program.

Camann, Eleanor

2010-11-09

195

Recycling microcavity optical biosensors.  

PubMed

Optical biosensors have tremendous potential for commercial applications in medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety evaluation. In these applications, sensor reuse is desirable to reduce costs. To achieve this, harsh, wet chemistry treatments are required to remove surface chemistry from the sensor, typically resulting in reduced sensor performance and increased noise due to recognition moiety and optical transducer degradation. In the present work, we suggest an alternative, dry-chemistry method, based on O2 plasma treatment. This approach is compatible with typical fabrication of substrate-based optical transducers. This treatment completely removes the recognition moiety, allowing the transducer surface to be refreshed with new recognition elements and thus enabling the sensor to be recycled. PMID:21478993

Hunt, Heather K; Armani, Andrea M

2011-04-01

196

Recycling in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

The commonwealth of Puerto Rico has never had a traditional, centrally organized solid waste management system. In the past, municipalities provided service for their own residents and the island used 62 unlined landfills. In April 1994, 32 of those landfills closed. A study released in 1995 found that residents of Puerto Rico generate 8,100 tons of waste each day, at a per capita rate of 4.9 pounds per day. A solid waste management strategy unveiled with much fanfare early last year included plans to build an integrated system of collection, transfer stations, and disposal sites. These sites would be market-driven by recycling and hinged on partnerships between the public and private sectors and public education. A key to Puerto Rico`s plan was investment by the private sector.

McAdams, C.L.

1996-05-01

197

Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it may be possible to divert the majority of plastic waste from landfills to recycling over the next decades. PMID:19528059

Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

2009-07-27

198

OsELF3-1, an Ortholog of Arabidopsis EARLY FLOWERING 3, Regulates Rice Circadian Rhythm and Photoperiodic Flowering  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis thaliana EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) as a zeitnehmer (time taker) is responsible for generation of circadian rhythm and regulation of photoperiodic flowering. There are two orthologs (OsELF3-1 and OsELF3-2) of ELF3 in rice (Oryza sativa), but their roles have not yet been fully identified. Here, we performed a functional characterization of OsELF3-1 and revealed it plays a more predominant role than OsELF3-2 in rice heading. Our results suggest OsELF3-1 can affect rice circadian systems via positive regulation of OsLHY expression and negative regulation of OsPRR1, OsPRR37, OsPRR73 and OsPRR95 expression. In addition, OsELF3-1 is involved in blue light signaling by activating EARLY HEADING DATE 1 (Ehd1) expression to promote rice flowering under short-day (SD) conditions. Moreover, OsELF3-1 suppresses a flowering repressor GRAIN NUMBER, PLANT HEIGHT AND HEADING DATE 7 (Ghd7) to indirectly accelerate flowering under long-day (LD) conditions. Taken together, our results indicate OsELF3-1 is essential for circadian regulation and photoperiodic flowering in rice.

Chen, Weilan; Du, Anping; Zhu, Ling; Wang, Shiguang; Deng, Xing Wang; Li, Shigui

2012-01-01

199

Recycling and Life Cycle Issues  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses recycling and life cycle considerations related to the growing use of lightweight materials in vehicles. The chapter first addresses the benefit of a life cycle perspective in materials choice, and the role that recycling plays in reducing energy inputs and environmental impacts in a vehicle s life cycle. Some limitations of life cycle analysis and results of several vehicle- and fleet-level assessments are drawn from published studies. With emphasis on lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and polymer composites, the status of the existing recycling infrastructure and technological challenges being faced by the industry also are discussed.

Das, Sujit [ORNL

2010-01-01

200

EXPLAINING RURAL HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising landfill costs have forced solid waste managers to consider waste stream reduction alternatives such as household recycling. Explaining the factors which motivate households to recycle is important to regions where households must bear a large portion of the recycling cost because unit-based garbage disposal fees and curbside recycling are not feasible options. Empirical results indicate that residents are responsive

Paul M. Jakus; Kelly H. Tiller; William M. Park

1997-01-01

201

Recycled crushed glass in road work applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive suite of geotechnical laboratory tests was undertaken on samples of recycled crushed glass produced in Victoria, Australia. Three types of recycled glass sources were tested being coarse, medium and fine sized glass. Laboratory testing results indicated that medium and fine sized recycled glass sources exhibit geotechnical behavior similar to natural aggregates. Coarse recycled glass was however found to

M. M. Disfani; A. Arulrajah; M. W. Bo; R. Hankour

2011-01-01

202

You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

Torpey, Elka Maria

2011-01-01

203

Investigation of the recyclability of powder coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

100% recyclability is one of the major advantages of powder coating. However, it can never be achieved in reality. Coating powders, especially finer powders with particle size below 30?m, were found to have much worse flow performances after recycling from electrostatic spraying so as to decrease the recyclability. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate recycled coating powders to determine

Jing Fu; Matthew Krantz; Hui Zhang; Jesse Zhu; Harry Kuo; Yar Ming Wang; Karen Lis

2011-01-01

204

The Estimation of Regional Precipitation Recycling. Part I: Review of Recycling Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review preceding a description of a new recycling model (Part II of this paper) discusses one aspect of the regional precipitation recycling studies, namely, the mathematical modeling of the recycling process. Several recycling models developed in recent decades are discussed within a unified framework of equations of the conservation of atmospheric water vapor mass. Most of the recycling models

G. I. Burde; A. Zangvil

2001-01-01

205

Status of antiproton accumulation and cooling at Fermilab's Recycler  

SciTech Connect

The Recycler ring is an 8 GeV permanent magnet storage ring where antiprotons are accumulated and prepared for Fermilab's Tevatron Collider program. With the goal of maximizing the integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments, storing, cooling and extracting antiprotons with high efficiency has been pursued. Over the past two years, while the average accumulation rate doubled, the Recycler continued to operate at a constant level of performance thanks to changes made to the Recycler Electron Cooler (energy stability and regulation, electron beam optics), RF manipulations and operating procedures. In particular, we discuss the current accumulation cycle in which {approx} 400 x 10{sup 10} antiprotons are accumulated and extracted to the Tevatron every {approx}15 hours.

Prost, L.R.; Bhat, C.M.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Carlson, K.; Crisp, J.; Derwent, P.; Eddy, N.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Pruss, S.; /Fermilab

2009-08-01

206

Device for exhaust gas recycling  

SciTech Connect

A device for exhaust gas recycling is proposed which controls the amount of recycled exhaust gas in an internal combustion engine equipped with an injection unit so that a certain air factor is attained. The device comprises a closing element for the exhaust gas return conduit, which latter terminates into the intake manifold, this closing element being suitably constituted by a throttle valve and being directly connected to the adjusting lever or control rod of the injection pump. If this connection is established via a resilient linkage between the adjusting lever and the exhaust gas return valve, then the thus-recycled amount of exhaust gas can be dimensioned so that a specific quantity of recycled exhaust gas is associated with a specific angular position of the adjusting lever.

Banzhaf, W.; Stumpp, G.

1980-10-28

207

Progress reported in PET recycling  

SciTech Connect

The Goodyear Polyester Division has demonstrated its ability to break down polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from recycled plastic soft drink bottles and remanufacture the material into PET suitable for containers. Most people are familiar with PET in the form of lightweight, shatter resistant beverage bottles. About 20 percent of these beverage containers currently are being recycled. The recycled PET is currently used in many applications such as carpeting, pillow stuffing, sleeping bag filling, insulation for water heaters and non-food containers. This is the first step of Goodyear's increased efforts to recycle PET from containers into a material suitable for food packing. The project is extremely complex, involving sophisticated understanding of the chemical reactions involved, PET production and the technology testing protocols necessary to design a process that addresses all the technical, safety, and regulatory concerns. The research conducted so far indicated that additional processing beyond simply cleaning the shredded material, called flake, will be required to assure a quality polymer.

Not Available

1989-06-01

208

New approaches to recycling tires  

SciTech Connect

Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

Spencer, R.

1991-03-01

209

Disposal, Degradation, and Recycling; Bioplastics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyone is familiar with plastic waste. We throw away large volumes of it, at home, at school, at work, at fast food restaurants, on vacation. Much of it ends up in the trash. We see some of it as litter along the sides of roads, streams and lakes, and floating up on beaches. We probably recycle some used plastics, although how much depends upon where we live. In many localities, only items produced from PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and HDPE (high-density polyethylene) are collected for recycling. Why don't we recycle more of it? Why not LDPE (low-density polyethylene) and polystyrene? And what happens to it when we do? We'll develop some basic principles in this chapter on some of the avenues that help us follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's advice to "reduce, reuse, recycle."

Teegarden, David

2004-01-01

210

Recycler ring beam life time.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We study the Fermilab Recycler Ring beam life time due to various physical processes associated with beam-gas interactions. This includes single coulomb scattering, electronic excitations, nuclear and multiple scattering processes. We compare the measured...

K. Gounder

2001-01-01

211

Recycling Plant for Paint Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficiency of paint spraying is, according to present technology, not satisfactory because the percentage of overspraying is too big. A pilot plant demonstrated that the amount of overspray can be reduced and the paint sludge can be recycled, resultin...

K. H. Berewinkel

1981-01-01

212

Plutonium Multiple Recycling In PWRs  

SciTech Connect

Reprocessing and recycling open the road to a sustainable management of nuclear materials and an environment friendly management of nuclear waste. However, long or very long term recycling implies fast neutron reactors. High burn-ups of irradiated standard UO{sub 2} fuel as well as recycling of plutonium fuel in thermal reactors lead to a 'degradation' of plutonium that means a low fissile content, which is hardly compatible with recycling in LWRs. Thus the question of plutonium management has been raised; although there are some limitations, a truly large variety of options do exist; no one of the presently selected ways of plutonium management is a dead end road. Among these various options, some are fully compatible with the existing reactors and may be considered for the mid term future; they offer a competitive management of plutonium during the transition from thermal to fast reactors. (authors)

Nigon, Jean-Louis [COGEMA, DRD, 2 rue Paul Dautier 78141 Velizy - Villacoublay Cedex (France); Lenain, Richard [SERMA, CEA Saclay (France); Zaetta, Alain [SPRC - CEA Cadarache (France)

2002-07-01

213

Economics of salt cake recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Process Evaluation Section at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a major program aimed at developing cost-effective technologies for salt cake recycling. This paper addresses the economic feasibility of technologies for the recovery of aluminum, sa...

D. Graziano J. N. Hryn E. J. Daniels

1996-01-01

214

Recycled Plastics in Food Packaging  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... The results of any tests performed to show that the recycling process ... than food or to demonstrate, through surrogate contaminant testing and, if ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

215

Polymer Recycling: Opportunities and Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of polymer solid waste by means other than landfilling is necessary. The various approaches-source reduction, incineration, degradation, composting, and recycling-all have their roles and must be employed in an integrated manner. Where appropriate, recycling has ecological advantages, but its application is dependent upon the feasibility of collection, sorting, and\\/or compatibilization of resulting mixtures to produce economically viable products.

Richard S. Stein

1992-01-01

216

New developments in materials recycling  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents promising technical solutions to complex recycling problems such as recovery of cobalt, nickel, and chromium from superalloy scrap; the separation, recovery, and reuse of nickel and chromium from stainless and specialty steel wastes; precious metal recovery from electronic scrap; an environmentally acceptable method for recycling lead-acid batteries; recovery of nonferrous metals from scrap automobiles; and rapid scrap identification methods suitable for today's modern alloys.

Horton, R.C.; Kenahan, C.B.

1984-04-01

217

Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite

J. Miller; A. Barth; J. Matzel; J. Wooden; S. Burgess

2008-01-01

218

National Recycling Directory. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The directory focuses on manufacturers and/or distributors of products made from waste materials. Companies listed in the directory manufacture products which contain some recycled or recovered material. The directory consists of separate sections for the types of recycled materials used: glass, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, paper, plastic, rubber, and textiles. The states are listed alphabetically within each subsection, and the companies are listed alphabetically under the state in which they are located.

Not Available

1982-01-01

219

Proliferation aspects of plutonium recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plutonium recycling offers benefits in an energy perspective of sustainable development, and, moreover it contributes to non-proliferation. Prior to recycling, reactor-grade plutonium from light-water reactors does not lend itself easily to the assembly of explosive nuclear devices; thereafter, practically not at all. Control systems for material security and non-proliferation should identify and adopt several categories of plutonium covering various isotopic

Bruno Pellaud

2002-01-01

220

Corporate America urges consumers to buy recycled  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Recycling Coalition`s (NRC, Washington, DC) buy Recycled Business Alliance (BRBA), the US EPA`s WasteWi$e program, and the US Conference of Mayors` (Washington, DC) buy-recycled program are just a few of the national groups that have formed since 1990 to encourage the purchase of products made from recyclables. Indeed, corporate America and governments are buying recycled. More than $1

Rabasca

1995-01-01

221

Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

Jungst, R.G.

1997-09-01

222

Greywater recycling systems in Germany--results, experiences and guidelines.  

PubMed

Although Germany is not considered a water-poor country, there exist regional differences in water supply and consumption. During the past 15 years, the greywater aspect has been dealt with in Germany with a greater interest and variable success. In addition to an increased environmental awareness, water costs also play an important role in increasing the demand for advanced greywater treatment plants nstalled in buildings. Under favourable conditions, the amortisation costs usually lie between 5 and 7 years. Systems that have been extensively tried and tested and have been shown to be most reliable are those employing an advanced biological treatment followed by an UV disinfection. Systems based on membrane technology are being developed and researched intensively in Germany for municipal wastewater treatment. However, so far they play no role in greywater recycling. Greywater systems operating under low energy and maintenance requirements without the use of chemicals are mostly favoured. In Germany, greywater recycling systems should be registered at the Health Office in order to guarantee that no cross-connections exist with the drinking water network and that pipes are labelled according to regulations. The hygienic requirements for recycled greywater, which is primarily used for toilet flushing, are oriented towards the EU-Guidelines for Bathing Waters. The use of recycled greywater for irrigation purposes is minor. As to the use of recycled water for laundry, the first promising investigation results are now available. PMID:16104423

Nolde, E

2005-01-01

223

Vehicle recycling process  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A vehicle recycling plant comprising a furnace, means for introducing a fuel into said furnace, a cupola disposed in close proximity to said furnace, and communicating therewith so that the hot gases discharged from the furnace are introduced into the cupola, means for conveying scrap vehicles above said furnace and into said cupola, substantially horizontal flue means communicating with both the cupola and the furnace for removing exhaust gases therefrom, a plurality of smelters disposed in said horizontal flue for melting down various components previously disassembled from the vehicles, a plurality of heat exchange means disposed in said horizontal flue for removing heat therefrom and converting it into various forms of energy, an enlarged horizontal flue portion disposed downstream of said heat exchange means, said enlarged flue portion containing a plurality of air vents for mixing ambient air with the flue gas and a scrubbing section for removing particulate material from the flue gas, vacuum pump means for drawing the flue gas through the horizontal stack and exhaust means for discharging the flue gas to the atmosphere.

Rhinehart; Paul E. (Winchester, VA)

1977-03-29

224

50 Simple Things Kids Can Do To Recycle. California Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides 50 recycling ideas for children and features Recycle Rex, the state of California's "spokesdinosaur" for recycling. An introduction contains recycling background information on waste disposal options and reducing, reusing, and recycling. Recycling suggestions are divided into nine sections: (1) "Learn What You Can Recycle"…

Javna, John

225

Hoso haikibutsu recycle system ni kansuru chosa. (Survey on the package waste recycling system).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the establishment of 'the Package Recycling Law,' a survey on the present situation and extraction of subjects were made to expedite the recycling of package containers. Conventionally, package recycling has been regarded as a job peculiar to each loca...

1996-01-01

226

Transferrin receptor recycling in the absence of perinuclear recycling endosomes  

PubMed Central

In mammalian cells, internalized receptors such as transferrin (Tfn) receptor are presumed to pass sequentially through early endosomes (EEs) and perinuclear recycling endosomes (REs) before returning to the plasma membrane. Whether passage through RE is obligatory, however, remains unclear. Kinetic analysis of endocytosis in CHO cells suggested that the majority of internalized Tfn bypassed REs returning to the surface from EEs. To determine directly if REs are dispensable for recycling, we studied Tfn recycling in cytoplasts microsurgically created to contain peripheral EEs but to exclude perinuclear REs. The cytoplasts actively internalized and recycled Tfn. Surprisingly, they also exhibited spatially and temporally distinct endosome populations. The first appeared to correspond to EEs, labeling initially with Tfn, being positive for early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA-1) and containing only small amounts of Rab11, an RE marker. The second was EEA-1 negative and with time recruited Rab11, suggesting that cytoplasts assembled functional REs. These results suggest that although perinuclear REs are not essential components of the Tfn recycling pathway, they are dynamic structures which preexist in the peripheral cytoplasm or can be regenerated from EE- and cytosol-derived components such as Rab11.

Sheff, David; Pelletier, Laurence; O'Connell, Christopher B.; Warren, Graham; Mellman, Ira

2002-01-01

227

PRESENT CONDITION OF FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LOOP BASED ON RECYCLING PROJECT CERTIFICATION OF THE FOOD WASTE RECYCLING LAW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose of this research is to clear present condition of food waste recycling loops based on recycling project certification of the Food Waste Recycling Law. Method of this research is questionnaire survey to companies constituting the loops. Findings of this research are as follows: 1. Proponents of the loop is most often the recycling companies. 2. Food waste recycling rate is 61% for the food retailing industry and 81% for the food service industry. These values are higher than the national average in 2006. The effect of the revision of recycling project certification is suggested.

Kita, Tomoko; Kanaya, Ken

228

Exocytosis and cell polarity in plants - exocyst and recycling domains.  

PubMed

In plants, exocytosis is a central mechanism of cell morphogenesis. We still know surprisingly little about some aspects of this process, starting with exocytotic vesicle formation, which may take place at the trans-Golgi network even without coat assistance, facilitated by the local regulation of membrane lipid organization. The RabA4b guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), recruiting phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase to the trans-Golgi network, is a candidate vesicle formation organizer. However, in plant cells, there are obviously additional endosomal source compartments for secretory vesicles. The Rho/Rop GTPase regulatory module is central for the initiation of exocytotically active domains in plant cell cortex (activated cortical domains). Most plant cells exhibit several distinct plasma membrane domains, established and maintained by endocytosis-driven membrane recycling. We propose the concept of a 'recycling domain', uniting the activated cortical domain and the connected endosomal compartments, as a dynamic spatiotemporal entity. We have recently described the exocyst tethering complex in plant cells. As a result of the multiplicity of its putative Exo70 subunits, this complex may belong to core regulators of recycling domain organization, including the generation of multiple recycling domains within a single cell. The conventional textbook concept that the plant secretory pathway is largely constitutive is misleading. PMID:19496948

Zárský, Viktor; Cvrcková, Fatima; Potocký, Martin; Hála, Michal

2009-05-28

229

What can Recycling in Thermal Reactors Accomplish?  

SciTech Connect

Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives.

Steven Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson

2007-09-01

230

What can recycling in thermal reactors accomplish?  

SciTech Connect

Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives. (authors)

Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Jacobson, Jacob J. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2007-07-01

231

Recycling perturbations of supershot plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Thermal heat transport in the core (r/a {le} 0.5) of beam-heated TFTR plasmas vanes by more than a factor of five between L-mode and supershot plasmas for the same I{sub p}, B{sub T}, and P{sub b}. Operationally, this variation is strongly correlated with the particle recycling coefficient of the carbon-carbon composite inner bumper limiter. The mechanisms underlying this correlation are not understood. This paper describes studies of the edge ion temperature, which is an important parameter if {tau}{sub E} is controlled by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. We find that a edge electron temperature scales simply with power per electron, irrespective of the recycling state of the limiter. By contrast, the scaling of edge ion temperature is strongly affected by the recycling state of the limiter. Much higher edge ion temperatures are attained in low-recycling plasmas for the same power per particle. In addition, perturbative studies of recycling effects on transport have been carried out by puffing in large amounts of helium into a supershot plasma. The local core transport coefficients increase on a transport time scale ({approximately}100 ms), much faster than the current relaxation time scale. This suggests that the current profile is not responsible for the favorable energy confinement of supershot plasmas relative to L-mode plasmas.

