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Sample records for recycling tritium contaminated

  1. Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1995-04-03

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

  2. Tritium recycling (processing) facility design

    SciTech Connect

    Metzler, J.; Le, T.

    1995-10-01

    The maintenance of a nuclear weapons capability requires the periodic replacement of tritium contained in each of the weapons in the nuclear weapons stockpile because the radioactive decay of tritium reduces its quantity by about 5.5 percent per year. The Tritium Recycling Plant (TRP) performs the activities necessary to recover, purify, and recycle tritium returned from the field. Tritium is contained in vessels called reservoirs. The TRP also has the capability to conduct environmental tests to ensure the reliability and quality of the reservoirs. Currently, the U.S. has no source of new tritium. The proposed new TRP is an option the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) is considering that could be collocated with the new Tritium Supply Plant if it is built at Oak Ridge, Pantex, Nevada Test Site, or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It will comply with applicable environment, safety and health, (ES&H) regulations and orders. If the new Tritium Supply Plant is built at the Savannah River Site, the existing TRP would be upgraded, as necessary. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Recommended tritium surface contamination release guides

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Draper, D.G.; Foulke, J.D.; Hafner, R.S.; Jalbert, R.A.; Kennedy, W.E.; Myers, D.S.; Strain, C.D. )

    1991-03-01

    This document was prepared to provide scientific basis for recommended changes in specific limits for tritium surface contamination in DOE Order 5480.11. A summary of the physical and biological characteristics of tritium has been provided that illustrate the unique nature of this radionuclide when compared to other pure beta emitters or to beta-gamma emitting radionuclides. This document is divided into nine sections. The introduction and the purpose and scope are addressed in Section 1.0 and Section 2.0, respectively. Section 3.0 contains recommended interpretation of terms used in this document. Section 4.0 addresses recommended methods for evaluating surface contamination. Biological and physical characteristics of tritium compounds are discussed in Section 5.0, as they relate to tritium radiotoxicity. Scenarios and dose calculations for selected, conservatively limiting cases of tritium intake are given and discussed in Section 6.0 and Section 7.0. Section 8.0 provides conclusions on the information given and recommendations for changes in the surface contamination limits for total tritium to 1 {times} 10{sup 6} dpm per 100 cm{sup 2}. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. First measurements of tritium recycling in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Adler, H.; Budny, R.V.; Kamperschroer, J.; Johnson, L.C.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stotler, D.P.

    1994-06-01

    The first spectroscopic measurements of tritium Balmer-alpha (T{sub {alpha}}) emission from a fusion plasma were made on TFTR using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The T{sub {alpha}} emission line is partially blended with the D{sub {alpha}} line (deuterium-alpha), commonly used in edge plasma diagnostics, and the contributions of H{sub {alpha}}, D{sub {alpha}}, and T{sub {alpha}}, are separated by spectral analysis. The data are a measure of the fueling of the plasma by tritium accumulated in the TFTR limiter, as well as the amount of neutral tritium generated by charge exchange of plasma ions. The T{alpha} line first became detectable in a high power, tritium only, neutral beam injection discharge at the level of T{sub {alpha}}/(H{sub {alpha}}+D{sub {alpha}}+T{sub {alpha}}) = 2%. Subsequently this ratio has increased to as high as 7.5%. Data on the time evolution of the T{sub {alpha}} emission during a single discharge and over a series of tritium and deuterium discharges are presented.

  5. Spectroscopic diagnostics of tritium recycling in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Stotler, D.P.; Adler, H.; Ramsey, A.T.

    1995-03-01

    The authors present the first spectroscopic measurements of tritium Balmer-alpha (T{sub {alpha}}) emission from a fusion plasma. A Fabry-Perot interferometer is used to measure the H{sub {alpha}}, D{sub {alpha}}, T{sub {alpha}} spectrum in the current D-T a experimental campaign on TFTR and the contributions of H, D and T are separated by spectral analysis. The T{sub {alpha}} line was measurable at concentrations T{sub {alpha}}/(H{sub {alpha}} + D{sub {alpha}} + T{sub {alpha}}) down to 2%.

  6. UV/Ozone treatment to decontaminate tritium contaminated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krasznai, J.P.; Mowat, R.

    1995-10-01

    Tritium contamination on surfaces is often encountered during operation and maintenance of equipment at the Darlington Tritium Removal Facility and likely at other tritium handling facilities. The use of efficient decontamination techniques that produce little or no secondary wastes is desirable. At Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT) we have been developing a process utilizing a combination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and ozone gas to remove tritium surface contamination from materials often used in tritium service. This paper summarizes the performance of the technique. The results are encouraging because the technique is very effective, simple in terms of equipment requirements and concentrates tritium in an easily managed waste form. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Probe for contamination detection in recyclable materials

    DOEpatents

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi

    2003-08-05

    A neutron detection system for detection of contaminants contained within a bulk material during recycling includes at least one neutron generator for neutron bombardment of the bulk material, and at least one gamma ray detector for detection of gamma rays emitted by contaminants within the bulk material. A structure for analyzing gamma ray data is communicably connected to the gamma ray detector, the structure for analyzing gamma ray data adapted. The identity and concentration of contaminants in a bulk material can also be determined. By scanning the neutron beam, discrete locations within the bulk material having contaminants can be identified. A method for recycling bulk material having unknown levels of contaminants includes the steps of providing at least one neutron generator, at least one gamma ray detector, and structure for analyzing gamma ray data, irradiating the bulk material with neutrons, and then determining the presence of at least one contaminant in the bulk material from gamma rays emitted from the bulk material.

  8. Economic analysis of recycling contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen, A.; Ayers, K.W.; Boren, J.K.; Parker, F.L.

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning activities in the DOE complex generate large volumes of radioactively contaminated and uncontaminated concrete. Currently, this concrete is usually decontaminated, the contaminated waste is disposed of in a LLW facility and the decontaminated concrete is placed in C&D landfills. A number of alternatives to this practice are available including recycling of the concrete. Cost estimates for six alternatives were developed using a spreadsheet model. The results of this analysis show that recycling alternatives are at least as economical as current practice.

  9. Upward movement of tritium from contaminated groundwaters: a numerical analysis.

    PubMed

    Belot, Y; Watkins, B M; Edlund, O; Galeriu, D; Guinois, G; Golubev, A V; Meurville, C; Raskob, W; Täschner, M; Yamazawa, H

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a research-oriented modelling exercise that addresses the problem of assessing the movement of tritium from a contaminated perched aquifer to the land surface. Participants were provided with information on water table depth, soil characteristics, hourly meteorological and evapotranspiration data. They were asked to predict the upward migration of tritium through the unsaturated soil into the atmosphere. Eight different numerical models were used to calculate the movement of tritium. The modelling results agree within a factor of two, if very small time and space increments are used. The agreement is not so good when the near-surface soil becomes dry. The modelling of the alternate upward and downward transport of tritium close to the ground surface generally requires rather complex models and detailed input because tritium concentration varies sharply over short distances and is very sensitive to many interactive factors including rainfall amount, evapotranspiration rate, rooting depth and water table position. PMID:15990205

  10. Decommissioning of a tritium-contaminated laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.R.; Garde, R.

    1981-11-01

    A tritium laboratory facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned in 1979. The project involved dismantling the laboratory equipment and disposing of the equipment and debris at an on-site waste disposal/storage area. The laboratory was constructed in 1953 and was in service for tritium research and fabrication of lithium tritide components until 1974. The major features of the laboratory included some 25 meters of gloveboxes and hoods, associated vacuum lines, utility lines, exhaust ducts, electrodryers, blowers, and laboratory benches. This report presents details on the decommissioning, health physics, waste management, environmental surveillance, and costs for the operation.

  11. Radiation protection aspects of repairing a highly contaminated tritium cold box.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, A B; Haynes, M J

    1991-11-01

    Radiation protection aspects of modifying a system exposed to tritium gas are discussed. This paper includes a brief discussion of the tritium gas and tritium surface contamination hazards associated with a facility designed to detritiate heavy water. Also described are the protective equipment, dosimetry, instrumentation, contamination control, and decontamination procedures used during welding of tubes that have been exposed to almost pure tritium gas. Absorption of the tritium gas on materials resulted in exposures to high peak concentrations of tritium oxide and high levels of tritium surface contamination (TSC). PMID:1661277

  12. Apparatus for monitoring tritium in tritium-contaminating environments using a modified Kanne chamber

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-01-27

    A conventional Kanne tritium monitor has been redesigned to reduce its sensitivity to such contaminants as tritiated water vapor and tritiated oil. The high voltage electrode has been replaced by a wire cylinder and the collector electrode has been reduced in diameter. The area sensitive to contamination has thereby been reduced by about a factor of forty while the overall apparatus sensitivity and operation has not been affected. The design allows for in situ decontamination of the chambers, if necessary.

  13. Apparatus for monitoring tritium in tritium contaminating environments using a modified Kanne chamber

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A conventional Kanne tritium monitor has been redesigned to reduce its sensitivity to such contaminants as tritiated water vapor and tritiated oil. The high voltage electrode has been replaced by a wire cylinder and the collector electrode has been reduced in diameter. The area sensitive to contamination has thereby been reduced by about a factor of forty while the overall apparatus sensitivity and operation has not been affected. The design allows for in situ decontamination of the chambers, if necessary.

  14. Simplified method for detecting tritium contamination in plants and soil.

    PubMed

    Andraski, B J; Sandstrom, M W; Michel, R L; Radyk, J C; Stonestrom, D A; Johnson, M J; Mayers, C J

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effective methods are needed to identify the presence and distribution of tritium near radioactive waste disposal and other contaminated sites. The objectives of this study were to (i) develop a simplified sample preparation method for determining tritium contamination in plants and (ii) determine if plant data could be used as an indicator of soil contamination. The method entailed collection and solar distillation of plant water from foliage, followed by filtration and adsorption of scintillation-interfering constituents on a graphite-based solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The method was evaluated using samples of creosote bush [Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Coville], an evergreen shrub, near a radioactive disposal area in the Mojave Desert. Laboratory tests showed that a 2-g SPE column was necessary and sufficient for accurate determination of known tritium concentrations in plant water. Comparisons of tritium concentrations in plant water determined with the solar distillation-SPE method and the standard (and more laborious) toluene-extraction method showed no significant difference between methods. Tritium concentrations in plant water and in water vapor of root-zone soil also showed no significant difference between methods. Thus, the solar distillation-SPE method provides a simple and cost-effective way to identify plant and soil contamination. The method is of sufficient accuracy to facilitate collection of plume-scale data and optimize placement of more sophisticated (and costly) monitoring equipment at contaminated sites. Although work to date has focused on one desert plant, the approach may be transferable to other species and environments after site-specific experiments. PMID:12809299

  15. Simplified method for detecting tritium contamination in plants and soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andraski, B.J.; Sandstrom, M.W.; Michel, R.L.; Radyk, J.C.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Johnson, M.J.; Mayers, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effective methods are needed to identify the presence and distribution of tritium near radioactive waste disposal and other contaminated sites. The objectives of this study were to (i) develop a simplified sample preparation method for determining tritium contamination in plants and (ii) determine if plant data could be used as an indicator of soil contamination. The method entailed collection and solar distillation of plant water from foliage, followed by filtration and adsorption of scintillation-interfering constituents on a graphitebased solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The method was evaluated using samples of creosote bush [Larrea tridentata (Sesse?? & Moc. ex DC.) Coville], an evergreen shrub, near a radioactive disposal area in the Mojave Desert. Laboratory tests showed that a 2-g SPE column was necessary and sufficient for accurate determination of known tritium concentrations in plant water. Comparisons of tritium concentrations in plant water determined with the solar distillation-SPE method and the standard (and more laborious) toluene-extraction method showed no significant difference between methods. Tritium concentrations in plant water and in water vapor of root-zone soil also showed no significant difference between methods. Thus, the solar distillation-SPE method provides a simple and cost-effective way to identify plant and soil contamination. The method is of sufficient accuracy to facilitate collection of plume-scale data and optimize placement of more sophisticated (and costly) monitoring equipment at contaminated sites. Although work to date has focused on one desert plant, the approach may be transferable to other species and environments after site-specific experiments.

  16. Tritium contamination and decontamination of sealing oil for vacuum pump

    SciTech Connect

    Takeishi, T.; Kotoh, K.; Kawabata, Y.; Tanaka, J.I.; Kawamura, S.; Iwata, M.

    2015-03-15

    The existence of tritium-contaminated oils from vacuum pumps used in tritium facilities, is becoming an important issue since there is no disposal way for tritiated waste oils. On recovery of tritiated water vapor in gas streams, it is well-known that the isotope exchange reaction between the gas phase and the liquid phase occurs effectively at room temperature. We have carried out experiments using bubbles to examine the tritium contamination and decontamination of a volume of rotary-vacuum-pump oil. The contamination of the pump oil was made by bubbling tritiated water vapor and tritiated hydrogen gas into the oil. Subsequently the decontamination was processed by bubbling pure water vapor and dry argon gas into the tritiated oil. Results show that the water vapor bubbling was more effective than dry argon gas. The experiment also shows that the water vapor bubbling in an oil bottle can remove and transfer tritium efficiently from the tritiated oil into another water-bubbling bottle.

  17. Low-energy beta spectroscopy using pin diodes to monitor tritium surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Wampler, W.R.; Doyle, B.L.

    1994-06-01

    We show that tritium betas emitted from a surface can be counted using a pin photodiode as a solid state charged particle detector. Furthermore, we show that the range of tritium betas through air is sufficient to allow measurement of tritium on samples in air by this method. These two findings make possible a new method to survey tritium surface contamination which has advantages over existing methods. We have built and tested several prototype instruments which use this method to measure tritium surface contamination, including a compact portable unit. The design of these instruments and results from tests and calibrations are described. Potential applications of this new method to monitor tritium are discussed.

  18. Recycling of paint-contaminated grit.

    PubMed

    Taha, R; al-Alawi, D; al-Nabhani, M; Pillay, A E; al-Hamdi, A

    2001-08-01

    The impact on the environment of using paint-contaminated grit (PCG) as a partial or full replacement for sand in Portland cement mortar and asphalt concrete mixtures was investigated. The grit waste material originated from abrasive blasting of offshore steel structures. There is a major environmental concern regarding the safe disposal of the spent blasting abrasives that contain paint chips or paint particles and other debris removed from the surface of the steel structures. This work investigated the potential reuse of PCG in Portland cement concrete (PCC) and hot mix asphalt concrete. Several studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled grit. These included the chemical and physical characterization of natural sand and PCG, the assay of leaches associated with the grit material for hazardous metal contaminants, such as Cr, Cd and Pb, and the assessment of the mechanical properties of the PCG-substituted mortars by applying special tests (such as Marshall stability and determination of the flow properties) to the PCG-substituted asphalt concrete mixtures. The overall results demonstrated that the potential reuse of PCG in PCC and asphalt concrete mixtures would not pose any environmental threat and could produce several benefits, such as reduced disposal costs, protection of water sources from improper disposal practices and reduced costs in the production of natural aggregates and asphalt cement. PMID:11523444

  19. Removing tritium and other impurities during industrial recycling of beryllium from a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Dylst, K.; Seghers, J.; Druyts, F.; Braet, J.

    2008-07-15

    Recycling beryllium used in a fusion reactor might be a good way to overcome problems related to the disposal of neutron irradiated beryllium. The critical issues for the recycling of used first wall beryllium are the presence of tritium and (transuranic) impurities. High temperature annealing seems to be the most promising technique for detritiation. Purification of the de-tritiated beryllium can be achieved by chlorination of the irradiated beryllium and the subsequent reduction of beryllium chloride to highly pure metallic beryllium. After that, the beryllium can be re-fabricated into first wall tiles via powder metallurgy which is already a mature industrial practice. This paper outlines the path to define the experimental needs for beryllium recycling and tackles problems related to the detritiation and the purification via the chlorine route. (authors)

  20. Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA) a Method for Quantifying Tritium Contaminated Trash and Debris at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Dominick, J L; Rasmussen, C L

    2008-07-23

    Several facilities and many projects at LLNL work exclusively with tritium. These operations have the potential to generate large quantities of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) with the same or similar radiological characteristics. A standardized documented approach to characterizing these waste materials for disposal as radioactive waste will enhance the ability of the Laboratory to manage them in an efficient and timely manner while ensuring compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements. This standardized characterization approach couples documented process knowledge with analytical verification and is very conservative, overestimating the radioactivity concentration of the waste. The characterization approach documented here is the Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA). This document will serve as a Technical Basis Document which can be referenced in radioactive waste characterization documentation packages such as the Information Gathering Document. In general, radiological characterization of waste consists of both developing an isotopic breakdown (distribution) of radionuclides contaminating the waste and using an appropriate method to quantify the radionuclides in the waste. Characterization approaches require varying degrees of rigor depending upon the radionuclides contaminating the waste and the concentration of the radionuclide contaminants as related to regulatory thresholds. Generally, as activity levels in the waste approach a regulatory or disposal facility threshold the degree of required precision and accuracy, and therefore the level of rigor, increases. In the case of tritium, thresholds of concern for control, contamination, transportation, and waste acceptance are relatively high. Due to the benign nature of tritium and the resulting higher regulatory thresholds, this less rigorous yet conservative characterization approach is appropriate. The scope of this document is to define an appropriate and acceptable

  1. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains a minimum of 167 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains a minimum of 155 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Tritium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity, transport through the food chain, presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and buildup in the soil. The citations also reference regulations governing permissible levels of tritium discharge into the environment. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Tritium removal from contaminated water via infrared laser multiple-photon dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J.L.; Magnotta, F.; Herman, I.P.; Aldridge, F.T.; Hsiao, P.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope separation by means of infrared-laser multiple-photon dissociation offers an efficient way to recover tritium from contaminated light or heavy water found in fission and fusion reactors. For tritium recovery from heavy water, chemical exchange of tritium into deuterated chloroform is followed by selective laser dissociation of tritiated chloroform and removal of the tritiated photoproduct, TCl. The single-step separation factor is at least 2700 and is probably greater than 5000. Here we present a description of the tritium recovery process, along with recent accomplishments in photochemical studies and engineering analysis of a recovery system.

  6. Dismantling of the PETRA glove box: tritium contamination and inventory assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.

    2015-03-15

    The PETRA facility is the first installation in which experiments with tritium were carried out at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe. After completion of two main experimental programs, the decommissioning of PETRA was initiated with the aim to reuse the glove box and its main still valuable components. A decommissioning plan was engaged to: -) identify the source of tritium release in the glove box, -) clarify the status of the main components, -) assess residual tritium inventories, and -) de-tritiate the components to be disposed of as waste. Several analytical techniques - calorimetry on small solid samples, wipe test followed by liquid scintillation counting for surface contamination assessment, gas chromatography on gaseous samples - were deployed and cross-checked to assess the remaining tritium inventories and initiate the decommissioning process. The methodology and the main outcomes of the numerous different tritium measurements are presented and discussed. (authors)

  7. Concentration and removal of tritium and/or deuterium from water contaminated with tritium and/or deuterium

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas J.; Narula, Poonam M.

    2001-01-01

    Concentration of tritium and/or deuterium that is a contaminant in H.sub.2 O, followed by separation of the concentrate from the H.sub.2 O. Employed are certain metal oxo complexes, preferably with a metal from Group VIII. For instance, [Ru.sup.IV (2,2',6',2"-terpyridine)(2,2'-bipyridine)(O)](ClO.sub.4).sub.2 is very suitable.

  8. Toxicity tests of soil contaminated by recycling of scrap plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, M.H.; Chui, V.W. )

    1990-03-01

    The present investigation studied the toxicity of soil contaminated by untreated discharge from a factory that recycles used plastics. The nearby agricultural areas and freshwater fish ponds were polluted with high concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn. Water extracts from the contaminated soil retarded root growth of Brassica chinensis (Chinese white cabbage) and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) where their seeds were obtained commercially. The contaminated populations of C. dactylon, Panicum repen (panic grass), and Imperata cylindrica (wooly grass) were able to withstand higher concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn, especially C. dactylon, when compared with their uncontaminated counterparts.

  9. Development of a Novel Contamination Resistant Ion Chamber for Process Tritium Measurement and Use in the JET First Trace Tritium Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Worth, L.B.C.; Pearce, R.J.H.; Bruce, J.; Banks, J.; Scales, S.

    2005-07-15

    The accuracy of process measurements of tritium with conventional ion chambers is often affected by surface tritium contamination. The measurement of tritium in the exhaust of the JET torus is particularly difficult due to surface contamination with highly tritiated hydrocarbons. JET's first unsuccessful attempt to overcome the contamination problem was to use an ion chamber, with a heating element as the chamber wall so that it could be periodically decontaminated by baking. The newly developed ion chamber works on the principle of minimising the surface area within the boundary of the anode and cathode.This paper details the design of the ion chamber, which utilises a grid of 50-micron tungsten wire to define the ion chamber wall and the collector electrode. The effective surface area which, by contamination, is able to effect the measurement of tritium within the process gas has been reduced by a factor of {approx}200 over a conventional ion chamber. It is concluded that the new process ion chamber enables sensitive accurate tritium measurements free from contamination issues. It will be a powerful new tool for future tritium experiments both to improve tritium tracking and to help in the understanding of tritium retention issues.

  10. Volatilized tritiated water vapor in the vicinity of exposed tritium contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.L.; Carlton, B.; Hunter, C.; McAdams, T.

    1994-06-01

    Water vapor tritium concentrations in air above a known source of tritiated water can be estimated. Estimates should account for the mechanisms of evaporation and condensation at the water surface and water species exchange, and are typically applicable under a broad range of wind, temperature and humidity conditions. An estimate of volatilized tritium water vapor was made for a known outcropping of tritium contaminated groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) old F-Area effluent stream. In order to validate this estimate and the associated dose calculation, sampling equipment was fabricated, tested, and installed at the effluent stream. The estimate and the dose calculation were confirmed using data from samples collected.