Scott, S.D.; McCune, D.C.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.V.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Mansfield, H.K.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.E.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Towner, H.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Snipes, J.A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1993-03-01

232

Recycling perturbations of supershot plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Thermal heat transport in the core (r/a [le] 0.5) of beam-heated TFTR plasmas vanes by more than a factor of five between L-mode and supershot plasmas for the same I[sub p], B[sub T], and P[sub b]. Operationally, this variation is strongly correlated with the particle recycling coefficient of the carbon-carbon composite inner bumper limiter. The mechanisms underlying this correlation are not understood. This paper describes studies of the edge ion temperature, which is an important parameter if [tau][sub E] is controlled by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. We find that a edge electron temperature scales simply with power per electron, irrespective of the recycling state of the limiter. By contrast, the scaling of edge ion temperature is strongly affected by the recycling state of the limiter. Much higher edge ion temperatures are attained in low-recycling plasmas for the same power per particle. In addition, perturbative studies of recycling effects on transport have been carried out by puffing in large amounts of helium into a supershot plasma. The local core transport coefficients increase on a transport time scale ([approximately]100 ms), much faster than the current relaxation time scale. This suggests that the current profile is not responsible for the favorable energy confinement of supershot plasmas relative to L-mode plasmas.

Scott, S.D.; McCune, D.C.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.V.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Mansfield, H.K.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.E.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Towner, H.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Snipes, J.A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-03-01

233

Mercury recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reclamation and recycling of mercury from used mercury- containing products and treatment of byproduct mercury from gold mining is vital to the continued, though declining, use of this metal. Mercury is reclaimed from mercury-containing waste by treatment in multistep high-temperature retorts-the mercury is volatized and then condensed for purification and sale. Some mercury-containing waste, however, may be landfilled, and landfilled material represents loss of a recyclable resource and a threat to the environment. Related issues include mercury disposal and waste management, toxicity and human health, and regulation of mercury releases in the environment. End-users of mercury-containing products may face fines and prosecution if these products are improperly recycled or not recycled. Local and State environmental regulations require adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act to regulate generation, treatment, and disposal of mercury-containing products. In the United States, several large companies and a number of smaller companies collect these products from a variety of sources and then reclaim and recycle the mercury. Because mercury has not been mined as a principal product in the United States since 1992, mercury reclamation from fabricated products has become the main source of mercury. Principal product mercury and byproduct mercury from mining operations are considered to be primary materials. Mercury may also be obtained as a byproduct from domestic or foreign gold-processing operations. In the early 1990s, U.S. manufacturers used an annual average that ranged from 500 to 600 metric tons of recycled and imported mercury for fabrication of automobile convenience switches, dental amalgam, fluorescent lamps, medical uses and thermometers, and thermostats. The amount now used for fabrication is estimated to be 200 metric tons per year or less. Much of the data on mercury is estimated because it is a low-volume commodity and its production, use, and disposal is difficult to track. The prices and volumes of each category of mercury-containing material may change dramatically from year to year. For example, the average price of mercury was approximately $150 per flask from 2000 until 2003 and then rose sharply to $650 per flask in fall 2004 and approximately $850 per flask in spring 2005. Since 1927, the common unit for measuring and pricing mercury has been the flask in order to conform to the system used at Almaden, Spain (Meyers, 1951). One flask weighs 34.5 kilograms, and 29 flasks of mercury are contained in a metric ton. In the United States, the chlorine-caustic soda industry, which is the leading end-user of elemental mercury, recycles most of its mercury in-plant as home scrap. Annual purchases of replacement mercury by the chlorine-caustic soda industry indicate that some mercury may be lost through evaporation to the environment, put into a landfill as industrial waste, or trapped within pipes in the plant. Impending closure of domestic and foreign mercury-cell chlorine-caustic soda plants and the shift to nonmercury technology for chlorine-caustic soda production could ultimately result in a significant volume of elemental mercury for recycling, sale, or storage. Globally, mercury is widely used in artisanal, or small-scale, gold mining. Most of that mercury is lost to the environment and is not recycled. The recycling rate for mercury was not available owing to insufficient data in 2000, and the efficiency of mercury recycling was estimated to be 62 percent.

Brooks, William E.; Matos, Grecia R.

2005-01-01

234

Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase/VPS34 and dynamin are critical for apical endocytic recycling.  

PubMed

Recycling is a limiting step for receptor-mediated endocytosis. We first report three in vitro or in vivo evidences that class III PI3K/VPS34 is the key PI3K isoform regulating apical recycling. A substractive approach, comparing in Opossum Kidney (OK) cells a pan-class I/II/III PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) with a class I/II PI3K inhibitor (ZSTK474), suggested that class III PI3K/VPS34 inhibition induced selective apical endosome swelling and sequestration of the endocytic receptor, megalin/LRP-2, causing surface down-regulation. GFP-(FYVE)x2 overexpression to sequester PI(3)P caused undistinguishable apical endosome swelling. In mouse kidney proximal tubular cells, conditional Vps34 inactivation also led to vacuolation and intracellular megalin redistribution. We next report that removal of LY294002 from LY294002-treated OK cells induced a spectacular burst of recycling tubules and restoration of megalin surface pool. Acute triggering of recycling tubules revealed recruitment of dynamin-GFP and dependence of dynamin-GTPase, guidance directionality by microtubules, and suggested that a microfilamentous net constrained endosomal swelling. We conclude that (i) besides its role in endosome fusion, PI3K-III is essential for endosome fission/recycling; and (ii) besides its role in endocytic entry, dynamin also supports tubulation of recycling endosomes. The unleashing of recycling upon acute reversal of PI3K inhibition may help study its dynamics and associated machineries. PMID:23621784

Carpentier, Sarah; N'Kuli, Francisca; Grieco, Giuseppina; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Janssens, Virginie; Emonard, Hervé; Bilanges, Benoît; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Gaide Chevronnay, Héloïse P; Pierreux, Christophe E; Tyteca, Donatienne; Courtoy, Pierre J

2013-06-03

235

Rabanco`s recycling revolution  

SciTech Connect

As an integrated environmental management company, Rabanco (Seattle) has been offering a variety of disposal services for businesses and residences since it was founded in 1929. While the company has made a name for itself through its solid waste disposal systems and railhaul operations in particular, its recycling operation is equally noteworthy and has emerged as a cornerstone of its business. Indeed, through innovative approaches and systems, Rabanco`s Waste Reduction and Recycling Centre, operated under its subsidiary, Rabanco Recycling, has become a leading materials recovery facility (MRF) in the Pacific Northwest and beyond. These innovations, which include the first commingled processing operation in the country and, more recently, the implementation of new processing equipment, have led to an efficient and consistent processing facility.

White, K.M.

1996-02-01

236

National Center for Electronics Recycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Used cellphones and laptops can't go in the recycling with the empty soda cans and cereal boxes. So where do they go to be recycled once consumers find new ones? The National Center for Electronics Recycling (NCER) is working on that very problem. Visitors can click on the "Ecycling Basics" tab on the left side of the page to be taken to links to three websites that allow you to search by zip code or an interactive map of the U.S. In the "Resources" tab on the left side of the page, there are many links to resources that include Advocacy Group Reports, Electronics Disposal Studies, Environmentally Sound Management Guidelines, and International documents. Visitors interested in keeping up with the news from NCER, can sign up for their newsletter in the Google groups box, which is located below the menu on the left side of the page.

237

The reduction of recycled-NO x in coal combustion with O 2\\/recycled flue gas under low recycling ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission and reduction of NOx in coal combustion with O2\\/recycled flue gas were investigated in an electric heated up-flow-tube combustor with a high volatile bituminous coal. The recycling ratio of flue gas ranged from 0 to 0.4, and the concentrations of recycled-NO in inlet gas were 0, 500 and 1000ppm. Reduction efficiency of the recycled-NOx changed both with equivalence

Y. Q Hu; N Kobayashi; M Hasatani

2001-01-01

238

Upgrading coal liquefaction recycle bottoms  

SciTech Connect

Studies were carried out using subbituminous Wyodak and bituminous Kentucky coal to determine the effect of upgrading coal liquefaction recycle bottoms. In the liquefaction experiments, the reactor was charged with recycle solvent, solvent-refined coal (SRC) or SRC fraction and coal in a 1:1:1 weight ratio, and the reaction was carried out at 714/sup 0/K under hydrogen pressure. The results obtained indicated the importance of solvent composition on the coal liquefaction reaction. Maximum conversion seemed to be achieved with some degree of hydrogenation of the SRC, but the severity of the hydrogenation process was not clearly defined. Solvent fractionation may also result in increased distillate yields. (BLM)

Silver, H.F.; Miller, R.L.; Corry, R.G.; Hurtubise, R.J.

1981-01-01

239

Polymer recycling: opportunities and limitations.  

PubMed Central

The disposal of polymer solid waste by means other than landfilling is necessary. The various approaches-source reduction, incineration, degradation, composting, and recycling-all have their roles and must be employed in an integrated manner. Where appropriate, recycling has ecological advantages, but its application is dependent upon the feasibility of collection, sorting, and/or compatibilization of resulting mixtures to produce economically viable products. The practice should be encouraged by societal or legislative pressure which recognizes that the cost of disposal should be a factor in determining the cost of a product.

Stein, R S

1992-01-01

240

Occupational injuries among urban recyclers.  

PubMed

In this article, we describe the emergence of urban recycling as a new trade and discuss the new pattern of injuries among its practitioners. We conducted a retrospective chart review and convenience survey at an urban homeless health center. We found a high prevalence of severe, costly injuries, many of which are amenable to prevention. Lacerations, infections, needle sticks, and blunt trauma are all common in this group. Some cases are extremely expensive or even lethal. We conclude that a new trade and a new pattern of injuries associated with it have emerged around recycling. PMID:9253729

Rendleman, N; Feldstein, A

1997-07-01

241

Recycler short kicker beam impedance  

SciTech Connect

Measured longitudinal and calculated transverse beam impedance is presented for the short kicker magnets being installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Fermi drawing number ME-457159. The longitudinal impedance was measured with a stretched wire and the Panofsky equation was used to estimate the transverse impedance. The impedance of 3319 meters (the Recycler circumference) of stainless vacuum pipe is provided for comparison. Although measurements where done to 3GHz, impedance was negligible above 30MHz. The beam power lost to the kicker impedance is shown for a range of bunch lengths. The measurements are for one kicker assuming a rotation frequency of 90KHz. Seven of these kickers are being installed.

Crisp, Jim; Fellenz, Brian; /Fermilab

2009-07-01

242

Process to recycle shredder residue  

DOEpatents

A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

Jody, Bassam J. (Chicago, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL); Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Channahon, IL)

2001-01-01

243

The Recycling Solution: How I Increased Recycling on Dilworth Road  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The grandson of Fred Keller, one of the founders of behavior analysis, Jacob was 10 years old when he conducted the project for his elementary school science fair. We recently contacted Jacob to learn more about his project. He told us the inspiration came from a class field trip to the county recycling center, which included seeing video footage…

Keller, J. Jacob

2010-01-01

244

A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

245

A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

246

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #96  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... We have reviewed Eastman's modified glycolysis recycling process as compared to their previous glycolysis recycling process submitted in 1996 ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

247

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #0052  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... that were used in food applications such as milk, water, and juice. ... in recycled HDPE produced by your commercial recycling plants, (2) surrogate ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

248

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #163  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... (PRI), requesting an agency's no objection letter to confirm the capability of your proposed recycling process in producing recycled polystyrene (R ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

249

Food Service Recycling: Whose Responsibility Is It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The food service department at a Pennsylvania school district recycles polystyrene "styrofoam" cups, plates, and food trays. In addition, the department recycles glass, aluminum, and paper. Offers advice on how to set up a school program. (MLF)

Settanni, Barbara

1990-01-01

250

Minerals Yearbook, 1992: Recycling-Nonferrous Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of the increasing importance of recycling to domestic metal supply and the intense public interest, the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) initiated this separate chapter on nonferrous metal recycling as part of its Annual Report series in 1991....

J. F. Carlin D. Edelstein J. H. Jolly J. L. W. Jolly J. F. Papp

1994-01-01

251

Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes  

DOEpatents

A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

Grot, Stephen (Middletown, DE); Grot, Walther (Chadds Ford, PA)

2007-08-14

252

Recycling at Penn State's Beaver Stadium. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With a 13-year-old recycling program, The Pennsylvania State University's (Penn State) Beaver Stadium in the past diverted nearly 30 tons of recyclables per year from local landfills. A new initiative to promote recycling in the stadium's tailgating area has helped Penn State more than triple its old recycling record, collecting 112 tons in 2008.…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

2009-01-01

253

What Makes a Recycler?A Comparison of Recyclers and Nonrecyclers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge and motivational factors represent important but neglected topics in the study of recycling behavior. This article examines differences in knowledge, motives, and demographic characteristics of people who have the opportunity to recycle voluntarily. Information on these variables was obtained for 197 households in Illinois. The results indicated that recyclers in general were more aware of publicity about recycling and

Joanne Vining; Angela Ebreo

1990-01-01

254

Recent technology and trends in automotive recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, increasing public concern in the United States about automobile graveyards resulted in the development of current automobile recycling technology. However, due to changes in automobile manufacturing practices, the future applicability of existing automobile recycling technology is uncertain. This paper reviews the technological and political trends as they relate to the recycle of automobiles. Recycling practices for steel, aluminum, lead, and platinum-group metals are outlined, and research efforts on alternative approaches are discussed.

Bhakta, Pragna N. H.

1994-02-01

255

On the value of households' recycling efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do households' recycling efforts represent a social cost, which should be taken into account in cost-benefit analyses of alternative waste treatment systems? Some argue that it should not, since recycling efforts are to a large extent voluntary. We demonstrate that if the government can indirectly increase voluntary recycling efforts through appeals to the public or through similar means, then the

2002-01-01

256

The Hang-Ups on Recycling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While all seem to agree that recycling will alleviate solid waste problems and energy and mineral shortages, recycling is, at present, bogged down by the thin market for recycled materials, the recessionary business picture, the vertical integration of many companies, unfavorable tax laws, and high rail freight rates. (BT)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

1975-01-01

257

Public perceptions of conservation and recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of conservation and recycling materials from postconsumer waste attracts people interested in environmental and consumer issues and problems of local government. For a time, the general public perceived large-scale recycling as a black box, quick-fix remedy for the severe problems of urban waste disposal. The public is now more perceptive about the institutional difficulties connected with recycling. Citizens

Sharpe

1977-01-01

258

Toward a Rationale for Recycling in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encourages educators to design new strategies to incorporate a range of options that include teaching recycling and waste management in schools to ensure recycling behavior and more participation in waste management. States that more education will make the difference and that recycling should be a part of the school curriculum. Lists major…

Cherif, Abour H.

1995-01-01

259

Acceleration of landfill stabilization using leachate recycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A leachate recycle system was constructed and operated at an existing lined landfill in North-Central Florida to observe the effects of leachate recycle on landfill stabilization. Samples of leachate, landfill gas, and landfilled solid waste were collected and analyzed throughout a four-year period, before and after the start of leachate recycle. The settlement of landfilled waste was also measured in

T. G. Townsend; W. L. Miller; Hyung-Jib Lee; J. F. K. Earle

1996-01-01

260

Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

2001-01-01

261

Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling  

ScienceCinema

Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

262

Demographic Covariates of Residential Recycling Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain information on recycling behavior for selected populations, demographic data and measurements of materials in trash containers and recycling bins were collected from a random sample of 87 residences in Athens-Clarke County, Georgia. The recycling efficiency (RE) for each household had a mean of 45% and exhibited a bimodal distribution characterized by 1 group of households with near-zero RE

Julie Owens; Sharyn Dickerson; David L. Macintosh

2000-01-01

263

Properties of HPC with recycled aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of recycled aggregates can minimize environmental impact and slow the huge consumption of natural resources used for concrete applications. However, recycled aggregates are not suitable for use in the production of High Performance Concrete (HPC) due to their relatively high absorption capacity, unstable properties and recycled aggregates' weaker strength. Such inadequacies can be overcome through carefully examining the

Tsung-Yueh Tu; Yuen-Yuen Chen; Chao-Lung Hwang

2006-01-01

264

School Recycling Programs: A Handbook for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brochure describes some of the many recycling program options that schools can implement in their communities. It focuses on implementing actual recycling projects as a way of teaching the importance and benefits of recycling. The text examines the solid waste crisis and why Americans cannot continue to possess a disposable mentality. It…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

265

Materials Recycling: The Virtue of Necessity. Worldwatch Paper 56.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report focuses on the necessity and advantages of recycling. Following an introduction, the report is divided into five sections, addressing respectively: the necessity of recycling; waste paper recycling; aluminum recycling; iron and steel recycling; and three steps to a "recycling society." These steps include: (1) requiring that consumers…

Chandler, William U.

266

LUBRICATING THE RECYCLING MACHINE 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

When introducing a new control paradigm in industry or society you have to accept that it is an evolutionary process where people, methods and processes must develop simultaneously. This takes time. The recycling of materials has been studied intensely for the last ten years using different approaches to material flow analyses, MFAs. They have provided a good view of the

Rutger Gyllenram; Sven Ekerot; Pär Jönsson

2008-01-01

267

Authorization recycling in RBAC systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As distributed applications increase in size and complexity, tradi- tional authorization mechanisms based on a single policy decision point are increasingly fragile because this decision point represents a single point of failure and a performance bottleneck. Authoriza- tion recycling is one technique that has been used to address these challenges. This paper introduces and evaluates the mechanisms for autho- rization

Qiang Wei; Jason Crampton; Konstantin Beznosov; Matei Ripeanu

2008-01-01

268

Recent innovations in paper recycling  

SciTech Connect

From many process steps in paper recycling systems, two have been selected for discussion, namely washing deinking and flotation deinking flotation deinking. Recent innovations are reviewed, in the context of the basic mechanisms responsible for the functioning of these machines. An update is also given for their application in the processing of used office papers.

Seifert, P. (Black Clawson Co., Middletown, OH (United States))

1994-02-01

269

Recycled Yo-Yo Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners are challenged to build their own yo-yo toys using items found in their recycling bins. Learners search for materials to use for each part of the toy: two discs, an axle, and string. Learners then sketch their invention, assemble the parts, and test it out. Learners are encouraged to tweak their yo-yos and make improvements.

History, National M.

2012-06-26

270

Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission

M. Delpech; H. Golfier; A. Vasile; F. Varaine; L. Boucher; D. Greneche

2006-01-01

271

Chemical solutions for greywater recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents

Marc Pidou; Lisa Avery; Tom Stephenson; Paul Jeffrey; Simon A. Parsons; Shuming Liu; Fayyaz A. Memon; Bruce Jefferson

2008-01-01

272

Recycled Water Poses Disinfectant Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the possible health hazards resulting from released nucleic acid of inactivated viruses, chlorinated nonliving organic molecules, and overestimated reliability of waste treatment standards. Suggests the recycle system use a dual disinfectant such as chlorine and ozone in water treatment. (CC)|

Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

1973-01-01

273

Estimation of continental precipitation recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: (1) advection from the surrounding areas external to the region and (2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface within the region. The latter supply mechanism is tantamount to the recycling of precipitation over the Continental area. The degree to which regional precipitation is

Kaye L. Brubaker; Dara Entekhabi; P. S. Eagleson

1993-01-01

274

Recycling Plant for Paint Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The degree of paint utilization in spray painting is unsatisfactory in the present state of technology, the amount of overspray being too large. A demonstration plant for decreasing the quantity of, and recycling, paint sludges has the object of showing t...

K. H. Berewinkel

1982-01-01

275

Investigation of Recycling Bituminous Pavements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interest in cold-mixed in-place recycling of asphalt pavements is becoming more widespread. This final report summarized the findings of four major studies conducted over a period of 5 years. Guidelines were developed that would enable the paving engineer...

M. Tia A. Iida J. McKinney L. Wood

1983-01-01

276

Crustal recycling by slab failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models for crustal recycling are based upon estimates of the amount of material being returned to the mantle today; thus, a better understanding of those processes will help to constrain the models. We suggest---through the use of an Early Proterozoic example in the Wopmay orogen---that failure of the subducting slab during collision leads to large quantities of crustal material being

R. S. Hildebrand; S. A. Bowring

1999-01-01

277

Recycling of plastics in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO2 emissions. Since most of the experience available is for packaging the paper first gives an outline of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. The recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors

Martin Patel; Norbert von Thienen; Eberhard Jochem; Ernst Worrell

2000-01-01

278

Aircraft de-icer: Recycling can cut carbon emissions in half  

SciTech Connect

Flight-safety regulations in most countries require aircraft to be ice-free upon takeoff. In icy weather, this means that the aircraft usually must be de-iced (existing ice is removed) and sometimes anti-iced (to protect against ice-reformation). For both processes, aircraft typically are sprayed with an 'antifreeze' solution, consisting mainly of glycol diluted with water. This de/anti-icing creates an impact on the environment, of which environmental regulators have grown increasingly conscious. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for example, recently introduced stricter rules that require airports above minimum size to collect de-icing effluents and send them to wastewater treatment. De-icer collection and treatment is already done at most major airports, but a few have gone one step further: rather than putting the effluent to wastewater, they recycle it. This study examines the carbon savings that can be achieved by recycling de-icer. There are two key findings. One, recycling, as opposed to not recycling, cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40-50% - and even more, in regions where electricity-generation is cleaner. Two, recycling petrochemical-based de-icer generates a 15-30% lower footprint than using 'bio' de-icer without recycling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon footprint of aircraft de-icing can be measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling aircraft de-icer cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40-50%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling 'fossil' de-icer is lower carbon than not recycling 'bio' de-icer.

Johnson, Eric P., E-mail: ejohnson@ecosite.co.uk

2012-01-15

279

An overview of recycling refractory materials  

SciTech Connect

Refractory materials must be disposed of or recycled when removed from service. Off-specification or reject material has been reused by the refractory industry for a number of years, with small percentages of these materials added as a part of refractory formulations. Historically, limed reuse of spent refractory materials in other applications has occurred. Environmental legislation, stewardship programs, and other forces encouraged some businesses to recycle spent refractories. Reuse of spent refractory material varies considerably among different industries and with the location of the industrial user. Efforts to recycle, the driving forces for recycling, and issues and steps to be taken into account initiating a recycling program will be discussed.

Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing

2004-09-01

280

Recycling RIM polymers into automotive fascia  

SciTech Connect

This article reports an important discovery that scrap polymers may not have to be segregated for many of the recycling approaches for automotive thermoset poly-urethane polymers. Recycling painted parts has been a major impediment in most recycling alternatives, but that is not the case with the regrind approach to RIM (reaction injection molded) recycling. Scrap from painted, unpainted, filled, and unfilled polyurethane fascia, fenders, and side claddings can be collected as one resource. The flow of RIM scrap through the recycling process is illustrated.

Not Available

1994-08-01

281

Hydrothermal recycling of waste and performance of the recycled wooden particleboards.  

PubMed

Recycling today constitutes the most environmentally friendly method of managing wood waste. A large proportion of the wood waste generated consists of used furniture and other constructed wooden items, which are composed mainly of particleboard, a material which can potentially be reused. In the current research, four different hydrothermal treatments were applied in order to recover wood particles from laboratory particleboards and use them in the production of new (recycled) ones. Quality was evaluated by determining the main properties of the original (control) and the recycled boards. Furthermore, the impact of a second recycling process on the properties of recycled particleboards was studied. With the exception of the modulus of elasticity in static bending, all of the mechanical properties of the recycled boards tested decreased in comparison with the control boards. Furthermore, the recycling process had an adverse effect on their hygroscopic properties and a beneficial effect on the formaldehyde content of the recycled boards. The results indicated that when the 1st and 2nd particleboard recycling processes were compared, it was the 2nd recycling process that caused the strongest deterioration in the quality of the recycled boards. Further research is needed in order to explain the causes of the recycled board quality falloff and also to determine the factors in the recycling process that influence the quality degradation of the recycled boards. PMID:17291743

Lykidis, Charalampos; Grigoriou, Athanasios

2007-02-08

282

DWPF recycle stream corrosion tests  

SciTech Connect

Coupon immersion tests were performed on ASTM A537 Class 1 carbon steel in simulated DWPF recycle solutions at 90 [+-] 2[degrees]C, as part of the continuing effort to investigate the formation of shock-sensitive deposits. Coupons were partially immersed for four months in solutions of the same composition used previously at SRTC and at the DuPont Engineering Test Center (a salt solution containing 0.5 M hydroxide and 0.043 M nitrite). Shock-sensitive deposits were not seen on the coupons from this test. There was considerable general corrosion above the water line due to condensate and distilled water contact of the steel. New immersion tests are being planned for completion by September, 1993. The new test solution will reflect the recycle stream chemistry changes brought about by planned ammonia scrubbing in the DWPF.

Zapp, P.E.

1993-04-21

283

Nanochannel Based Single Molecule Recycling  

PubMed Central

We present a method for measuring the fluorescence from a single molecule hundreds of times without surface immobilization. The approach is based on the use of electroosmosis to repeatedly drive a single target molecule in a fused silica nanochannel through a stationary laser focus. Single molecule fluorescence detected during the transit time through the laser focus is used to repeatedly reverse the electrical potential controlling the flow direction. Our method does not rely on continuous observation and therefore is less susceptible to fluorescence blinking than existing fluorescence-based trapping schemes. The variation in the turnaround times can be used to measure the diffusion coefficient on a single molecule level. We demonstrate the ability to recycle both proteins and DNA in nanochannels and show that the procedure can be combined with single-pair Förster energy transfer. Nanochannel-based single molecule recycling holds promise for studying conformational dynamics on the same single molecule in solution and without surface tethering.

Lesoine, John F.; Venkataraman, Prahnesh A.; Maloney, Peter C.; Dumont, Mark

2012-01-01

284

Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium  

SciTech Connect

An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

Gorman, P.K.

1995-04-05

285

Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery.  

PubMed

Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth-HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in each cycle, the potential of nutrient reduction, as well as cell morphology changes. This study demonstrates progress towards the standalone operation of algae biorefineries. PMID:23828814

Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, Mathijs P; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Kersten, Sascha R A; Brilman, Derk W F

2013-07-04

286

Ozone bleaching of recycled paper  

SciTech Connect

Chlorinated bleaching chemicals, notably chlorine and hypochlorite, are still being used to bleach deinked, woodfree pulps. Increasing environmental concern about the use of these chemicals--coupled with the industry's efforts to increase the use of recycled fibers--highlight the need to develop better techniques for producing high-quality deinked pulp. Results presented in this report suggest that deinked fibers can be treated with ozone followed by a peroxide bleaching stage to produce a high-quality pulp.

Muguet, M.; Kogan, J. (American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL (United States))

1993-11-01

287

Recycle of oily refinery wastes  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for recycling of petroleum containing sludge. It comprises segregating waste oil-containing sludges into a relatively high oil content sludge and a relatively high water content sludge; introducing the high oil content sludge into a delayed coking drum under delayed conditions in the presence of a liquid coker hydrocarbon feedstock to form coke; introducing the high water content sludge into a delayed coking drum to quench the coke formed in the coking drum.

Bartilucci, M.P.; Karsner, G.G.; Tracy, W.J. III.

1989-10-17

288

Recycling and processing solid wastes  

SciTech Connect

Techniques for processing or recycling refuse for material or energy recovery are discussed. Source separation, magnetic separation, composting, and hydropulping are used for material recovery. For energy recovery, incineration (where steam is produced), refuse-derived fuel systems, pyrolysis, and digestion are all considered. The use of baling and shredding processing in connection with landfills is discussed and economic factors are illustrated through the use of problems. (MJJ)

Not Available

1981-03-01

289

A Preferentially Segregated Recycling Vesicle Pool of Limited Size Supports Neurotransmission in Native Central Synapses  

PubMed Central

Summary At small central synapses, efficient turnover of vesicles is crucial for stimulus-driven transmission, but how the structure of this recycling pool relates to its functional role remains unclear. Here we characterize the organizational principles of functional vesicles at native hippocampal synapses with nanoscale resolution using fluorescent dye labeling and electron microscopy. We show that the recycling pool broadly scales with the magnitude of the total vesicle pool, but its average size is small (?45 vesicles), highly variable, and regulated by CDK5/calcineurin activity. Spatial analysis demonstrates that recycling vesicles are preferentially arranged near the active zone and this segregation is abolished by actin stabilization, slowing the rate of activity-driven exocytosis. Our approach reveals a similarly biased recycling pool distribution at synapses in visual cortex activated by sensory stimulation in vivo. We suggest that in small native central synapses, efficient release of a limited pool of vesicles relies on their favored spatial positioning within the terminal.

Marra, Vincenzo; Burden, Jemima J.; Thorpe, Julian R.; Smith, Ikuko T.; Smith, Spencer L.; Hausser, Michael; Branco, Tiago; Staras, Kevin

2012-01-01

290

[Recycling and reuse of disposable products in radiology].  

PubMed

Legitimacy and appropriateness of recycling and reuse of single-use disposable medical devices is a common issue in many areas of medicine. Advocates of reprocessing claim economic savings and environmental benefits. From the manufacturers' point of view, the single use is a characteristic property of their products. Moreover, they warn that using of recycled instruments makes the procedure more difficult and increases the rate of adverse events. As comparative tests demonstrate, reused products are sometimes inferior to the genuine ones with respect to mechanical properties, but these differences may have relatively little consequence for the performance of the products and the success rate of the interventions. With rigorous cleaning and sterilizing of the instruments, patients do not run an increased risk of infection. Sterile single-use products are subject to the German Medical Products Act (1994) and the German Medical Devices Ordinance (1998). New legal provisions (in force since January 1st 2002) have restricted professional recycling of used devices further. Companies reprocessing medical products for the original users are free from certification liability. CE can no longer be issued for devices newly placed on the market. Lawyers controversially discuss whether patients must be informed about the use of recycled products. In view of the otherwise strict regulations concerning the information given to patients, it seems imperative to obtain a written informed consent when reprocessed devices are used. This might interfere with the confidential relationship of patients and physicians. The combination of increased risk, strict legal regulations, ethical concern and adverse publicity demand to refrain from reprocessing and reusing disposable equipment in diagnostic and interventional radiology. PMID:12635012

Golder, W

2003-03-01

291

Acceleration of landfill stabilization using leachate recycle  

SciTech Connect

A leachate recycle system was constructed and operated at an existing lined landfill in North-Central Florida to observe the effects of leachate recycle on landfill stabilization. Samples of leachate, landfill gas, and landfilled solid waste were collected and analyzed throughout a four-year period, before and after the start of leachate recycle. The settlement of landfilled waste was also measured in wetted and dry areas of the landfill. Leachate quality was not dramatically impacted by leachate recycle. Moisture content was significantly greater in the area of the landfill subjected to leachate recycle. Waste temperature and pH measurements indicated that conditions suitable for anaerobic decomposition were present in both the treated and untreated areas. Measurements of solid waste biochemical methane potential and subsidence showed that a greater degree of landfill stabilization had occurred in the leachate recycle area relative to the untreated area.

Townsend, T.G.; Miller, W.L.; Lee, H.J.; Earle, J.F.K. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1996-04-01

292

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W.; Aitken, D. W.

2003-02-26

293

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

Kooda, Kevin Evan; Mc Cray, Casey William; Aitken, Darren William; Galloway, Kelly

2003-02-01

294

Endocytic Sorting and Recycling Require Membrane Phosphatidylserine Asymmetry Maintained by TAT-1/CHAT-1  

PubMed Central

Endocytic sorting is achieved through the formation of morphologically and functionally distinct sub-domains within early endosomes. Cargoes destined for recycling are sorted to and transported through newly-formed tubular membranes, but the processes that regulate membrane tubulation are poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel Caenorhabditis elegans Cdc50 family protein, CHAT-1, which acts as the chaperone of the TAT-1 P4-ATPase to regulate membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) asymmetry and endocytic transport. In chat-1 and tat-1 mutants, the endocytic sorting process is disrupted, leading to defects in both cargo recycling and degradation. TAT-1 and CHAT-1 colocalize to the tubular domain of the early endosome, the tubular endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and the recycling endosome where PS is enriched on the cytosolic surface. Loss of tat-1 and chat-1 function disrupts membrane PS asymmetry and abrogates the tubular membrane structure. Our data suggest that CHAT-1 and TAT-1 maintain membrane phosphatidylserine asymmetry, thus promoting membrane tubulation and regulating endocytic sorting and recycling.

Chen, Baohui; Jiang, Yue; Zeng, Sheng; Yan, Jiacong; Li, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Wei; Wang, Xiaochen

2010-01-01

295

Recycle Gel Permeation Chromatography. Part I. Recycle Principle and Design. Part Ii. Analysis of Epoxy Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new recycle circuit for Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), named alternate pumping (AP), is described and applied to the fractionation of epoxy resins. Conceptual as well as design details for AP recycle are presented. Advantages and limitations of AP...

J. A. Biesenberger M. Tan I. Duvdevani T. Maurer

1970-01-01

296

Functional selectivity in serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2A) endocytosis, recycling, and phosphorylation.  

PubMed

G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling is modulated by endocytosis and endosomal sorting of receptors between degradation and recycling. Differential regulation of these processes by endogenous ligands and synthetic drugs is a poorly understood area of GPCR signaling. Here, we describe remarkable diversity in the regulation of trafficking of GPCR induced by multiple ligands. We show that the serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT(2A)), a prototypical GPCR in the study of functional selectivity at a signaling receptor, is functionally selective in endocytosis and recycling in response to five ligands tested: endogenous agonists serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), synthetic agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-aminopropane (DOI), antagonist ketanserin, and inverse agonist and antipsychotic drug clozapine. Only four ligands (5-HT, DA, DOI, and clozapine) bring about receptor endocytosis. As we have earlier described with 5-HT and DA, there is ligand-specific requirement for protein kinase C (PKC) in endocytosis. We now show 5-HT(2A) phosphorylation by PKC is necessary for 5-HT-mediated and DOI-mediated receptor endocytosis, but DA-mediated and clozapine-mediated internalization is not affected if PKC is inhibited. Internalized receptors are recycled to the cell surface, but there is variability in the time course of recycling. 5-HT- and DA-internalized receptors are recycled in 2.5 hours while agonist DOI and antagonist clozapine bring about recycling in 7.5 hours. Recycling in response to those ligands that require PKC activation to effect receptor endocytosis is dependent on receptor dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Thus, internalization and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles may play a significant role in the regulation of 5-HT(2A) by functionally and therapeutically important ligands. PMID:23034456

Raote, Ishier; Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Panicker, Mitradas M

2012-10-03

297

Wee Recyclers. An Activity Guide for Ages 3-5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recycling and reusing are skills that can be developed in early child care programs. This activity guide is intended to help teach children (ages 3-5) about recycling using simple, hands-on activities. Teacher-directed activities involve setting up a recycling center, sorting recyclable items, landfills, litter, a recycling alphabet, and ways…

Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

298

Plastics recycling issues for the computer industry: progress and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastics recycling has long been a weakness in achieving a high level of product recyclability by the computer industry. However, advancements in the use of plastic materials with recycle content in new products and the recycling of plastic scrap generated from end-of-life (EOL) machines have had a positive impact on product recyclability. Progress is being achieved through the individual and

S. K. Ching; J. R. Kirby; O. D. Pitts

1996-01-01

299

Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.|

Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.

2007-01-01

300

MOTIVATING RECYCLING: A MARGINAL COST ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Areas considering alternative house-to-house recycling programs as a means of diverting material from landfills can determine the most efficient choice by comparing programs' marginal costs with diversion's marginal benefits. This paper describes a controlled field experiment that observed individual household recycling habits over a six-month period. The experiment monitored the quantity of material that households recycled under increasingly more convenient

REBECCA Judge; ANTHONY Becker

1993-01-01

301

Minerals yearbook, 1992: Materials recycling. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

A large variety of materials are recycled by different sectors of our society. The materials recycling that is mainly addressed in this writing is from waste that is generated after manufacturing and use. Included is recycling that is generally more obvious to the public: the collection, reprocessing, and remanufacture of materials into new products from post-consumer UBC's, scrap metal, glass containers, paper goods, increasingly plastics, as well as rubber tires and other used goods.

Tanner, A.O.

1992-01-01

302

Gold recycling; a materials flow study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This materials flow study includes a description of trends in consumption, loss, and recycling of gold-containing materials in the United States in 1998 in order to illustrate the extent to which gold is presently being recycled and to identify recycling trends. The quantity of gold recycled, as a percent of the apparent supply of gold, was estimated to be about 30 percent. Of the approximately 446 metric tons of gold refined in the United States in 1998, the fabricating and industrial use losses were 3 percent.

Amey, Earle B.

2000-01-01

303

Chemical shift assignments of the C-terminal Eps15 homology domain-3 EH domain.  

PubMed

The C-terminal Eps15 homology (EH) domain 3 (EHD3) belongs to a eukaryotic family of endocytic regulatory proteins and is involved in the recycling of various receptors from the early endosome to the endocytic recycling compartment or in retrograde transport from the endosomes to the Golgi. EH domains are highly conserved in the EHD family and function as protein-protein interaction units that bind to Asn-Pro-Phe (NPF) motif-containing proteins. The EH domain of EHD1 was the first C-terminal EH domain from the EHD family to be solved by NMR. The differences observed between this domain and proteins with N-terminal EH domains helped describe a mechanism for the differential binding of NPF-containing proteins. Here, structural studies were expanded to include the EHD3 EH domain. While the EHD1 and EHD3 EH domains are highly homologous, they have different protein partners. A comparison of these structures will help determine the selectivity in protein binding between the EHD family members and lead to a better understanding of their unique roles in endocytic regulation. PMID:23754701

Spagnol, Gaelle; Reiling, Calliste; Kieken, Fabien; Caplan, Steve; Sorgen, Paul L

2013-06-11

304

The Determinants of Household Recycling: A Material Specific Analysis of Unit Pricing and Recycling Program Attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of two popular solid waste programs on the percent recycled of several different materials found in the residential solid waste stream. We examine a unique, national, household-level data set containing information on the percent recycled of five different materials: glass bottles, plastic bottles, aluminum, newspaper, and yard waste. We find that access to curbside recycling

Karen Palmer; Salvador Martinez; Robin Jenkins; Michael Podolsky

1999-01-01

305

The Determinants of Household Recycling: A Material Specific Analysis of Recycling Program Features and Unit Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines,the impact of two popular solid waste programs on the percent recycled of several different materials found in the residential solid waste stream. We examine a unique, national, household-level data set containing information on the percent recycled of five different materials: glass bottles, plastic bottles, aluminum, newspaper, and yard waste. We find that access to curbside recycling

Robin R. Jenkins; Salvador A. Martinez; Karen Palmer; Michael J. Podolsky

2000-01-01

306

Recycle Alaska: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Activities Handbook, Teacher's Guide, and Student Worksheets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recycling is a very important aspect of conserving the environment for future generations. This guide addresses the topic of litter prevention for the Alaskan environment and contains 42 activities. Activity topics covered include Natural Cycles, Human Interruption of Natural Cycles, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recycled Classroom. Grade level,…

Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

307

Recycle Alaska: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Activities Handbook, Teacher's Guide, and Student Worksheets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recycling is a very important aspect of conserving the environment for future generations. This guide addresses the topic of litter prevention for the Alaskan environment and contains 42 activities. Activity topics covered include Natural Cycles, Human Interruption of Natural Cycles, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recycled Classroom. Grade level,…

Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

308

Influenza A virus recycling revisited.  