  11. Contamination mechanisms of air basin with tritium in venues of underground nuclear explosions at the former Semipalatinsk test site.

    PubMed

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Larionova, N V; Tur, Y S

    2012-11-01

    During the period of testing from 1945 to 1962 at the territory of Semipalatinsk test site (STS) within the Degelen Mountains in tunnels, 209 underground nuclear explosions were produced. Many of the tunnels have seasonal water seepage in the form of streams, through which tritium migrates from the underground nuclear explosion (UNE) venues towards the surface. The issue of tritium contamination occupies a special place in the radioactive contamination of the environment. In this paper we assess the level and distribution of tritium in the atmospheric air of ecosystems with water seepage at tunnels № 176 and № 177, located on "Degelen" site. There has been presented general nature of tritium distribution in the atmosphere relative to surface of a watercourse which has been contaminated with tritium. The basic mechanisms were studied for tritium distribution in the air of studied ecosystems, namely, the distribution of tritium in the systems: water-atmosphere, tunnel air-atmosphere, soil water-atmosphere, vegetation-atmosphere. An analytical calculation of tritium concentration in the atmosphere by the concentration of tritium in water has been performed. There has experimentally obtained the dependence for predictive assessment of tritium concentrations in air as a function of tritium concentration in one of the inlet sources such as water, tunnel air, soil water, vegetation, etc.. The paper also describes the general nature of tritium distribution in the air in the area "Degelen". PMID:22672895

  12. In situ recycling of contaminated soil uses bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Shevlin, P.J.; Reel, D.A.

    1996-04-01

    OxyChem Pipeline Operations, primarily an ethylene and propylene products mover, has determined that substantial savings can be realized by adopting a bioremediation maintenance and recycling approach to hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. By this method, the soil can be recycled in situ, or in containers. To implement the soil-recycling program, OxyChem elected to use a soil remediator and natural absorbent product, Oil Snapper. This field maintenance material, based on an Enhanced Urea Technology, provides a diet to stimulate the growth of hydrocarbon-eating microbes. It works well either with indigenous soil microbes or with commercial microbes. The product is carried in field vehicles, which makes it immediately available when leaks or spills are discovered. Procedure for clean-up is to apply product and mix it into affected soil. Thus the contaminant is contained, preventing further migration; the contaminant is dispersed throughout the product, making it more accessible to the microbes; nutrients are immediately available to the microbes; and the material contributes aeration and moisture-retention properties.

  13. Plume-Scale Testing of a Simplified Method for Detecting Tritium Contamination in Plants and Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraski, B. J.; Halford, K. J.; Johnson, M. J.; Michel, R. L.; Radyk, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    Research at the Amargosa Desert Research Site near Beatty, Nevada indicates that tritium movement from a closed low-level radioactive waste facility occurs primarily in the gas phase with preferential transport through coarse-textured sediment layers. However, models for movement of tritiated water vapor at the site fail to predict the extent of transport indicated by field measurements. In order to develop a better understanding of the spatial distribution of tritium contamination in the near-surface environment adjacent to the waste facility, a recently published tritium contamination-detection method was tested for collection and analysis of plume-scale data. The method entails solar distillation of plant water from foliage, followed by filtration and adsorption of scintillation-interfering constituents on a graphite-based solid-phase-extraction column prior to direct-scintillation counting. Samples were collected from 103 plants (creosote bush; Larrea tridentata) within a 72-ha area adjacent to the waste facility. Plant data showed elevated tritium concentrations up to 300 m from the waste facility. For a small ( ˜ 8 ha) area where high-density soil-water vapor data were already available, plant-based and soil-based concentration contours compared favorably. Plant data for previously unmeasured areas identified "hot spots" that were later verified by direct soil measurements. Regression analysis of tritium concentrations from collocated plant- and soil-sampling sites showed that empirical relations could be developed to predict soil concentrations (y) from the more simply determined plant concentrations (x): e.g., the equation for root-zone soil concentrations (Bq/L) was y = 1.156 x + 55.17 (r2 = 0.9521; SEE = 250). Results of this work have improved knowledge of the extent of tritium contamination in the near-surface environment. The pattern of the tritium concentrations indicated that the observed contamination originates from two sources--the waste

  14. Tritium recycling and inventory in eroded debris of plasma-facing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.

    1999-10-18

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) and structural materials due to loss of plasma confinement in magnetic fusion reactors remains one of the most serious concerns for safe, successful, and reliable tokamak operation. High erosion losses due to surface vaporization, spallation, and melt-layer splashing are expected during such an event. The eroded debris and dust of the PFCs, including trapped tritium, will be contained on the walls or within the reactor chamber therefore, they can significantly influence plasma behavior and tritium inventory during subsequent operations. Tritium containment and behavior in PFCS and in the dust and debris is an important factor in evaluating and choosing the ideal plasma-facing materials (PFMs). Tritium buildup and release in the debris of candidate materials is influenced by the effect of material porosity on diffusion and retention processes. These processes have strong nonlinear behavior due to temperature, volubility, and existing trap sites. A realistic model must therefore account for the nonlinear and multidimensional effects of tritium diffusion in the porous-redeposited and neutron-irradiated materials. A tritium-transport computer model, TRAPS (Tritium Accumulation in Porous Structure), was developed and used to evaluate and predict the kinetics of tritium transport in porous media. This model is coupled with the TRICS (Tritium In Compound Systems) code that was developed to study the effect of surface erosion during normal and abnormal operations on tritium behavior in PFCS.

  15. Mixture design and treatment methods for recycling contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Kwok, June S H; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Conventional marine disposal of contaminated sediment presents significant financial and environmental burden. This study aimed to recycle the contaminated sediment by assessing the roles and integration of binder formulation, sediment pretreatment, curing method, and waste inclusion in stabilization/solidification. The results demonstrated that the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks produced with coal fly ash and lime partially replacing cement at a binder-to-sediment ratio of 3:7 could be used as fill materials for construction. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that hydration products (calcium hydroxide) were difficult to form at high sediment content. Thermal pretreatment of sediment removed 90% of indigenous organic matter, significantly increased the compressive strength, and enabled reuse as non-load-bearing masonry units. Besides, 2-h CO2 curing accelerated early-stage carbonation inside the porous structure, sequestered 5.6% of CO2 (by weight) in the sediment blocks, and acquired strength comparable to 7-d curing. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated substantial weight loss corresponding to decomposition of poorly and well crystalline calcium carbonate. Moreover, partial replacement of contaminated sediment by various granular waste materials notably augmented the strength of sediment blocks. The metal leachability of sediment blocks was minimal and acceptable for reuse. These results suggest that contaminated sediment should be viewed as useful resources. PMID:25464304

  16. Investigation of the potential impacts from tritium soil contamination in the CP-5 yard.

    SciTech Connect

    Hysong, R. J.

    1998-12-21

    Based on a review of available data, significant contributions to low-level tritium soil contamination in the CP-5 yard have been made by airborne tritium fallout and rainout from the CP-5 ventilation system stack. Based on the distribution of tritium in the yard, it is also likely that leaks in secondary system piping which lead to the cooling towers were a significant contributor to tritium in CP-5 yard subsurface soil. Based on the foregoing analysis, low-level tritium contamination will not prohibit the release of the yard for unrestricted use in the future. Worst case dose estimates based on very conservative assumptions indicate that a 25 rmem annual effective dose equivalent limit will not be exceeded under the most restrictive residential-use family farm scenario. Given the impermeable nature of the glacial till under CP-5, low-level concentrations of tritium may be occasionally detected in the deep well (3300 12D), but the peak concentration will not approach the levels calculated by RESRAD; however, continued monitoring of the deep well is recommended. To ensure that all sources of potential tritium release have been removed from the CP-5 complex, removal of tritiated water from each rod-out hole and an evaluation of the physical integrity of the rod-out holes is recommended. This will also allow for an evaluation of tritium concentrations in shallow groundwater under CP-5 by sampling groundwater that is currently being forced into the drain tile system. Additional surface and subsurface soil sampling and analysis will be required to determine the final release status of soils around the Building 330 complex relative to elevated concentrations of CS-137, CO-60,Co-57, and Eu-152 identified during the 1993 IT Corporation characterization. The potential radiological impact from isolated elevations of the latter radionuclides is relatively low and can be evaluated as part of the final status survey of outdoor areas surrounding the Building 330 complex. In

  17. Tritium contamination at EG&G/EM in North Las Vegas, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Sowell, C.V.; Arent, L.J.

    1996-06-01

    The tritium contamination discovered at the EG&G Energy Measurements (EG&G/EM) facility in North Las Vegas, Nevada, on 20 April 1995, could have been averted by good health physics practices and/or adequate management oversight. Scandium tritide (ScT{sub 3}) targets were installed for use in sealed tube neutron generators at EG&G/EM. In addition, EG&G/EM was also storing zirconium tritide (ZrT{sub 3}) and titanium tritide (TiT{sub 3}) foils. Since the targets were classified as sealed sources, the appropriate administrative and engineering control measures such as relocating targets/sources, air monitoring, bioassay, waste stream management, labeling/posting and training were not implemented. In all there were six unreported incidents of tritium contamination from March 1994 to July 1995. Swipe surveys revealed areas exceeding the action level of 10,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} by up to three orders of magnitude. After reclassifying the targets as unsealed sources, a bioassay program was instituted, and the results were higher than expected for three employees. The doses assigned to the three individuals working in the contaminated area were 35, 58, and 61 mrem committed effective dose equivalent. Though the doses were low, the decontamination costs were in excess of $350,000.00. An investigation, was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office to analyze the events that led to the tritium contamination and recommend actions to prevent recurrence. Event and causal factor charting, Project Evaluation Tree (PET) analysis techniques, and root cause analysis, were used to evaluate management systems, causal sequences, and systems factors contributing to the tritium release.

  18. Transport of tritium contamination to the atmosphere in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C.A.; Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Cooper, C.A.; Johnson, M.J.; Michel, R.L.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Soil-plant-atmosphere interactions strongly infl uence water movement in desert unsaturated zones, but litile is known about how such interactions aff ect atmospheric release of subsurface water-borne contaminants. This 2-yr study, performed at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site in southern Nevada, quantifi ed the magnitude and spatiotemporal variability of tritium (3H) transport from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility. Tritium fl uxes were calculated as the product of 3H concentrations in water vapor and respective evaporation and transpiration water-vapor fl uxes. Quarterly measured 3H concentrations in soil water vapor and in leaf water of the dominant creosote-bush [Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville] were spatially extrapolated and temporally interpolated to develop daily maps of contamination across the 0.76-km2 study area. Maximum plant and root-zone soil concentrations (4200 and 8700 Bq L-1, respectively) were measured 25 m from the LLRW facility boundary. Continuous evaporation was estimated using a Priestley-Taylor model and transpiration was computed as the diff erence between measured eddy-covariance evapotranspiration and estimated evaporation. The mean evaporation/transpiration ratio was 3:1. Tritium released from the study area ranged from 0.12 to 12 ??g d-1 and totaled 1.5 mg (8.2 ?? 1010 Bq) over 2 yr. Tritium fl ux variability was driven spatially by proximity to 3H source areas and temporally by changes in 3H concentrations and in the partitioning between evaporation and transpiration. Evapotranspiration removed and limited penetration of precipitation beneath native vegetation and fostered upward movement and release of 3H from below the root zone. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  19. Transport of tritium contamination to the atmosphere in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Andraski, Brian J.; Johnson, Michael J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Michel, Robert L.; Cooper, C.A.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Soil–plant–atmosphere interactions strongly influence water movement in desert unsaturated zones, but little is known about how such interactions affect atmospheric release of subsurface water-borne contaminants. This 2-yr study, performed at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site in southern Nevada, quantified the magnitude and spatiotemporal variability of tritium (3H) transport from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility. Tritium fluxes were calculated as the product of 3H concentrations in water vapor and respective evaporation and transpiration water-vapor fluxes. Quarterly measured 3H concentrations in soil water vapor and in leaf water of the dominant creosote-bush [Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville] were spatially extrapolated and temporally interpolated to develop daily maps of contamination across the 0.76-km2 study area. Maximum plant and root-zone soil concentrations (4200 and 8700 Bq L−1, respectively) were measured 25 m from the LLRW facility boundary. Continuous evaporation was estimated using a Priestley–Taylor model and transpiration was computed as the difference between measured eddy-covariance evapotranspiration and estimated evaporation. The mean evaporation/transpiration ratio was 3:1. Tritium released from the study area ranged from 0.12 to 12 μg d−1 and totaled 1.5 mg (8.2 × 1010 Bq) over 2 yr. Tritium flux variability was driven spatially by proximity to 3H source areas and temporally by changes in 3H concentrations and in the partitioning between evaporation and transpiration. Evapotranspiration removed and limited penetration of precipitation beneath native vegetation and fostered upward movement and release of 3H from below the root zone.

  20. Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinker, Barbara

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the range of benefits resulting from recycling efforts and projects. Presents information and data related to the recycling of metals, cans, paper, fans, and plastics. Suggestions for motivating and involving youth in recycling programs are also offered. (ML)

  1. Methods to reduce bacterial contamination of recycling cooling systems of a CHPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Vlasov, S. M.; Vlasova, A. Yu.

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial contamination of circulating and make-up water of the nonconjugated recycling cooling system with evaporative cooling towers of thermal power plants is studied. The nonconjugated recycling cooling system of Naberezhnochelninskaya CHP Plant was selected as the object of study. It was found that circulating water of recycling cooling is highly contaminated with aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. At the same time, make-up water for the cooling system from the Kama River is moderately polluted with anaerobic bacteria. Measurements of biological contamination in different parts of the recycling cooling system showed that populations of colonies of microorganisms abruptly decreases in turbine condensers, which is probably indicative of their death and deposition on the heat transfer surface of the condenser. Calculation using a special program showed that biological contamination of the recycling cooling system poses the greatest risks for clogging of the equipment (seven points on a nine-point scale), its corrosion (two points), and damage to the health of personnel (two points). Rapid development of aerobic bacteria apparently occurs under elevated temperature and intense aeration of water in the cooling tower. It is suggested to periodically monitor the recycling cooling system for biological pollution and to set a timetable for bactericidal treatment of circulating water depending on the level of its bacterial contamination.

  2. TOTAL RECYCLE SYSTEMS FOR PETROCHEMICAL WASTE BRINES CONTAINING REFRACTORY CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Petrochemical wastewaters containing relatively high concentrations of salt and refractory organics were selected to study their feasibility for total recycle. A combination of reverse osmosis and electrodialysis was operated as a hybrid system using the pretreated wastes to prod...

  3. Innovative technologies for recycling contaminated concrete and scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J.; Moore, J.

    1993-09-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of US DOE`s surplus facilities will generate enormous quantities of concrete and scrap metal. A solicitation was issued, seeking innovative technologies for recycling and reusing these materials. Eight proposals were selected for award. If successfully developed, these technologies will enable DOE to clean its facilities by 2019.

  4. EVALUATION OF TOXIC EFFECTS OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN RECYCLED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report represents the results of a comprehensive series of toxicological studies designed to evaluate the health effects of the application of recycled water for drinking purposes. Water was prepared in a highly advanced domestic sewerage pilot plant. Some 400,000 liters of t...

  5. Lead contamination around a kindergarten near a battery recycling plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jung-Der Wang; Chang-Sheng Jang; Yaw-Huei Hwang; Zueng-Sang Chen

    1992-07-01

    Lead poisoning has been noticed for more than a thousand years. Increased lead absorption and/or impaired neurobehavioral function among children who lived nearby lead smelters were reported in many different countries. In November of 1987, a worker from a lead battery recycling smelter suffered from anemia and bilateral weakness of his extremities. He was diagnosed as lead poisoning at the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). A subsequent epidemiological survey of the workers from this recycling smelter showed that 31 out of 64 who came for a medical examination suffered from lead poisoning. Since there was a kindergarten next to the factory, we performed this study to determine whether there was an increased lead absorption among children of the exposed kindergarten and its association with the extent of air and soil pollution in the surrounding area. 12 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. DOE`s radioactively - contaminated metal recycling: The policy and its implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.; Rizkalla, E.

    1997-02-01

    In 1994, the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration initiated development of a recycling policy to minimize the amount of radioactively-contaminated metal being disposed of as waste. During the following two years, stakeholders (including DOE and contractor personnel, regulators, members of the public, and representatives of labor and industry) were invited to identify key issues of concern, and to provide input on the final policy. As a result of this process, a demonstration policy for recycling radioactively-contaminated carbon steel resulting from decommissioning activities within the Environmental Management program was signed on September 20, 1996. It specifically recognizes that the Office of Environmental Management has a tremendous opportunity to minimize the disposal of metals as waste by the use of disposal containers fabricated from contaminated steel. The policy further recognizes the program`s demand for disposal containers, and it`s role as the major generator of radioactively-contaminated steel.

  7. Aluminum recycling from reactor walls: A source of contamination in a-Si:H thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Longeaud, C.; Ray, P. P.; Bhaduri, A.; Daineka, D.; Johnson, E. V.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

    2010-11-15

    In this article, the authors investigate the contamination of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films with aluminum recycled from the walls and electrodes of the deposition reactor. Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon were prepared under various conditions by a standard radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process in two reactors, the chambers of which were constructed of either aluminum or stainless steel. The authors have studied the electronic properties of these thin films and have found that when using an aluminum reactor chamber, the layers are contaminated with aluminum recycled from the chamber walls and electrode. This phenomenon is observed almost independently of the deposition conditions. The authors show that this contamination results in slightly p-doped films and could be detrimental to the deposition of device grade films. The authors also propose a simple way to control and eventually suppress this contamination.

  8. CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL AND WASTE DEPOSITS AT SUPERFUND LEAD BATTERY RECYCLING SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. A defunct LBRS is a facility at which battery breaking, secondary lead smelting, or both operations...

  9. Inorganic Contaminants in Recycled Packaging: Potential Impact for Consumer Safety

    SciTech Connect

    S. J. Parry; D. S. J. Aston

    2000-11-12

    The effect on human health of using food packaging made from recycled materials will depend on whether the elements will migrate into the food itself and at which levels that would be of concern. There is no EU directive for paper and board packaging, but guidelines on paper and board intended to come into contact with food are being developed in another forum. These do not propose limits for paper intended to come into contact with dry foods. However, for other foodstuffs, restriction limits in paper of 0.002 mg/dm{sup 2} (Cd), 0.003 mg/dm{sup 2} (Pb), and 0.002 mg/dm{sup 2} (Hg) have been proposed. This paper describes a radiotracer method that has been applied to the determination of migration of trace elements from paper and board into real food samples.

  10. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

    2002-02-11

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

  11. Reconstruction of tritium release history from contaminated groundwater using tree ring analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kalin, R.M.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Hall, G.

    1995-10-01

    The history of tritium releases to the groundwater from buried waste was reconstructed through dendrochronology. Wood from dated tree rings was sectioned from a cross-section of a tree that was thought to tap the groundwater. Cellulose was chemically separated from the wood. The cellulose was combusted and the water of combustion collected for liquid scintillation counting. The tritium concentration in the rings rose rapidly after 1972 which was prior to the first measurements made in this area. Trends in the tritium concentration of water outcropping to the surface are similar to the trends in tritium concentration in tree rings. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Junya; Santorelli, Michael

    Recycling systems are classified into those employing typically three methods, and the progress of each method is described. In mechanical recycling, powders of phenolic materials are recovered via a mechanical process and reused as fillers or additives in virgin materials. The effects to flowability, curability, and mechanical properties of the materials are explained. In feedstock recycling, monomers, oligomers, or oils are recovered via chemical processes and reused as feedstock. Pyrolysis, solvolysis or hydrolysis, and supercritical or subcritical fluid technology will also be introduced. When using a subcritical fluid of phenol, the recycled material maintains excellent properties similar to the virgin material, and a demonstration plant has been constructed to carry out mass production development. In energy recovery, wastes of phenolic materials are used as an alternative solid fuel to coal because they are combustible and have good calorific value. Industrial wastes of these have been in practical use in a cement plant. Finally, it is suggested that the best recycling method should be selected according to the purpose or situation, because every recycling method has both strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, quantitative and objective evaluation methods in recycling are desirable and should be established.

  13. In-Situ Imaging and Quantification of Tritium Surface Contamination via Coherent Fiber Bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Stewart J. Zweben

    2001-11-12

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has developed a method of imaging tritium on in-situ surfaces for the purpose of real-time data collection. This method expands upon a previous tritium imaging concept, also developed at PPPL. Enhancements include an objective lens coupled to the entry aperture of a coherent fiber optic (CFO) bundle, and a relay lens connecting the exit aperture of the fiber bundle to an intensifier tube and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The system has been specifically fabricated for use in determining tritium concentrations on first wall materials. One potential complication associated with the development of D-T [deuterium-tritium] fueled fusion reactors is the deposition of tritium (i.e., co-deposited layer) on the surface of the primary wall of the vacuum vessel. It would be advantageous to implement a process to accurately determine tritium distribution on these inner surfaces. This fiber optic imaging device provides a highly practical method for determining the location, concentration, and activity of surface tritium deposition. In addition, it can be employed for detection of tritium ''hot-spots'' and ''hide-out'' regions present on the surfaces being imaged.