PubMed

Current textbooks link influenza pandemics to influenza A virus subtypes H2 (1889-91), H3 (1990), H1 (1918-20), H2 (1957-58) and H3 (1968), a pattern suggesting subtype recycling in humans. Since H1 reappeared in 1977, whatever its origin, some workers feel that H2 is the next pandemic candidate. This report reviews the publications on which the concept of influenza A virus subtype recycling is based and concludes that the data are inconsistent with the purported sequence of events. The three influenza pandemics prior to 1957-58 were linked with subtypes through retrospective studies of sera from the elderly, or through seroarchaeology. The pandemic seroarchaeological model for subtype H1 has been validated by the recent recovery of swine virus RNA fragments from persons who died from influenza in 1918. Application of the model to pre-existing H3 antibody among the elderly links the H3 subtype to the pandemic of 1889-91, not that of 1900 as popularly quoted. Application of the model to pre-existing H2 antibody among the elderly fails to confirm that this subtype caused a pandemic in the late 1800's, a finding which is consistent with age-related excess mortality patterns during the pandemics of 1957 (H2) and 1968 (H3). H2 variants should be included in pandemic planning for a number of reasons, but not because of evidence of recycling. It is not known when the next pandemic will occur or which of the 15 (or more) haemagglutinin subtypes will be involved. Effective global surveillance remains the key to influenza preparedness. PMID:10593030

Dowdle, W R

1999-01-01

309

Wastepaper recycling. January 1976-September 1989 (Citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations data base). Report for January 1976-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of waste-paper fibers for the production of new paper products. The development of the recycling industry; flotation processes; recycled fiber properties and improvement methods; and the installation, operation, and maintenance of paper-recycling systems are among the topics discussed. Applications, markets, economics, regulations, production statistics, and waste-paper salvaging are considered. De-inking of waste paper is examined in a separate bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 249 citations, 42 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1989-09-01

310

Proceedings of the National Seminar on Asphalt Pavement Recycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 19 papers in this report deal with the following areas: economics of recycling; seminar on asphalt pavement recycling overview of project selection; cost and energy considerations in project selection for recycling asphalt pavements; specifications re...

S. P. LaHue F. N. Finn W. J. Halstead R. C. Ingberg D. R. Gallagher

1980-01-01

311

Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking North at Uranium recovery Recycle Tanks in Red Room in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

312

Recycling and resource recovery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses recycling and resource recovery strategies being developed to maintain continued operations at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Several industrial decontamination techniques for minimization, segregation, and recycling of wastes volumes are presented. A wide variety of liquid wastewater streams are generated from the operations of these research facilities. The major chemical constituents -- bicarbonates of calcium, magnesium, and sodium -- are introduced by local river water and shallow drainage wells. Liquid low-level waste (LLLW), generated in support of DOE's nuclear energy technology programs over the past 40 years, are highly contaminated with fission products and transuranic (TRU) elements. These wastes are routinely collected in centralized collection tanks, concentrated by evaporation, and stored for future processing and disposal. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 mandated a nationwide system for the safe management of wastes that have been determined hazardous from their creation of their ultimate disposal (i.e., cradle-to-grave control). The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HWSA) prohibited the continued placement of RCRA regulated hazardous wastes in or on the land without following Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) treatment standards. The EPA promulgated RCRA-LDR (land-disposal-restricted) regulations, minimizing short- and long-term threats arising from land disposal, will not allow facilities to store mixed LLLW after 1994 (56 FR 42730, August 29, 1991). Tank storage volume capacities are approaching maximum limits while treatment facilities to process and dispose these type wastes have been delayed indefinitely. As a result, these regulations and additional challenges have increased emphasis on recycling and resource recovery. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Hall, R.; Benson, C.E.; Grubb, R.G.; Patton, B.D.

1991-01-01

313

Used oil disposal and recycling in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Used oil represents an important energy resource, which, if properly managed and reused, could lessen US dependence on imported fuels. About 1.4 million gallons of used oil is generated annually in the United States. Of that total, about 70% is recycled: 57% is used as fuel and 12% is refined. In August 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency adopted standards for recycling of used oil, and many states also regulate used oil (six states list used oil as hazardous waste). This report reviews the sources of used oil and methods of disposition, focusing on reprocessing and re-refining. About 83% of the recycled used oil is reprocessed for use as fuel. However, concern about the level of lead in such fuel is increasing. Re-refining used oil is an environmentally friendly process that yields higher energy savings than reprocessing; however, it is more capital-intensive. Reprocessing used oil for use as fuel yields an energy savings (over disposal) of 131,130 Btu/gal, while re-refining the oil for reuse as lube oil saves 180,000 Btu/gal, an advantage of 48,870 Btu/gal. However, further research is needed to enhance re- refining and to demonstrate the quality and competitiveness of its products.

Karvelas, D.E.; Daniels, E.J.

1993-07-01

314

[Impact of liquid volume of recycled methanogenic effluent on anaerobic hydrolysis].  

PubMed

Methanogenic effluent was recycled to regulate hydrolysis during two-phase anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes. In order to study the impact of recycled effluent's volume on hydrolysis, four hydrolysis reactors filled with vegetable and flower wastes were constructed, with different liquid volumes of recycled methanogenic effluent, i.e., 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 m3/(m3 x d), respectively. The parameters related to hydrolytic environment (pH, alkalinity, ORP, concentrations of ammonia and reducing sugar), microbial biomass and hydrolysis efficiency (accumulated SCOD, accumulated reducing sugar, and hydrolysis rate constants) were monitored. This research shows that recycling methanogenic effluent into the hydrolysis reactor can enhance its buffer capability and operation stability; higher recycled volume is favorable for microbial anabolism and further promotes hydrolysis. After 9 days of reaction, the accumulated SCOD in the hydrolytic effluent reach 334, 407, 413, 581 mg/g at recycled volumes of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 m3/(m3 x d) and their first-order hydrolysis rate kinetic constants are 0.065, 0.083, 0.089, 0.105 d(-1), respectively. PMID:19068657

Hao, Li-ping; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-jing; Shao, Li-ming

2008-09-01

315

Vermitechnology for sewage sludge recycling.  

PubMed

The present paper is aimed at safe reuse and recycling of sewage sludge (SS) and production of good quality compost using vermicomposting. Three different earthworm species Eiseniafetida (E. fetida), Eudrilus eugeniae (E. eugeniae), Perionyx excavatus (P. excavatus) in individual and combinations were utilized to compare the suitability of worm species for composting of sewage sludge as well as the quality of the end product. The sewage sludge without blending can be directly converted into good quality fertilizer (vermicompost). Vermicomposting resulted in reduction in C/N ratio 25.6 to 6-9, TOC (25%) but increase in electrical conductivity (EC) (47-51%), total nitrogen (TN) (2.4-2.8 times), potassium (45-71%), calcium (49-62%), sodium (62-82%) and total phosphorous (TP) (1.5-1.8 times), which indicated that sewage sludge can be recycled as a good quality fertilizer. The present study also inferred that the application of sewage sludge in the agricultural fields after vermicomposting would not have any adverse effect as the heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are now within the permissible limits. PMID:18515003

Khwairakpam, Meena; Bhargava, Renu

2008-04-29

316

Leachate-recycle infiltration ponds  

SciTech Connect

A leachate-recycle system (LRS) consisting of four infiltration ponds was operated and monitored over a 28-month period at an active lined landfill in Florida. Ponds were constructed by excavating into the landfilled waste and by compacting lifts of solid waste to form the pond walls. A total of 36,470 m{sup 3} of leachate were recirculated, representing 63% of the total volume of leachate generated. The entire leachate stream was not recycled because of the large volume of leachate and the low leachate infiltration rates into the landfill. Water budgets conducted on individual ponds over the first 16 months of operation revealed that the infiltration rates ranged from 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm/sec. The vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity of the compacted waste was estimated in the range of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} {minus} 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm/sec, lower than values reported in the literature.

Townsend, T.G.; Miller, W.L.; Earle, J.F.K. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1995-06-01

317

Chemical solutions for greywater recycling.  

PubMed

Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents the study of alternative processes, coagulation and magnetic ion exchange resin, for the treatment of greywater for reuse. The potential of these processes as well as the influence of parameters such as coagulant or resin dose, pH or contact time were investigated for the treatment of two greywaters of low and high organic strengths. The results obtained revealed that magnetic ion exchange resin and coagulation were suitable treatment solutions for low strength greywater sources. However, they were unable to achieve the required level of treatment for the reuse of medium to high strength greywaters. Consequently, these processes could only be considered as an option for greywater recycling in specific conditions that is to say in case of low organic strength greywater or less stringent standards for reuse. PMID:18155127

Pidou, Marc; Avery, Lisa; Stephenson, Tom; Jeffrey, Paul; Parsons, Simon A; Liu, Shuming; Memon, Fayyaz A; Jefferson, Bruce

2007-12-21

318

Non-Recycled Pulsars in Globular Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We place limits on the population of non-recycled pulsars originating in globular clusters through Monte Carlo simulations and frequentist statistical techniques. We set upper limits on the birth rates of non-recycled cluster pulsars and predict how many may remain in the clusters, and how many may escape the cluster potentials and enter the field of the Galaxy.

Lynch, Ryan S.; Boyles, Jason R.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Mnatsakanov, Robert; Turk, Philip J.; Ransom, Scott M.

2011-08-01

319

Entropy analysis of metal production and recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper attempts to address both resource consumption and recycling effectiveness, using concepts from thermodynamics: entropy production for evaluating the costs (resource consumption) and statistical entropy for evaluating the benefits (separation of materials) of recycling processes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Resource consumption, in this context, is to be understood as the overall thermodynamic devaluation of matter and energy flows. The

Stefan Gößling-Reisemann

2008-01-01

320

ON-SITE WASTE INK RECYCLING  

EPA Science Inventory

Recycling ink has good potential as a way to reduce waste and promote long-term cost avings. he evaluation summarized here addresses the product quality, waste reduction nd economic issues involved in recycling printing ink in a facility such as THE ARFORD COURANT newspaper in Ha...

321

DWPF RECYCLE EVAPORATOR FLOWSHEET EVALUATION (U)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) converts the high level waste slurries stored at the Savannah River Site into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. The vitrification process results in the generation of approximately five gallons of dilute recycle streams for each gallon of waste slurry vitrified. This dilute recycle stream is currently transferred to the H-area Tank Farm and amounts

M. E. Stone; W. E. Daniel; D. K. Peeler; T. B. Edwards

2005-01-01

322

GENERATION OF RECYCLABLES BY RURAL HOUSEHOLDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising landfill costs have forced solid waste managers to consider ways to reduce the waste stream. Using survey data, models explaining the weight of recyclables generated by households are estimated for paper and glass. Results indicate that households respond to the time cost of recycling paper but not glass. The waste generation models imply total monthly willingness to pay for

Paul M. Jakus; Kelly H. Tiller; William M. Park

1996-01-01

323

Ten-year review of plastics recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short history of the practice of plastics recycling as practiced in the United States and Europe for the past ten years indicates that much progress has been made in educating the public sector about the environmental damage done by the indiscriminating disposal of plastic items and potential opportunities to recycle them. Recent legislation has made the collection of some

S. Garry Howell

1992-01-01

324

Recycling Today Makes for a Better Tomorrow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today's children must be educated about solid waste management and recycling to reduce the amount of waste that goes into landfills. The article describes what can be recycled (newspapers, corrugated cardboard, paper, glass, aluminum, textiles, motor oil, organic wastes, appliances, steel cans, and plastics). It also lists student environment…

Raze, Robert E., Jr.

1992-01-01

325

Carbon Revenue Recycling - Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental policy instruments that generate budget revenues may become an increasingly attractive policy option for Canada's federal government due to amplified fiscal pressures. If that is the case, revenue recycling is an essential element of pricing carbon. This paper present a brief overview of benefits of recycling carbon revenues and the challenges that may be encountered when choosing a specific

Elena Simonova; Rock Lefebvre

2009-01-01

326

Possibility of recycling silicon PV modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of economically recovering silicon wafers from x-Si PV modules is presented. Since the wafer cost is estimated at about half the total material cost of a silicon PV module, there may be economic benefits from recycling. In addition, recycling silicon PV modules allows reclamation of the glass substrate and prevents disposal of potentially hazardous materials such as silver

J. R. Bohland; I. I. Anisimov

1997-01-01

327

Basic Studies on Recycling of ABS Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent development of the petrochemical industry, plastic products have made our society more convenient. However, the disposal of these convenience products has become a serious threat to the environment. Therefore, research on recycling plastic wastes is necessary now more than ever. This paper is a basic study of recycling technology for ABS (acryionitile-butadienestyrene) resin. We tried to show the

Jin Kuk Kim; Chang K. Kang

1995-01-01

328

The Automobile Recycling Industry in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automobile recycling industry in North America is a success story in material recovery. It operates unregulated, market driven. It is an example of how effectively self-profit-maximising parties, without interference, can manage recycling. Or at least, that is the claim. However, reductions in vehicle weight and increases in plastic composition might undermine the future viability of the industry. This work

Pavel Zamudio-Ramirez

329

RECYCLING OF WATER IN POULTRY PROCESSING PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were conducted on recycling chiller water in a poultry processing plant. The recycling system must be provided with the capability of removing solids and controlling the microbial population. UV was used to control the microbial population. For this control to be effectiv...

330

Recycling SAW slag proves reliable and repeatable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submerged arc welding (SAW) slag is recycled by taking the fused part of the slag after welding and processing it in a manner that allows it to be reused for the same SAW operation. This slag recycling process has been around the welding industry for many years, and trial-and-error experimentation through the years has made it a reliable and accepted

H. P. Beck; A. R. Jackson

1996-01-01

331

Utility of recycled bedding for laboratory rodents.  

PubMed

Animal facilities generate a large amount of used bedding containing excrement as medical waste. We developed a recycling system for used bedding that involves soft hydrothermal processing. In this study, we examined the effects of bedding type on growth, hematologic and serum biochemical values, and organ weights of female and male mice reared on either recycled or fresh bedding from 3 to 33 wk of age. Neither growth nor physiology differed between mice housed on recycled bedding compared with fresh bedding. When 14-wk-old mice were bred, litter size and total number of weaned pups showed no significant differences between animals raised on recycled or fresh bedding. Because bedding type influences the environment within cages and animal rooms, we evaluated particulate and ammonia data from cages and animal rooms. Values were significantly lower from cages and rooms that used recycled bedding than from those using fresh bedding, thus indicating that recycled bedding has the potential to improve the environment within both cages and animal rooms. Overall, this study revealed that recycled bedding is an excellent material for use in housing laboratory rodents. Specifically, recycled bedding may reduce medical waste and maintain healthy environments within cages and animal rooms. PMID:19653951

Miyamoto, Toru; Li, Zhixia; Kibushi, Tomomi; Okano, Shinya; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kasai, Noriyuki

2009-07-01

332

COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. wo processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt-...

333

COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

334

Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)|

Dasgupta, Probal

2001-01-01

335

A Little Recycling Goes A Long Way  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students understand the impact that recycling has on our lives, and the future of the planet. By calculating how much waste the students produce, they can also calculate how much of it they can recycle, and help the environment.

Math, Pbs T.; Pbs

2010-01-01

336

Pedagogical Recycling: How Colleagues Change Colleagues' Minds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A teacher-researcher uses the metaphor of recycling along a continuum to describe how teachers adapt the ideas of their colleagues with varying degrees of change based on their different contexts. The objective of recycling is not only to reduce waste but also to extend use and the key to lasting changes in mind is sustained participation in…

O'Donnell-Allen, Cindy

2005-01-01

337

Sustainability and the Recycling of Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

2011-01-01

338

Sustainability and the Recycling of Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

2011-01-01

339

Recycling Today Makes for a Better Tomorrow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's children must be educated about solid waste management and recycling to reduce the amount of waste that goes into landfills. The article describes what can be recycled (newspapers, corrugated cardboard, paper, glass, aluminum, textiles, motor oil, organic wastes, appliances, steel cans, and plastics). It also lists student environment…

Raze, Robert E., Jr.

1992-01-01

340

Recycling in 1996: The worst of times?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prices for recyclables in 1995 were too good to be true, and most recyclers knew it. They knew mills would not continue to pay $200 per ton of newsprint or 25 cents for a pound of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic. But what they did not know was that prices would fall so far, and so fast, in 1996, without any

Egan

1997-01-01

341

Minerals Yearbook, 1993: Recycling-Nonferrous Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The estimated value of recycled nonferrous metals in 1993 was about $7.3 billion and is an increasingly important component of economic activity in the United States. Table 1 shows salient U.S. recycling statistics for selected metals. Table 2 shows salie...

J. F. Carlin D. Edelstein S. M. Jasinski J. F. Papp P. A. Plunkert G. Smith

1995-01-01

342

Argonne National Laboratory's Recycling Pilot Plant  

ScienceCinema

Argonne has a Recycling Pilot Plant designed to save the non-metal portions of junked cars. Here, program managers demonstrate how plastic shredder residue can be recycled. (Currently these automotive leftovers are sent to landfills.) For more information, visit Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center Web site at http://www.transportation.anl.gov.

343

Maryland's Program for Buying Recycled Paper (Innovations).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maryland was the first state to mandate large purchases of recycled paper. In 1977, the legislature passed House Bill 153 which requires the State to increase its purchase of recycled paper (paper containing 80 percent post-consumer waste) to five percent...

R. Keller

1980-01-01

344

Maryland's program for buying recycled paper (innovations)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maryland was the first state to mandate large purchases of recycled paper. In 1977, the legislature passed House Bill 153 which requires the State to increase its purchase of recycled paper (paper containing 80 percent post-consumer waste) to five percent of the total paper purchases by 1978, 25 percent by 1981, and 40 percent by 1985. Since the passage of

1980-01-01

345

Life Cycle Assessment of Water Recycling Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental performance of different water recycling technologies is compared on the basis of the associated potential environmental impacts using the technique of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The LCA method is used here to support decision making in water recycling in terms of (1) comparison and selection of suitable technology and (2) identification of opportunities to enhance the environmental performance of

N. Tangsubkul; P. Beavis; S. J. Moore; S. Lundie; T. D. Waite

2005-01-01

346

Future directions for water recycling in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the scope for water recycling was examined in two reports in 1977–1978, it was not until the Environment Protection Authorities had been established in most of the states in the early 1990s that water authorities began making substantial use of treated wastewater, using recycled water on land as a component of meeting newly imposed discharge limits from sewage treatment

John C. Radcliffe; Glen Osmond

2006-01-01

347

Recycling Primer: Getting Back to Basics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The disposal of garbage is a complex issue. Four strategies have been developed to attack the problem. They deal with: (1) waste reduction; (2) recycling; (3) energy recovery; and (4) land filling. This handbook emphasizes recycling as a method of handling the problem of dealing with solid wastes. Included are a list of the categories and uses of…

Connecticut State Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hartford.

348

The recycling and disposal of electrical and electronic waste in China—legislative and market responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new legislation on collection, recycling and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) as well as the scaling-up and privatisation of the WEEE processing industry, are indications of major changes for WEEE management in China. However, China's attempts to regulate the industry and establish a financially viable, environmentally benign and safe WEEE management system are facing

C.. Hicks; R.. Dietmar; M.. Eugster

2005-01-01

349

A survey of lead battery recycling sites and soil remediation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is intended to provide some background information on lead battery recycling sites (LBRSs) in the U.S. Included in the report are (a) a discussion of the regulations and guidelines governing lead in soil; (b) a description of typical LBRS operations; (c) a listing of the 47 sites studied by the EPA under CERCLA; (d) a discussion of a

Tim Nedwed; Dennis A. Clifford

1998-01-01

350

Impact of recycled effluent on the hydrolysis during anaerobic digestion of vegetable and flower waste.  

PubMed

Two trials were established to investigate the effect of recycled effluent on hydrolysis during anaerobic co-digestion of vegetable and flower waste. Trial I evaluated the effect by regulating the flow rate of recycled effluent, while Trial II regulated the ratio of hydrolytic effluent to methanogenic effluent, which were recycled to hydrolysis reactor. Results showed that the recirculation of methanogenic effluent could enhance the buffer capability and operation stability of hydrolysis reactor. Higher recycled flow rate was favourable for microbial anabolism and further promoted hydrolysis. After 9 days of hydrolysis, the cumulative SCOD in the hydrolytic effluent reached 334, 407, 413, 581 mg/g at recycled flow rates of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 m3/(m3 x d), respectively. It was feasible to recycling a mixture of hydrolytic and methanogenic effluent to the hydrolysis reactor. This research showed that partially introducing hydrolytic effluent into the recycled liquid could enhance hydrolysis, while excessive recirculation of hydrolytic effluent will inhibit the hydrolysis. The flow ratio 1:3 of hydrolytic to methanogenic effluent was found to provide the highest hydrolysis efficiency and degradation rate of lignocelluloses-type biomass, among four ratios of 0:1, 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1. Under this regime, after 9 days of hydrolysis, the cumulative TOC and TN in the hydrolytic effluent reached 162 mg/g and 15 mg/g, the removal efficiency of TS, VS, C and cellulose in the solid phase were 60.66%, 62.88%, 58.35% and 49.12%, respectively. The flow ratio affected fermentation pathways, i.e. lower ratio favoured propionic acid fermentation and the generation of lactic acid while higher ratio promoted butyric acid fermentation. PMID:19001719

Lü, F; He, P J; Hao, L P; Shao, L M

2008-01-01

351

Dust recycling technology in Kimitsu Works  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust recycling technology by the rotary hearth furnace has been applied at Nippon Steel?s Kimitsu Works since 2000. The dust and sludge with iron oxide and carbon are agglomerated into shaped articles and the iron oxide is reduced in a high temperature atmosphere. Zinc and other impurities in the dust and sludge are expelled and exhausted into off gas. The DRI pellets made from the dust and sludge have 70% metallization and are strong enough for being recycled to the blast furnaces. No.1 plant, which was constructed in May 2000 and has an agglomeration method of pelletizing, recycles mainly dry dusts. No.2 plant, which was constructed in December 2002 and has an agglomeration method of extrusion, recycles mainly sludge. The combination of the two plants is a solution for recycling various kinds of dusts and sludge emitted in a large scale steel works as Kimitsu Works

Oda, Hiroshi; Ibaraki, Tetsuharu

352

Recycled crushed glass in road work applications.  

PubMed

A comprehensive suite of geotechnical laboratory tests was undertaken on samples of recycled crushed glass produced in Victoria, Australia. Three types of recycled glass sources were tested being coarse, medium and fine sized glass. Laboratory testing results indicated that medium and fine sized recycled glass sources exhibit geotechnical behavior similar to natural aggregates. Coarse recycled glass was however found to be unsuitable for geotechnical engineering applications. Shear strength tests indicate that the fine and medium glass encompass shear strength parameters similar to that of natural sand and gravel mixtures comprising of angular particles. Environmental assessment tests indicated that the material meets the requirements of environmental protection authorities for fill material. The results were used to discuss potential usages of recycled glass as a construction material in geotechnical engineering applications particularly road works. PMID:21803560

Disfani, M M; Arulrajah, A; Bo, M W; Hankour, R

2011-07-30

353

Recycling and clearance of fusion activated waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The irradiation conditions of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) are taken as reference to analyze recycling (re-use of the waste material after suppression of noxious radionuclides) and clearance (declassification to non-active waste). Recycling is assessed, assuming limits for the surface dose rates of the waste. If alternative materials (reduced activation ferritic steel or VTi alloys) are used, the in-vessel components can be almost completely recycled. A vacuum vessel made of INCONEL and reduced activation steel can also be recycled. Clearance is assessed for the out-of-vessel components, using weighted averages of the clearance levels for single radionuclides proposed by recent IAEA studies. All the components of the outboard zones can be declassified to non-active waste after decay times from a few years to 50 y. The higher irradiation conditions of the inboard zone require the recycling of the coils and the use of reduced activation steel to allow declassification of the coil casings.

Rocco, Paolo; Zucchetti, Massimo

1996-10-01

354

Global warming bill promotes recycling, composting  

SciTech Connect

H.R. 1078, the Global Warming Prevention Act, was introduced into the U.S. House of Representatives by Rep. Claudine Schneider (R-RI) in February. While key features of the bill revolve around reducing carbon dioxide emissions and increasing energy conservation and efficiency and use of renewable energy sources, a section deals with recyclable materials. The bill calls for establishment of an Office of Recycling Research and Information within the Dept. of Commerce to promote recyclable materials programs. Other elements include: improving the recycling of government-generated wastes as well as improving procurement of recyclable materials; a pilot project on MSW and sewage sludge composting; and a ban on production or sale of certain designated nonrecyclable consumer goods.

Not Available

1989-06-01

355

Cleaner environment: removing the barriers to lead-acid battery recycling  

SciTech Connect

The author notes that 60% of battery manufacturing lead supplies come from recycled batteries. Without battery recycling, both the availability and the price of lead would radically change business climate of operations. But, the bad news is that, if the lead-acid battery is considered sufficiently harmful to justify closing down the battery recycling industry, what kind of attitude will environmental regulators develop toward the manufacturers of batteries if there is no way to dispose of them. At present, battery recyclers are caught-up in a web of what has come to be known as environmental gridlock, wherein well-intentioned environmental regulations have become so flexible that they actually defeat their original purpose. One example of this condition is the strict, joint and several liability provisions of SUPERFUND. People who collect and transport spent batteries may be held financially responsible for the consequences of circumstances totally beyond their control. Other examples, including excessive hazardous-waste taxes in California, are cited as the author summarizes the environmental gridlock situation. He concludes that, because of the tremendous importance of lead-acid batteries to the American way of life, the real problem is how do we accomplish the goal of recycling 100% of the spent batteries, thereby removing the threat of the spent battery solution.

Palmer, J.G.

1988-12-01

356

Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

Lavee, Doron

2007-12-01

357

Is municipal solid waste recycling economically efficient?  

PubMed

It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000-2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be. PMID:17687596

Lavee, Doron

2007-08-09

358

Office paper recycling: A function of container proximity  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of proximity of containers on pounds of office paper recycled and not recycled by 25 employees. During a memo and central container condition, one container for recyclable paper was provided; in a memo and local container condition, desktop recycling bins, announced by memo, were successively introduced across administrative, office, and instructional settings using a multiple baseline design. Only 28% of paper was recycled in the central container condition, but when recycling containers were placed in close proximity to participants, 85% to 94% of all recyclable paper was recycled. Follow-up assessments, conducted 1, 2, 3, and 7 months after all settings received local recycling containers, showed that 84% to 98% of paper was recycled. Providing desktop recycling containers was a cost-effective procedure with long-term maintenance and program survival.

Brothers, Kevin J.; Krantz, Patricia J.; McClannahan, Lynn E.

1994-01-01

359

Generalized Teleportation and Entanglement Recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka, that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient conditions for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. This generalization leads to protocols with novel properties and is needed to push forward new schemes of computation based on them. Port-based teleportation protocols and our generalizations use a large resource state consisting of N singlets to teleport only a single qubit state reliably. We provide two distinct protocols which recycle the resource state to teleport multiple states with error linearly increasing with their number. The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting qubit states, and the second teleports them in a bulk.

Strelchuk, Sergii; Horodecki, Micha?; Oppenheim, Jonathan

2013-01-01

360

Generalized teleportation and entanglement recycling.  

PubMed

We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka, that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient conditions for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. This generalization leads to protocols with novel properties and is needed to push forward new schemes of computation based on them. Port-based teleportation protocols and our generalizations use a large resource state consisting of N singlets to teleport only a single qubit state reliably. We provide two distinct protocols which recycle the resource state to teleport multiple states with error linearly increasing with their number. The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting qubit states, and the second teleports them in a bulk. PMID:23383769

Strelchuk, Sergii; Horodecki, Micha?; Oppenheim, Jonathan

2013-01-04

361

Recycling of acetone by distillation  

SciTech Connect

The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone.

Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

1992-09-01

362

Issues in recycling galvanized scrap  

SciTech Connect

The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

Koros, P.J. [LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hellickson, D.A. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States); Dudek, F.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-02-10

363

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 2, Battery recycling and disposal  

SciTech Connect

Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

Corbus, D.

1992-09-01

364

Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model.  

PubMed

Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets. PMID:23816311

Tonjes, David J; Mallikarjun, Sreekanth

2013-06-28

365

Crustal recycling and the aleutian arc  

SciTech Connect

Two types of crustal recycling transfer continental crust back into its mantle source. The first of these, upper crustal recycling, involves elements that have been fractionated by the hydrosphere-sediment system, and are subducted as a part of the oceanic crust. The subduction process (S-process) then fractionates these elements, and those not removed at shallow tectonic levels and as excess components of arc magmas are returned to the mantle. Newly determined trace element composition of Pacific oceanic sedimants are variable and mixing is necessary during the S-process, if sediment is to provide excess element in the ratios observed in Aleutian arc magmas. Only a small fraction of the total sediment subducted at the Aleutian trench is required to furnish the excess elements in Aleutian arc magmas. Ba and {sub 10}Be data indicate that this small fraction includes a contribution from the youngest subducted sediment. The second type of recycling, lower crustal recycling, involves crystal cumulates of both arc and oceanic crustal origin, and residues from crustal melting within arc crust. Unlike the silicic sediments, recycled lower crust is mafic to ultramafic in composition. Trace element analyses of xenoliths representing Aleutian arc lower crust are presented. Recycling by delamination of lower crust and attached mantle lithosphere may occur following basalt eclogite phase transformations that are facilitated by terrane suturing events that weld oceanic island arcs to the continents. The relative importance of upper and lower crustal recycling exerts a primary control on continental crustal composition.

Kay, R.W.; Kay, S.M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1988-06-01

366

Recycling in 1993: Ebbs and flows  

SciTech Connect

This has been a year of ups and downs for recycling as markets and capacity have ebbed and flowed. The beginning of 1993 started strong as prices for most commodities began to rise. However, by spring, prices for all commodities began to falter. By early fall, prices for many commodities, especially paper, had fallen to near historical lows. Overall, glass and steel markets remained stable but flat in 1993, while markets for paper, plastics, and aluminum weakened. By June, markets for recyclables had become so weak that Mindis Recycling, a buy-back center in Atlanta, began charging patrons 4 cents per pounds to process paper, glass, and plastic brought to the facility. Patrons are required to pay a minimum of $5 to drop off their recyclables. Although participation at the buyback center has declined since a fee was charged, company officials say they cannot change the policy unless market prices for recyclables increase. A number of factors have caused these low prices. Mainly, a weak world economy coupled with an oversupply of material on the world market. Germany's aggressive recycling law, an influx of aluminum from the former Soviet Union, and plans for China and several other Asian countries to begin producing their own plastics have all wreaked havoc on US markets for recyclables.

Rabasca, L.

1993-12-01

367

Recycling Endosomes Supply AMPA Receptors for LTP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength, the most established cellular model of information storage in the brain, is expressed by an increase in the number of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. However, the source of AMPA receptors mobilized during LTP is unknown. We report that AMPA receptors are transported from recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane for LTP. Stimuli that triggered LTP promoted not only AMPA receptor insertion but also generalized recycling of cargo and membrane from endocytic compartments. Thus, recycling endosomes supply AMPA receptors for LTP and provide a mechanistic link between synaptic potentiation and membrane remodeling during synapse modification.

Park, Mikyoung; Penick, Esther C.; Edwards, Jeffrey G.; Kauer, Julie A.; Ehlers, Michael D.

2004-09-01

368

Carbide to close HDPE recycling plant  

SciTech Connect

Union Carbide says it will close its high-density polyethylene (HDPE) recycling facility in Piscataway, New Jersey on October 1 because of unacceptable earnings potential. The plant closure--which will affect about 50 Carbide jobs--follows the announcement that another HDPE producer, Quantum Chemical, plans to bow out of recycling (CW, April 17, p.28). The sale of Quantum`s 32-million lbs/year HDPE recycling plant in Health, OH to 3DM fell through early this summer, and the facility has been put back on the market.

NONE

1996-07-24

369

Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (? 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental results, a number of recommendations were made on how to optimize the use of recycled aggregates for structural concrete production. The results demonstrate that one of the practical ways to utilize a higher percentage of recycled aggregates in concrete is "precasting" with the use of fly ash and an initial steam curing stage immediately after casting.

Kou, Shicong

370

Phonon recycling in ion-doped lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phonon emission is an energy-conversion efficiency loss in photonic transition processes. Phonon recycling by the anti-Stokes cooling results in a lower operating temperature. Transmitted optical phonons cross heterogeneous boundary and the upconverted acoustic phonons contribute to higher occupancy of the optical phonon and increase the second-order transition rate. Optimization of phonon spectra makes upconversion favorable. We present theoretical study and quantitative efficiency results for phonon recycling in Yb3+ doped yttria alumina garnet lasing layer and its adjacent Yb3+:ZrF2 cooling layers and examine the thermodynamic limits. It is predicted that 30% of emitted phonons are recycled and further improvement is possible.

Kim, Jedo; Kaviany, Massoud

2009-08-01

371

Autophagy modulates cell migration and ?1 integrin membrane recycling.  

PubMed

Cell migration is dependent on a series of integrated cellular events including the membrane recycling of the extracellular matrix receptor integrins. In this paper, we investigate the role of autophagy in regulating cell migration. In a wound-healing assay, we observed that autophagy was reduced in cells at the leading edge than in cells located rearward. These differences in autophagy were correlated with the robustness of MTOR activity. The spatial difference in the accumulation of autophagic structures was not detected in rapamycin-treated cells, which had less migration capacity than untreated cells. In contrast, the knockdown of the autophagic protein ATG7 stimulated cell migration of HeLa cells. Accordingly, atg3(-/-) and atg5(-/-) MEFs have greater cell migration properties than their wild-type counterparts. Stimulation of autophagy increased the co-localization of ?1 integrin-containing vesicles with LC3-stained autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy slowed down the lysosomal degradation of internalized ?1 integrins and promoted its membrane recycling. From these findings, we conclude that autophagy regulates cell migration, a central mechanism in cell development, angiogenesis, and tumor progression, by mitigating the cell surface expression of ?1 integrins. PMID:24036548

Tuloup-Minguez, Véronique; Hamaï, Ahmed; Greffard, Anne; Nicolas, Valérie; Codogno, Patrice; Botti, Joëlle

2013-09-09

372

Syndecan-4 Phosphorylation Is a Control Point for Integrin Recycling  

PubMed Central

Summary Precise spatiotemporal coordination of integrin adhesion complex dynamics is essential for efficient cell migration. For cells adherent to fibronectin, differential engagement of ?5?1 and ?V?3 integrins is used to elicit changes in adhesion complex stability, mechanosensation, matrix assembly, and migration, but the mechanisms responsible for receptor regulation have remained largely obscure. We identify phosphorylation of the membrane-intercalated proteoglycan syndecan-4 as an essential switch controlling integrin recycling. Src phosphorylates syndecan-4 and, by driving syntenin binding, leads to suppression of Arf6 activity and recycling of ?V?3 to the plasma membrane at the expense of ?5?1. The resultant elevation in ?V?3 engagement promotes stabilization of focal adhesions. Conversely, abrogation of syndecan-4 phosphorylation drives surface expression of ?5?1, destabilizes adhesion complexes, and disrupts cell migration. These data identify the dynamic spatiotemporal regulation of Src-mediated syndecan-4 phosphorylation as an essential switch controlling integrin trafficking and adhesion dynamics to promote efficient cell migration.

Morgan, Mark R.; Hamidi, Hellyeh; Bass, Mark D.; Warwood, Stacey; Ballestrem, Christoph; Humphries, Martin J.

2013-01-01

373

Syndecan-4 phosphorylation is a control point for integrin recycling.  

PubMed

Precise spatiotemporal coordination of integrin adhesion complex dynamics is essential for efficient cell migration. For cells adherent to fibronectin, differential engagement of ?5?1 and ?V?3 integrins is used to elicit changes in adhesion complex stability, mechanosensation, matrix assembly, and migration, but the mechanisms responsible for receptor regulation have remained largely obscure. We identify phosphorylation of the membrane-intercalated proteoglycan syndecan-4 as an essential switch controlling integrin recycling. Src phosphorylates syndecan-4 and, by driving syntenin binding, leads to suppression of Arf6 activity and recycling of ?V?3 to the plasma membrane at the expense of ?5?1. The resultant elevation in ?V?3 engagement promotes stabilization of focal adhesions. Conversely, abrogation of syndecan-4 phosphorylation drives surface expression of ?5?1, destabilizes adhesion complexes, and disrupts cell migration. These data identify the dynamic spatiotemporal regulation of Src-mediated syndecan-4 phosphorylation as an essential switch controlling integrin trafficking and adhesion dynamics to promote efficient cell migration. PMID:23453597

Morgan, Mark R; Hamidi, Hellyeh; Bass, Mark D; Warwood, Stacey; Ballestrem, Christoph; Humphries, Martin J

2013-02-28

374

Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns. PMID:22749721

Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

2012-07-01

375

Policies for Strengthening Markets for Recyclables: A Worldwide Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many national, regional, and local governments have introduced policies to encourage recycling. Their varied experiences allow examination of the effectiveness of alternative policy options. The conditions driving recycling, selection of pro-recycling policies, and recycling statistics are compared for 14 countries across Europe, Asia, North America, South America, and Oceana. The best policy for any particular country is a function of

Daniel H. Loughlin; Morton A. Barlaz

2006-01-01

376

Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX)

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

2010-01-01

377

Asphalt recycling technology: Literature review and research plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of current technology for the rehabilitation and maintenance of pavement surfaces by recycling was conducted. While the primary concern was asphalt concrete recycling, a brief review of portland cement concrete recycling is included. Reports of cases involving recycling technology and lessons learned are reviewed. Recommendations are presented outlining research required to advance the state-of-the-art in a manner that

D. E. Newcomb; J. A. Epps

1981-01-01

378

Durable products recycling: Stakeholder perspectives and directions for public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent MIT conference on durable products recycling highlights different challenges facing suppliers, manufacturers, and recyclers. These challenges include uncertainty about the environmental benefits of recycling, unstable markets for recycled materials, variable quality, and lack of support from citizens and government. Conference discussions suggest directions for public and private policy in the US. Government should focus upon strengthening market opportunities

Jennifer Nash

1995-01-01

379

The Sheltered Workshop as a Community Recycling Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study surveyed 3,057 sheltered workshops to determine the number of workshops engaged in recycling activities, profits gained through recycling, the types of materials recycled, and the market values of various recyclable materials in different regions of the country. (SBH)

Wesolowski, Michael D.; Bacza, Gerald L.

1980-01-01

380

Factors Influencing Community Residents' Participation in Commingled Curbside Recycling Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commingled curbside recycling, a system where household residents put all recyclable materials in one container, is a new form of recycling that has been initiated to decrease the amount of household waste sent to landfills. In a suburb with a new commingled program, a mail survey of environmental and recycling attitudes was sent to 603 households with a 76% response

Raymond J. Gamba; Stuart Oskamp

1994-01-01

381

Development of materials and technologies for control of polymer recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement toward a recycling-based society through the essential development of recyclable materials alongside technologies for controlling recycling is reviewed. Recently, there has been progress in producing various polymers and technologies with the aim of achieving circulative utilization. For example, the upgrade recycling of commodity plastics, selective transformation of engineering plastics, selective depolymerization of various polymers in supercritical fluids, crosslinking–decrosslinking

Haruo Nishida

2011-01-01

382

Recycling cell formation using group technology for disposal products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recycling cell formation problem means that disposal products are classified into recycling part families using group technology in their end of life phase. Disposal products have the uncertainties of product status by usage influences. Recycling cells are formed considering design, process and usage attributes. In this paper, a novel approach to the design of a cellular recycling system is

1999-01-01

383

A Comparison of Public Policies for Lead Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies that encourage recycling may be used to reduce environmental costs from waste disposal because direct restrictions on disposal are difficult to enforce. Four recycling policies have been advanced: (i) taxes on the use of virgin materials, (ii) deposit\\/refund programs, (iii) subsidies to recycled material production, and (iv) recycled content standards. In this article, I analyze the structure of these

Hilary A. Sigman

1995-01-01

384

RECYCLE OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses technical and economic studies to assess the impact of recycle on the furnace sorbent injection process. Levelized costs of various recycle schemes were compared to baseline (non-recycle) costs using the EPA LIMB Cost Model and the LIMB Recycle Model. Laborato...