  14. Establishing a Quality Control Program: Ensuring Safety From Contamination for Recycled Metered-Dose Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Clyne, Kurt; Knapp, Donnet; Snyder, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Recycling metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) is an effective method to conserve medications resulting in significant cost savings to the hospital. A noted limitation in some reports is the potential for cross-contamination. Objective: To implement a quality control program to monitor and validate the safety of recycled MDIs for institutional reuse. Methods: A quality control program was conducted from December 2012 to May 2013. At a 257-bed acute care facility, MDIs are administered to a single patient using a patient-specific valved holding chamber and then returned to the pharmacy for cleaning with 70% isopropyl alcohol prior to re-dispensing to a new patient. Ten percent of MDIs from 3 categories were categorized: prior to pharmacy cleaning, after pharmacy cleaning, and new/unused control group each month. The mouthpiece and canister spray tip from each MDI were tested. Any bacterial growth was documented. A secondary test was conducted to ensure that artificially contaminated MDIs could be cleaned with current cleaning procedures. Cost savings measures were also quantified. Results: There was no bacterial growth on the 17 recycled MDIs cultured prior to the cleaning process. Bacteria did not grow on any of the 33 recycled MDIs cleaned with 70% isopropyl alcohol. Likewise, in the control group of 33 new/unused control MDIs, there was no bacterial growth. No bacteria growth was found after cleaning each artificially contaminated MDI. Total drug cost savings during the study period was approximately $130,000. Conclusions: Establishing a strict quality control program is paramount to validating a safe and effective recycled MDI procedure. PMID:24958955

  15. Indian MORB-source mantle: not just a case of plume contamination or sediment recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, P. D.; Pearce, J. A.

    2003-04-01

    Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) from the Indian Ocean have long been known for their distinctive Pb and Sr isotope compositions relative to other MORBs. Most models for their origin involve contamination of a "normal" depleted mantle by a distinctly enriched material, the most favoured being (1) recycled oceanic crust plus pelagic sediments, (2) mantle plumes and/or (3) delaminated sub-continental lithosphere. Based on quantitative mixing models, Rehkämper and Hofmann (1997) showed that recycling of an old, compositionally heterogeneous component could explain the range of Sr, Nd and Pb isotope compositions for Indian MORBs. Their model predicts that the predominant recycled component is ancient (1.5Ga) altered ocean crust, with pelagic sediment comprising less than 10% of the contaminant. However, Hf-Nd isotope systematics are difficult to explain in this way because Indian MORBs have higher eHf values (i.e. greater time-integrated depletion of Lu relative to Hf) for a given eNd than nearly all other MORBs - and considerably higher than any of the enriched materials suggested as contaminants. Essentially, Indian and Pacific MORBs form separate and parallel arrays in Nd-Hf isotope space. What is required is a mechanism that involves not only enrichment of some elements, but also relative depletion of others. Based on new Nd-Hf isotope data for Indian and Pacific MORBs from the Australian-Antarctic Discordance, we propose that the distinctive Indian MORB source composition can be explained by recycling of subduction-modified mantle. This mantle could have been generated within the convergent margin that existed off the east coast of Gondwana throughout most of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Eras. It was subsequently recycled into the upper mantle beneath Gondwana and became the source of Indian MORBs following the break-up of the Gondwanan supercontinent. Rehkämper, M., and A. W. Hofmann, Recycled ocean crust and sediment in Indian Ocean MORB, Earth and Planetary

  16. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; <1.4-100, <1.2-100, and <0.5-20 ng/L, respectively). Interestingly, there were specific PFC profiles: perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorohexanoic acid (88 and 77 ng/L, respectively) were almost as abundant as PFOA in MD leachate (100 ng/L), whereas PFNA was prevalent in ER and BR (mean, 17 and 6.2 ng/L, respectively) and PFUDA was the most abundant in municipal wastewater (mean, 5.6 ng/L), indicating differences in PFC contents in different waste materials. PMID:22773082

  17. A containment and disposition strategy for tritium contaminated groundwater at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, Daniel; Barton, Christopher, D.; Rebel, Karin, T.; Singer, Julian; Seaman, John, C.; Strawbridge, Dan; Riha, Susan, J.; Blake, John, I.

    2005-03-01

    Hitchcock, Daniel R., C.D. Barton, K.T. Rebel, J. Singer, J.C. Seaman, J.D. Strawbridge, S.J. Riha, and J.I. Blake. 2005. A containment and disposition strategy for tritium-contaminated groundwater at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, United States.. Env. Geosci. 12(1): 17-28. Abstract - A containment and disposition water management strategy has been implemented at the Savannah River Site to minimize the discharge of tritiated groundwater from the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground to Four Mile Branch, a tributary of the Savannah River. This paper presents a general overview of the water management strategy, which includes a two-component (pond and irrigation) system, and a summary of operations and effectiveness for the first 3 yr of operations. Tritiated groundwater seep discharge was impounded by a dam and distributed via irrigation to a 22-ac (8.9-ha) upland forested area comprised of mixed pines (loblolly and slash) and hardwoods(primarily sweetgum and laurel oak). As of March 2004, the system has irrigated approximately 133.2 million L (35.2 million gal) and prevented approximately 1880 Ci of tritium from entering Four Mile Branch via forest evapotranspiration, as well as via pond storage and evaporation. Prior to installation of the containment and disposition strategy, tritium activity in Four Mile Branch downstream of the seep averaged approximately 500 pCi mL_1. Six months after installation, tritium activity averaged approximately 200 pCi mL_1 in Fourmile Branch. After 1 yr of operations, tritium activity averaged below 100 pCi mL_1 in Fourmile Branch, and a range of 100-200 pCi mL_1 tritium activity has been maintained as of March 2004. Complex hydrological factors and operational strategies influence remediation system success. Analyses may assist in developing groundwater management and remediation strategies for future projects at the Savannah River Site and other facilities located on similar landscapes.

  18. Recycling of lower continental crust through foundering of cumulates from contaminated mafic intrusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, Nicholas T.; Goldstein, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    A mechanism is presented for recycling of lower continental material back into the mantle. Picritic magmas, possible parental to volumious continental volcanics such as the Karoo and Deccan, became trapped at the Moho, where they interacted with and become contaminated by lower crustal materials. Upon crystallization, the magmas differentiated into lower ultramafic cumulate zones and upper gabbroic-anorthositic zones. The ultramafic cumulates are denser than underlying mantle and sink, carrying lower crustal components as trapped liquid, as xenoliths or rafts, and as constituents of cumulate minerals. This model provides a potentially significant crust-mantle differentiation mechanism, and may also represent a contributing factor in crustal recycling, possibly important in producing some OIB reservoirs.

  19. Drum bubbler tritium processing system

    DOEpatents

    Rule, Keith; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Kivler, Paul

    1999-01-01

    A method of separating tritium oxide from a gas stream containing tritium oxide. The gas stream containing tritium oxide is fed into a container of water having a head space above the water. Bubbling the gas stream containing tritium oxide through the container of water and removing gas from the container head space above the water. Thereafter, the gas from the head space is dried to remove water vapor from the gas, and the water vapor is recycled to the container of water.

  20. Tritium transport and control in the FED

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The tritium systems for the FED have three primary purposes. The first is to provide tritium and deuterium fuel for the reactor. This fuel can be new tritium or deuterium delivered to the plant site, or recycled DT from the reactor that must be processed before it can be recycled. The second purpose of the FED tritium systems is to provide state-of-the-art tritium handling to limit worker radiation exposure and to minimize tritium losses to the environment. The final major objective of the FED tritium systems is to provide an integrated system test of the tritium handling technology necessary to support the fusion reactor program. Every effort is being made to incorporate available information from the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium systems, and the tritium handling information generated within DOE for the past 20 years.

  1. Technical assessment of processes to enable recycling of low-level contaminated metal waste

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Accumulations of metal waste exhibiting low levels of radioactivity (LLCMW) have become a national burden, both financially and environmentally. Much of this metal could be considered as a resource. The Department of Energy was assigned the task of inventorying and classifying LLCMW, identifying potential applications, and applying and/or developing the technology necessary to enable recycling. One application for recycled LLCMW is high-quality canisters for permanent repository storage of high-level waste (HLW). As many as 80,000 canisters will be needed by 2035. Much of the technology needed to decontaminate LLCMW has already been developed, but no integrated process has been described, even on a pilot scale, for recycling LLCMW into HLW canisters. This report reviews practices for removal of radionuclides and for producing low carbon stainless steel. Contaminants that readily form oxides may be reduced to below de minimis levels and combined with a slag. Most of the radioactivity remaining in the ingot is concentrated in the inclusions. Radionuclides that chemically resemble the elements that comprise stainless steel can not be removed effectively. Slag compositions, current melting practices, and canister fabrication techniques were reviewed.

  2. 2009 EVALUATION OF TRITIUM REMOVAL AND MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK KJ; GENESSE DJ; STEGEN GE

    2009-02-26

    Since 1995, a state-approved land disposal site (SALDS) has received tritium contaminated effluents from the Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Tritium in this effluent is mitigated by storage in slow moving groundwater to allow extended time for decay before the water reaches the site boundary. By this method, tritium in the SALDS is isolated from the general environment and human contact until it has decayed to acceptable levels. This report contains the 2009 update evaluation of alternative tritium mitigation techniques to control tritium in liquid effluents and groundwater at the Hanford site. A thorough literature review was completed and updated information is provided on state-of-the-art technologies for control of tritium in wastewaters. This report was prepared to satisfy the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-026-07B (Ecology, EPA, and DOE 2007). Tritium separation and isolation technologies are evaluated periodically to determine their feasibility for implementation to control Hanford site liquid effluents and groundwaters to meet the Us. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40 CFR 141.16, drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) for tritium of 20,000 pOll and/or DOE Order 5400.5 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy. Since the 2004 evaluation, there have been a number of developments related to tritium separation and control with potential application in mitigating tritium contaminated wastewater. These are primarily focused in the areas of: (1) tritium recycling at a commercial facility in Cardiff, UK using integrated tritium separation technologies (water distillation, palladium membrane reactor, liquid phase catalytic exchange, thermal diffusion), (2) development and demonstration of Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) using hydrogen/water exchange to separate tritium from water, (3) evaporation of tritium contaminated water for dispersion in the

  3. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites. PMID:24652574

  4. New data on the level of contamination with tritium aerosol fallout in the nearest influence zone of the mining-chemical combine of the Rosatom State Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondareva, L. G.; Rubailo, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of tritium aerosol transport on radioactive contamination on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk region influenced by the mining-chemical combine of the Rosatom State Corporation was studied. Snow cover, foliage, and needles collected at various distances from the mining-chemical combine were selected as the object of this study. A new methodology of liquid extraction from plant material (leaves and needles) was worked out. As a result, the maximal concentrations of tritium (15 kBk/m3 in snow, 11 and 15 Bk/m2 for leaves and pine-tree needles, respectively) were determined. However, the results obtained are not anomalous. Consequently, contamination with tritium may not be accounted for entirely due to the low concentrations.

  5. Green remediation and recycling of contaminated sediment by waste-incorporated stabilization/solidification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2015-03-01

    Navigational/environmental dredging of contaminated sediment conventionally requires contained marine disposal and continuous monitoring. This study proposed a green remediation approach to treat and recycle the contaminated sediment by means of stabilization/solidification enhanced by the addition of selected solid wastes. With an increasing amount of contaminated sediment (20-70%), the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks decreased from greater than 10MPa to slightly above 1MPa. For augmenting the cement hydration, coal fly ash was more effective than lime and ground seashells, especially at low sediment content. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed varying amounts of hydration products (primarily calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate) in the presence of coal fly ash, signifying the influence of pozzolanic reaction. To facilitate the waste utilization, cullet from beverage glass bottles and bottom ashes from coal combustion and waste incineration were found suitable to substitute coarse aggregate at 33% replacement ratio, beyond which the compressive strength decreased accordingly. The mercury intrusion porosimetry analysis indicated that the increase in the total pore area and average pore diameter were linearly correlated with the decrease of compressive strength due to waste replacement. All the sediment blocks complied with the acceptance criteria for reuse in terms of metal leachability. These results suggest that, with an appropriate mixture design, contaminated sediment and waste materials are useful resources for producing non-load-bearing masonry units or fill materials for construction uses. PMID:25522855

  6. Contamination of dry foods with trimethyldiphenylmethanes by migration from recycled paper and board packaging.

    PubMed

    Sturaro, Alberto; Rella, Rocco; Parvoli, Giorgio; Ferrara, Daniela; Tisato, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    Contamination of foods with trimethyldiphenylmethanes is reported and the origin is shown to be migration from food packaging materials of which the use of recycled carbonless copy paper was found to be the major source. This chemical is one of the solvents used in the carbonless copy paper and its presence in food and the environment has not been previously identified. In this paper we have pursued previous studies on diisopropylnaphthalenes and hydrogenated terphenyls contamination from packaging and now report the identification of this new food contaminant and present evidence of its source. Solid foods such as egg pasta, barley coffee and rice were analysed by GC/MS and a mean concentration of 18 microg/kg of trimethyldiphenylmethanes was found. Extracts from carbonless copy paper were analysed by proton NMR to characterize the trimethyldiphenylmethanes. Since trimethyldiphenylmethanes are found in solid food together with diisopropylnaphthalenes, and considering their similar chemical character, they may follow the same migration pathway as one another. PMID:16546890

  7. Migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants into dry pasta packaged in direct contact with recycled paperboard.

    PubMed

    Barp, Laura; Suman, Michele; Lambertini, Francesca; Moret, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants, namely mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH), diisopropyl naphthalenes (DIPN) and polyalphaolefins (PAO) from adhesives into dry semolina and egg pasta packaged in direct contact with recycled paperboard. Migration was monitored during its shelf life (for up to two years) simulating storage in a supermarket (packs on shelves) and conditions preventing exchange with the surrounding environment (packs wrapped in aluminium foil). Migration from the secondary packaging (transport boxes of corrugated board) was also studied for semolina pasta. After 24 months of exposure, semolina pasta stored on shelves reached 3.2 and 0.6 mg kg(-1) of MOSH and MOAH, respectively, Migration from the adhesives used to close the boxes and from the transport boxes contributed about 30% and 25% of the total contamination, respectively. The highest contamination levels (14.5 and 2.0 mg kg(-1) of MOSH and MOAH, respectively, after 24 months) were found in egg pasta stored on shelves (no adhesives), and seemed due to the highest contribution from the external environment. PMID:25571955

  8. Recyclable bio-reagent for rapid and selective extraction of contaminants from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Lomasney, H.L.

    1997-10-01

    This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program is confirming the effectiveness of a bio-reagent to cost-effectively and selectively extract a wide range of heavy metals and radionuclide contaminants from soil. This bioreagent solution, developed by ISOTRON{reg_sign} Corporation (New Orleans, LA), is flushed through the soil and recycled after flowing through an electrokinetic separation module, also developed by ISOTRON{reg_sign}. The process is ex situ, and the soil remains in its transport container through the decontamination process. The transport container can be a fiberglass box, or a bulk bag or {open_quotes}super sack.{close_quotes} Rocks, vegetation, roots, etc. need not be removed. High clay content soils are accommodated. The process provides rapid injection of reagent solution, and when needed, sand is introduced to speed up the heap leach step. The concentrated waste form is eventually solidified. The bio-reagent is essentially a natural product, therefore any solubizer residual in soil is not expected to cause regulatory concern. The Phase I work will confirm the effectiveness of this bio-reagent on a wide range of contaminants, and the engineering parameters that are needed to carry out a full-scale demonstration of the process. ISOTRON{reg_sign} scientists will work with contaminated soil from Los Alamos National Laboratory. LANL is in the process of decontaminating and decommissioning more than 300 sites within its complex, many of which contain heavy metals or radionuclides; some are mixed wastes containing TCE, PCB, and metals.

  9. Full-scale experimental facility for the development technologies for the reprocessing of tritium contaminated light and heavy water wastes by CECE process and cryogenic distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Trenin, V.D.; Alekseev, I.A.; Karpov, S.P.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.; Konoplev, K.A.; Fedorchenko, O.A.; Uborski, V.V.; Voronina, T.

    1995-10-01

    The problem of the formation and accumulation of the tritiated heavy and light water wastes produced under operation of the various nuclear facilities is considered. It is shown that the tritium contaminated wastes may have a wide spectrum of isotope concentrations of H:D:T and correlation one with other. Reprocessing of these wastes is expensive matter due to the small tritium concentration respectfully to other hydrogen isotopes and as well as the small value of separation factor. It requires the development of the versatile technology. The description of the full scale experimental facility constructed at PNPI is given. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Drum bubbler tritium processing system

    DOEpatents

    Rule, K.; Gettelfinger, G.; Kivler, P.

    1999-08-17

    A method is described for separating tritium oxide from a gas stream containing tritium oxide. The gas stream containing tritium oxide is fed into a container of water having a head space above the water. The tritium oxide is separated by bubbling the gas stream containing tritium oxide through the container of water and removing gas from the container head space above the water. Thereafter, the gas from the head space is dried to remove water vapor from the gas, and the water vapor is recycled to the container of water. 2 figs.

  11. Analytical procedure for quantifying five compounds suspected as possible contaminants in recycled paper/paperboard for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Song, Y S; Park, H J; Komolprasert, V

    2000-12-01

    Because contaminants in recycled paper intended for food packaging could be a risk to public health, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify residues of concern in paper/paperboard. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration is considering development of a guidance document for testing levels of contaminants that might be retained through paper recycling processes. An analytical procedure was developed using paper spiked with suspected contaminants at concentrations of 1-50 ppm in the paper. Benzophenone, dimethyl phthalate, anthracene, methyl stearate, and pentachlorophenol were introduced by soaking the paper in a solution in acetone at 25 degrees C for 24 h; the paper was removed and dried by evaporating the solvent with nitrogen. The model contaminant residues were extracted from the paper using ultrasonication and quantified by GC with flame ionization and electron capture detectors. Recoveries from the spiked paper were 80-109% with a repeatability of +/-4%. The method was also used to analyze commercial recycled paperboard to validate its applicability. PMID:11141258

  12. Recycled paper-paperboard for food contact materials: contaminants suspected and migration into foods and food simulant.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Nicoleta A; Tiberto, Francesca; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Trevisan, Marco

    2013-12-15

    Contaminant residues in food packaging is a new challenge of our time, as it may pose a threat for consumers. Higher levels of contaminants were observed in food packaging made by recycled materials, even if little information is available for some groups of contaminants. The present study proposes a procedure for analyzing three different groups of organic contaminants in recycled paper and paperboard. Seventeen commercial samples were analyzed for the presence of bisphenol A (BPA), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NMP) and nonylphenol di-ethoxilate (NDP). Not all the samples contained all the contaminants; BPA was the only substance present in all the samples. The concentrations detected were quite high and, in most of the cases, in agreement with results reported in previous studies. Substance migration tests from spiked/non-spiked samples for two dry foods and Tenax® food simulant were undertaken. BPA migration quotients were always lower than 1%, whereas the migration quotients of DEHP were higher than 2.0%. The highest nonylphenols migration quotients were 6.5% for NMP and 8.2% for NDP. Tenax® simulates well the contaminants migration from paperboard to dry food, in some cases being even more severe than the food. PMID:23993598

  13. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 1. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume I covers: executive summary; task 1.1 design CEP system; Task 1.2 experimental test plan; Task 1.3 experimental testing.

  14. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 2. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume II contains: Task 1.4, optimization of the vitreous phase for stabilization of radioactive species; Task 1.5, experimental testing of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes; and Task 1.6, conceptual design of a CEP facility.

  15. Evaluation of the Fate and Transport of Tritium Contaminated Groundwater from the 618-11 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Dresel, P Evan; Freeman, Eugene J.; Peterson, R E.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2005-08-08

    Tritium transport simulations were conducted to model the mechanisms associated with dilution, dispersion, and radioactive decay that attenuate the 618-11 tritium plume and limit the risk associated with exposure to the Columbia River and Energy Northwest water supply wells. A comparison of simulated and observed tritium concentrations at two downgradient monitoring wells indicated that the model was a reasonable representation of the tritium concentrations immediately downgradient of the site (699-13-3A) and near the leading edge of the plume (699-13-0A). This good match increased confidence in the conceptual model, its numeric implementation, and ultimately, the validity of predictive simulations of tritium fate and transport. Three release scenarios were investigated to measure the impact of the tritium plume at primary receptor locations under different conditions. The three cases were (1) a pulse release of tritium from the burial ground that was the best fit between observed and simulated tritium concentrations; (2) a continuing, decaying source beneath the burial ground through 2015, the milestone for source removal under the River Corridor Closure Contract; and (3) a pulse release as in the best fit case but at twice the concentration. For the best fit case, the model predicts that the maximum tritium concentration will decline to below the drinking water standard by 2031 For the other two release scenarios, maximum tritium concentrations declined to below the drinking water standard by 2040 and 2037, respectively. Tritium from the 618-11 burial ground is not expected to migrate to the Columbia River or to the Energy Northwest water supply wells at concentrations that would pose a significant risk.

  16. The Study for Recycling NORM - Contaminated Steel Scraps from Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, K. F.; Lee, Y. S.; Chao, H. E.

    2003-02-24

    Since 1994, most of the major steel industries in Taiwan have installed portal monitor to detect the abnormal radiation in metal scrap feed. As a result, the discovery of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) has increased in recent years. In order to save the natural resources and promote radiation protection, an experimental melting process for the NORM contaminated steel scraps was carried out by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) Taiwan, ROC. The experimental melting process has a pretreatment step that includes a series of cutting and removal of scales, sludge, as well as combustible and volatile materials on/in the steel scraps. After pretreatment the surface of the steel scraps are relatively clean. Then the scraps are melted by a pilot-type induction furnace. This experiment finally produced seven ingots with a total weight of 2,849 kg and 96.8% recovery. All of the surface dose rates are of the background values. The activity concentrations of these ingots are also below the regulatory criteria. Thus, these NORM-bearing steel scraps are ready for recycling. This study has been granted by the regulatory authority.