385

Recycling legislation: A balanced approach for opening biomass energy opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

State recycling legislation represents one of the barriers to using wood wastes for energy. Although many states are setting recycling goals that often mandate a significant portion of the waste stream be recycled, legislation in the same states specifically excludes wood-to-energy as a recycling option. A significant supply of yard waste and wood waste could be available for biomass power

1995-01-01

386

Overview to water recycling in California: success stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provides a summary of recycled water use in California, illustrating the evolution of its application from individual projects for nearby users, to city-wide and district programs. Presents three detailed case studies of recent water recycling projects: the West Basin Water Recycling project in Los Angeles County, the South Bay Water Recycling project in Santa Clara County, and several projects in

Arlene K. Wong; Peter H. Gleick

2000-01-01

387

Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]<150 ppm) and thus low calculated zircon saturation temperatures (Tzrnsat). Within the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak, TzrnTi values are predominantly at or below average Tzrnsat, and there is no apparent correlation between age and TzrnTi. At temperatures appropriate for granodiorite/tonalite melt generation (at or above biotite dehydration; >825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically <200 ppm and frequently 100-150 ppm for individual large intrusions or intrusive suites). We infer from this that [Zr] in anatectic melts is probably not limited by zircon supply and is primarily controlled by melting parameters. Comparison of the data from TIS with one of these intrusions, the smaller but otherwise similar Late Cretaceous Bear Lake Intrusive Suite (BLIS) in the San Bernardino Mountains (CA), is especially illuminating. Like the TIS the BLIS zircons also have low TzrnTi values (at or below Tzrnsat). However, unlike in the TIS, inherited zircons (or zircon cores) are common (BLIS is intruded into Paleoproterozoic basement). This comparison suggests that lack of abundant inherited or xenocrystic zircon in TIS rocks may be a function of whether they are in high abundance in the melt source or host rocks rather than strong initial undersaturation, and that low [Zr] might reflect melting at temperatures below biotite or amphibole dehydration. The high abundance of zircons with low TzrnTi could also reflect low anatectic temperatures as intermediate-felsic magmas that are initially undersaturated should be dominated by zircons with TzrnTi > Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.

2008-12-01

388

Is recycling the best policy option? Insights from life cycle analysis  

SciTech Connect

The public perceives that the more we recycle, the better off we are. However, both the concept of recycling and the benefits to be achieved from recycling are somewhat vague. To determine the best option for disposition of a material at the end of its first use, we need to first define the available options and then clarify the possible goals that can be achieved by them. The best option will depend on the material, goals to be achieved, and location-dependent factors, such as costs, resources, and regulations. This paper presents the results of a life-cycle energy analysis of kraft paper and newsprint by Argonne National Laboratory. They indicate that under some circumstances, the option of fiber-energy recovery will maximize the benefits that can. be realized from the U.S. used paper resource.

Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

1996-03-01

389

Evaluation of sites for the location of WEEE recycling plants in Spain.  

PubMed

As a consequence of new European legal regulations for treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), recycling plants have to be installed in Spain. In this context, this contribution describes a method for ranking of Spanish municipalities according to their appropriateness for the installation of these plants. In order to rank the alternatives, the discrete multi-criteria decision method PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organisation METHod for Enrichment Evaluations), combined with a surveys of experts, is applied. As existing plants are located in North and East Spain, a significant concentration of top ranking municipalities can be observed in South and Central Spain. The method does not present an optimal structure of the future recycling system, but provides a selection of good alternatives for potential locations of recycling plants. PMID:17198752

Queiruga, Dolores; Walther, Grit; González-Benito, Javier; Spengler, Thomas

2007-01-02

390

Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils  

SciTech Connect

Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

1995-08-01

391

The deubiquitinases USP33 and USP20 coordinate ?2 adrenergic receptor recycling and resensitization  

PubMed Central

Agonist-induced ubiquitination of the ?2 adrenergic receptor (?2AR) functions as an important post-translational modification to sort internalized receptors to the lysosomes for degradation. We now show that this ubiquitination is reversed by two deubiquitinating enzymes, ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs) 20 and 33, thus, inhibiting lysosomal trafficking when concomitantly promoting receptor recycling from the late-endosomal compartments as well as resensitization of recycled receptors at the cell surface. Dissociation of constitutively bound endogenously expressed USPs 20 and 33 from the ?2AR immediately after agonist stimulation and reassociation on prolonged agonist treatment allows receptors to first become ubiquitinated and then deubiquitinated, thus, providing a ‘trip switch' between degradative and recycling pathways at the late-endosomal compartments. Thus, USPs 20 and 33 serve as novel regulators that dictate both post-endocytic sorting as well as the intensity and extent of ?2AR signalling from the cell surface.

Berthouze, Magali; Venkataramanan, Vidya; Li, Yi; Shenoy, Sudha K

2009-01-01

392

Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.  

PubMed

The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors. PMID:23482100

Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

2013-03-11

393

Commercial Waste Food Recycling for Swine Production.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of commercial waste food recycling for swine production is examined. Large amounts of waste material from restaurants and food processing plants, suitable for swine or animal feed, are currently being wasted by their disposal in land-fill ...

A. A. S. Tseng L. Young

1978-01-01

394

Systems for Recycling Water in Poultry Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was conducted to identify effective and economical water treatments, including disinfection, to meet the U.S. Department of Agriculture's standards for the recycling of poultry chiller water. Reconditioned chiller water meeting these criteria wa...

R. E. Carawan B. W. Sheldon

1988-01-01

395

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #0039  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 20, 1995, concerning the suitability of recycled post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) produced by Wellman, Inc., glycolysis process for ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

396

Dynamic Hepatic Recycling Glucose Tolerance Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systems and methods are described providing a hepatic recycling glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of types and subtypes of diabetes mellitus and other hyperglycemic or hypoglycemic conditions. A method is also provided for screening candidate drugs...

I. J. Kurland W. N. P. Lee M. Saad J. Xu

2005-01-01

397

Nonequilibrium Raftlike Membrane Domains under Continuous Recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model for the kinetics of spontaneous membrane domain (raft) assembly that includes the effect of membrane recycling ubiquitous in living cells. We show that domains can have a broad power-law distribution with an average radius that scales with the 1/4 power of the domain lifetime when the line tension at the domain edges is large. For biologically reasonable recycling and diffusion rates, the average domain radius is in the tens of nm range, consistent with observations. This represents one possible link between signaling (involving rafts) and traffic (recycling) in cells. Finally, we present evidence that suggests that the average raft size may be the same for all scale-free recycling schemes.

Turner, Matthew S.; Sens, Pierre; Socci, Nicholas D.

2005-10-01

398

Recycle process for TATB PBX parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process was developed for recycling scrap TATB PBX parts into reusable PBX. Pressed densities of two lots of RX-03-BB formulated from scrap parts were found to be slightly above normal and physical strengths were adequate.

A. G. Osborn; T. L. Stallings; H. D. Johnson

1978-01-01

399

Recycling of plastics in automobile shredder residue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Argonne National Laboratory has been conducting experiments to recover some of the plastics in the auto shredder residue (ASR) for recycling into the plastics manufacturing stream. As part of the study, we also reviewed the literature related to the dispo...

B. J. Jody E. J. Daniels P. V. Bonsignore F. J. Dudek

1990-01-01

400

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #61  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

The interior layer of PCR PET is separated from food by ?1 mil thick layer of virgin, food grade PET.Recycling Process: Physical. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

401

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #161  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... on behalf of Total Petrochemicals USA (TP) a no objection letter from FDA confirming the capability of the proposed physical recycling process to ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

402

Recycled Words: Holistic Instruction for LEP Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an alternative, holistic vocabulary strategy for students with limited English proficiency that draws high-frequency words from a variety of literary publications, then recycles that vocabulary in reading, writing, listening, and speaking activities. (SR)

Blake, Mary E.; Majors, Patricia L.

1995-01-01

403

Recycle with Heating: A Laboratory Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus (built from domestic plumbing pipes and fittings) that uses only water and electricity (as consumables) to investigate basic mass and heat balances in a system with recycle. Also describes experiments using the apparatus. (JN)

Foord, A.; Mason, G.

1985-01-01

404

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #60  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... As discussed in our "Points to Consider for the Use of Recycled Plastics in Food Packaging: Chemistry Considerations," the Agency has no ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

405

Plastics waste trashes German recycling scheme  

SciTech Connect

Plastics waste is causing a major headache for Duales System Deutschland (DSD: Bonn), one of Europe`s groundbreaking national packaging recycling programs. Five of Germany`s states have threatened to withdraw from the plan mainly because of the lack of plastics recycling capacity, says a DSD spokeswoman. {open_quotes}The pace of establishing recycling capacity does not meet the zeal in collection.{close_quotes} she notes. In addition, the organization has been crippled by a lack of funds. It claims that up to half the subscribers to the scheme - who pay a fee to display a green dot on packaging - are either irregular payers or not paying fees in proportion to their use of the green dot. The cost of setting up and paying for plastics recycling - not originally part of DSD`s responsibility - is also hurting the organization.

Chynoweth, E.

1993-06-30

406

Fermilab Recycler damper requirements and design  

SciTech Connect

The design of transverse dampers for the Fermilab Recycler storage ring is described. An observed instability and analysis of subsequent measurements where used to identify the requirements. The digital approach being implemented is presented.

Crisp, J.; Hu, M.; Tupikov, V.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

407

Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

2010-10-01

408

BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling  

SciTech Connect

The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

2010-03-22

409

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #107  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #107. January 31, 2007. Dr. Frank Welle Fraunhofer-Institut für Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung Abt. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

410

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #160  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... is suitable for use at levels of up to 50% recycled content in the manufacture of HDPE containers for contact with fresh milk or juices, meat trays, and ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

411

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #0018  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Packaging & Food Contact Substances (FCS). Recycled ... consumer polystyrene recovered from controlled sources for ... of strict source control, there is ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

412

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #115  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... and non-food applications (excluding industrial PET containers) and the PCR PET complies with 21 CFR 177.1630.Recycling Process: Physical. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

413

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #0043  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... you have provided described, in detail, the Wellman physical, or “secondary” recycling procedure (sorting, grinding, washing, melting and reforming ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

414

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #168  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... PET) material that is suitable for use at levels of up to 100% recycled content in the manufacture of PET containers for contact with all food types ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

415

Aluminum: Recycling of Aluminum Dross/Saltcake  

SciTech Connect

As this NICE3 publication details, the objective of this project is to commercialize the process technology to eliminate all landfill waste associated with black dross and saltcake generated from aluminum recycling in the United States.

Blazek, S.

1999-01-29

416

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #149  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #149. May 16, 2011. Frank Welle Fraunhofer Institut Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung Giggenhauser Str. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

417

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #73  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #73. June 26, 2002. Robin Tuckerman Signum 47 Dallas Drive, Broadmeadows Victoria, Australia 3047. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

418

Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

1995-12-01

419

Water recycling: how feasible is it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers at Cranfield University's School of Water Sciences, UK, has recently completed a major study into water recycling, its technology and the public's attitude to it in England and Wales. Here we report on some of the findings.

Paul Jeffrey; Bruce Jefferson

2001-01-01

420

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #143  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... PCR-PET) flakes that are suitable for use at levels up to 100% recycled content in the manufacture of PET containers for contact with all food types ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

421

No Objection Letter for Recycled Plastics #0034  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 1994, requesting our review of your recycled polystyrene for use primarily in contact with beef, pork and fish, for approximately 2 to 3 days at contact ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

422

Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone deplet...

C. Steffani M. Meltzer

1995-01-01

423

Mechanical properties modeling of recycled aggregate concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability observed in the composition of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is a problem that inhibits the use of recycled aggregates in concrete production. To contribute in this field, a research was carried out varying water\\/cement ratio and substitution percent of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. The experimental program used samples of main Brazilian C&D waste sources, which are

Antonio Eduardo Bezerra Cabral; Valdir Schalch; Denise Carpena Coitinho Dal Molin; José Luis Duarte Ribeiro

2010-01-01

424

POST-CONSUMER PLASTIC RECYCLING: CASE STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-consumer recycling is a technological trend that recover the economic value from objects discarded by consumers (e.g. bottles and packaging). It is a trend due to the current solid waste problems. Traditional landfills are becoming saturated, scarce and environmentally undesirable. Post-consumer plastic recycling can be a sustainable development tool which help to solve these problems since plastic consumption and waste

Aline Marques Rolim; Luís Felipe Nascimento

425

Antiproton cooling in the Fermilab Recycler Ring  

SciTech Connect

The 8.9-GeV/c Recycler antiproton storage ring is equipped with both stochastic and electron cooling systems. These cooling systems are designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. In this paper we report on an experimental demonstration of electron cooling of high-energy antiprotons. At the time of writing this report, the Recycler electron cooling system is routinely used in collider operations. It has helped to set recent peak luminosity records.

Nagaitsev, S.; Bolshakov, A.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, Alexey V.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kazakevich, G.; Kramper, B.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G; Schmidt, C.W.; Seletskiy, S.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; Zenkevich, P.; /Fermilab /Moscow, ITEP /Novosibirsk, IYF /Rochester U.

2005-12-01

426

Antiproton Cooling in the Fermilab Recycler Ring  

SciTech Connect

The 8.9-GeV/c Recycler antiproton storage ring is equipped with both stochastic and electron cooling systems. These cooling systems are designed to assist accumulation of antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. In this paper we report on an experimental demonstration of electron cooling of high-energy antiprotons. At the time of writing this report, the Recycler electron cooling system is routinely used in collider operations. It has helped to set recent peak luminosity records.

Nagaitsev, S.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kramper, B.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G.; Schmidt, C. W.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A. [FNAL, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Bolshakov, A.; Zenkevich, P. [ITEP, Moscow, 117259 (Russian Federation); Kazakevich, G. [Budker INP, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)] (and others)

2006-03-20

427

Recycling: Taking care of our environment!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

6th Grade: Standard 7: The students will understand the value of service and effective consumer practices. Objcective 1: Participate in service-learning that benefits the environment. Our environment is very important to us. How we live has an impact on everyone in the world. One way to help our earth\\'s environment stay clean and a healthy place to live is to recycle. As you go through the different links about recycling, I want you to look ...

Hansen, Miss

2007-11-05

428

TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT MG-SCRAP RECYCLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, only high grade clean Mg-scrap without impurities can be recycled easily into high purity alloys. More complex handling is required for old magnesium-base or post consumer scrap e.g. automotive parts and electronic devices. The additional process steps determine the economical attractiveness of Mg-recycling. This article will provide a detailed overview of the current research activities of ecka granules -

Gerhard Hanko; Gernot Macher

2003-01-01

429

Lead immobilization in mechanochemical fly ash recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies, we focused on a mechanochemical process for recycling fly ash for use in cement; this process was expected\\u000a to immobilize heavy metals in the fly ash, a desirable outcome in light of the fact that recycled fly ash is commonly used\\u000a in the synthesis of inorganic materials. Here, we investigated the leaching of lead (Pb) from fly

Yugo Nomura; Kazuo Fujiwara; Makoto Takada; Satoshi Nakai; Masaaki Hosomi

2008-01-01

430

Recycling SAW slag proves reliable and repeatable  

SciTech Connect

Submerged arc welding (SAW) slag is recycled by taking the fused part of the slag after welding and processing it in a manner that allows it to be reused for the same SAW operation. This slag recycling process has been around the welding industry for many years, and trial-and-error experimentation through the years has made it a reliable and accepted process. Two major reasons why a welding manufacturer would consider the use of recycled submerged arc welding slag are cost savings and the environment. The cost of processing recycled slag is less than the purchase of new flux from the manufacturer. Many times this can amount to savings of 50% or greater. Savings can also be realized by eliminating the need to collect the slag and have it removed to an approved landfill. Environmentally, recycling slag minimizes the use of nonrenewable resources such as minerals, and it reduces the mass of material that must be sent to a landfill. It should be noted, though, that in most recycling processes there is some loss in weight, and not all the slag is processed into reusable flux. Also, there is magnetic separation during processing in which magnetic impurities are removed and disposed of as waste. An average for this loss is 25% of the total weight processed. To realize all of the advantages of recycling, it is essential that the process is performed properly and according to the standards established by industry. Below are steps required for recycling slag as established by two standards setting organizations.

Beck, H.P.; Jackson, A.R. [Harbert`s Products, Inc., Greencastle, PA (United States)

1996-06-01

431

Fuzzy Assessment of Material Recyclability and Its Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to assess material recyclability using fuzzy logic is presented. Recyclability of materials is defined as a function\\u000a of several variables, called basic indicators, which influence the technology and economics of the recycling processes, policies\\u000a related to recycling, quality of recycled materials, and environmental impact of waste. Using a hierarchical network of fuzzy\\u000a inference engines, the basic indicators are

Yannis A. Phillis; Vassilis S. Kouikoglou; Xiaomin Zhu

2009-01-01

432

Molybdenum recycling in the United States in 1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the flow of molybdenum in the United States in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which molybdenum was recycled. Molybdenum was mostly recycled from products of molybdenum-bearing steels and superalloys, with some molybdenum products recovered specifically for their high molybdenum content. In 1998, 8,000 metric tons (t) of molybdenum was estimated to have been recycled, and the recycling rate was calculated to be 33 percent, with recycling efficiency at about 30 percent.

Blossom, John W.

2002-01-01

433

Properties of laminates containing polymer glass fiber recyclates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: In this paper the possibilities of application of polyester-glass fiber recyclates in composite's materials were estimated. Different materials with addition of recyclates were made: laminates stratified laminates and polymer concrete. Design\\/methodology\\/approach: Recyclate obtained after grinding was a mixture of cured polyester resin particles and glass fibers. Two different groups of recyclates have been obtaining after separation. Recyclate with grain

J. Myalski

434

Maryland's program for buying recycled paper (innovations)  

SciTech Connect

Maryland was the first state to mandate large purchases of recycled paper. In 1977, the legislature passed House Bill 153 which requires the State to increase its purchase of recycled paper (paper containing 80 percent post-consumer waste) to five percent of the total paper purchases by 1978, 25 percent by 1981, and 40 percent by 1985. Since the passage of the law, the state has purchased 272,000 reams of recycled bond paper, 40,000 corrugated boxes, and 25,000 cases of recycled paper towels. State agencies have also purchased an additional 438,616 dollars of recycled towels, napkins, and toilet tissue. These purchases, totaling over 1.2 million dollars, have saved approximately 81 billion Btu's or enough home heating oil for 643 homes for a year. Over 1,700 tons of solid waste have been withheld from the Nation's solid waste stream. The recycled paper has generally been less expensive than virgin paper. All of these benefits have been achieved without loss of quality. Program implementation and problems are discussed.

Keller, R.

1980-07-01

435

Management of scrap computer recycling in Taiwan.  

PubMed

It is estimated that approximately 300,000 scrap personal computers are generated each year in Taiwan [S.-L. Chang, A Study on the Scrap Computer Treatment Cost, Environment Protection Administration of Taiwan, December 1998 (in Chinese)]. The disposal of such a huge number of scrap computers presents a difficult task for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. Also, the hazardous materials contained (i.e., phosphor coatings of cathode ray tubes (CRTs), batteries, polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, mercury-containing parts, liquid crystal display, high-lead content CRT funnel glass, and plastic containing flame-retardant bromine, etc.) in the scrap computers may seriously pollute the environment if they are not properly disposed of. Therefore, the EPA of Taiwan declared scrap personal computers the producer's recycling responsibility as of July 1997. Under this decree, the manufacturers, importers and sellers of personal computers have to properly recover and recycle the scrapped computers which they originally sell. On June 1, 1998, a producer responsibility recycling program for scrap computers was officially implemented in Taiwan. Under this program, consumers can bring their unwanted personal computers to the designated collection points and receive reward money. Currently, only six computer items are mandated to be recycled in this recycling program. They are notebooks, monitors, hard disks, power supplies, printed circuit boards and main frame shells. This article outlines the current scrap computer recycling system in Taiwan. PMID:10751692

Lee, C H; Chang, S L; Wang, K M; Wen, L C

2000-04-28

436

Constitutive apical membrane recycling in Aplysia enterocytes.  