  17. Comparison of alternative remediation technologies for recycled gravel contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Gu, Yilu; Huang, Sheng; Zhen, Guangyin; Deng, Guannan; Xie, Tian; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of different remediation methods on heavy metals contaminated recycled gravel, three immobilization agents (monopotassium phosphate, lime, nano-iron) and two mobilization agents (glyphosate, humic acid (HA)) were studied and compared. Results indicated that nano-iron powder was found to be more effective to immobilize Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. Meanwhile, glyphosate presents a higher mobilization effect than HA with removal rates of about 66.7% for Cd, more than 80% for Cr, Cu and Zn, and the highest removal percentage of 85.9% for Cr. After the mobilization by glyphosate, the leaching rates of Zn, Cu and Cr were about 0.8%, and below 0.2% for Pb and Cd. The leaching rates after nano-iron powder treatment were 1.18% for Zn, 0.96% for Cr, 0.61% for Cu, 0.45% for Pb and Cd not detected. The formation and disappearance of metal (Zn/Cu/Cr/Pb/Cd) compounds were firmly confirmed through X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on crystalline phases and morphological surface structures. PMID:26416851

  18. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern. PMID:26318969

  19. Effectiveness of passivation techniques on hydrogen desorption in a tritium environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, Steven Michael

    2009-11-01

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It is used as a fuel in fusion reactors, a booster material in nuclear weapons and as a light source in commercial applications. When tritium is used in fusion reactors, and especially when used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons, purity is critical. For U.S. Department of Energy use, tritium is recycled by Savannah River Site in South Carolina and is processed to a minimum purity of 99.5%. For use elsewhere in the country, it must be shipped and stored, while maintaining the highest purity possible. As an isotope of hydrogen it exchanges easily with the most common isotope of hydrogen, protium. Stainless steel bottles are used to transport and store tritium. Protium, present in air, becomes associated in and on the surface of stainless steel during and after the manufacture of the steel. When filled, the tritium within the bottle exchanges with the protium in and on the surface of the stainless steel, slowly contaminating the pure tritium with protium. The stainless steel is therefore passivated to minimize the protium outgrowth of the bottles into the pure tritium. This research is to determine how effective different passivation techniques are in minimizing the contamination of tritium with protium. Additionally, this research will attempt to determine a relationship between surface chemistry of passivated steels and protium contamination of tritium. The conclusions of this research found that passivated bottles by two companies which routinely provide passivated materials to the US Department of Energy provide low levels of protium outgrowth into pure tritium. A bottle passivated with a material to prevent excessive corrosion in a highly corrosive environment, and a clean and polished bottle provided outgrowth rates roughly twice those of the passivated bottles above. Beyond generally high levels of chromium, oxygen, iron and nickel in the passivated bottles, there did not appear to be a strong correlation

  20. Tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Wilson, K.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the materials physics related to D-T operation in TFTR. Research activities are described pertaining to basic studies of hydrogenic retention in graphite, hydrogen recycling phenomena, first-wall and limiter conditioning, surface analysis of TFTR first-wall components, and estimates of the tritium inventory.

  1. Possible parameters in the urinary excretion of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, C.N.; Lewis, B.A.; Cannon, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    Because of its mobility in both physical and biological systems, tritium is interesting both as a tracer and as an issue in health physics. Because tritium is extremely difficult to contain, it is one of the major radionuclides of concern if released to the environment from nuclear facilities. Relatively very large releases are tolerated because the beta particle has low energy and, therefore, the radioisotope is not a health hazard unless deposited internally. Moreover, on release to the environment, tritium enters the hydrologic cycle and is diluted and dispersed widely through the hydrosphere. It is likely that tritium uptake and loss in humans is more complex than generally believed and may be more functionally related to physiological processes, such as the bicarbonate and electrolyte balances, than to ambient environmental conditions such as temperature. Despite the many uncertainties in the analyses of experimental data on tritium contamination and excretion, it is likely that further investigations will establish both a better understanding of the tritium health hazard and the physiological processes governing excretion and, perhaps, its indefinite recycling through metabolic pools.

  2. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOEpatents

    Gentile, Charles A. , Guttadora, Gregory L. , Parker, John J.

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  3. Experimental Assessment of Recycled Diesel Spill-Contaminated Domestic Wastewater Treated by Reed Beds for Irrigation of Sweet Peppers.

    PubMed

    Almuktar, Suhad A A A N; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this experimental study is to assess if urban wastewater treated by ten different greenhouse-based sustainable wetland systems can be recycled to irrigate Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet Pepper; California Wonder) commercially grown either in compost or sand within a laboratory environment. The design variables were aggregate diameter, contact time, resting time and chemical oxygen demand. The key objectives were to assess: (i) the suitability of different treated (recycled) wastewaters for irrigation; (ii) response of peppers in terms of growth when using recycled wastewater subject to different growth media and hydrocarbon contamination; and (iii) the economic viability of different experimental set-ups in terms of marketable yield. Ortho-phosphate-phosphorus, ammonia-nitrogen, potassium and manganese concentrations in the irrigation water considerably exceeded the corresponding water quality thresholds. A high yield in terms of economic return (marketable yield expressed in monetary value) was linked to raw wastewater and an organic growth medium, while the plants grown in organic medium and wetlands of large aggregate size, high contact and resting times, diesel-spill contamination and low inflow loading rate produced the best fruits in terms of their dimensions and fresh weights, indicating the role of diesel in reducing too high nitrogen concentrations. PMID:26861370

  4. Experimental Assessment of Recycled Diesel Spill-Contaminated Domestic Wastewater Treated by Reed Beds for Irrigation of Sweet Peppers

    PubMed Central

    Almuktar, Suhad A.A.A.N.; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study is to assess if urban wastewater treated by ten different greenhouse-based sustainable wetland systems can be recycled to irrigate Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet Pepper; California Wonder) commercially grown either in compost or sand within a laboratory environment. The design variables were aggregate diameter, contact time, resting time and chemical oxygen demand. The key objectives were to assess: (i) the suitability of different treated (recycled) wastewaters for irrigation; (ii) response of peppers in terms of growth when using recycled wastewater subject to different growth media and hydrocarbon contamination; and (iii) the economic viability of different experimental set-ups in terms of marketable yield. Ortho-phosphate-phosphorus, ammonia-nitrogen, potassium and manganese concentrations in the irrigation water considerably exceeded the corresponding water quality thresholds. A high yield in terms of economic return (marketable yield expressed in monetary value) was linked to raw wastewater and an organic growth medium, while the plants grown in organic medium and wetlands of large aggregate size, high contact and resting times, diesel-spill contamination and low inflow loading rate produced the best fruits in terms of their dimensions and fresh weights, indicating the role of diesel in reducing too high nitrogen concentrations. PMID:26861370

  5. Control technologies for remediation of contaminated soil and waste deposits at Superfund lead-battery recycling sites

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, M.D.; Selvakumar, A.; Gaire, R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. Metallic lead and lead compounds are generally the principal contaminants of concern in soils and waste deposits. Other metals (e.g., cadmium, copper, arsenic, antimony, and selenium) are often present at LBRS. The article is primarily based on experience gained from: (1) Superfund site investigation, removal, and remedial actions, and (2) development and demonstration of control technologies under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The primary remedial options for lead contaminated soils and waste deposits include: (1) no action, (2) off-site disposal, (3) containment, (4) immobilization, (5) separation with resource recovery, and (6) separation without resource recovery.

  6. PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION VALENCE STATE DETERMINATION USING X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE PERMITS CONCRETE RECYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, P. F.; Conradson, S. D.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes the determination of the speciation of plutonium contamination present on concrete surfaces at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). At RFETS, the plutonium processing facilities have been contaminated during multiple events over their 50 year operating history. Contamination has resulted from plutonium fire smoke, plutonium fire fighting water, milling and lathe operation aerosols, furnace operations vapors and plutonium ''dust'' diffusion.

  7. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  8. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  9. Overview of tritium: characteristics, sources, and problems.

    PubMed

    Okada, S; Momoshima, N

    1993-12-01

    Tritium has certain characteristics that present unique challenges for dosimetry and health-risk assessment. For example, in the gas form, tritium can diffuse through almost any container, including those made of steel, aluminum, and plastics. In the oxide form, tritium can generally not be detected by commonly used survey instruments. In the environment, tritium can be taken up by all hydrogen-containing molecules, distributing widely on a global scale. Tritium can be incorporated into humans through respiration, ingestion, and diffusion through skin. Its harmful effects are observed only when it is incorporated into the body. Several sources contribute to the inventory of tritium in our environment. These are 1) cosmic ray interaction with atmospheric molecules; 2) nuclear reactions in the earth's crust; 3) nuclear testing in the atmosphere during the 1950s and 1960s; 4) continuous release of tritium from nuclear power plants and tritium production facilities under normal operation; 5) incidental releases from these facilities; and 6) consumer products. An important future source will be nuclear fusion facilities expected to be developed for the purpose of electricity generation. The principal health physics problems associated with tritium are 1) the determination of the parameters for risk estimation with further reduction of their uncertainties (e.g., relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate dependency); 2) risk estimation from complex exposures to tritium in gas form, tritium in oxide form, tritium surface contamination, and other tritium-contaminated forms, with or without other ionizing radiations and/or nonionizing radiations; 3) the dose contributions of elemental tritium in the lung and from its oxidized tritium in the gastrointestinal tract; 4) prevention of tritium (in oxide form) intake and enhancement of tritium (oxide form) excretion from the human body; 5) precise health effects information for low-level tritium exposure; and 6) public

  10. 60Co contamination in recycled steel resulting in elevated civilian radiation doses: causes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Chang, W P; Chan, C C; Wang, J D

    1997-09-01

    Since late 1992, more than 100 building complexes containing public and private schools and nearly 1,000 apartments have been identified in Taiwan with elevated levels of gamma-radiation from construction steel contaminated with 60Co. Due to improper handling of 60Co contaminated scrap steel in late 1982 and 1983, contaminated construction materials have been widely distributed throughout the country. These contaminated construction materials have generated elevated radiation exposures to members of the public in Taiwan. As of early 1996, more than 4,000 people, including young students, have been identified as receiving more than 1 mSv y(-1) above the local background for up to 12 y. This report provides a detailed discussion of the sources of the 60Co contamination in construction steel, its discovery in the building complexes, and preliminary evaluation and remediation activities. PMID:9287087

  11. Primer on tritium safe handling practices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This Primer is designed for use by operations and maintenance personnel to improve their knowledge of tritium safe handling practices. It is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. It is presented in general terms for use throughout the DOE Complex. After reading it, one should be able to: describe methods of measuring airborne tritium concentration; list types of protective clothing effective against tritium uptake from surface and airborne contamination; name two methods of reducing the body dose after a tritium uptake; describe the most common method for determining amount of tritium uptake in the body; describe steps to take following an accidental release of airborne tritium; describe the damage to metals that results from absorption of tritium; explain how washing hands or showering in cold water helps reduce tritium uptake; and describe how tritium exchanges with normal hydrogen in water and hydrocarbons.

  12. TFTR tritium operations lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C.A.; Raftopoulos, S.; LaMarche, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor which is the progenitor for full D-T operating tokamaks has successfully processed > 81 grams of tritium in a safe and efficient fashion. Many of the fundamental operational techniques associated with the safe movement of tritium through the TFTR facility were developed over the course of many years of DOE tritium facilities (LANL, LLNL, SRS, Mound). In the mid 1980`s The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at LANL began reporting operational techniques for the safe handling of tritium, and became a major conduit for the transfer of safe tritium handling technology from DOE weapons laboratories to non-weapon facilities. TFTR has built on many of the TSTA operational techniques and has had the opportunity of performing and enhancing these techniques at America`s first operational D-T fusion reactor. This paper will discuss negative pressure employing `elephant trunks` in the control and mitigation of tritium contamination at the TFTR facility, and the interaction between contaminated line operations and {Delta} pressure control. In addition the strategy employed in managing the movement of tritium through TFTR while maintaining an active tritium inventory of < 50,000 Ci will be discussed. 5 refs.

  13. Progress in Recycling Elemental Lead for Reuse of Radiologically-Contaminated within the Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, C.

    2003-02-26

    Duratek successfully demonstrated a process for reusing contaminated lead as a shielding material for radioactive waste containers. This process offers the Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial utilities a cost-effective strategy for reusing a material that would otherwise require costly disposal as a mixed waste. During the past year, GTS-Duratek Inc. approximately 500,000 pounds of contaminated and potentially contaminated lead into shielding (bricks) and shielded steel containers. The lead originated from the DOE facilities including INEEL, Hanford, Argonne, Los Alamos, Berkeley and Sandia.

  14. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1994-06-14

    A system is described for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream. 1 fig.

  15. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1994-01-01

    A system for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream.

  16. Assessment of end of life disposal, tritium recovery and purification strategies for radioluminescent lights

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Ellefson, R.E. |; Carden, H.S. |

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this joint assessment by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and EG&G Mound Applied Technologies is to identify and examine options for disposal of aged-out RL lights based on current technology, and for the possible recovery and purification of tritium from the lights and disposal of the resulting contaminated remnants. The focus of the assessment is on the waste disposal and tritium recycling issues that will evolve with use of advanced RL lighting technology and that are relevant to industrial suppliers and to civilian, military, and other government users. The scope of work also includes identification of the potential financial benefits and risks of recycle versus direct disposal. 5 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Assessment of end of life disposal, tritium recovery and purification strategies for radioluminescent lights

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F. ); Ellefson, R.E. EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH ); Carden, H.S. Quill Associates, Dayton, OH )

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this joint assessment by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and EG G Mound Applied Technologies is to identify and examine options for disposal of aged-out RL lights based on current technology, and for the possible recovery and purification of tritium from the lights and disposal of the resulting contaminated remnants. The focus of the assessment is on the waste disposal and tritium recycling issues that will evolve with use of advanced RL lighting technology and that are relevant to industrial suppliers and to civilian, military, and other government users. The scope of work also includes identification of the potential financial benefits and risks of recycle versus direct disposal. 5 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. ELECTROCHEMICAL TREATMENT AND RECYCLING OF SPENT PERCHLORATE-CONTAMINATED ION-EXCHANGE REGENERATION BRINE - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eltron Research & Development, Inc. (Eltron) proposes to develop an ion-selective, polymer membrane electrode capable of detecting perchlorate in water at low parts per billion (ppb) concentrations. With the discovery of perchlorate contamination in an increasing number of...

  19. POTENTIAL REUSE OF PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SOIL: A DIRECTOR OF PERMITTED RECYCLING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products leaking from underground storage tanks is a pervasive problem In the United States. conomically feasible disposal of such soil concerns the responsible party (RP), whether the RP Ia one individual small business owner a group of owne...

  20. POTENTIAL REUSE OF PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SOIL: A DIRECTORY OF PERMITTED RECYCLING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products leaking from underground storage tanks Is a pervasive problem in the United States. Economically feasible disposal of such soil concerns the responsible party (RP), whether the RP is one individual small business owner, a group o...

  1. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, comprehensive executive summary. Final report, September 30, 1993--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    R&D activities have demonstrated Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to be a robust, one-step process process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. The feed size and composition compatible with CEP have been increased in a short period of time, and additional R&D should lead to the ability to accept a drum (and larger?) size feed of completely uncharacterized waste. Experiments have validated the CPU (Catalytic Processing Unit). Two commercial facilities have been commissioned and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. Expansion of CEP to transuranic and high level wastes should be the next step in the development and deployment of CEP for recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities.

  2. Spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in soils near a primitive e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Quan, Sheng-Xiang; Yan, Bo; Yang, Fan; Li, Ning; Xiao, Xian-Ming; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2015-01-01

    The total concentrations of 12 heavy metals in surface soils (SS, 0-20 cm), middle soils (MS, 30-50 cm) and deep soils (DS, 60-80 cm) from an acid-leaching area, a deserted paddy field and a deserted area of Guiyu were measured. The results showed that the acid-leaching area was heavily contaminated with heavy metals, especially in SS. The mean concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb and Pb in SS from the acid-leaching area were 278.4, 684.1, 572.8, 1.36, 3,472, 1,706 and 222.8 mg/kg, respectively. Heavy metal pollution in the deserted paddy field was mainly concentrated in SS and MS. The average values of Sb in SS and MS from the deserted paddy field were 16.3 and 20.2 mg/kg, respectively. However, heavy metal contamination of the deserted area was principally found in the DS. Extremely high concentrations of heavy metals were also observed at some special research sites, further confirming that the level of heavy metal pollution was very serious. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values revealed that the acid-leaching area was severely polluted with heavy metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn > Pb, while deserted paddy field was contaminated predominately by metals in the order of Sb > Sn > Cu. It was obvious that the concentrations of some uncommon contaminants, such as Sb and Sn, were higher than principal contaminants, such as Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb, suggesting that particular attention should be directed to Sn and Sb contamination in the future research of heavy metals in soils from e-waste-processing areas. Correlation analysis suggested that Li and Be in soils from the acid-leaching area and its surrounding environment might have originated from other industrial activities and from batteries, whereas Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Sn and Sb contamination was most likely caused by uncontrolled electronic waste (e-waste) processing. These results indicate the significant need for optimisation of e-waste-dismantling technologies and remediation of polluted soil

  3. Post-consumer contamination in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) milk bottles and the design of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process.

    PubMed

    Welle, F

    2005-10-01

    Six hundred conventional recycled HDPE flake samples, which were recollected and sorted in the UK, were screened for post-consumer contamination levels. Each analysed sample consisted of 40-50 individual flakes so that the amount of analysed individual containers was in the range 24,000-30,000 post-consumer milk bottles. Predominant contaminants in hot-washed flake samples were unsaturated oligomers, which can be also be found in virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pellet samples used for milk bottle production. In addition, the flavour compound limonene, the degradation product of antioxidant additives di-tert-butylphenol and low amounts of saturated oligomers were found in higher concentrations in the post-consumer samples in comparison with virgin HDPE. However, the overall concentrations in post-consumer recycled samples were similar to or lower than concentration ranges in comparison with virgin HDPE. Contamination with other HDPE untypical compounds was rare and was in most cases related to non-milk bottles, which are <2.1% of the input material of the recycling process. The maximum concentration found in one sample of 1 g was estimated as 130 mg kg(-1), which corresponds to a contamination of 5200-6500 mg kg(-1) in the individual bottle. The recycling process investigated was based on an efficient sorting process, a hot-washing of the ground bottles, and a further deep-cleaning of the flakes with high temperatures and vacuum. Based on the fact that the contamination levels of post-consumer flake samples are similar to virgin HDPE and on the high cleaning efficiency of the super-clean recycling process especially for highly volatile compounds, the recycling process investigated is suitable for recycled post-consumer HDPE bottles for direct food-contact applications. However, hand-picking after automatically sorting is recommended to decrease the amount of non-milk bottles. The conclusions for suitability are valid, provided that the migration testing of

  4. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster. PMID:25460954

  5. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Gary L.; Meikrantz, David H.; Ely, Walter E.; Tuggle, Dale G.; Grafwallner, Ervin G.; Wickham, Keith L.; Maltrud, Herman R.; Baker, John D.

    1992-01-01

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter.

  6. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, G.L.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Wickham, K.L.; Maltrud, H.R.; Baker, J.D.

    1992-01-14

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter. 7 figs.

  7. Human dietary intake of organohalogen contaminants at e-waste recycling sites in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Labunska, Iryna; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Eulaers, Igor; Covaci, Adrian; Tao, Fang; Wang, Mengjiao; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This study reports concentrations and human dietary intake of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as selected "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organochlorine pesticides, in ten staple food categories. Samples were sourced from areas in Taizhou City, eastern China, where rudimentary recycling and disposal of e-waste is commonplace, as well as from nearby non-e-waste impacted control areas. In most instances, concentrations in foods from e-waste recycling areas exceeded those from control locations. Concentrations of 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TBP) in samples from e-waste sites were 3.09-62.2ng/g and 0.81-16.3ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively; exceeding consistently those in foods acquired from control sites by an order of magnitude in many cases. In contrast, while concentrations of HBCD in some foods from e-waste impacted areas exceed those from control locations; concentrations in pork, shrimp, and duck liver are higher in control samples. This highlights the potential significance of non-e-waste sources of HBCD (e.g. building insulation foam) in our study areas. While concentrations of DDT in all foods examined except pork were higher in e-waste impacted samples than controls; our exposure estimates were well below the provisional tolerable daily intake of 0.01mg/kgbw/day derived by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues. Concentrations of ΣPCBs resulted in exposures (650 and 2340ng/kgbw/day for adults and children respectively) that exceed substantially the Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for ΣPCBs of 20ng/kgbw/day derived by the Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. Moreover, when expressed in terms of dioxin-like toxicity equivalency based on the four dioxin-like PCBs monitored in this study (DL-PCBs) (PCB-105, 118, 156, and 167); concentrations in e-waste impacted foods exceed limits set by the European Union in

  8. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  9. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  10. Experimental quantification of radiocesium recycling in a coniferous tree after aerial contamination: Field loss dynamics, translocation and final partitioning.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Y; Garcia-Sanchez, L; Hurtevent, P

    2016-09-01

    After foliar interception of radioactive atmospheric fallout by forest trees, the short-term recycling dynamics of radiocesium from the tree to the soil as well as within the tree is a primary area of uncertainty in the modeling of the overall cycle. The partitioning of radiocesium transfers in a spruce tree exposed to aerial deposits was investigated during one growth season to reveal the dynamics and significance of underlying processes. The rate of radiocesium loss resulting from foliage leaching (wash-off) was shown to have a functional dependence on the frequency of rainy episodes in a first early stage (weathering 60% of initial contamination during 70 days) and on the amount of precipitation in a second stage (weathering 10% of initial deposits during the following 80 days). A classical single exponential decay model with offset and continuous time as predictor lead to a removal half-life t1/2 of intercepted radiocesium of 25 days. During the growth season, the similar pattern of the internal (134)Cs content in new shoots and initially contaminated foliage confirmed that radiocesium was readily absorbed from needle surfaces and efficiently translocated to growing organs. In the crown, a pool of non-leachable (134)Cs (15-30%) was associated with the abiotic layer covering the twigs and needle surfaces. At the end of the growth season, 30% of the initial deposits were relocated to different tree parts, including organs like stemwood (5%) and roots (6%) not directly exposed to deposition. At the scale of the tree, 84% of the residual activity was assimilated by living tissues which corresponds to a foliar absorption rate coefficient of 0.25 year(-1) for modeling purposes. According to the significant amount of radiocesium which can be incorporated in tree through foliar uptake, our results support the hypothesis that further internal transfers could supply the tree internal cycle of radiocesium extensively, and possibly mask the contribution of root uptake for

  11. ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR SCREENING DIOXIN SOIL CONTAMINATION BY UNCONTROLLED COMBUSTION DURING INFORMAL RECYCLING IN SLUMS

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Mirta; Nording, Malin; Nichkova, Mikaela; Spinnel, Erik; Haglund, Peter; Last, Michael S.; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce; Last, Jerold A.; González-Sapienza, Gualberto; Brena, Beatriz M.

    2010-01-01

    Uncontrolled combustion due to garbage recycling is a widespread activity among slum dwellers in distressed economy countries and has been indicated as a major source of dioxin contamination. However, because of the high cost and complexity of gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) analysis, the magnitude of the problem remains largely unknown. The present study describes a first approach toward the use of a dioxin antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as the basis for a sustainable, simple, and low-cost monitoring program to assess the toxicological impact of uncontrolled combustion in slums. A panel of 16 samples was analyzed by GC-HRMS and ELISA on split extracts. Close to 20% of the analyzed samples showed dioxin concentrations up to almost twice the guidance level for residential soil in several countries, pointing out the need for performing a large-scale monitoring program. Despite the potential for variations in dioxin congener distribution due to the mixed nature of the incinerated material, there was a good correlation between the toxic equivalents as determined by GC-HRMS and ELISA. Furthermore, an interlaboratory ELISA validation showed that the capacity to perform the dioxin ELISA was successfully transferred between laboratories. It was concluded that the ELISA method performed very well as a screening tool to prioritize samples for instrumental analysis, which allows cutting down costs significantly. PMID:18522475

  12. Recycling of complexometric extractants to remediate a soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia Chi; Marshall, William D

    2002-04-01

    Equilibrations were performed with complexing reagent(s) to mobilise Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from a contaminated urban soil. The metal-laden aqueous extract was treated with zero-valent magnesium (Mg0) or bimetallic mixture (Pd0/Mg0 or Ag0/Mg0) to precipitate the heavy metals from solution while liberating the chelating reagent(s). Post precipitation, the pH of aqueous supernatant fraction was readjusted to approximately 5 and the solution was re-combined with the soil particulates to extract more heavy metal pollutants. A sparing quantity of EDTA (10 mmoles) mobilised 32-54% of the 5 mmoles of heavy-metals from the soil with three cycles but only 0.1% of the iron was removed. Three successive extractions with a mixture of complexing reagents (3 mmoles), 1:1 EDTA plus HEDC [bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-dithiocarbamate], mobilised approximately 49% of the Pb, approximately 18% of the Zn and approximately 19% of the Mn burden but only 7% of the Cu, and 1% of the Fe from this soil. An appreciable fraction of the mobilised Pb and Cu and a portion of the Zn was cemented to the surfaces of the excess magnesium whereas virtually all of the Fe and Mn was removed from solution as insoluble hydroxides. PMID:11993778

  13. Tritium autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen distribution and diffusion within many materials may be investigated by autoradiography if the radioactive isotope tritium is used in the study. Tritium is unstable and decays to helium-3 by emission of a low energy (18 keV) beta particle which may be detected photographically. The basic principles of tritium autoradiography will be discussed. Limitations are imposed on the technique by: (1) the low energy of the beta particles; (2) the solubility and diffusivity of hydrogen in materials; and (3) the response of the photographic emulsion to beta particles. These factors control the possible range of application of tritium autoradiography. The technique has been applied successfully to studies of hydrogen solubility and distribution in materials and to studies of hydrogen damage.

  14. Atmospheric tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Oestlund, H.G.; Mason, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Research progress for the year 1979 to 1980 are reported. Concentrations of tritiated water vapor, tritium gas and tritiated hydrocarbons in the atmosphere at selected sampling points are presented. (ACR)

  15. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-12-30

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs.

  16. Tritium Elimination System Using Tritium Gas Oxidizing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimasa, Michiko; Awagakubo, Sayuri; Takahashi, Miho; Tauchi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka; Ichimasa, Yusuke

    2005-07-15

    In order to eliminate atmospheric tritium gas (HT) released from tritium handling apparatus, we proposed to use the HT oxidizing ability (hydrogenase enzyme) of bacterial strains isolated from surface soils instead of a high temperature precious metal catalyst. Among the isolated strains with high HT oxidation activity, several strains were selected to develop a tritium elimination (detritiation) system. Bioreactors were made of bacterial cells grown on agar medium on a cartridge filter and stored in a refrigerator until use. The detritiation ability of these bioreactors at room temperature was investigated during the intentional HT release experiments carried out in the Cassion Assembly for Tritium Safety Study (CATS) in TPL/JAERI. When HT contaminated air from the CATS was introduced into the biological detritiation system, in which three bioreactors were connected in series, 86% of HT in air was removed as tritiated water in these bioreactors at a flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3}/min for 2 hours.

  17. Tritium issues in commercial pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.

    2008-07-15

    Tritium has become an important radionuclide in commercial Pressurized Water Reactors because of its mobility and tendency to concentrate in plant systems as tritiated water during the recycling of reactor coolant. Small quantities of tritium are released in routine regulated effluents as liquid water and as water vapor. Tritium has become a focus of attention at commercial nuclear power plants in recent years due to inadvertent, low-level, chronic releases arising from routine maintenance operations and from component failures. Tritium has been observed in groundwater in the vicinity of stations. The nuclear industry has undertaken strong proactive corrective measures to prevent recurrence, and continues to eliminate emission sources through its singular focus on public safety and environmental stewardship. This paper will discuss: production mechanisms for tritium, transport mechanisms from the reactor through plant, systems to the environment, examples of routine effluent releases, offsite doses, basic groundwater transport and geological issues, and recent nuclear industry environmental and legal ramifications. (authors)

  18. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary. PMID:23228866

  19. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range.

    PubMed

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface. PMID:24657814

  20. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  1. Tritium Plasma Experiment Upgrade for Fusion Tritium and Nuclear Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Masashi; Taylor, Chase N.; Kolasinski, Robert D.; Buchenauer, Dean A.

    2015-11-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to directly study tritium retention and permeation in neutron-irradiated materials [M. Shimada et.al., Rev. Sci. Instru. 82 (2011) 083503 and and M. Shimada, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008]. Recently the TPE has undergone major upgrades in its electrical and control systems. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium. We discuss the electrical upgrade, enhanced operational safety, improved plasma performance, and development of tritium plasma-driven permeation and optical spectrometer system. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), and Demonstration reactor (DEMO). This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  2. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-25

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

  3. Plasma wall interaction and tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Amarescu, E.; Ascione, G.; Synakowski, E.

    1996-05-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been operating safely and routinely with deuterium-tritium fuel for more than two years. In this time, TFTR has produced an impressive number of record breaking results including core fusion power, ~ 2 MW/m³, comparable to that expected for ITER. Advances in wall conditioning via lithium pellet injection have played an essential role in achieving these results. Deuterium-tritium operation has also provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium recycling and retention. Tritium retention over two years of operation was approximately 40%. Recently, the in-torus tritium inventory was reduced by half through a combination of glow discharge cleaning, moist-air soaks, and plasma discharge cleaning. The tritium inventory is not a constraint in continued operations. The authors present recent results from TFTR in the context of plasma wall interactions and deuterium-tritium issues.

  4. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  5. European survey on post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) materials to determine contamination levels and maximum consumer exposure from food packages made from recycled PET.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Mauer, A; Welle, F

    2004-03-01

    Typical contamination and the frequency of misuse of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are crucial parameters in the risk assessment of post-consumer recycled (PCR) PET intended for bottle-to-bottle recycling for direct food contact applications. Owing to the fact that misuse of PET bottles is a rare event, sustainable knowledge about the average concentration of hazardous compounds in PCR PET is accessible only by the screening of large numbers of samples. In order to establish average levels of contaminants in PET source materials for recycling, PET flakes from commercial washing plants (689 samples), reprocessed pellets (38) and super-clean pellets (217) were collected from 12 European countries between 1997 and 2001. Analysis of these materials by headspace gas chromatography revealed average and maximum levels in PCR PET of 18.6 and 86.0 mg kg-1 for acetaldehyde and 2.9 and 20 mg kg-1 for limonene, respectively. Acetaldehyde and limonene are typical compounds derived from PET itself and from prior PET bottle contents (flavouring components), respectively. Maximum levels in PCR PET of real contaminants such as misuse chemicals like solvents ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 mg kg-1, and statistically were shown to result from 0.03 to 0.04% of recollected PET bottles that had been misused. Based on a principal component analysis of the experimental data, the impact of the recollecting system and the European Union Member State where the post-consumer PET bottles had been collected on the nature and extent of adventitious contaminants was not significant. Under consideration of the cleaning efficiency of super-clean processes as well as migration from the bottle wall into food, it can be concluded that the consumer will be exposed at maximum to levels < 50 ng total misuse chemicals day-1. Therefore, PCR PET materials and articles produced by modern superclean technologies can be considered to be safe in direct food applications in the same way as virgin food

  6. Tritium emission reduction at Darlington tritium removal facility using a Bubbler System

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyanam, K.; Leilabadi, A.; El-Behairy, O.; Williams, G. I. D.; Vogt, H. K.

    2008-07-15

    Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) has a 4 x 880 MWe CANDU nuclear station at its Darlington Nuclear Div. located in Bowmanville. The station operates a Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) to reduce and maintain low tritium levels in the Moderator and Heat Transport heavy water systems of Ontario's CANDU fleet by extracting, concentrating, immobilizing and storing as a metal tritide. Minimizing tritium releases to the environment is of paramount importance to ensure that dose to the public is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and to maintain credibility with the Public. Tritium is removed from the Cryogenic Distillation System to the Tritium Immobilization System (TIS) glove box via a transfer line that is protected by a rupture disc and relief valve. An overpressure event in 2003 had caused the rupture disc to blow, resulting in the release of a significant quantity of elemental tritium into the relief valve discharge line, which ties into the contaminated exhaust system. As a result of a few similar events occurring over a number of years of TRF operation, the released elemental tritium would have been converted to tritium oxide in the presence of a stagnant moist air environment in the stainless steel discharge line. A significant amount of tritium oxide hold-up in the discharge line was anticipated. To minimize any further releases to the environment, a Bubbler System was designed to remove and recover the tritium from the discharge line. This paper summarizes the results of several Bubbler recovery runs that were made over a period of a month. Approximately 3500 Ci of tritium oxide and 230 Ci of elemental tritium were removed and collected. The tritium contained in the water produced from the Bubbler system was later safely recovered in the station's downgraded D{sub 2}O clean-up and recovery system. (authors)

  7. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, Gary J.; Weesner, Forrest J.

    1989-05-30

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture and selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration.

  8. Measurements of tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Kamperschroer, J.

    1996-05-01

    Recent experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have afforded an opportunity to measure the retention of tritium in a graphite limiter that is subject to erosion, codeposition and high neutron flux. The tritium was injected by both gas puff and neutral beams. The isotopic mix of hydrogenic recycling was measured spectroscopically and the tritium fraction T/(H+D+T) increased to as high as 75%. Some tritium was pumped out during the experimental run and some removed in a subsequent campaign using various clean-up techniques. While the short term retention of tritium was high, various conditioning techniques were successful in removing {approx} 8,000 Ci and restoring the tritium inventory to a level well below the administrative limit.

  9. Tritium waste control: April-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1982-05-17

    Progress reports are presented for the following: electrolysis of tritiated water; impurity removal from combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) feed water; gas generation measurements on tritiated waste materials; fixation of aqueous tritiated waste in polymer-impregnated concrete; management of high specific activity tritiated liquid wastes; and tritium assay of low specific activity (LSA) laboratory and LSA shoe cover waste. Some of the highlights are as follows: (1) gas generation rates caused by radiolysis of tritium waste materials were determined for polymer and nonpolymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete and fixated and nonfixated, tritiated waste vacuum pump oil; (2) the drum study monitoring the release of tritium from actual burial packages showed that the maximum fractional release rate for the three types of high activity, tritiated liquid waste generated is 1.25 x 10/sup -5/, and the maximum total permeation is 122 mCi after 5.5 y. These two values represent a 9 to 20% increase for the past six months. Tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete (PITC) and the control (non-PITC) remains very low. Two assays were performed on low specific activity, tritium-contaminated waste generated at Mound. In one, four LSA drums were assayed for total tritium content by leaching the contents with water. The tritium content of all four drums was well within the LSA limit of less than 25 Ci per drum. In the second study a drum of discarded shoe covers from tritium-handling areas was filled with a measureed quantity of water for leaching tritium from the shoe covers. The minimum amount of tritium within the drum was determined. An annual average estimate of tritium removed and buried as LSA shoe cover trash was also made.

  10. Recycling, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Amy

    1992-01-01

    Suggestions for creating a successful office recycling system are enumerated from start up plans to waste reduction and paper recycling. Contact information for recycling equipment, potential buyers of recycled materials, recycled products for purchase, and ideas for promotion and education of staff are included. (MCO)

  11. Evaluation of sub-critical water as an extraction fluid for model contaminants from recycled PET for reuse as food packaging material.

    PubMed

    Santos, Amélia S F; Agnelli, José A M; Manrich, Sati

    2010-04-01

    Recycling of plastics for food-contact packaging is an important issue and research into meaningful and cost-effective solutions is in progress. In this paper, the use of sub-critical water was evaluated as an alternative way of purifying poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) flakes for direct food contact applications. The effects of temperature, pressure and flow rate were assessed on the extraction efficiency of two of the most challenging classes of contaminants (toluene and benzophenone) from PET by sub-critical water using a first-order fractional experimental design. Extraction yield was quantified using GC/FID. The most important parameter was flow rate, indicating that the decrease in sub-critical water polarity with temperature was insufficient to eliminate partition effects. Temperature was also important, but only for the optimization of toluene extraction. These results may be explained by the poor solubility of higher molar mass compounds in sub-critical water compared to lower molar mass compounds under the same conditions, and the small decrease in dielectric constant with temperature under the experimental conditions evaluated. As cleaning efficiency is low and PET is very susceptible to hydrolysis, which limits the use of higher temperatures vis-à-vis physical recycling, the proposed extraction is unsuitable for a standalone super-clean process but may be a step in the process. PMID:20063227

  12. Magmatic tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I.; McMurtry, G.M.; Shevenell, L.; Pettit, D.R.; Stimac, J.A.; Werner, C.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ({sup 3}H) of deep origin (<0.1 T.U. or <0.32 pCi/kg H{sub 2}O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable {sup 3}H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics.

  13. How tritium illuminates catchment structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M.; Morgenstern, U.; McDonnell, J.

    2012-04-01

    Streams contain water which has taken widely-varying times to pass through catchments, and the distribution of ages is likely to change with the flow. Part of the water has 'runoff' straight to the stream with little delay, other parts are more delayed and some has taken years (in some cases decades) to traverse the deeper regolith or bedrock of the catchment. This work aims to establish the significance of the last component, which is important because it can cause catchments to have long memories of contaminant inputs (e.g. nitrate). Results of tritium studies on streams world-wide were accessed from the scientific literature. Most of the studies assumed that there were just two age-components present in the streams (i.e. young and old). The mean ages and proportions of the components were found by fitting simulations to tritium data. It was found that the old component in streams was substantial (average was 50% of the annual runoff) and had considerable age (average mean age was 10 years) (Stewart et al., 2010). Use of oxygen-18 or chloride variations to estimate streamflow mean age usually does not reveal the age or size of this old component, because these methods cannot detect water older than about four years. Consequently, the use of tritium has shown that substantial parts of streamflow in headwater catchments are older than expected, and that deep groundwater plays an active and sometimes even a dominant role in runoff generation. Difficulties with interpretation of tritium in streams in recent years due to interference from tritium due to nuclear weapons testing are becoming less serious, because very accurate tritium measurements can be made and there is now little bomb-tritium remaining in the atmosphere. Mean ages can often be estimated from single tritium measurements in the Southern Hemisphere, because there was much less bomb-tritium in the atmosphere. This may also be possible for some locations in the Northern Hemisphere. Age determination on

  14. Recycling endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Goldenring, James R

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal membrane recycling system represents a dynamic conduit for sorting and re-exporting internalized membrane constituents. The recycling system is composed of multiple tubulovesicular recycling pathways that likely confer distinct trafficking pathways for individual cargoes. In addition, elements of the recycling system are responsible for assembly and maintenance of apical membrane specializations including primary cilia and apical microvilli. The existence of multiple intersecting and diverging recycling tracks likely accounts for specificity in plasma membrane recycling trafficking. PMID:26022676

  15. Utilization of recycled charcoal as a thermal source and adsorbent for the treatment of PCDD/Fs contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Hou, Hong; Iwasaki, Kanae; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2012-07-30

    A novel heat treatment process in which charcoal was used as both a thermal source and an adsorbent was investigated as a low-cost method for removal of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from solids. Three laboratory scale experiments involving various ratios of charcoal to contaminated sediment and air superficial velocities were performed. The results indicated that the total and toxic equivalency quantities (TEQ) concentrations of PCDD/Fs decreased significantly in the treated sediment of all runs with removal efficiencies greater than 96% and 90%, which resulted in residual concentrations below the Japanese standard limit of 0.15ng-TEQg(-1). The charcoal/contaminated sediment ratio and air superficial velocity were determinant factors controlling the PCDD/Fs concentrations and homologue profiles in effluent. As the air superficial velocity increased and charcoal/contaminated sediment ratio decreased, more PCDD/Fs were released from the sediment as fly ash, making them less likely to remain in the treated sediment. These phenomena were likely a result of the vapor pressure of PCDD/Fs, contact time with effluent gas and amount of PCDD/Fs adsorbed by charcoal. The developed process would promise an alternative to a conventional remediation process for PCDD/Fs contaminated solids. PMID:22633545

  16. Second national topical meeting on tritium technology in fission, fusion and isotopic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Barlit, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    This conference presented information on the following topics: the development of a tritium dispersion code; global environmental transport models for tritium; HT/HTO conversion in mammals; tritium production, releases and population doses at nuclear power reactors; design of tritium processing facilities and equipment for aqueous and gaseous streams; tritium removal from circulating helium by hydriding of rare earth metals; the determination of deuterium and tritium in effluent wastewater by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; tritium surface contamination: process calculations for a moderator detritiation plant; recent developments in magnetically coupled vane pumps for tritium service; recovery and storage of tritium by Zr-V-Fe getter; gas handling systems using titanium-sponge and uranium bulk getters; isotope effects and helium retention behavior in vanadium tritide; interaction of hydrogen isotopes with stainless steel 316 L; and the interaction of polyethylene and tritium gas as monitored by Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Continuous Aqueous Tritium Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1995-03-29

    Continuous monitoring for tritium in the aqueous effluents of selected Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities is performed using a custom designed system that includes an automated water purification system and a flow-through radiation detection system optimized for tritium. Beads of plastic scintillators coupled with coincidence electronics provide adequate sensitivity (=25kBz/L) for tritium break-through detection int he aqueous discharge stream from these facilities. The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs) at SRS provide early warning (within 30 minutes) of an unanticipated release of tritium, supplement the routine sampling surveillances, and mitigate the impact of aqueous plant discharges of tritium releases to the environment.

  18. Continuous aqueous tritium monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1995-10-01

    Continuous monitoring for tritium in the aqueous effluents of selected Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities is performed using a unique system that includes an automated water purification system and a flow-through radiation detection system optimized for tritium. Beads of plastic scintillator coupled with coincidence electronics provide adequate sensitivity (approx.25kBq/L) for tritium breakthrough detection in the aqueous discharge stream from these facilities. The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs) at SRS provide early warning (within 30 minutes) of an unanticipated release of tritium, supplement the routine sampling surveillances, and mitigate the impact of aqueous plant discharges of tritium to the environment. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Silicon Carbide as a tritium permeation barrier in tungsten plasma-facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, G. M.; Durrett, M. G.; Hoover, K. W.; Kesler, L. A.; Whyte, D. G.

    2015-03-01

    The control of tritium inventory is of great importance in future fusion reactors, not only from a safety standpoint but also to maximize a reactor's efficiency. Due to the high mobility of hydrogenic species in tungsten (W) one concern is the loss of tritium from the system via permeation through the tungsten plasma-facing components (PFC). This can lead to loss of tritium through the cooling channels of the wall thereby mandating tritium monitoring and recovery methods for the cooling system of the first wall. The permeated tritium is then out of the fuel cycle and cannot contribute to energy production until it is recovered and recycled into the system.