PubMed

In Aplysia californica enterocytes, alanine-stimulated Na+ absorption increases both apical membrane exocytosis and fractional capacitance (fCa; a measure of relative apical membrane surface area). These increases are thought to reduce membrane tension during periods of nutrient absorption that cause the enterocytes to swell osmotically. In the absence of alanine, exocytosis and fCa are constant. These findings imply equal rates of constitutive endocytosis and exocytosis and constitutive recycling of the apical plasma membrane. Thus, the purpose of this study was to confirm and determine the relative extent of constitutive apical membrane recycling in Aplysia enterocytes. Biotinylated lectins are commonly used to label plasma membranes and to investigate plasma membrane recycling. Of fourteen biotinylated lectins tested, biotinylated wheat germ agglutinin (bWGA) bound preferentially to the enterocytes apical surface. Therefore, we used bWGA, avidin D (which binds tightly to biotin), and the UV fluorophore 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid (AMCA)-conjugated avidin D to assess the extent of constitutive apical membrane recycling. A temperature-dependent (20 vs. 4 degrees C) experimental protocol employed the use of two tissues from each of five snails and resulted in a approximately 60% difference in apical surface fluorescence intensity. Because the extent of membrane recycling is proportional to the difference in surface fluorescence intensity, this difference reveals a relatively high rate of constitutive apical membrane recycling in Aplysia enterocytes. PMID:15673107

Keeton, Robert Aaron; Runge, Steven William; Moran, William Michael

2004-11-01

437

Characterization of cold recycled asphalt mixtures  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the long-term behavior of the cold-recycled asphalt mixtures was investigated through nine experimental designs. The scope of the study covered two types of pavement material, three levels of oxydized condition of the old binder and one type of virgin aggregate. The added softening agents included a high-float asphalt emulsion AE-150, a foamed asphalt, and the rejuvenating agents, Reclamite, Mobilsol and DUTREX 739. The Water Sensitivity Test was used to evaluate the resistance of the recycled mixes to water. The results of the study indicated that most of the rejuvenating action of the added binder on the old binder took place during the compaction process. The binders of the recycled mixes which underwent the initial softening during the compaction process generally increased in stiffness with increasing curing time. The results indicated that the gyratory stability index and the gyratory elasto-plastic index could be used to determine the optimum binder content of a recycled mix. However, they could not be used to estimate the resilient modulus or the Marshall stability of the mix.A higher compactive effort generally produced a higher resilient modulus and Marshall stability of the recycled mix. When the binder content is too high, a higher compactive effort generally produces a lower Hveem R-value.The structural performance of these recycled mixes was compared to that of an asphalt concrete using a linear elastic multilayer analysis.

Tia, M.

1982-01-01

438

Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On their journey across large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation-evaporation cycles (recycling events). We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, continental moisture recycling is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distinguish two cases: in case (A) recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last advected across the ocean-land boundary. In case (B) recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last evaporated from the ocean. For case B we show by means of a simple scale analysis that, given the conditions on Earth, realistic frequency distributions may be regarded as a mixture of a Poisson distribution and a geometric distribution. By contrast, in case A the Poisson distribution generally appears as a reasonable approximation. This conclusion is consistent with the simulation results of an earlier study where an atmospheric general circulation model equipped with water vapor tracers was used. Our results demonstrate that continental moisture recycling can be interpreted as a Poisson process.

Goessling, H. F.; Reick, C. H.

2013-04-01

439

Nutrient recycling affects autotroph and ecosystem stoichiometry.  

PubMed

Stoichiometric nutrient ratios are the consequence of myriad interacting processes, both biotic and abiotic. Theoretical explanations for autotroph stoichiometry have focused on species' nutrient requirements but have not addressed the role of nutrient availability in determining autotroph stoichiometry. Remineralization of organic N and P supplies a significant fraction of inorganic N and P to autotrophs, making nutrient recycling a potentially important process influencing autotroph stoichiometry. To quantitatively investigate the relationship between available N and P, autotroph N:P, and nutrient recycling, we analyze a stoichiometrically explicit model of autotroph growth, incorporating Michaelis-Menten-Monod nutrient uptake kinetics, Droop growth, and Liebig's law of the minimum. If autotroph growth is limited by a single nutrient, increased recycling of the limiting nutrient pushes autotrophs toward colimitation and alters both autotroph and environmental stoichiometry. We derive a steady state relationship between input stoichiometry, autotroph N:P, and the stoichiometry of organic losses that allows us to estimate the relative recycling of N to P within an ecosystem. We then estimate relative N and P recycling for a marine, an aquatic, and two terrestrial ecosystems. Preferential P recycling, in conjunction with greater relative P retention at the organismal and ecosystem levels, presents a strong case for the importance of P to biomass production across ecosystems. PMID:20374138

Ballantyne, Ford; Menge, Duncan N L; Ostling, Annette; Hosseini, Parviez

2008-04-01

440

RACK-1 Directs Dynactin-dependent RAB-11 Endosomal Recycling during Mitosis in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Membrane trafficking pathways are necessary for the addition and removal of membrane during cytokinesis. In animal cells, recycling endosomes act as a major source of the additional membranes during furrow progression and abscission. However, the mechanisms and factors that regulate recycling endosomes during the cell cycle remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans Receptor of Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK-1) is required for cytokinesis, germline membrane organization, and the recruitment of RAB-11–labeled recycling endosomes to the pericentrosomal region and spindle. RACK-1 is also required for proper chromosome separation and astral microtubule length. RACK-1 localizes to the centrosomes, kinetochores, the midbody, and nuclear envelopes during the cell cycle. We found that RACK-1 directly binds to DNC-2, the C. elegans p50/dynamitin subunit of the dynactin complex. Last, RACK-1 may facilitate the sequestration of recycling endosomes by targeting DNC-2 to centrosomes and the spindle. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which RACK-1 directs the dynactin-dependent redistribution of recycling endosomes during the cell cycle, thus ensuring proper membrane trafficking events during cytokinesis.

Ai, Erkang; Poole, Daniel S.

2009-01-01

441

Cannabinoid receptor 2 undergoes Rab5-mediated internalization and recycles via a Rab11-dependent pathway.  

PubMed

Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is a GPCR highly expressed on the surface of cells of the immune system, supporting its role in immunomodulation. This study has investigated the trafficking properties of this receptor when stably expressed by HEK-293 cells. As previously reported, cell surface CB2 rapidly internalized upon exposure to agonist. Direct evidence of CB2 recycling was observed upon competitive removal of the stimulating agonist by inverse agonist. CB2 also underwent slow constitutive internalization when agonist was absent and was up-regulated in the presence of inverse agonist. Co-expression of CB2 and dominant negative Rab5 resulted in a significantly reduced capacity for receptors to internalize with no effect on recycling of the internalized receptors. Conversely, co-expression with dominant negative Rab11 did not alter the ability of CB2 to internalize but did impair their ability to return to the cell surface. Co-expression of wild-type, dominant negative or constitutively active Rab4 with CB2 did not alter basal surface expression, extent of internalization, or extent of recycling. These results suggest that Rab5 is involved in CB2 endocytosis and that internalized receptors are recycled via a Rab11 associated pathway rather than the rapid Rab4 associated pathway. This report provides the first comprehensive description of CB2 internalization and recycling to date. PMID:21640764

Grimsey, Natasha L; Goodfellow, Catherine E; Dragunow, Mike; Glass, Michelle

2011-05-26

442

Recycling of coal combustion wastes.  

PubMed

The separation of unburned carbon from coal-fired power plant bottom ashes was conducted in order to increase the possibility of the recycling of coal combustion wastes. A two-stage flotation technique was used for this study. In the rougher flotation experiments the amounts of collector, dispersant and frother, pulp density, pH, particle size distribution, flotation time and flotation temperature were tested as variables. After rougher flotation experiments, at optimum conditions, the carbon content of the concentrate increased from 13.85 to 51.54% at a carbon recovery of 54.54%. Under the same conditions, the carbon content was reduced to 4.54% at a weight yield of over 80% in the tailings fraction. This fraction meets the industrial specifications and can be utilized as a cement additive. After the cleaner flotation experiment the carbon content of the product was enhanced to 64.81% with a 52.16% carbon recovery. This fraction can be blended back into the coal feed to the power plant boilers. PMID:19443646

Oz, Derya; Koca, Sabina; Koca, Huseyin

2009-05-01

443

Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for solvent refining coal to yield an asphaltene-rich product stream by forming a slurry of finely divided coal and a process solvent therefor, which process comprises the steps of: (1) contacting the slurry with a hydrogen-rich gas; (2) heating the slurry in the presence of the hydrogen-rich gas. (3) permitting the heated slurry to react and to dissolve at least some of the coal. (4) adding fresh hydrogen as required to form a liquefied coal slurry; (5) passing the liquefied coal slurry to a separator in which a vapor product stream and a condensed product stream are separated; (6) passing the condensed product stream to a vacuum distillation still; (7) removing from the vacuum distillation still a residual bottoms product, wherein the residual bottoms product from the still is mixed with a suitable extractions solvent and is passed to supercritical extraction system to separate an asphaltene-rich stream comprised of pentane solubles and benzene solubles from a preasphaltene-rich stream which includes solids residue material, the preasphaltene-rich stream comprised of benzene insolubles, pyridine solubles, pyridine insolubles and ash; (8) recycling at least a portion of the preasphaltene-rich stream together with the solid residue material as process solvent, with less than 10 percent of the process solvent comprising asphaltenes; (9) withdrawing the asphaltene-rich stream and passing the asphaltene-rich stream to a solvent recovery system to yield an asphaltene-rich product stream and an extraction solvent stream.

Weimer, R.F.; Miller, R.N.

1986-09-02

444

Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

Not Available

1992-10-01

445

DWPF RECYCLE EVAPORATOR FLOWSHEET EVALUATION (U)  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) converts the high level waste slurries stored at the Savannah River Site into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. The vitrification process results in the generation of approximately five gallons of dilute recycle streams for each gallon of waste slurry vitrified. This dilute recycle stream is currently transferred to the H-area Tank Farm and amounts to approximately 1,400,000 gallons of effluent per year. Process changes to incorporate salt waste could increase the amount of effluent to approximately 2,900,000 gallons per year. The recycle consists of two major streams and four smaller streams. The first major recycle stream is condensate from the Chemical Process Cell (CPC), and is collected in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT). The second major recycle stream is the melter offgas which is collected in the Off Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT). The four smaller streams are the sample flushes, sump flushes, decon solution, and High Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME) dissolution solution. These streams are collected in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) or the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). All recycle streams are currently combined in the RCT and treated with sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide prior to transfer to the tank farm. Tank Farm space limitations and previous outages in the 2H Evaporator system due to deposition of sodium alumino-silicates have led to evaluation of alternative methods of dealing with the DWPF recycle. One option identified for processing the recycle was a dedicated evaporator to concentrate the recycle stream to allow the solids to be recycled to the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the condensate from this evaporation process to be sent and treated in the Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). In order to meet process objectives, the recycle stream must be concentrated to 1/30th of the feed volume during the evaporation process. The concentrated stream must be pumpable to the DWPF SRAT vessel and should not precipitate solids to avoid fouling the evaporator vessel and heat transfer coils. The evaporation process must not generate excessive foam and must have a high Decontamination Factor (DF) for many species in the evaporator feed to allow the condensate to be transferred to the ETP. An initial scoping study was completed in 2001 to evaluate the feasibility of the evaporator which concluded that the concentration objectives could be met. This initial study was based on initial estimates of recycle concentration and was based solely on OLI modeling of the evaporation process. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has completed additional studies using simulated recycle streams and OLI{reg_sign} simulations. Based on this work, the proposed flowsheet for the recycle evaporator was evaluated for feasibility, evaporator design considerations, and impact on the DWPF process. This work was in accordance with guidance from DWPF-E and was performed in accordance with the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan.

Stone, M

2005-04-30

446

EHD4 and CDH23 Are Interacting Partners in Cochlear Hair Cells*  

PubMed Central

Cadherin 23 (CDH23), a transmembrane protein localized near the tips of hair cell stereocilia in the mammalian inner ear, is important for delivering mechanical signals to the mechano-electric transducer channels. To identify CDH23-interacting proteins, a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid screen of an outer hair cell (OHC) cDNA library was performed. EHD4, a member of the C-terminal EH domain containing a protein family involved in endocytic recycling, was identified as a potential interactor. To confirm the interaction, we first demonstrated the EHD4 mRNA expression in hair cells using in situ hybridization. Next, we showed that EHD4 co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with CDH23 in mammalian cells. Interestingly, the co-immunoprecipitation was found to be calcium-sensitive. To investigate the role of EHD4 in hearing, compound action potentials were measured in EHD4 knock-out (KO) mice. Although EHD4 KO mice have normal hearing sensitivity, analysis of mouse cochlear lysates revealed a 2-fold increase in EHD1, but no increase in EHD2 or EHD3, in EHD4 KO cochleae compared with wild type, suggesting that a compensatory increase in EHD1 levels may account for the absence of a hearing defect in EHD4 KO mice. Taken together, these data indicate that EHD4 is a novel CDH23-interacting protein that could regulate CDH23 trafficking/localization in a calcium-sensitive manner.

Sengupta, Soma; George, Manju; Miller, Katharine K.; Naik, Khurram; Chou, Jonathan; Cheatham, Mary Ann; Dallos, Peter; Naramura, Mayumi; Band, Hamid; Zheng, Jing

2009-01-01

447

Localization and functional requirement of yeast Na+/H+ exchanger, Nhx1p, in the endocytic and protein recycling pathway.  

PubMed

Acidification of the lumen of intracellular organelles is important for post-transcriptional processing, endosomal maturation, receptor recycling, and vesicle trafficking, being regulated by an intricate balance between H+ influx through vacuolar-type H+-ATPase and efflux through ion channels and transporters, such as the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE). The eukaryotic NHE family comprises two major subgroups, one residing in the plasma membrane and the other in intracellular organelles. While mammalian intracellular NHE isoforms are localized to various organelles, including the mid-trans-Golgi compartments, early and late endosomes, and recycling endosomes, Nhx1p, the sole NHE in yeast, has been reported to be localized predominantly to the late endosomal/prevacuolar compartment. Here, using live cell imaging, we demonstrated that Nhx1p is localized to the trans-Golgi network compartments, late endosomes, and recycling endosomes, similar to mammalian intracellular NHE isoforms. Loss of Nhx1p led to accumulation of components of the retromer and endosomal sorting complex required for transport complexes, but not trans-Golgi compartments, in aberrant prevacuolar compartments. Importantly, Nhx1p was also required for recycling of the plasma membrane vesicle SNAP receptor Snc1p. These observations suggest that Nhx1p plays an important role in regulation of the luminal pH of various intracellular organelles, and that this regulation is critical for the protein recycling pathway as well as the endocytic pathway. PMID:22210050

Kojima, Ai; Toshima, Junko Y; Kanno, Chisa; Kawata, Chie; Toshima, Jiro

2011-12-23

448

Quantitative analysis of recyclable materials composition: Tools to support decision making in kerbside recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

For UK statutory recycling targets to be met, kerbside collection schemes must strive towards optimal performance levels at which the quantities and composition of materials recovered closely matche potentially recoverable materials in the household waste stream. Multivariate analysis of recyclable materials data for regions in the UK showed that there exist substantial differences between the composition of recovered and recoverable

Peter J. Shaw; Joanne K. Lyas; Malcolm D. Hudson

2006-01-01

449

Financing electronic waste recycling Californian households’ willingness to pay advanced recycling fees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of electronic waste (e-waste) is of increasing concern because of its toxic content and low recycling rates. The e-waste recycling infrastructure needs to be developed, yet little is known about people's willingness to fund its expansion. This paper examines this issue based on a 2004 mail survey of California households. Using an ordered logit model, we find that

Hilary Nixon; Jean-Daniel M. Saphores

2007-01-01

450

Exploring the recycling dilemma: consumer motivation and experiences in mandatory garbage recycling programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Household recycling is conceptualized as a social dilemma in which households have a choice between cooperative and defective options. Promoting cooperative choice in the recycling dilemma has emerged as an important issue for social marketing in recent years. Most of the available insights that could guide policy makers in designing appropriate social marketing strategies are based on research conducted in

Dirk Smeesters; Luk Warlop; Pierre Vanden Abeele; S Ratneshwar

1999-01-01

451

Consumer Motivation to Recycle When Recycling is Mandatory. Two Exploratory Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Household recycling is conceptualized as a social dilemma in which households have a choice between cooperative and defective options. Promoting cooperative choice in the recycling dilemma has emerged as an important issue for social marketing in recent years. Most of the available insights that could guide policy makers in designing appropriate social marketing strategies are based on research conducted in

D. H. R. V. Smeesters; L. Warlop; G. Cornelissen; P. Vanden Abeele

2003-01-01

452

Atmospheric water vapor transport and recycling in Equatorial Central Africa through NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of the main components of the water cycle over Equatorial Central Africa (ECA) were analysed using the 32-year period, spanning from 1968 to 2000, of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Censearch (NCEP-) reanalysis project database. A special emphasis was given to identifying the causes of annual and interannual variability of water vapor flux and precipitation recycling. The results suggest that the first maximum of moisture convergence, during the rainy season MAM, comes from upper level moisture flux, related to the north component of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ-N). The second, and greatest, maximum in SON is found to be a consequence of low level moisture advection from the Atlantic Ocean. AEJ-N also drive the seasonal spatial pattern of moisture flux. The interannual variability of moisture flux is contributed mainly by the low level moisture advected from the Atlantic Ocean, underlying its crucial role for the regional climate. Studying the recycling ratio in ECA as a whole shows a low annual cycle whereas subregional scale analysis reveals high amplitude of the seasonal variation. Seasonal variability of the spatial gradient of precipitation recycling is regulated by both moisture flux direction and strength. The annual cycles of recycling ratio in the North and the South of ECA are regulated by both moisture transport and evapotranspiration.

Pokam, Wilfried M.; Djiotang, Lucie A. Tchotchou; Mkankam, François K.

2012-05-01

453

Energy implications of recycling packaging materials  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1994-03-01

454

Electroless nickel recycling via electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Electroless nickel is widely used in the metal finishing industry as a coating. It plates evenly on a variety of surfaces and replicates or enhances the surface finish. It has high hardness and good corrosion resistance and machinability. However, its bath life is limited and it has a tendency to spontaneously plate out on the tank and associated equipment. These problems add to the cost per unit component plated. Also, expensive waste treatment is required before users can dispose of the spent solution. Electroless nickel`s limited bath life is inherent in its chemical make-up. Using hypophosphite as the reducing agent for the nickel ion generates by-products of nickel metal and orthophosphite. When the level of orthophosphite in the solution reaches a high concentration, the reaction slows and finally stops. The bath must be disposed of, and its treatment and replacement costs are high. Metal salts have a tendency to plate out because of the dissolved solids present, and this also makes it necessary to discard the bath. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a study of an electrodialysis process that can reduce both chemical purchases and disposal costs. Electrodialysis employs a membrane, deionized water, and an electromotive potential to separate the orthophosphite and other dissolved solids from the nickel ions. With the aid of the electromotive potential, the dissolved solids migrate across the membrane from the process solution into the water in the recycling unit`s holding cell. This migration lowers the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the process solution and improves plating performance. The dialysis process makes it possible to reuse the bath many times without disposal.

Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

1995-04-01

455

Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

Not Available

1992-10-01

456

Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as

C. Steffani; M. Meltzer

1995-01-01

457

Dynamin isoforms decode action potential firing for synaptic vesicle recycling.  