  20. Ex-ante fate assessment of trace organic contaminants for decision making: a post-normal estimation for sludge recycling in Reunion.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, Tom; Bravin, Matthieu N; Dumoulin, François; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The environmental fate of organic waste-derived trace organic contaminants is a recent focus of research. Public awareness of this issue and concern about the potential risks are increasing, partly as a result of this research. Knowledge remains sparse but, due to growing waste volumes and contaminant concentrations, situations are arising where decisions are urgently needed and the stakes are high. We present an approach to provide stakeholders with the soundest possible information on relevant risks in specific situations where local experimental data are scarce or inexistent. With accuracy taking precedence over precision in such situations, the quantitative fate assessment aspect of the approach considers uncertainty at all levels in order to estimate best-to-worst-case (cumulative uncertainty) fuzzy fate ranges. The approach was applied to conditions that prevail on the island of Réunion. Contrasting possible organic residue recycling scenarios are considered in which trace organic contaminants originate either from pig slurry or sewage sludge. The stakeholders' concerns targeted are leaching, soil persistence and crop (sugarcane) shoot translocation. The fate assessment results in soil removal dynamics that vary over a wide range, even for a particular chemical in a particular scenario. For 3 out of 27 chemicals residual soil concentrations after one sugarcane crop cycle could possibly exceed the 100 ng/g dry weight mass fraction range, only in a worst case situation. Substances predicted to be of the highest mobility (erythromycin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin) might produce appreciable leaching only in the event of substantial rainfall shortly after a high rate decadal application. And only the higher bound sugarcane shoot concentration estimates of 17 α-ethinylestradiol and tris(chloropropyl)phosphate are significant. PMID:25265554

  1. Tritium Measurements in Slovenia - Chronology Till 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Logar, Jasmina Kozar; Vaupotic, Janja; Kobal, Ivan

    2005-07-15

    Almost all the analyses of tritium in Slovenia have been performed by the tritium laboratory at the Jozef Stefan Institute. Nearly 90 % of its measurements have been covered by two national programs, both approved by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration: the radioactive monitoring program in the environs of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the program of global radioactive contamination monitoring in the environment. These programs include samples of groundwaters, surface waters, precipitation and drinking waters, as well as liquid and gaseous effluents from KNPP. Tritium was determined in some research projects and in hydrological studies of thermal waters, groundwater and coalmine waters. Tritium in the Karst region was mapped as well as the springs of entire territory of Slovenia. Around 5500 samples have been analyzed up to 2004.

  2. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

    1987-10-19

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

  3. Transport of organic contaminants in subsoil horizons and effects of dissolved organic matter related to organic waste recycling practices.

    PubMed

    Chabauty, Florian; Pot, Valérie; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Bernet, Nathalie; Labat, Christophe; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Compost amendment on agricultural soil is a current practice to compensate the loss of organic matter. As a consequence, dissolved organic carbon concentration in soil leachates can be increased and potentially modify the transport of other solutes. This study aims to characterize the processes controlling the mobility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in deep soil layers and their potential impacts on the leaching of organic contaminants (pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds) potentially present in cultivated soils receiving organic waste composts. We sampled undisturbed soil cores in the illuviated horizon (60-90 cm depth) of an Albeluvisol. Percolation experiments were made in presence and absence of DOM with two different pesticides, isoproturon and epoxiconazole, and two pharmaceutical compounds, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. Two types of DOM were extracted from two different soil surface horizons: one sampled in a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge applied once every 2 years since 1998 and one sampled in an unamended plot. Results show that DOM behaved as a highly reactive solute, which was continuously generated within the soil columns during flow and increased after flow interruption. DOM significantly increased the mobility of bromide and all pollutants, but the effects differed according the hydrophobic and the ionic character of the molecules. However, no clear effects of the origin of DOM on the mobility of the different contaminants were observed. PMID:26676540

  4. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots; Hans A. Schmutz

    2013-03-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  5. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Gentile; S.W. Langish; C.H. Skinner; L.P. Ciebiera

    2004-09-10

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination.

  6. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-10-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  7. Sources of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors. A discussion of the chemical form of the release is included. The energy producing facilities are ranked in order of increasing tritium production and release. The ranking is: HTGRs, LWRs, LMFBRs, MSBRs, and HWRs. The majority of tritium has been released in the form of tritiated water.

  8. Tritium pellet injector results

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Bauer, M.L.; Baylor, L.R.; Deleanu, L.E.; Fehling, D.T.; Milora, S.L.; Whitson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of /sup 3/He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Hanford recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  10. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers

    PubMed Central

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M.; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food. PMID:26731419

  11. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    PubMed

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food. PMID:26731419

  12. Tritium waste control: October 1981-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1982-08-16

    Progress reports and summaries are presented for the following: electrolysis of tritiated water; impurity removal from the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) feed water; gas generation measurements on tritiated waste materials; fixation of aqueous tritiated waste in polymer-impregnated concrete; management of high specific activity tritiated liquid wastes; and treatment of tritium contaminated water at Three Mile Island. (ATT)

  13. Helium-Recycling Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

  14. Recycled roads

    SciTech Connect

    Tarricone, P.

    1993-04-01

    This article examines the efforts of various states in the USA to recycle waste materials in highway construction as fill and pavements. The topics of the article include recycling used tires whole, ground, and shredded, cost of recycling, wood fiber chips as fill material in embankments, and mining wastes used to construct embankments and as coarse aggregates in asphalt pavement.

  15. Tritium control: October 1982-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1983-10-07

    Surveys in gloveboxes indicated surface activity on stainless steel and its apparent dependence on time and atmospheric tritium levels. Surveys in fumehoods were completed to investigate the extent of surface contamination on surfaces of various materials. Gas generation rates caused by radiolysis of tritiated waste materials were determined for polymer and nonpolymer-impregnated tritiated concrete and fixated and nonfixated tritiated waste vacuum pump oil. In addition, the pressure change of hydrogen cover gas over tritiated water on cement-plaster was determined. The test program to measure and compare the release of tritium from tritiated concrete with and without styrene impregnation continued. Tritium permeation data from small test blocks are given. The drum study monitoring the release of tritium from actual burial packages continued. The maximum fractional release rate for the three types of high activity, tritiated liquid waste generated is 5.1 x 10/sup -5/, and the maximum total permeation is 179 mCi after 8.5 yr. These two values represent a 13% increase for the past 6 months. Tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete (PITC) and from the control (non-PITC) remains very low. The Emergency Containment System (ECS), an automatically actuated system developed at Mound to remove tritium from room air, has been modified and upgraded to support new applications. The leakage rate in the ECS area has been lowered, a fast-start system installed for greater conversion efficiency at startup, and the alumina beds regenerated.

  16. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  17. Tritium monitoring techniques

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, J.R.; Buckner, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    As part of their operations, the U.S. Navy is required to store or maintain operational nuclear weapons on ships and at shore facilities. Since these weapons contain tritium, there are safety implications relevant to the exposure of personnel to tritium. This is particularly important for shipboard operations since these types of environments can make low-level tritium detection difficult. Some of these ships have closed systems, which can result in exposure to tritium at levels that are below normally acceptable levels but could still cause radiation doses that are higher than necessary or could hamper ship operations. This report describes the state of the art in commercial tritium detection and monitoring and recommends approaches for low-level tritium monitoring in these environments.

  18. Evaluation of Tritium Content and Release from Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sharon M.; Chattin, Marc Rhea; Giaquinto, Joseph; Jubin, Robert Thomas

    2015-09-01

    It is expected that tritium pretreatment will be required in future reprocessing plants to prevent the release of tritium to the environment (except for long-cooled fuels). To design and operate future reprocessing plants in a safe and environmentally compliant manner, the amount and form of tritium in the used nuclear fuel (UNF) must be understood and quantified. Tritium in light water reactor (LWR) fuel is dispersed between the fuel matrix and the fuel cladding, and some tritium may be in the plenum, probably as tritium labelled water (THO) or T2O. In a standard processing flowsheet, tritium management would be accomplished by treatment of liquid streams within the plant. Pretreating the fuel prior to dissolution to release the tritium into a single off-gas stream could simplify tritium management, so the removal of tritium in the liquid streams throughout the plant may not be required. The fraction of tritium remaining in the cladding may be reduced as a result of tritium pretreatment. Since Zircaloy® cladding makes up roughly 25% by mass of UNF in the United States, processes are being considered to reduce the volume of reprocessing waste for Zircaloy® clad fuel by recovering the zirconium from the cladding for reuse. These recycle processes could release the tritium in the cladding. For Zircaloy-clad fuels from light water reactors, the tritium produced from ternary fission and other sources is expected to be divided between the fuel, where it is generated, and the cladding. It has been previously documented that a fraction of the tritium produced in uranium oxide fuel from LWRs can migrate and become trapped in the cladding. Estimates of the percentage of tritium in the cladding typically range from 0–96%. There is relatively limited data on how the tritium content of the cladding varies with burnup and fuel history (temperature, power, etc.) and how pretreatment impacts its release. To gain a better understanding of how tritium in cladding

  19. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Heung, L.K.

    1997-10-20

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented.

  20. TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

    2008-07-17

    Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

  1. Corroborative studies of tritium characterization and depth profiles in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Hochel, R.C.

    2000-05-05

    This report is the second by the authors on characterizing the tritium content of cement and structural concrete. The first report reviewed the literature and used several new methods to characterize tritium on the surface and through the bulk of contaminated concrete at two facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). In both cases, a relatively constant tritium concentration as a function of depth was observed, which has not been previously reported in the literature. These findings were explained as the relatively rapid transport of tritiated liquid through pores of the hydrated cement, and the exchange of tritium with hydrogen found primarily as free and bound water in the hydrated cement binder. The study reported here extended the measurement of surface and bulk tritium in concrete to three other locations at SRS. The purpose of the current study was to characterize locations whose tritium exposure histories were well documented, and to characterize a location exposed exclusively to gaseous tritium, to confirm and possibly extend the knowledge gained from the earlier study. Results of the current study corroborate the earlier findings, in that the tritium concentration was constant through the bulk when exposed to aqueous tritium, even from a single aqueous tritium exposure. Exposure to gaseous tritium, on the other hand, lead to the well-known diffusion controlled variation of tritium concentration reported in the literature. Sufficient exposure history is available to enable a semi-quantitative explanation of the magnitude and depth dependence of the tritium in both the aqueous- and gas-exposed locations. The penetration of tritium from a liquid can be described by a hydraulic flow model, and gaseous tritium permeates in a diffusive manner. The general correlation of properly measured surface tritium activity to that in the underlying bulk found in the earlier study was confirmed. However, the surface and near surface tritium

  2. Tritium removal from tritiated water by organic functionalized SBA-15

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, A.; Kato, Y.; Akai, R.; Torikai, Y.; Matsuyama, M.

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium from tritiated water is important for reducing tritium emissions to the environment and for recycling tritium. Meso-porous silicas (SBA-15) were modified by -COOH, -SO{sub 3}H and -NH{sub 2} groups and their tritium adsorption ability from tritiated water under solid-liquid sorption was investigated. The adsorption abilities and separation factor of organic functionalized SBAs were comparable to those of bare SBA. The desorption of water from bare SBA and -COOH functionalized SBA were studied by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using D{sub 2}O as a probe molecule. An interaction was observed for D{sub 2}O with -COOH group where the hydrogen bonds became weaker than D{sub 2}O with bare SBA. (authors)

  3. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  4. Radiation quality of tritium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2006-01-01

    Tritium occurs from both natural and manufactured processes. In the environment, tritium can exist in the form of tritiated water (HTO) and in an organic form known as organically-bound tritium (OBT). Although, the concentrations of environmental OBT are relatively low, there is concern that current risk factors may underestimate the risk from OBT. Because tritium poses an internal hazard at cellular levels, microdosimetric techniques provide suitable tools for the study of radiation quality of tritium. In this study, microdosimetric simulations are performed for tritium uniformly distributed in a medium, and for tritium bound to biologically critical sites of dimensions from 10 nm to 2 microm. Results of local energy density are different for these two cases in microscopic regions. Based on the spatial distribution of energy deposition, dose mean lineal energies are calculated for tritium in forms of HTO and OBT. The dose mean lineal energies of OBT are about a factor of 1.7 higher than those of HTO in a wide range of target dimensions of biological interest. The results are consistent with radiobiological findings that OBT is about twice as effective as that of HTO. PMID:17132658

  5. Methods for tritium labeling

    DOEpatents

    Andres, Hendrik; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.

    1993-01-01

    Reagents and processes for reductively introducing deuterium or tritium into organic molecules are described. The reagents are deuterium or tritium analogs of trialkyl boranes, borane or alkali metal aluminum hydrides. The process involves forming these reagents in situ from alkali metal tritides or deuterides.

  6. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating

  7. Technology benefits resulting from accelerator production of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    One of the early and most dramatic uses of nuclear transformations was in development of the nuclear weapons that brought World War II to an end. Despite that difficult introduction, nuclear weapons technology has been used largely as a deterrent to war throughout the latter half of the twentieth century. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) offers a clean, safe, and reliable means of producing the tritium (a heavy form of hydrogen) needed to maintain the nuclear deterrent. Tritium decays away naturally at a rate of about 5.5% per year; therefore, the tritium reservoirs in nuclear weapons must be periodically replenished. In recent years this has been accomplished by recycling tritium from weapons being retired from the stockpile. Although this strategy has served well since the last US tritium production reactor was shut down in 1988, a new tritium production capability will be required within ten years. Some benefits will result from direct utilization of some of the APT proton beam; others could result from advances in the technologies of particle accelerators and high power spallation targets. The APT may save thousands of lives through the production of medical isotopes, and it may contribute to solving the nation`s problem in disposing of long-lived nuclear wastes. But the most significant benefit may come from advancing the technology, so that the great potential of accelerator applications can be realized during our lifetimes.

  8. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.A.; Greene, G.A.; Boyack, B.E.

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities.

  9. Work on an Atomic Beam Apparatus for Precision Laser Spectroscopy of Tritium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, David; Khademian, Ali; Shiner, David

    2004-05-01

    An apparatus for precision spectroscopy of tritium is being constructed. One goal is to measure the nuclear size of tritium using the 1S to 2S transition. The apparatus is designed to reduce the amount of radioactive atoms required and minimize hydrogen background. Storing and releasing tritium in an active getter will help to reuse tritium atoms while minimizing contamination. We have investigated the use of several materials such as uranium, titanium and palladium for storing hydrogen isotopes. Preliminary results for tritium storage and hydrogen outgassing in the vacuum chamber will be presented.

  10. Tritium projectiles for fueling magnetic fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet (cylindrical projectile of frozen hydrogenic gas at a temperature in the range 6--16 K) injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. This repeating, single-stage, pneumatic injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase 2 (TPOP-2) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude and accelerate hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-2 program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and D-T extrusions; integrate, test, and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun that is sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter {approximately} 7 to 8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory that requires secondary and room containment systems. In initial tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to 13 pellets have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of 1.0 to 1.1 km/s, using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. The pellets, typically 7.4 mm in diameter and up to 11 mm in length, are the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 11% density perturbation to ITER. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first-wall tritium inventories by a process called isotopic fueling in which tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge.

  11. Internal dosimetry of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    Tritium is an interesting radionuclide from the perspective of internal dosimetry because of the wide variety of chemical compounds in which it can appear, its unusual routes of entry into the body, and its ability to exchange with stable hydrogen in surrounding material. In this report the internal dosimetry of tritium compounds is reviewed, with emphasis on methods of evaluating bioassay data following chronic and acute intakes. The assumptions and models used in the derivation of Annual Limits on Intake (ALI) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for tritium are also discussed.

  12. Internal dosimetry of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1992-06-01

    Tritium is an interesting radionuclide from the perspective of internal dosimetry because of the wide variety of chemical compounds in which it can appear, its unusual routes of entry into the body, and its ability to exchange with stable hydrogen in surrounding material. In this report the internal dosimetry of tritium compounds is reviewed, with emphasis on methods of evaluating bioassay data following chronic and acute intakes. The assumptions and models used in the derivation of Annual Limits on Intake (ALI) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for tritium are also discussed.

  13. Tritium distribution in ground water around large underground fusion explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stead, F.W.

    1963-01-01

    Tritium will be released in significant amounts from large underground nuclear fusion explosions in the Plowshare Program. The tritium could become highly concentrated in nearby ground waters, and could be of equal or more importance as a possible contaminant than other long-lived fission-product and induced radionuclides. Behavior of tritiated water in particular hydrologic and geologic environments, as illustrated by hypothetical explosions in dolomite and tuff, must be carefully evaluated to predict under what conditions high groundwater concentrations of tritium might occur.

  14. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-08-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. In order to prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this paper examines the root causes and potential solutions for the production of this radionuclide, including materials selection and inert gas sparging. A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750°C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for one steadystate value of tritium production in the reactor.

  15. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  16. Tritium catalyzed deuterium tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.; Jung, J.; Gilligan, J.

    1984-04-01

    A preliminary assessment of the promise of the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium (TCD) tokamak power reactors relative to that of deuterium-tritium (D-T) and catalyzed deuterium (Cat-D) tokamaks is undertaken. The TCD mode of operation is arrived at by converting the /sup 3/He from the D(D,n)/sup 3/He reaction into tritium, by neutron capture in the blanket; the tritium thus produced is fed into the plasma. There are three main parts to the assessment: blanket study, reactor design and economic analysis and an assessment of the prospects for improvements in the performance of TCD reactors (and in the promise of the TCD mode of operation, in general).

  17. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  18. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    DOEpatents

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  19. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  20. Migration and release behavior of tritium in SS316 at ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torikai, Y.; Murata, D.; Penzhorn, R.-D.; Akaishi, K.; Watanabe, K.; Matsuyama, M.

    2007-06-01

    BIXS measurements indicate that immersion into water or chemical etching of SS316 contaminated with tritium at moderate temperatures causes an immediate reduction of the outermost surface concentration of tritium. The fraction of surface tritium removed by water, i.e. 30-50%, is small in comparison to the total tritium present in the specimen. Allowing a specimen to age whose surface and subsurface had been removed by etching up to a depth where the concentration of tritium is mostly constant revealed that within a few months a re-growth of tritium up to a saturation value higher than half of that originally present on the specimen takes place. Concurrently, a small but steady liberation of tritium at rates increasing from 0.1 to 0.3 kBq/h was noticed.

  1. Elemental concentration analysis in soil contaminated with recyclable urban garbage by tube-excited energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.; Jesus, E. F. O.; Assis, J. T.; Cesareo, R.; Barroso, R. C.; Barradas, C. A. A.

    2002-11-01

    Soil and radish (Raphanus Sp) samples from areas treated with organic compost of recyclable urban garbage were quantitatively analyzed by using tube-excited energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. Soils treated with 10, 20 and 30 t/ha of recyclable urban garbage and control soil were analyzed. The layer soils were collected at 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm depth. It was possible simultaneously to determine the elemental concentration of various elements: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb in recyclable urban garbage, soil treated with organic compost of recyclable urban garbage and radish plants cultivated in these soils. The elemental concentration of K, Ca, Ti and Fe were determined at percent level (macro-elements) and the other elements at ppm level (micro-elements). It was also possible to observe a significant increase in the contents of K, Ca, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb in the soil treated in comparison with the control soil and it was also verified whether the transport of these elements to radish plants cultivated in these soils occurred.

  2. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  3. Auditing Operating Room Recycling: A Management Case Report.

    PubMed

    McGain, Forbes; Jarosz, Katherine Maria; Nguyen, Martin Ngoc Hoai Huong; Bates, Samantha; O'Shea, Catherine Jane

    2015-08-01

    Much waste arises from operating rooms (ORs). We estimated the practical and financial feasibility of an OR recycling program, weighing all waste from 6 ORs in Melbourne, Australia. Over 1 week, 237 operations produced 1265 kg in total: general waste 570 kg (45%), infectious waste 410 kg (32%), and recyclables 285 kg (23%). The achieved recycling had no infectious contamination. The achieved recycling/potential recycling rate was 285 kg/517 kg (55%). The average waste disposal costs were similar for general waste and recycling. OR recycling rates of 20%-25% total waste were achievable without compromising infection control or financial constraints. PMID:26230308

  4. Textile recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonowski, E. ); Carlton, J.

    1995-01-01

    The most common household textiles include clothing, linens, draperies, carpets, shoes, handbags, and rugs. Old clothing, of course, is the most readily reused and/or recycled residentially generated textile category. State and/or local mandates to recycle a percentage of the waste stream are providing the impetus to add new materials to existing collection programs. Concurrently, the textile industry is aggressively trying to increase its throughput by seeking new sources of material to meet increased world demand for product. As experienced with drop-off programs for traditional materials, a majority of residents will not recycle materials unless the collection programs are convenient, i.e., curbside collection. The tonnage of marketable textiles currently being landfilled provide evidence of this. It is the authors' contention that if textile recycling is made convenient and accessible to every household in a municipality or region, then the waste stream disposed may be reduced in a similar fashion as when traditional recyclables are included in curbside programs.

  5. Tritium monitoring of groundwater and surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.; Aamodt, P.; Bounds, J.; Koster, J.

    1999-03-01

    There are numerous facilities, both within the US and in the rest of the world, within the complex of radiation laboratories and production plants where tritium has been released into the environment because of historic or ongoing mission-related operations. Many of environmental restoration projects have detected low levels of tritium contamination in local streams, ponds, and/or ground water. Typically these waters are moving or have the potential to move offsite and are viewed as a potential risk to the public and environment. Los Alamos National Laboratory will modify the well-proven long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique for detection of ionizing radiation to optimize a system for detecting tritium in groundwater and other surfaces. The LRAD technique relies on detection of ionized air molecules rather than direct detection of ionizing radiation. The detected electrical current is proportional to the number of ionized air molecules present, which is in turn a measure of the amount of contamination present. Although this technique has been used commercially to measure alpha contamination on objects and surfaces, the technique is also ideal for monitoring low-energy beta particles. The authors have demonstrated beta detection using {sup 54}Mn, {sup 14}C, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 36}Cl sources. Thus, the detector technology and detection of beta particles using this technology have both been demonstrated. The extreme short range of tritium beta particles necessitates an optimization of the detector system. In this paper, the authors will discuss these new designs.

  6. Tritium analysis at TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, D.R.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Zimmer, G.

    1995-04-01

    The tritium analytical system at TFRR is used to determine the purity of tritium bearing gas streams in order to provide inventory and accountability measurements. The system includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer and beta scintillator originally configured at Monsanto Mound Research Laboratory in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. The system was commissioned and tested between 1991 and 1992 and is used daily for analysis of calibration standards, incoming tritium shipments, gases evolved from uranium storage beds and measurement of gases returned to gas holding tanks. The low resolution mass spectrometer is enhanced by the use of a metal getter pump to aid in resolving the mass 3 and 4 species. The beta scintillator complements the analysis as it detects tritium bearing species that often are not easily detected by mass spectrometry such as condensable species or hydrocarbons containing tritium. The instruments are controlled by a personal computer with customized software written with a graphical programming system designed for data acquisition and control. A discussion of the instrumentation, control systems, system parameters, procedural methods, algorithms, and operational issues will be presented. Measurements of gas holding tanks and tritiated water waste streams using ion chamber instrumentation are discussed elsewhere.

  7. Measurement of tritium penetration through concrete material covered by various paints coating

    SciTech Connect

    Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.; Kurata, R.; Hayashi, T.; Yamanishi, T.; Fukada, S.; Takeishi, T.

    2015-03-15

    The present study aims at obtaining fundamental data on tritium migration in porous materials, which include soaking effect, interaction between tritium and cement paste coated with paints and transient tritium sorption in porous cement. The amounts of tritium penetrated into or released from cement paste with epoxy and urethane paint coatings were measured. The tritium penetration amounts were increased with the HTO (tritiated water) exposure time. Time to achieve a saturated value of tritium sorption was more than 60 days for cement paste coated with epoxy paint and with urethane paint, while that for cement paste without any paint coating took 2 days to achieve it. The effect of tritium permeation reduction by the epoxy paint was higher than that of the urethane. Although their paint coatings were effective for reduction of tritium penetration through the cement paste which was exposed to HTO for a short period, it was found that the amount of tritium trapped in the paints became large for a long period. Tritium penetration rates were estimated by an analysis of one-dimensional diffusion in the axial direction of a thickness of a sample. Obtained data were helpful for evaluation of tritium contamination and decontamination. (authors)

  8. Tritium confinement, retention, and releases at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Besserer, U.; Doerr, L.; Glugla, M.

    2008-07-15

    This paper describes the tritium confinement concept and the tritium retention systems at TLK. A description of the AMOR facility for the regeneration of the HTO loaded molecular sieve beds and the operational experience gained from the regeneration of molecular sieve beds (up to 20 times each) is also presented. Finally tritium releases over this period to the environment will also be given. (authors)

  9. Are the risks from tritium exposures being underestimated?

    PubMed

    Paquet, F; Métivier, H

    2009-06-01

    Tritium is a radionuclide that will be used and produced in fusion reactors. Tritium toxicity is well known, but its health consequences are more difficult to assess, due to difficulties in assessing doses and to the very few cases of contamination that have occurred since it started being used. The assessment of risks resulting from tritium exposure is based on ICRP models that enable the calculation of doses in tissues, by means of a weighting factor WR, based on the relative biological effectiveness of the various radioactive emissions. Some authors are currently asking for a revision of the weighting factor used for tritium beta-ray emissions, arguing that tritium could be incorporated into DNA. A review of the extensive research conducted on this subject shows that the relative biological effectiveness of tritium is not so different from that of gamma emissions, which are taken as reference radiations. This supports the drive to keep the current weighting factor of 1 for tritium beta emissions, initially proposed and then reaffirmed by the ICRP. PMID:19454789

  10. Tritium in the burial ground of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This memorandum reviews the available information on tritium-contaminated material discarded to burial grounds. Tritium was the first isotope studied because it represents the most immediate concern with regard to release to the environment. Substantial amounts of tritium are known to be present in the ground water underneath the area, and outcropping of this ground water in springs and seeps has been observed. The response to this release of tritium from the burial ground is a current concern. The amount of tritium emplaced in the burial ground facilities is very uncertain, however, some general conclusions can be made. In particular, most of the tritium buried is associated with spent equipment and other waste, rather than spent melts. Correspondingly, most of the tritium in the ground water seems to be associated with burials of this type, rather than the spent melts. Maps are presented showing the location of burials of tritiated waste by type, and the location of the largest individual burials according to COBRA records.

  11. Tire Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  12. Tritium in waters of international importance in 1981-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.V.; Blinov, V.A.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Il'in, L.I.; Tishkov, V.P.

    1988-03-01

    A study has been carried out on the radiation situation with respect to tritium in the drainage basin of the Baltic Sea and in the Soviet section of the Danube in the period of 1981-1984. Pollution of the Baltic during this period turned out to be quite constant and coincident with the tritium level of the preceding five years. Concentrations increased slightly in the Gulf of Riga and in a number of rivers flowing into the Baltic (Daugava, Pirita, etc.). In the same period the tritium contamination of Danube water was 2-3 times greater that of the Baltic. The tritium content of the Baltic was calculated: its average value in the period 1981-1984 was 1.56 x 10/sup 17/ Bq.

  13. Savannah River Site Mixed Waste Management Facility Southwest Plume Tritium Phytoremediation Evaluating Irrigation Management Strategies Over 25 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Riah, Susan; Rebel, Karin

    2004-02-27

    To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritium contaminated seepage water is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies above the pond and over the contaminated groundwater. Twenty five-year potential evapotranspiration and average precipitation are 1443 mm/year and 1127 mm/year, respectively, for the region in which the site is located. Management of the application of tritium contaminated irrigation water needs to be evaluated in the context of the large amount of rainfall relative to evapotranspiration, the strong seasonality in evapotranspiration, and intraannual and inter-annual variability in precipitation. A dynamic simulation model of water and tritium fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was developed to assess the efficiency (tritium transpired/tritium applied) of several irrigation management strategies.

  14. Milestone report - M4FT-14OR0302102b - Evaluation of Tritium Content and Release from Surry-2 Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Sharon M.; Chattin, Marc Rhea; Giaquinto, Joseph M.; Jubin, Robert Thomas

    2014-09-01

    To design and operate future reprocessing plants in a safe and environmentally compliant manner, the amount and form of tritium in the used nuclear fuel (UNF) must be understood and quantified.To gain a better understanding of how tritium in cladding will behave during processing, scoping tests are being performed to determine the tritium content in the cladding pre- and post-tritium pretreatment. A sample of Surry-2 pressurized water reactor (PWR) cladding was heated to 1100–1200°C to oxidize the zirconium and release all of the tritium in the cladding sample. The tritium content was measured to be ~240 µCi/g. Cladding samples were heated to 500ºC, which is within the temperature range (480 - 600ºC) expected for standard air tritium pretreatment systems, and to a slightly higher temperature (700ºC) to determine the impact of tritium pretreatment on tritium release from the cladding. Heating at 500°C for 24 hr removes ~0.2% of the tritium from the cladding, and heating at 700°C for 24 hr removes ~9%. Thus, a significant fraction of the tritium remains bound in the cladding and must be considered in operations involving cladding recycle.

  15. Monitoring of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Corbett, James A.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1981-01-01

    The fluid from a breeder nuclear reactor, which may be the sodium cooling fluid or the helium reactor-cover-gas, or the helium coolant of a gas-cooled reactor passes over the portion of the enclosure of a gaseous discharge device which is permeable to hydrogen and its isotopes. The tritium diffused into the discharge device is radioactive producing beta rays which ionize the gas (argon) in the discharge device. The tritium is monitored by measuring the ionization current produced when the sodium phase and the gas phase of the hydrogen isotopes within the enclosure are in equilibrium.

  16. Tritium safety study using Caisson Assembly (CATS) at TPL/JAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Kobayashi, K.; Iwai, Y.; Isobe, K.; Nakamura, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Shu, W.; Suzuki, T.; Yamada, M.; Yamanishi, T.

    2008-07-15

    Tritium confinement is required as the most important safety Junction for a fusion reactor. In order to demonstrate the confinement performance experimentally, an unique equipment, called CATS: Caisson Assembly for Tritium Safety study, was installed in Tritium Process Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency and operated for about 10 years. Tritium confinement and migration data in CATS have been accumulated and dynamic simulation code was accumulated using these data. Contamination and decontamination behavior on various materials and new safety equipment functions have been investigated under collaborations with a lot of laboratories and universities. (authors)

  17. Tritium control: April-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1984-01-27

    The Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) and Water Feed Cleanup (WFCU) systems were decommissioned, and the associated glovebox lines were decontaminated. Previously predicted correlations between atmospheric tritium concentrations and surface contamination and rates of atmospheric decontamination were examined during the decommissioning of the three gloveboxes. To expedite this procedure, the boxline was purged with air and N/sub 2/ by employing high volumetric flow rates of up to 1.7 vol %/min. The relationship between atmospheric concentration and cleanup times was examined for this purge rate. Results from surveys taken inside the boxline were compared to results expected according to the correlations predicted by previous surveys. Gas generation rates caused by radiolysis of tritiated waste materials were determined for polymer and nonpolymer-impregnated tritiated concrete and fixated and nonfixated tritiated waste vacuum pump oil. In addition, the pressure change of hydrogen cover gas over tritiated water on cement-plaster was determined. The test program to measure and compare the release of tritium from tritiated concrete with and without styrene impregnation continued. Tritium permeation data from small test blocks are given. The drum study monitoring the release of tritium from actual burial packages continued. The maximum fractional release rate for the three types of high activity, tritiated liquid waste generated is 7.05 x 10/sup -6/, and the maximum total permeation is 241 mCi after 9 yr. These two values represent a 7% increase for the past 6 months. Tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete (PITC) and from the control (non-PITC) remains very low. A sample of the 10-year-old catalyst from the Emergency Containment System (ECS) reactor was tested to determine its efficiency. Preliminary results indicate a conversion rate of 90 +- 10%.

  18. ARIES-I tritium system

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Tam, S.W.; Billone, M.C.; Hassanein, A.M. ); Martin, R. )

    1990-09-01

    A key safety concern in a D-T fusion reactor is the tritium inventory. There are three components in a fusion reactor with potentially large inventories, i.e., the blanket, the fuel processing system and the plasma facing components. The ARIES team selected the material combinations, decided the operating conditions and refined the processing systems, with the aiming of minimizing the tritium inventories and leakage. The total tritium inventory for the ARIES-I reactor is only 700 g. This paper discussed the calculations and assumptions we made for the low tritium inventory. We also addressed the uncertainties about the tritium inventory. 13 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R.; Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  20. Decontamination, Dismantling and Refurbishing of the PETRA Glove Box at the Tritium Laboratory, Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell-Nichols, C.J.; Glugla, M.; Doerr, L.; Berndt, U.

    2005-07-15

    The PETRA facility at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) has finished its useful life and the glove box and auxiliary systems are being refurbished. During the lifetime of PETRA the glove box became contaminated with a small amount of tritium but the source has not been positively identified. Removing large redundant components would be hazardous as this would require removing the glove box panels and thus exposing the inner surfaces to moist air which would release tritium. Over several months defined amounts of water have been introduced into the glove box daily which has liberated significant quantities of tritium which has subsequently been absorbed by the in-built tritium retention system. This technique has slowly reduced the tritium liberated at each step. The large components, such as a getter bed, catalyst bed and a permeator, have been detritiated as far as possible in-situ in readiness for disposal once it is safe to remove them from the glove box.

  1. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector: Phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, P. W.; Gouge, M. J.

    1995-03-01

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium. This repeating, single-stage, pneumatic injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase-2 (TPOP-2) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-II program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and DT mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and DT extrusions; integrate, test and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter approximately 7-8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory requiring secondary and room containment systems. In initial tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to thirteen pellets have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of order 1.0-1.1 km/s using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. The pellets are typically 7.4 mm in diameter and up to 11 mm in length and are the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 11% density perturbation to ITER. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first wall tritium inventories by a process called isotopic fueling where tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge.

  2. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector - phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium. This repeating, single-stage, pneumatic injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase II (TPOP-II) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-II program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and DT mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and DT extrusions; integrate, test and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter {approximately} 7-8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory requiring secondary and room containment systems. In initial tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to thirteen pellets have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of order 1.0-1.1 km/s using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. The pellets are typically 7.4 mm in diameter and up to 11 mm in length and are the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 11% density perturbation to ITER. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first wall tritium inventories by a process called isotopic fueling where tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge.

  3. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  4. Behaviour of tritium in the vacuum vessel of JT-60U

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, K.; Miya, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Torikai, Y.; Saito, M.; Alimov, V.

    2015-03-15

    The disassembly of the JT-60U torus started in 2010 after 18 years of deuterium plasma operations. The vessel is made of Inconel 625. Therefore, it was very important to study the hydrogen isotope (particularly tritium) behavior in Inconel 625 from the viewpoint of the clearance procedure. Inconel 625 specimen was exposed to the D{sub 2} (92.8 %) - T{sub 2} (7.2 %) gas mixture at 573 K for 5 hours. The tritium release from the specimen at 298 K was controlled for about 1 year. After that a part of tritium remaining in the specimen was released by heating up to 1073 K. Other part of tritium trapped in the specimen was measured by chemical etching method. Most of the chemical form of the released tritium was HTO. The contaminated specimen by tritium was released continuously the diffusible tritium under the ambient condition. In the tritium release experiment, the amount of desorbed tritium was about 99% during 1 year. It was considered that the tritium in Inconel 625 was released easily.

  5. Precipitation Recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1996-01-01

    The water cycle regulates and reflects natural variability in climate at the regional and global scales. Large-scale human activities that involve changes in land cover, such as tropical deforestation, are likely to modify climate through changes in the water cycle. In order to understand, and hopefully be able to predict, the extent of these potential global and regional changes, we need first to understand how the water cycle works. In the past, most of the research in hydrology focused on the land branch of the water cycle, with little attention given to the atmospheric branch. The study of precipitation recycling which is defined as the contribution of local evaporation to local precipitation, aims at understanding hydrologic processes in the atmospheric branch of the water cycle. Simply stated, any study on precipitation recycling is about how the atmospheric branch of the water cycle works, namely, what happens to water vapor molecules after they evaporate from the surface, and where will they precipitate?

  6. Recent Developments in Magnetically Coupled Vane Pumps for Tritium Service

    SciTech Connect

    Capuder, F. C.; Quigley, L. T.; Baker, C. K.

    1985-04-01

    Despite advances in shaft sealing, a totally reliable shaft seal for two-stage vane pumps has never been developed. Therefore, the magnetically coupled vane pump drive was developed to solve the critical problem of tritium leakage at the shaft seals of vane pumps. As a result, radioactive contamination of the work area and loss of valuable material can now be prevented.

  7. Waste stream recycling: Its effect on water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, D.A. ); Lee, R.G. )

    1994-11-01

    Waste streams recycled to the influent of a water treatment plant typically contain contaminants at concentrations that are of concern. These contaminants may include giardia and Cryptosporidium, trihalomethanes, manganese, and assimilable organic carbon. This research shows that proper management--treatment, equalization, and monitoring--of the waste streams can render them suitable for recycling in many situations.

  8. Tritium well depth, tritium well time and sponge mechanism for reducing tritium retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B. Q.; Li, Z. X.; Li, C. Y.; Feng, K. M.

    2011-07-01

    New simulation results are predicted in a fusion reactor operation process. They are somewhat similar to, but quite different from, the xenon poisoning effects resulting from fission-produced iodine during the restart-up process of a fission reactor. We obtained completely new results of tritium well depth and tritium well time in magnetic confinement fusion energy research area. This study is carried out to investigate the following: what will be the least amount of tritium storage required to start up a fusion reactor and how long the fusion reactor needs to be operated for achieving the tritium break-even during the initial start-up phase due to the finite tritium-breeding time, which is dependent on the tritium breeder, specific structure of the breeding zone, layout of the coolant flow pipes, tritium recovery scheme and applied extraction process, the tritium retention of plasma facing component (PFC) and other reactor components, unrecoverable tritium fraction in the breeder, leakage to the inertial gas container and the natural radioactive decay time constant. We describe these new issues and answer these problems by setting up and solving a set of equations, which are described by a dynamic subsystem model of tritium inventory evolution in a fusion experimental breeder (FEB). Reasonable results are obtained using our simulation model. It is found that the tritium well depth is about 0.319 kg and the tritium well time is approximately 235 full power operation days for the reference case of the designed FEB configuration, and it is also found that after one-year operation the tritium storage reaches 0.767 kg, which is more than the least amount of tritium storage required to start up another FEB-like fusion reactor. The results show that the tritium retention in the PFC is equivalent to 11.9% of tritium well depth that is fairly consistent with the result of 10-20% deduced from the integrated particle balance of European tokamaks. Based on our experimental

  9. UK contractors' experience of management of tritium during decommissioning projects

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Tommy; Stevens, Keith; Heaney, John; Murray, Alan; Warwick, Phil; Croudace, Ian

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper provides an account of the tritium management experience of a UK decommissioning and remediation contracting organisation (NUKEM Limited), supported by a specialist radio-analysis organisation (GAU-Radioanalytical). This experience was gained during the execution of projects which involved the characterisation and remediation of facilities which had previously been used for tritium work and were contaminated with tritium. The emphasis of the paper is on the characterisation (sampling and analysis) of tritium. An account is given of the development of a methodology to improve the accuracy of tritium characterisation. The improved methodology evolved from recognition of the need to minimise tritium losses during sampling, storage, transport and preparation for analysis. These improvements were achieved in a variety of ways, including use of cold and dry sampling techniques in preference to hot or wet ones and freezing relevant samples during storage and transport. The major benefit was an improvement in the accuracy and reliability of the analyses results, essential for proper categorisation, sentencing and future management of tritiated waste. (authors)

  10. Tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    A tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium was tested in the laboratory using deuterium and protium. The vessel contains 0.5 kg of depleted uranium and can hold up to 18 grams of tritium. The conditions for activation, tritium loading and tritium unloading were defined. The safety aspects that included air-ingress, tritium diffusion, temperature and pressure potentials were evaluated.

  11. The use of dynamic modeling in assessing tritium phytoremediation.

    SciTech Connect

    Rebel, Karin T.; Riha; S.J.; Seaman, J.C.; Barton, C.D.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT - To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritiumcontaminated groundwater released to the surface along seeps in the hillside is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies over the contaminated groundwater. Management of the application of tritium-contaminated irrigation water needs to be evaluated in the context of the large amount of rainfall relative to evapotranspiration, the strong seasonality in evapotranspiration, and intra-annual and interannual variability in precipitation in this region. A dynamic simulation model of water and tritium fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was developed to assess the efficiency (tritium transpired/tritium applied) of several irrigation management strategies. The model was parameterized using soil-water content data measured at 18 sites for the first year of the project and evaluated using tritium activity measurements made at the same 18 sites over 2.5 yr. The model was then used to evaluate several irrigation strategies. The 25-yr efficiencies (tritium transpired/tritiumapplied) of the irrigation strategies were related to the quantity of irrigation water applied. There was a strong (r2 = 0.99) negative linear relationship between irrigation water applied and efficiency. When a quasi-steady state has been reached in the system, the annual efficiencies of all the irrigation strategies were negatively correlated with annual rainfall. Quantification of these relationships allows irrigation managers to choose irrigation strategies based on desired long-term system efficiency, which differ with climate and irrigation strategy.

  12. Polarized tritium target development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.E.; Fedchak, J.A.; Kowalczyk, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    Work began on the development of a completely sealed polarized tritium target for experiments at CEBAF. Because of the similarities between optical pumping of tritium and hydrogen, all prototype work is done with hydrogen. We constructed a test station for filling glassware with hydrogen, where we can dissociate molecular hydrogen and monitor the purity of the gas. A simple two-cell glass system was constructed, consisting of a region in which the molecular hydrogen is dissociated with an RF discharge and a region where the atoms can be optically pumped. So far, a clean discharge was obtained in the glassware. With this system, we plan to investigate ways to eliminate the discharge from the optical pumping region and test the quality of the discharge once the pumping cell is coated with drifilm.

  13. Tritium implantation in the accelerator production of tritium device

    SciTech Connect

    Kidman, R.B.

    1997-11-01

    We briefly describe the methods we have developed to compute the magnitude and spatial distribution of born and implanted tritons and protons in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (AFT) device. The methods are verified against experimental measurements and then used to predict that 16% of the tritium is implanted in the walls of the APT distribution tubes. The methods are also used to estimate the spatial distribution of implanted tritium, which will be required for determining the possible diffusion of tritium out of the walls and back into the gas stream.

  14. Evaluation of tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, T.; Ochiai, K.; Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.