PubMed

Presynaptic nerve terminals must maintain stable neurotransmission via synaptic vesicle membrane recycling despite encountering wide fluctuations in the number and frequency of incoming action potentials (APs). However, the molecular mechanism linking variation in neuronal activity to vesicle trafficking is unknown. Here, we combined genetic knockdown and direct physiological measurements of synaptic transmission from paired neurons to show that three isoforms of dynamin, an essential endocytic protein, work individually to match vesicle reuse pathways, having distinct rate and time constants with physiological AP frequencies. Dynamin 3 resupplied the readily releasable pool with slow kinetics independently of the AP frequency but acted quickly, within 20 ms of the incoming AP. Under high-frequency firing, dynamin 1 regulated recycling to the readily releasable pool with fast kinetics in a slower time window of greater than 50 ms. Dynamin 2 displayed a hybrid response between the other isoforms. Collectively, our findings show how dynamin isoforms select appropriate vesicle reuse pathways associated with specific neuronal firing patterns. PMID:23687302

Tanifuji, Shota; Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi; Ueda, Fumihito; Kasahara, Tadashi; Mochida, Sumiko

2013-05-16

458

Recycling for reinstatement -- The gas experience  

SciTech Connect

Trenching and small hole operations, for the construction and maintenance of the British Gas plc distribution system, require the disposal of large quantities of excavated material and the import of similar amounts of newly crushed rock. The cost of disposal of the excavated material to landfill sites is high, and is set to rise further with the proposed introduction of the Government`s landfill levy. The excavated material, therefore, has a significant potential financial value if it was to be recycled for reuse. In addition, there would be considerable environmental benefits generated by adopting recycling as the method of waste management as opposed to that of landfill disposal. British Gas are therefore currently engaged in research to determine the feasibility and economic benefits of recycling excavated material. This paper presents details of field trials to recycle excavated material using screening and crushing equipment similar to that used in recycling demolition waste. The paper also reports on the steps being taken to investigate the performance of such materials.

Owen, R.C.; Parker, J.E. [British Gas plc, Loughborough (United Kingdom). Gas Research Centre

1996-12-31

459

Auto industry targets fluff for recycling  

SciTech Connect

Automobiles have been one of the great recycling success stories. With car shredding operations routinely reaching recovery rates of up to 75% for decades--mostly through scrap metal reclamation--automobiles outpace most other commodities in terms of recyclability and stability of end uses. Not content to rest on its laurels, however, the automotive industry is now revving up to deal with the part of a car that is not yet easily recycled. This remaining 25%, known as automotive shredder residue (ASR) or ''fluff,'' presents a wide range of recycling challenges. Automobile fluff is the small and low-density material left over after the more easily recycled parts are taken away. Traditionally, fluff has been disposed of in municipal landfills. Today, as cars lose weight to gain fuel economy, plastic use has increased. There are now about 200 automotive shredders in the US, the largest of which produce more than 50,000 tons of fluff per year. Almost half of this fluff is made up of fabrics, fibers, and resilient foam cushioning. Just about one fourth is plastic and about 17% is fluids.

Lang, N.A.

1995-01-01

460

Recycler lattice for Project X at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

Project X is an intense proton source that provides beam for various physics programs. The source consists of an 8 GeV H- superconducting linac that injects into the Fermilab Recycler where H- are converted to protons. Protons are provided to the Main Injector and accelerated to desired energy (in the range 60-120 GeV) or extracted from the Recycler for the 8 GeV program. A long drift space is needed to accommodate the injection chicane with stripping foils. The Recycler is a fixed 8 GeV kinetic energy storage ring using permanent gradient magnets. A phase trombone straight section is used to control the tunes. In this paper, the existing FODO lattice in RR10 straight section being converted into doublet will be described. Due to this change, the phase trombone straight section has to be modified to bring the tunes to the nominal working point. A toy lattice of recycler ring is designed to simulate the end-shim effects of each permanent gradient magnet to add the flexibility to handle the tune shift to the lattice during the operation of 1.6E14 with KV distribution of the proton beam to give {approx}0.05 of space charge tune shift. The comparison or the combinations of the two modification ways for the Recycler ring lattice will be presented also in this paper.

Xiao, Meiqin; Johnson, David E.; /Fermilab

2009-09-01

461

Building recycling rates through the informal sector  

SciTech Connect

Many developing country cities aspire to modern waste management systems, which are associated with relatively high recycling rates of clean, source separated materials. Most already have informal sector recycling systems, which are driven solely by the revenues derived from selling recovered materials, even though they are saving the formal sector money by reducing waste quantities. There is clear potential for 'win-win' co-operation between the formal and informal sectors, as providing support to the informal sector, to build recycling rates and to address some of the social issues could reduce the overall costs of waste management for the formal sector. This paper shows that recycling rates already achieved by the informal sector can be quite high, typically in the range from 20% to 50%; often up to half of this is in the form of clean, source separated materials collected directly from households and businesses by itinerant waste buyers. Four country case studies provide a number of lessons on how this solid foundation could be used to build high recycling rates of clean materials.

Wilson, David C. [Centre for Environmental Control and Waste Management, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, Skempton Building, London SW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Araba, Adebisi O. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Chinwah, Kaine [Centre for Environmental Control and Waste Management, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, Skempton Building, London SW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Cheeseman, Christopher R. [Centre for Environmental Control and Waste Management, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, Skempton Building, London SW1 2BU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.cheeseman@imperial.ac.uk

2009-02-15

462

Recycling of electric-arc-furnace dust  

SciTech Connect

Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust is one of the largest solid waste streams produced by steel mills, and is classified as a waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Successful recycle of the valuable metals (iron, zinc, and lead) present in the dust will result in resource conservation while simultaneously reducing the disposal problems. Technical feasibility of a novel recycling method based on using hydrogen as the reductant was established under this project through laboratory experiments. Sponge iron produced was low in zinc, cadmium, and lead to permit its recycle, and nontoxic to permit its safe disposal as an alternative to recycling. Zinc oxide was analyzed to contain 50% to 58% zinc by weight, and can be marketed for recovering zinc and lead. A prototype system was designed to process 2.5 tons per day (600 tons/year) of EAF dust, and a preliminary economic analysis was conducted. The cost of processing dust by this recycling method was estimated to be comparable to or lower than existing methods, even at such low capacities.

Sresty, G.C.

1990-05-01

463

R-20: new recycling technology for the 1980s  

SciTech Connect

Recycled rubber can now be used because a new rubber recycle process converts cured scrap rubber to a fine powder characterized by a particle size range never before realized with good economics. The recycling process is carried out by mechanical means at ambient temperatures without the use of undesirable chemicals which are used for devulcanization. When the recycled rubber particles are used to extend high quality compounds, the degree of retention of key properties of the extended compounds surpasses that of compounds extended with conventional recycled materials. Tests using the recycled rubber in recapped tires and results are described.

Swor, R.A.; Newton, H.V.

1980-06-01

464

Antimony recycling in the United States in 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of recycling has become more obvious as concerns about the environment and import dependence have grown in recent years. When materials are recycled, fewer natural resources are consumed, and less waste products go to landfills or pollute the water and air. This study, one of a series of reports on metals recycling in 2000, discusses the flow of antimony from mining through its uses and disposal with emphasis on recycling. In 2000, the recycling efficiency for antimony was estimated to be 89 percent, and the recycling rate was about 20 percent.

Carlin, James F., Jr.

2006-01-01

465

Recycling refinery waste in a delayed coker  

SciTech Connect

Refinery oily hazardous wastes (sludge) can be recycled to the delayed coker unit. Processing the waste to achieve proper conditioning can increase the waste solids loading to the coker, improve coke quality and reduce coker operational problems associated with unprocessed sludge injection. This paper discusses the processing steps required to achieve maximum solids loading, potential cost savings, and project data from two major refineries that are processing sludge prior to coker recycling. This presentation is an update of one made to the API Environmental Symposium on May 11, 1993 in Toronto. The data presented in Toronto was gathered over the first twelve months after this recycling method was introduced in 1992 to the two refineries for which data are given. This paper adds data through 1994.

Scalliet, R.M.; Carter, W.A. [Scaltech Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-09-01

466

Recycling asphalt proves economical for paving contractors  

SciTech Connect

Methods of recyclig asphalt to repair roads are described and evaluated. Need for recycling is caused by the escalating price of asphalt (an oil product). The economics and efficiency of the various processes used are evaluated. Methods described are: (1) cold-mix recycling in which the road is crushed, mixed with a new asphalt emulsion and reapplied; (2) hot mix, which involves ripping up pavement, trucking it to an asphalt plant, and mixing the old pavement material with virgin paving materials; and (3) cold planing (when only the top few inches of the road are deteriorated). Mining of asphalt roads, by removing top layers from old roads which are thick from many repair jobs, is described as well as mining of old airstrips. Value of asphalt available has been estimated as high as $50 billion. Recycling processes for asphalt are described briefly. (MJJ)

Not Available

1982-09-01

467

Reuse and recycling - reverse logistics opportunities  

SciTech Connect

This book is intended to serve as a managerial guide for planning and implementing waste reduction programs. It is based on the premise that proactive management of environmental issues is becoming vital to corporate success, and that these issues are creating new roles and opportunities for logistic professionals. Examined in detail are nonhazardous waste reduction activities; reuse and recycling activities; and source reduction. The book is based on in-depth interviews with seventeen firms and several trade associations acknowledged to be leaders in waste reduction efforts. Topics discussed include adapting inbound supply chains to use more recycled goods; minimizing packaging waste; reverse distribution capabilities for taking back products and packaging; and the use of third party services for recycling, reuse, and source reduction activities. Included are two case analyses of progressive firms like E.I. Dupont Nemours and Home Depot and their waste reduction efforts.

Kopicki, R.; Berg, M.J.; Legg, L.

1993-12-31

468

Recycled vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW)--a novel method of recycling greywater for irrigation in small communities and households.  

PubMed

The use of greywater for irrigation is becoming increasingly common. However, raw greywater is often contaminated and can cause environmental harm and pose health risks. Nevertheless, it is often used without any significant pretreatment, a practice mistakenly considered safe. The aim of this study was to develop an economically sound, low-tech and easily maintainable treatment system that would allow safe and sustainable use of greywater for landscape irrigation in small communities and households. The system is based on a combination of vertical flow constructed wetland with water recycling and trickling filter, and is termed recycled vertical flow constructed wetland (RVFCW). The RVFCW's properties, removal efficiency, hydraulic parameters and feasibility were studied, as well as the environmental effects of the treated greywater, as reflected by soil and plant parameters over time. The RVFCW was efficient at removing virtually all of the suspended solids and biological oxygen demand, and about 80% of the chemical oxygen demand after 8h. Fecal coliforms dropped by three to four orders of magnitude from their initial concentration after 8h, but this was not always enough to meet current regulations for unlimited irrigation. The treated greywater had no significant negative impact on plants or soil during the study period. The feasibility analysis indicated a return over investment after approximately three years. We concluded that the RVFCW is a sustainable and promising treatment system for greywater use that can be run and maintained by unskilled operators. PMID:16844197

Gross, A; Shmueli, O; Ronen, Z; Raveh, E

2006-07-17

469

Hippocampal neurons recycle BDNF for activity-dependent secretion and LTP maintenance  

PubMed Central

Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) secretion plays a critical role in long-term potentiation (LTP). It is generally thought that the supply for this secretion is newly synthesized BDNF targeted to the synapse. Here we provide evidence that hippocampal neurons additionally recycle BDNF for activity-dependent secretion. Exogenously applied BDNF is internalized by cultured neurons and rapidly becomes available for activity-dependent secretion, which is controlled by the same mechanisms that regulate the secretion of newly synthesized BDNF. Moreover, BDNF recycling replaced the new synthesis pathway in mediating the maintenance of LTP in hippocampal slices: the late phase LTP, which is abolished by protein synthesis inhibition, was rescued in slices preincubated with BDNF. Thus, endocytosed BDNF is fed back to the activity-dependent releasable pool required for LTP maintenance.

Santi, Spartaco; Cappello, Silvia; Riccio, Massimo; Bergami, Matteo; Aicardi, Giorgio; Schenk, Ursula; Matteoli, Michela; Canossa, Marco

2006-01-01

470

The economic feasibility of plastics recycling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to address the numerous factors that collectively determine the economic feasibility of technologies to recycle plastic wastes. A major point of the paper is its distinction between an assessment of feasibility based only on the expected direct costs and revenues associated with a technology and a more complete assessment that also considers relevant institutional and technological constraints. Summary information on the expected direct costs and revenues associated with different existing and developmental technologies is given. That information indicates that many processes are currently less costly than incineration and landfill in many areas of the United States. In addition, selected market segments where plastics recycling is and is not currently taking place are reviewed to suggest the economic and institutional factors that have contributed to the success or failure of recycling operations. These factors suggest the market segments that are prime candidates for future activities in plastics recycling. Evidence from markets where plastics recycling as a segregated waste has thus far been successful suggests that success has not come so much from technical fixes to the problem, but rather from favorable institutional and economic conditions. If the past is an indication of the future, we can expect that plastics recycling outside of the municipal waste stream will grow during the coming decade in selected markets where economic and institutional constraints are minimal. For those plastics that can not be segregated easily from other materials in the municipal waste stream, tertiary and quaternary processes that can accommodate various combustible wastes will continue to be adopted.

Curlee, T.R.

1987-06-01

471

Recycling of copper/brass radiators  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how eliminating the lead content from radiators enhances their recyclability. Traditional radiators assembled with tin-lead solder are giving way to two other types: those assembled with a solder made of tin alloyed with copper, silver, and/or antimony; and those assembled with a CuNiSnP-alloy braze, which is more advanced technique. Both of these types of heat exchangers can go back to the melting shop for production of new tube strip. This will be a case where real recycling back into the same product is possible.

NONE

1996-08-01

472

Recycling Pulsars: spins, masses and ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the first millisecond pulsars (MSPs) were discovered 30 years ago we still do not understand all details of their formation process. Here, we present new results from Tauris, Langer & Kramer (2012) on the recycling scenario leading to radio MSPs with helium or carbon-oxygen white dwarf companions via evolution of low- and intermediate mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs, IMXBs). We discuss the location of the spin-up line in the P?-diagram and estimate the amount of accreted mass needed to obtain a given spin period and compare with observations. Finally, we constrain the true ages of observed recycled pulsars via calculated isochrones in the P?-diagram.

Tauris, T. M.; Kramer, M.; Langer, N.

2013-03-01

473

Mixed plastics recycling: Not a pipe dream  

SciTech Connect

As much as 8% of today`s municipal solid waste tonnage is plastic; and the material accounts for two to three times that percentage if measured by volume. Now the fastest growing waste stream component, plastic could account for 10% to 15% of MSW weight by the year 2000, industry analysts say. Innovative firms are pioneering technologies to recycle co-mingled plastic wastes from residential and industrial sources into marketable products. This approach can provide two income streams: revenue from sale of finished products and, in some cases, from tip fees charged for this plastic `disposal` service. Featured here are three firms that lead in the development of mixed plastic recycling.

Brewer, G.

1987-11-01

474

A protein phosphatase functions to recycle RNA polymerase II  

PubMed Central

Transcription is regulated by the state of phosphorylation of a heptapeptide repeat known as the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) present in the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). RNAPII that associates with transcription initiation complexes contains an unphosphorylated CTD, whereas the elongating polymerase has a phosphorylated CTD. Transcription factor IIH has a kinase activity specific for the CTD that is stimulated by the formation of a transcription initiation complex. Here, we report the isolation of a cDNA clone encoding a 150-kD polypeptide, which, together with RNAPII, reconstitutes a highly specific CTD phosphatase activity. Functional analysis demonstrates that the CTD phosphatase allows recycling of RNAPII. The phosphatase dephosphorylates the CTD allowing efficient incorporation of RNAPII into transcription initiation complexes, which results in increased transcription. The CTD phosphatase was found to be active in ternary elongation complexes. Moreover, the phosphatase stimulates elongation by RNAPII; however, this function is independent of its catalytic activity.

Cho, Helen; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Mancebo, Helena; Lane, William S.; Flores, Osvaldo; Reinberg, Danny

1999-01-01

475

Reverse logistics system planning for recycling electrical appliances and computers in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the disposition of end-of-life home appliances has caused tremendous attention, Taiwan recently promulgated a Scrap Home Appliances and Computers Recycling Regulation that mandates manufacturers and importers to take back their products. Reverse logistics system planning shall become vital as the take-back rate increases and the service area expands in the future. This study utilizes a mixed integer programming model

Li-Hsing Shih

2001-01-01

476

Recycling of spent magnesite and ZAS bricks for the production of new basic refractories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing environmental awareness and regulations, the cost of waste disposal, and concerns about future liabilities have caused increased interest in recycling of spent refractories. The densification parameters of spent magnesite containing up to 10.0wt.% spent ZAS (zirconium aluminium silicate) sintered at 1450–1550°C were investigated. X-ray, microstructure and microchemistry analysis were used to establish the present phases. The technological parameters in

A. G. M. Othman; W. M. N. Nour

2005-01-01

477

Numb inhibits the recycling of Sanpodo in Drosophila sensory organ precursor.  

PubMed

In metazoans, unequal partitioning of the cell-fate determinant Numb underlies the generation of distinct cell fates following asymmetric cell division [1-5]. In Drosophila, during asymmetric division of the sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell, Numb is unequally inherited by the pIIb daughter cell, where it antagonizes Notch [1, 6-8]. Numb inhibits Notch partly through inhibiting the plasma membrane localization of Sanpodo (Spdo), a transmembrane protein required for Notch signaling during asymmetric cell division [9, 10]. Numb, by binding to Spdo and ?-Adaptin, was proposed to mediate Spdo endocytosis alone or bound to Notch in the pIIb cell, thereby preventing Notch activation [11-16]. However, in addition to endocytosis, Numb also controls the postendocytic trafficking and degradation of Notch in mammals [17, 18] and negatively regulates basolateral recycling in C. elegans [19, 20]. Thus, whether Numb promotes the endocytosis of Spdo is a question that requires experimental demonstration and is therefore investigated in this article. Based on internalization assays, we show that Spdo endocytosis is restricted to cells in interphase and requires AP-2 activity. Surprisingly, the bulk endocytosis of Spdo occurs properly in numb mutant SOP, indicating that Numb does not regulate the steady-state localization of Spdo via Spdo internalization. We report that Numb genetically and physically interacts with AP-1, a complex regulating the basolateral recycling of Spdo [21]. In numb mutant organs, Spdo is efficiently internalized and recycled back to the plasma membrane. We propose that Numb acts in concert with AP-1 to control the endocytic recycling of Spdo to regulate binary-fate decisions. PMID:23523246

Cotton, Mathieu; Benhra, Najate; Le Borgne, Roland

2013-03-21

478

receptor recycling by surlace membrane neutral endopeptidase-mediated degradation of ligand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrophil responses to a-N-formyl-L- Met- L-Leu-L-Phe (IMLF) are modulated by inhibitors of surface membrane neutral endopeptidase (NEP), such as phosphoramidon (PPAD). Because receptor recycling is presumably required for a sustained cel- lular response, the effect of PPAD on receptor reex- pression was examined. After down-regulation of surface fMLF receptors by IMLF, PPAD blocked the normal reexpression ofsurface receptors in a

Richard G. Painter; Martha L. Aiken

479

Reducing Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryCollection and treatment of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is regulated in the European Union by the WEEE Directive. Producers are responsible for take-back and recycling of discarded equipment. Valuable materials are, however, at risk of getting lost- in current processes. Thus, strategies to minimize losses are sought after.The material hygiene (MH) concept was introduced to address this

Jan G. Johansson; Anna E. Björklund

2010-01-01

480

Scenario analysis for reduction of effluent load from an agricultural area by recycling the run-off water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed rates of nitrogen (N) removal in paddy fields and wetlands. Then we developed a numerical model to simulate N flow in an agricultural paddy field area and analyzed scenarios for recycling the agricultural run-off, including field drainage, from an agricultural area with an irrigation\\/drainage system. In it, we considered N removal in paddy fields, a regulating reservoir, and

E. Shiratani; I. Yoshinaga; Y. Feng; H. Hasebe