    2015-03-15

    Demonstration power plant (DEMO) fusion reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) advanced tritium breeders with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) are stable in a reducing atmosphere at high temperatures. Although the tritium release properties of tritium breeders are documented in databases for DEMO blanket design, no in situ examination under fusion neutron (DT neutron) irradiation has been performed. In this study, a preliminary examination of the tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders was performed, and DT neutron irradiation experiments were performed at the fusion neutronics source (FNS) facility in JAEA. Considering the tritium release characteristics, the optimum grain size after sintering is <5 μm. From the results of the optimization of granulation conditions, prototype Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles with optimum grain size (<5 μm) were successfully fabricated. The Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties similar to the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. In particular, the released amount of HT gas for easier tritium handling was higher than that of HTO water. (authors)

  15. A prototype wearable tritium monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Surette, R. A.; Dubeau, J.

    2008-07-15

    Sudden unexpected changes in tritium-in-air concentrations in workplace air can result in significant unplanned exposures. Although fixed area monitors are used to monitor areas where there is a potential for elevated tritium in air concentrations, they do not monitor personnel air space and may require some time for acute tritium releases to be detected. There is a need for a small instrument that will quickly alert staff of changing tritium hazards. A moderately sensitive tritium instrument that workers could wear would bring attention to any rise in tritium levels that were above predetermined limits and help in assessing the potential hazard therefore minimizing absorbed dose. Hand-held instruments currently available can be used but require the assistance of a fellow worker or restrict the user to using only one hand to perform some duties. (authors)

  16. Research and Development of a New Waste Collection Bin to Facilitate Education in Plastic Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Cheuk-fai; So, Wing-Mui Winnie; Cheung, Tsz-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Plastic recycling has been an alternative method for solid waste management apart from landfill and incineration. However, recycling quality is affected when all plastics are discarded into a single recycling bin that increases cross contaminations and operation cost to the recycling industry. Following the engineering design process, a new…

  17. Recycling Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Environmental Resources, Harrisburg.

    This document contains lesson plans about recycling for teachers in grades K-12. Titles include: (1) "Waste--Where Does It Come From? Where Does It Go?" (2) "Litter Detectives," (3) "Classroom Paper Recycling," (4) "Recycling Survey," (5) "Disposal and Recycling Costs," (6) "Composting Project," (7) Used Motor Oil Recycling," (8) "Unwrapping…

  18. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  19. Recovery of tritium from water

    SciTech Connect

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.; Lentz, J.E. . Mound)

    1988-09-01

    The pilot-scale Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) system developed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound facility has evolved into a fully operational tritium recovery system. This has resulted from the evaluation of recent developments in AECL/CRNL hydrophobic exchange catalyst in the CECE system. Data obtained during recent tests led to the design and installation of an aqueous tritium recovery facility. Operation of the Tritium Aqueous Waste Recovery System makes possible the recovery of tritium from low-level tritiated aqueous waste streams.

  20. Recovery of tritium from water

    SciTech Connect

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.; Lentz, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The pilot-scale Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) system developed at the US Department of Energy's Mound facility has evolved into a fully operational tritium recovery system. This has resulted from the evaluation of recent developments in AECL/ORNL hydrophobic exchange catalyst in the CECE system. Data obtained during recent tests led to the design and installation of an aqueous tritium recovery facility. Operation of the Tritium Aqueous Waste Recovery System makes possible the recovery of tritium from low-level tritiated aqueous waste streams. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

  2. Observation of Doppler-shifted T{alpha} emission from TFTR tritium neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Lagin, L.J.; O`Connor, T.E.; Newman, R.A.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Wright, K.E.

    1994-06-01

    195 tritium ion source shots were injected into TFTR high power plasmas during December 1993--March 1994. In addition, four highly diagnosed pulses were fired into the calorimeter. Analysis of the Doppler-shifted T{alpha} emission of the beam in the neutralizer has revealed that the extracted ion composition for deuterium and tritium are indistinguishable: 0.72{plus_minus}0.04 D{sup +}, 0.22{plus_minus}0.02 D{sub 2}{sup +}, 0.07{plus_minus}0.01 D{sub 3}{sup +} compared to 0.72{plus_minus}0.04 T{sup +}, 0.23{plus_minus}0.02 T{sub 2}{sup +}, 0.05{plus_minus}0.01 T{sub 3}{sup +}. The resultant tritium full-energy neutral fraction is higher than for deuterium due the increased neutralization efficiency at lower velocity. To conserve tritium, it was used only for injection and a few calorimeter test shots, never for ion source conditioning. When used, the gas species was switched to tritium only for the shot in question. This resulted in an approximately 2% deuterium contamination of the tritium beam and vice versa for the first deuterium pulse following tritium. Data from the calorimeter shots indicates that tritium contamination of the deuterium beam cleans up in 5--6 beam pulses, and is reduced to immeasurable quantities prior to deuterium beam injection.

  3. Tritium Concentrations in Environmental Samples and Transpiration Rates from the Vicinity of Mary's Branch Creek and Background Areas, Barnwell, South Carolina, 2007-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Canova, Judy L.; Bradley, Paul M.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Tritium in groundwater from a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Barnwell, South Carolina, is discharging to Mary's Branch Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an investigation from 2007 to 2009 to examine the tritium concentration in trees and air samples near the creek and in background areas, in groundwater near the creek, and in surface water from the creek. Tritium was found in trees near the creek, but not in trees from background areas or from sites unlikely to be in direct root contact with tritium-contaminated groundwater. Tritium was found in groundwater near the creek and in the surface water of the creek. Analysis of tree material has the potential to be a useful tool in locating shallow tritium-contaminated groundwater. A tritium concentration of 1.4 million picocuries per liter was measured in shallow groundwater collected near a tulip poplar located in an area of tritium-contaminated groundwater discharge. Evapotranspiration rates from the tree and tritium concentrations in water extracted from tree cores indicate that during the summer, this tulip poplar may remove more than 17.1 million picocuries of tritium per day from the groundwater that otherwise would discharge to Mary's Branch Creek. Analysis of air samples near the tree showed no evidence that the transpirative release of tritium to the air created a vapor hazard in the forest.

  4. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S.; Moore, M.L.

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  5. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  6. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    PubMed

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations. PMID:7883556

  7. Tritium activities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; LaMarche, P.

    1995-07-01

    There have been many significant changes in the status of tritium activities in the US since the 4th Tritium Conference in October, 1991. The replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at Savannah River Site and the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are now operational with tritium. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has initiated a highly successful experimental campaign studying DT plasmas, and has produced more than 10 Megawatts (MW) of fusion power in a D-T plasma. Sandia National Laboratory has ceased tritium operations at the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) and many of the activities previously performed there have been transferred to Los Alamos and Savannah River. The tritium laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has reduced the tritium inventory to <5 grams. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos continues to be at the forefront of tritium technology and safety development for the fusion energy program.

  8. BEATRIX-II: In situ tritium test

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.E. ); Kuraswa, T. ); Miller, J.M. . Chalk River Nuclear Labs.); Slagle, O.D. )

    1990-01-01

    The BEATRIX-II irradiation experiment is an in-situ tritium release experiment being carried out in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor to evaluate the tritium release characteristics of fusion solid breeder materials. A sophisticated tritium gas handling system has been developed to continuously monitor the tritium recovery from the specimens and facilitate tritium removal from the experiment's sweep gas flow stream. The in-situ recovery experiment accommodates two different in-reactor specimen canisters with individual gas streams and temperature monitoring/control. Ionization chambers have been specifically designed to respond to the rapid changes in the tritium release rate at the anticipated tritium concentrations. Two ceramic electrolysis cells have proved effective in reducing the moisture in the gas streams to hydrogen/tritium. A tritium getter system, capable of reducing the tritium level by a factor greater than 4000, is used to reduce the tritium in the sweep gas to a level acceptable for release.

  9. Tritium practices past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Gede, V.P.; Gildea, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    History of the production and use of tritium, as well as handling techniques, are reviewed. Handling techniques first used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory made use of glass vacuum systems and relatively crude ion chambers for monitoring airborne activity. The first use of inert atmosphere glove boxes demonstrated that uptake through the skin could be a serious personnel exposure problem. Growing environmental concerns in the early 1970's resulted in the implementation by the Atomic Energy Commission of a new criteria to limit atmospheric tritium releases to levels as low as practicable. An important result of the new criteria was the development of containment and recovery systems to capture tritium rather than vent it to the atmosphere. The Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Tritium Research Laboratory containment and decontamination systems are presented as a typical example of this technology. The application of computers to control systems is expected to provide the greatest potential for change in future tritium handling practices.

  10. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluent which has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion for analysis by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, a toluene-based cocktail showed the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%). In another technique, the sensitivity of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium in aqueous solutions was measured. The most efficient solid scintillator had a 2% tritium detection efficiency. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency.

  11. Tritium Production from Palladium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Schwab, M.J.; Thoma, D.J.; Teter, D.F.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1998-04-19

    A number of palladium alloys have been loaded with deuterium or hydrogen under low energy bombardment in a system that allows the continuous measurement of tritium. Long run times (up to 200 h) result in an integration of the tritium and this, coupled with the high intrinsic sensitivity of the system ({approximately}0.1 nCi/l), enables the significance of the tritium measurement to be many sigma (>10). We will show the difference in tritium generation rates between batches of palladium alloys (Rh, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Be, B, Li, Hf, Hg and Fe) of various concentrations to illustrate that tritium generation rate is dependent on alloy type as well as within a specific alloy, dependent on concentration.

  12. Removal of tritium from TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Collins, J.; Hosea, J.; Kamperschroer, J.; Nagy, A.; Owens, D.K.; Raftopoulos, S.; Skinner, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    Operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with a mixture of deuterium and tritium fueling has permitted the opportunity to measure the retention of tritium in the graphite limiter and other internal hardware. The use of discharge cleaning techniques and venting to remove the tritium was investigated. The tritium was introduced into TFTR by neutral beam injection and by gas puffing. The graphite limiter is subject to erosion and codeposition. While short term retention was high, the retention averaged over the 1993-1995 D-T campaign was 52% {+-} 15%. The tritium removal techniques resulted in lowering the in-vessel inventory from 16.4 kCi at the end of 1995 operation to 7.2 kCi at the start of the 1996 experimental program. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Integrating EDDS-enhanced washing with low-cost stabilization of metal-contaminated soil from an e-waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Baek, Kitae; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-09-01

    While chelant-enhanced soil washing has been widely studied for metal extraction from contaminated soils, there are concerns about destabilization and leaching of residual metals after remediation. This study integrated 2-h soil washing enhanced by biodegradable ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and 2-month stabilization using agricultural waste product (soybean stover biochar pyrolyzed at 300 and 700 °C), industrial by-product (coal fly ash (CFA)), and their mixture. After integration with 2-month stabilization, the leachability and mobility of residual metals (Cu, Zn, and Pb) in the field-contaminated soil were significantly reduced, especially for Cu, in comparison with 2-h EDDS washing alone. This suggested that the metals destabilized by EDDS-washing could be immobilized by subsequent stabilization with biochar and CFA. Moreover, when the remediation performance was evaluated for phytoavailability and bioaccessibility, prior EDDS washing helped to achieve a greater reduction in the bioavailable fraction of metals than sole stabilization treatment. This was probably because the weakly-bound metals were first removed by EDDS washing before stabilization. Both individual and combined applications of biochar and CFA showed comparable effectiveness regardless of the difference in material properties, possibly due to the high level of amendments (150 ton ha(-1)). Based on the mobility and bioaccessibility results, the estimated human health risk (primarily resulting from Pb) could be mitigated to an acceptable level in water consumption pathway or reduced by half in soil ingestion pathway. These results suggest that an integration of EDDS washing with soil stabilization can alleviate post-remediation impacts of residual metals in the treated soil. PMID:27337434

  14. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    SciTech Connect

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2011-09-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950 C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm) - three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  15. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    SciTech Connect

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2012-07-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950°C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm)—three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  16. Development of a Tritium Extruder for ITER Pellet Injection

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Gouge; P.W. Fisher

    1998-09-01

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first-wall tritium inventories by a process of "isotopic fueling" in which tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge. This repeating single-stage pneumatic pellet injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase II (TPOP-II) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude and accelerate hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-II program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and D-T extrusions; integrate, test, and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun that is sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter -7 to 8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; and evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory that requires secondary and room containment systems. In tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to 13 pellets per extrusion have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of 1.0 to 1.1 km/s, using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. Initially, deuterium pellets 7.5 mm in diameter and 11 mm in length were produced-the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 10% density perturbation to ITER. Subsequently, the extruder nozzle was modified to produce pellets that are almost 7.5-mm right circular

  17. Tritium-field betacells

    SciTech Connect

    Walko, R.J.; Lincoln, R.C.; Baca, W.E. ); Goods, S.H. ); Negley, G.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Betavoltaic power sources operate by converting the nuclear decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electricity. Since they are not chemically driven, they could operate at temperatures which would either be to hot or too cold for typical chemical batteries. Further, for long lived isotopes, they offer the possibility of multi-decade active lifetimes. Two approaches are being investigated: direct and indirect conversion. Direct conversion cells consist of semiconductor diodes similar to photovoltaic cells. Beta particle directly bombard these cells, generating electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor which are converted to useful power. Many using low power flux beta emitters, wide bandgap semiconductors are required to achieve useful conversion efficiencies. The combination of tritium, as the beta emitter, and gallium phosphide (GaP), as the semiconductor converter, was evaluated. Indirect conversion betacells first convert the beta energy to light with a phosphor, and then to electricity with photovoltaic cells. An indirect conversion power source using a tritium radioluminescent (RL) light is being investigated. Our analysis indicates that this approach has the potential for significant volume and cost savings over the direct conversion method. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Recycled pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Bryan Anthony

    2005-11-01

    In a survey of ~4,150 square degrees, we discovered 26 previously unknown pulsars, including 7 "recycled" millisecond or binary pulsars. The most significant discovery of this survey is PSR J1909-3744, a 2.95 ms pulsar in an extremely circular 1.5 d orbit with a low-mass white dwarf companion. Though this system is a fairly typical low-mass binary pulsar (LMBP) system, it has several exceptional qualities: an extremely narrow pulse profile and stable rotation have enabled the most precise long-term timing ever reported, and a nearly edge-on orbit gives rise to a strong Shapiro delay which has allowed the most precise measurement of the mass of a millisecond pulsar: m p = (1.438 +/- 0.024) [Special characters omitted.] . Our accurate parallax distance measurement, d p = ([Special characters omitted.] ) kpc, combined with the mass of the optically-detected companion, m c = (0.2038 +/- 0.022) [Special characters omitted.] , will provide an important calibration for white dwarf models relevant to other LMBP companions. We have detected optical counterparts for two intermediate mass binary pulsar (IMBP) systems; taken together with optical detections and non-detections of several similar systems, our results indicate that the characteristic age t = c P /2 P consistently overestimates the time since the end of mass accretion in these recycled systems. We have measured orbital decay in the double neutron star system PSR B2127+11C in the globular cluster M15. This has allowed an improved measurement of the mass of the pulsar, m p = (1.3584 +/- 0.0097) [Special characters omitted.] , and companion, m c = (1.3544 +/- 0.0097) [Special characters omitted.] , as well as a test of general relativity at the 3% level. We find that the proper motions of this pulsar as well as PSR B2127+11A and PSR B2127+11B are consistent with each other and with one published measurement of the cluster proper motion. We have discovered three binary millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster M62

  19. A decade of tritium technology development and operation at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, L.; Besserer, U.; Bekris, N.; Bornschein, B.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Demange, D.; Cristescu, I.; Cristescu, I. R.; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, G.; Schaefer, P.; Weite, S.; Wendel, J.

    2008-07-15

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) has been designed to handle relevant amounts of tritium for the development of tritium technology for fusion reactors. This paper describes the tritium technology development and experience gained during the upgrade of facilities, interventions, replacement of failed components and operation of the TLK since its commissioning with tritium in 1994. (authors)

  20. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  1. Tritium and 14C background levels in pristine aquatic systems and their potential sources of variability.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Claval, David; Cossonnet, Catherine; Zebracki, Mathilde; Gairoard, Stéphanie; Radakovitch, Olivier; Calmon, Philippe; Leclerc, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Tritium and (14)C are currently the two main radionuclides discharged by nuclear industry. Tritium integrates into and closely follows the water cycle and, as shown recently the carbon cycle, as does (14)C (Eyrolle-Boyer et al., 2014a, b). As a result, these two elements persist in both terrestrial and aquatic environments according to the recycling rates of organic matter. Although on average the organically bound tritium (OBT) activity of sediments in pristine rivers does not significantly differ today (2007-2012) from the mean tritiated water (HTO) content on record for rainwater (2.4 ± 0.6 Bq/L and 1.6 ± 0.4 Bq/L, respectively), regional differences are expected depending on the biomass inventories affected by atmospheric global fallout from nuclear testing and the recycling rate of organic matter within watersheds. The results obtained between 2007 and 2012 for (14)C show that the levels varied between 94.5 ± 1.5 and 234 ± 2.7 Bq/kg of C for the sediments in French rivers and across a slightly higher range of 199 ± 1.3 to 238 ± 3.1 Bq/kg of C for fish. This variation is most probably due to preferential uptake of some organic carbon compounds by fish restraining (14)C dilution with refractory organic carbon and/or with old carbonates both depleted in (14)C. Overall, most of these ranges of values are below the mean baseline value for the terrestrial environment (232.0 ± 1.8 Bq/kg of C in 2012, Roussel-Debet, 2014a) in relation to dilution by the carbonates and/or fossil organic carbon present in aquatic systems. This emphasises yet again the value of establishing regional baseline value ranges for these two radionuclides in order to account for palaeoclimatic and lithological variations. Besides, our results obtained from sedimentary archive investigation have confirmed the delayed contamination of aquatic sediments by tritium from the past nuclear tests atmospheric fallout, as recently demonstrated from data chronicles (Eyrolle

  2. An Estimate of the History of Tritium Inventory in Wood Following Irrigation with Tritiated Water

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E.

    2001-06-15

    Some of the groundwater and surface water at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is contaminated with tritium as a legacy of nuclear materials production. An analysis of tritium remediation alternatives suggests that the most practical remediation alternative is to change in the path of tritium exposure to the public. Calculations based on many years of experience at the Savannah River Site indicate that a 40 percent reduction in dose can be achieved by releasing tritiated water to the atmosphere, as water vapor, as opposed to allowing it to flow off site in surface water streams.

  3. D&D Characterization of the 232-F Old Tritium Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scallon, K.L.; England, J.L.

    1995-01-17

    The 232-F ``Old Tritium Facility`` operated in the 1950s as the first tritium production facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 1957, the 232-F operation ceased with tritium production turned over to a larger, technologically improved facility at SRS. The 232-F Facility was abandoned in 1958 and the process areas have remained contaminated with radiological, hazardous and mixed constituents. Decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the 232-F Facility is scheduled to occur in the years 1995-1996. This paper presents the D&D characterization efforts for the 232-F Facility.

  4. Tritium permeation through steam generator tubing of helium-cooled ceramic breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Fuetterer, M.; Raepsaet, X.; Proust, E.

    1994-12-31

    The potential sources of tritium contamination of the helium-coolant of ceramic breeder blankets have been evaluated in a previous paper for the specific case of the European BIT DEMO blanket. This evaluation associated with a rough assessment of the permeability to tritium of the tubing of helium-heated steam generators confirmed that the control of tritium losses to the steam circuit is a critical issue for this class of blanket requiring developments in three areas: (1) permeation barriers, (2) tritium recovery processes maintaining a very low concentration in tritiated species in the coolant, and (3) methods for controlling the chemistry of the coolant. Consequently, in order to define the specifications of these developments, a detailed evaluation of the permeability to tritium of helium-heated steam generators (SGs) was performed, which will be reported in this paper. This study includes the definition of the thermal-hydraulic operating conditions of the SGs through thermodynamic cycle calculations, and its thermal-hydraulic design. The obtained geometry, area and temperature profiles along the tubes are then used to estimate, based on relevant permeability data, the tritium permeation through the SG as a function of the composition in tritiated species of the coolant. The implications of these results, in terms of requirements for the considered tritium control methods, will also be discussed on the basis of expected limits in tritium release to the steam circuit.

  5. A Study on the Tritium Behavior in the Rice Plant after a Short-Term Exposure of HTO

    SciTech Connect

    Yook, D-S.; Lee, K. J.; Choi, Y-H.

    2002-02-26

    In many Asian countries including Korea, rice is a very important food crop. Its grain is consumed by humans and its straw is used to feed animals. In Korea, there are four CANDU type reactors that release relatively large amounts of tritium into the environment. Since 1997, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has carried out the experimental studies to obtain domestic data on various parameters concerning the direct contamination of plant. In this study, the behavior of tritium in the rice plant is predicted and compared with the measurement performed at KAERI. Using the conceptual model of the soil-plant-atmosphere tritiated water transport system which was suggested by Charles E. Murphy, tritium concentrations in the soil and in leaves to time were derived. If the effect of tritium concentration in the soil is considered, the tritium concentration in leaves is described as a double exponential model. On the other hand if the tritium concentration in the soil is disregarded, the tritium concentration in leaves is described by a single exponential term as other models (e.g. Belot's or STAR-H3 model). Also concentration of organically bound tritium in the seed is predicted and compared with measurements. The results can be used to predict the tritium concentration in the rice plant at a field around the site and the ingestion dose following the release of tritium to the environment.

  6. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  7. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, Otto A.; Stencel, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  8. Tritium production, recovery and application in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Kim, Kwang-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Four CANDU reactors have been operating at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Generation in Korea. The Wolsong tritium removal facility was constructed to reduce the tritium levels in heavy water systems. This facility was designed to process 100kg/h of tritiated heavy water feed and to produce 99% pure T(2). This recovered tritium will be made available for commercial applications. The initial phases on the tritium applications are made to establish the infrastructure and the tritium controls. PMID:19307127

  9. Composition containing aerogel substrate loaded with tritium

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ellefson, Robert E.; Gill, John T.; Reed, Scott; Walko, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The invention provides a process for loading an aerogel substrate with tritium and the resultant compositions. According to the process, an aerogel substrate is hydrolyzed so that surface OH groups are formed. The hydrolyzed aerogel is then subjected to tritium exchange employing, for example, a tritium-containing gas, whereby tritium atoms replace H atoms of surface OH groups. OH and/or CH groups of residual alcohol present in the aerogel may also undergo tritium exchange.

  10. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Causey

    1999-02-01

    The 4th International Workshop on Tritium Effects in Plasma Facing Components was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on May 14-15, 1998. This workshop occurs every two years, and has previously been held in Livermore/California, Nagoya/Japan, and the JRC-Ispra Site in Italy. The purpose of the workshop is to gather researchers involved in the topic of tritium migration, retention, and recycling in materials used to line magnetic fusion reactor walls and provide a forum for presentation and discussions in this area. This document provides an overall summary of the workshop, the workshop agenda, a summary of the presentations, and a list of attendees.